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Sample records for accurate early detection

  1. Highly-accurate metabolomic detection of early-stage ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gaul, David A.; Mezencev, Roman; Long, Tran Q.; Jones, Christina M.; Benigno, Benedict B.; Gray, Alexander; Fernández, Facundo M.; McDonald, John F.

    2015-01-01

    High performance mass spectrometry was employed to interrogate the serum metabolome of early-stage ovarian cancer (OC) patients and age-matched control women. The resulting spectral features were used to establish a linear support vector machine (SVM) model of sixteen diagnostic metabolites that are able to identify early-stage OC with 100% accuracy in our patient cohort. The results provide evidence for the importance of lipid and fatty acid metabolism in OC and serve as the foundation of a clinically significant diagnostic test. PMID:26573008

  2. High Frequency QRS ECG Accurately Detects Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Arenare, Brian; Poulin, Gregory; Moser, Daniel R.; Delgado, Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    High frequency (HF, 150-250 Hz) analysis over the entire QRS interval of the ECG is more sensitive than conventional ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia. However, the accuracy of HF QRS ECG for detecting cardiomyopathy is unknown. We obtained simultaneous resting conventional and HF QRS 12-lead ECGs in 66 patients with cardiomyopathy (EF = 23.2 plus or minus 6.l%, mean plus or minus SD) and in 66 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using PC-based ECG software recently developed at NASA. The single most accurate ECG parameter for detecting cardiomyopathy was an HF QRS morphological score that takes into consideration the total number and severity of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present plus the clustering of RAZs together in contiguous leads. This RAZ score had an area under the receiver operator curve (ROC) of 0.91, and was 88% sensitive, 82% specific and 85% accurate for identifying cardiomyopathy at optimum score cut-off of 140 points. Although conventional ECG parameters such as the QRS and QTc intervals were also significantly longer in patients than controls (P less than 0.001, BBBs excluded), these conventional parameters were less accurate (area under the ROC = 0.77 and 0.77, respectively) than HF QRS morphological parameters for identifying underlying cardiomyopathy. The total amplitude of the HF QRS complexes, as measured by summed root mean square voltages (RMSVs), also differed between patients and controls (33.8 plus or minus 11.5 vs. 41.5 plus or minus 13.6 mV, respectively, P less than 0.003), but this parameter was even less accurate in distinguishing the two groups (area under ROC = 0.67) than the HF QRS morphologic and conventional ECG parameters. Diagnostic accuracy was optimal (86%) when the RAZ score from the HF QRS ECG and the QTc interval from the conventional ECG were used simultaneously with cut-offs of greater than or equal to 40 points and greater than or equal to 445 ms, respectively. In conclusion 12-lead HF QRS ECG employing

  3. Accurate glucose detection in a small etalon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Joerg; Kuebler, Sebastian; Recht, Michael; Torres, Francisco; Roe, Jeffrey; Kiesel, Peter; Bruce, Richard

    2010-02-01

    We are developing a continuous glucose monitor for subcutaneous long-term implantation. This detector contains a double chamber Fabry-Perot-etalon that measures the differential refractive index (RI) between a reference and a measurement chamber at 850 nm. The etalon chambers have wavelength dependent transmission maxima which dependent linearly on the RI of their contents. An RI difference of ▵n=1.5.10-6 changes the spectral position of a transmission maximum by 1pm in our measurement. By sweeping the wavelength of a single-mode Vertical-Cavity-Surface-Emitting-Laser (VCSEL) linearly in time and detecting the maximum transmission peaks of the etalon we are able to measure the RI of a liquid. We have demonstrated accuracy of ▵n=+/-3.5.10-6 over a ▵n-range of 0 to 1.75.10-4 and an accuracy of 2% over a ▵nrange of 1.75.10-4 to 9.8.10-4. The accuracy is primarily limited by the reference measurement. The RI difference between the etalon chambers is made specific to glucose by the competitive, reversible release of Concanavalin A (ConA) from an immobilized dextran matrix. The matrix and ConA bound to it, is positioned outside the optical detection path. ConA is released from the matrix by reacting with glucose and diffuses into the optical path to change the RI in the etalon. Factors such as temperature affect the RI in measurement and detection chamber equally but do not affect the differential measurement. A typical standard deviation in RI is +/-1.4.10-6 over the range 32°C to 42°C. The detector enables an accurate glucose specific concentration measurement.

  4. Simple Mathematical Models Do Not Accurately Predict Early SIV Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Noecker, Cecilia; Schaefer, Krista; Zaccheo, Kelly; Yang, Yiding; Day, Judy; Ganusov, Vitaly V.

    2015-01-01

    Upon infection of a new host, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replicates in the mucosal tissues and is generally undetectable in circulation for 1–2 weeks post-infection. Several interventions against HIV including vaccines and antiretroviral prophylaxis target virus replication at this earliest stage of infection. Mathematical models have been used to understand how HIV spreads from mucosal tissues systemically and what impact vaccination and/or antiretroviral prophylaxis has on viral eradication. Because predictions of such models have been rarely compared to experimental data, it remains unclear which processes included in these models are critical for predicting early HIV dynamics. Here we modified the “standard” mathematical model of HIV infection to include two populations of infected cells: cells that are actively producing the virus and cells that are transitioning into virus production mode. We evaluated the effects of several poorly known parameters on infection outcomes in this model and compared model predictions to experimental data on infection of non-human primates with variable doses of simian immunodifficiency virus (SIV). First, we found that the mode of virus production by infected cells (budding vs. bursting) has a minimal impact on the early virus dynamics for a wide range of model parameters, as long as the parameters are constrained to provide the observed rate of SIV load increase in the blood of infected animals. Interestingly and in contrast with previous results, we found that the bursting mode of virus production generally results in a higher probability of viral extinction than the budding mode of virus production. Second, this mathematical model was not able to accurately describe the change in experimentally determined probability of host infection with increasing viral doses. Third and finally, the model was also unable to accurately explain the decline in the time to virus detection with increasing viral dose. These results

  5. Accurate detection of differential RNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Drewe, Philipp; Stegle, Oliver; Hartmann, Lisa; Kahles, André; Bohnert, Regina; Wachter, Andreas; Borgwardt, Karsten; Rätsch, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Deep transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) has become a vital tool for studying the state of cells in the context of varying environments, genotypes and other factors. RNA-Seq profiling data enable identification of novel isoforms, quantification of known isoforms and detection of changes in transcriptional or RNA-processing activity. Existing approaches to detect differential isoform abundance between samples either require a complete isoform annotation or fall short in providing statistically robust and calibrated significance estimates. Here, we propose a suite of statistical tests to address these open needs: a parametric test that uses known isoform annotations to detect changes in relative isoform abundance and a non-parametric test that detects differential read coverages and can be applied when isoform annotations are not available. Both methods account for the discrete nature of read counts and the inherent biological variability. We demonstrate that these tests compare favorably to previous methods, both in terms of accuracy and statistical calibrations. We use these techniques to analyze RNA-Seq libraries from Arabidopsis thaliana and Drosophila melanogaster. The identified differential RNA processing events were consistent with RT–qPCR measurements and previous studies. The proposed toolkit is available from http://bioweb.me/rdiff and enables in-depth analyses of transcriptomes, with or without available isoform annotation. PMID:23585274

  6. Accurately Detecting Students' Lies regarding Relational Aggression by Correctional Instructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickhauser, Oliver; Reinhard, Marc-Andre; Marksteiner, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of correctional instructions when detecting lies about relational aggression. Based on models from the field of social psychology, we predict that correctional instruction will lead to a less pronounced lie bias and to more accurate lie detection. Seventy-five teachers received videotapes of students' true denial…

  7. A fast and accurate FPGA based QRS detection system.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Ashish; Macchiarulo, Luca

    2008-01-01

    An accurate Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based ECG Analysis system is described in this paper. The design, based on a popular software based QRS detection algorithm, calculates the threshold value for the next peak detection cycle, from the median of eight previously detected peaks. The hardware design has accuracy in excess of 96% in detecting the beats correctly when tested with a subset of five 30 minute data records obtained from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database. The design, implemented using a proprietary design tool (System Generator), is an extension of our previous work and uses 76% resources available in a small-sized FPGA device (Xilinx Spartan xc3s500), has a higher detection accuracy as compared to our previous design and takes almost half the analysis time in comparison to software based approach.

  8. Building dynamic population graph for accurate correspondence detection.

    PubMed

    Du, Shaoyi; Guo, Yanrong; Sanroma, Gerard; Ni, Dong; Wu, Guorong; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-12-01

    In medical imaging studies, there is an increasing trend for discovering the intrinsic anatomical difference across individual subjects in a dataset, such as hand images for skeletal bone age estimation. Pair-wise matching is often used to detect correspondences between each individual subject and a pre-selected model image with manually-placed landmarks. However, the large anatomical variability across individual subjects can easily compromise such pair-wise matching step. In this paper, we present a new framework to simultaneously detect correspondences among a population of individual subjects, by propagating all manually-placed landmarks from a small set of model images through a dynamically constructed image graph. Specifically, we first establish graph links between models and individual subjects according to pair-wise shape similarity (called as forward step). Next, we detect correspondences for the individual subjects with direct links to any of model images, which is achieved by a new multi-model correspondence detection approach based on our recently-published sparse point matching method. To correct those inaccurate correspondences, we further apply an error detection mechanism to automatically detect wrong correspondences and then update the image graph accordingly (called as backward step). After that, all subject images with detected correspondences are included into the set of model images, and the above two steps of graph expansion and error correction are repeated until accurate correspondences for all subject images are established. Evaluations on real hand X-ray images demonstrate that our proposed method using a dynamic graph construction approach can achieve much higher accuracy and robustness, when compared with the state-of-the-art pair-wise correspondence detection methods as well as a similar method but using static population graph.

  9. Accurate colon residue detection algorithm with partial volume segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Liang, Zhengrong; Zhang, PengPeng; Kutcher, Gerald J.

    2004-05-01

    Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Earlier detection and removal of polyps can dramatically reduce the chance of developing malignant tumor. Due to some limitations of optical colonoscopy used in clinic, many researchers have developed virtual colonoscopy as an alternative technique, in which accurate colon segmentation is crucial. However, partial volume effect and existence of residue make it very challenging. The electronic colon cleaning technique proposed by Chen et al is a very attractive method, which is also kind of hard segmentation method. As mentioned in their paper, some artifacts were produced, which might affect the accurate colon reconstruction. In our paper, instead of labeling each voxel with a unique label or tissue type, the percentage of different tissues within each voxel, which we call a mixture, was considered in establishing a maximum a posterior probability (MAP) image-segmentation framework. A Markov random field (MRF) model was developed to reflect the spatial information for the tissue mixtures. The spatial information based on hard segmentation was used to determine which tissue types are in the specific voxel. Parameters of each tissue class were estimated by the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm during the MAP tissue-mixture segmentation. Real CT experimental results demonstrated that the partial volume effects between four tissue types have been precisely detected. Meanwhile, the residue has been electronically removed and very smooth and clean interface along the colon wall has been obtained.

  10. Early detection of tubular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Piscator, M

    1991-11-01

    The determination of low-molecular-weight proteins in urine as a tool for early detection of damage to the proximal tubules is briefly discussed. Beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein and alpha 1-microglobulin are at present the most widely used markers for tubular dysfunction. The determination of beta 2-microglobulin has earlier been the method of choice, but due to its instability at low pH there are certain disadvantages. Available data indicate that alpha 1-microglobulin may replace beta 2-microglobulin for screening purposes. The low-molecular-weight proteins are at present the best markers for early detection of tubular dysfunction; other constituents are not as well suited for this, even if the determination of urine enzymes has its supporters.

  11. An accurate assay for HCV based on real-time fluorescence detection of isothermal RNA amplification.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuping; Wang, Jianfang; Song, Jinyun; Li, Jiayan; Yang, Yongfeng

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the common reasons of liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Early, rapid and accurate HCV RNA detection is important to prevent and control liver disease. A simultaneous amplification and testing (SAT) assay, which is based on isothermal amplification of RNA and real-time fluorescence detection, was designed to optimize routine HCV RNA detection. In this study, HCV RNA and an internal control (IC) were amplified and analyzed simultaneously by SAT assay and detection of fluorescence using routine real-time PCR equipment. The assay detected as few as 10 copies of HCV RNA transcripts. We tested 705 serum samples with SAT, among which 96.4% (680/705) showed consistent results compared with routine real-time PCR. About 92% (23/25) discordant samples were confirmed to be same results as SAT-HCV by using a second real-time PCR. The sensitivity and specificity of SAT-HCV assay were 99.6% (461/463) and 100% (242/242), respectively. In conclusion, the SAT assay is an accurate test with a high specificity and sensitivity which may increase the detection rate of HCV. It is therefore a promising tool to diagnose HCV infection.

  12. Early detection of materials degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyendorf, Norbert

    2017-02-01

    Lightweight components for transportation and aerospace applications are designed for an estimated lifecycle, taking expected mechanical and environmental loads into account. The main reason for catastrophic failure of components within the expected lifecycle are material inhomogeneities, like pores and inclusions as origin for fatigue cracks, that have not been detected by NDE. However, material degradation by designed or unexpected loading conditions or environmental impacts can accelerate the crack initiation or growth. Conventional NDE methods are usually able to detect cracks that are formed at the end of the degradation process, but methods for early detection of fatigue, creep, and corrosion are still a matter of research. For conventional materials ultrasonic, electromagnetic, or thermographic methods have been demonstrated as promising. Other approaches are focused to surface damage by using optical methods or characterization of the residual surface stresses that can significantly affect the creation of fatigue cracks. For conventional metallic materials, material models for nucleation and propagation of damage have been successfully applied for several years. Material microstructure/property relations are well established and the effect of loading conditions on the component life can be simulated. For advanced materials, for example carbon matrix composites or ceramic matrix composites, the processes of nucleation and propagation of damage is still not fully understood. For these materials NDE methods can not only be used for the periodic inspections, but can significantly contribute to the material scientific knowledge to understand and model the behavior of composite materials.

  13. Early detection and rapid response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westbrooks, Randy G.; Eplee, Robert E.; Simberloff, Daniel; Rejmánek, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Prevention is the first line of defense against introduced invasive species - it is always preferable to prevent the introduction of new invaders into a region or country. However, it is not always possible to detect all alien hitchhikers imported in cargo, or to predict with any degree of certainty which introduced species will become invasive over time. Fortunately, the majority of introduced plants and animals don't become invasive. But, according to scientists at Cornell University, costs and losses due to species that do become invasive are now estimated to be over $137 billion/year in the United States. Early detection and rapid response (EDRR) is the second line of defense against introduced invasive species - EDRR is the preferred management strategy for preventing the establishment and spread of invasive species. Over the past 50 years, there has been a gradual shift away from large and medium scale federal/state single-agency-led weed eradication programs in the United States, to smaller interagency-led projects involving impacted and potential stakeholders. The importance of volunteer weed spotters in detecting and reporting suspected new invasive species has also been recognized in recent years.

  14. Accurate feature detection and estimation using nonlinear and multiresolution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudin, Leonid; Osher, Stanley

    1994-11-01

    A program for feature detection and estimation using nonlinear and multiscale analysis was completed. The state-of-the-art edge detection was combined with multiscale restoration (as suggested by the first author) and robust results in the presence of noise were obtained. Successful applications to numerous images of interest to DOD were made. Also, a new market in the criminal justice field was developed, based in part, on this work.

  15. Early detection of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Midthun, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with lung cancer are diagnosed when they present with symptoms, they have advanced stage disease, and curative treatment is no longer an option. An effective screening test has long been desired for early detection with the goal of reducing mortality from lung cancer. Sputum cytology, chest radiography, and computed tomography (CT) scan have been studied as potential screening tests. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a 20% reduction in mortality with low-dose CT (LDCT) screening, and guidelines now endorse annual LDCT for those at high risk. Implementation of screening is underway with the desire that the benefits be seen in clinical practice outside of a research study format. Concerns include management of false positives, cost, incidental findings, radiation exposure, and overdiagnosis. Studies continue to evaluate LDCT screening and use of biomarkers in risk assessment and diagnosis in attempt to further improve outcomes for patients with lung cancer. PMID:27158468

  16. An accurate fuzzy edge detection method using wavelet details subimages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedaghat, Nafiseh; Pourreza, Hamidreza

    2010-02-01

    Edge detection is a basic and important subject in computer vision and image processing. An edge detector is defined as a mathematical operator of small spatial extent that responds in some way to these discontinuities, usually classifying every image pixel as either belonging to an edge or not. Many researchers have been spent attempting to develop effective edge detection algorithms. Despite this extensive research, the task of finding the edges that correspond to true physical boundaries remains a difficult problem.Edge detection algorithms based on the application of human knowledge show their flexibility and suggest that the use of human knowledge is a reasonable alternative. In this paper we propose a fuzzy inference system with two inputs: gradient and wavelet details. First input is calculated by Sobel operator and the second is calculated by wavelet transform of input image and then reconstruction of image only with details subimages by inverse wavelet transform. There are many fuzzy edge detection methods, but none of them utilize wavelet transform as it is used in this paper. For evaluating our method, we detect edges of images with different brightness characteristics and compare results with canny edge detector. The results show the high performance of our method in finding true edges.

  17. Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Category Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis Breast cancer is sometimes ... cancer screening is so important. Learn more. Can Breast Cancer Be Found Early? Breast cancer is sometimes found ...

  18. Accurate detection of blood vessels improves the detection of exudates in color fundus images.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Doaa; Solouma, Nahed H

    2012-12-01

    Exudates are one of the earliest and most prevalent symptoms of diseases leading to blindness such as diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration. Certain areas of the retina with such conditions are to be photocoagulated by laser to stop the disease progress and prevent blindness. Outlining these areas is dependent on outlining the lesions and the anatomic structures of the retina. In this paper, we provide a new method for the detection of blood vessels that improves the detection of exudates in fundus photographs. The method starts with an edge detection algorithm which results in a over segmented image. Then the new feature-based algorithm can be used to accurately detect the blood vessels. This algorithm considers the characteristics of a retinal blood vessel such as its width range, intensities and orientations for the purpose of selective segmentation. Because of its bulb shape and its color similarity with exudates, the optic disc can be detected using the common Hough transform technique. The extracted blood vessel tree and optic disc could be subtracted from the over segmented image to get an initial estimate of exudates. The final estimation of exudates can then be obtained by morphological reconstruction based on the appearance of exudates. This method is shown to be promising since it increases the sensitivity and specificity of exudates detection to 80% and 100% respectively.

  19. PATHOME: an algorithm for accurately detecting differentially expressed subpathways

    PubMed Central

    Nam, S; Chang, H R; Kim, K-T; Kook, M-C; Hong, D; Kwon, C H; Jung, H R; Park, H S; Powis, G; Liang, H; Park, T; Kim, Y H

    2014-01-01

    The translation of high-throughput gene expression data into biologically meaningful information remains a bottleneck. We developed a novel computational algorithm, PATHOME, for detecting differentially expressed biological pathways. This algorithm employs straightforward statistical tests to evaluate the significance of differential expression patterns along subpathways. Applying it to gene expression data sets of gastric cancer (GC), we compared its performance with those of other leading programs. Based on a literature-driven reference set, PATHOME showed greater consistency in identifying known cancer-related pathways. For the WNT pathway uniquely identified by PATHOME, we validated its involvement in gastric carcinogenesis through experimental perturbation of both cell lines and animal models. We identified HNF4α-WNT5A regulation in the cross-talk between the AMPK metabolic pathway and the WNT signaling pathway, and further identified WNT5A as a potential therapeutic target for GC. We have demonstrated PATHOME to be a powerful tool, with improved sensitivity for identifying disease-related dysregulated pathways. PMID:24681952

  20. Early Cancer Detection for Filipino American Women.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    The research goal is to develop a comprehensive intervention designed to increase early breast and cervical cancer detection among Filipino American...women. This population has been shown to have high rates of late stage breast and cervical cancer The first step toward increased early detection is

  1. Early Detection of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    effective marker for diagnosis and detection of prostate cancer. Low concentrations of PSA would be detected using acoustic wave sensors because of...associated electrical field. For biological sensors, binding of a substance onto the resonating membrane surface causes a decrease in the acoustic...of diverse conditions and diseases including those that affect the thyroid, HIV, diabetes , pregnancy, and several types of cancer. In clinical

  2. Early Detection of Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Jane S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Huntington disease (HD) is a devastating illness, although its autosomal dominant genetic transmission allows a unique opportunity to study apparently healthy individuals before manifest disease. Attempts to study early disease are not unique in neurology (e.g., Mild Cognitive Impairment, Vascular Cognitive Impairment), but studying otherwise-healthy appearing individuals who will go on with nearly 99% certainty to manifest the symptoms of brain disease does provide distinct but valuable information about the true natural history of the disease. The field has witnessed an explosion of research examining possible early indicators of HD during what is now referred to as the “prodrome” of HD. A NIH study in its ninth year (PREDICT-HD) has offered a glimpse into the transition from an apparently healthy state to an obviously diseased state, and can serve as a model for many other genetic diseases, both neurological and non-neurological. PMID:24348095

  3. Colorectal Cancer: The Importance of Early Detection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer The Importance of Early Detection Past Issues / Summer ... Cancer of the colon or rectum is called colorectal cancer. The colon and the rectum are part of ...

  4. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

  5. Early detection of contagious diseases

    DOEpatents

    Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Estacio, Pedro; Chang, John

    2011-08-09

    This invention provides an electronic proximity apparatus and a surveillance method using such an apparatus for alerting individuals that are exposed to a contagious disease. When a person becomes symptomatic and is diagnosed as positive for a given contagious agent, individuals that have recently maintained a threshold proximity with respect to an infected individual are notified and advised to seek immediate medial care. Treatment of individuals in the very early phases of infection (pre-symptomatic) significantly reduces contagiousness of the infected population first exposed to the contagious disease, thus preventing spread of the disease throughout the general population.

  6. Distributed Pedestrian Detection Alerts Based on Data Fusion with Accurate Localization

    PubMed Central

    García, Fernando; Jiménez, Felipe; Anaya, José Javier; Armingol, José María; Naranjo, José Eugenio; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Among Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) pedestrian detection is a common issue due to the vulnerability of pedestrians in the event of accidents. In the present work, a novel approach for pedestrian detection based on data fusion is presented. Data fusion helps to overcome the limitations inherent to each detection system (computer vision and laser scanner) and provides accurate and trustable tracking of any pedestrian movement. The application is complemented by an efficient communication protocol, able to alert vehicles in the surroundings by a fast and reliable communication. The combination of a powerful location, based on a GPS with inertial measurement, and accurate obstacle localization based on data fusion has allowed locating the detected pedestrians with high accuracy. Tests proved the viability of the detection system and the efficiency of the communication, even at long distances. By the use of the alert communication, dangerous situations such as occlusions or misdetections can be avoided. PMID:24008284

  7. Distributed pedestrian detection alerts based on data fusion with accurate localization.

    PubMed

    García, Fernando; Jiménez, Felipe; Anaya, José Javier; Armingol, José María; Naranjo, José Eugenio; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2013-09-04

    Among Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) pedestrian detection is a common issue due to the vulnerability of pedestrians in the event of accidents. In the present work, a novel approach for pedestrian detection based on data fusion is presented. Data fusion helps to overcome the limitations inherent to each detection system (computer vision and laser scanner) and provides accurate and trustable tracking of any pedestrian movement. The application is complemented by an efficient communication protocol, able to alert vehicles in the surroundings by a fast and reliable communication. The combination of a powerful location, based on a GPS with inertial measurement, and accurate obstacle localization based on data fusion has allowed locating the detected pedestrians with high accuracy. Tests proved the viability of the detection system and the efficiency of the communication, even at long distances. By the use of the alert communication, dangerous situations such as occlusions or misdetections can be avoided.

  8. New strategies for the early detection of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Petrone, Maria Chiara; Arcidiacono, Paolo Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains a deadly disease and early detection through screening is likely to be our best hope to improve survival. Considering the low incidence of PC, population-based screening is not feasible, but is advisable for high-risk patients. Screening individuals at high risk for developing PC leads to the detection of premalignant lesions. High-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm are the targets for early detection of PC. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and magnetic resonance imaging are considered the most accurate techniques for pancreatic imaging; in particular EUS has emerged as a promising imaging test given its potential for tissue sampling to obtain diagnosis and to provide material for molecular profiling of PC. At the moment, screening should be performed within research protocols at experienced centers with a specific clinical and research interest, where a multidisciplinary team of specialists is available.

  9. American Cancer Society Recommendations for Prostate Cancer Early Detection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prostate Cancer Prevention and Early Detection American Cancer Society Recommendations for Prostate Cancer Early Detection The American Cancer Society (ACS) recommends that men have a chance to ...

  10. [Early detection and treatment of strabismus].

    PubMed

    Mojon, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    An early diagnosis of strabismus is important in order to rule out treatable organic causes and in children, if indicated, to start as early as possible with an amblyopia treatment. Early detection will also decrease the risk for accidents secondary to diplopia, to the loss of binocular vision and to the restriction of the binocular visual field in case of esodeviations. The following therapeutic options exist: in some cases the prescription of the correct refraction will be sufficient, for small deviations a prismatic correction may allow a longstanding treatment, for larger or incomitant deviations strabismus surgery will be necessary, which nowadays can be performed using minimal-invasive technique on an outpatient base.

  11. Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kenner, Barbara J.; Chari, Suresh T.; Cleeter, Deborah F.; Go, Vay Liang W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Innovation leading to significant advances in research and subsequent translation to clinical practice is urgently necessary in early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer. Addressing this need, the Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference was conducted by Kenner Family Research Fund in conjunction with the 2014 American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society Meeting. International interdisciplinary scientific representatives engaged in strategic facilitated conversations based on distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. Ideas generated from the summit have led to the development of a Strategic Map for Innovation built upon 3 components: formation of an international collaborative effort, design of an actionable strategic plan, and implementation of operational standards, research priorities, and first-phase initiatives. Through invested and committed efforts of leading researchers and institutions, philanthropic partners, government agencies, and supportive business entities, this endeavor will change the future of the field and consequently the survival rate of those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. PMID:25938853

  12. Breaking Snake Camouflage: Humans Detect Snakes More Accurately than Other Animals under Less Discernible Visual Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; He, Hongshen

    2016-01-01

    Humans and non-human primates are extremely sensitive to snakes as exemplified by their ability to detect pictures of snakes more quickly than those of other animals. These findings are consistent with the Snake Detection Theory, which hypothesizes that as predators, snakes were a major source of evolutionary selection that favored expansion of the visual system of primates for rapid snake detection. Many snakes use camouflage to conceal themselves from both prey and their own predators, making it very challenging to detect them. If snakes have acted as a selective pressure on primate visual systems, they should be more easily detected than other animals under difficult visual conditions. Here we tested whether humans discerned images of snakes more accurately than those of non-threatening animals (e.g., birds, cats, or fish) under conditions of less perceptual information by presenting a series of degraded images with the Random Image Structure Evolution technique (interpolation of random noise). We find that participants recognize mosaic images of snakes, which were regarded as functionally equivalent to camouflage, more accurately than those of other animals under dissolved conditions. The present study supports the Snake Detection Theory by showing that humans have a visual system that accurately recognizes snakes under less discernible visual conditions.

  13. Breaking Snake Camouflage: Humans Detect Snakes More Accurately than Other Animals under Less Discernible Visual Conditions

    PubMed Central

    He, Hongshen

    2016-01-01

    Humans and non-human primates are extremely sensitive to snakes as exemplified by their ability to detect pictures of snakes more quickly than those of other animals. These findings are consistent with the Snake Detection Theory, which hypothesizes that as predators, snakes were a major source of evolutionary selection that favored expansion of the visual system of primates for rapid snake detection. Many snakes use camouflage to conceal themselves from both prey and their own predators, making it very challenging to detect them. If snakes have acted as a selective pressure on primate visual systems, they should be more easily detected than other animals under difficult visual conditions. Here we tested whether humans discerned images of snakes more accurately than those of non-threatening animals (e.g., birds, cats, or fish) under conditions of less perceptual information by presenting a series of degraded images with the Random Image Structure Evolution technique (interpolation of random noise). We find that participants recognize mosaic images of snakes, which were regarded as functionally equivalent to camouflage, more accurately than those of other animals under dissolved conditions. The present study supports the Snake Detection Theory by showing that humans have a visual system that accurately recognizes snakes under less discernible visual conditions. PMID:27783686

  14. Small bait traps as accurate predictors of dipteran early colonizers in forensic studies.

    PubMed

    Farinha, Ana; Dourado, Catarina G; Centeio, Neiva; Oliveira, Ana Rita; Dias, Deodália; Rebelo, Maria Teresa

    2014-05-30

    Insect carrion communities vary among habitats and over time. Concerning the dipteran early colonizers of carrion, the use of small bait traps should be accurate because the odors emitted from meat baits should contain many of the volatile organic compounds emitted from the freshly dead mammals. In addition, this kind of trap is easy to replicate and set in position in a given habitat. In the present study, small bait preferences of early Diptera carrion colonizers were examined in an urban biotope. Specifically, three baits were compared (pork muscle, pork liver, and fish flavored cat food) in respect to the number of specimens and species captured and the presence or absence of oviposition at high and low environmental temperatures. A total of 2371 specimens were trapped, primarily belonging to three insect orders, Diptera, Coleoptera, and Hymenoptera. Diptera was the predominant order, with blowflies (Calliphoridae) being the most representative family, followed by filth flies (Muscidae). The pork muscle bait was responsible for the highest number of captures and the highest diversity. The community of Diptera collected with the most efficient bait, pork muscle, was compared with the carrion communities reported in the literature from the Iberian Peninsula. Similar taxonomic species composition was found regarding Calliphoridae species. A specimen from all species morphologically identified were also identified at a molecular level using the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcode region, and the sequences were submitted to online databases.

  15. Small Bait Traps as Accurate Predictors of Dipteran Early Colonizers in Forensic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Farinha, Ana; Dourado, Catarina G.; Centeio, Neiva; Oliveira, Ana Rita; Dias, Deodália; Rebelo, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Insect carrion communities vary among habitats and over time. Concerning the dipteran early colonizers of carrion, the use of small bait traps should be accurate because the odors emitted from meat baits should contain many of the volatile organic compounds emitted from the freshly dead mammals. In addition, this kind of trap is easy to replicate and set in position in a given habitat. In the present study, small bait preferences of early Diptera carrion colonizers were examined in an urban biotope. Specifically, three baits were compared (pork muscle, pork liver, and fish flavored cat food) in respect to the number of specimens and species captured and the presence or absence of oviposition at high and low environmental temperatures. A total of 2371 specimens were trapped, primarily belonging to three insect orders, Diptera, Coleoptera, and Hymenoptera. Diptera was the predominant order, with blowflies (Calliphoridae) being the most representative family, followed by filth flies (Muscidae). The pork muscle bait was responsible for the highest number of captures and the highest diversity. The community of Diptera collected with the most efficient bait, pork muscle, was compared with the carrion communities reported in the literature from the Iberian Peninsula. Similar taxonomic species composition was found regarding Calliphoridae species. A specimen from all species morphologically identified were also identified at a molecular level using the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcode region, and the sequences were submitted to online databases. PMID:25373224

  16. Early Cancer Detection at the Epithelial Surface.

    PubMed

    Rogalla, Stephan; Contag, Christopher H

    2015-01-01

    Malignant neoplastic lesions derived from epithelial tissue, carcinomas, account for 80% to 100% of all human cancers including some of the most deadly diseases such as cervical and non-small cell lung cancer. Many of these carcinomas present at readily accessible epithelial surfaces offering unique detection opportunities. Effective clinical management of carcinomas is enabled by early detection, at a time when full surgical resection is possible and before invasion of adjacent tissue or significant intravasation into blood vessels leading to metastasis. Good prognosis with long-term disease-free survival is more likely after early detection when progression is limited. At present, detection of carcinomas at epithelial surfaces largely relies on routine inspection with the naked eye (e.g., skin and oropharynx) or simple white light tools (e.g., cervix and colon). Emerging optical tools based on differential refraction, absorption, reflection, scattering, or fluorescence of carcinomas relative to normal tissues enable label-free visualization of neoplasia. However, the differences in intrinsic optical properties of normal and malignant tissues can be subtle, and relying on these may lead to high miss rates. Enhanced optical contrast offered by molecularly targeted agents can be used to improve early detection; and given that optical imaging and sensing tools can be readily combined, integrated systems that image over a range of scales, or detect multiple parameters, can be developed to aid in early detection. Diagnosis is, at present, made by histologic examination of tissue biopsies after identification of suspicious lesions. Miniature and handheld microscopic imaging tools have recently been developed, and integration of these tools with wide-field optical surveillance devices offers both rapid detection and confirmatory histologic examination at the point-of-care, that can provide guidance for biopsy and/or resection. A wide variety of targeted probe strategies

  17. Accurate band-to-band registration of AOTF imaging spectrometer using motion detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Pengwei; Zhao, Huijie; Jin, Shangzhong; Li, Ningchuan

    2016-05-01

    This paper concerns the problem of platform vibration induced band-to-band misregistration with acousto-optic imaging spectrometer in spaceborne application. Registrating images of different bands formed at different time or different position is difficult, especially for hyperspectral images form acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) imaging spectrometer. In this study, a motion detection method is presented using the polychromatic undiffracted beam of AOTF. The factors affecting motion detect accuracy are analyzed theoretically, and calculations show that optical distortion is an easily overlooked factor to achieve accurate band-to-band registration. Hence, a reflective dual-path optical system has been proposed for the first time, with reduction of distortion and chromatic aberration, indicating the potential of higher registration accuracy. Consequently, a spectra restoration experiment using additional motion detect channel is presented for the first time, which shows the accurate spectral image registration capability of this technique.

  18. Accurate lithography hotspot detection based on PCA-SVM classifier with hierarchical data clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jhih-Rong; Yu, Bei; Pan, David Z.

    2014-03-01

    As technology nodes continues shrinking, layout patterns become more sensitive to lithography processes, resulting in lithography hotspots that need to be identified and eliminated during physical verification. In this paper, we propose an accurate hotspot detection approach based on PCA (principle component analysis)-SVM (sup- port vector machine) classifier. Several techniques, including hierarchical data clustering, data balancing, and multi-level training, are provided to enhance performance of the proposed approach. Our approach is accurate and more efficient than conventional time-consuming lithography simulation; in the meanwhile, provides high flexibility to adapt to new lithography processes and rules.

  19. GPS-Aided Tsunami Early Detection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y. T.; Bar-Sever, Y. E.; Liu, Z.; Khachikyan, R.

    2015-12-01

    Most tsunami fatalities occur in near-field communities of earthquakes at offshore faults. Tsunami early warning is key for reducing the number of fatalities. Unfortunately, an earthquake's magnitude often does not gauge the resulting tsunami power. Here we show that real-time GPS stations along coastlines are able to detect seafloor motions due to big earthquakes, and that the detected seafloor displacements are able to determine tsunami energy and scales instantaneously for early warnings. Our method focuses on estimating tsunami energy directly from seafloor motions because a tsunami's potential or scale, no matter how it is defined, has to be proportional to the tsunami energy. Since seafloor motions are the only source of a tsunami, their estimation directly relates to the mechanism that generates tsunamis; therefore, it is a proper way of identifying earthquakes that are capable of triggering tsunamis, while being able to discriminate those particular earthquakes from false alarms. Examples of detecting the tsunami energy scales for the 2004 Sumatra M9.1 earthquake, the 2005 Nias M8.7 earthquake, the 2010 M8.8 Chilean earthquake, and the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake will be presented. The development of the Indo-Pacific GPS-Aided Tsunami Early Detection (GATED) system will be reported.

  20. Accurate derivation of heart rate variability signal for detection of sleep disordered breathing in children.

    PubMed

    Chatlapalli, S; Nazeran, H; Melarkod, V; Krishnam, R; Estrada, E; Pamula, Y; Cabrera, S

    2004-01-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is used extensively as a low cost diagnostic tool to provide information concerning the heart's state of health. Accurate determination of the QRS complex, in particular, reliable detection of the R wave peak, is essential in computer based ECG analysis. ECG data from Physionet's Sleep-Apnea database were used to develop, test, and validate a robust heart rate variability (HRV) signal derivation algorithm. The HRV signal was derived from pre-processed ECG signals by developing an enhanced Hilbert transform (EHT) algorithm with built-in missing beat detection capability for reliable QRS detection. The performance of the EHT algorithm was then compared against that of a popular Hilbert transform-based (HT) QRS detection algorithm. Autoregressive (AR) modeling of the HRV power spectrum for both EHT- and HT-derived HRV signals was achieved and different parameters from their power spectra as well as approximate entropy were derived for comparison. Poincare plots were then used as a visualization tool to highlight the detection of the missing beats in the EHT method After validation of the EHT algorithm on ECG data from the Physionet, the algorithm was further tested and validated on a dataset obtained from children undergoing polysomnography for detection of sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Sensitive measures of accurate HRV signals were then derived to be used in detecting and diagnosing sleep disordered breathing in children. All signal processing algorithms were implemented in MATLAB. We present a description of the EHT algorithm and analyze pilot data for eight children undergoing nocturnal polysomnography. The pilot data demonstrated that the EHT method provides an accurate way of deriving the HRV signal and plays an important role in extraction of reliable measures to distinguish between periods of normal and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children.

  1. Robust and Accurate Anomaly Detection in ECG Artifacts Using Time Series Motif Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Sivaraks, Haemwaan

    2015-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) anomaly detection is an important technique for detecting dissimilar heartbeats which helps identify abnormal ECGs before the diagnosis process. Currently available ECG anomaly detection methods, ranging from academic research to commercial ECG machines, still suffer from a high false alarm rate because these methods are not able to differentiate ECG artifacts from real ECG signal, especially, in ECG artifacts that are similar to ECG signals in terms of shape and/or frequency. The problem leads to high vigilance for physicians and misinterpretation risk for nonspecialists. Therefore, this work proposes a novel anomaly detection technique that is highly robust and accurate in the presence of ECG artifacts which can effectively reduce the false alarm rate. Expert knowledge from cardiologists and motif discovery technique is utilized in our design. In addition, every step of the algorithm conforms to the interpretation of cardiologists. Our method can be utilized to both single-lead ECGs and multilead ECGs. Our experiment results on real ECG datasets are interpreted and evaluated by cardiologists. Our proposed algorithm can mostly achieve 100% of accuracy on detection (AoD), sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value with 0% false alarm rate. The results demonstrate that our proposed method is highly accurate and robust to artifacts, compared with competitive anomaly detection methods. PMID:25688284

  2. Robust and accurate anomaly detection in ECG artifacts using time series motif discovery.

    PubMed

    Sivaraks, Haemwaan; Ratanamahatana, Chotirat Ann

    2015-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) anomaly detection is an important technique for detecting dissimilar heartbeats which helps identify abnormal ECGs before the diagnosis process. Currently available ECG anomaly detection methods, ranging from academic research to commercial ECG machines, still suffer from a high false alarm rate because these methods are not able to differentiate ECG artifacts from real ECG signal, especially, in ECG artifacts that are similar to ECG signals in terms of shape and/or frequency. The problem leads to high vigilance for physicians and misinterpretation risk for nonspecialists. Therefore, this work proposes a novel anomaly detection technique that is highly robust and accurate in the presence of ECG artifacts which can effectively reduce the false alarm rate. Expert knowledge from cardiologists and motif discovery technique is utilized in our design. In addition, every step of the algorithm conforms to the interpretation of cardiologists. Our method can be utilized to both single-lead ECGs and multilead ECGs. Our experiment results on real ECG datasets are interpreted and evaluated by cardiologists. Our proposed algorithm can mostly achieve 100% of accuracy on detection (AoD), sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value with 0% false alarm rate. The results demonstrate that our proposed method is highly accurate and robust to artifacts, compared with competitive anomaly detection methods.

  3. Accurate Automatic Detection of Densely Distributed Cell Nuclei in 3D Space

    PubMed Central

    Tokunaga, Terumasa; Kanamori, Manami; Teramoto, Takayuki; Jang, Moon Sun; Kuge, Sayuri; Ishihara, Takeshi; Yoshida, Ryo; Iino, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    To measure the activity of neurons using whole-brain activity imaging, precise detection of each neuron or its nucleus is required. In the head region of the nematode C. elegans, the neuronal cell bodies are distributed densely in three-dimensional (3D) space. However, no existing computational methods of image analysis can separate them with sufficient accuracy. Here we propose a highly accurate segmentation method based on the curvatures of the iso-intensity surfaces. To obtain accurate positions of nuclei, we also developed a new procedure for least squares fitting with a Gaussian mixture model. Combining these methods enables accurate detection of densely distributed cell nuclei in a 3D space. The proposed method was implemented as a graphical user interface program that allows visualization and correction of the results of automatic detection. Additionally, the proposed method was applied to time-lapse 3D calcium imaging data, and most of the nuclei in the images were successfully tracked and measured. PMID:27271939

  4. Highly accurate moving object detection in variable bit rate video-based traffic monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Chia; Chen, Bo-Hao

    2013-12-01

    Automated motion detection, which segments moving objects from video streams, is the key technology of intelligent transportation systems for traffic management. Traffic surveillance systems use video communication over real-world networks with limited bandwidth, which frequently suffers because of either network congestion or unstable bandwidth. Evidence supporting these problems abounds in publications about wireless video communication. Thus, to effectively perform the arduous task of motion detection over a network with unstable bandwidth, a process by which bit-rate is allocated to match the available network bandwidth is necessitated. This process is accomplished by the rate control scheme. This paper presents a new motion detection approach that is based on the cerebellar-model-articulation-controller (CMAC) through artificial neural networks to completely and accurately detect moving objects in both high and low bit-rate video streams. The proposed approach is consisted of a probabilistic background generation (PBG) module and a moving object detection (MOD) module. To ensure that the properties of variable bit-rate video streams are accommodated, the proposed PBG module effectively produces a probabilistic background model through an unsupervised learning process over variable bit-rate video streams. Next, the MOD module, which is based on the CMAC network, completely and accurately detects moving objects in both low and high bit-rate video streams by implementing two procedures: 1) a block selection procedure and 2) an object detection procedure. The detection results show that our proposed approach is capable of performing with higher efficacy when compared with the results produced by other state-of-the-art approaches in variable bit-rate video streams over real-world limited bandwidth networks. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations support this claim; for instance, the proposed approach achieves Similarity and F1 accuracy rates that are 76

  5. Automated Early Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Abràmoff, Michael D.; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Russell, Stephen R.; Folk, James C.; Mahajan, Vinit B.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Quellec, Gwénolé

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To compare the performance of automated diabetic retinopathy (DR) detection, using the algorithm that won the 2009 Retinopathy Online Challenge Competition in 2009, (‘Challenge2009’) against that of the one currently used in EyeCheck, a large computer-aided early DR detection project. Design Evaluation of diagnostic test or technology. Participants Fundus photographic sets, consisting of two fundus images from each eye, were evaluated from 16,670 patient visits of 16,670 people with diabetes who had not previously been diagnosed with DR. Methods The fundus photographic set from each visit was analyzed by a single retinal expert; 793 of the 16,770 sets were classified as containing more than minimal DR (threshold for referral). The outcomes of the two algorithmic detectors were applied separately to the dataset and compared by standard statistical measures. Main Outcome Measures The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC), a measure of the sensitivity and specificity of DR detection. Results Agreement was high, and exams containing more than minimal DR were detected with an AUC of 0.839 by the ‘Eyecheck’ algorithm and an AUC of 0.821 for ‘Challenge2009’, a statistically non-significant difference (z-score 1.91). If either of the algorithms detected DR in combination, AUC for detection was 0.86, the same as the theoretically expected maximum. At 90% sensitivity, the specificity of the ‘EyeCheck’ algorithm was 47.7% and the ‘Challenge2009’ algorithm, 43.6%. Conclusions DR detection algorithms appear to be maturing, and further improvements in detection performance cannot be differentiated from best clinical practices, because the performance of competitive algorithm development has now reached the human intra-reader variability limit. Additional validation studies on larger, well-defined, but more diverse populations of patients with diabetes are urgently needed, anticipating cost-effective early detection of DR in

  6. Automatic identification and accurate temporal detection of inhalations in asthma inhaler recordings.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Martin S; Le Menn, Marine; D'Arcy, Shona; Rapcan, Viliam; MacHale, Elaine; Costello, Richard W; Reilly, Richard B

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is chronic airways disease characterized by recurrent attacks of breathlessness and wheezing. Adherence to medication regimes is a common failing for asthmatic patients and there exists a requirement to monitor such patients' adherence. The detection of inhalations from recordings of inhaler use can provide empirical evidence about patients' adherence to their asthma medication regime. Manually listening to recordings of inhaler use is a tedious and time consuming process and thus an algorithm which can automatically and accurately carry out this task would be of great value. This study employs a recording device attached to a commonly used dry powder inhaler to record the acoustic signals of patients taking their prescribed medication. An algorithm was developed to automatically detect and accurately demarcate inhalations from the acoustic signals. This algorithm was tested on a dataset of 255 separate recordings of inhaler use in real world environments. The dataset was obtained from 12 asthma outpatients who attended a respiratory clinic over a three month period. Evaluation of the algorithm on this dataset achieved sensitivity of 95%, specificity of 94% and an accuracy of 89% in detecting inhalations compared to manual inhalation detection.

  7. Early detection and early intervention of hearing handicapped children.

    PubMed

    Victor, P

    1992-01-01

    Early detection means the detection of hearing impairment in an infant under 2 years of age. It is vital as language and other sound-related mental development takes place within the first 3 years of life, and delay leads to secondary disabilities. The delay in language development may be observed by attentive parents at 10-12 months of age and by some not until 3-4 years of age. The family physician often detects a false-positive response, and a child specialist's opinion often is not much different. Most ear, nose, and throat departments have some provisions for audiological testing, however, the audiological section's role is to identify and assess cases for middle ear surgery. Early intervention consists of 1) the provision of amplification, 2) medical assistance, and 3) educational assistance. Pre school programs are held in nursery day schools where deaf children are given 4 hours of daily assistance for 3 years preparing them for placement in the ordinary hearing school in Class I. Special schools for the deaf in India include 1) oral schools without individual hearing aids but with group hearing aids, 2) oral and aural schools with individual hearing aids and group hearing aids, and 3) combined method schools without individual hearing aids and with or without group hearing aids. The evaluation of a program in New Delhi, after its 6 years of existence, sought to identify the strong points and weaknesses in the management of deaf children. This role model was disseminated through 4 series of Max Mueller Bhavan's All India Workshops for parents and teachers of hearing impaired children held at New Delhi, Bombay, Madras, Bangalore and Calcutta between 1981 and 1985. The parents and the professionals who attend these courses publicize them further. Many of them visited the programs in New Delhi with the desire to establish this role model in their school or city.

  8. Multisensor configurations for early sniper detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, D.; Bank, D.; Carlsson, L.; Dulski, R.; Duval, Y.; Fournier, G.; Grasser, R.; Habberstad, H.; Jacquelard, C.; Kastek, M.; Otterlei, R.; Piau, G.-P.; Pierre, F.; Renhorn, I.; Sjöqvist, L.; Steinvall, O.; Trzaskawka, P.

    2011-11-01

    This contribution reports some of the fusion results from the EDA SNIPOD project, where different multisensor configurations for sniper detection and localization have been studied. A project aim has been to cover the whole time line from sniper transport and establishment to shot. To do so, different optical sensors with and without laser illumination have been tested, as well as acoustic arrays and solid state projectile radar. A sensor fusion node collects detections and background statistics from all sensors and employs hypothesis testing and multisensor estimation programs to produce unified and reliable sniper alarms and accurate sniper localizations. Operator interfaces that connect to the fusion node should be able to support both sniper countermeasures and the guidance of personnel to safety. Although the integrated platform has not been actually built, sensors have been evaluated at common field trials with military ammunitions in the caliber range 5.56 to 12.7 mm, and at sniper distances up to 900 m. It is concluded that integrating complementary sensors for pre- and postshot sniper detection in a common system with automatic detection and fusion will give superior performance, compared to stand alone sensors. A practical system is most likely designed with a cost effective subset of available complementary sensors.

  9. Early and complete detection of HIV exposure.

    PubMed

    Jehuda-Cohen, T

    1993-10-01

    Currently, HIV diagnosis relies on serology. Yet in groups at high risk for HIV serology is not sufficient because of the window period between infection and seroconversion. There is a growing body of reports on HIV-infected yet seronegative individuals. Some tests have been developed to identify exposure to HIV by its effect on the cells of the immune system that would differentiate following exposure to the foreign antigens. Detection, in vitro, of HIV-specific B and T cells in seronegative, at risk individuals has been reported. In only some of these individuals was an HIV infection confirmed by other methods. These new assays to detect HIV immunity enable us to identify two new groups among seronegative, at risk individuals; namely those with immunity to HIV and a detectable HIV infection (silent carriers), and those with immunity and no proof of infection. Both groups have been exposed to HIV yet are not being detected by serology. Both might hold information on other forms of HIV immunity, possibly a protective one. Thus there could be an important role for other immunological assays in early detection of HIV exposure.

  10. Accurate Detection of Dysmorphic Nuclei Using Dynamic Programming and Supervised Classification.

    PubMed

    Verschuuren, Marlies; De Vylder, Jonas; Catrysse, Hannes; Robijns, Joke; Philips, Wilfried; De Vos, Winnok H

    2017-01-01

    A vast array of pathologies is typified by the presence of nuclei with an abnormal morphology. Dysmorphic nuclear phenotypes feature dramatic size changes or foldings, but also entail much subtler deviations such as nuclear protrusions called blebs. Due to their unpredictable size, shape and intensity, dysmorphic nuclei are often not accurately detected in standard image analysis routines. To enable accurate detection of dysmorphic nuclei in confocal and widefield fluorescence microscopy images, we have developed an automated segmentation algorithm, called Blebbed Nuclei Detector (BleND), which relies on two-pass thresholding for initial nuclear contour detection, and an optimal path finding algorithm, based on dynamic programming, for refining these contours. Using a robust error metric, we show that our method matches manual segmentation in terms of precision and outperforms state-of-the-art nuclear segmentation methods. Its high performance allowed for building and integrating a robust classifier that recognizes dysmorphic nuclei with an accuracy above 95%. The combined segmentation-classification routine is bound to facilitate nucleus-based diagnostics and enable real-time recognition of dysmorphic nuclei in intelligent microscopy workflows.

  11. Continuous digital ECG analysis over accurate R-peak detection using adaptive wavelet technique.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan Nair, T R; Geetha, A P; Asharani, M

    2013-10-01

    Worldwide, health care segment is under a severe challenge to achieve more accurate and intelligent biomedical systems in order to assist healthcare professionals with more accurate and consistent data as well as reliability. The role of ECG in healthcare is one of the paramount importances and it has got a multitude of abnormal relations and anomalies which characterizes intricate cardiovascular performance image. Until the recent past, ECG instruments and analysis played the role of providing the PQRST signal as raw observational output either on paper or on a console or in a file having many diagnostic clues embedded in the signal left to the expert cardiologist to look out for characteristic intervals and to detect the cardiovascular abnormality. Methods and practises are required more and more, to automate this process of cardiac expertise using knowledge engineering and an intelligent systems approach. This paper presents one of the challenging R-peak detections to classify diagnosis and estimate cardio disorders in a fully automated signal processing sequence. This study used an adaptive wavelet approach to generate an appropriate wavelet for R-signal identification under noise, baseband wandering and temporal variations of R-positions. This study designed an adaptive wavelet and successfully detected R- peak variations under various ECG signal conditions. The result and analysis of this method and the ways to use it for further purposes are presented here.

  12. Accurate Detection of Dysmorphic Nuclei Using Dynamic Programming and Supervised Classification

    PubMed Central

    Verschuuren, Marlies; De Vylder, Jonas; Catrysse, Hannes; Robijns, Joke; Philips, Wilfried

    2017-01-01

    A vast array of pathologies is typified by the presence of nuclei with an abnormal morphology. Dysmorphic nuclear phenotypes feature dramatic size changes or foldings, but also entail much subtler deviations such as nuclear protrusions called blebs. Due to their unpredictable size, shape and intensity, dysmorphic nuclei are often not accurately detected in standard image analysis routines. To enable accurate detection of dysmorphic nuclei in confocal and widefield fluorescence microscopy images, we have developed an automated segmentation algorithm, called Blebbed Nuclei Detector (BleND), which relies on two-pass thresholding for initial nuclear contour detection, and an optimal path finding algorithm, based on dynamic programming, for refining these contours. Using a robust error metric, we show that our method matches manual segmentation in terms of precision and outperforms state-of-the-art nuclear segmentation methods. Its high performance allowed for building and integrating a robust classifier that recognizes dysmorphic nuclei with an accuracy above 95%. The combined segmentation-classification routine is bound to facilitate nucleus-based diagnostics and enable real-time recognition of dysmorphic nuclei in intelligent microscopy workflows. PMID:28125723

  13. Method for early detection of infectious mononucleosis

    DOEpatents

    Willard, K.E.

    1982-08-10

    Early detection of infectious mononucleosis is carried out using a sample of human blood by isolating and identifying the presence of Inmono proteins in the sample from a two-dimensional protein map with the proteins being characterized by having isoelectric banding as measured in urea of about -16 to -17 with respect to certain isoelectric point standards and molecular mass of about 70 to 75 K daltons as measured in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate containing polyacrylamide gels, the presence of the Inmono proteins being correlated with the existence of infectious mononucleosis.

  14. Methodological Guidelines for Accurate Detection of Viruses in Wild Plant Species.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Christelle; Renner, Kurra; Cole, Ellen; Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T; Malmstrom, Carolyn M

    2016-01-15

    Ecological understanding of disease risk, emergence, and dynamics and of the efficacy of control strategies relies heavily on efficient tools for microorganism identification and characterization. Misdetection, such as the misclassification of infected hosts as healthy, can strongly bias estimates of disease prevalence and lead to inaccurate conclusions. In natural plant ecosystems, interest in assessing microbial dynamics is increasing exponentially, but guidelines for detection of microorganisms in wild plants remain limited, particularly so for plant viruses. To address this gap, we explored issues and solutions associated with virus detection by serological and molecular methods in noncrop plant species as applied to the globally important Barley yellow dwarf virus PAV (Luteoviridae), which infects wild native plants as well as crops. With enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), we demonstrate how virus detection in a perennial wild plant species may be much greater in stems than in leaves, although leaves are most commonly sampled, and may also vary among tillers within an individual, thereby highlighting the importance of designing effective sampling strategies. With reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), we demonstrate how inhibitors in tissues of perennial wild hosts can suppress virus detection but can be overcome with methods and products that improve isolation and amplification of nucleic acids. These examples demonstrate the paramount importance of testing and validating survey designs and virus detection methods for noncrop plant communities to ensure accurate ecological surveys and reliable assumptions about virus dynamics in wild hosts.

  15. Accurate detection and quantitation of heteroplasmic mitochondrial point mutations by pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    White, Helen E; Durston, Victoria J; Seller, Anneke; Fratter, Carl; Harvey, John F; Cross, Nicholas C P

    2005-01-01

    Disease-causing mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are typically heteroplasmic and therefore interpretation of genetic tests for mitochondrial disorders can be problematic. Detection of low level heteroplasmy is technically demanding and it is often difficult to discriminate between the absence of a mutation or the failure of a technique to detect the mutation in a particular tissue. The reliable measurement of heteroplasmy in different tissues may help identify individuals who are at risk of developing specific complications and allow improved prognostic advice for patients and family members. We have evaluated Pyrosequencing technology for the detection and estimation of heteroplasmy for six mitochondrial point mutations associated with the following diseases: Leber's hereditary optical neuropathy (LHON), G3460A, G11778A, and T14484C; mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), A3243G; myoclonus epilepsy with ragged red fibers (MERRF), A8344G, and neurogenic muscle weakness, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP)/Leighs: T8993G/C. Results obtained from the Pyrosequencing assays for 50 patients with presumptive mitochondrial disease were compared to those obtained using the commonly used diagnostic technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction enzyme digestion. The Pyrosequencing assays provided accurate genotyping and quantitative determination of mutational load with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. The MELAS A3243G mutation was detected reliably at a level of 1% heteroplasmy. We conclude that Pyrosequencing is a rapid and robust method for detecting heteroplasmic mitochondrial point mutations.

  16. Methodological Guidelines for Accurate Detection of Viruses in Wild Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Kurra; Cole, Ellen; Seabloom, Eric W.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Malmstrom, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological understanding of disease risk, emergence, and dynamics and of the efficacy of control strategies relies heavily on efficient tools for microorganism identification and characterization. Misdetection, such as the misclassification of infected hosts as healthy, can strongly bias estimates of disease prevalence and lead to inaccurate conclusions. In natural plant ecosystems, interest in assessing microbial dynamics is increasing exponentially, but guidelines for detection of microorganisms in wild plants remain limited, particularly so for plant viruses. To address this gap, we explored issues and solutions associated with virus detection by serological and molecular methods in noncrop plant species as applied to the globally important Barley yellow dwarf virus PAV (Luteoviridae), which infects wild native plants as well as crops. With enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), we demonstrate how virus detection in a perennial wild plant species may be much greater in stems than in leaves, although leaves are most commonly sampled, and may also vary among tillers within an individual, thereby highlighting the importance of designing effective sampling strategies. With reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), we demonstrate how inhibitors in tissues of perennial wild hosts can suppress virus detection but can be overcome with methods and products that improve isolation and amplification of nucleic acids. These examples demonstrate the paramount importance of testing and validating survey designs and virus detection methods for noncrop plant communities to ensure accurate ecological surveys and reliable assumptions about virus dynamics in wild hosts. PMID:26773088

  17. Life Detection on the Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runnegar, B.

    2004-01-01

    Finding evidence for first the existence, and then the nature of life on the early Earth or early Mars requires both the recognition of subtle biosignatures and the elimination of false positives. The history of the search for fossils in increasingly older Precambrian strata illustrates these difficulties very clearly, and new observational and theoretical approaches are both needed and being developed. At the microscopic level of investigation, three-dimensional morphological characterization coupled with in situ chemical (isotopic, elemental, structural) analysis is the desirable first step. Geological context is paramount, as has been demonstrated by the controversies over AH84001, the Greenland graphites, and the Apex chert microfossils . At larger scales, the nature of sedimentary bedforms and the structures they display becomes crucial, and here the methods of condensed matter physics prove most useful in discriminating between biological and non-biological constructions. Ultimately, a combination of geochemical, morphological, and contextural evidence may be required for certain life detection on the early Earth or elsewhere.

  18. Prevention and Early Detection of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cuzick, Jack; Thorat, Mangesh A.; Andriole, Gerald; Brawley, Otis W.; Brown, Powel H.; Culig, Zoran; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Ford, Leslie G.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Holmberg, Lars; Ilic, Dragan; Key, Timothy J.; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lilja, Hans; Marberger, Michael; Meyskens, Frank L.; Minasian, Lori M.; Parker, Chris; Parnes, Howard L.; Perner, Sven; Rittenhouse, Harry; Schalken, Jack; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Schmitz-Dräger, Bernd J.; Schröder, Fritz H.; Stenzl, Arnulf; Tombal, Bertrand; Wilt, Timothy J.; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and the global burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications like smoking cessation, exercise and weight control offer opportunities to decrease the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by PSA screening remains controversial; yet, changes in PSA threshold, frequency of screening, and addition of other biomarkers have potential to minimise overdiagnosis associated with PSA screening. Several new biomarkers appear promising in individuals with elevated PSA levels or those diagnosed with prostate cancer, these are likely to guide in separating individuals who can be spared of aggressive treatment from those who need it. Several pharmacological agents like 5α-reductase inhibitors, aspirin etc. have a potential to prevent development of prostate cancer. In this review, we discuss the current evidence and research questions regarding prevention, early detection of prostate cancer and management of men either at high risk of prostate cancer or diagnosed with low-grade prostate cancer. PMID:25281467

  19. Early esophageal cancer detection using RF classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janse, Markus H. A.; van der Sommen, Fons; Zinger, Svitlana; Schoon, Erik J.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2016-03-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the fastest rising forms of cancer in the Western world. Using High-Definition (HD) endoscopy, gastroenterology experts can identify esophageal cancer at an early stage. Recent research shows that early cancer can be found using a state-of-the-art computer-aided detection (CADe) system based on analyzing static HD endoscopic images. Our research aims at extending this system by applying Random Forest (RF) classification, which introduces a confidence measure for detected cancer regions. To visualize this data, we propose a novel automated annotation system, employing the unique characteristics of the previous confidence measure. This approach allows reliable modeling of multi-expert knowledge and provides essential data for real-time video processing, to enable future use of the system in a clinical setting. The performance of the CADe system is evaluated on a 39-patient dataset, containing 100 images annotated by 5 expert gastroenterologists. The proposed system reaches a precision of 75% and recall of 90%, thereby improving the state-of-the-art results by 11 and 6 percentage points, respectively.

  20. Biomarkers for early detection of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Barber, Robert C

    2010-09-01

    The existence of an effective biomarker for early detection of Alzheimer disease would facilitate improved diagnosis and stimulate therapeutic trials. Multidisciplinary clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer disease is time consuming and expensive and relies on experts who are rarely available outside of specialty clinics. Thus, many patients do not receive proper diagnosis until the disease has progressed beyond stages in which treatments are maximally effective. In the clinical trial setting, rapid, cost-effective screening of patients for Alzheimer disease is of paramount importance for the development of new treatments. Neuroimaging of cortical amyloid burden and volumetric changes in the brain and assessment of protein concentrations (eg, β-amyloid 1-42, total tau, phosphorylated tau) in cerebrospinal fluid are diagnostic tools that are not widely available. Known genetic markers do not provide sufficient discriminatory power between different forms of dementia to be useful in isolation. Recent studies using panels of biomarkers for diagnosis of Alzheimer disease or mild cognitive impairment have been promising, though no such studies have been cross-validated in independent samples of subjects. The ideal biomarker enabling early detection of Alzheimer disease has not yet been identified.

  1. Malignant external otitis: early scintigraphic detection

    SciTech Connect

    Strashun, A.M.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    Pseudomonas otitis externa in elderly diabetics may extend aggressively to adjacent bone, cranial nerves, meninges, and vessels, leading to a clinical diagnosis of ''malignant'' external otitis. Early diagnosis is necessary for successful treatment. This study compares the findings of initial radiographs, thin-section tomography of temporal bone, CT scans of head and neck, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of temporal bone osteomylitis in ten patients fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. Skull radiographs were negative in all of the eight patients studied. Thin-section tomography was positive in one of the seven patients studied using this modality. CT scanning suggested osteomyelitis in three of nine patients. Both Tc-99m and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy were positive in 10 of 10 patients. These results suggest that technetium and gallium scintigraphy are more sensitive than radiographs and CT scans for early detection of malignant external otitis.

  2. About the Early Detection Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Early Detection Research Group supports research that seeks to determine the effectiveness, operating characteristics and clinical impact (harms as well as benefits) of cancer early detection technologies and practices, such as imaging and molecular biomarker approaches.   The group ran two large-scale early detection trials for which data and biospecimens are available for additional research: |

  3. Early Detection of Tsunami Scales using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.

    2013-12-01

    This talk reviews how tsunamis form from earthquakes and how GPS technologies can be used to detect tsunami energy scales in real time. Most tsunami fatalities occur in near-field communities of earthquakes at offshore faults. Tsunami early warning is key for reducing the number of fatalities. Unfortunately, an earthquake's magnitude often does not gauge the resulting tsunami power. Here we show that real-time GPS stations along coastlines are able to detect seafloor motions due to big earthquakes, and that the detected seafloor displacements are able to determine tsunami energy and scales instantaneously for early warnings. Our method focuses on estimating tsunami energy directly from seafloor motions because a tsunami's potential or scale, no matter how it is defined, has to be proportional to the tsunami energy. Since seafloor motions are the only source of a tsunami, their estimation directly relates to the mechanism that generates tsunamis; therefore, it is a proper way of identifying earthquakes that are capable of triggering tsunamis, while being able to discriminate those particular earthquakes from false alarms. Examples of detecting the tsunami energy scales for the 2004 Sumatra M9.1 earthquake, the 2005 Nias M8.7 earthquake, the 2010 M8.8 Chilean earthquake, and the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake will be presented. Related reference: 1. Xu, Z. and Y. T. Song (2013), Combining the all-source Green's functions and the GPS-derived source for fast tsunami prediction - illustrated by the March 2011 Japan tsunami, J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., jtechD1200201. 2. Song, Y. T., I. Fukumori, C. K. Shum, and Y. Yi (2012), Merging tsunamis of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake detected over the open ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2011GL050767. 3. Song, Y. T. and S.C. Han (2011) Satellite observations defying the long-held tsunami genesis theory, D.L. Tang (ed.), Remote Sensing of the Changing Oceans, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-16541-2, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  4. A simplified and accurate detection of the genetically modified wheat MON71800 with one calibrator plasmid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Park, Saet-Byul; Roh, Hyo-Jeong; Park, Sunghoon; Shin, Min-Ki; Moon, Gui Im; Hong, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2015-06-01

    With the increasing number of genetically modified (GM) events, unauthorized GMO releases into the food market have increased dramatically, and many countries have developed detection tools for them. This study described the qualitative and quantitative detection methods of unauthorized the GM wheat MON71800 with a reference plasmid (pGEM-M71800). The wheat acetyl-CoA carboxylase (acc) gene was used as the endogenous gene. The plasmid pGEM-M71800, which contains both the acc gene and the event-specific target MON71800, was constructed as a positive control for the qualitative and quantitative analyses. The limit of detection in the qualitative PCR assay was approximately 10 copies. In the quantitative PCR assay, the standard deviation and relative standard deviation repeatability values ranged from 0.06 to 0.25 and from 0.23% to 1.12%, respectively. This study supplies a powerful and very simple but accurate detection strategy for unauthorized GM wheat MON71800 that utilizes a single calibrator plasmid.

  5. Sensitivity and accuracy of DNA based methods used to describe aquatic communities for early detection of invasive fish species

    EPA Science Inventory

    For biomonitoring efforts aimed at early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS), the ability to detect rare individuals is key and requires accurate species level identification to maintain a low occurrence probability of non-detection errors (failure to detect a present spe...

  6. Early detection of dental caries using photoacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Witte, R.; Koh, I.; Ashkenazi, S.; O'Donnell, M.

    2006-02-01

    For decades, visual, tactile and radiographic examinations have been the standard for diagnosing caries. Nonetheless, the extent of variation in the diagnosis of dental caries is substantial among dental practitioners using these traditional techniques. Therefore, a more reliable standard for detecting incipient caries would be desirable. Using photoacoustics, near-infrared (NIR) optical contrast between sound and carious dental tissues can be relatively easily and accurately detected at ultrasound resolution. In this paper, a pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, Quanta-Ray) was used to probe extracted human molars at different disease stages determined from periapical radiographs. Both fundamental (1064nm) and first harmonic (532nm) pulses (15ns pulse length, 100mJ at fundamental and 9mJ at first harmonic , 10Hz pulse repetition rate) were used to illuminate the occlusal surface of tooth samples placed in a water tank. The photoacoustic signal was recorded with an unfocused wideband single-element piezoelectric transducer (centered at 12 MHz, bandwidth 15 MHz) positioned at small angle (less than 30 degrees) to the laser beam close to the occlusal surface. At the fundamental wavelength, total photoacoustic energy increases from normal to incipient stage disease by as much as a factor of 10. Differences between photoacoustic energy at the fundamental and first harmonic wavelength further indicate spectral absorption changes of the underlying structure with disease progression. Using a focused laser beam, an extracted molar with suspected incipient caries was scanned along the occulusal surface to help localize the caries inside enamel and dentin. The significantly increasing photoacoustic signal at a specific scan line both at fundamental and first harmonic indicates the local development of the incipient caries. The photoacoustic results compare well with visual inspection after layer by layer dissection. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting incipient

  7. Screening and early detection of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Van't Westeinde, Susan C; van Klaveren, Rob J

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer with an estimated 342,000 deaths in 2008 (20% of total) is the most common cause of death from cancer, followed by colorectal cancer (12%), breast cancer (8%), and stomach cancer (7%) in Europe. In former smokers, the absolute lung cancer risk remains higher than in never-smokers; these data therefore call for effective secondary preventive measures for lung cancer in addition to smoking cessation programs. This review presents and discusses the most recent advances in the early detection and screening of lung cancer.An overview of randomized controlled computerized tomography-screening trials is given, and the role of bronchoscopy and new techniques is discussed. Finally, the approach of (noninvasive) biomarker testing in the blood, exhaled breath, sputum, and bronchoscopic specimen is reviewed.

  8. Prevention and early detection of cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmugaratnam, K.

    1985-01-01

    The axiom that prevention is better than cure is especially true for a serious disease such as cancer for which therapy is expensive and seldom fully effective. However, it is only for some cancers that the major determinants are known and for which primary prevention programs are likely to result in substantial reduction in incidence. Past efforts at primary prevention have not been very successful where avoidance of cancer determinants involves changing pleasurable personal habits or has major economic effects. Control of the disease is now largely based on therapy. Because successful therapy is influenced by the stage of the disease at diagnosis there is increasing interest in early detection through the application of various screening techniques. Only some of these have been demonstrably effective in reducing cancer mortality. The introduction of any mass screening program should be based on an assessment of its costs, risks, and effectiveness in reducing mortality from the disease.

  9. A highly accurate wireless digital sun sensor based on profile detecting and detector multiplexing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Minsong; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    The advancing growth of micro- and nano-satellites requires miniaturized sun sensors which could be conveniently applied in the attitude determination subsystem. In this work, a profile detecting technology based high accurate wireless digital sun sensor was proposed, which could transform a two-dimensional image into two-linear profile output so that it can realize a high update rate under a very low power consumption. A multiple spots recovery approach with an asymmetric mask pattern design principle was introduced to fit the multiplexing image detector method for accuracy improvement of the sun sensor within a large Field of View (FOV). A FOV determination principle based on the concept of FOV region was also proposed to facilitate both sub-FOV analysis and the whole FOV determination. A RF MCU, together with solar cells, was utilized to achieve the wireless and self-powered functionality. The prototype of the sun sensor is approximately 10 times lower in size and weight compared with the conventional digital sun sensor (DSS). Test results indicated that the accuracy of the prototype was 0.01° within a cone FOV of 100°. Such an autonomous DSS could be equipped flexibly on a micro- or nano-satellite, especially for highly accurate remote sensing applications.

  10. Joint iris boundary detection and fit: a real-time method for accurate pupil tracking.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Marconi; James, Andrew C

    2014-08-01

    A range of applications in visual science rely on accurate tracking of the human pupil's movement and contraction in response to light. While the literature for independent contour detection and fitting of the iris-pupil boundary is vast, a joint approach, in which it is assumed that the pupil has a given geometric shape has been largely overlooked. We present here a global method for simultaneously finding and fitting of an elliptic or circular contour against a dark interior, which produces consistently accurate results even under non-ideal recording conditions, such as reflections near and over the boundary, droopy eye lids, or the sudden formation of tears. The specific form of the proposed optimization problem allows us to write down closed analytic formulae for the gradient and the Hessian of the objective function. Moreover, both the objective function and its derivatives can be cast into vectorized form, making the proposed algorithm significantly faster than its closest relative in the literature. We compare methods in multiple ways, both analytically and numerically, using real iris images as well as idealizations of the iris for which the ground truth boundary is precisely known. The method proposed here is illustrated under challenging recording conditions and it is shown to be robust.

  11. Joint iris boundary detection and fit: a real-time method for accurate pupil tracking

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Marconi; James, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    A range of applications in visual science rely on accurate tracking of the human pupil’s movement and contraction in response to light. While the literature for independent contour detection and fitting of the iris-pupil boundary is vast, a joint approach, in which it is assumed that the pupil has a given geometric shape has been largely overlooked. We present here a global method for simultaneously finding and fitting of an elliptic or circular contour against a dark interior, which produces consistently accurate results even under non-ideal recording conditions, such as reflections near and over the boundary, droopy eye lids, or the sudden formation of tears. The specific form of the proposed optimization problem allows us to write down closed analytic formulae for the gradient and the Hessian of the objective function. Moreover, both the objective function and its derivatives can be cast into vectorized form, making the proposed algorithm significantly faster than its closest relative in the literature. We compare methods in multiple ways, both analytically and numerically, using real iris images as well as idealizations of the iris for which the ground truth boundary is precisely known. The method proposed here is illustrated under challenging recording conditions and it is shown to be robust. PMID:25136477

  12. Accurate Monitoring and Fault Detection in Wind Measuring Devices through Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Komal Saifullah; Tariq, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Many wind energy projects report poor performance as low as 60% of the predicted performance. The reason for this is poor resource assessment and the use of new untested technologies and systems in remote locations. Predictions about the potential of an area for wind energy projects (through simulated models) may vary from the actual potential of the area. Hence, introducing accurate site assessment techniques will lead to accurate predictions of energy production from a particular area. We solve this problem by installing a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) to periodically analyze the data from anemometers installed in that area. After comparative analysis of the acquired data, the anemometers transmit their readings through a WSN to the sink node for analysis. The sink node uses an iterative algorithm which sequentially detects any faulty anemometer and passes the details of the fault to the central system or main station. We apply the proposed technique in simulation as well as in practical implementation and study its accuracy by comparing the simulation results with experimental results to analyze the variation in the results obtained from both simulation model and implemented model. Simulation results show that the algorithm indicates faulty anemometers with high accuracy and low false alarm rate when as many as 25% of the anemometers become faulty. Experimental analysis shows that anemometers incorporating this solution are better assessed and performance level of implemented projects is increased above 86% of the simulated models. PMID:25421739

  13. Accurate monitoring and fault detection in wind measuring devices through wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Khan, Komal Saifullah; Tariq, Muhammad

    2014-11-24

    Many wind energy projects report poor performance as low as 60% of the predicted performance. The reason for this is poor resource assessment and the use of new untested technologies and systems in remote locations. Predictions about the potential of an area for wind energy projects (through simulated models) may vary from the actual potential of the area. Hence, introducing accurate site assessment techniques will lead to accurate predictions of energy production from a particular area. We solve this problem by installing a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) to periodically analyze the data from anemometers installed in that area. After comparative analysis of the acquired data, the anemometers transmit their readings through a WSN to the sink node for analysis. The sink node uses an iterative algorithm which sequentially detects any faulty anemometer and passes the details of the fault to the central system or main station. We apply the proposed technique in simulation as well as in practical implementation and study its accuracy by comparing the simulation results with experimental results to analyze the variation in the results obtained from both simulation model and implemented model. Simulation results show that the algorithm indicates faulty anemometers with high accuracy and low false alarm rate when as many as 25% of the anemometers become faulty. Experimental analysis shows that anemometers incorporating this solution are better assessed and performance level of implemented projects is increased above 86% of the simulated models.

  14. ROM Plus®: accurate point-of-care detection of ruptured fetal membranes

    PubMed Central

    McQuivey, Ross W; Block, Jon E

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and timely diagnosis of rupture of fetal membranes is imperative to inform and guide gestational age-specific interventions to optimize perinatal outcomes and reduce the risk of serious complications, including preterm delivery and infections. The ROM Plus is a rapid, point-of-care, qualitative immunochromatographic diagnostic test that uses a unique monoclonal/polyclonal antibody approach to detect two different proteins found in amniotic fluid at high concentrations: alpha-fetoprotein and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1. Clinical study results have uniformly demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy and performance characteristics with this point-of-care test that exceeds conventional clinical testing with external laboratory evaluation. The description, indications for use, procedural steps, and laboratory and clinical characterization of this assay are presented in this article. PMID:27274316

  15. ROM Plus(®): accurate point-of-care detection of ruptured fetal membranes.

    PubMed

    McQuivey, Ross W; Block, Jon E

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and timely diagnosis of rupture of fetal membranes is imperative to inform and guide gestational age-specific interventions to optimize perinatal outcomes and reduce the risk of serious complications, including preterm delivery and infections. The ROM Plus is a rapid, point-of-care, qualitative immunochromatographic diagnostic test that uses a unique monoclonal/polyclonal antibody approach to detect two different proteins found in amniotic fluid at high concentrations: alpha-fetoprotein and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1. Clinical study results have uniformly demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy and performance characteristics with this point-of-care test that exceeds conventional clinical testing with external laboratory evaluation. The description, indications for use, procedural steps, and laboratory and clinical characterization of this assay are presented in this article.

  16. Medical Image Watermarking Technique for Accurate Tamper Detection in ROI and Exact Recovery of ROI.

    PubMed

    Eswaraiah, R; Sreenivasa Reddy, E

    2014-01-01

    In telemedicine while transferring medical images tampers may be introduced. Before making any diagnostic decisions, the integrity of region of interest (ROI) of the received medical image must be verified to avoid misdiagnosis. In this paper, we propose a novel fragile block based medical image watermarking technique to avoid embedding distortion inside ROI, verify integrity of ROI, detect accurately the tampered blocks inside ROI, and recover the original ROI with zero loss. In this proposed method, the medical image is segmented into three sets of pixels: ROI pixels, region of noninterest (RONI) pixels, and border pixels. Then, authentication data and information of ROI are embedded in border pixels. Recovery data of ROI is embedded into RONI. Results of experiments conducted on a number of medical images reveal that the proposed method produces high quality watermarked medical images, identifies the presence of tampers inside ROI with 100% accuracy, and recovers the original ROI without any loss.

  17. Barriers on Breast Cancer Early Detection Methods

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Yasemin Erkal; Turfan, Esin Çeber; Sert, Ebru; Mermer, Gülengül

    2015-01-01

    . Conclusion Barriers against implementation of breast cancer screening methods in women were related to level of education and lack of adequate information about breast cancer screening, and symptoms of breast cancer. Women’s lack of information about signs, symptoms and treatment in the early stages of breast cancer needs to be eliminated. Health care providers may have a key role in increasing breast cancer early detection rates.

  18. Shedding New Light on Early Caries Detection

    PubMed Central

    Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Dong, Cecilia C.S.; Cleghorn, Blaine; Hewko, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be a common chronic disease among various population groups. Patient care can be improved with detection at the earliest stage. However, current techniques do not have sufficient sensitivity and specificity. We discuss 2 new methods — optical coherence tomography (OCT) and polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS) — that are potentially useful for early caries detection and monitoring. OCT produces morphologic depth images of near-surface tissue structures with a resolution that is an order of magnitude greater than ultrasound imaging. Based on measurement of back-scattered near infrared light, OCT shows that sound enamel causes high-intensity back-scattering at the tooth surface that decreases rapidly with depth. In contrast, incipient lesions cause higher light back-scattering at the tooth surface and subsurface scattering indicative of porosity caused by demineralization. The scatter region within the enamel correlates well with the classical triangular shape of subsurface lesions observed in histologic sections. OCT imaging not only allows identification of incipient lesions, but also provides information on surface integrity and lesion depth. PRS furnishes biochemical information about the tooth's composition, mineral content and crystallinity. The depolarization ratio derived from the dominant phosphate peak of hydroxyapatite in sound teeth is consistently lower than that from incipient caries. This difference is attributed to the change in enamel crystallite morphology or orientation that occurs with acid demineralization. Thus, PRS can be used to confirm suspect lesions determined by OCT and rule out false-positive signals from non-carious anomalies. The combination of OCT and PRS provides a new detection method with high sensitivity and specificity that will improve caries management and patient care. Future studies are aimed at developing intraoral probes to validate the findings in vivo. PMID:19126361

  19. Functional neuroimaging of visuospatial working memory tasks enables accurate detection of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Rubi; Cooke, Gillian E.; Stein, Mark A.; Booth, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Finding neurobiological markers for neurodevelopmental disorders, such as attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is a major objective of clinicians and neuroscientists. We examined if functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data from a few distinct visuospatial working memory (VSWM) tasks enables accurately detecting cases with ADHD. We tested 20 boys with ADHD combined type and 20 typically developed (TD) boys in four VSWM tasks that differed in feedback availability (feedback, no-feedback) and reward size (large, small). We used a multimodal analysis based on brain activity in 16 regions of interest, significantly activated or deactivated in the four VSWM tasks (based on the entire participants' sample). Dimensionality of the data was reduced into 10 principal components that were used as the input variables to a logistic regression classifier. fMRI data from the four VSWM tasks enabled a classification accuracy of 92.5%, with high predicted ADHD probability values for most clinical cases, and low predicted ADHD probabilities for most TDs. This accuracy level was higher than those achieved by using the fMRI data of any single task, or the respective behavioral data. This indicates that task-based fMRI data acquired while participants perform a few distinct VSWM tasks enables improved detection of clinical cases. PMID:26509111

  20. COSMOS: accurate detection of somatic structural variations through asymmetric comparison between tumor and normal samples.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Koichi; Yamanishi, Ayako; Kokubu, Chikara; Takeda, Junji; Sese, Jun

    2016-05-05

    An important challenge in cancer genomics is precise detection of structural variations (SVs) by high-throughput short-read sequencing, which is hampered by the high false discovery rates of existing analysis tools. Here, we propose an accurate SV detection method named COSMOS, which compares the statistics of the mapped read pairs in tumor samples with isogenic normal control samples in a distinct asymmetric manner. COSMOS also prioritizes the candidate SVs using strand-specific read-depth information. Performance tests on modeled tumor genomes revealed that COSMOS outperformed existing methods in terms of F-measure. We also applied COSMOS to an experimental mouse cell-based model, in which SVs were induced by genome engineering and gamma-ray irradiation, followed by polymerase chain reaction-based confirmation. The precision of COSMOS was 84.5%, while the next best existing method was 70.4%. Moreover, the sensitivity of COSMOS was the highest, indicating that COSMOS has great potential for cancer genome analysis.

  1. COSMOS: accurate detection of somatic structural variations through asymmetric comparison between tumor and normal samples

    PubMed Central

    Yamagata, Koichi; Yamanishi, Ayako; Kokubu, Chikara; Takeda, Junji; Sese, Jun

    2016-01-01

    An important challenge in cancer genomics is precise detection of structural variations (SVs) by high-throughput short-read sequencing, which is hampered by the high false discovery rates of existing analysis tools. Here, we propose an accurate SV detection method named COSMOS, which compares the statistics of the mapped read pairs in tumor samples with isogenic normal control samples in a distinct asymmetric manner. COSMOS also prioritizes the candidate SVs using strand-specific read-depth information. Performance tests on modeled tumor genomes revealed that COSMOS outperformed existing methods in terms of F-measure. We also applied COSMOS to an experimental mouse cell-based model, in which SVs were induced by genome engineering and gamma-ray irradiation, followed by polymerase chain reaction-based confirmation. The precision of COSMOS was 84.5%, while the next best existing method was 70.4%. Moreover, the sensitivity of COSMOS was the highest, indicating that COSMOS has great potential for cancer genome analysis. PMID:26833260

  2. Of Needles and Haystacks: Building an Accurate Statewide Dropout Early Warning System in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Jared E.

    2015-01-01

    The state of Wisconsin has one of the highest four year graduation rates in the nation, but deep disparities among student subgroups remain. To address this the state has created the Wisconsin Dropout Early Warning System (DEWS), a predictive model of student dropout risk for students in grades six through nine. The Wisconsin DEWS is in use…

  3. Early detection of ovarian cancer: background, rationale, and structure of the Yale Early Detection Program.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, P. E.; Chambers, J. T.; Taylor, K. J.; Pellerito, J.; Hammers, L.; Cole, L. A.; Yang-Feng, T. L.; Smith, P.; Mayne, S. T.; Makuch, R.

    1991-01-01

    Ovarian cancer has received national attention as a highly virulent disease. Its lack of early warning symptoms and the failure to develop highly sensitive screening tests have led some physicians to recommend prophylactic oophorectomies to women with relatives who have had ovarian cancer. Others have recommended routine screening of otherwise normal women for CA 125, a circulating tumor marker, and ultrasound examinations. Each of these techniques is associated with substantial false-positive rates that could lead to unnecessary surgery. A review of epidemiologic data suggests that familial ovarian cancer kindreds are rare, but women with first-degree relatives who have had ovarian cancer have a significant risk themselves for developing ovarian cancer. In addition, women with a great number of ovulatory cycles are at an increased risk for the disease. Circulating tumor markers are frequently elevated in women with advanced ovarian cancer, but their value in early detection of ovarian cancer has yet to be established. Advances in endovaginal ultrasound and color Doppler flow technology have significantly improved our ability to assess pelvic organs. This article presents the background, rationale, and structure of the Yale Early Detection Program for ovarian cancer, whose goals are to identify the best techniques for diagnosing ovarian cancer in an early stage, to determine the frequency with which such tests should be employed, to assess false-positive results, and to identify women who might benefit from prophylactic oophorectomies. PMID:1810100

  4. Early detection and monitoring of Malaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md Z.; Roytman, Leonid; Kadik, Abdelhamid; Miller, Howard; Rosy, Dilara A.

    2015-05-01

    Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS) are bringing vital societal benefits to people around the globe. In this research article, we engage undergraduate students in the exciting area of space exploration to improve the health of millions of people globally. The goal of the proposed research is to place students in a learning environment where they will develop their problem solving skills in the context of a world crisis (e.g., malaria). Malaria remains one of the greatest threats to public health, particularly in developing countries. The World Health Organization has estimated that over one million die of Malaria each year, with more than 80% of these found in Sub-Saharan Africa. The mosquitoes transmit malaria. They breed in the areas of shallow surface water that are suitable to the mosquito and parasite development. These environmental factors can be detected with satellite imagery, which provide high spatial and temporal coverage of the earth's surface. We investigate on moisture, thermal and vegetation stress indicators developed from NOAA operational environmental satellite data. Using these indicators and collected epidemiological data, it is possible to produce a forecast system that can predict the risk of malaria for a particular geographical area with up to four months lead time. This valuable lead time information provides an opportunity for decision makers to deploy the necessary preventive measures (spraying, treated net distribution, storing medications and etc) in threatened areas with maximum effectiveness. The main objective of the proposed research is to study the effect of ecology on human health and application of NOAA satellite data for early detection of malaria.

  5. Early Oscillation Detection Technique for Hybrid DC/DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    Oscillation or instability is a situation that must be avoided for reliable hybrid DC/DC converters. A real-time electronics measurement technique was developed to detect catastrophic oscillations at early stages for hybrid DC/DC converters. It is capable of identifying low-level oscillation and determining the degree of the oscillation at a unique frequency for every individual model of the converters without disturbing their normal operations. This technique is specially developed for space-used hybrid DC/DC converters, but it is also suitable for most of commercial and military switching-mode power supplies. This is a weak-electronic-signal detection technique to detect hybrid DC/DC converter oscillation presented as a specific noise signal at power input pins. It is based on principles of feedback control loop oscillation and RF signal modulations, and is realized by using signal power spectral analysis. On the power spectrum, a channel power amplitude at characteristic frequency (CPcf) and a channel power amplitude at switching frequency (CPsw) are chosen as oscillation level indicators. If the converter is stable, the CPcf is a very small pulse and the CPsw is a larger, clear, single pulse. At early stage of oscillation, the CPcf increases to a certain level and the CPsw shows a small pair of sideband pulses around it. If the converter oscillates, the CPcf reaches to a higher level and the CPsw shows more high-level sideband pulses. A comprehensive stability index (CSI) is adopted as a quantitative measure to accurately assign a degree of stability to a specific DC/DC converter. The CSI is a ratio of normal and abnormal power spectral density, and can be calculated using specified and measured CPcf and CPsw data. The novel and unique feature of this technique is the use of power channel amplitudes at characteristic frequency and switching frequency to evaluate stability and identify oscillations at an early stage without interfering with a DC/DC converter s

  6. Endoscopic Ultrasound Does Not Accurately Stage Early Adenocarcinoma or High-Grade Dysplasia of the Esophagus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    MeSH search terms: " endoscopic ultrasound," "Barrett’s esophagus ," "adeno· carcinoma," "Barrett’s esophagus and high grade dyspla.c;ia...adenocarcinoma of the esophagus ; EMR, endoscopic mucosal resection; EUS, endoscopic ul- trasound; HGD, high-grade dysplasia. <D 2010 by the AGA Institute... esophagus and early adenocarcinoma found EUS examination to have perfecr accuracy for differentiating Tl CLINICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY Vol

  7. Early Forest Fire Detection Using Radio-Acoustic Sounding System

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

    2009-01-01

    Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires. PMID:22573967

  8. Sensitivity and accuracy of high-throughput metabarcoding methods used to describe aquatic communities for early detection of invasve fish species

    EPA Science Inventory

    For early detection biomonitoring of aquatic invasive species, sensitivity to rare individuals and accurate, high-resolution taxonomic classification are critical to minimize Type I and II detection errors. Given the great expense and effort associated with morphological identifi...

  9. Three-dimensional accurate detection of lung emphysema in rats using ultra-short and zero echo time MRI.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Andrea; Tibiletti, Marta; Kjørstad, Åsmund; Birk, Gerald; Schad, Lothar R; Stierstorfer, Birgit; Rasche, Volker; Stiller, Detlef

    2015-11-01

    Emphysema is a life-threatening pathology that causes irreversible destruction of alveolar walls. In vivo imaging techniques play a fundamental role in the early non-invasive pre-clinical and clinical detection and longitudinal follow-up of this pathology. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using high resolution radial three-dimensional (3D) zero echo time (ZTE) and 3D ultra-short echo time (UTE) MRI to accurately detect lung pathomorphological changes in a rodent model of emphysema.Porcine pancreas elastase (PPE) was intratracheally administered to the rats to produce the emphysematous changes. 3D ZTE MRI, low and high definition 3D UTE MRI and micro-computed tomography images were acquired 4 weeks after the PPE challenge. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were measured in PPE-treated and control rats. T2* values were computed from low definition 3D UTE MRI. Histomorphometric measurements were made after euthanizing the animals. Both ZTE and UTE MR images showed a significant decrease in the SNR measured in PPE-treated lungs compared with controls, due to the pathomorphological changes taking place in the challenged lungs. A significant decrease in T2* values in PPE-challenged animals compared with controls was measured using UTE MRI. Histomorphometric measurements showed a significant increase in the mean linear intercept in PPE-treated lungs. UTE yielded significantly higher SNR compared with ZTE (14% and 30% higher in PPE-treated and non-PPE-treated lungs, respectively).This study showed that optimized 3D radial UTE and ZTE MRI can provide lung images of excellent quality, with high isotropic spatial resolution (400 µm) and SNR in parenchymal tissue (>25) and negligible motion artifacts in freely breathing animals. These techniques were shown to be useful non-invasive instruments to accurately and reliably detect the pathomorphological alterations taking place in emphysematous lungs, without incurring the risks of cumulative radiation

  10. Pollen from accurately dated speleothems supports alpine glacier low-stands during the early Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Festi, Daniela; Hoffmann, Dirk L.; Luetscher, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Deciphering pollen assemblages from alpine speleothems holds potential to provide unique information about past vegetation in rapidly changing environments. Here, we reconstruct subsurface aerosol transport at Milchbach cave (Switzerland, 1840 m asl) based on the pollen content of two Holocene stalagmites. We demonstrate that pollen is chiefly associated with bacterially mediated calcite fabrics, typical of a well-ventilated cave system. In contrast, pollen is absent from columnar calcite fabrics confirming that hydrological transport is not a significant process for the incorporation of pollen into speleothems at Milchbach cave. Our results support significant changes in the subsurface ventilation regime, which can be associated with the waxing and waning of Upper Grindelwald glacier. Pollen assemblages obtained from six carbonate sub-samples attest the presence of a mixed deciduous forest in the Grindelwald valley during the early and middle Holocene, in agreement with coeval regional pollen records. This study demonstrates that even small amounts of calcite (0.3-2.8 cm3) are capable of delivering pollen spectra representative of the original vegetation if sufficiently elevated deposition fluxes are provided.

  11. Accurate early-time and late-time modeling of countercurrent spontaneous imbibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, Rafael; Doster, Florian; Geiger, Sebastian

    2016-08-01

    Spontaneous countercurrent imbibition into a finite porous medium is an important physical mechanism for many applications, included but not limited to irrigation, CO2 storage, and oil recovery. Symmetry considerations that are often valid in fractured porous media allow us to study the process in a one-dimensional domain. In 1-D, for incompressible fluids and homogeneous rocks, the onset of imbibition can be captured by self-similar solutions and the imbibed volume scales with √t. At later times, the imbibition rate decreases and the finite size of the medium has to be taken into account. This requires numerical solutions. Here we present a new approach to approximate the whole imbibition process semianalytically. The onset is captured by a semianalytical solution. We also provide an a priori estimate of the time until which the imbibed volume scales with √t. This time is significantly longer than the time it takes until the imbibition front reaches the model boundary. The remainder of the imbibition process is obtained from a self-similarity solution. We test our approach against numerical solutions that employ parametrizations relevant for oil recovery and CO2 sequestration. We show that this concept improves common first-order approaches that heavily underestimate early-time behavior and note that it can be readily included into dual-porosity models.

  12. Detecting Early Signatures of Persuasion in Information Cascades

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    ADDRESS. Indiana University at Bloomington Trustees of Indiana University 509 E 3RD ST Bloomington, IN 47401 -3654 Detecting Early Signatures of Persuasion ...SMISC  Project:   DESPIC:  Detecting  Early  Signatures  of   Persuasion  in  Information  Cascades     Teams:   Indiana

  13. Early detection of non-native fishes using fish larvae

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy approaches to investigate potential efficiencies. Fish larvae present an interesting opportunity for non-native fish early detection. First,...

  14. MIDAS robust trend estimator for accurate GPS station velocities without step detection.

    PubMed

    Blewitt, Geoffrey; Kreemer, Corné; Hammond, William C; Gazeaux, Julien

    2016-03-01

    Automatic estimation of velocities from GPS coordinate time series is becoming required to cope with the exponentially increasing flood of available data, but problems detectable to the human eye are often overlooked. This motivates us to find an automatic and accurate estimator of trend that is resistant to common problems such as step discontinuities, outliers, seasonality, skewness, and heteroscedasticity. Developed here, Median Interannual Difference Adjusted for Skewness (MIDAS) is a variant of the Theil-Sen median trend estimator, for which the ordinary version is the median of slopes vij  = (xj-xi )/(tj-ti ) computed between all data pairs i > j. For normally distributed data, Theil-Sen and least squares trend estimates are statistically identical, but unlike least squares, Theil-Sen is resistant to undetected data problems. To mitigate both seasonality and step discontinuities, MIDAS selects data pairs separated by 1 year. This condition is relaxed for time series with gaps so that all data are used. Slopes from data pairs spanning a step function produce one-sided outliers that can bias the median. To reduce bias, MIDAS removes outliers and recomputes the median. MIDAS also computes a robust and realistic estimate of trend uncertainty. Statistical tests using GPS data in the rigid North American plate interior show ±0.23 mm/yr root-mean-square (RMS) accuracy in horizontal velocity. In blind tests using synthetic data, MIDAS velocities have an RMS accuracy of ±0.33 mm/yr horizontal, ±1.1 mm/yr up, with a 5th percentile range smaller than all 20 automatic estimators tested. Considering its general nature, MIDAS has the potential for broader application in the geosciences.

  15. MIDAS robust trend estimator for accurate GPS station velocities without step detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewitt, Geoffrey; Kreemer, Corné; Hammond, William C.; Gazeaux, Julien

    2016-03-01

    Automatic estimation of velocities from GPS coordinate time series is becoming required to cope with the exponentially increasing flood of available data, but problems detectable to the human eye are often overlooked. This motivates us to find an automatic and accurate estimator of trend that is resistant to common problems such as step discontinuities, outliers, seasonality, skewness, and heteroscedasticity. Developed here, Median Interannual Difference Adjusted for Skewness (MIDAS) is a variant of the Theil-Sen median trend estimator, for which the ordinary version is the median of slopes vij = (xj-xi)/(tj-ti) computed between all data pairs i > j. For normally distributed data, Theil-Sen and least squares trend estimates are statistically identical, but unlike least squares, Theil-Sen is resistant to undetected data problems. To mitigate both seasonality and step discontinuities, MIDAS selects data pairs separated by 1 year. This condition is relaxed for time series with gaps so that all data are used. Slopes from data pairs spanning a step function produce one-sided outliers that can bias the median. To reduce bias, MIDAS removes outliers and recomputes the median. MIDAS also computes a robust and realistic estimate of trend uncertainty. Statistical tests using GPS data in the rigid North American plate interior show ±0.23 mm/yr root-mean-square (RMS) accuracy in horizontal velocity. In blind tests using synthetic data, MIDAS velocities have an RMS accuracy of ±0.33 mm/yr horizontal, ±1.1 mm/yr up, with a 5th percentile range smaller than all 20 automatic estimators tested. Considering its general nature, MIDAS has the potential for broader application in the geosciences.

  16. MIDAS robust trend estimator for accurate GPS station velocities without step detection

    PubMed Central

    Kreemer, Corné; Hammond, William C.; Gazeaux, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Automatic estimation of velocities from GPS coordinate time series is becoming required to cope with the exponentially increasing flood of available data, but problems detectable to the human eye are often overlooked. This motivates us to find an automatic and accurate estimator of trend that is resistant to common problems such as step discontinuities, outliers, seasonality, skewness, and heteroscedasticity. Developed here, Median Interannual Difference Adjusted for Skewness (MIDAS) is a variant of the Theil‐Sen median trend estimator, for which the ordinary version is the median of slopes vij = (xj–xi)/(tj–ti) computed between all data pairs i > j. For normally distributed data, Theil‐Sen and least squares trend estimates are statistically identical, but unlike least squares, Theil‐Sen is resistant to undetected data problems. To mitigate both seasonality and step discontinuities, MIDAS selects data pairs separated by 1 year. This condition is relaxed for time series with gaps so that all data are used. Slopes from data pairs spanning a step function produce one‐sided outliers that can bias the median. To reduce bias, MIDAS removes outliers and recomputes the median. MIDAS also computes a robust and realistic estimate of trend uncertainty. Statistical tests using GPS data in the rigid North American plate interior show ±0.23 mm/yr root‐mean‐square (RMS) accuracy in horizontal velocity. In blind tests using synthetic data, MIDAS velocities have an RMS accuracy of ±0.33 mm/yr horizontal, ±1.1 mm/yr up, with a 5th percentile range smaller than all 20 automatic estimators tested. Considering its general nature, MIDAS has the potential for broader application in the geosciences. PMID:27668140

  17. Accurate means of detecting and characterizing abnormal patterns of ventricular activation by phase image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Botvinick, E.H.; Frais, M.A.; Shosa, D.W.; O'Connell, J.W.; Pacheco-Alvarez, J.A.; Scheinman, M.; Hattner, R.S.; Morady, F.; Faulkner, D.B.

    1982-08-01

    The ability of scintigraphic phase image analysis to characterize patterns of abnormal ventricular activation was investigated. The pattern of phase distribution and sequential phase changes over both right and left ventricular regions of interest were evaluated in 16 patients with normal electrical activation and wall motion and compared with those in 8 patients with an artificial pacemaker and 4 patients with sinus rhythm with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and delta waves. Normally, the site of earliest phase angle was seen at the base of the interventricular septum, with sequential change affecting the body of the septum and the cardiac apex and then spreading laterally to involve the body of both ventricles. The site of earliest phase angle was located at the apex of the right ventricle in seven patients with a right ventricular endocardial pacemaker and on the lateral left ventricular wall in one patient with a left ventricular epicardial pacemaker. In each case the site corresponded exactly to the position of the pacing electrode as seen on posteroanterior and left lateral chest X-ray films, and sequential phase changes spread from the initial focus to affect both ventricles. In each of the patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the site of earliest ventricular phase angle was located, and it corresponded exactly to the site of the bypass tract as determined by endocardial mapping. In this way, four bypass pathways, two posterior left paraseptal, one left lateral and one right lateral, were correctly localized scintigraphically. On the basis of the sequence of mechanical contraction, phase image analysis provides an accurate noninvasive method of detecting abnormal foci of ventricular activation.

  18. Novel Serum Inflammatory Biomarkers for Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Early Detection of Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Thomas R. Brown, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Oxford Biomedical...Biomarkers for Early Detection of Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0711 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Thomas R. Brown, Ph.D. 5d... cancer however, their study as a source of cancer biomarkers is still at a relatively early stage. Identifying these biomarkers in serum presents a

  19. Differences in the Association between Segment and Language: Early Bilinguals Pattern with Monolinguals and Are Less Accurate than Late Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Cynthia P.; Bannard, Colin; Smiljanic, Rajka

    2016-01-01

    Early bilinguals often show as much sensitivity to L2-specific contrasts as monolingual speakers of the L2, but most work on cross-language speech perception has focused on isolated segments, and typically only on neighboring vowels or stop contrasts. In tasks that include sounds in context, listeners’ success is more variable, so segment discrimination in isolation may not adequately represent the phonetic detail in stored representations. The current study explores the relationship between language experience and sensitivity to segmental cues in context by comparing the categorization patterns of monolingual English listeners and early and late Spanish–English bilinguals. Participants categorized nonce words containing different classes of English- and Spanish-specific sounds as being more English-like or more Spanish-like; target segments included phonemic cues, cues for which there is no analogous sound in the other language, or phonetic cues, cues for which English and Spanish share the category but for which each language varies in its phonetic implementation. Listeners’ language categorization accuracy and reaction times were analyzed. Our results reveal a largely uniform categorization pattern across listener groups: Spanish cues were categorized more accurately than English cues, and phonemic cues were easier for listeners to categorize than phonetic cues. There were no differences in the sensitivity of monolinguals and early bilinguals to language-specific cues, suggesting that the early bilinguals’ exposure to Spanish did not fundamentally change their representations of English phonology. However, neither did the early bilinguals show more sensitivity than the monolinguals to Spanish sounds. The late bilinguals however, were significantly more accurate than either of the other groups. These findings indicate that listeners with varying exposure to English and Spanish are able to use language-specific cues in a nonce-word language categorization

  20. A fast and accurate method for detection of IBD shared haplotypes in genome-wide SNP data.

    PubMed

    Bjelland, Douglas W; Lingala, Uday; Patel, Piyush S; Jones, Matt; Keller, Matthew C

    2017-02-08

    Identical by descent (IBD) segments are used to understand a number of fundamental issues in genetics. IBD segments are typically detected using long stretches of identical alleles between haplotypes in phased, whole-genome SNP data. Phase or SNP call errors in genomic data can degrade accuracy of IBD detection and lead to false-positive/negative calls and to under/overextension of true IBD segments. Furthermore, the number of comparisons increases quadratically with sample size, requiring high computational efficiency. We developed a new IBD segment detection program, FISHR (Find IBD Shared Haplotypes Rapidly), in an attempt to accurately detect IBD segments and to better estimate their endpoints using an algorithm that is fast enough to be deployed on very large whole-genome SNP data sets. We compared the performance of FISHR to three leading IBD segment detection programs: GERMLINE, refined IBD, and HaploScore. Using simulated and real genomic sequence data, we show that FISHR is slightly more accurate than all programs at detecting long (>3 cm) IBD segments but slightly less accurate than refined IBD at detecting short (~1 cm) IBD segments. More centrally, FISHR outperforms all programs in determining the true endpoints of IBD segments, which is crucial for several applications of IBD information. FISHR takes two to three times longer than GERMLINE to run, whereas both GERMLINE and FISHR were orders of magnitude faster than refined IBD and HaploScore. Overall, FISHR provides accurate IBD detection in unrelated individuals and is computationally efficient enough to be utilized on large SNP data sets >60 000 individuals.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 8 February 2017; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2017.6.

  1. Early detection of acute kidney injury after pediatric cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, John Lynn; Devarajan, Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasingly recognized as a common problem in children undergoing cardiac surgery, with well documented increases in morbidity and mortality in both the short and the long term. Traditional approaches to the identification of AKI such as changes in serum creatinine have revealed a large incidence in this population with significant negative impact on clinical outcomes. However, the traditional diagnostic approaches to AKI diagnosis have inherent limitations that may lead to under-diagnosis of this pathologic process. There is a dearth of randomized controlled trials for the prevention and treatment of AKI associated with cardiac surgery, at least in part due to the paucity of early predictive biomarkers. Novel non-invasive biomarkers have ushered in a new era that allows for earlier detection of AKI. With these new diagnostic tools, a more consistent approach can be employed across centers that may facilitate a more accurate representation of the actual prevalence of AKI and more importantly, clinical investigation that may minimize the occurrence of AKI following pediatric cardiac surgery. A thoughtful management approach is necessary to mitigate the effects of AKI after cardiac surgery, which is best accomplished in close collaboration with pediatric nephrologists. Long-term surveillance for improvement in kidney function and potential development of chronic kidney disease should also be a part of the comprehensive management strategy. PMID:27429538

  2. Early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer: summative review.

    PubMed

    Chari, Suresh T; Kelly, Kimberly; Hollingsworth, Michael A; Thayer, Sarah P; Ahlquist, David A; Andersen, Dana K; Batra, Surinder K; Brentnall, Teresa A; Canto, Marcia; Cleeter, Deborah F; Firpo, Matthew A; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Go, Vay Liang W; Hines, O Joe; Kenner, Barbara J; Klimstra, David S; Lerch, Markus M; Levy, Michael J; Maitra, Anirban; Mulvihill, Sean J; Petersen, Gloria M; Rhim, Andrew D; Simeone, Diane M; Srivastava, Sudhir; Tanaka, Masao; Vinik, Aaron I; Wong, David

    2015-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is estimated to become the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States by 2020. Early detection is the key to improving survival in PC. Addressing this urgent need, the Kenner Family Research Fund conducted the inaugural Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference in 2014 in conjunction with the 45th Anniversary Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society. This seminal convening of international representatives from science, practice, and clinical research was designed to facilitate challenging interdisciplinary conversations to generate innovative ideas leading to the creation of a defined collaborative strategic pathway for the future of the field. An in-depth summary of current efforts in the field, analysis of gaps in specific areas of expertise, and challenges that exist in early detection is presented within distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. In addition, an overview of efforts in familial PC is presented in an addendum to this article. It is clear from the summit deliberations that only strategically designed collaboration among investigators, institutions, and funders will lead to significant progress in early detection of sporadic PC.

  3. Detecting Children's Lies: Are Parents Accurate Judges of Their Own Children's Lies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talwar, Victoria; Renaud, Sarah-Jane; Conway, Lauryn

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated whether parents are accurate judges of their own children's lie-telling behavior. Participants included 250 mother-child dyads. Children were between three and 11 years of age. A temptation resistance paradigm was used to elicit a minor transgressive behavior from the children involving peeking at a forbidden toy and…

  4. Innovative design for early detection of invasive species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-native aquatic species impose significant ecological impacts and rising financial costs in marine and freshwater ecosystems worldwide. Early detection of invasive species, as they enter a vulnerable ecosystem, is critical to successful containment and eradication. ORD, at t...

  5. Early detection of CLas infections in citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Early” detection of CLas infection is essential to minimize the risk of Huanglongbing (HLB) epidemics in areas where the pathogen has been recently introduced. Any delay in confirmation of CLas infection results in delays of regulatory and management actions, and increased spread of the pathogen ev...

  6. Preventing neonaticide by early detection and intervention in student pregnancy. .

    PubMed

    Platt, Lois M

    2014-11-01

    Pregnant students are the population group most likely to commit neonaticide, murder of an infant younger than 24 hours old. Denial by the student, lack of early pregnancy detection, and poor social support contribute to this disorder. As the health care professionals with whom the student has the most contact, school nurses are in an excellent position to prevent neonaticide through provision of health education, early detection of pregnancy, and intervention with students and their families to assist them in making healthy choices.

  7. Detection of Early Lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0161 TITLE: Detection of Early lung Cancer Among...September 2012-29 September 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0161 Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel... lung cancer in Military Treatment Facilities and Veteran’s Administration Hospitals. Over the course of the second year of this award, we have

  8. Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    http://edrn.nci.nih.gov/EDRN is a collaborative network that maintains comprehensive infrastructure and resources critical to the discovery, development and validation of biomarkers for cancer risk and early detection. The program comprises a public/private sector consortium to accelerate the development of biomarkers that will change medical practice, ensure data reproducibility, and adapt to the changing landscape of biomarker science. | Comprehensive infrastructure and resources critical to discovery, development and validation of biomarkers for cancer risk and early detection.

  9. Early detection of age related macular degeneration: current status.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Roy; Loewenstein, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a main cause of severe vision loss in age related macular degeneration (AMD), is crucial in order to preserve vision and the quality of life of patients. This review summarizes current literature on the subject of early detection of CNV, both in the clinic setting and mainly in the patient's home. New technologies are evolving to allow for earlier detection and thus vision preservation in AMD patients.

  10. Stationary Digital Tomosynthesis System for Early Detection of Breast Tumors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer occurring in women...Early detection is considered as the best hope for decreasing the mortality rate from breast cancer [1-4]. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has the...potential to improve the effectiveness of early breast cancer screening at a similar dose and comparable cost as the full-field digital

  11. Blood Based Biomarkers for Lung Cancer Early Detection and Evaluation of CT Based Lesions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    miRNA ), methylation and gene expression profiles of tumor and matched non-malignant tissues to identify differentially expressed miRNAs and...from the Pan-Canadian Early Lung Cancer Detection Study. Candidate miRNA that accurately discriminate between tumor and non-malignant samples are...generate miRNA , methylation and gene expression profiles of tumor and normal tissues . Status: Completed Work accomplished: Histological confirmation was

  12. Accurate Mass Assignment of Native Protein Complexes Detected by Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Liepold, Lars O.; Oltrogge, Luke M.; Suci, Peter; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Correct charge state assignment is crucial to assigning an accurate mass to supramolecular complexes analyzed by electrospray mass spectrometry. Conventional charge state assignment techniques fall short of reliably and unambiguously predicting the correct charge state for many supramolecular complexes. We provide an explanation of the shortcomings of the conventional techniques and have developed a robust charge state assignment method that is applicable to all spectra. PMID:19103497

  13. Biomarkers for Early Detection of Alzheimer Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Clark, C.M.; Davatzikos, C.; Borthakur, A.; Newberg, A.; Leight, S.; Lee, V.M.-Y.; Trojanowski, J.Q.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and the devastating consequences of late-life dementia motivates the drive to develop diagnostic biomarkers to reliably identify the pathology associated with this disorder. Strategies to accomplish this include the detection of altered levels of tau and amyloid in cerebrospinal fluid, the use of structural MRI to identify disease-specific patterns of regional atrophy and MRI T1ρ to detect disease-related macromolecular protein aggregation, and the direct imaging of amyloid deposits using positron emission tomography and single photon emission computerized tomography. Success will facilitate the ability to reliably diagnose Alzheimer’s disease while the symptoms of brain failure are mild and may provide objective measures of disease-modifying treatment efficacy. PMID:18097155

  14. Tsunamis: Monitoring, Detection, and Early Warning Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    expand from six existing deepwater tsunami detection buoys to a total of 32 for the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, Gulf of Mexico , and Caribbean Sea by...rapid U.S. response to upgrade existing capacity for warning in the Pacific, and expand this capacity to the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico , and Caribbean Sea...Senator Inouye’s bill is closely aligned with the Administration’s proposal, released on January 14, 2005, but also addresses social issues such as

  15. Radiation detection and wireless networked early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, David A.; Litz, Marc S.; Carroll, James J.; Katsis, Dimosthenis

    2012-06-01

    We have designed a compact, wireless, GPS-enabled array of inexpensive radiation sensors based on scintillation counting. Each sensor has a scintillator, photomultiplier tube, and pulse-counting circuit that includes a comparator, digital potentiometer and microcontroller. This design provides a high level of sensitivity and reliability. A 0.2 m2 PV panel powers each sensor providing a maintenance-free 24/7 energy source. The sensor can be mounted within a roadway light-post and monitor radiological activity along transport routes. Each sensor wirelessly transmits real-time data (as counts per second) up to 2 miles with a XBee radio module, and the data is received by a XBee receive-module on a computer. Data collection software logs the information from all sensors and provides real-time identification of radiation events. Measurements performed to-date demonstrate the ability of a sensor to detect a 20 μCi source at 3.5 meters when packaged with a PVT (plastic) scintillator, and 7 meters for a sensor with a CsI crystal (more expensive but ~5 times more sensitive). It is calculated that the sensor-architecture can detect sources moving as fast as 130 km/h based on the current data rate and statistical bounds of 3-sigma threshold detection. The sensor array is suitable for identifying and tracking a radiation threat from a dirty bomb along roadways.

  16. Early detection of allergic diseases in otorhinolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    Klimek, Ludger; Schendzielorz, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Asthmatic diseases have been reported since the ancient world. Hay fever for instance, was described for the first time in the late 18th century, and the term “allergy” was introduced about 100 years ago. Today the incidence of allergies is rising; almost one third of the Western population suffers from its side effects. Allergies are some of the most chronic medical complaints, which results in high health expenditures. Therefore, they have a large health and political relevance. Caused by genetic and environmental factors, the group of IgE mediated allergies is large. It consists of e.g. atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma or allergic rhinitis. This paper aims to emphasize the ways of early diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (AR) as AR represents the most important representative of allergic diseases in ENT. PMID:22073091

  17. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: Early detection and referral

    PubMed Central

    Oldham, Justin M.; Noth, Imre

    2016-01-01

    Summary Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a devastating progressive interstitial lung disease (ILD) with no known cause or cure, is the most common and deadly of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. With a median survival of 3–5 years following diagnosis, IPF is characterized by a progressive decline in lung function and quality of life in most patients. Vigilance among clinicians in recognizing IPF early in the disease course remains critical to properly caring for these patients, as this provides the widest range of management options. When IPF is suspected, a multidisciplinary evaluation (MDE) by a clinician, radiologist and pathologist with ILD expertise should occur, as this improves diagnostic agreement in both community and academic settings. When community MDE is not possible, or diagnostic doubt exists, referral to an ILD center should be considered. ILD center referral may also provide access specialized care, including clinical trials and lung transplantation, and should be considered for any patient with an established diagnosis of IPF. PMID:24746629

  18. Automated System for Early Breast Cancer Detection in Mammograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankman, Isaac N.; Kim, Dong W.; Christens-Barry, William A.; Weinberg, Irving N.; Gatewood, Olga B.; Brody, William R.

    1993-01-01

    The increasing demand on mammographic screening for early breast cancer detection, and the subtlety of early breast cancer signs on mammograms, suggest an automated image processing system that can serve as a diagnostic aid in radiology clinics. We present a fully automated algorithm for detecting clusters of microcalcifications that are the most common signs of early, potentially curable breast cancer. By using the contour map of the mammogram, the algorithm circumvents some of the difficulties encountered with standard image processing methods. The clinical implementation of an automated instrument based on this algorithm is also discussed.

  19. Molecular Detection of Foodborne Pathogens: A Rapid and Accurate Answer to Food Safety.

    PubMed

    Mangal, Manisha; Bansal, Sangita; Sharma, Satish K; Gupta, Ram K

    2016-07-03

    Food safety is a global health concern. For the prevention and recognition of problems related to health and safety, detection of foodborne pathogen is of utmost importance at all levels of food production chain. For several decades, a lot of research has been targeted at the development of rapid methodology as reducing the time needed to complete pathogen detection tests has been the primary goal of food microbiologists. With the result, food microbiology laboratories now have a wide array of detection methods and automated technologies such as enzyme immunoassay, polymerase chain reaction, and microarrays, which can cut test times considerably. Nucleic acid amplification strategies and advances in amplicon detection methodologies have been the key factors in the progress of molecular microbiology. A comprehensive literature survey has been carried out to give an overview in the field of foodborne pathogen detection. In this paper, we describe the conventional methods, as well as recent developments in food pathogen detection, identification, and quantification, with a major emphasis on molecular detection methods.

  20. Early detection of ovarian cancer: preliminary results of the Yale Early Detection Program.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, P. E.; Chambers, J. T.; Taylor, K. J.; Pellerito, J.; Hammers, L.; Cole, L. A.; Yang-Feng, T. L.; Smith, P.; Mayne, S. T.; Makuch, R.

    1991-01-01

    Eighty-four women at high risk for ovarian cancer by having first-degree relatives with epithelial ovarian cancer participated in a newly established, early ovarian cancer detection program at Yale University. Participants were to be evaluated with physical examinations and circulating tumor markers at entry and every six months thereafter. Endovaginal ultrasound and color Doppler flow studies were to be performed at three and nine months following entry into the program. In addition, women were encouraged to follow American Cancer Society guidelines for mammography. Stool was checked for occult blood. Endometrial sampling was offered to post-menopausal women. No participant has developed an ovarian cancer since entering the program. One woman has been diagnosed to have breast cancer. False-positive levels of circulating tumor markers (CA 125, 4/84 [4.8 percent]; lipid-associated sialic acid in plasma, 13/84 [15.5 percent]; NB/70K, 4/84 [4.8 percent]; and urinary gonadotropin fragment, 1/65 [1.5 percent]) were observed on entry into the program. Low resistive indices (less than 0.5) were documented in 8/91 (8.8 percent) ovaries studied by the color Doppler flow technique. One participant underwent a laparotomy based on a false-positive endovaginal ultrasound examination. Tests now being employed in community practice have a high likelihood of being associated with false-positive results. Therapeutic interventions based on isolated abnormal tumor markers or ultrasound studies obtained from women with family histories of ovarian cancer may lead to inappropriate surgery. It is necessary for cancer centers to develop expertise in ovarian cancer detection techniques to advise physicians in their geographic areas appropriately about the significance of the abnormal screening test. PMID:1810101

  1. Towards Accurate Node-Based Detection of P2P Botnets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Botnets are a serious security threat to the current Internet infrastructure. In this paper, we propose a novel direction for P2P botnet detection called node-based detection. This approach focuses on the network characteristics of individual nodes. Based on our model, we examine node's flows and extract the useful features over a given time period. We have tested our approach on real-life data sets and achieved detection rates of 99-100% and low false positives rates of 0–2%. Comparison with other similar approaches on the same data sets shows that our approach outperforms the existing approaches. PMID:25089287

  2. Lateral Flow Rapid Test for Accurate and Early Diagnosis of Scrub Typhus: A Febrile Illness of Historically Military Importance in the Pacific Rim.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chien-Chung; Zhangm, Zhiwen; Weissenberger, Giulia; Chen, Hua-Wei; Ching, Wei-Mei

    2017-03-01

    Scrub typhus (ST) is an infection caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Historically, ST was ranked as the second most important arthropod-borne medical problem only behind malaria during World War II and the Vietnam War. The disease occurs mainly in Southeast Asia and has been shown to emerge and reemerge in new areas, implying the increased risk for U.S. military and civilian personnel deployed to these regions. ST can effectively be treated by doxycycline provided the diagnosis is made early, before the development of severe complications. Scrub Typhus Detect is a lateral flow rapid test based on a mixture of recombinant 56-kDa antigens with broad reactivity. The performance of this prototype product was evaluated against indirect immunofluorescence assay, the serological gold standard. Using 249 prospectively collected samples from Thailand, the sensitivity and specificity for IgM was found to be 100% and 92%, respectively, suggesting a high potential of this product for clinical use. This product will provide a user friendly, rapid, and accurate diagnosis of ST for clinicians to provide timely and accurate treatments of deployed personnel.

  3. EARLY DETECTION AND PROGRAMING FOR CHILDREN WITH SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCGAHAN, F.E.

    THE GALENA PARK SPECIAL PROGRAM IS AN EFFORT ON THE PART OF THE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION TO DETECT, AT THE EARLIEST TIME, ANY STUDENT PROBLEM WHICH MAY LEAD TO DIFFICULTIES IN SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT. ALL PHASES OF PUPIL PERSONNEL SERVICES ARE PLACED UNDER ONE COORDINATOR TO EXPEDITE SERVICES TO THE CHILD IN DIFFICULTY. EARLY DETECTION OF POTENTIAL PROBLEM…

  4. A Mass Spectrometric Analysis Method Based on PPCA and SVM for Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang; Ji, Yanju; Zhao, Ling; Ji, Mengying; Ye, Zhuang; Li, Suyi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Surfaced-enhanced laser desorption-ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) technology plays an important role in the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer. However, the raw MS data is highly dimensional and redundant. Therefore, it is necessary to study rapid and accurate detection methods from the massive MS data. Methods. The clinical data set used in the experiments for early cancer detection consisted of 216 SELDI-TOF-MS samples. An MS analysis method based on probabilistic principal components analysis (PPCA) and support vector machine (SVM) was proposed and applied to the ovarian cancer early classification in the data set. Additionally, by the same data set, we also established a traditional PCA-SVM model. Finally we compared the two models in detection accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Results. Using independent training and testing experiments 10 times to evaluate the ovarian cancer detection models, the average prediction accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the PCA-SVM model were 83.34%, 82.70%, and 83.88%, respectively. In contrast, those of the PPCA-SVM model were 90.80%, 92.98%, and 88.97%, respectively. Conclusions. The PPCA-SVM model had better detection performance. And the model combined with the SELDI-TOF-MS technology had a prospect in early clinical detection and diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

  5. A Mass Spectrometric Analysis Method Based on PPCA and SVM for Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiang; Ji, Mengying; Ye, Zhuang

    2016-01-01

    Background. Surfaced-enhanced laser desorption-ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) technology plays an important role in the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer. However, the raw MS data is highly dimensional and redundant. Therefore, it is necessary to study rapid and accurate detection methods from the massive MS data. Methods. The clinical data set used in the experiments for early cancer detection consisted of 216 SELDI-TOF-MS samples. An MS analysis method based on probabilistic principal components analysis (PPCA) and support vector machine (SVM) was proposed and applied to the ovarian cancer early classification in the data set. Additionally, by the same data set, we also established a traditional PCA-SVM model. Finally we compared the two models in detection accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Results. Using independent training and testing experiments 10 times to evaluate the ovarian cancer detection models, the average prediction accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the PCA-SVM model were 83.34%, 82.70%, and 83.88%, respectively. In contrast, those of the PPCA-SVM model were 90.80%, 92.98%, and 88.97%, respectively. Conclusions. The PPCA-SVM model had better detection performance. And the model combined with the SELDI-TOF-MS technology had a prospect in early clinical detection and diagnosis of ovarian cancer. PMID:27642365

  6. Rapid and highly accurate detection of Drosophila suzukii, spotted wing Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii, the spotted wing drosophila (SWD), is currently a major pest that causes severe economic losses to thin-skinned, small fruit growers in North America and Europe. The monitoring and early detection of SWD in the field is of the utmost importance for its proper management. Althou...

  7. Hydrogen sulfide detection based on reflection: from a poison test approach of ancient China to single-cell accurate localization.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hao; Ma, Zhuoran; Wang, Song; Gong, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2014-08-05

    With the inspiration of an ancient Chinese poison test approach, we report a rapid hydrogen sulfide detection strategy in specific areas of live cells using silver needles with good spatial resolution of 2 × 2 μm(2). Besides the accurate-localization ability, this reflection-based strategy also has attractive merits of convenience and robust response when free pretreatment and short detection time are concerned. The success of endogenous H2S level evaluation in cellular cytoplasm and nuclear of human A549 cells promises the application potential of our strategy in scientific research and medical diagnosis.

  8. An accurate heart beat detection method in the EKG recorded in fMRI system.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sung Suk; Chung, Jun-Young; Yoon, Hyo Woon; Park, HyunWook

    2007-01-01

    The simultaneous recording of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalogram (EEG) provides an efficient signal for the high spatiotemporal brain mapping because each modality provides complementary information. The peak detection in the EEG signal measured in the MR scanner is necessary for removal of the ballistocardiac artifact. Especially, it would be affected by the quality of the EKG signal and the variation of the heart beat rate. Therefore, we propose the peak detection method using a K-teager energy operator (K-TEO) as well as further refinement processes in order to detect precise peaks. We applied this technique to the analysis of simulation waves with random noise and abrupt heat beat changes.

  9. Accurate detection and complete tracking of large populations of features in three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongxiang; Kilfoil, Maria L

    2009-03-16

    Localization and tracking of colloidal particles in microscopy images generates the raw data necessary to understand both the dynamics and the mechanical properties of colloidal model systems. Yet, despite the obvious importance of analyzing particle movement in three dimensions (3D), accurate sub-pixel localization of the particles in 3D has received little attention so far. Tracking has been limited by the choice of whether to track all particles in a low-density system, or whether to neglect the most mobile fraction of particles in a dense system. Moreover, assertions are frequently made on the accuracies of methods for locating particles in colloid physics and in biology, and the field of particle locating and tracking can be well-served by quantitative comparison of relative performances. We show that by iterating sub-pixel localization in three dimensions, the centers of particles can be more accurately located in three-dimensions (3D) than with all previous methods by at least half an order of magnitude. In addition, we show that implementing a multi-pass deflation approach, greater fidelity can be achieved in reconstruction of trajectories, once particle positions are known. In general, all future work must defend the accuracy of the particle tracks to be considered reliable. Specifically, other researchers must use the methods presented here (or an alternative whose accuracy can be substantianted) in order for the entire investigation to be considered legitimate, if the basis of the physical argument (in colloids, biology, or any other application) depends on quantitative accuracy of particle positions. We compare our algorithms to other recent and related advances in location/tracking in colloids and in biology, and discuss the relative strengths and weaknesses of all the algorithms in various situations. We carry out performance tests directly comparing the accuracy of our and other 3D methods with simulated data for both location and tracking, and in

  10. Accurate and reproducible detection of proteins in water using an extended-gate type organic transistor biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamiki, Tsukuru; Minami, Tsuyoshi; Kurita, Ryoji; Niwa, Osamu; Wakida, Shin-ichi; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Kumaki, Daisuke; Tokito, Shizuo

    2014-06-01

    In this Letter, we describe an accurate antibody detection method using a fabricated extended-gate type organic field-effect-transistor (OFET), which can be operated at below 3 V. The protein-sensing portion of the designed device is the gate electrode functionalized with streptavidin. Streptavidin possesses high molecular recognition ability for biotin, which specifically allows for the detection of biotinylated proteins. Here, we attempted to detect biotinylated immunoglobulin G (IgG) and observed a shift of threshold voltage of the OFET upon the addition of the antibody in an aqueous solution with a competing bovine serum albumin interferent. The detection limit for the biotinylated IgG was 8 nM, which indicates the potential utility of the designed device in healthcare applications.

  11. The importance of early detection of endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Adamik, Barbara; Smiechowicz, Jakub; Kübler, Andrzej

    2016-10-01

    Endotoxin is considered a key signaling molecule in the pathogenesis of sepsis and septic shock. Anti-endotoxin therapies may result in the improvement of a patient's clinical condition and lower mortality. The pressing clinical challenge is to identify patients for whom endotoxin elimination would be the most beneficial. An endotoxin activity assay (EAA) has been available for detection of endotoxins, allowing selection of patients at high risk of endotoxemia in intensive care units (ICUs). We studied a cohort of 172 consecutive patients who had septic shock on admission to the ICU. Endotoxin activity (EA) was measured with a rapid chemiluminescent EAA, regarded as point-of-care testing. Endotoxemia with a mean EA of 0.59 ± 0.14 EAU was present in 104 patients (60%) and absent in 68 patients (EA = 0.25 ± 0.11 EAU). The risk of endotoxemia increased with the presence of a Gram-negative infection [odds ratio (OR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-5.9; P = 0.001] and bacteremia (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.6-8.9; P = 0.02) but did not change with a diagnosis of peritonitis (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.54-1.97; P = 0.90). These findings indicate that anti-endotoxin interventions should be tailored to individual patients based on both clinical conditions and measured endotoxin levels.

  12. How Accurately Can Your Wrist Device Recognize Daily Activities and Detect Falls?

    PubMed Central

    Gjoreski, Martin; Gjoreski, Hristijan; Luštrek, Mitja; Gams, Matjaž

    2016-01-01

    Although wearable accelerometers can successfully recognize activities and detect falls, their adoption in real life is low because users do not want to wear additional devices. A possible solution is an accelerometer inside a wrist device/smartwatch. However, wrist placement might perform poorly in terms of accuracy due to frequent random movements of the hand. In this paper we perform a thorough, large-scale evaluation of methods for activity recognition and fall detection on four datasets. On the first two we showed that the left wrist performs better compared to the dominant right one, and also better compared to the elbow and the chest, but worse compared to the ankle, knee and belt. On the third (Opportunity) dataset, our method outperformed the related work, indicating that our feature-preprocessing creates better input data. And finally, on a real-life unlabeled dataset the recognized activities captured the subject’s daily rhythm and activities. Our fall-detection method detected all of the fast falls and minimized the false positives, achieving 85% accuracy on the first dataset. Because the other datasets did not contain fall events, only false positives were evaluated, resulting in 9 for the second, 1 for the third and 15 for the real-life dataset (57 days data). PMID:27258282

  13. How Accurately Can Your Wrist Device Recognize Daily Activities and Detect Falls?

    PubMed

    Gjoreski, Martin; Gjoreski, Hristijan; Luštrek, Mitja; Gams, Matjaž

    2016-06-01

    Although wearable accelerometers can successfully recognize activities and detect falls, their adoption in real life is low because users do not want to wear additional devices. A possible solution is an accelerometer inside a wrist device/smartwatch. However, wrist placement might perform poorly in terms of accuracy due to frequent random movements of the hand. In this paper we perform a thorough, large-scale evaluation of methods for activity recognition and fall detection on four datasets. On the first two we showed that the left wrist performs better compared to the dominant right one, and also better compared to the elbow and the chest, but worse compared to the ankle, knee and belt. On the third (Opportunity) dataset, our method outperformed the related work, indicating that our feature-preprocessing creates better input data. And finally, on a real-life unlabeled dataset the recognized activities captured the subject's daily rhythm and activities. Our fall-detection method detected all of the fast falls and minimized the false positives, achieving 85% accuracy on the first dataset. Because the other datasets did not contain fall events, only false positives were evaluated, resulting in 9 for the second, 1 for the third and 15 for the real-life dataset (57 days data).

  14. The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised accurately detects cognitive decline in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Begeti, Faye; Tan, Adrian Y K; Cummins, Gemma A; Collins, Lucy M; Guzman, Natalie Valle; Mason, Sarah L; Barker, Roger A

    2013-11-01

    Cognitive features, which begin before manifestation of the motor features, are an integral part of Huntington's disease and profoundly affect quality of life. A number of neuropsychological batteries have been used to assess this aspect of the condition, many of which are difficult to administer and time consuming, especially in advanced disease. We, therefore, investigated a simple and practical way to monitor cognition using the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) in 126 manifest Huntington's disease patients, 28 premanifest gene carriers and 21 controls. Using this test, we demonstrated a selective decrease in phonemic, but not semantic, fluency in premanifest participants Cognitive decline in manifest Huntington's disease varied according to disease severity with extensive cognitive decline observed in early-stage Huntington's disease patients, indicating that this would be an optimal stage for interventions designed to halt cognitive decline, and lesser changes in the advanced cases. We next examined cognitive performance in patients prescribed antidopaminergic drugs as these drugs are known to decrease cognition when administered to healthy volunteers. We paradoxically found that these drugs may be beneficial, as early-stage Huntington's disease participants in receipt of them had improved attention and Mini-Mental State Examination scores. In conclusion, this is the first study to test the usefulness of the ACE-R in a Huntington's disease population and demonstrates that this is a brief, inexpensive and practical way to measure global cognitive performance in clinical practice with potential use in clinical trials.

  15. RT-PCR is a more accurate diagnostic tool for detection of BCR-ABL rearrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Zehnbauer, B.A.; Allen, A.P.; McGrath, S.D.

    1994-09-01

    Detection of the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph1) or genomic Southern hybridization for clonal gene rearrangement (GSH-R) has provided very specific identification of BCR-ABL gene rearrangement. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is diagnostic for patterns of BCR-ABL expression which are undetected by GSH-R and/or Ph1 and provides increased sensitivity both at diagnosis and in detection of minimal residual leukemia. Fifty-three specimens (of 150 tested from 119 consecutive leukemia patients) were RT-PCR positive for BCR-ABL gene expression confirmed by hybridization of PCR products with b{sub 3}a{sub 2}, b{sub 2}a{sub 2}, or e{sub 1}a{sub 2} junction-specific oligonucleotides. In 6 cases of CML with GSH-R{sup {minus}}at diagnosis, RT-PCR provided specific BCR-ABL identification. Deletion of BCR regions, low mitotic index, or e{sub 1}a{sub 2} expression caused failure to detect GSH-R or Ph1 translocation.

  16. Magnetic resonance elastography is accurate in detecting advanced fibrosis in autoimmune hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Malik, Neera; Yin, Meng; Smyrk, Thomas C; Czaja, Albert J; Ehman, Richard L; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the value of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in detecting advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). METHODS In this retrospective study, 36 patients (19 treated and 17 untreated) with histologically confirmed AIH and liver biopsy performed within 3 mo of MRE were identified at a tertiary care referral center. Liver stiffness (LS) with MRE was calculated by a radiologist, and inflammation grade and fibrosis stage in liver biopsy was assessed by a pathologist in a blinded fashion. Two radiologists evaluated morphological features of cirrhosis on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Accuracy of MRE was compared to laboratory markers and MRI for detection of advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis. RESULTS Liver fibrosis stages of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 were present in 4, 6, 7, 6 and 13 patients respectively. There were no significant differences in distribution of fibrosis stage and inflammation grade between treated and untreated patient groups. LS with MRE demonstrated stronger correlation with liver fibrosis stage in comparison to laboratory markers for chronic liver disease (r = 0.88 vs -0.48-0.70). A trend of decreased mean LS in treated patients compared to untreated patients was observed (3.7 kPa vs 3.84 kPa) but was not statistically significant. MRE had an accuracy/sensitivity/specificity/positive predictive value/negative predictive value of 0.97/90%/100%/100%/90% and 0.98/92.3%/96%/92.3%/96% for detection of advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis, respectively. The performance of MRE was significantly better than laboratory tests for detection of advanced fibrosis (0.97 vs 0.53-0.80, P < 0.01), and cirrhosis (0.98 vs 0.58-0.80, P < 0.01) and better than conventional MRI for diagnosis of cirrhosis (0.98 vs 0.78, P = 0.002). CONCLUSION MRE is a promising modality for detection of advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with AIH with superior diagnostic accuracy compared to laboratory assessment and MRI. PMID:28223730

  17. Avoiding incidental predation by mammalian herbivores: accurate detection and efficient response in aphids.

    PubMed

    Gish, Moshe; Dafni, Amots; Inbar, Moshe

    2011-09-01

    Mammalian herbivores eat plants that may also provide food and shelter for insects. The direct trophic effect of the browsing and grazing of mammalian herbivory on insects, which is probably prevalent in terrestrial ecosystems, has been mostly neglected by ecologists. We examined how the aphid Uroleucon sonchi L. deals with the danger of incidental predation by mammalian herbivores. We found that most (76%) of the aphids in a colony survive the ingestion of the plant by a feeding herbivore. They do so by sensing the combination of heat and humidity in the herbivore's breath and immediately dropping off the plant in large numbers. Their ability to sense the herbivore's breath or their tendency to drop off the plant weakens as ambient temperature rises. This could indicate a limitation of the aphids' sensory system or an adaptation that enables them to avoid the hostile conditions on a hot ground. Once on the ground, U. sonchi is highly mobile and capable of locating a new host plant by advancing in a pattern that differs significantly from random movement. The accurate and efficient defense mechanism of U. sonchi emphasizes the significance of incidental predation as a danger to plant-dwelling invertebrates.

  18. Avoiding incidental predation by mammalian herbivores: accurate detection and efficient response in aphids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gish, Moshe; Dafni, Amots; Inbar, Moshe

    2011-09-01

    Mammalian herbivores eat plants that may also provide food and shelter for insects. The direct trophic effect of the browsing and grazing of mammalian herbivory on insects, which is probably prevalent in terrestrial ecosystems, has been mostly neglected by ecologists. We examined how the aphid Uroleucon sonchi L. deals with the danger of incidental predation by mammalian herbivores. We found that most (76%) of the aphids in a colony survive the ingestion of the plant by a feeding herbivore. They do so by sensing the combination of heat and humidity in the herbivore's breath and immediately dropping off the plant in large numbers. Their ability to sense the herbivore's breath or their tendency to drop off the plant weakens as ambient temperature rises. This could indicate a limitation of the aphids' sensory system or an adaptation that enables them to avoid the hostile conditions on a hot ground. Once on the ground, U. sonchi is highly mobile and capable of locating a new host plant by advancing in a pattern that differs significantly from random movement. The accurate and efficient defense mechanism of U. sonchi emphasizes the significance of incidental predation as a danger to plant-dwelling invertebrates.

  19. Pilot Implementation of Breast Cancer Early Detection Programs in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Murillo, Raúl; Díaz, Sandra; Sánchez, Oswaldo; Perry, Fernando; Piñeros, Marion; Poveda, César; Salguero, Edgar; Osorio, Dimelza

    2008-01-01

    Summary Breast cancer is increasing in developing countries, and Colombia has a double burden from cervical and breast cancer. Suitable guidelines for breast cancer early detection are needed, and the Breast Health Global Initiative provides a favorable framework for breast cancer control in low resource nations. The Colombian National Cancer Institute developed evidence-based guidelines for breast cancer early detection in which coordinated early detection in symptomatic women and hospital-based screening in women aged 50–69 are recommended. A pilot project to evaluate programmatic approaches (opportunistic screening) was designed, and it is expected that organized hospital-based screening for breast cancer will represent a move towards population-based screening in the near future in accordance with country specific conditions. PMID:20824017

  20. Gallbladder Carcinoma, the Difficulty of Early Detection: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Stephen L; Bear, Jonathan R; Van Echo, David C; Dainer, Hugh M

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is an uncommon malignancy with a high mortality rate. Detecting gallbladder carcinoma in its early stages can be difficult, despite improvements in ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) imaging. Most diagnoses of GBC are made at advanced stages, with the majority being found incidentally during surgery for cholelithiasis. The presented case demonstrates the difficulty of diagnosing GBC preoperatively in its early stages. PMID:27014527

  1. Highly Accurate Antibody Assays for Early and Rapid Detection of Tuberculosis in African and Asian Elephants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tuberculosis (TB) in elephants is a re-emerging zoonotic disease caused primarily by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Current methods for screening and diagnosis rely on trunk wash culture, which has serious limitations due to low test sensitivity, slow turn-around time, and variable sample quality. Inn...

  2. Development of an assisting detection system for early infarct diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, K. S.; Nia, M. E.; Ee, C. S.

    2015-04-24

    In this paper, a detection assisting system for early infarct detection is developed. This new developed method is used to assist the medical practitioners to diagnose infarct from computed tomography images of brain. Using this assisting system, the infarct could be diagnosed at earlier stages. The non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) brain images are the data set used for this system. Detection module extracts the pixel data from NCCT brain images, and produces the colourized version of images. The proposed method showed great potential in detecting infarct, and helps medical practitioners to make earlier and better diagnoses.

  3. Advances in pancreatic cancer research: moving towards early detection.

    PubMed

    He, Xiang-Yi; Yuan, Yao-Zong

    2014-08-28

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal forms of cancer. Substantial progress has been made in the understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer, and advances in patient management have been significant. However, most patients (nearly 80%) who present with locally advanced or metastatic disease have an extremely poor prognosis. Survival is better for those with malignant disease localized to the pancreas, because surgical resection at present offers the only chance of cure. Therefore, the early detection of pancreatic cancer may benefit patients with PDAC. However, its low rate of incidence and the limitations of current screening strategies make early detection difficult. Recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of PDAC suggest that it is possible to detect PDAC in early stages and even identify precursor lesions. The presence of new-onset diabetes mellitus in the early phase of pancreatic cancer may provide clues for its early diagnosis. Advances in the identification of novel circulating biomarkers including serological signatures, autoantibodies, epigenetic markers, circulating tumor cells and microRNAs suggest that they can be used as potential tools for the screening of precursors and early stage PDAC in the future. However, proper screening strategies based on effective screening methodologies need to be tested for clinical application.

  4. Accurate Detection of Interaural Time Differences by a Population of Slowly Integrating Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilkov, Viacheslav A.; Tikidji-Hamburyan, Ruben A.

    2012-03-01

    For localization of a sound source, animals and humans process the microsecond interaural time differences of arriving sound waves. How nervous systems, consisting of elements with time constants of about and more than 1 ms, can reach such high precision is still an open question. In this Letter we present a hypothesis and show theoretical and computational evidence that a rather large population of slowly integrating neurons with inhibitory and excitatory inputs (EI neurons) can detect minute temporal disparities in input signals which are significantly less than any time constant in the system.

  5. Possibility of detecting anisotropic expansion of the universe by very accurate astrometry measurements.

    PubMed

    Quercellini, Claudia; Quartin, Miguel; Amendola, Luca

    2009-04-17

    Refined astrometry measurements allow us to detect large-scale deviations from isotropy through real-time observations of changes in the angular separation between sources at cosmic distances. This "cosmic parallax" effect is a powerful consistency test of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric and may set independent constraints on cosmic anisotropy. We apply this novel general test to Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi cosmologies with off-center observers and show that future satellite missions such as Gaia might achieve accuracies that would put limits on the off-center distance which are competitive with cosmic microwave background dipole constraints.

  6. Accurate, multi-kb reads resolve complex populations and detect rare microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Sharon, Itai; Kertesz, Michael; Hug, Laura A.; Pushkarev, Dmitry; Blauwkamp, Timothy A.; Castelle, Cindy J.; Amirebrahimi, Mojgan; Thomas, Brian C.; Burstein, David; Tringe, Susannah G.; Williams, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate evaluation of microbial communities is essential for understanding global biogeochemical processes and can guide bioremediation and medical treatments. Metagenomics is most commonly used to analyze microbial diversity and metabolic potential, but assemblies of the short reads generated by current sequencing platforms may fail to recover heterogeneous strain populations and rare organisms. Here we used short (150-bp) and long (multi-kb) synthetic reads to evaluate strain heterogeneity and study microorganisms at low abundance in complex microbial communities from terrestrial sediments. The long-read data revealed multiple (probably dozens of) closely related species and strains from previously undescribed Deltaproteobacteria and Aminicenantes (candidate phylum OP8). Notably, these are the most abundant organisms in the communities, yet short-read assemblies achieved only partial genome coverage, mostly in the form of short scaffolds (N50 = ∼2200 bp). Genome architecture and metabolic potential for these lineages were reconstructed using a new synteny-based method. Analysis of long-read data also revealed thousands of species whose abundances were <0.1% in all samples. Most of the organisms in this “long tail” of rare organisms belong to phyla that are also represented by abundant organisms. Genes encoding glycosyl hydrolases are significantly more abundant than expected in rare genomes, suggesting that rare species may augment the capability for carbon turnover and confer resilience to changing environmental conditions. Overall, the study showed that a diversity of closely related strains and rare organisms account for a major portion of the communities. These are probably common features of many microbial communities and can be effectively studied using a combination of long and short reads. PMID:25665577

  7. Screening and Early Detection of Gastric Cancer: East Versus West.

    PubMed

    Suh, Yun-Suhk; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2015-10-01

    Low ratio of mortality over incidence of gastric cancer in Asian countries including Korea and Japan could be explained by early detection after screening, different treatment strategy, or genetic disparity between the East and West. Early detection after screening program for gastric cancer and subsequent surgical treatment including appropriate lymph node dissection has been developed successfully in high risk areas such as East Asian countries. Even in countries with a low prevalence of gastric cancer, a specific screening program is recommended for any high-risk population.

  8. Screening and early detection efforts in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kanodra, Neeti M; Silvestri, Gerard A; Tanner, Nichole T

    2015-05-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Since publication of results from the National Lung Screening Trial, several professional organizations, including the US Preventive Services Task Force, have published guidelines recommending low-dose computed tomography for screening in asymptomatic, high-risk individuals. The benefits of screening include detection of cancer at an early stage when a definitive cure is possible, but the risks include overdiagnosis, false-positive results, psychological distress, and radiation exposure. The current review covers the scope of low-dose computed tomography screening, potential risks, costs, and future directions in the efforts for early detection of lung cancer.

  9. Obtaining Accurate Change Detection Results from High-Resolution Satellite Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, N.; Bunch, W.; Fretz, R.; Kim, P.; Logan, T.; Smyth, M.; Zobrist, A.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-date acquisitions of high-resolution imaging satellites (e.g. GeoEye and WorldView), can display local changes of current economic interest. However, their large data volume precludes effective manual analysis, requiring image co-registration followed by image-to-image change detection, preferably with minimal analyst attention. We have recently developed an automatic change detection procedure that minimizes false-positives. The processing steps include: (a) Conversion of both the pre- and post- images to reflectance values (this step is of critical importance when different sensors are involved); reflectance values can be either top-of-atmosphere units or have full aerosol optical depth calibration applied using bi-directional reflectance knowledge. (b) Panchromatic band image-to-image co-registration, using an orthorectified base reference image (e.g. Digital Orthophoto Quadrangle) and a digital elevation model; this step can be improved if a stereo-pair of images have been acquired on one of the image dates. (c) Pan-sharpening of the multispectral data to assure recognition of change objects at the highest resolution. (d) Characterization of multispectral data in the post-image ( i.e. the background) using unsupervised cluster analysis. (e) Band ratio selection in the post-image to separate surface materials of interest from the background. (f) Preparing a pre-to-post change image. (g) Identifying locations where change has occurred involving materials of interest.

  10. Detection and Proportion of Very Early Dental Caries in Independent Living Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Holtzman, Jennifer S.; Kohanchi, Daniel; Biren-Fetz, John; Fontana, Margherita; Ramchandani, Manisha; Osann, Kathryn; Hallajian, Lucy; Mansour, Stephanie; Nabelsi, Tasneem; Chung, Na Eun; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Dental caries is an important healthcare challenge in adults over 65 years of age. Integration of oral health screening into non-dental primary care practice may improve access to preventive dental care for vulnerable populations such as the elderly. Such integration would require easy, fast, and accurate early caries detection tools. Primary goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for detecting very early caries in the elderly living in community-based settings. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) served as gold standard. Secondary goal of this study was to provide baseline prevalence data of very early caries lesions in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Materials and Methods Seventy-two subjects were recruited from three sites in Southern California: a retirement community, a senior health fair, and a convalescent hospital. Clinical examination was performed using the ICDAS visual criteria and this was followed by OCT imaging. The two-dimensional OCT images (B-scan) were analyzed with simple software. Locations with a log of back-scattered light intensity (BSLI) below 2.9 were scored as sound, and areas equaling or exceeding 2.9 BSLI were considered carious. Diagnostic performance of OCT imaging was compared with ICDAS score. Results OCT-based diagnosis demonstrated very good sensitivity (95.1%) and good specificity (85.8%). 54.7% of dentate subjects had at least one tooth with very early coronal caries. Conclusions Early coronal decay is prevalent in the unrestored pits and fissures of coronal surfaces of teeth in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Though OCT imaging coupled with a simple diagnostic algorithm can accurately detect areas of very early caries in community-based settings, existing devices are expensive and not well-suited for use by non-dental health care providers. Simple, inexpensive, fast, and accurate tools

  11. Detection of early caries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    To improve sensitivity of dental caries detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis, it is proposed to utilize emission peaks in the ultraviolet. We newly focused on zinc whose emission peaks exist in ultraviolet because zinc exists at high concentration in the outer layer of enamel. It was shown that by using ratios between heights of an emission peak of Zn and that of Ca, the detection sensitivity and stability are largely improved. It was also shown that early caries are differentiated from healthy part by properly setting a threshold in the detected ratios. The proposed caries detection system can be applied to dental laser systems such as ones based on Er:YAG-lasers. When ablating early caries part by laser light, the system notices the dentist that the ablation of caries part is finished. We also show the intensity of emission peaks of zinc decreased with ablation with Er:YAG laser light.

  12. Innovation in observation: a vision for early outbreak detection

    PubMed Central

    Fefferman, NH; Naumova, EN

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of new infections and resurgence of old ones—health threats stemming from environmental contamination or purposeful acts of bioterrorism—call for a worldwide effort in improving early outbreak detection, with the goal of ameliorating current and future risks. In some cases, the problem of outbreak detection is logistically straightforward and mathematically easy: a single case of a disease of great concern can constitute an outbreak. However, for the vast majority of maladies, a simple analytical solution does not exist. Furthermore, each step in developing reliable, sensitive, effective surveillance systems demonstrates enormous complexities in the transmission, manifestation, detection, and control of emerging health threats. In this communication, we explore potential future innovations in early outbreak detection systems that can overcome the pitfalls of current surveillance. We believe that modern advances in assembling data, techniques for collating and processing information, and technology that enables integrated analysis will facilitate a new paradigm in outbreak definition and detection. We anticipate that moving forward in this direction will provide the highly desired sensitivity and specificity in early detection required to meet the emerging challenges of global disease surveillance. PMID:22460396

  13. Accurate determination of the diffusion coefficient of proteins by Fourier analysis with whole column imaging detection.

    PubMed

    Zarabadi, Atefeh S; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2015-02-17

    Analysis in the frequency domain is considered a powerful tool to elicit precise information from spectroscopic signals. In this study, the Fourier transformation technique is employed to determine the diffusion coefficient (D) of a number of proteins in the frequency domain. Analytical approaches are investigated for determination of D from both experimental and data treatment viewpoints. The diffusion process is modeled to calculate diffusion coefficients based on the Fourier transformation solution to Fick's law equation, and its results are compared to time domain results. The simulations characterize optimum spatial and temporal conditions and demonstrate the noise tolerance of the method. The proposed model is validated by its application for the electropherograms from the diffusion path of a set of proteins. Real-time dynamic scanning is conducted to monitor dispersion by employing whole column imaging detection technology in combination with capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) and the imaging plug flow (iPF) experiment. These experimental techniques provide different peak shapes, which are utilized to demonstrate the Fourier transformation ability in extracting diffusion coefficients out of irregular shape signals. Experimental results confirmed that the Fourier transformation procedure substantially enhanced the accuracy of the determined values compared to those obtained in the time domain.

  14. Microscopic DTI accurately identifies early glioma cell migration: correlation with multimodal imaging in a new glioma stem cell model.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Ulysse; Perles-Barbacaru, Adriana-T; Millet, Arnaud; Appaix, Florence; El-Atifi, Michele; Pernet-Gallay, Karin; van der Sanden, Boudewijn; Berger, François; Lahrech, Hana

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring glioma cell infiltration in the brain is critical for diagnosis and therapy. Using a new glioma Glio6 mouse model derived from human stem cells we show how diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may predict glioma cell migration/invasion. In vivo multiparametric MRI was performed at one, two and three months of Glio6 glioma growth (Glio6 (n = 6), sham (n = 3)). This longitudinal study reveals the existence of a time window to study glioma cell/migration/invasion selectively. Indeed, at two months only Glio6 cell invasion was detected, while tumor mass formation, edema, blood-brain barrier leakage and tumor angiogenesis were detected later, at three months. To robustly confirm the potential of DTI for detecting glioma cell migration/invasion, a microscopic 3D-DTI (80 μm isotropic spatial resolution) technique was developed and applied to fixed mouse brains (Glio6 (n = 6), sham (n = 3)). DTI changes were predominant in the corpus callosum (CC), a known path of cell migration. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and perpendicular diffusivity (D⊥ ) changes derived from ex vivo microscopic 3D-DTI were significant at two months of tumor growth. In the caudate putamen an FA increase of +38% (p < 0.001) was observed, while in the CC a - 28% decrease in FA (p < 0.005) and a + 95% increase in D⊥ (p < 0.005) were observed. In the CC, DTI changes and fluorescent Glio6 cell density obtained by two-photon microscopy in the same brains were correlated (p < 0.001, r = 0.69), validating FA and D⊥ as early quantitative biomarkers to detect glioma cell migration/invasion. The origin of DTI changes was assessed by electron microscopy of the same tract, showing axon bundle disorganization. During the first two months, Glio6 cells display a migratory phenotype without being associated with the constitution of a brain tumor mass. This offers a unique opportunity to apply microscopic 3D-DTI and to validate DTI parameters FA and D⊥ as biomarkers for glioma cell

  15. Strategies for early detection of resectable pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Okano, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

    2014-08-28

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and generally has a poor prognosis. Surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment for pancreatic carcinoma. To improve the prognosis of this disease, it is essential to detect tumors at early stages, when they are resectable. The optimal approach to screening for early pancreatic neoplasia has not been established. The International Cancer of the Pancreas Screening Consortium has recently finalized several recommendations regarding the management of patients who are at an increased risk of familial pancreatic cancer. In addition, there have been notable advances in research on serum markers, tissue markers, gene signatures, and genomic targets of pancreatic cancer. To date, however, no biomarkers have been established in the clinical setting. Advancements in imaging modalities touch all aspects of the clinical management of pancreatic diseases, including the early detection of pancreatic masses, their characterization, and evaluations of tumor resectability. This article reviews strategies for screening high-risk groups, biomarkers, and current advances in imaging modalities for the early detection of resectable pancreatic cancer.

  16. Early prenatal detection of double outlet right ventricle by echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, P A; Wladimiroff, J W; Becker, A E

    1985-01-01

    A double outlet right ventricle with subpulmonary ventricular septal defect and right sided hypoplastic aorta was diagnosed in a 22 week fetus of a mother with diabetes mellitus. Elective termination of pregnancy was carried out and the echocardiographic findings were confirmed. Early prenatal detection of congenital heart disease may allow elective termination of pregnancy when the fetus has severe defects. Images PMID:4041305

  17. Why Ambiguity Detection Is a Predictor of Early Reading Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankoff, Lorain Szabo; Cairns, Helen Smith

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the contributions of metalinguistic skill and psycholinguistic processing ability to children's ability to detect the ambiguity of sentences and the relationship among all three factors to early reading ability. A total of 20 first graders and 20 second graders were given tasks testing the following abilities:…

  18. EARLY DETECTION MONITORING OF INVASIVE SPECIES IN GREAT LAKES HARBORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Ships Initiative (GSI) has asked for a presentation on designing harbor monitoring. Our research/development project on early detection provides some examples and lessons for GSI to consider in evaluating effectiveness of ballast water treatments; the presentation allo...

  19. Sweet-spot training for early esophageal cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Sommen, Fons; Zinger, Svitlana; Schoon, Erik J.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2016-03-01

    Over the past decade, the imaging tools for endoscopists have improved drastically. This has enabled physicians to visually inspect the intestinal tissue for early signs of malignant lesions. Besides this, recent studies show the feasibility of supportive image analysis for endoscopists, but the analysis problem is typically approached as a segmentation task where binary ground truth is employed. In this study, we show that the detection of early cancerous tissue in the gastrointestinal tract cannot be approached as a binary segmentation problem and it is crucial and clinically relevant to involve multiple experts for annotating early lesions. By employing the so-called sweet spot for training purposes as a metric, a much better detection performance can be achieved. Furthermore, a multi-expert-based ground truth, i.e. a golden standard, enables an improved validation of the resulting delineations. For this purpose, besides the sweet spot we also propose another novel metric, the Jaccard Golden Standard (JIGS) that can handle multiple ground-truth annotations. Our experiments involving these new metrics and based on the golden standard show that the performance of a detection algorithm of early neoplastic lesions in Barrett's esophagus can be increased significantly, demonstrating a 10 percent point increase in the resulting F1 detection score.

  20. DESPIC: Detecting Early Signatures of Persuasion in Information Cascades

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-27

    RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER Alessandro Flammini Alessandro Flammini, Filippo Menczer, Qiaozhu Mei, Sergey Malinchik c. THIS PAGE The public...on social media in their early stage of diffusion. Such campaigns include rumors, spread of misinformation, persuasion attempts, and advertising...27709-2211 infrastructure for Twitter data collection, archival and retrieval. clustering of streaming social media data. Detection of Social Bots

  1. [Detection of early forms of keratoconus - current screening methods].

    PubMed

    Goebels, S; Eppig, T; Seitz, B; Langenbucher, A

    2013-10-01

    The detection of early forms of keratoconus is still a challenge for clinicians. Beside clinical examination and diagnosis of keratoconus, a series of examination techniques has been established in clinical routine to assist in the diagnosis of early forms of keratoconus: corneal topography for measuring the geometry of the corneal front surface, tomography for measuring the geometry of structures of the anterior segment of the eye, aberrometers for evaluation of optical aberrations of the entire eye, and a system for investigation of the biomechanical properties of the cornea. These instruments provide software tools which are designed for diagnostic support in keratoconus. In this review article, we provide an overview over the spectrum of measurement systems currently on the market focussing on their performance for detecting (early forms of) keratoconus. In detail, we focus on dedicated keratoconus screening software modules of topography, tomography, aberrometry and biomechanics.

  2. Contributing to the early detection of Rett syndrome: the potential role of auditory Gestalt perception.

    PubMed

    Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether there are qualitatively deviant characteristics in the early vocalizations of children with Rett syndrome, we had 400 native Austrian-German speakers listen to audio recordings of vocalizations from typically developing girls and girls with Rett syndrome. The audio recordings were rated as (a) inconspicuous, (b) conspicuous or (c) not able to decide between (a) and (b). The results showed that participants were accurate in differentiating the vocalizations of typically developing children compared to children with Rett syndrome. However, the accuracy for rating verbal behaviors was dependent on the type of vocalization with greater accuracy for canonical babbling compared to cooing vocalizations. The results suggest a potential role for the use of rating child vocalizations for early detection of Rett syndrome. This is important because clinical criteria related to speech and language development remain important for early identification of Rett syndrome.

  3. Contributing to the early detection of Rett syndrome: The potential role of auditory Gestalt perception

    PubMed Central

    Marschik, Peter B.; Einspieler, Christa; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether there are qualitatively deviant characteristics in the early vocalizations of children with Rett syndrome, we had 400 native Austrian–German speakers listen to audio recordings of vocalizations from typically developing girls and girls with Rett syndrome. The audio recordings were rated as (a) inconspicuous, (b) conspicuous or (c) not able to decide between (a) and (b). The results showed that participants were accurate in differentiating the vocalizations of typically developing children compared to children with Rett syndrome. However, the accuracy for rating verbal behaviors was dependent on the type of vocalization with greater accuracy for canonical babbling compared to cooing vocalizations. The results suggest a potential role for the use of rating child vocalizations for early detection of Rett syndrome. This is important because clinical criteria related to speech and language development remain important for early identification of Rett syndrome. PMID:22119693

  4. [Advancement in the research of early detection of bacterial nucleic acid in molecular diagnosis of sepsis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Ren, Hui; Peng, Dai-zhi

    2013-04-01

    Early diagnosis of sepsis helps make effective clinical decisions and improve the survival rate of patients with severe infection. However, the timely and accurate diagnosis of sepsis is still a great challenge in clinic. In order to settle the very problem, the scientists in the world have made a lot of exploration and research in the field of rapid molecular identification of pathogens. Nowadays, the nucleic acid detection of sepsis is mainly composed of 3 types of methodological strategies, either based on positive blood culture, single colonies, or directly on blood specimens. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of advances in the research of early detection of bacterial nucleic acid as molecular diagnosis of sepsis.

  5. Evaluating the forced oscillation technique in the detection of early smoking-induced respiratory changes

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Alvaro CD; Lopes, Agnaldo J; Jansen, José M; Melo, Pedro L

    2009-01-01

    Background Early detection of the effects of smoking is of the utmost importance in the prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is easy to perform since it requires only tidal breathing and offers a detailed approach to investigate the mechanical properties of the respiratory system. The FOT was recently suggested as an attractive alternative for diagnosing initial obstruction in COPD, which may be helpful in detecting COPD in its initial phases. Thus, the purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to evaluate the ability of FOT to detect early smoking-induced respiratory alterations; and (2) to compare the sensitivity of FOT with spirometry in a sample of low tobacco-dose subjects. Methods Results from a group of 28 smokers with a tobacco consumption of 11.2 ± 7.3 pack-years were compared with a control group formed by 28 healthy subjects using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and a questionnaire as a gold standard. The early adverse effects of smoking were adequately detected by the absolute value of the respiratory impedance (Z4Hz), the intercept resistance (R0), and the respiratory system dynamic compliance (Crs, dyn). Z4Hz was the most accurate parameter (Se = 75%, Sp = 75%), followed by R0 and Crs, dyn. The performances of the FOT parameters in the detection of the early effects of smoking were higher than that of spirometry (p < 0.05). Conclusion This study shows that FOT can be used to detect early smoking-induced respiratory changes while these pathologic changes are still potentially reversible. These findings support the use of FOT as a versatile clinical diagnostic tool in aiding COPD prevention and treatment. PMID:19781078

  6. [From early detection to early care: intervention strategies based on prospective screening].

    PubMed

    Canal-Bedia, Ricardo; García-Primo, Patricia; Hernández-Fabián, Aránzazu; Magán-Maganto, María; Sánchez, Ana B; Posada-De la Paz, Manuel

    2015-02-25

    INTRODUCTION. The challenge of early detection can be tackled from an evolutionary perspective. Early intervention treatments have shown themselves to be effective provided that they are applied systematically as part of the strategic planning of the treatment. AIMS. The aim of this study is to provide an updated review in response to the criticism targeted towards early detection and to offer some considerations on the intervention strategy. Our research is based on a review of the early care techniques that are commonly used within the field of autism and it intends to reflect the most significant aspects that can be deduced from the experiments and studies carried out to date. CONCLUSIONS. From the findings of the review it can be concluded that early detection may be more efficient if carried out within the framework of developmental surveillance, which also offers the opportunity to provide guidance on the child's development. Early care is an effective resource for attending to the needs of children with autism. Professionals have the duty to assess the work they do on available treatments with a reflexive, judicious attitude, taking into account the values and preferences of the families. Programmes must focus on the core symptoms and apply the active ingredients of the treatment.

  7. Application of glycoscience to the early detection of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Eiji; Kamada, Yoshihiro

    2016-10-01

    The prognosis of pancreatic cancer is extremely poor compared to other cancers. One of the reasons for this is the difficulty of early diagnosis. Surveillance using cancer biomarkers and image diagnosis can enable early detection and has improved the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in Japan. However, it is very difficult to detect pancreatic cancer at an early stage using cancer biomarkers and image diagnosis alone. Fucosylation is one of the most important types of glycosylation involved in cancer and inflammation. We have developed a novel glycocancer biomarker, fucosylated haptoglobin (Fuc-Hpt), and have investigated its usefulness for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer over approximately 10 years. Recently, we also found that most pancreatic tissues surrounding pancreatic cancer exhibit chronic pancreatitis with fibrosis and/or fatty degeneration. Certain forms of chronic pancreatitis might indicate high risk for the development of pancreatic cancer. In this review, we provide a historical summary of our research on Fuc-Hpt as a cancer biomarker, and discuss a potential early detection system for pancreatic cancer.

  8. Full house of fears: evidence that people high in attachment anxiety are more accurate in detecting deceit.

    PubMed

    Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Perry, Adi

    2014-04-01

    Lying is deep-rooted in our nature, as over 90% of all people lie. Laypeople, however, do only slightly better than chance when detecting lies and deceptions. Recently, attachment anxiety was linked with people's hypervigilance toward threat-related cues. Accordingly, we tested whether attachment anxiety predicts people's ability to detect deceit and to play poker-a game that is based on players' ability to detect cheating. In Study 1, 202 participants watched a series of interpersonal interactions that comprised subtle clues to the honesty or dishonesty of the speakers. In Study 2, 58 participants watched clips in which such cues were absent. Participants were asked to decide whether the main characters were honest or dishonest. In Study 3, we asked 35 semiprofessional poker players to participate in a poker tournament, and then we predicted the amount of money won during the game. Results indicated that attachment anxiety, but not other types of anxiety, predicted more accurate detection of deceitful statements (Studies 1-2) and a greater amount of money won during a game of poker (Study 3). Results are discussed in relation to the possible adaptive functions of certain personality characteristics, such as attachment anxiety, often viewed as undesirable.

  9. A concept for early cancer detection and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waynant, Ronald W.; Ilev, Ilko K.; Mitra, Kunal

    2003-06-01

    Early detection and treatment of breast cancer is least costly in terms of dollars, morbidity and mortality. With new early detection x-ray technology, tumors can be found, diagnosed and treated at a much smaller size than is currently possible. This paper proposes the development of a high resolution, high quality imaging system. It is a laser-driven x-ray system with time-gated detection that removes scattering noise in the image and produces resolution on the order of 10 μm. This higher resolution and higher image quality will enable the detection of one or two millimeter tumors hopefully detecting them before metastasis. We also propose that tumor detection should be followed by an immediate needle-directed, optical fiber biopsy to instantly determine if cancer is present and, if present, the tumor should immediately be given a lethal treatment of laser or x-radiation through the same needle using fiber optics or hollow waveguides. This technology will help prevent multiple interventions resulting in both the lowest overall cost and a more efficacious therapy. The approach can be stopped at the first negative (benign) indication and will help forestall repeated examination as well as reduce patient anxiety.

  10. A New Methodology for Early Anomaly Detection of BWR Instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, K. N.

    2005-11-27

    The objective of the performed research is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology so as to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The research utilizes a model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, which is used as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The model captures critical nonlinear features of coupled thermal-hydraulic and nuclear reactor dynamics and (slow time-scale) evolution of the anomalies as non-stationary parameters. The time series data derived from this nonlinear non-stationary model serves as the source of information for generating the symbolic dynamics for characterization of model parameter changes that quantitatively represent small anomalies. The major focus of the presented research activity was on developing and qualifying algorithms of pattern recognition for power instability based on anomaly detection from time series data, which later can be used to formulate real-time decision and control algorithms for suppression of power oscillations for a variety of anticipated operating conditions. The research being performed in the framework of this project is essential to make significant improvement in the capability of thermal instability analyses for enhancing safety, availability, and operational flexibility of currently operating and next generation BWRs.

  11. Combination of thermographic and ultrasonographic assessments for early detection of deep tissue injury.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Takuya; Nakagami, Gojiro; Kadono, Takafumi; Ogawa, Yuki; Iizaka, Shinji; Koyanagi, Hiroe; Sasaki, Sanae; Haga, Nobuhiko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2014-10-01

    Early detection and intervention of deep tissue injury are important to lead good outcome. Although the efficiency of ultrasonographic assessment of deep tissue injury has been reported previously, it requires a certain level of skill for accurate assessment. In this study, we present an investigation of the combination of thermographic and ultrasonographic assessments for early detection of deep tissue injury. We retrospectively reviewed 28 early-stage pressure ulcers (21 patients) presenting at the University of Tokyo Hospital between April 2009 and February 2010, surveying the associated thermographic and ultrasonographic findings. The wound temperature patterns were divided into low, even and high compared with the surrounding skin. Ultrasonographic findings were classified into unclear layer structure, hypoechoic lesion, discontinuous fascia and heterogeneous hypoechoic area. All 13 ulcers that were associated with low temperature showed good outcome; three ulcers had even temperatures and 12 ulcers showed high temperature on thermographic assessment. The two deep tissue injuries were rated high on thermographic assessment and showed heterogeneous hypoechoic area findings on ultrasonographic assessment. No non-deep tissue injury lesion was associated with these two findings simultaneously. The combination of thermographic and ultrasonographic assessments is expected to increase the accuracy of the early detection of deep tissue injuries.

  12. Identification of Circulating Tumor DNA for the Early Detection of Small-cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Cuesta, Lynnette; Perdomo, Sandra; Avogbe, Patrice H; Leblay, Noemie; Delhomme, Tiffany M; Gaborieau, Valerie; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Chanudet, Estelle; Olivier, Magali; Zaridze, David; Mukeria, Anush; Vilensky, Marta; Holcatova, Ivana; Polesel, Jerry; Simonato, Lorenzo; Canova, Cristina; Lagiou, Pagona; Brambilla, Christian; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Byrnes, Graham; Scelo, Ghislaine; Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; Foll, Matthieu; McKay, James D; Brennan, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is emerging as a key potential biomarker for post-diagnosis surveillance but it may also play a crucial role in the detection of pre-clinical cancer. Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an excellent candidate for early detection given there are no successful therapeutic options for late-stage disease, and it displays almost universal inactivation of TP53. We assessed the presence of TP53 mutations in the cell-free DNA (cfDNA) extracted from the plasma of 51 SCLC cases and 123 non-cancer controls. We identified mutations using a pipeline specifically designed to accurately detect variants at very low fractions. We detected TP53 mutations in the cfDNA of 49% SCLC patients and 11.4% of non-cancer controls. When stratifying the 51 initial SCLC cases by stage, TP53 mutations were detected in the cfDNA of 35.7% early-stage and 54.1% late-stage SCLC patients. The results in the controls were further replicated in 10.8% of an independent series of 102 non-cancer controls. The detection of TP53 mutations in 11% of the 225 non-cancer controls suggests that somatic mutations in cfDNA among individuals without any cancer diagnosis is a common occurrence, and poses serious challenges for the development of ctDNA screening tests.

  13. Early detection of drillstring washouts reduces fishing jobs

    SciTech Connect

    Dudleson, B. ); Arnold, M.; McCann, D. )

    1990-10-01

    Rapid detection of unexpected drilling events requires continuous monitoring of drilling parameters. A major R and D program by a drilling contractor has led to the introduction of a computerized monitoring system on its offshore rigs. System includes advanced color graphics displays and new smart alarms to help both contractor and operator personnel detect and observe drilling events before they would normally be apparent with conventional rig instrumentation. This article describes a module of this monitoring system, which uses expert system technology to detect the earliest stages of drillstring washouts. Field results demonstrate the effectiveness of the smart alarm incorporated in the system. Early detection allows the driller to react before a twist-off results in expensive fishing operations.

  14. A Virtual Bioinformatics Knowledge Environment for Early Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crichton, Daniel; Srivastava, Sudhir; Johnsey, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Discovery of disease biomarkers for cancer is a leading focus of early detection. The National Cancer Institute created a network of collaborating institutions focused on the discovery and validation of cancer biomarkers called the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN). Informatics plays a key role in enabling a virtual knowledge environment that provides scientists real time access to distributed data sets located at research institutions across the nation. The distributed and heterogeneous nature of the collaboration makes data sharing across institutions very difficult. EDRN has developed a comprehensive informatics effort focused on developing a national infrastructure enabling seamless access, sharing and discovery of science data resources across all EDRN sites. This paper will discuss the EDRN knowledge system architecture, its objectives and its accomplishments.

  15. Accurate Point-of-Care Detection of Ruptured Fetal Membranes: Improved Diagnostic Performance Characteristics with a Monoclonal/Polyclonal Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Linda C.; Scott, Laurie; Block, Jon E.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Accurate and timely diagnosis of rupture of membranes (ROM) is imperative to allow for gestational age-specific interventions. This study compared the diagnostic performance characteristics between two methods used for the detection of ROM as measured in the same patient. METHODS Vaginal secretions were evaluated using the conventional fern test as well as a point-of-care monoclonal/polyclonal immunoassay test (ROM Plus®) in 75 pregnant patients who presented to labor and delivery with complaints of leaking amniotic fluid. Both tests were compared to analytical confirmation of ROM using three external laboratory tests. Diagnostic performance characteristics were calculated including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy. RESULTS Diagnostic performance characteristics uniformly favored ROM detection using the immunoassay test compared to the fern test: sensitivity (100% vs. 77.8%), specificity (94.8% vs. 79.3%), PPV (75% vs. 36.8%), NPV (100% vs. 95.8%), and accuracy (95.5% vs. 79.1%). CONCLUSIONS The point-of-care immunoassay test provides improved diagnostic accuracy for the detection of ROM compared to fern testing. It has the potential of improving patient management decisions, thereby minimizing serious complications and perinatal morbidity. PMID:27199579

  16. Strategy for Accurate Detection of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 in Ground Pork Using a Lateral Flow Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Song; Chen, Ming-Hui; Zhang, Gang-Gang; Yu, Zhi-Biao; Liu, Dao-Feng; Xiong, Yong-Hua; Wei, Hua; Lai, Wei-Hua

    2017-04-02

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is known to cause serious diseases including hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. A gold nanoparticle lateral flow immunoassay (Au-LFIA) was used to detect Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground pork samples. False-positive results were detected using Au-LFIA; a Citrobacterfreundii strain was isolated from the ground pork samples and identified by using CHROmagar(TM) plates, API 20E, and 16S RNA sequencing. Since C.freundii showed cross-reactivity with E. coli O157:H7 when Au-LFIA test strips were used, a novel method combining modified enrichment with a lateral flow immunoassay for accurate and convenient detection of E. coli O157:H7 in ground pork was developed in this study to minimize these false positives. MacConkey broth was optimized for E. coli O157:H7 enrichment and C.freundii inhibition by the addition of 5 mg/L potassium tellurite and 0.10 mg/L cefixime. Using the proposed modified enrichment procedure, the false-positive rate of ground pork samples spiked with 100 CFU/g C.freundii decreased to 5%.

  17. A Simple System for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    informatics, immunology , benign cancer , prognostic studies, baseline diagnostics, heatmaps, ROCurves 2 Major Activities 1. Production of IMS arrays...AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0231 TITLE: A Simple System for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing

  18. Early hearing detection and intervention: 2010 CODEPEH recommendation.

    PubMed

    Trinidad-Ramos, Germán; de Aguilar, Valentín Alzina; Jaudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Sequí-Canet, José Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Newborn hearing screening is currently performed routinely in many regional health-care systems in Spain. Despite the remarkable expansion in newborn hearing screening since 2000, its feasibility and the benefits of early identification and intervention, many major challenges still remain. In this article, the Committee for the Early Detection of Hearing Loss (Comisión para la Detección Precoz de la Hipoacusia, CODEPEH) updates the recommendations that are considered important for the future development of early hearing detection and intervention (EDHI) systems in the following points: 1. Screening protocols: Separate protocols are recommended for NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Units) and well-infant nurseries. 2. Diagnostic audiology evaluation. Professionals with skills and expertise in evaluating newborn and young infants should provide diagnosis, selection and fitting of amplification devices. 3. Medical evaluation. Risk factors for congenital and acquired hearing loss have been combined in a single list rather than grouped by time of onset. A stepwise diagnostic paradigm is diagnostically more efficient and cost-effective than a simultaneous testing approach. 4. Early intervention and surveillance. All individuals providing services to infants with hearing loss should have specialized training and expertise in the development of audition, speech and language. Regular surveillance should be performed on developmental milestones, auditory skills, parental concerns, and middle ear status. 5. Quality control. Data management as part of an integrated system is important to monitor and improve the quality of EDHI services.

  19. Detection of early seizures by diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Hajihashemi, M. Reza; Zhou, Junli; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

    2015-03-01

    In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Besides, preclinical seizure experiments need to be conducted in awake animals with images reconstructed and displayed in real-time. We demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We developed methods to conduct seizure experiments in fully awake rats using a subject-specific helmet and a restraining mechanism. For the first time, we detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a "pre-seizure" state both in anesthetized and awake rats. Using a novel time-series analysis of scattering images, we show that the analysis of scattered diffuse light is a sensitive and reliable modality for detecting changes in neural activity associated with generalized seizure. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways.

  20. Fluorescence video endoscopic system for early cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytle, A. Charles; Dunn, J. B.; Paspa, Paul M.; Doiron, Daniel R.; Balchum, Oscar J.

    1990-06-01

    A video system is being developed to allow the detection of cancerous lesions that are too small to be accurately identified visually or with x-ray. The system makes use of standard endoscopes and provides a video display of both the color image and a false color fluorescence image, with automated switching between the two views. Excitation of the fluorescence marker, Heinatoporphyrin Derivative (HpD) , or it ' 5 purified form , diheinatoporphyrin ether! ester (DHE) , is provided by a krypton ion laser operating in the violet. A brief discussion of fluorescence diagnostic theory and a description of the prototype system, its clinical use , and performance is reviewed.

  1. Differential neural mechanisms for early and late prediction error detection

    PubMed Central

    Malekshahi, Rahim; Seth, Anil; Papanikolaou, Amalia; Mathews, Zenon; Birbaumer, Niels; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.; Caria, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that prediction, instantiated at different perceptual levels, facilitate visual processing and enable prompt and appropriate reactions. Until now, the mechanisms underlying the effect of predictive coding at different stages of visual processing have still remained unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate early and late processing of spatial prediction violation by performing combined recordings of saccadic eye movements and fast event-related fMRI during a continuous visual detection task. Psychophysical reverse correlation analysis revealed that the degree of mismatch between current perceptual input and prior expectations is mainly processed at late rather than early stage, which is instead responsible for fast but general prediction error detection. Furthermore, our results suggest that conscious late detection of deviant stimuli is elicited by the assessment of prediction error’s extent more than by prediction error per se. Functional MRI and functional connectivity data analyses indicated that higher-level brain systems interactions modulate conscious detection of prediction error through top-down processes for the analysis of its representational content, and possibly regulate subsequent adaptation of predictive models. Overall, our experimental paradigm allowed to dissect explicit from implicit behavioral and neural responses to deviant stimuli in terms of their reliance on predictive models. PMID:27079423

  2. [Early detection of cervical cancer in Chile: time for change].

    PubMed

    Léniz Martelli, Javiera; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Lagos, Marcela; Barriga, María Isabel; Puschel Illanes, Klaus; Ferreccio Readi, Catterina

    2014-08-01

    Mortality rates for cervical cancer (CC) in Chile are higher than those of developed countries and it has an unequal socioeconomic distribution. The recognition of human papilloma virus (HPV) as the causal agent of cervical cancer in the early 80's changed the prevention paradigms. Current goals are to prevent HPV infection by vaccination before the onset of sexual activity and to detect HPV infection in women older than 30 years. This article reviews CC prevention and early detection methods, discusses relevant evidence to support a change in Chile and presents an innovation proposal. A strategy of primary screening based on HPV detection followed by triage of HPV-positive women by colposcopy in primary care or by cytological or molecular reflex testing is proposed. Due to the existence in Chile of a well-organized nationwide CC prevention program, the replacement of a low-sensitivity screening test such as the Papanicolau test with a highly sensitive one such as HPV detection, could quickly improve the effectiveness of the program. The program also has a network of personnel qualified to conduct naked-eye inspections of the cervix, who could easily be trained to perform triage colposcopy. The incorporation of new prevention strategies could reduce the deaths of Chilean women and correct inequities.

  3. BlueDetect: An iBeacon-Enabled Scheme for Accurate and Energy-Efficient Indoor-Outdoor Detection and Seamless Location-Based Service.

    PubMed

    Zou, Han; Jiang, Hao; Luo, Yiwen; Zhu, Jianjie; Lu, Xiaoxuan; Xie, Lihua

    2016-02-22

    The location and contextual status (indoor or outdoor) is fundamental and critical information for upper-layer applications, such as activity recognition and location-based services (LBS) for individuals. In addition, optimizations of building management systems (BMS), such as the pre-cooling or heating process of the air-conditioning system according to the human traffic entering or exiting a building, can utilize the information, as well. The emerging mobile devices, which are equipped with various sensors, become a feasible and flexible platform to perform indoor-outdoor (IO) detection. However, power-hungry sensors, such as GPS and WiFi, should be used with caution due to the constrained battery storage on mobile device. We propose BlueDetect: an accurate, fast response and energy-efficient scheme for IO detection and seamless LBS running on the mobile device based on the emerging low-power iBeacon technology. By leveraging the on-broad Bluetooth module and our proposed algorithms, BlueDetect provides a precise IO detection service that can turn on/off on-board power-hungry sensors smartly and automatically, optimize their performances and reduce the power consumption of mobile devices simultaneously. Moreover, seamless positioning and navigation services can be realized by it, especially in a semi-outdoor environment, which cannot be achieved by GPS or an indoor positioning system (IPS) easily. We prototype BlueDetect on Android mobile devices and evaluate its performance comprehensively. The experimental results have validated the superiority of BlueDetect in terms of IO detection accuracy, localization accuracy and energy consumption.

  4. BlueDetect: An iBeacon-Enabled Scheme for Accurate and Energy-Efficient Indoor-Outdoor Detection and Seamless Location-Based Service

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Han; Jiang, Hao; Luo, Yiwen; Zhu, Jianjie; Lu, Xiaoxuan; Xie, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    The location and contextual status (indoor or outdoor) is fundamental and critical information for upper-layer applications, such as activity recognition and location-based services (LBS) for individuals. In addition, optimizations of building management systems (BMS), such as the pre-cooling or heating process of the air-conditioning system according to the human traffic entering or exiting a building, can utilize the information, as well. The emerging mobile devices, which are equipped with various sensors, become a feasible and flexible platform to perform indoor-outdoor (IO) detection. However, power-hungry sensors, such as GPS and WiFi, should be used with caution due to the constrained battery storage on mobile device. We propose BlueDetect: an accurate, fast response and energy-efficient scheme for IO detection and seamless LBS running on the mobile device based on the emerging low-power iBeacon technology. By leveraging the on-broad Bluetooth module and our proposed algorithms, BlueDetect provides a precise IO detection service that can turn on/off on-board power-hungry sensors smartly and automatically, optimize their performances and reduce the power consumption of mobile devices simultaneously. Moreover, seamless positioning and navigation services can be realized by it, especially in a semi-outdoor environment, which cannot be achieved by GPS or an indoor positioning system (IPS) easily. We prototype BlueDetect on Android mobile devices and evaluate its performance comprehensively. The experimental results have validated the superiority of BlueDetect in terms of IO detection accuracy, localization accuracy and energy consumption. PMID:26907295

  5. Accurate estimation of entropy in very short physiological time series: the problem of atrial fibrillation detection in implanted ventricular devices.

    PubMed

    Lake, Douglas E; Moorman, J Randall

    2011-01-01

    Entropy estimation is useful but difficult in short time series. For example, automated detection of atrial fibrillation (AF) in very short heart beat interval time series would be useful in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices that record only from the ventricle. Such devices require efficient algorithms, and the clinical situation demands accuracy. Toward these ends, we optimized the sample entropy measure, which reports the probability that short templates will match with others within the series. We developed general methods for the rational selection of the template length m and the tolerance matching r. The major innovation was to allow r to vary so that sufficient matches are found for confident entropy estimation, with conversion of the final probability to a density by dividing by the matching region volume, 2r(m). The optimized sample entropy estimate and the mean heart beat interval each contributed to accurate detection of AF in as few as 12 heartbeats. The final algorithm, called the coefficient of sample entropy (COSEn), was developed using the canonical MIT-BIH database and validated in a new and much larger set of consecutive Holter monitor recordings from the University of Virginia. In patients over the age of 40 yr old, COSEn has high degrees of accuracy in distinguishing AF from normal sinus rhythm in 12-beat calculations performed hourly. The most common errors are atrial or ventricular ectopy, which increase entropy despite sinus rhythm, and atrial flutter, which can have low or high entropy states depending on dynamics of atrioventricular conduction.

  6. Early detection of radioactive fallout by gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Aage, H K; Korsbech, U; Bargholz, K

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive fallout should be detected as early as possible. A new and efficient method for detection of low-level irradiation from manmade radioactivity is developed. Radiation abnormalities are detectable down to air kerma rates of 0.5 to 1.0 nGy h(-1) for 137Cs and even lower for 131I. For multi-gamma energy radioactivity the detection level is 2.6-3.5 nGy h(-1). A standard NaI detector and a 512-channel analyser are used together with noise adjusted singular value decomposition (NASVD). Statistical noise is removed and the measured spectra are reproduced using spectral components produced by NASVD. Stripping is not used and false alarms due to washout of atmospheric radon progeny are almost eliminated. Detection levels and the criteria for setting warning and alarm levels are discussed. The method may also be useful in other situations, for example where low-level signals from radioactive sources need to be detected.

  7. Early Detection System of Vascular Disease and Its Application Prospect

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Markers of imaging, structure, and function reflecting vascular damage, integrating a long time accumulation effect of traditional and unrecognized cardiovascular risk factors, can be regarded as surrogate endpoints of target organ damage before the occurrence of clinical events. Prevention of cardiovascular disease requires risk stratification and treatment of traditional risk factors, such as smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. However, traditional risk stratification is not sufficient to provide accurate assessment of future cardiovascular events. Therefore, vascular injury related parameters obtained by ultrasound or other noninvasive devices, as a surrogate parameter of subclinical cardiovascular disease, can improve cardiovascular risk assessment and optimize the preventive treatment strategy. Thus, we will summarize the research progress and clinical application of early assessment technology of vascular diseases in the present review. PMID:28042567

  8. Early detection of COPD is important for lung cancer surveillance.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Yasuo; Katsura, Hideki; Koh, Eitetsu; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Fujisawa, Takehiko

    2012-05-01

    It is well known that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a significant risk factor for lung cancer. Approximately 1% of COPD patients develop lung cancer every year, which may be associated with genetic susceptibility to cigarette smoke. Chronic inflammation caused by toxic gases can induce COPD and lung cancer. Inflammatory mediators may promote the growth of bronchioalveolar stem cells, and activation of nuclear factor-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 play crucial roles in the development of lung cancer from COPD. Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) is an effective procedure for the early detection of lung cancer in high-risk patients. However, determining which patients should be screened for lung cancer in a primary care setting is difficult. In this article, we review the epidemiology and aetiology of lung cancer associated with COPD, verify the efficacy of lung cancer screening by LDCT, and discuss the importance of early detection of COPD for lung cancer surveillance. We propose that, for the prevention of both diseases, COPD screening in smokers should be initiated as early as possible, so they can stop smoking and so that candidates for an efficient lung cancer screening programme can be identified.

  9. Early Detection of Drug-Induced Renal Hemodynamic Dysfunction Using Sonographic Technology in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fisch, Sudeshna; Liao, Ronglih; Hsiao, Li-Li; Lu, Tzongshi

    2016-01-01

    The kidney normally functions to maintain hemodynamic homeostasis and is a major site of damage caused by drug toxicity. Drug-induced nephrotoxicity is estimated to contribute to 19- 25% of all clinical cases of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients. AKI detection has historically relied on metrics such as serum creatinine (sCr) or blood urea nitrogen (BUN) which are demonstrably inadequate in full assessment of nephrotoxicity in the early phase of renal dysfunction. Currently, there is no robust diagnostic method to accurately detect hemodynamic alteration in the early phase of AKI while such alterations might actually precede the rise in serum biomarker levels. Such early detection can help clinicians make an accurate diagnosis and help in in decision making for therapeutic strategy. Rats were treated with Cisplatin to induce AKI. Nephrotoxicity was assessed for six days using high-frequency sonography, sCr measurement and upon histopathology of kidney. Hemodynamic evaluation using 2D and Color-Doppler images were used to serially study nephrotoxicity in rats, using the sonography. Our data showed successful drug-induced kidney injury in adult rats by histological examination. Color-Doppler based sonographic assessment of AKI indicated that resistive-index (RI) and pulsatile-index (PI) were increased in the treatment group; and peak-systolic velocity (mm/s), end-diastolic velocity (mm/s) and velocity-time integral (VTI, mm) were decreased in renal arteries in the same group. Importantly, these hemodynamic changes evaluated by sonography preceded the rise of sCr levels. Sonography-based indices such as RI or PI can thus be useful predictive markers of declining renal function in rodents. From our sonography-based observations in the kidneys of rats that underwent AKI, we showed that these noninvasive hemodynamic measurements may consider as an accurate, sensitive and robust method in detecting early stage kidney dysfunction. This study also

  10. Anti-CCP Antibody, a Marker for the Early Detection of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    van Venrooij, Walther J; van Beers, Joyce J B C; Pruijn, Ger J M

    2008-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of synovial joints. In most cases this will lead to the formation of pannus tissue, ultimately leading to joint destruction. Early diagnosis, coupled with aggressive use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, has been shown to have a favorable effect on the course of the disease. Therefore, early and accurate diagnosis has become increasingly important. Several sets of criteria have been published to achieve such an early diagnosis, and all of them include measurement of antibodies directed to citrullinated peptides or proteins. This review summarizes our present knowledge about the most well-known and established test to measure these antibodies, the anti-CCP test, which measures antibodies directed to cyclic citrullinated peptides. We describe the current views on how these antibodies are generated and how genetic and environmental parameters are important in this process. The anti-CCP test is more specific than the commonly used RF test (95% versus less than 90%) and has a comparable sensitivity (more than 70%). These antibodies are detectable very early in the disease and are reported to predict the development of erosive RA. Increasing evidence supports a role for these antibodies in the pathology of the disease. In conclusion, testing for anti-CCP autoantibodies is widely accepted as an indispensable tool for diagnosis and early treatment in the management of rheumatoid arthritis patients.

  11. Dynamic linear models using the Kalman filter for early detection and early warning of malaria outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkord, C. L.; Liu, Y.; DeVos, M.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Malaria early detection and early warning systems are important tools for public health decision makers in regions where malaria transmission is seasonal and varies from year to year with fluctuations in rainfall and temperature. Here we present a new data-driven dynamic linear model based on the Kalman filter with time-varying coefficients that are used to identify malaria outbreaks as they occur (early detection) and predict the location and timing of future outbreaks (early warning). We fit linear models of malaria incidence with trend and Fourier form seasonal components using three years of weekly malaria case data from 30 districts in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia. We identified past outbreaks by comparing the modeled prediction envelopes with observed case data. Preliminary results demonstrated the potential for improved accuracy and timeliness over commonly-used methods in which thresholds are based on simpler summary statistics of historical data. Other benefits of the dynamic linear modeling approach include robustness to missing data and the ability to fit models with relatively few years of training data. To predict future outbreaks, we started with the early detection model for each district and added a regression component based on satellite-derived environmental predictor variables including precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and land surface temperature (LST) and spectral indices from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We included lagged environmental predictors in the regression component of the model, with lags chosen based on cross-correlation of the one-step-ahead forecast errors from the first model. Our results suggest that predictions of future malaria outbreaks can be improved by incorporating lagged environmental predictors.

  12. Cardiac troponins I and T: molecular markers for early diagnosis, prognosis, and accurate triaging of patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ram P; Jain, Anubhav; Khan, Zakir; Kohli, Veena; Bharmal, R N; Kartikeyan, S; Bisen, Prakash S

    2012-12-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the leading cause of death worldwide, with early diagnosis still being difficult. Promising new cardiac biomarkers such as troponins and creatine kinase (CK) isoforms are being studied and integrated into clinical practice for early diagnosis of AMI. The cardiac-specific troponins I and T (cTnI and cTnT) have good sensitivity and specificity as indicators of myocardial necrosis and are superior to CK and its MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) in this regard. Besides being potential biologic markers, cardiac troponins also provide significant prognostic information. The introduction of novel high-sensitivity troponin assays has enabled more sensitive and timely diagnosis or exclusion of acute coronary syndromes. This review summarizes the available information on the potential of troponins and other cardiac markers in early diagnosis and prognosis of AMI, and provides perspectives on future diagnostic approaches to AMI.

  13. On early detection of strong infections in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yi; Xiao, Gaoxi

    2014-02-01

    Various complex systems are exposed to different kinds of infections ranging from computer viruses to rumors. An intuitive solution for limiting the damages caused by such infections is to detect the infection spreading as early as possible and then take necessary actions. In this paper, we study on how much we may expect to achieve in infection control by deploying a number of monitors in complex networks for detecting the outbreak of a strong infection at its early stage. Specifically, we consider the problem of finding the optimal locations for a given number of monitors in order to minimize the worst-case infection size. The NP-hardness of the problem is proved and a heuristic algorithm is proposed. Extensive simulations on both synthetic and real-life networks show that the worst-case infection size may be put under control by deploying a moderate number of monitors in a large complex network. Effects of a few different factors, including transmissibility of the infection, network topology and probability of detection failure, are also evaluated.

  14. Detection of early plant stress responses in hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behmann, Jan; Steinrücken, Jörg; Plümer, Lutz

    2014-07-01

    Early stress detection in crop plants is highly relevant, but hard to achieve. We hypothesize that close range hyperspectral imaging is able to uncover stress related processes non-destructively in the early stages which are invisible to the human eye. We propose an approach which combines unsupervised and supervised methods in order to identify several stages of progressive stress development from series of hyperspectral images. Stress of an entire plant is detected by stress response levels at pixel scale. The focus is on drought stress in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Unsupervised learning is used to separate hyperspectral signatures into clusters related to different stages of stress response and progressive senescence. Whereas all such signatures may be found in both, well watered and drought stressed plants, their respective distributions differ. Ordinal classification with Support Vector Machines (SVM) is used to quantify and visualize the distribution of progressive stages of senescence and to separate well watered from drought stressed plants. For each senescence stage a distinctive set of most relevant Vegetation Indices (VIs) is identified. The method has been applied on two experiments involving potted barley plants under well watered and drought stress conditions in a greenhouse. Drought stress is detected up to ten days earlier than using NDVI. Furthermore, it is shown that some VIs have overall relevance, while others are specific to particular senescence stages. The transferability of the method to the field is illustrated by an experiment on maize (Zea mays).

  15. Early Attempts to Detect the Neutrino at the Cavendish Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Jaume

    2006-03-01

    In the 1920s and early 1930s the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge was preeminent in experimental research on radioactivity and nuclear physics, with theoretical physics playing a subsidiary role in guiding, but not determining the course of experimental research. Soon after Wolfgang Pauli (1900 1958) proposed his neutrino hypothesis in 1930 to preserve conservation of energy and momentum in beta decay, experiments the first of their kind were carried out in the Cavendish Laboratory to detect Pauli’s elusive particle, but they were abandoned in 1936. I trace these early attempts and suggest reasons for their abandonment, which may contribute to an understanding of the complex way in which theoretical entities are accepted by physicists.

  16. Early detection of invasive plants: principles and practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Bradley A.; Geissler, Paul H.; Latham, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    Invasive plants infest an estimated 2.6 million acres of the 83 million acres managed by the National Park Service (NPS) in the United States. The consequences of these invasions present a significant challenge for the NPS to manage the agency’s natural resources “unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.” More NPS lands are infested daily despite diligent efforts to curtail the problem. Impacts from invasive species have been realized in most parks, resulting in an expressed need to control existing infestations and restore affected ecosystems. There is a growing urgency in the NPS and other resource management organizations to be proactive. The NPS I&M Program, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Status and Trends Program, compiled this document to provide guidance and insight to parks and other natural areas engaged in developing early-detection monitoring protocols for invasive plants. While several rapid response frameworks exist, there is no consistent or comprehensive guidance informing the active detection of nonnative plants early in the invasion process. Early-detection was selected as a primary focus for invasive-species monitoring because, along with rapid response, it is a key strategy for successful management of invasive species. Eradication efforts are most successful on small infestations (that is less than 1 hectare) and become less successful as infestation size increases, to the point that eradication is unlikely for large (that is greater than 1,000 hectares) populations of invasive plants. This document provides guidance for natural resource managers wishing to detect invasive plants early through an active, directed monitoring program. It has a Quick-Start Guide to direct readers to specific chapters and text relevant to their needs. Decision trees and flow charts assist the reader in deciding what methods to choose and when to use them. This document is written in a modular format to accommodate use of

  17. Detection of smoke plume for a land-based early forest fire detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghri, John; Jacobs, John; Davenport, Tim; Garges, David

    2015-09-01

    A promising daytime smoke plume detection for a land-based early forest fire detection system is proposed. The visible video imagery from a land-based monitoring camera is processed to detect the smoke which likely rises in an early stage of a forest fire. Unlike the fire core and its surrounding heat which are detected via day/night infrared imaging, the relatively cold smoke plume can only be captured in the visible spectrum of light. The smoke plume is detected via exploitation of its temporal signature. This is accomplished via Principal Component Transformation (PCT) operations on consecutive sequences of visible video frames followed by spatial filtering of one of the resulting low-order Principal Component (PC) images. It is shown that the blue channel of the Red, Green, Blue (RGB) color camera is most effective in detecting the smoke plume. Smoke plume is clearly detected and isolated via simple blurring, thresholding, and median filtering of one of the resulting low-order principle component (PC) images. The robustness of this PCA-based method relative to simple temporal frame differencing and use of color, i.e., visible spectral signature of smoke, are discussed. Various parameters of the system including the required observation time and number of frames to retain for PCT, selection of which low-order PC to use, and types and sizes of the filters applied to the selected PC image to detect and isolate the smoke plume, are discussed.

  18. Analytical Validation of Telomerase Activity for Cancer Early Detection

    PubMed Central

    Jakupciak, John P.; Wang, Wendy; Barker, Peter E.; Srivastava, Sudhir; Atha, Donald H.

    2004-01-01

    Activation of telomerase plays a critical role in unlimited proliferation and immortalization of cells. Telomerase activity has been shown to correlate with tumor progression, indicating that tumors expressing this enzyme possess aggressive clinical behavior and that telomerase activity may be a useful biomarker for early detection of cancer. However, measurements of telomerase activity by current methods such as telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP)/polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or antibody-based radioimmunoassay (RIA) are low-throughput and not robust enough to easily accommodate the required statistical analysis to determine whether telomerase activity is a practical biomarker. As part of the National Cancer Institute Early Detection Research Network of analytical validation, we have developed a robot assisted TRAP assay (RApidTRAP) of telomerase, a potential biomarker for cancer early detection. Measurements of human telomerase reverse transcriptase catalytic subunit (hTERT) mRNA were performed in concert with measurement of telomerase activity. For this purpose we determined hTERT mRNA concentration and telomerase activity in human normal (RPE-28) and cancer (A549) cell lines as well as in human serum (SRM 1951A). Telomerase activity measurements were made using the TRAP/PCR capillary electrophoresis (CE) method on (50 to 1000) cells/reaction isolated from cell extracts. Measurement of hTERT mRNA was made using specific primers and probes on a LightCycler in the range of (10 to 7000) cells/reaction. Comparison of high-throughput telomerase activity measurements using the robot and those performed manually were consistent in sensitivity and reproducibility. Using this combination of telomerase activity and hTERT mRNA measurements, the automated system improved efficiency over traditional TRAP/PCR methods. PMID:15269291

  19. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    DOEpatents

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-12-22

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  20. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    DOEpatents

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-06-30

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  1. Improving battery safety by early detection of internal shorting with a bifunctional separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hui; Zhuo, Denys; Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi

    2014-10-01

    Lithium-based rechargeable batteries have been widely used in portable electronics and show great promise for emerging applications in transportation and wind-solar-grid energy storage, although their safety remains a practical concern. Failures in the form of fire and explosion can be initiated by internal short circuits associated with lithium dendrite formation during cycling. Here we report a new strategy for improving safety by designing a smart battery that allows internal battery health to be monitored in situ. Specifically, we achieve early detection of lithium dendrites inside batteries through a bifunctional separator, which offers a third sensing terminal in addition to the cathode and anode. The sensing terminal provides unique signals in the form of a pronounced voltage change, indicating imminent penetration of dendrites through the separator. This detection mechanism is highly sensitive, accurate and activated well in advance of shorting and can be applied to many types of batteries for improved safety.

  2. Early Detection of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Dermatology.

    PubMed

    García-Campayo, J; Pérez-Yus, M C; García-Bustinduy, M; Daudén, E

    2016-05-01

    Many skin diseases are associated with mental disorders. When the psychological symptoms are mild, as is often the case in dermatology, it can be difficult to distinguish between normality and the manifestations of a mental disorder. To facilitate the distinction we review the concept of mental disorder in the present article. It is also important to have instruments that can facilitate early detection of psychological disease, i.e. when the symptoms are still mild. Short, simple, self-administered questionnaires have been developed to help dermatologists and other health professionals identify the presence of a mental disorder with a high degree of certainty. In this article, we focus on the questionnaires most often used to detect the 2 most common mental disorders: anxiety and depression. Finally, we describe the circumstances in which it is advisable to refer a dermatological patient to a psychiatrist, who can diagnose and treat the mental disorder in accordance with standard protocols.

  3. A finite rate of innovation algorithm for fast and accurate spike detection from two-photon calcium imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oñativia, Jon; Schultz, Simon R.; Dragotti, Pier Luigi

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Inferring the times of sequences of action potentials (APs) (spike trains) from neurophysiological data is a key problem in computational neuroscience. The detection of APs from two-photon imaging of calcium signals offers certain advantages over traditional electrophysiological approaches, as up to thousands of spatially and immunohistochemically defined neurons can be recorded simultaneously. However, due to noise, dye buffering and the limited sampling rates in common microscopy configurations, accurate detection of APs from calcium time series has proved to be a difficult problem. Approach. Here we introduce a novel approach to the problem making use of finite rate of innovation (FRI) theory (Vetterli et al 2002 IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 50 1417-28). For calcium transients well fit by a single exponential, the problem is reduced to reconstructing a stream of decaying exponentials. Signals made of a combination of exponentially decaying functions with different onset times are a subclass of FRI signals, for which much theory has recently been developed by the signal processing community. Main results. We demonstrate for the first time the use of FRI theory to retrieve the timing of APs from calcium transient time series. The final algorithm is fast, non-iterative and parallelizable. Spike inference can be performed in real-time for a population of neurons and does not require any training phase or learning to initialize parameters. Significance. The algorithm has been tested with both real data (obtained by simultaneous electrophysiology and multiphoton imaging of calcium signals in cerebellar Purkinje cell dendrites), and surrogate data, and outperforms several recently proposed methods for spike train inference from calcium imaging data.

  4. Full automatic fiducial marker detection on coil arrays for accurate instrumentation placement during MRI guided breast interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippatos, Konstantinos; Boehler, Tobias; Geisler, Benjamin; Zachmann, Harald; Twellmann, Thorsten

    2010-02-01

    With its high sensitivity, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) of the breast is today one of the first-line tools for early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer, particularly in the dense breast of young women. However, many relevant findings are very small or occult on targeted ultrasound images or mammography, so that MRI guided biopsy is the only option for a precise histological work-up [1]. State-of-the-art software tools for computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer in DCE-MRI data offer also means for image-based planning of biopsy interventions. One step in the MRI guided biopsy workflow is the alignment of the patient position with the preoperative MR images. In these images, the location and orientation of the coil localization unit can be inferred from a number of fiducial markers, which for this purpose have to be manually or semi-automatically detected by the user. In this study, we propose a method for precise, full-automatic localization of fiducial markers, on which basis a virtual localization unit can be subsequently placed in the image volume for the purpose of determining the parameters for needle navigation. The method is based on adaptive thresholding for separating breast tissue from background followed by rigid registration of marker templates. In an evaluation of 25 clinical cases comprising 4 different commercial coil array models and 3 different MR imaging protocols, the method yielded a sensitivity of 0.96 at a false positive rate of 0.44 markers per case. The mean distance deviation between detected fiducial centers and ground truth information that was appointed from a radiologist was 0.94mm.

  5. Aptamer-conjugated live human immune cell based biosensors for the accurate detection of C-reactive protein

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jangsun; Seo, Youngmin; Jo, Yeonho; Son, Jaewoo; Choi, Jonghoon

    2016-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a pentameric protein that is present in the bloodstream during inflammatory events, e.g., liver failure, leukemia, and/or bacterial infection. The level of CRP indicates the progress and prognosis of certain diseases; it is therefore necessary to measure CRP levels in the blood accurately. The normal concentration of CRP is reported to be 1–3 mg/L. Inflammatory events increase the level of CRP by up to 500 times; accordingly, CRP is a biomarker of acute inflammatory disease. In this study, we demonstrated the preparation of DNA aptamer-conjugated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (Apt-PBMCs) that specifically capture human CRP. Live PBMCs functionalized with aptamers could detect different levels of human CRP by producing immune complexes with reporter antibody. The binding behavior of Apt-PBMCs toward highly concentrated CRP sites was also investigated. The immune responses of Apt-PBMCs were evaluated by measuring TNF-alpha secretion after stimulating the PBMCs with lipopolysaccharides. In summary, engineered Apt-PBMCs have potential applications as live cell based biosensors and for in vitro tracing of CRP secretion sites. PMID:27708384

  6. Evaluation of a pan-serotype point-of-care rapid diagnostic assay for accurate detection of acute dengue infection.

    PubMed

    Vivek, Rosario; Ahamed, Syed Fazil; Kotabagi, Shalini; Chandele, Anmol; Khanna, Ira; Khanna, Navin; Nayak, Kaustuv; Dias, Mary; Kaja, Murali-Krishna; Shet, Anita

    2017-03-01

    The catastrophic rise in dengue infections in India and globally has created a need for an accurate, validated low-cost rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for dengue. We prospectively evaluated the diagnostic performance of NS1/IgM RDT (dengue day 1) using 211 samples from a pediatric dengue cohort representing all 4 serotypes in southern India. The dengue-positive panel consisted of 179 dengue real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive samples from symptomatic children. The dengue-negative panel consisted of 32 samples from dengue-negative febrile children and asymptomatic individuals that were negative for dengue RT-PCR/NS1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay/IgM/IgG. NS1/IgM RDT sensitivity was 89.4% and specificity was 93.8%. The NS1/IgM RDT showed high sensitivity throughout the acute phase of illness, in primary and secondary infections, in different severity groups, and detected all 4 dengue serotypes, including coinfections. This NS1/IgM RDT is a useful point-of-care assay for rapid and reliable diagnosis of acute dengue and an excellent surveillance tool in our battle against dengue.

  7. Aptamer-conjugated live human immune cell based biosensors for the accurate detection of C-reactive protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jangsun; Seo, Youngmin; Jo, Yeonho; Son, Jaewoo; Choi, Jonghoon

    2016-10-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a pentameric protein that is present in the bloodstream during inflammatory events, e.g., liver failure, leukemia, and/or bacterial infection. The level of CRP indicates the progress and prognosis of certain diseases; it is therefore necessary to measure CRP levels in the blood accurately. The normal concentration of CRP is reported to be 1–3 mg/L. Inflammatory events increase the level of CRP by up to 500 times; accordingly, CRP is a biomarker of acute inflammatory disease. In this study, we demonstrated the preparation of DNA aptamer-conjugated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (Apt-PBMCs) that specifically capture human CRP. Live PBMCs functionalized with aptamers could detect different levels of human CRP by producing immune complexes with reporter antibody. The binding behavior of Apt-PBMCs toward highly concentrated CRP sites was also investigated. The immune responses of Apt-PBMCs were evaluated by measuring TNF-alpha secretion after stimulating the PBMCs with lipopolysaccharides. In summary, engineered Apt-PBMCs have potential applications as live cell based biosensors and for in vitro tracing of CRP secretion sites.

  8. Fiber-optic immuno-biosensor for rapid and accurate detection of nerve growth factor in human blood.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang; Cha, Yong-Mei; Li, Hongmei; Chen, Peng-Sheng; Lin, Shien-Fong

    2006-01-01

    An accurate and rapid assay of cardiac nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in blood can provide physicians with critical information regarding myocardial injury and neural remodeling in cardiac tissues to identify patients at risk of impending heart attack, thereby enabling them to receive appropriate lifesaving treatment more quickly. Currently used assay methods, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are usually time-consuming (hours to days), expensive and technically complicated. In this paper, we described the development and clinical study of a rapid and sensitive method for detection and quantification of NGF in human blood plasma. This method utilizes a fiber-optic, immuno-biosensing system which performs a fluorophore-mediated sandwich immunoassay on the surface of an optical fiber. Physiological concentrations of NGF could be quantified in both buffer and human blood plasma samples within 5 minutes. The NGF concentrations determined by the fiberoptic sensor were comparable to those by the gold standard, ELISA. Preliminary study of NGF assay in cardiac patient plasma samples showed a great potential of the fiber-optic sensor as a rapid diagnostic and prognostic tool in clinical applications.

  9. Design and validation of a near-infrared fluorescence endoscope for detection of early esophageal malignancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waterhouse, Dale J.; Joseph, James; Neves, André A.; di Pietro, Massimiliano; Brindle, Kevin M.; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C.; Bohndiek, Sarah E.

    2016-08-01

    Barrett's esophagus is a known precursor lesion to esophageal adenocarcinoma. In these patients, early detection of premalignant disease, known as dysplasia, allows curative minimally invasive endoscopic therapy, but is confounded by a lack of contrast in white light endoscopy. Imaging fluorescently labeled lectins applied topically to the tissue has the potential to more accurately delineate dysplasia, but tissue autofluorescence limits both sensitivity and contrast when operating in the visible region. To overcome this challenge, we synthesized near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-IR800CW) and constructed a clinically translatable bimodal NIR and white light endoscope. Images of NIR and white light with a field of view of 63 deg and an image resolution of 182 μm are coregistered and the honeycomb artifact arising from the fiber bundle is removed. A minimum detectable concentration of 110 nM was determined using a dilution series of WGA-IR800CW. We demonstrated ex vivo that this system can distinguish between gastric and squamous tissue types in mouse stomachs (p=0.0005) and accurately detect WGA-IR800CW fluorescence in human esophageal resections (compared with a gold standard imaging system, rs>0.90). Based on these findings, future work will optimize the bimodal endoscopic system for clinical trials in Barrett's surveillance.

  10. Enhancement of visual motion detection thresholds in early deaf people.

    PubMed

    Shiell, Martha M; Champoux, François; Zatorre, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    In deaf people, the auditory cortex can reorganize to support visual motion processing. Although this cross-modal reorganization has long been thought to subserve enhanced visual abilities, previous research has been unsuccessful at identifying behavioural enhancements specific to motion processing. Recently, research with congenitally deaf cats has uncovered an enhancement for visual motion detection. Our goal was to test for a similar difference between deaf and hearing people. We tested 16 early and profoundly deaf participants and 20 hearing controls. Participants completed a visual motion detection task, in which they were asked to determine which of two sinusoidal gratings was moving. The speed of the moving grating varied according to an adaptive staircase procedure, allowing us to determine the lowest speed necessary for participants to detect motion. Consistent with previous research in deaf cats, the deaf group had lower motion detection thresholds than the hearing. This finding supports the proposal that cross-modal reorganization after sensory deprivation will occur for supramodal sensory features and preserve the output functions.

  11. Protein microarrays and quantum dot probes for early cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Aleksandra; Song, Dansheng; Qian, Wei; Zhukov, Tatyana

    2007-08-01

    We describe here a novel approach for detection of cancer markers using quantum dot protein microarrays. Both relatively new technologies; quantum dots and protein microarrays, offer very unique features that together allow detection of cancer markers in biological specimens (serum, plasma, body fluids) at pg/ml concentration. Quantum dots offer remarkable photostability and brightness. They do not exhibit photobleaching common to organic fluorophores. Moreover, the high emission amplitude for QDs results in a marked improvement in the signal to noise ratio of the final image. Protein microarrays allow highly parallel quantitation of specific proteins in a rapid, low-cost and low sample volume format. Furthermore the multiplexed assay enables detection of many proteins at once in one sample, making it a powerful tool for biomarker analysis and early cancer diagnostics. In a series of multiplexing experiments we investigated ability of the platform to detect six different cytokines in protein solution. We were able to detect TNF-alpha, IL-8, IL-6, MIP-1beta, IL-13 and IL-1beta down to picomolar concentration, demonstrating high sensitivity of the investigated detection system. We have also constructed and investigated two different models of quantum dot probes. One by conjugation of nanocrystals to antibody specific to the selected marker--IL-10, and the second by use of streptavidin coated quantum dots and biotinylated detector antibody. Comparison of those two models showed better performance of streptavidin QD-biotinylated detector antibody model. Data quantitated using custom designed computer program (CDAS) show that proposed methodology allows monitoring of changes in biomarker concentration in physiological range.

  12. Early detection of cancer: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Joshua D; Fisher, Paul G; Gibbs, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Screening in both healthy and high-risk populations offers the opportunity to detect cancer early and with an increased opportunity for treatment and curative intent. Currently, a defined role for screening exists in some cancer types, but each screening test has limitations, and improved screening methods are urgently needed. Unfortunately, many cancers still lack effective screening recommendations, or in some cases, the benefits from screening are marginal when weighed against the potential for harm. Here we review the current status of cancer screening: we examine the role of traditional tumor biomarkers, describe recommended imaging for early tumor surveillance, and explore the potential of promising novel cancer markers such as circulating tumor cells (CTC) and circulating tumor DNA. Consistent challenges for all of these screening tests include limited sensitivity and specificity. The risk for overdiagnosis remains a particular concern in screening, whereby lesions of no clinical consequence may be detected and thus create difficult management decisions for the clinician and patient. If treatment is pursued following overdiagnosis, patients may be exposed to morbidity from a treatment that may not provide any true benefit. The cost-effectiveness of screening tests also needs to be an ongoing focus. The improvement of genomic and surveillance technologies, which leads to more precise imaging and the ability to characterize blood-based tumor markers of greater specificity, offers opportunities for major progress in cancer screening.

  13. Future directions for the early detection of colorectal cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Walker, Avery S; Johnson, Eric K; Maykel, Justin A; Stojadinovic, Alex; Nissan, Aviram; Brucher, Bjorn; Champagne, Bradley J; Steele, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    Surgical resection remains a mainstay of treatment and is highly effective for localized colorectal cancer. However, ~30-40% of patients develop recurrence following surgery and 40-50% of recurrences are apparent within the first few years after initial surgical resection. Several variables factor into the ultimate outcome of these patients, including the extent of disease, tumor biology, and patient co-morbidities. Additionally, the time from initial treatment to the development of recurrence is strongly associated with overall survival, particularly in patients who recur within one year of their surgical resection. Current post-resection surveillance strategies involve physical examination, laboratory, endoscopic and imaging studies utilizing various high and low-intensity protocols. Ultimately, the goal is to detect recurrence as early as possible, and ideally in the asymptomatic localized phase, to allow initiation of treatment that may still result in cure. While current strategies have been effective, several efforts are evolving to improve our ability to identify recurrent disease at its earliest phase. Our aim with this article is to briefly review the options available and, more importantly, examine emerging and future options to assist in the early detection of colon and rectal cancer recurrence.

  14. Targeting Cell Surface Proteins in Molecular Photoacoustic Imaging to Detect Ovarian Cancer Early

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    10-1-0422 TITLE: Targeting Cell Surface Proteins in Molecular Photoacoustic Imaging to Detect Ovarian Cancer Early PRINCIPAL...molecular imaging 7 cdrescher@fhcrc.org Targeting Cell Surface Proteins in Molecular Photoacoustic Imaging to Detect Ovarian Cancer Early Page 3...Targeting Cell Surface Proteins in Molecular Photoacoustic Imaging to Detect Ovarian Cancer Early Charles W Drescher, MD, Principle Investigator

  15. Missed, Misused, or Mismanaged: Improving Early Detection Systems to Optimize Child Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Marisa; Marks, Kevin; Towle, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Early detection efforts have been shown to vary greatly in practice, and there is a general lack of systematic accountability built into monitoring early detection effort impact. This article reviews current early detection practices and the drawbacks of these practices, with particular attention given to prevalent issues of mismeasurement,…

  16. Early detection for lung cancer. New tools for casefinding.

    PubMed Central

    Lam, S.; Lam, B.; Petty, T. L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review data from published population trials and clinical practice guidelines on screening for lung cancer to provide a recommendation for early detection of lung cancer. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Literature was searched via MEDLINE using the MeSH headings "lung neoplasm," "mass screening," "thoracic radiography," and "sputum." Only prospective randomized controlled trials with large numbers of subjects were selected. MAIN MESSAGE: Risk of lung cancer among long-term heavy smokers continues even years after stopping smoking. Risk is highest in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Canadian clinical practice guidelines currently recommend that sputum cytology examination and chest radiography (CXR) not be used for lung cancer screening. This guideline was deducted from four randomized population trials in the 1970s that have serious limitations and applies to asymptomatic adults only. A CXR and sputum cytology examination are indicated in symptomatic current and former smokers older than 45 years with a smoking history of 30 pack-years or more and airflow obstruction defined as a forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) of 70% or less and a FEV1 lower than 70%. Curative treatment is available for early lung cancer. Substantial advances in innovative technologies for early detection using low-dose spiral CT and newer sputum tests have been made in the last three decades. Additional studies are under way to evaluate these new technologies. CONCLUSION: Primary care physicians have an important role in identifying people at risk of developing lung cancer and in supporting research to evaluate new screening technology. PMID:11281087

  17. Visual change detection recruits auditory cortices in early deafness.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Davide; Heimler, Benedetta; Caclin, Anne; Dalmolin, Anna; Giard, Marie-Hélène; Pavani, Francesco

    2014-07-01

    Although cross-modal recruitment of early sensory areas in deafness and blindness is well established, the constraints and limits of these plastic changes remain to be understood. In the case of human deafness, for instance, it is known that visual, tactile or visuo-tactile stimuli can elicit a response within the auditory cortices. Nonetheless, both the timing of these evoked responses and the functional contribution of cross-modally recruited areas remain to be ascertained. In the present study, we examined to what extent auditory cortices of deaf humans participate in high-order visual processes, such as visual change detection. By measuring visual ERPs, in particular the visual MisMatch Negativity (vMMN), and performing source localization, we show that individuals with early deafness (N=12) recruit the auditory cortices when a change in motion direction during shape deformation occurs in a continuous visual motion stream. Remarkably this "auditory" response for visual events emerged with the same timing as the visual MMN in hearing controls (N=12), between 150 and 300 ms after the visual change. Furthermore, the recruitment of auditory cortices for visual change detection in early deaf was paired with a reduction of response within the visual system, indicating a shift from visual to auditory cortices of part of the computational process. The present study suggests that the deafened auditory cortices participate at extracting and storing the visual information and at comparing on-line the upcoming visual events, thus indicating that cross-modally recruited auditory cortices can reach this level of computation.

  18. Fluorescence spectroscopic detection of early injury-induced atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Alexandra; Perk, Masis; Wen, Yue; Smith, Carol

    1992-08-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy has been used for the detection of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Angioplasty balloon-mediated injury was examined spectroscopically in order to assess the sensitivity of fluorescence spectroscopy for detection of early atherosclerosis. Abdominal aortic balloon angioplasty was performed via femoral artery cutdown in nine White Leghorn roosters (five normal, four atherogenic diet). Roosters were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 week intervals. Fluorescence emission spectra (n equals 114) were recorded from each aortic section (XeCl excimer laser, 308 nm, 1.5 - 2.0 mJ/pulse, 5 Hz). Changes in normalized fluorescence emission intensity were correlated with selected sections of histology. All balloon-injured segments showed intimal fibrous proliferation. For intimal thickness measuring > 70 (mu) , fluorescence emission intensity was decreased at 440 - 460 nm (p < 0.0005). Lesions complicated by thrombus also had lower fluorescence emission at 425 - 450 nm when compared to histologically normal aorta (p < 0.009). In injured segments high cholesterol diet resulted in lower recorded fluorescence emission at 440 - 460 nm (p < 0.001) associated with the increase in intimal thickness. Spectra from uninjured elastic aorta (aortic arch and thoracic aorta) had greater fluorescence intensity at 380 - 445 nm than muscular (abdominal) aorta (p < 0.01), therefore, only spectra from injured and uninjured segments of corresponding areas of the aorta were compared. The conclusion is: (1) Early intimal proliferative changes after angioplasty can be detected by fluorescence spectroscopy. (2) Spectra from elastic thoracic aorta differ significantly from the spectra of muscular abdominal aorta.

  19. ACCURATE TIME-DEPENDENT WAVE PACKET STUDY OF THE H{sup +}+LiH REACTION AT EARLY UNIVERSE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Aslan, E.; Bulut, N.; Castillo, J. F.; Banares, L.; Aoiz, F. J.; Roncero, O.

    2012-11-01

    The dynamics and kinetics of the H{sup +} + LiH reaction have been studied using a quantum reactive time-dependent wave packet (TDWP) coupled-channel quantum mechanical method on an ab initio potential energy surface at conditions of the early universe. The total reaction probabilities for the H{sup +} + LiH(v = 0, j = 0) {yields} H{sup +} {sub 2} + Li process have been calculated from 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} eV up to 1 eV for total angular momenta J from 0 to 110. Using a Langevin model, integral cross sections have been calculated in that range of collision energies and extrapolated for energies below 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} eV. The calculated rate constants are found to be nearly independent of temperature in the 10-1000 K interval with a value of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -9} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}, which is in good agreement with estimates used in evolutionary models of the early universe lithium chemistry.

  20. Advantages, limitations, and diagnostic accuracy of photoscreeners in early detection of amblyopia: a review

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Irene; Ortiz-Toquero, Sara; Martin, Raul; de Juan, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Amblyopia detection is important to ensure proper visual development and avoid permanent decrease of visual acuity. This condition does not produce symptoms, so it is difficult to diagnose if a vision problem actually exists. However, because amblyopia treatment is limited by age, early diagnosis is of paramount relevance. Traditional vision screening (conducted in <3 years) is related with difficulty in getting cooperation from a subject to conduct the eye exam, so accurate objective methods to improve amblyopia detection are necessary. Handheld devices used for photoscreening or autorefraction could offer advantages to improve amblyopia screening because they reduce exploration time to just few seconds, no subject collaboration is needed, and they provide objective information. The purpose of this review is to summarize the main functions and clinical applicability of commercially available devices for early detection of amblyopia and to describe their differences, advantages, and limitations. Although the studies reviewed are heterogeneous (due to wide differences in referral criteria, use of different risk factors, different types of samples studied, etc), these devices provide objective measures in a quick and objective way with a simple outcome report: retest, pass, or refer. However, due to major limitations, these devices are not recommended, and their use in clinical practice is limited. PMID:27555744

  1. Surface engineered biosensors for the early detection of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Muhymin

    Cancer commences in the building block of human body which is cells and in most of the cases remains silent at early stage. Diseases are only expressed at molecular and cellular level at primary stages. Recognition of diseases at this micro and nano level might reduce the mortality rate of cancer significantly. This research work aimed to introduce novel electronic biosensors for for identification of cancer at cellular level. The dissertation study focuses on 1) Label-Free Isolation of Metastatic Tumor Cells Using Filter Based Microfluidic device; 2) Nanotextured Polymer Substrates for Enhanced Cancer Cell Isolation and Cell Growth; 3) Nanotextured Microfluidic Channel for Electrical Profiling and Detection of Tumor Cells from Blood; and 4) Single Biochip for the Detection of Tumor Cells by Electrical Profile and Surface Immobilized Aptamer. Standard silicon processing techniques were followed to fabricate all of the biosensors. Nantoextruing and surface functionalizon were also incorporated to elevate the efficiency of the devices. The first approach aimed to detect cancer cells from blood based on their mechanophysical properties. Cancer cells are larger than blood cells but highly elastic in nature. These cells can squeeze through small microchannels much smaller than their size. The cross sectional area of the microchannels was optimized to isolate tumor cells from blood. Nanotextured polymer substrates, a platform inspired from the natural basement membrane was used to enhance the isolation and growth of tumor cells. Micro reactive ion etching was performed to have better control on features of nantoxtured surfaces and did not require any template. Next, electrical measurement of ionic current was performed across single microchannel to detect tumor cells from blood. Later, nanotexturing enhanced the efficiency of the device by selectively altering the translocation profile of cancer cells. Eventually aptamer functionalized nanotextured polymer surface was

  2. Diagnosis and early detection of COPD using spirometry

    PubMed Central

    Johns, David P.

    2014-01-01

    The standard respiratory function test for case detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is spirometry. The criterion for diagnosis defined in guidelines is based on the FEV1/FVC ratio forced expiratory ratio (FER) and its severity is based on forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) from measurements obtained during maximal forced expiratory manoeuvres. Spirometry is a safe and practical procedure, and when conducted by a trained operator using a spirometer that provides quality feedback, the majority of patients can be coached to provide acceptable and repeatable results. This allows potentially wide application of testing to improve recognition and diagnosis of COPD, such as for case finding in primary care. However, COPD remains substantially under diagnosed in primary care and a major reason for this is underuse of spirometry. The presence of symptoms is not a reliable indicator of disease and diagnosis is often delayed until more severe airflow obstruction is present. Early diagnosis is worthwhile, as it allows risk factors for COPD such as smoking to be addressed promptly and treatment optimised. Paradoxically, investigation of the patho-physiology in COPD has shown that extensive small airway disease exists before it is detectable with conventional spirometric indices, and methods to detect airway disease earlier using the flow-volume curve are discussed. PMID:25478197

  3. SU-E-J-23: An Accurate Algorithm to Match Imperfectly Matched Images for Lung Tumor Detection Without Markers

    SciTech Connect

    Rozario, T; Bereg, S; Chiu, T; Liu, H; Kearney, V; Jiang, L; Mao, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In order to locate lung tumors on projection images without internal markers, digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) is created and compared with projection images. Since lung tumors always move and their locations change on projection images while they are static on DRRs, a special DRR (background DRR) is generated based on modified anatomy from which lung tumors are removed. In addition, global discrepancies exist between DRRs and projections due to their different image originations, scattering, and noises. This adversely affects comparison accuracy. A simple but efficient comparison algorithm is reported. Methods: This method divides global images into a matrix of small tiles and similarities will be evaluated by calculating normalized cross correlation (NCC) between corresponding tiles on projections and DRRs. The tile configuration (tile locations) will be automatically optimized to keep the tumor within a single tile which has bad matching with the corresponding DRR tile. A pixel based linear transformation will be determined by linear interpolations of tile transformation results obtained during tile matching. The DRR will be transformed to the projection image level and subtracted from it. The resulting subtracted image now contains only the tumor. A DRR of the tumor is registered to the subtracted image to locate the tumor. Results: This method has been successfully applied to kV fluoro images (about 1000 images) acquired on a Vero (Brainlab) for dynamic tumor tracking on phantom studies. Radiation opaque markers are implanted and used as ground truth for tumor positions. Although, other organs and bony structures introduce strong signals superimposed on tumors at some angles, this method accurately locates tumors on every projection over 12 gantry angles. The maximum error is less than 2.6 mm while the total average error is 1.0 mm. Conclusion: This algorithm is capable of detecting tumor without markers despite strong background signals.

  4. Shrinking the Psoriasis Assessment Gap: Early Gene-Expression Profiling Accurately Predicts Response to Long-Term Treatment.

    PubMed

    Correa da Rosa, Joel; Kim, Jaehwan; Tian, Suyan; Tomalin, Lewis E; Krueger, James G; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte

    2017-02-01

    There is an "assessment gap" between the moment a patient's response to treatment is biologically determined and when a response can actually be determined clinically. Patients' biochemical profiles are a major determinant of clinical outcome for a given treatment. It is therefore feasible that molecular-level patient information could be used to decrease the assessment gap. Thanks to clinically accessible biopsy samples, high-quality molecular data for psoriasis patients are widely available. Psoriasis is therefore an excellent disease for testing the prospect of predicting treatment outcome from molecular data. Our study shows that gene-expression profiles of psoriasis skin lesions, taken in the first 4 weeks of treatment, can be used to accurately predict (>80% area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) the clinical endpoint at 12 weeks. This could decrease the psoriasis assessment gap by 2 months. We present two distinct prediction modes: a universal predictor, aimed at forecasting the efficacy of untested drugs, and specific predictors aimed at forecasting clinical response to treatment with four specific drugs: etanercept, ustekinumab, adalimumab, and methotrexate. We also develop two forms of prediction: one from detailed, platform-specific data and one from platform-independent, pathway-based data. We show that key biomarkers are associated with responses to drugs and doses and thus provide insight into the biology of pathogenesis reversion.

  5. Optimizing early upper gastrointestinal cancer detection at endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Veitch, Andrew M; Uedo, Noriya; Yao, Kenshi; East, James E

    2015-11-01

    Survival rates for upper gastrointestinal cancers are poor and oesophageal cancer incidence is increasing. Upper gastrointestinal cancer is also often missed during examinations; a predicament that has not yet been sufficiently addressed. Improvements in the detection of premalignant lesions, early oesophageal and gastric cancers will enable organ-preserving endoscopic therapy, potentially reducing the number of advanced upper gastrointestinal cancers and resulting in improved prognosis. Japan is a world leader in high-quality diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and the clinical routine in this country differs substantially from Western practice. In this Perspectives article, we review lessons learnt from Japanese gastroscopy technique, training and screening for risk stratification. We suggest a key performance indicator for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with a minimum total procedure time of 8 min, and examine how quality assurance concepts in bowel cancer screening in the UK could be applied to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and improve clinical practice.

  6. Klinefelter syndrome: are we missing opportunities for early detection?

    PubMed

    Nahata, Leena; Rosoklija, Ilina; Yu, Richard N; Cohen, Laurie E

    2013-10-01

    Klinefelter syndrome is a common condition that remains underdiagnosed, particularly prior to adulthood. Early detection could prevent morbidity and mortality, but the classic phenotype of small testes and tall stature may not be apparent until adolescence, and there is minimal guidance regarding whom to screen. We performed a retrospective study at Boston Children's Hospital in patients with the ICD-9 code for "Klinefelter syndrome" diagnosed prior to age 20 years, and determined age and reason for diagnosis, karyotype, heights, and comorbid conditions. Eighty percent had a 47,XXY karyotype, of whom half were diagnosed at age 11 to 19 years. The most common comorbidities were neurocognitive, including learning disabilities (67%), psychosocial problems (33%), and attention deficit disorder (27%). Subjects were only slightly taller than average in childhood (height standard deviation score = 0.64). These data show that Klinefelter syndrome is associated with long-standing comorbidities that frequently remain under-recognized; a karyotype should be considered in boys with neurocognitive problems.

  7. Rethinking Positron Emission Technology for Early Cancer Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosetto, D. B.

    2006-04-01

    Current PET technology, which detects cancer indirectly by measuring the size of tumors, is contrasted with a new technology that emphasizes measuring directly the abnormal metabolic activity characteristic of the very first cancerous cells by improving the efficiency of the medical imaging device hundreds of times. Rather than maximizing spatial resolution, this approach minimizes the abnormal metabolic threshold needed for early cancer diagnosis. A redesigned detector assembly takes full advantage of innovations in electronics to implement real-time algorithms that allow the use of economical crystal detectors. The tradeoffs inherent in choosing components, such as crystals, sensors, and electronics, for achieving the largest reduction in cancer deaths is discussed and justified. Theoretical calculations and prototype data are provided in references that demonstrate that all this can be achieved at a significantly lower radiation dosage and per exam cost to the patient.

  8. Early detection of AD using cortical thickness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spjuth, M.; Gravesen, F.; Eskildsen, S. F.; Østergaard, L. R.

    2007-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes cortical atrophy and impaired cognitive functions. The diagnosis is difficult to make and is often made over a longer period of time using a combination of neuropsychological tests, and structural and functional imaging. Due to the impact of early intervention the challenge of distinguishing early AD from normal ageing has received increasing attention. This study uses cortical thickness measurements to characterize the atrophy in nine mild AD patients (mean MMSE-score 23.3 (std: 2.6)) compared to five healthy middle-aged subjects. A fully automated method based on deformable models is used for delineation of the inner and outer boundaries of the cerebral cortex from Magnetic Resonance Images. This allows observer independent high-resolution quantification of the cortical thickness. The cortex analysis facilitates detection of alterations throughout the entire cortical mantle. To perform inter-subject thickness comparison in which the spatial information is retained, a feature-based registration algorithm is developed which uses local cortical curvature, normal vector, and a distance measure. A comparison of the two study groups reveals that the lateral side of the hemispheres shows diffuse thinner areas in the mild AD group but especially the medial side shows a pronounced thinner area which can be explained by early limbic changes in AD. For classification principal component analysis is applied to reduce the high number of thickness measurements (>200,000) into fewer features. All mild AD and healthy middle-aged subjects are classified correctly (sensitivity and specificity 100%).

  9. Semiology, proteomics, and the early detection of symptomatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Porta, Miquel; Fernandez, Esteve; Alguacil, Joan

    2003-09-01

    "Diagnostic delay," the duration of symptoms or the symptom to diagnosis interval (SDI), are highly complex variables that reflect the behavior of the patient and the attending physician, tumor biology and host-tumor interactions, the functioning of the health care system, and sociocultural norms. In addition to tumor stage, other variables mediate the relationship between duration of symptoms and survival; clinical and epidemiologic procedures to measure them must be improved. Largely at odds with clinical and common wisdom, decades of research have shown that often SDI is not associated with tumor stage and/or with survival from cancer. It would be relevant to increase evidence in support of the notion that, for each type of tumor, there is a positive relationship between the length of the presymptomatic and the symptomatic phases. SDI could then be used to classify tumors according to their likelihood of being detected early when still asymptomatic. Also, tumors could be classified according to the ratio of the median SDI to the median survival (SDI to survival ratio, SSR), which may estimate the relative likelihood for clinical lead-time bias. If adhering to rigorous methodologic standards, proteomic analyses of early-stage cancers might provide new insights into changes that occur in early phases of tumorigenesis. More real examples are needed of uses of pathologic and genomic data to study mechanisms through which SDI influences-or fails to influence-prognosis. The degree of correlation between proteomic patterns and classic semiology constitutes an area of interest in itself; their respective correlations with cancer prognosis should be assessed in properly designed epidemiologic studies.

  10. Early detection of intentional harm in the human amygdala.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Eugenia; Mikulan, Ezequiel; Decety, Jean; Sigman, Mariano; Garcia, María del Carmen; Silva, Walter; Ciraolo, Carlos; Vaucheret, Esteban; Baglivo, Fabricio; Huepe, David; Lopez, Vladimir; Manes, Facundo; Bekinschtein, Tristan A; Ibanez, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    A decisive element of moral cognition is the detection of harm and its assessment as intentional or unintentional. Moral cognition engages brain networks supporting mentalizing, intentionality, empathic concern and evaluation. These networks rely on the amygdala as a critical hub, likely through frontotemporal connections indexing stimulus salience. We assessed inferences about perceived harm using a paradigm validated through functional magnetic resonance imaging, eye-tracking and electroencephalogram recordings. During the task, we measured local field potentials in three patients with depth electrodes (n = 115) placed in the amygdala and in several frontal, temporal, and parietal locations. Direct electrophysiological recordings demonstrate that intentional harm induces early activity in the amygdala (<200 ms), which--in turn--predicts intention attribution. The amygdala was the only site that systematically discriminated between critical conditions and predicted their classification of events as intentional. Moreover, connectivity analysis showed that intentional harm induced stronger frontotemporal information sharing at early stages. Results support the 'many roads' view of the amygdala and highlight its role in the rapid encoding of intention and salience--critical components of mentalizing and moral evaluation.

  11. [Epigenetics in the pathogenesis and early detection of gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Corvalán R, Alejandro

    2013-12-01

    Gastric cancer is the first cause of death for cancer in Chile. The recently identified genetic alterations in these tumors have not yielded new biomarkers for the disease. Epigenetics or the study of reversible genomic changes that do not affect protein codifying DNA sequences but cause phenotypic disturbances, is identifying new cancer biomarkers. Specifically, the loss of expression caused by the covalent link of a methyl group to carbon 5 of cytosine (DNA hypermethylation) is extensively evaluated. Performing an epigenetic evaluation of 24 genes, we have identified eight genes associated to the aggressive signet ring cell type gastric cancer, the association between APC hypermethylation and worse prognosis and BRCA1 hypermethylation association with early onset of gastric cancer. The most interesting findings are the hypermethylation of Reprimo gene in plasma as a population biomarker and the tissue over expression of p73 gene (as a consequence of hypomethylation) as a high risk indicator of progression to gastric cancer. All these findings are indicating an important role of epigenetics in the pathogenesis and early detection of gastric cancer.

  12. Concrete bridge deck early problem detection and mitigation using robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gucunski, Nenad; Yi, Jingang; Basily, Basily; Duong, Trung; Kim, Jinyoung; Balaguru, Perumalsamy; Parvardeh, Hooman; Maher, Ali; Najm, Husam

    2015-04-01

    More economical management of bridges can be achieved through early problem detection and mitigation. The paper describes development and implementation of two fully automated (robotic) systems for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and minimally invasive rehabilitation of concrete bridge decks. The NDE system named RABIT was developed with the support from Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). It implements multiple NDE technologies, namely: electrical resistivity (ER), impact echo (IE), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and ultrasonic surface waves (USW). In addition, the system utilizes advanced vision to substitute traditional visual inspection. The RABIT system collects data at significantly higher speeds than it is done using traditional NDE equipment. The associated platform for the enhanced interpretation of condition assessment in concrete bridge decks utilizes data integration, fusion, and deterioration and defect visualization. The interpretation and visualization platform specifically addresses data integration and fusion from the four NDE technologies. The data visualization platform facilitates an intuitive presentation of the main deterioration due to: corrosion, delamination, and concrete degradation, by integrating NDE survey results and high resolution deck surface imaging. The rehabilitation robotic system was developed with the support from National Institute of Standards and Technology-Technology Innovation Program (NIST-TIP). The system utilizes advanced robotics and novel materials to repair problems in concrete decks, primarily early stage delamination and internal cracking, using a minimally invasive approach. Since both systems use global positioning systems for navigation, some of the current efforts concentrate on their coordination for the most effective joint evaluation and rehabilitation.

  13. Multispectral fundus imaging for early detection of diabetic retinopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, James M.; Tiedeman, James S.; Hopkins, Mark F.; Sabharwal, Yashvinder S.

    1999-04-01

    Functional imaging of the retina and associated structures may provide information for early assessment of risks of developing retinopathy in diabetic patients. Here we show results of retinal oximetry performed using multi-spectral reflectance imaging techniques to assess hemoglobin (Hb) oxygen saturation (OS) in blood vessels of the inner retina and oxygen utilization at the optic nerve in diabetic patients without retinopathy and early disease during experimental hyperglycemia. Retinal images were obtained through a fundus camera and simultaneously recorded at up to four wavelengths using image-splitting modules coupled to a digital camera. Changes in OS in large retinal vessels, in average OS in disk tissue, and in the reduced state of cytochrome oxidase (CO) at the disk were determined from changes in reflectance associated with the oxidation/reduction states of Hb and CO. Step to high sugar lowered venous oxygen saturation to a degree dependent on disease duration. Moderate increase in sugar produced higher levels of reduced CO in both the disk and surrounding tissue without a detectable change in average tissue OS. Results suggest that regulation of retinal blood supply and oxygen consumption are altered by hyperglycemia and that such functional changes are present before clinical signs of retinopathy.

  14. Toward optimizing patient-specific IMRT QA techniques in the accurate detection of dosimetrically acceptable and unacceptable patient plans

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, Elizabeth M.; Balter, Peter A.; Stingo, Francesco C.; Jones, Jimmy; Followill, David S.; Kry, Stephen F.

    2014-12-15

    was no significant difference in the performance of any device between gamma criteria of 2%/2 mm, 3%/3 mm, and 5%/3 mm. Finally, optimal cutoffs (e.g., percent of pixels passing gamma) were determined for each device and while clinical practice commonly uses a threshold of 90% of pixels passing for most cases, these results showed variability in the optimal cutoff among devices. Conclusions: IMRT QA devices have differences in their ability to accurately detect dosimetrically acceptable and unacceptable plans. Field-by-field analysis with a MapCheck device and use of the MapCheck with a MapPhan phantom while delivering at planned rotational gantry angles resulted in a significantly poorer ability to accurately sort acceptable and unacceptable plans compared with the other techniques examined. Patient-specific IMRT QA techniques in general should be thoroughly evaluated for their ability to correctly differentiate acceptable and unacceptable plans. Additionally, optimal agreement thresholds should be identified and used as common clinical thresholds typically worked very poorly to identify unacceptable plans.

  15. Detecting early recovery of consciousness: a comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Day, Kristin V; DiNapoli, Michael V; Whyte, John

    2017-04-07

    Early detection of the return of consciousness has important implications for prognosis and rehabilitation access. The aim of this study was to compare the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) with individualised quantitative behavioural assessments (IQBA) to determine which method is capable of detecting command-following earlier and more consistently in persons with disorders of consciousness (DoC). Data from 27 patients with DoC, who underwent both assessments concurrently during inpatient rehabilitation, were retrospectively analysed. For each person, performance trajectories on the CRS-R auditory subscale item and IQBA dual command protocols were graphed together to identify earlier and more consistent evidence of consciousness; grouped data were analysed statistically. For 22 patients, IQBA more consistently documented consciousness than the CRS-R, whereas no patients showed the reverse pattern. For 14 of 20 analysable patients, IQBA provided earlier evidence of consciousness, for two patients CRS-R provided earlier evidence, and for four patients both methods provided initial evidence on the same day. These findings suggest that IQBA approaches can provide more consistent and earlier evidence of command-following than the comparable item on the CRS-R. Whether this advantage is due to the individualisation of IQBA or the greater volume of data gathered requires further research.

  16. Saliva: an emerging biofluid for early detection of diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Hsiang; Wong, David T

    2009-08-01

    The capability to assess physiological states, detect morbidity initiation and progression, and monitor posttreatment therapeutic outcomes through a noninvasive approach is one of the most desirable goals for healthcare research and delivery. Saliva, a multi-constituent oral fluid, has high potential for the surveillance of general health and disease. To reach the above goal through saliva-based diagnostics, two prerequisites must be fulfilled: (1) discovering biomarker(s) for different diseases among the complicated components of saliva, and (2) advancing sensitivity and specificity of biomarker(s) through persistent development of technologies. Under the support and research blueprint initiated by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), salivary diagnostics has not only steadily progressed with respect to accuracy and availability, but has also bridged up-to-date nanotechnology to expand the areas of application. With collective efforts over several years, saliva has been demonstrated to be a promising bodily fluid for early detection of diseases, and salivary diagnostics has exhibited tremendous potential in clinical applications. This review presents an overview of the value of saliva as a credible diagnostic tool, the discovery of salivary biomarkers, and the development of salivary diagnostics now and in the future.

  17. Blood based cell biopsy for early detection of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Cha-Mei; Adams, Daniel; Adams, Diane; Alpaugh, R. Katherine; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Martin, Stuart; Chumsri, Saranya; Marks, Jeffrey

    Early detection (ED) of cancer holds the promise for less aggressive treatments and better outcome. However, there are few accepted methods for ED. We report on a previously unknown blood cell found specifically in the peripheral blood of many solid tumors. They are defined as Cancer Associated Macrophage-Like cells (CAMLs) and are characterized by large size (25-300 μm) and expression of cancer markers. CAMLs were isolated on precision filters during blood filtration. We conducted prospective studies in breast cancer (BC) to ascertain CAML prevalence, specificity and sensitivity in relation to disease status at clinical presentation. We report on two related but separate studies: 1) the isolation of CAMLs from patients with known invasive BC, compared to healthy volunteers and, 2) a double blind study conducted on women undergoing core needle biopsy to evaluate suspicious breast masses. The studies show that CAMLs are found in all stages of BC and suggest that detection of CAMLs can differentiate patients with BC from those with benign breast conditions and healthy individuals. This non-invasive blood test can be potentially used for ED of BC and other malignancies after validation studies with the advantage of a minimally invasive procedure and longitudinal monitoring. This work was supported by Grants from Maryland TEDCO MTTCF, R01-CA154624 from NIH, KG100240 from Susan G. Komen Foundation, Era of Hope Scholar award from DoD (BC100675), and U01-CA084955 from NCI EDRN.

  18. Early and Real-Time Detection of Seasonal Influenza Onset

    PubMed Central

    Marques-Pita, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Every year, influenza epidemics affect millions of people and place a strong burden on health care services. A timely knowledge of the onset of the epidemic could allow these services to prepare for the peak. We present a method that can reliably identify and signal the influenza outbreak. By combining official Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) incidence rates, searches for ILI-related terms on Google, and an on-call triage phone service, Saúde 24, we were able to identify the beginning of the flu season in 8 European countries, anticipating current official alerts by several weeks. This work shows that it is possible to detect and consistently anticipate the onset of the flu season, in real-time, regardless of the amplitude of the epidemic, with obvious advantages for health care authorities. We also show that the method is not limited to one country, specific region or language, and that it provides a simple and reliable signal that can be used in early detection of other seasonal diseases. PMID:28158192

  19. Early Oscillation Detection for DC/DC Converter Fault Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical power system of a spacecraft plays a very critical role for space mission success. Such a modern power system may contain numerous hybrid DC/DC converters both inside the power system electronics (PSE) units and onboard most of the flight electronics modules. One of the faulty conditions for DC/DC converter that poses serious threats to mission safety is the random occurrence of oscillation related to inherent instability characteristics of the DC/DC converters and design deficiency of the power systems. To ensure the highest reliability of the power system, oscillations in any form shall be promptly detected during part level testing, system integration tests, flight health monitoring, and on-board fault diagnosis. The popular gain/phase margin analysis method is capable of predicting stability levels of DC/DC converters, but it is limited only to verification of designs and to part-level testing on some of the models. This method has to inject noise signals into the control loop circuitry as required, thus, interrupts the DC/DC converter's normal operation and increases risks of degrading and damaging the flight unit. A novel technique to detect oscillations at early stage for flight hybrid DC/DC converters was developed.

  20. Early and Real-Time Detection of Seasonal Influenza Onset.

    PubMed

    Won, Miguel; Marques-Pita, Manuel; Louro, Carlota; Gonçalves-Sá, Joana

    2017-02-01

    Every year, influenza epidemics affect millions of people and place a strong burden on health care services. A timely knowledge of the onset of the epidemic could allow these services to prepare for the peak. We present a method that can reliably identify and signal the influenza outbreak. By combining official Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) incidence rates, searches for ILI-related terms on Google, and an on-call triage phone service, Saúde 24, we were able to identify the beginning of the flu season in 8 European countries, anticipating current official alerts by several weeks. This work shows that it is possible to detect and consistently anticipate the onset of the flu season, in real-time, regardless of the amplitude of the epidemic, with obvious advantages for health care authorities. We also show that the method is not limited to one country, specific region or language, and that it provides a simple and reliable signal that can be used in early detection of other seasonal diseases.

  1. A new system for early chloride detection in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laferrière, Francine; Inaudi, Daniele; Kronenberg, Pascal; Smith, Ian F. C.

    2008-08-01

    In a national and worldwide context, countless reinforced concrete structures are in an advanced state of deterioration. A principal cause of such degradation is chloride induced corrosion of reinforcement bars. This phenomenon is accentuated in countries where de-icing salts are used for road safety, as well as in maritime zones. To date, no non-destructive method quantifying chloride content during the corrosion initiation phase has been established. Measurement of such a parameter is important for the development of a better understanding of the complexity of corrosion phenomena and, more practically, for better management of existing structures. This paper proposes a new method for non-destructive measurement, for monitoring continuously and in real time free chloride content in concrete pores. In this context, a chemical sensor that employs optical fibers was developed and tested. The sensor functions using the fluorescence of an indicator dye that is sensitive to chlorides. Through fluorescence spectroscopy, variations in the concentration of free chlorides are related to intensity fluctuations of fluorescence. The use of optical fibers also provides an advantage compared with existing electric non-destructive detection systems due to superior electromagnetic stability. Theoretical and experimental studies calibrated and validated the sensor for implementation within mortar samples. Free chloride concentrations between 30 and 350 mM can be detected. Two experiments reproduced climatic variations in a controlled environment. The first test simulated a hot maritime climate and the second test simulated a cold continental climate. These tests confirmed that it is possible to determine with precision the free chloride content. Also, fluorescence spectroscopy with optical fibers offers an innovative means for early and non-destructive detection of free chloride content in concrete. As a result, this new method has potential for improving the science of corrosion

  2. Early Folding Patterns and Asymmetries of the Normal Human Brain Detected from in Utero MRI

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Julia A.; Roosta, Ahmad; Rajagopalan, Vidya; Kim, Kio; Rousseau, Francois; Barkovich, A. James; Glenn, Orit A.; Studholme, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Early cortical folding and the emergence of structural brain asymmetries have been previously analyzed by neuropathology as well as qualitative analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of fetuses and preterm neonates. In this study, we present a dedicated image analysis framework and its application for the detection of folding patterns during the critical period for the formation of many primary sulci (20–28 gestational weeks). Using structural information from in utero MRI, we perform morphometric analysis of cortical plate surface development and modeling of early folding in the normal fetal brain. First, we identify regions of the fetal brain surface that undergo significant folding changes during this developmental period and provide precise temporal staging of these changes for each region of interest. Then, we highlight the emergence of interhemispheric structural asymmetries that may be related to future functional specialization of cortical areas. Our findings complement previous descriptions of early sulcogenesis based on neuropathology and qualitative evaluation of 2D in utero MRI by accurate spatial and temporal mapping of the emergence of individual sulci as well as structural brain asymmetries. The study provides the missing starting point for their developmental trajectories and extends our understanding of normal cortical folding. PMID:21571694

  3. Early folding patterns and asymmetries of the normal human brain detected from in utero MRI.

    PubMed

    Habas, Piotr A; Scott, Julia A; Roosta, Ahmad; Rajagopalan, Vidya; Kim, Kio; Rousseau, Francois; Barkovich, A James; Glenn, Orit A; Studholme, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Early cortical folding and the emergence of structural brain asymmetries have been previously analyzed by neuropathology as well as qualitative analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of fetuses and preterm neonates. In this study, we present a dedicated image analysis framework and its application for the detection of folding patterns during the critical period for the formation of many primary sulci (20-28 gestational weeks). Using structural information from in utero MRI, we perform morphometric analysis of cortical plate surface development and modeling of early folding in the normal fetal brain. First, we identify regions of the fetal brain surface that undergo significant folding changes during this developmental period and provide precise temporal staging of these changes for each region of interest. Then, we highlight the emergence of interhemispheric structural asymmetries that may be related to future functional specialization of cortical areas. Our findings complement previous descriptions of early sulcogenesis based on neuropathology and qualitative evaluation of 2D in utero MRI by accurate spatial and temporal mapping of the emergence of individual sulci as well as structural brain asymmetries. The study provides the missing starting point for their developmental trajectories and extends our understanding of normal cortical folding.

  4. 76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... for breast and cervical cancer screening; updates on the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early... Health and Human Services, and the Director, CDC, regarding the early detection and control of breast...

  5. High-precision topography measurement through accurate in-focus plane detection with hybrid digital holographic microscope and white light interferometer module.

    PubMed

    Liżewski, Kamil; Tomczewski, Sławomir; Kozacki, Tomasz; Kostencka, Julianna

    2014-04-10

    High-precision topography measurement of micro-objects using interferometric and holographic techniques can be realized provided that the in-focus plane of an imaging system is very accurately determined. Therefore, in this paper we propose an accurate technique for in-focus plane determination, which is based on coherent and incoherent light. The proposed method consists of two major steps. First, a calibration of the imaging system with an amplitude object is performed with a common autofocusing method using coherent illumination, which allows for accurate localization of the in-focus plane position. In the second step, the position of the detected in-focus plane with respect to the imaging system is measured with white light interferometry. The obtained distance is used to accurately adjust a sample with the precision required for the measurement. The experimental validation of the proposed method is given for measurement of high-numerical-aperture microlenses with subwavelength accuracy.

  6. Detectability of early brain meningitis with magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, V.M.; Wells, J.W.; Williams, N.M.

    1995-08-01

    The ability of high-field (1.5 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect early brain meningitis was evaluated in a canine model. Contrast dose, timing postinjection, and imaging technique (specifically the use of magnetization transfer) were assessed. Imaging of five canines was performed at 1.5 T 24 hours after injection of Cowans staphylococcus into the cisterna magna. Two control animals also were imaged using the same protocol. Contrast doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.8 mmol/kg gadoteridol were compared. Scans were performed at 2, 13, and 22 minutes after an initial injection of 0.1 mmol/kg. Thirty minutes after the initial injection of contrast, a supplemental dose of 0.2 mmol/kg was given. Scans were then repeated at 2, 12, and 22 minutes after this dose was administered. A second supplemental contrast injection of 0.5 mmol/kg was given at 70 minutes, and immediate postinjection scans with and without MT were acquired. Results. In the animals receiving a cisternal injection of bacteria, the degree of meningeal enhancement was greatest at 0.8 mmol/kg, intermediate at 0.3 mmol/kg, and least at 0.1 mmol/kg. Scans in control studies did not demonstrate abnormal meningeal enhancement. High-contrast dose, MT, and acquisition of immediate postcontrast scans all resulted in statistically significant improvement. On masked film review, abnormal meningeal enhancement was noted in only 2 of 5 experimental dogs at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg (regardless of the use of MT) compared with all animals at a dose of 0.3 mmol/kg. In 18 of 37 dogs (paired scans with and without MT), when abnormal enhancement was noted, the use of MT improved the visualization of abnormal meningeal enhancement. In early brain meningitis, high-contrast dose (0.3 mmol/kg), MT, and scanning immediately after injection improve detection of abnormal meningeal enhancement, thus facilitating the diagnosis of meningitis. Of these factors, contrast dose is the most important. 14 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Accurate classification of 29 objects detected in the 39 month Palermo Swift/BAT hard X-ray catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, P.; Masetti, N.; Jiménez-Bailón, E.; Chavushyan, V.; Palazzi, E.; Landi, R.; Malizia, A.; Bassani, L.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Charles, P. A.; Galaz, G.; Mason, E.; McBride, V. A.; Minniti, D.; Morelli, L.; Schiavone, F.; Ubertini, P.

    2012-09-01

    Through an optical campaign performed at four telescopes located in the northern and the southern hemispheres, plus archival data from two on-line sky surveys, we obtained optical spectroscopy for 29 counterparts of unclassified or poorly studied hard X-ray emitting objects detected with Swift /Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and listed in the 39 month Palermo catalogue. All these objects also have observations taken with Swift /X-ray Telescope (XRT) or XMM-European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) which not only allow us to pinpoint their optical counterpart, but also study their X-ray spectral properties (column density, power law photon index, and F2-10 keV flux). We find that 28 sources in our sample are active galactic nuclei (AGNs); 7 are classified as type 1, while 21 are of type 2; the remaining object is a Galactic cataclysmic variable. Among our type 1 AGNs, we find 5 objects of intermediate Seyfert type (1.2-1.9) and one narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy; for 4 out of 7 sources, we are able to estimate the central black hole mass. Three of the type 2 AGNs of our sample display optical features typical of low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINER) and one is a likely Compton thick AGN. All galaxies classified in this work are relatively nearby objects since their redshifts lie in the range 0.008-0.075; the only Galactic object found lies at an estimated distance of 90 pc. We also investigate the optical versus X-ray emission ratio of the galaxies of our sample to test the AGN unified model. For these galaxies, we also compare the X-ray absorption (caused by gas) with the optical reddening (caused by dust): we find that for most of our sources, specifically those of type 1.9-2.0 the former is higher than the latter confirming early results of Maiolino and collaborators; this is possibly due to the properties of dust in the circumnuclear obscuring torus of the AGN. Based on observations obtained from the following observatories: the Astronomical Observatory of

  8. Kick Detection at the Bit: Early Detection via Low Cost Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Tost, Brian; Rose, Kelly; Aminzadeh, Fred; Ante, Magdalene A.; Huerta, Nicolas

    2016-06-07

    Formation fluid influxes (i.e. kicks) pose persistent challenges and operational costs during drilling operations. Implications of kicks range in scale but cumulatively result in substantial costs that affect drilling safety, environment, schedule, and infrastructure. Early kick detection presents a low-cost, easily adopted solution for avoiding well control challenges associated with kicks near the bit. Borehole geophysical tools used during the drilling process as part of the logging-while-drilling (LWD) and measurement-while-drilling (MWD) provide the advantage of offering real-time downhole data. LWD/MWD collect data on both the annulus and borehole wall. The annular data are normally treated as background, and are filtered out to isolate the formation measurements. Because kicks will change the local physical properties of annular fluids, bottom-hole measurements are among the first indicators that a formation fluid has invaded the wellbore. This report describes and validates a technique for using the annular portion of LWD/MWD data to facilitate early kick detection using first order principles. The detection technique leverages data from standard and cost-effective technologies that are typically implemented during well drilling, such as MWD/LWD data in combination with mud-pulse telemetry for data transmission.

  9. Effort and Potential Efficiencies for Aquatic Non-native Species Early Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript is based on the early aquatic non-native species detection research in the Duluth-Superior harbor. The problem of early detection is essentially that of a "needle in a haystack" - to detect a newly arrived and presumably rare non-native species with a high probabi...

  10. Model Development and Trial of Early Detection Manual for the Special Needs Children at Early Age Education Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwar, Zainul; Ingarianti, Tri Muji; Suryaningrum, Cahyaning

    2016-01-01

    This research was aimed to produce the manual for early detection for ABK at the level of early age education (PAUD = "Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini"). Research was "action research" with stages as proposed by Buunk and Van Vugt. Metodology of research these stages were called as PATH ("Problem-Analysis-Test…

  11. A National Virtual Specimen Database for Early Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crichton, Daniel; Kincaid, Heather; Kelly, Sean; Thornquist, Mark; Johnsey, Donald; Winget, Marcy

    2003-01-01

    Access to biospecimens is essential for enabling cancer biomarker discovery. The National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) comprises and integrates a large number of laboratories into a network in order to establish a collaborative scientific environment to discover and validate disease markers. The diversity of both the institutions and the collaborative focus has created the need for establishing cross-disciplinary teams focused on integrating expertise in biomedical research, computational and biostatistics, and computer science. Given the collaborative design of the network, the EDRN needed an informatics infrastructure. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, the National Cancer Institute,and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) teamed up to build an informatics infrastructure creating a collaborative, science-driven research environment despite the geographic and morphology differences of the information systems that existed within the diverse network. EDRN investigators identified the need to share biospecimen data captured across the country managed in disparate databases. As a result, the informatics team initiated an effort to create a virtual tissue database whereby scientists could search and locate details about specimens located at collaborating laboratories. Each database, however, was locally implemented and integrated into collection processes and methods unique to each institution. This meant that efforts to integrate databases needed to be done in a manner that did not require redesign or re-implementation of existing system

  12. Lung cancer risk prediction: a tool for early detection.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Adrian; Duffy, Stephen W; Myles, Jonathan P; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Field, John K

    2007-01-01

    Although 45% of men and 39% of women will be diagnosed with cancer in their lifetime, it is difficult to predict which individuals will be affected. For some cancers, substantial progress in individual risk estimation has already been made. However, relatively few models have been developed to predict lung cancer risk beyond effects of age and smoking. This paper reviews published models for lung cancer risk prediction, discusses their potential contribution to clinical and research settings and suggests improvements to the risk modeling strategy for lung cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of existing cancer risk models is less than optimal. Improvement in individual risk prediction is important for selection of individuals for prevention or early detection interventions. In addition to smoking, factors related to occupational exposure, personal medical history and family history of cancer can add to the predictive power. A good risk prediction model is one that can identify a small fraction of the population in which a large proportion of the disease cases will occur. In the future, genetic and other biological markers are likely to be useful, although they will require rigorous evaluation. Validation is essential to establish the predictive effect and for ongoing monitoring of the model's continued relevance.

  13. [Importance of early detection in autism spectrum disorder].

    PubMed

    Limon, Agenor

    2007-01-01

    Autism, currently known as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), is a lifelong neuropsychiatric disorder that starts before three years of age. The behavioral and cognitive symptoms seem to be caused by an abnormal synaptic connectivity that leads to deficits in the ability to filter sensory information. Poor filtering seems to constitute a barrier for the integration and processing of neuronal information. Because ASD is not a neurodegenerative disorder, under appropriate conditions, symptoms usually improve over time, probably because the autistic person learns to filter sensory information by alternative neuronal routes. This allows him/her to have a better understanding of the surrounding environment and in turn facilitates learning. Early intervention on children identified before age 2 notably improves prognosis. Currently, ASD can be detected in boys and girls when they are about 18 months old. However, parents and autism experts can observe symptoms before that age. The participation of the health system in order to prepare parents, pediatricians, and caregivers is highly important and leads to significant improvements in the quality of life of autistic individuals and of caregivers.

  14. Accurate lithography hotspot detection based on principal component analysis-support vector machine classifier with hierarchical data clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bei; Gao, Jhih-Rong; Ding, Duo; Zeng, Xuan; Pan, David Z.

    2015-01-01

    As technology nodes continue to shrink, layout patterns become more sensitive to lithography processes, resulting in lithography hotspots that need to be identified and eliminated during physical verification. We propose an accurate hotspot detection approach based on principal component analysis-support vector machine classifier. Several techniques, including hierarchical data clustering, data balancing, and multilevel training, are provided to enhance the performance of the proposed approach. Our approach is accurate and more efficient than conventional time-consuming lithography simulation and provides a high flexibility for adapting to new lithography processes and rules.

  15. Early detection and differentiation of venous and arterial occlusion in skin flaps using visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and autofluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Caigang; Chen, Shuo; Chui, Christopher Hoe-Kong; Tan, Bien-Keem; Liu, Quan

    2016-02-01

    Our previous preclinical study demonstrated that both visible diffuse reflectance and autofluorescence spectroscopy, each of which yields a different set of physiological information, can predict skin flap viability with high accuracy in a MacFarlane rat dorsal skin flap model. In this report, we further evaluated our technique for the early detection and differentiation of venous occlusion and arterial occlusion in a rat groin flap model. We performed both diffuse reflectance and autofluorescence measurements on the skin flap model and statistically differentiated between flaps with and without occlusions as well as between flaps with venous occlusion and those with arterial occlusion based on these non-invasive optical measurements. Our preliminary results suggested that visible diffuse reflectance and autofluorescence spectroscopy can be potentially used clinically to detect both venous and arterial occlusion and differentiate one from the other accurately at an early time point.

  16. Early detection and differentiation of venous and arterial occlusion in skin flaps using visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and autofluorescence spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Caigang; Chen, Shuo; Chui, Christopher Hoe-Kong; Tan, Bien-Keem; Liu, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Our previous preclinical study demonstrated that both visible diffuse reflectance and autofluorescence spectroscopy, each of which yields a different set of physiological information, can predict skin flap viability with high accuracy in a MacFarlane rat dorsal skin flap model. In this report, we further evaluated our technique for the early detection and differentiation of venous occlusion and arterial occlusion in a rat groin flap model. We performed both diffuse reflectance and autofluorescence measurements on the skin flap model and statistically differentiated between flaps with and without occlusions as well as between flaps with venous occlusion and those with arterial occlusion based on these non-invasive optical measurements. Our preliminary results suggested that visible diffuse reflectance and autofluorescence spectroscopy can be potentially used clinically to detect both venous and arterial occlusion and differentiate one from the other accurately at an early time point. PMID:26977363

  17. Computed tomography in the early detection of asbestosis.

    PubMed Central

    Bégin, R; Ostiguy, G; Filion, R; Colman, N; Bertrand, P

    1993-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT; both conventional (CCT) and high resolution (HRCT)) scans of the thorax were evaluated to detect early asbestosis in 61 subjects exposed to asbestos dust in Québec for an average of 22(3) years and in five controls. The study was limited to consecutive cases with chest radiographs of the International Labour Organisation categories 0 or 1 determined independently. All subjects had a standard high kilovoltage posteroanterior and lateral chest radiograph, a set of 10-15 1 cm collimation CCT scans and a set of three to five 2 mm collimation HRCT scans in the upper, middle, and lower lung fields. Five experienced readers independently read each chest radiograph and sets of CT scans. On the basis of three to five readers agreeing for small opacities of the lung parenchyma, 12/46 (26%) negative chest radiographs were positive on CT scans, but 6/18 (33%) positive chest radiographs were negative on CT scan. On the basis of four to five readers agreeing on a chest radiograph, 36/66 (54%) subjects were normal (group A), 17/66 (26%) were indeterminate (group B), and 13/66 (20%) were abnormal (group C). By the combined readings of CCT and HRCT, 4/31 (13%) asbestos exposed subjects of group A were abnormal (p < 0.001), 6/17 (35%) of group B were abnormal, and in group C, 1/13 (8%) was normal, 2/13 were indeterminate, and 10/13 (77%) were abnormal. Separate readings of CCT and HRCT on distinct films in 14 subjects showed that all cases of asbestosis were abnormal on both CCT and HRCT. Inter-reader analyses by kappa statistics showed significantly better agreement for the readings of CT than the chest radiographs (p < 0.001), and for the reading of CCT than HRCT (p < 0.01). Thus CT scans of the thorax identifies significantly more irregular opacities consistent with the diagnosis of asbestosis than the chest radiograph (20 cases on CT scans v 13 on chest radiographs when four to five readers agreed, 13% of asbestos exposed subjects with normal chest

  18. Early detection of ocean acidification effects on marine calcification

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyina, T.; Zeebe, R. E.; E. Maier-Reimer; C. Heinze

    2009-02-19

    Ocean acidification is likely to impact calcification rates in many pelagic organisms, which may in turn cause significant changes in marine ecosystem structure. We examine effects of changes in marine CaCO3 production on total alkalinity (TA) in the ocean using the global biogeochemical ocean model HAMOCC. We test a variety of future calcification scenarios because experimental studies with different organisms have revealed a wide range of calcification sensitivities to CaCO3 saturation state. The model integrations start at a preindustrial steady state in the year 1800 and run until the year 2300 forced with anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Calculated trends in TA are evaluated taking into account the natural variability in ocean carbonate chemistry, as derived from repeat hydrographic transects. We conclude that the data currently available does not allow discerning significant trends in TA due to changes in pelagic calcification caused by ocean acidification. Given different calcification scenarios, our model calculations indicate that the TA increase over time will start being detectable by the year 2040, increasing by 5–30 umol/kg compared to the present-day values. In a scenario of extreme reductions in calcification, large TA changes relative to preindustrial conditions would have occurred at present, which we consider very unlikely. However, the time interval of reliable TA observations is too short to disregard this scenario. The largest increase in surface ocean TA is predicted for the tropical and subtropical regions. In order to monitor and quantify possible early signs of acidification effects, we suggest to specifically target those regions during future ocean chemistry surveys.

  19. A portable analog lock-in amplifier for accurate phase measurement and application in high-precision optical oxygen concentration detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Chang, Jun; Wang, Fupeng; Wang, Zongliang; Wei, Wei; Liu, Yuanyuan; Qin, Zengguang

    2017-03-01

    A portable analog lock-in amplifier capable of accurate phase detection is proposed in this paper. The proposed lock-in amplifier, which uses the dual-channel orthometric signals as the references to build the xy coordinate system, can detect the relative phase between the input and x-axis based on trigonometric function. The sensitivity of the phase measurement reaches 0.014 degree, and a detection precision of 0.1 degree is achieved. At the same time, the performance of the lock-in amplifier is verified in the high precision optical oxygen concentration detection. Experimental results reveal that the portable analog lock-in amplifier is accurate for phase detection applications. In the oxygen sensing experiments, 0.058% oxygen concentration resulted in 0.1 degree phase shift detected by the lock-in amplifier precisely. In addition, the lock-in amplifier is small and economical compared with the commercial lock-in equipments, so it can be easily integrated in many portable devices for industrial applications.

  20. A portable analog lock-in amplifier for accurate phase measurement and application in high-precision optical oxygen concentration detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Chang, Jun; Wang, Fupeng; Wang, Zongliang; Wei, Wei; Liu, Yuanyuan; Qin, Zengguang

    2016-10-01

    A portable analog lock-in amplifier capable of accurate phase detection is proposed in this paper. The proposed lock-in amplifier, which uses the dual-channel orthometric signals as the references to build the xy coordinate system, can detect the relative phase between the input and x-axis based on trigonometric function. The sensitivity of the phase measurement reaches 0.014 degree, and a detection precision of 0.1 degree is achieved. At the same time, the performance of the lock-in amplifier is verified in the high precision optical oxygen concentration detection. Experimental results reveal that the portable analog lock-in amplifier is accurate for phase detection applications. In the oxygen sensing experiments, 0.058% oxygen concentration resulted in 0.1 degree phase shift detected by the lock-in amplifier precisely. In addition, the lock-in amplifier is small and economical compared with the commercial lock-in equipments, so it can be easily integrated in many portable devices for industrial applications.

  1. Feasibility of using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect early gene changes in sputum cells from uranium miners

    SciTech Connect

    Neft, R.E.; Rogers, J.L.; Belinsky, S.A.

    1995-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that combined exposure to radon progeny and tobacco smoke produce a greater than additive or synergistic increase in lung cancer risk. Lung cancer results from multiple genetic changes over a long period of time. An early change that occurs in lung cancer is trisomy 7 which is found in 50% of non-small cell lung cancer and in the far margins of resected lung tumors. The 80% mortality associated with lung cancer is in part related to the high proportion of patients who present with an advanced, unresectable tumor. Therefore, early detection of patients at risk for tumor development is critical to improve treatment of this disease. Currently, it is difficult to detect lung cancer early while it is still amendable by surgery. Saccomanno, G. has shown that premalignant cytologic changes in sputum cells collected from uranium miners can be detected by a skilled, highly trained cytopathologist. A more objective alternative for identifying premalignant cells in sputum may be to determine whether an early genetic change such as trisomy 7 is present in these cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be used to identify cells with trisomy 7. The results of this investigation indicate that FISH may prove to be an accurate, efficient method to test at-risk individuals for genetic alterations in bronchial epithelial cells from sputum.

  2. An automatic method for fast and accurate liver segmentation in CT images using a shape detection level set method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeongjin; Kim, Namkug; Lee, Ho; Seo, Joon Beom; Won, Hyung Jin; Shin, Yong Moon; Shin, Yeong Gil

    2007-03-01

    Automatic liver segmentation is still a challenging task due to the ambiguity of liver boundary and the complex context of nearby organs. In this paper, we propose a faster and more accurate way of liver segmentation in CT images with an enhanced level set method. The speed image for level-set propagation is smoothly generated by increasing number of iterations in anisotropic diffusion filtering. This prevents the level-set propagation from stopping in front of local minima, which prevails in liver CT images due to irregular intensity distributions of the interior liver region. The curvature term of shape modeling level-set method captures well the shape variations of the liver along the slice. Finally, rolling ball algorithm is applied for including enhanced vessels near the liver boundary. Our approach are tested and compared to manual segmentation results of eight CT scans with 5mm slice distance using the average distance and volume error. The average distance error between corresponding liver boundaries is 1.58 mm and the average volume error is 2.2%. The average processing time for the segmentation of each slice is 5.2 seconds, which is much faster than the conventional ones. Accurate and fast result of our method will expedite the next stage of liver volume quantification for liver transplantations.

  3. Acoustic emission detection of early stages of cracks in rotating gearbox components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Dan

    2017-02-01

    Many critical, highly loaded rotating gearbox components have fast crack propagation rates. Early detection of cracks in gearbox is critical to mitigating the risk of catastrophic failure. Acoustic Emission (AE) techniques have proven to be capable of continuously monitoring the crack initiation and propagation. Due to the long distance of AE signal propagation from the AE sources to the sensors installed in the housing, the AE signal suffers from severe attenuation and noises. Accurate AE signal classification technology that is capable of extracting the true AE signal out of background noises generated by the surrounding environment of a gearbox is desired. In this paper, an innovative feature extraction and analysis based AE signal classification technology is developed to address this issue. Potential AE signals are first pulled out of the noisy background in real-time through a set of automated AE detection algorithms. Then features including count, energy, duration, amplitude, rise time, amplitude rise time ratio, etc. are extracted and analyzed. Through the comparison and correlation of features extracted from signals recorded by multiple AE sensors, respective feature thresholds are determined to distinguish noises from real AE signal. The classification results are experimentally validated through fatigue tests.

  4. Advancing Early Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder by Applying an Integrated Two-Stage Screening Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterling, Iris J.; Wensing, Michel; Swinkels, Sophie H.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Visser, Janne C.; Woudenberg, Tim; Minderaa, Ruud; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Few field trials exist on the impact of implementing guidelines for the early detection of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aims of the present study were to develop and evaluate a clinically relevant integrated early detection programme based on the two-stage screening approach of Filipek et al. (1999), and to expand the evidence…

  5. Radiolabeled Exosomes for the Early Detection of Metastases and to Predict Breast Cancer Premetastatic Niche

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 Aug 2013 - 31 Jul 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Radiolabeled Exosomes for the Early Detection of...proposed a a new approach for the early detection of metastatic disease in BC patients using cancer cell derived particles known as exosomes as a guide. We

  6. Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-Ray Phase CT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    DATES COVERED 15 May 2013 - 14 May 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT In this project, we proposed to develop the imaging method for early detection of amyloid plaque in Alzheimer’s

  7. Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease Via X-ray Phase CT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0138 Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease Via X-ray Phase CT 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...ray phase contrast CT imaging method for early detection of amyloid plaque in Alzheimer’s disease. As specified in SA#1 and the project timeline, the

  8. Progress towards an AIS early detection monitoring network for the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    As an invasion prone location, the lower St. Louis River system (SLR) has been a case study for ongoing research to develop the framework for a practical Great Lakes monitoring network for early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS). Early detection, however, necessitates f...

  9. Cancer in global health: how do prevention and early detection strategies relate?

    PubMed

    Ilbawi, André M; Anderson, Benjamin O

    2015-03-11

    National cancer control plans are needed to stem the rapidly rising global cancer burden. Prevention and early detection are complementary but distinct strategies for cancer control. Some cancers are prevented through behavior and/or environmental modifications that reduce cancer risk, whereas other cancers are more amenable to treatment when they are successfully diagnosed at early stages. Prevention and early detection strategies should be prioritized on the basis of country-specific cancer demographics, modifiable risk factor distribution, and existing treatment resource availability. Following an individualized plan integrating prevention and early detection strategies, deficits can be targeted to strengthen national health systems for cancer control.

  10. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratila, M.; Rosu, S.

    2014-03-01

    in frequency as well as in the therapeutic problems raised. In the face and oral cavity cancer catagory, lip represents 2% of all cases and 19-25% of the total facial cancer area. Lip cancer is one of the localizations that, when detected early, can benefit from an effective therapy with high chances of healing. In order to achieve a complex treatment, interdisciplinary collaboration is required, only thus being able to determine both the therapeutic methods as well as their association.

  11. Robustness of chemometrics-based feature selection methods in early cancer detection and biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae Woo; Lawton, Carl; Na, Young Jeong; Yoon, Seongkyu

    2013-03-13

    In omics studies aimed at the early detection and diagnosis of cancer, bioinformatics tools play a significant role when analyzing high dimensional, complex datasets, as well as when identifying a small set of biomarkers. However, in many cases, there are ambiguities in the robustness and the consistency of the discovered biomarker sets, since the feature selection methods often lead to irreproducible results. To address this, both the stability and the classification power of several chemometrics-based feature selection algorithms were evaluated using the Monte Carlo sampling technique, aiming at finding the most suitable feature selection methods for early cancer detection and biomarker discovery. To this end, two data sets were analyzed, which comprised of MALDI-TOF-MS and LC/TOF-MS spectra measured on serum samples in order to diagnose ovarian cancer. Using these datasets, the stability and the classification power of multiple feature subsets found by different feature selection methods were quantified by varying either the number of selected features, or the number of samples in the training set, with special emphasis placed on the property of stability. The results show that high consistency does not necessarily guarantee high predictive power. In addition, differences in the stability, as well as agreement in feature lists between several feature selection methods, depend on several factors, such as the number of available samples, feature sizes, quality of the information in the dataset, etc. Among the tested methods, only the variable importance in projection (VIP)-based method shows complementary properties, providing both highly consistent and accurate subsets of features. In addition, successive projection analysis (SPA) was excellent with regards to maintaining high stability over a wide range of experimental conditions. The stability of several feature selection methods is highly variable, stressing the importance of making the proper choice among

  12. Are the Original and Second Edition of the California Verbal Learning Test Equally Accurate in Detecting Malingering?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greve, Kevin W.; Curtis, Kelly L.; Bianchini, Kevin J.; Ord, Jonathan S.

    2009-01-01

    This two-part study sought to determine the equivalence of the California Verbal Learning Tests (CVLT-1 and CVLT-2) in the detection of malingering in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and chronic pain. Part 1 compared a variety of scores from the two versions in carefully matched patient groups. Part 2 used criterion groups (known-groups) methodology…

  13. NCCN Guidelines Insights: Prostate Cancer Early Detection, Version 2.2016.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Peter R; Parsons, J Kellogg; Andriole, Gerald; Bahnson, Robert R; Castle, Erik P; Catalona, William J; Dahl, Douglas M; Davis, John W; Epstein, Jonathan I; Etzioni, Ruth B; Farrington, Thomas; Hemstreet, George P; Kawachi, Mark H; Kim, Simon; Lange, Paul H; Loughlin, Kevin R; Lowrance, William; Maroni, Paul; Mohler, James; Morgan, Todd M; Moses, Kelvin A; Nadler, Robert B; Poch, Michael; Scales, Chuck; Shaneyfelt, Terrence M; Smaldone, Marc C; Sonn, Geoffrey; Sprenkle, Preston; Vickers, Andrew J; Wake, Robert; Shead, Dorothy A; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A

    2016-05-01

    The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Prostate Cancer Early Detection provide recommendations for prostate cancer screening in healthy men who have elected to participate in an early detection program. The NCCN Guidelines focus on minimizing unnecessary procedures and limiting the detection of indolent disease. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the NCCN Prostate Cancer Early Detection Panel's most significant discussions for the 2016 guideline update, which included issues surrounding screening in high-risk populations (ie, African Americans, BRCA1/2 mutation carriers), approaches to refine patient selection for initial and repeat biopsies, and approaches to improve biopsy specificity.

  14. Early Detection of Dyslexia in Children Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Jackson-Lee, Sheila [D-TX-18

    2009-01-06

    03/16/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Anomaly Detection in Host Signaling Pathways for the Early Prognosis of Acute Infection

    PubMed Central

    O’Hern, Corey S.; Shattuck, Mark D.; Ogle, Serenity; Forero, Adriana; Morrison, Juliet; Slayden, Richard; Katze, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis of acute infectious diseases during the early stages of infection is critical to administering the appropriate treatment to improve the disease outcome. We present a data driven analysis of the human cellular response to respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytia virus, and human rhinovirus, and compared this with the response to the bacterial endotoxin, Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Using an anomaly detection framework we identified pathways that clearly distinguish between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients infected with the four different respiratory viruses and that accurately diagnosed patients exposed to a bacterial infection. Connectivity pathway analysis comparing the viral and bacterial diagnostic signatures identified host cellular pathways that were unique to patients exposed to LPS endotoxin indicating this type of analysis could be used to identify host biomarkers that can differentiate clinical etiologies of acute infection. We applied the Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET) on two human influenza (H1N1 and H3N2) gene expression data sets to define host networks perturbed in the asymptomatic phase of infection. Our analysis identified pathways in the respiratory virus diagnostic signature as prognostic biomarkers that triggered prior to clinical presentation of acute symptoms. These early warning pathways correctly predicted that almost half of the subjects would become symptomatic in less than forty hours post-infection and that three of the 18 subjects would become symptomatic after only 8 hours. These results provide a proof-of-concept for utility of anomaly detection algorithms to classify host pathway signatures that can identify presymptomatic signatures of acute diseases and differentiate between etiologies of infection. On a global scale, acute respiratory infections cause a significant proportion of human co-morbidities and account for 4.25 million deaths annually. The development of clinical

  16. Questioning the Specificity of ASRS-v1.1 to Accurately Detect ADHD in Substance Abusing Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiasson, Jean-Pierre; Stavro, Katherine; Rizkallah, Elie; Lapierre, Luc; Dussault, Maxime; Legault, Louis; Potvin, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the specificity of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) in detecting ADHD among individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs). Method: A chart review of 183 SUD patients was conducted. Patients were screened for ADHD with the ASRS-v1.1 and were later assessed by a psychiatrist specialized in ADHD. Results: Among SUD…

  17. Dilatation and curettage is more accurate than endometrial aspiration biopsy in early-stage endometrial cancer patients treated with high dose oral progestin and levonorgestrel intrauterine system

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine whether less invasive endometrial (EM) aspiration biopsy is adequately accurate for evaluating treatment outcomes compared to the dilatation and curettage (D&C) biopsy in early-stage endometrial cancer (EC) patients treated with high dose oral progestin and levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS). Methods We conducted a prospective observational study with patients younger than 40 years who were diagnosed with clinical stage IA, The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade 1 or 2 endometrioid adenocarcinoma and sought to maintain their fertility. The patients were treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate 500 mg/day and LNG-IUS. Treatment responses were evaluated every 3 months. EM aspiration biopsy was conducted after LNG-IUS removal followed D&C. The tissue samples were histologically compared. The diagnostic concordance rate of the two tests was examined with κ statistics. Results Twenty-eight pairs of EM samples were obtained from five patients. The diagnostic concordance rate of D&C and EM aspiration biopsy was 39.3% (κ value=0.26). Of the seven samples diagnosed as normal with D&C, three (42.8%) were diagnosed as normal by using EM aspiration biopsy. Of the eight samples diagnosed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma by using D&C, three (37.5%) were diagnosed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma by using EM aspiration biopsy. Of the 13 complex EM hyperplasia samples diagnosed with the D&C, five (38.5%) were diagnosed with EM hyperplasia by using EM aspiration biopsy. Of the samples obtained through EM aspiration, 46.4% were insufficient for histological evaluation. Conclusion To evaluate the treatment responses of patients with early-stage EC treated with high dose oral progestin and LNG-IUS, D&C should be conducted after LNG-IUS removal. PMID:27670255

  18. Root Cause Analysis of Sexual Assault: Shifting from Early Detection to a Vaccine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-17

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS OF SEXUAL ASSAULT: SHIFTING FROM EARLY DETECTION TO A VACCINE by Christine F.L. Holliday, Lt...2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Root Cause Analysis Of Sexual Assault: Shifting From Early Detection To A Vaccine 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER... vaccine . Unarguably, the Air Force needs to remedy the cancer with detection, reporting, and treatment when sexual assault does occur. But current AF

  19. Early Detection of Breast Cancer via Multiplane Correlation Breast Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    superior diagnostic information. Towards this end, a LG CHO mathematical observer model was constructed to assess the detectability of a simulated mass...on mathematical observer model was developed to assess the detectability of the mass. Detectability was measured in terms of Receiver Operating...This task has been accomplished. The goal of this task was to develop an observer model which could be used to quantify the performance of MCI in

  20. Early detection of schizophrenia: current evidence and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    HÄFNER, HEINZ; MAURER, KURT

    2006-01-01

    Research into the early course of schizophrenia has identified a prepsychotic prodromal stage (mean duration: 4.8 years) and a psychotic prephase (mean duration: 1.3 years). Comparisons of individually matched samples have demonstrated prodromal symptoms common to schizophrenia and moderate to severe depression. It is not until positive symptoms emerge that psychosis and mood disorders become distinguishable from each other. In both disorders the prodromal stage early produces functional impairment and related social consequences. Hence, early intervention is of great public health relevance. This intervention is targeted at manifest symptoms and not at the underlying, still unknown disease process. Cognitive-behavioural therapy at the prepsychotic prodromal stage seems to favourably influence the short-term illness course. In the psychotic prephase, a combination with low-dose antipsychotics seems to have some efficacy. The aim of early recognition by the instruments discussed in this paper is to permit the identification of the largest possible proportion of at-risk persons as early as possible and their referral to appropriate treatment. PMID:17139339

  1. Patient-Specific Early Seizure Detection from Scalp EEG

    PubMed Central

    Minasyan, Georgiy R.; Chatten, John B.; Chatten, Martha Jane; Harner, Richard N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Develop a method for automatic detection of seizures prior to or immediately after clinical onset using features derived from scalp EEG. Methods This detection method is patient-specific. It uses recurrent neural networks and a variety of input features. For each patient we trained and optimized the detection algorithm for two cases: 1) during the period immediately preceding seizure onset, and 2) during the period immediately following seizure onset. Continuous scalp EEG recordings (duration 15 – 62 h, median 25 h) from 25 patients, including a total of 86 seizures, were used in this study. Results Pre-onset detection was successful in 14 of the 25 patients. For these 14 patients, all of the testing seizures were detected prior to seizure onset with a median pre-onset time of 51 sec and false positive rate was 0.06/h. Post-onset detection had 100% sensitivity, 0.023/hr false positive rate and median delay of 4 sec after onset. Conclusions The unique results of this study relate to pre-onset detection. Significance Our results suggest that reliable pre-onset seizure detection may be achievable for a significant subset of epilepsy patients without use of invasive electrodes. PMID:20461014

  2. Implementation of an oral care protocol to promote early detection and management of stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Caplinger, Jane; Royse, Mary; Martens, Jennifer

    2010-12-01

    This project aimed to promote early identification and treatment of stomatitis in patients with cancer receiving head and neck radiation and chemotherapy. A literature review revealed criteria for identifying high-risk patients, interventions to minimize risk, oral assessment tools, treatment protocols, and instructions for a comprehensive oral examination. Thorough and accurate oral care assessments by RNs, promotion of oral care protocols, and early patient education will improve symptom management and quality of life in this population.

  3. An Optimized Method for Accurate Fetal Sex Prediction and Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy Detection in Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haibo; Ding, Jie; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Qin; Xiang, Jingjing; Li, Qiong; Xuan, Liming; Kong, Lingyin; Mao, Yan; Zhu, Yijun; Shen, Jingjing; Liang, Bo; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) combined with bioinformatic analysis has been widely applied to detect fetal chromosomal aneuploidies such as trisomy 21, 18, 13 and sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) by sequencing cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) from maternal plasma, so-called non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). However, many technical challenges, such as dependency on correct fetal sex prediction, large variations of chromosome Y measurement and high sensitivity to random reads mapping, may result in higher false negative rate (FNR) and false positive rate (FPR) in fetal sex prediction as well as in SCAs detection. Here, we developed an optimized method to improve the accuracy of the current method by filtering out randomly mapped reads in six specific regions of the Y chromosome. The method reduces the FNR and FPR of fetal sex prediction from nearly 1% to 0.01% and 0.06%, respectively and works robustly under conditions of low fetal DNA concentration (1%) in testing and simulation of 92 samples. The optimized method was further confirmed by large scale testing (1590 samples), suggesting that it is reliable and robust enough for clinical testing. PMID:27441628

  4. Establishment of an accurate and fast detection method using molecular beacons in loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Huang, Simo; Liu, Ningwei; Dong, Derong; Yang, Zhan; Tang, Yue; Ma, Wen; He, Xiaoming; Ao, Da; Xu, Yaqing; Zou, Dayang; Huang, Liuyu

    2017-01-01

    This study established a constant-temperature fluorescence quantitative detection method, combining loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with molecular beacons. The advantages of LAMP are its convenience and efficiency, as it does not require a thermocycler and results are easily visualized by the naked eye. However, a major disadvantage of current LAMP techniques is the use of indirect evaluation methods (e.g., electrophoresis, SYBR Green I dye, precipitation, hydroxynaphthol blue dye, the turbidimetric method, calcein/Mn2+ dye, and the composite probe method), which cannot distinguish between the desired products and products of nonspecific amplification, thereby leading to false positives. Use of molecular beacons avoids this problem because molecular beacons produce fluorescence signals only when binding to target DNA, thus acting as a direct indicator of amplification products. Our analyses determined the optimal conditions for molecular beacons as an evaluation tool in LAMP: beacon length of 25–45 bp, beacon concentration of 0.6–1 pmol/μL, and reaction temperature of 60–65 °C. In conclusion, we validated a novel molecular beacon loop-mediated isothermal amplification method (MB-LAMP), realizing the direct detection of LAMP product. PMID:28059137

  5. Photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence for early breast cancer biomarker detection.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Brian T; Zangar, Richard C

    2012-08-01

    Photonic crystal surfaces offer a compelling platform for improving the sensitivity of surface-based fluorescent assays used in disease diagnostics. Through the complementary processes of photonic crystal enhanced excitation and enhanced extraction, a periodic dielectric-based nanostructured surface can simultaneously increase the electric field intensity experienced by surface-bound fluorophores and increase the collection efficiency of emitted fluorescent photons. Through the ability to inexpensively fabricate photonic crystal surfaces over substantial surface areas, they are amenable to single-use applications in biological sensing, such as disease biomarker detection in serum. In this review, we will describe the motivation for implementing high-sensitivity, multiplexed biomarker detection in the context of breast cancer diagnosis. We will summarize recent efforts to improve the detection limits of such assays though the use of photonic crystal surfaces. Reduction of detection limits is driven by low autofluorescent substrates for photonic crystal fabrication, and detection instruments that take advantage of their unique features.

  6. Development of a Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Early Detection of Masses Using Retrospectively Detected Cancers on Prior Mammograms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    system (C) Development of image processing techniques for improvement of mass detection on prior mammograms ( D ) Continue to develop a two-view...increase the overall accuracy for detection of subtle early-stage breast cancers. 13 ( D ) Continuation of Development of a Two-view Information Fusion...Petrick, B. Sahiner, S. C. B. Lo, M. Freedman, D . Adler, J. Bailey, et al., "Sensitivity of noncommercial computer-aided detection system for

  7. DNA extraction techniques compared for accurate detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in maize food and feed products.

    PubMed

    Turkec, Aydin; Kazan, Hande; Karacanli, Burçin; Lucas, Stuart J

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, DNA extraction methods have been evaluated to detect the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in maize food and feed products commercialised in Turkey. All the extraction methods tested performed well for the majority of maize foods and feed products analysed. However, the highest DNA content was achieved by the Wizard, Genespin or the CTAB method, all of which produced optimal DNA yield and purity for different maize food and feed products. The samples were then screened for the presence of GM elements, along with certified reference materials. Of the food and feed samples, 8 % tested positive for the presence of one GM element (NOS terminator), of which half (4 % of the total) also contained a second element (the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter). The results obtained herein clearly demonstrate the presence of GM maize in the Turkish market, and that the Foodproof GMO Screening Kit provides reliable screening of maize food and feed products.

  8. Nanoarray of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carbon nanotubes for accurate and predictive detection in real-world environmental humidity.

    PubMed

    Zilberman, Yael; Ionescu, Radu; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Haick, Hossam

    2011-08-23

    In the present work, we introduce a cross-reactive array of synthetically designed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bilayers and demonstrate the huge potential of the array in discriminating between polar and nonpolar volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as well as between the different VOCs from each subgroup. Using appropriate combinations of PAH/SWCNT sensors, we demonstrate that high sensitivity and accuracy values can be obtained for discriminating polar and nonpolar VOCs in samples with variable humidity levels (5-80% RH). The same array of sensors exhibited self-learning capabilities that facilitated exchanging information about environmental properties under observation. The results presented here could lead to the development of a cost-effective, lightweight, low-power, and non-invasive tool for a widespread detection of VOCs in real-world environmental, security, food, health, and other applications.

  9. Structural brain alterations can be detected early in HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Ochs, Renee; Wu, Ying; Sammet, Christina L.; Shoukry, Alfred; Epstein, Leon G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Brain changes occurring early in HIV infection are not well characterized. The Chicago Early HIV Infection Study aimed to evaluate the presence and extent of structural brain alterations using quantitative MRI. Methods: Forty-three HIV and 21 control subjects were enrolled. Mean length of infection was estimated as less than 1 year based on assay results. High-resolution neuroanatomical images were acquired. Automated image analysis was used to derive measurements for total brain, ventricular volume, and for tissue classes (total and cortical gray matter, white matter, and CSF). A separate image analysis algorithm was used to calculate measurements for individual brain regions. Cognitive function was assessed by neuropsychological evaluation. Results: Reductions were quantified in total (p = 0.0547) and cortical (p = 0.0109) gray matter in the HIV group. Analysis of individual brain regions with a separate image analysis algorithm revealed consistent findings of reductions in cerebral cortex (p = 0.042) and expansion of third ventricle (p = 0.046). The early HIV group also demonstrated weaker performance on several neuropsychological tests, with the most pronounced difference in psychomotor speed (p = 0.001). Conclusions: This cross-sectional brain volumetric study indicates structural alterations early in HIV infection. The findings challenge the prevailing assumption that the brain is spared in this period. Revisiting the question of the brain's vulnerability to processes unfolding in the initial virus-host interaction and the early natural history may yield new insights into neurologic injury in HIV infection and inform neuroprotection strategies. PMID:23197750

  10. Early breast cancer detection with digital mammograms using Haar-like features and AdaBoost algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Yang, Clifford; Merkulov, Alex; Bandari, Malavika

    2016-05-01

    The current computer-aided detection (CAD) methods are not sufficiently accurate in detecting masses, especially in dense breasts and/or small masses (typically at their early stages). A small mass may not be perceived when it is small and/or homogeneous with surrounding tissues. Possible reasons for the limited performance of existing CAD methods are lack of multiscale analysis and unification of variant masses. The speed of CAD analysis is important for field applications. We propose a new CAD model for mass detection, which extracts simple Haar-like features for fast detection, uses AdaBoost approach for feature selection and classifier training, applies cascading classifiers for reduction of false positives, and utilizes multiscale detection for variant sizes of masses. In addition to Haar features, local binary pattern (LBP) and histograms of oriented gradient (HOG) are extracted and applied to mass detection. The performance of a CAD system can be measured with true positive rate (TPR) and false positives per image (FPI). We are collecting our own digital mammograms for the proposed research. The proposed CAD model will be initially demonstrated with mass detection including architecture distortion.

  11. Early detection of open fires and spontaneous combustion in mines.

    PubMed

    Hornsby, C D; Makower, A D

    1983-01-01

    Until fairly recently the detection of heatings was based on men seeing or smelling smoke and the laboratory analysis of mine air samples. Continuous monitoring of carbon monoxide by means of tube bundle systems has been a big step forward in detecting spontaneous combustion of coal and has found widespread acceptance in U.K. mines; general fire detection relies on shaft monitors. Both are based on infra-red analysers like the Unor CO-analysers that can be installed underground. In recent years British laboratories have developed and adapted several devices based on other principles: ionisation, semi-conductors, electro-chemical cells, thermistors, detection "thermal noise", infra-red imagers. All these instruments are briefly described by the authors in this paper presented by Mr. Makower.

  12. New Method for Accurate Calibration of Micro-Channel Plate based Detection Systems and its use in the Fast Plasma Investigation of NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliese, U.; Avanov, L. A.; Barrie, A.; Kujawski, J. T.; Mariano, A. J.; Tucker, C. J.; Chornay, D. J.; Cao, N. T.; Zeuch, M.; Pollock, C. J.; Jacques, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) of the NASA Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission employs 16 Dual Electron Spectrometers (DESs) and 16 Dual Ion Spectrometers (DISs) with 4 of each type on each of 4 spacecraft to enable fast (30ms for electrons; 150ms for ions) and spatially differentiated measurements of full the 3D particle velocity distributions. This approach presents a new and challenging aspect to the calibration and operation of these instruments on ground and in flight. The response uniformity and reliability of their calibration and the approach to handling any temporal evolution of these calibrated characteristics all assume enhanced importance in this application, where we attempt to understand the meaning of particle distributions within the ion and electron diffusion regions. Traditionally, the micro-channel plate (MCP) based detection systems for electrostatic particle spectrometers have been calibrated by setting a fixed detection threshold and, subsequently, measuring a detection system count rate plateau curve to determine the MCP voltage that ensures the count rate has reached a constant value independent of further variation in the MCP voltage. This is achieved when most of the MCP pulse height distribution (PHD) is located at higher values (larger pulses) than the detection amplifier threshold. This method is adequate in single-channel detection systems and in multi-channel detection systems with very low crosstalk between channels. However, in dense multi-channel systems, it can be inadequate. Furthermore, it fails to fully and individually characterize each of the fundamental parameters of the detection system. We present a new detection system calibration method that enables accurate and repeatable measurement and calibration of MCP gain, MCP efficiency, signal loss due to variation in gain and efficiency, crosstalk from effects both above and below the MCP, noise margin, and stability margin in one single measurement. The fundamental

  13. Diagnostic tool for early detection of ovarian cancers using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieber, Chad A.; Molpus, Kelly; Brader, Kevin; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2000-05-01

    With an overall survival rate of about 35 percent, ovarian cancer claims more than 13,000 women in the US each year. It is estimated that roughly 1 in 70 women will develop ovarian cancer. Current screening techniques are challenged due to cost-effectiveness, variable false-positive results, and the asymptomatic nature of the early stages of ovarian cancer. The predominant screening method for ovarian cancers is transvaginal sonography (TVS). TVS is fairly accomplished at ovarian cancer detection, however it is inefficient in distinguishing between benign and malignant masses. Accurate diagnosis of the ovarian tumor relies on exploratory laparotomy, thus increasing the cost and hazard of false- positive screening methods. Raman spectroscopy has been sued successfully as a diagnostic tool in several organ systems in vitro. These studies have shown that Raman spectroscopy can be used to provide diagnosis of subtle changes in tissue pathology with high accuracy. Based on this success, we have developed a Raman spectroscopic system for application in the ovary. Using this system, the Raman signatures of normal and various types of non-normal human ovarian tissues were characterized in vitro. Raman spectra are being analyzed, and empirical as well as multivariate discriminatory algorithms developed. Based on the result of this study, a strategy for in vivo trials will be planned.

  14. Detection of buried targets using a new enhanced very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cui, T.J.; Chew, W.C.; Aydiner, A.A.; Wright, D.L.; Smith, D.V.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, numerical simulations of a new enhanced very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype system are presented, where a horizontal transmitting loop and two horizontal receiving loops are used to detect buried targets, in which three loops share the same axis and the transmitter is located at the center of receivers. In the new VETEM system, the difference of signals from two receivers is taken to eliminate strong direct-signals from the transmitter and background clutter and furthermore to obtain a better SNR for buried targets. Because strong coupling exists between the transmitter and receivers, accurate analysis of the three-loop antenna system is required, for which a loop-tree basis function method has been utilized to overcome the low-frequency breakdown problem. In the analysis of scattering problem from buried targets, a conjugate gradient (CG) method with fast Fourier transform (FFT) is applied to solve the electric field integral equation. However, the convergence of such CG-FFT algorithm is extremely slow at very low frequencies. In order to increase the convergence rate, a frequency-hopping approach has been used. Finally, the primary, coupling, reflected, and scattered magnetic fields are evaluated at receiving loops to calculate the output electric current. Numerous simulation results are given to interpret the new VETEM system. Comparing with other single-transmitter-receiver systems, the new VETEM has better SNR and ability to reduce the clutter.

  15. Free and complexed prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the early detection of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Tello, F L; Prats, C H; González, M D

    2001-02-01

    We evaluated the analytical performance and diagnostic utility of complexed prostate-specific antigen (CPSA) and their ratios, complexed-to-total PSA (C/T PSA) and free-to-complexed PSA (F/C PSA), in comparison with the total PSA (TPSA) and free-to-total PSA ratio (F/T PSA) as means of diagnosing prostate cancer (PC). Samples (n=101) were drawn from men with no evidence of malignancy (n=80) and from men with PC (n=21) at biopsy. For determination of the F/T PSA ratio, the DPC Immulite-2000 method was used; and the Bayer Immuno-1 CPSA and TPSA assays were used to determine the C/T PSA ratio. The Bayer Immuno-1 CPSA assay provides accurate and precise CPSA values in human serum. The performance of the different forms and ratios was compared using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. CPSA had the greatest area under the curve (AUC, 0.689) although it was not statistically different from the other parameters. A cut-off value of 4.66 ng/ml for CPSA provided a specificity of 38% and a sensitivity of 93%. The F/C PSA ratio maintained a sensitivity of 93% and had an increased specificity of 41%. The measurement of CPSA provides a slight increase in specificity compared with the use of the TPSA in the early detection of prostate cancer.

  16. Evaluation of cross-polarized near infrared hyperspectral imaging for early detection of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Despite major improvements in dental healthcare and oral hygiene, dental caries remains one of the most prevalent oral diseases and represents the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The initial stages of dental caries are characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals and are difficult to diagnose. Near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging is a new promising technique for detection of early changes in the surfaces of carious teeth. This noninvasive imaging technique can characterize and differentiate between the sound tooth surface and initial or advanced tooth caries. The absorbing and scattering properties of dental tissues reflect in distinct spectral features, which can be measured, quantified and used to accurately classify and map different dental tissues. Specular reflections from the tooth surface, which appear as bright spots, mostly located around the edges and the crests of the teeth, act as a noise factor which can significantly interfere with the spectral measurements and analysis of the acquired images, degrading the accuracy of the classification and diagnosis. Employing cross-polarized imaging setup can solve this problem, however has yet to be systematically evaluated, especially in broadband hyperspectral imaging setups. In this paper, we employ cross-polarized illumination setup utilizing state-of-the-art high-contrast broadband wire-grid polarizers in the spectral range from 900 nm to 1700 nm for hyperspectral imaging of natural and artificial carious lesions of various degrees.

  17. [Contribution to the early diagnosis of bacteremia: microbial growth detection in liquid culture media by ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Maestre, J R; Montero de Espinosa, F R

    2001-04-01

    Nosocomial infection is an important problem because the number of patients daily affected in big hospitals. A big effort exists to develop techniques able to early detect the micro-organisms which cause the infection. The ultrasound is a mechanical radiology technique widely used in Medicine for diagnosis and therapy. It is also well known that this radiation can be used to control relative changes of several physico-chemical parameters in liquids. As an example, the velocity an attenuation of acoustic waves coming through a liquid can be accurately measured. The developed technique consists of an ultrasonic chamber immersed into a thermostatized water bath with two transducers operating in through-transmission. Different culture bottles were placed in between the transducers to live the ultrasound to come across the sample. Several micro-organisms with controlled concentrations, chosen between the most common in sepsis clinical, were used to inoculate each bottle. In the case of aerobic metabolism, the carbon dioxide gas produced by bacteria introduce elastic changes into the liquid which modify both the propagation velocity and the attenuation of the ultrasound. The continuous monitoring of the time-of-flight and the amplitude of an ultrasonic pulse coming through the sample give us a clear indication of the metabolism process. The signatures observed permits the identification of algorithms to early define the positive cases. The developed technique is faster than other commercial systems. The intrinsically non-invasive characteristic of the ultrasound and the relative cheapness of the technique open new attractive possibilities in microbiological diagnosis.

  18. 2014 CODEPEH recommendations: Early detection of late onset deafness, audiological diagnosis, hearing aid fitting and early intervention.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Sequí-Canet, Jose Miguel; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Zubicaray-Ugarteche, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The latest scientific literature considers early diagnosis of deafness as the key element to define the educational and inclusive prognosis of the deaf child, because it allows taking advantage of the critical period of development (0-4 years). Highly significant differences exist between deaf people who have been stimulated early and those who have received late or improper intervention. Early identification of late-onset disorders requires special attention and knowledge on the part of every childcare professional. Programs and additional actions beyond neonatal screening should be designed and planed to ensure that every child with a significant hearing loss is detected early. For this purpose, the CODEPEH would like to highlight the need for continuous monitoring of children's auditory health. Consequently, CODEPEH has drafted the recommendations included in the present document.

  19. Early Detection of Breast Cancer via Multiplane Correlation Breast Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    survival rates of patients through early diagnosis. Additionally, disorders such as hemochromatosis (liver iron overload associated with...34 Curr Opin Hematol, vol. 4, pp. 436-41, 1997. [15] L. W. Powell and K. J. Isselbacher, " Hemochromatosis ," in Harrison’s Principles of Internal...Medicine: McGraw-Hill. [16] L. W. Powell, "Diagnosis of hemochromatosis ," Semin Gastrointest Dis, vol. 13, pp. 80-8, 2002. [17] L. W. Powell, D. K

  20. Early detection of cardiac ischemia using a conductometric pCO(2) sensor: real-time drift correction and parameterization.

    PubMed

    Tronstad, Christian; Pischke, Soeren E; Holhjem, Lars; Tønnessen, Tor Inge; Martinsen, Orjan G; Grimnes, Sverre

    2010-09-01

    For detection of cardiac ischemia based on regional pCO(2) measurement, sensor drift becomes a problem when monitoring over several hours. A real-time drift correction algorithm was developed based on utilization of the time-derivative to distinguish between physiological responses and the drift, customized by measurements from a myocardial infarction porcine model (6 pigs, 23 sensors). IscAlert conductometric pCO(2) sensors were placed in the myocardial regions supplied by the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the left circumflex artery (LCX) while the LAD artery was fully occluded for 1, 3, 5 and 15 min leading to ischemia in the LAD-dependent region. The measured pCO(2), the drift-corrected pCO(2) (DeltapCO(2)) and its time-derivative (TDpCO(2)) were compared with respect to detection ability. Baseline stability in the DeltapCO(2) led to earlier, more accurate detection. The TDpCO(2) featured the earliest sensitivity, but with a lower specificity. Combining DeltapCO(2) and TDpCO(2) enables increased accuracy. Suggestions are given for the utilization of the parameters for an automated early warning and alarming system. In conclusion, early detection of cardiac ischemia is feasible using the conductometric pCO(2) sensor together with parameterization methods.

  1. High-sensitivity array analysis of gene expression for the early detection of disseminated breast tumor cells in peripheral blood

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Katherine J.; Graner, Edgard; Li, Yi; Price, Laura M.; Kritzman, Brian M.; Fournier, Marcia V.; Rhei, Esther; Pardee, Arthur B.

    2001-01-01

    Early detection is an effective means of reducing cancer mortality. Here, we describe a highly sensitive high-throughput screen that can identify panels of markers for the early detection of solid tumor cells disseminated in peripheral blood. The method is a two-step combination of differential display and high-sensitivity cDNA arrays. In a primary screen, differential display identified 170 candidate marker genes differentially expressed between breast tumor cells and normal breast epithelial cells. In a secondary screen, high-sensitivity arrays assessed expression levels of these genes in 48 blood samples, 22 from healthy volunteers and 26 from breast cancer patients. Cluster analysis identified a group of 12 genes that were elevated in the blood of cancer patients. Permutation analysis of individual genes defined five core genes (P ≤ 0.05, permax test). As a group, the 12 genes generally distinguished accurately between healthy volunteers and patients with breast cancer. Mean expression levels of the 12 genes were elevated in 77% (10 of 13) untreated invasive cancer patients, whereas cluster analysis correctly classified volunteers and patients (P = 0.0022, Fisher's exact test). Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed array results and indicated that the sensitivity of the assay (1:2 × 108 transcripts) was sufficient to detect disseminated solid tumor cells in blood. Expression-based blood assays developed with the screening approach described here have the potential to detect and classify solid tumor cells originating from virtually any primary site in the body. PMID:11226293

  2. Early detection of foot ulcers through asymmetry analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaabouch, Naima; Chen, Yi; Hu, Wen-Chen; Anderson, Julie; Ames, Forrest; Paulson, Rolf

    2009-02-01

    Foot ulcers affect millions of Americans annually. Areas that are likely to ulcerate have been associated with increased local skin temperatures due to inflammation and enzymatic autolysis of tissue. Conventional methods to assess skin, including inspection and palpation, may be valuable approaches, but usually they do not detect changes in skin integrity until an ulcer has already developed. Conversely, infrared imaging is a technology able to assess the integrity of the skin and its many layers, thus having the potential to index the cascade of physiological events in the prevention, assessment, and management of foot ulcers. In this paper, we propose a technique, asymmetry analysis, to automatically analyze the infrared images in order to detect inflammation. Preliminary results show that the proposed technique can be reliable and efficient to detect inflammation and, hence, predict potential ulceration.

  3. Compact and cost-effective temperature-insensitive bio-sensor based on long-period fiber gratings for accurate detection of E. coli bacteria in water.

    PubMed

    Dandapat, Krishnendu; Tripathi, Saurabh Mani; Chinifooroshan, Yasser; Bock, Wojtek J; Mikulic, Predrag

    2016-09-15

    We propose and demonstrate a novel temperature-insensitive bio-sensor for accurate and quantitative detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria in water. Surface sensitivity is maximized by operating the long-period fiber grating (LPFG) closest to its turnaround wavelength, and the temperature insensitivity is achieved by selectively exciting a pair of cladding modes with opposite dispersion characteristics. Our sensor shows a nominal temperature sensitivity of ∼1.25  pm/°C, which can be further reduced by properly adjusting the LPFG lengths, while maintaining a high refractive index sensitivity of 1929 nm/RIU. The overall length of the sensor is ∼3.6  cm, making it ideally suitable for bio-sensing applications. As an example, we also show the sensor's capability for reliable, quantitative detection of E. coli bacteria in water over a temperature fluctuation of room temperature to 40°C.

  4. 76 FR 55915 - Request for Nominations of Candidates to Serve on the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... on the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC) The... the CDC on the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The role of the BCCEDCAC...

  5. Lung Cancer: Early Detection is the Key | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Early Detection is the Key Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Lung cancer survivor Dusty Donaldson helps to spread the word ...

  6. Use of digital PCR to improve early detection of CLas infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing is a devastating disease of citrus caused by the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. Huanglongbing has devastated the Florida citrus industry and is threatening citrus in Texas and California. Detection of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus infections as early as possible is ...

  7. DCP's Early Detection Research Guides Future Science | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Early detection research funded by the NCI's Division of Cancer Prevention has positively steered both public health and clinical outcomes, and set the stage for findings in the next generation of research. |

  8. Early Detection Monitoring for Invasive Fish: St. Louis River (SLR) Pilot Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early detection of aquatic invasive species is necessary to develop and implement timely management responses. Predicting species introductions, however, is difficult and resources are typically limited. Therefore, monitoring strategies should be designed to effectively and eff...

  9. EPA, NASA, NOAA and USGS Creating Early Warning System to Detect Harmful Algal Blooms

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that it is developing an early warning indicator system using historical and current satellite data to detect algal blooms. EPA researchers will develop a mobile app to inform water

  10. Early detection network design and search strategy issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a series of field and related modeling studies (2005-2012) to evaluate search strategies for Great Lakes coastal ecosystems that are at risk of invasion by non-native aquatic species. In developing a network, we should design to achieve an acceptable limit of detect...

  11. Early detection of autism. Diagnostic instruments for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Gillberg, C; Nordin, V; Ehlers, S

    1996-06-01

    Autism and Asperger syndrome are disorders with early childhood onset. They are believed to exist on the same spectrum of impairments of reciprocal communication and social interaction restriction of imagination and behaviour. A number of screening and diagnostic tools have been developed in the field, and several of these are briefly reviewed here. It is concluded that autism may be screened around age 18 months and a diagnosis reliably be made around age 30 months, whereas a diagnosis of Asperger syndrome is not usually suspected, screened or made until into the child's school age.

  12. Neonatal and early infancy management of prenatally detected hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Swords, Kelly A; Peters, Craig A

    2015-09-01

    Hydronephrosis discovered during prenatal ultrasound will often resolve spontaneously; however, it should be evaluated in the postnatal period in a manner commensurate with its risk of renal injury. Early intervention is appropriate in cases of bladder outlet obstruction or the severely obstructed solitary kidney. In most other cases, it is both safe and reasonable to allow the possibility of spontaneous improvement with the intensity of follow-up based on the severity of the hydronephrosis. Clinical decision making should be a shared process between families and caregivers.

  13. Biomarkers for Early Detection of Clinically Relevant Prostate Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Validation Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    1 1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0596 TITLE: Biomarkers for Early Detection of Clinically Relevant Prostate Cancer. A Multi-Institutional...Validation Trial PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jesse McKenney, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Cleveland Clinic Foundation Cleveland, OH 44195 REPORT DATE...COVERED 30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Biomarkers for Early Detection of Clinically Relevant Prostate Cancer. A

  14. Radiolabeled Exosomes for the Early Detection of Metastases and to Predict Breast Cancer Premetastatic Niche

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    1 Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0249 TITLE: Radiolabeled Exosomes for the Early Detection of...COVERED August 2013- July 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Radiolabeled Exosomes for the Early Detection of Metastases 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER and to...disease in BC patients using cancer cell derived particles known as exosomes as a guide. We hypothesized that exosomes tagged with appropriate

  15. Probing Alzheimers Disease Pathology and Early Detection at the NSLS with Infrared, XRF, and DEI

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong,Z.; Bennett, D.; Chapman, D.; Chen, J.; Connor, D.; Dilmanian, A.; Faulconer, L.; Kao, T.; Leskovjan, A.; et al

    2008-01-01

    We explored diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) in both planar and computed tomography (CT) modes for early detection of beta amyloid deposition, a hallmark feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since amyloid plaques precede clinical symptoms by years, their early detection is of great interest. These findings were correlated with results from synchrotron infrared microspectroscopic imaging and X-ray fluorescence microscopy, to determine the secondary structure of the amyloid beta protein and metal concentration in the amyloid plaques, respectively.

  16. Dual-mode microwave system to enhance early detection of cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, K. L.; El-Mahdi, A. M.; Shaeffer, J.

    1981-01-01

    A dual-mode microwave system has been developed that will permit early detection of cancer. The system combines the use of the passive microwave radiometer with an active transmitter. The active transmitter will provide localized heating to enhance early detection by taking advantage of the differential heating (i.e., tumor temperature with respect to surrounding tissue) associated with the thermal characteristics of tumors.

  17. Effective Partnering of State Agencies to Achieve Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Benchmarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Relative to Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI), New Mexico struggles with multiple points of referral into early intervention in the same way most states do. Referrals are not systematized through a single point of entry. The Step*Hi (statewide Parent-Infant) Program of the New Mexico School for the Deaf (NMSD) receives referrals from…

  18. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised clinical screening recommendations for both breast and cervical cancer on the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early...

  19. The Importance of Distinguishing "Propensity" versus "Ability" to Imitate in ASD Research and Early Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivanti, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Imitation abnormalities are often documented in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), however the relevance of imitation to early development and early detection of ASD remains unclear. Recent studies that investigated whether imitation at 12 months distinguishes children who will subsequently receive an ASD diagnosis from other…

  20. Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer—a Defined Future Using Lessons From Other Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kenner, Barbara J.; Chari, Suresh T.; Maitra, Anirban; Srivastava, Sudhir; Cleeter, Deborah F.; Go, Vay Liang W.; Rothschild, Laura J.; Goldberg, Ann E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The implementation of effective early detection programs has significantly improved treatment, prognosis, and life expectancy in breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. Early-detection methods need to be developed for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), where progress during the past decades has remained slow. Addressing this need, the forum “Early Detection: Lessons Learned from Other Cancers” was held in November 2015 and presented by the Kenner Family Research Fund in partnership with the American Pancreatic Association. Leading experts from breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers described the development of early detection methods in their respective fields. Emerging opportunities for scientific advancement were subsequently identified that hold the greatest promise for the future of early detection in PDAC, including a 4-part strategic map of necessary actionable items. Knowledge from other fields must be applied to achieve large-scale change within the arena of PDAC. A major breakthrough in early detection of PDAC will occur only through a definitive interdisciplinary collaborative effort involving a critical mass of committed academic research institutions, government agencies, industry leaders, and philanthropies. PMID:27518362

  1. Towards the Early Detection of Breast Cancer in Young Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    tissue types. For example, it is difficult to distinguish a ductal carcinoma in-situ from a phyllodes tumor based on E alone (since the ratio is about...cancer, it is less effective in younger women (≤ 40 years), usually because the higher density of their breasts can obscure tumors . While the...to breast cancer detection (see [2] for example) utilizes the fact that breast tumors tend to be significantly stiffer than the surrounding tissue [3

  2. Early Detection of Breast Cancer Using Posttranslationally Modified Biomarkers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Globo H (16-18), sialosyl-TF (19-22) and advanced glycation end products (AGE) (23, 24). However, we are lacking of specific antibodies for this...we found out that the sialosyl-TF and advanced glycation end products (AGE) are too low to detect or the sensitivity of these antibodies are not...and Zima, T. (2007) Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)--soluble form (sRAGE) and gene polymorphisms in patients with breast cancer

  3. Early Lung Cancer Detection via Global Protein Modification Profiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    remission at 3 years (low risk) following diagnosis (Figure 2). The top graph shows the mean difference in the observed expression of the first 100...in patients with remission at 3 years. These preliminary results suggest that the PTM profiles of Lung cancer tumors with poor prognosis may be...highly divergent from that of tumors from patients that were in remission at 3 years following diagnosis and these differences can be detected using

  4. Using ductoscopy to detect breast mass at an early stage.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Carol A

    2002-11-01

    Using a new procedure termed fiberoptic ductoscopy, a surgeon can visualize a patient's breast mammary ducts directly with a 0.9-mm scope. Eighty-five percent of breast cancers are thought to originate in the epithelial lining of the mammary ducts. The hope is that this new technique will allow surgeons to detect breast cancer in high-risk patients before a mass is felt or seen via mammography.

  5. Remote Sensing Plant Stress Using Combined Fluorescence and Reflectance Measurements for Early Detection of Defoliants within the Battlefield Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-02

    REPORT Remote sensing plant stress using combined fluorescence and reflectance measurements for early detection of defoliants within the battlefied...stress using combined fluorescence and reflectance measurements for early detection of defoliants within the battlefied environment Report Title...combined fluorescence and reflectance measurements for early detection of defoliants within the battlefield environment ARO Proposal # (49364-EV

  6. An Attempt of Early Detection of Poor Outcome after Whiplash

    PubMed Central

    Laporte, Sebastien; Wang, Danping; Lecompte, Jennyfer; Blancho, Sophie; Sandoz, Baptiste; Feydy, Antoine; Lindberg, Pavel; Adrian, Julien; Chiarovano, Elodie; de Waele, Catherine; Vidal, Pierre-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The main concern with whiplash is that a large proportion of whiplash patients experience disabling symptoms or whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) for months if not years following the accident. Therefore, identifying early prognostic factors of WAD development is important as WAD have widespread clinical and economic consequences. In order to tackle that question, our study was specifically aimed at combining several methods of investigation in the same WAD patients at the acute stage and 6 months later. Our longitudinal, open, prospective, multi-center study included 38 whiplash patients, and 13 healthy volunteers matched for age, gender, and socio-economic status with the whiplash group. Whiplash patients were evaluated 15–21 days after road accident, and 6 months later. At each appointment, patients underwent a neuropsychological evaluation, a full clinical neurological examination, neurophysiological and postural tests, oto-neurological tests, cervical spine cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with tractography (DTI). At 6 months, whiplash patients were categorized into two subgroups based on the results of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as having either favorable or unfavorable progression [an unfavorable classification corresponding to the presence of post-concussion symptom (PCS)] and we searched retrospectively for early prognostic factors of WAD predicting the passage to chronicity. We found that patients displaying high level of catastrophizing at the acute stage and/or post-traumatic stress disorder associated with either abnormalities in head or trunk kinematics, abnormal test of the otolithic function and at the Equitest or a combination of these syndromes, turned to chronicity. This study suggests that low-grade whiplash patients should be submitted as early as possible after the trauma to neuropsychological and motor control tests in a specialized consultation. In addition, they should be evaluated by a neuro

  7. An Attempt of Early Detection of Poor Outcome after Whiplash.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Sebastien; Wang, Danping; Lecompte, Jennyfer; Blancho, Sophie; Sandoz, Baptiste; Feydy, Antoine; Lindberg, Pavel; Adrian, Julien; Chiarovano, Elodie; de Waele, Catherine; Vidal, Pierre-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The main concern with whiplash is that a large proportion of whiplash patients experience disabling symptoms or whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) for months if not years following the accident. Therefore, identifying early prognostic factors of WAD development is important as WAD have widespread clinical and economic consequences. In order to tackle that question, our study was specifically aimed at combining several methods of investigation in the same WAD patients at the acute stage and 6 months later. Our longitudinal, open, prospective, multi-center study included 38 whiplash patients, and 13 healthy volunteers matched for age, gender, and socio-economic status with the whiplash group. Whiplash patients were evaluated 15-21 days after road accident, and 6 months later. At each appointment, patients underwent a neuropsychological evaluation, a full clinical neurological examination, neurophysiological and postural tests, oto-neurological tests, cervical spine cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with tractography (DTI). At 6 months, whiplash patients were categorized into two subgroups based on the results of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as having either favorable or unfavorable progression [an unfavorable classification corresponding to the presence of post-concussion symptom (PCS)] and we searched retrospectively for early prognostic factors of WAD predicting the passage to chronicity. We found that patients displaying high level of catastrophizing at the acute stage and/or post-traumatic stress disorder associated with either abnormalities in head or trunk kinematics, abnormal test of the otolithic function and at the Equitest or a combination of these syndromes, turned to chronicity. This study suggests that low-grade whiplash patients should be submitted as early as possible after the trauma to neuropsychological and motor control tests in a specialized consultation. In addition, they should be evaluated by a neuro

  8. Early pest detection in soy plantations from hyperspectral measurements: a case study for caterpillar detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tailanián, Matías; Castiglioni, Enrique; Musé, Pablo; Fernández Flores, Germán.; Lema, Gabriel; Mastrángelo, Pedro; Almansa, Mónica; Fernández Liñares, Ignacio; Fernández Liñares, Germán.

    2015-10-01

    Soybean producers suffer from caterpillar damage in many areas of the world. Estimated average economic losses are annually 500 million USD in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. Designing efficient pest control management using selective and targeted pesticide applications is extremely important both from economic and environmental perspectives. With that in mind, we conducted a research program during the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 planting seasons in a 4,000 ha soybean farm, seeking to achieve early pest detection. Nowadays pest presence is evaluated using manual, labor-intensive counting methods based on sampling strategies which are time consuming and imprecise. The experiment was conducted as follows. Using manual counting methods as ground-truth, a spectrometer capturing reflectance from 400 to 1100 nm was used to measure the reflectance of soy plants. A first conclusion, resulting from measuring the spectral response at leaves level, showed that stress was a property of plants since different leaves with different levels of damage yielded the same spectral response. Then, to assess the applicability of unsupervised classification of plants as healthy, biotic-stressed or abiotic-stressed, feature extraction and selection from leaves spectral signatures, combined with a Supported Vector Machine classifier was designed. Optimization of SVM parameters using grid search with cross-validation, along with classification evaluation by ten-folds cross-validation showed a correct classification rate of 95%, consistently on both seasons. Controlled experiments using cages with different numbers of caterpillars--including caterpillar-free plants--were also conducted to evaluate consistency in trends of the spectral response as well as the extracted features.

  9. Application of multispectral reflectance for early detection of tomato disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huirong; Zhu, Shengpan; Ying, Yibin; Jiang, Huanyu

    2006-10-01

    Automatic diagnosis of plant disease is important for plant management and environmental preservation in the future. The objective of this study is to use multispectral reflectance measurements to make an early discrimination between the healthy and infected plants by the strain of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-U1) infection. There were reflectance changes in the visible (VIS) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) between the healthy and infected plants. Discriminant models were developed using discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) and Mahalanobis distance (MD). The DPLS models had a root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 0.397 and correlation coefficient (r) of 0.59 and the MD model correctly classified 86.7% healthy plants and up to 91.7% infected plants.

  10. Detecting early stage osteoarthritis by optical coherence tomography?

    PubMed Central

    Jahr, Holger; Brill, Nicolai; Nebelung, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic disease of our joints, manifested by a dynamically increasing degeneration of hyaline articular cartilage (AC). While currently no therapy can reverse this process, the few available treatment options are hampered by the inability of early diagnosis. Loss of cartilage surface, or extracellular matrix (ECM), integrity is considered the earliest sign of OA. Despite the increasing number of imaging modalities surprisingly few imaging biomarkers exist. In this narrative review, recent developments in optical coherence tomography are critically evaluated for their potential to assess different aspects of AC quality as biomarkers of OA. Special attention is paid to imaging surface irregularities, ECM organization and the evaluation of posttraumatic injuries by light-based modalities. PMID:26862954

  11. Laser Raman detection of platelet as a non-invasive approach for early and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P.; Tian, Q.; Baek, S. J.; Shang, X. L.; Park, A.; Liu, Z. C.; Yao, X. Q.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, X. H.; Cheng, Y.; Peng, J.; Shen, A. G.; Hu, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    Early and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a problem that puzzled many doctors. Reliable markers in easy-assembling samples are of considerable clinical diagnostic value. In this work, laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) was developed a new method that potentially allows early and differential diagnosis of AD from the platelet sample. Raman spectra of platelets isolated from different ages of AD transgenic mice and non-transgenic controls were collected and analyzed. Multilayer perceptron networks (MLP) classification method was used to classify spectra and establish the diagnostic models. For differential diagnosis, spectra of platelets isolated from AD, Parkinson's disease (PD) and vascular dementia (VD) mice were also discriminated. Two notable spectral differences at 740 and 1654 cm-1 were revealed in the mean spectrum of platelets isolated from AD transgenic mice and the controls. MLP displayed a powerful ability in the classifying of early, advanced AD and the control group, and in differential diagnosis of PD and advanced AD, as well as VD and advanced AD. The results suggest that platelet detecting by LRS coupled with MLP analysis appears to be an easy and accurate method for early and differential diagnosis of AD. This technique could be rapidly promoted from laboratory to the hospital.

  12. Validation of Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Colorectal Adenocarcinoma (GLNE 010) — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    We propose a Phase 2 (large cross-sectional) PRoBE-compliant validation trial of stool-based and serum-based tests for the detection of colorectal neoplasia (1). The trial is powered to detect early stage colorectal adenocarcinoma or high grade dysplasia. This is the most stringent, conservative approach to the early diagnosis of colonic neoplasia and addresses the most important endpoint of identifying individuals with curable, early stage cancer and those with very high risk non-invasive neoplasia (high grade dysplasia).

  13. An Integrated Tool to Study MHC Region: Accurate SNV Detection and HLA Genes Typing in Human MHC Region Using Targeted High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Xu, Yinyin; Liang, Dequan; Gao, Peng; Sun, Yepeng; Gifford, Benjamin; D’Ascenzo, Mark; Liu, Xiaomin; Tellier, Laurent C. A. M.; Yang, Fang; Tong, Xin; Chen, Dan; Zheng, Jing; Li, Weiyang; Richmond, Todd; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun; Li, Yingrui

    2013-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the most variable and gene-dense regions of the human genome. Most studies of the MHC, and associated regions, focus on minor variants and HLA typing, many of which have been demonstrated to be associated with human disease susceptibility and metabolic pathways. However, the detection of variants in the MHC region, and diagnostic HLA typing, still lacks a coherent, standardized, cost effective and high coverage protocol of clinical quality and reliability. In this paper, we presented such a method for the accurate detection of minor variants and HLA types in the human MHC region, using high-throughput, high-coverage sequencing of target regions. A probe set was designed to template upon the 8 annotated human MHC haplotypes, and to encompass the 5 megabases (Mb) of the extended MHC region. We deployed our probes upon three, genetically diverse human samples for probe set evaluation, and sequencing data show that ∼97% of the MHC region, and over 99% of the genes in MHC region, are covered with sufficient depth and good evenness. 98% of genotypes called by this capture sequencing prove consistent with established HapMap genotypes. We have concurrently developed a one-step pipeline for calling any HLA type referenced in the IMGT/HLA database from this target capture sequencing data, which shows over 96% typing accuracy when deployed at 4 digital resolution. This cost-effective and highly accurate approach for variant detection and HLA typing in the MHC region may lend further insight into immune-mediated diseases studies, and may find clinical utility in transplantation medicine research. This one-step pipeline is released for general evaluation and use by the scientific community. PMID:23894464

  14. Application of nanotechnology in cancers prevention, early detection and treatment.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shraddha P; Patel, Parshottambhai B; Parekh, Bhavesh B

    2014-01-01

    Use of nanotechnology in medical science is a rapidly developing area. New opportunities of diagnosis, imaging and therapy have developed due to recent rapid advancement by nanotechnology. The most common areas to be affected are diagnostic, imaging and targeted drug delivery in gastroenterology, oncology, cardiovascular medicine, obstetrics and gynecology. Mass screening with inexpensive imaging might be possible in the near future with the help of nanotechnology. This review paper provides an overview of causes of cancer and the application of nanotechnology in cancer prevention, detection and treatment.

  15. Towards the Early Detection of Breast Cancer in Young Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    distinguish a ductal carcinoma in-situ from a phyllodes tumor based on E alone (since the ratio is about 1.1), while it should be relatively easy to do so...are unaffected by the denseness of the breast. The application of EI to breast cancer detection utilizes the fact that tumors are stiffer than the...years), usually because the higher density of their breasts can obscure tumors . While the incidence of cancer in younger women is relatively low, it is

  16. Early detection of thrombin activity in neuroinflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Davalos, Dimitrios; Baeten, Kim M; Whitney, Michael A; Mullins, Eric S; Friedman, Beth; Olson, Emilia S; Ryu, Jae Kyu; Smirnoff, Dimitri S; Petersen, Mark A; Bedard, Catherine; Degen, Jay L; Tsien, Roger Y; Akassoglou, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    Although multiple sclerosis (MS) has been associated with the coagulation system, the temporal and spatial regulation of coagulation activity in neuroinflammatory lesions is unknown. Using a novel molecular probe, we characterized the activity pattern of thrombin, the central protease of the coagulation cascade, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Thrombin activity preceded onset of neurological signs, increased at disease peak, and correlated with fibrin deposition, microglial activation, demyelination, axonal damage, and clinical severity. Mice with a genetic deficit in prothrombin confirmed the specificity of the thrombin probe. Thrombin activity might be exploited for developing sensitive probes for preclinical detection and monitoring of neuroinflammation and MS progression. PMID:24740641

  17. Towards accurate assessments of CH4 and N2O soil-atmosphere exchange rates with the combination of automated systems and new detection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Pinés, E.; Wolf, B.; Kiese, R.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2012-04-01

    Soils can be either a source or a sink of CH4 and N2O. Accurate assessment of CH4 and N2O soil-atmosphere exchange processes is necessary in order to estimate the contribution of soil to the global warming potential under current and future conditions. Soil-atmosphere exchange processes of both CH4 and N2O depend on a combination of soil temperature and soil moisture status, as well as on nutrient availability and various microbial processes. The task of measuring CH4 and N2O exchange processes is challenging due to, among other factors: high spatial ("hot spots") and temporal heterogeneity ("hot moments") in the emissions of these species. In addition, accurate determination of CH4 and N2O concentrations is still difficult. So far, this prevents from a full understanding and contributes to a high uncertainty degree in the assessment of CH4 and N2O soil-atmosphere exchange rates across different ecosystems. Aiming at the achievement of a deeper understanding of the role of the soil in the GHG balance, we have combined new laser spectroscopy detection techniques (Quantum Cascade Laser, QCL) with automatic and semi-automatic chamber measurement systems. Therefore, different applications will be presented: A three-month-long field campaign in a poplar plantation in NE Romania allowed us to demonstrate the feasibility of the QCL coupled with automatic chambers to accurately estimate the soil-atmosphere GHG exchange at a high time resolution with a very low detection limit. A new semi-automatic system with relatively low human-maintenance requirements was tested in a poplar plantation in SW Germany. The system is not able to record fine-scale temporal variations of the GHG exchange processes; however, cumulative fluxes obtained with the semi-automatic system were very close to those measured with an automatic system with high temporal resolution. Within a climate change experiment in grassland ecosystems, an application of the QCL in combination with a robotized chamber

  18. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  19. Early Detection Monitoring Approaches for Exotic Aquatic Species in Great Lakes Harbors and Embayments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic invasive species pose a significant ecological and economic threat in the Great Lakes basin. Early detection of invaders is desirable so as to allow for a timely management response, raising the question of how to accomplish this detection in a consistent, cost-effective...

  20. The Effect of Early Visual Deprivation on the Development of Face Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Dywan, Jane; Le Grand, Richard; Maurer, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    The expertise of adults in face perception is facilitated by their ability to rapidly detect that a stimulus is a face. In two experiments, we examined the role of early visual input in the development of face detection by testing patients who had been treated as infants for bilateral congenital cataract. Experiment 1 indicated that, at age 9 to…

  1. Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate by leaf biochemical parameter inversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early detection of crop injury from glyphosate is of significant importance in crop management. In this paper, we attempt to detect glyphosate-induced crop injury by PROSPECT (leaf optical PROperty SPECTra model) inversion through leaf hyperspectral reflectance measurements for non-Glyphosate-Resist...

  2. Biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer and polyps: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shah, Reena; Jones, Emma; Vidart, Victoire; Kuppen, Peter J K; Conti, John A; Francis, Nader K

    2014-09-01

    There is growing interest in early detection of colorectal cancer as current screening modalities lack compliance and specificity. This study systematically reviewed the literature to identify biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer and polyps. Literature searches were conducted for relevant papers since 2007. Human studies reporting on early detection of colorectal cancer and polyps using biomarkers were included. Methodologic quality was evaluated, and sensitivity, specificity, and the positive predictive value (PPV) were reported. The search strategy identified 3,348 abstracts. A total of 44 papers, examining 67 different tumor markers, were included. Overall sensitivities for colorectal cancer detection by fecal DNA markers ranged from 53% to 87%. Combining fecal DNA markers increased the sensitivity of colorectal cancer and adenoma detection. Canine scent detection had a sensitivity of detecting colorectal cancer of 99% and specificity of 97%. The PPV of immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) is 1.26%, compared with 0.31% for the current screening method of guaiac fecal occult blood test (gFOBT). A panel of serum protein biomarkers provides a sensitivity and specificity above 85% for all stages of colorectal cancer, and a PPV of 0.72%. Combinations of fecal and serum biomarkers produce higher sensitivities, specificities, and PPVs for early detection of colorectal cancer and adenomas. Further research is required to validate these biomarkers in a well-structured population-based study.

  3. Sampling design for early detection of aquatic invasive species in Great Lakes ports

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated a pilot adaptive monitoring program for aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection in Lake Superior. The monitoring program is designed to detect newly-introduced fishes, and encompasses the lake’s three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thund...

  4. Early detection monitoring of aquatic invasive species: Measuring performance success in a Lake Superior pilot network

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, Annex 6 calls for a U.S.-Canada, basin-wide aquatic invasive species early detection network by 2015. The objective of our research is to explore survey design strategies that can improve detection efficiency, and to develop performance me...

  5. Sampling design for aquatic invasive species early detection in Great Lakes ports

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 2006-2012, we evaluated a pilot aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection monitoring program in Lake Superior that was designed to detect newly introduced fishes. We established survey protocols for three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thunder Bay) and ...

  6. [CODEPEH 2014 recommendations for the early detection of delayed hearing loss].

    PubMed

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Sequí-Canet, José Miguel; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Zubicaray-Ugarteche, José

    2016-10-01

    The latest scientific literature considers early diagnosis of deafness as key element to define the educational prognosis and inclusion of the deaf child, as advantage can be taken in the critical period of development (0-4 years). Highly significant differences exist between those deaf persons who have been stimulated early and those who have received late or inappropriate intervention. Early identification of late-onset disorders requires special attention and knowledge of all childcare professionals. Programs and additional actions beyond neonatal screening should be designed and planned in order to ensure that every child with a significant hearing loss is detected early. For this purpose, the Committee for the Early Detection of Deafness (CODEPEH) would like to highlight the need for continuous monitoring on the hearing health of children. And, for this reason, CODEPEH drafts the recommendations included in the present document.

  7. Early detection of ecosystem regime shifts: a multiple method evaluation for management application.

    PubMed

    Lindegren, Martin; Dakos, Vasilis; Gröger, Joachim P; Gårdmark, Anna; Kornilovs, Georgs; Otto, Saskia A; Möllmann, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Critical transitions between alternative stable states have been shown to occur across an array of complex systems. While our ability to identify abrupt regime shifts in natural ecosystems has improved, detection of potential early-warning signals previous to such shifts is still very limited. Using real monitoring data of a key ecosystem component, we here apply multiple early-warning indicators in order to assess their ability to forewarn a major ecosystem regime shift in the Central Baltic Sea. We show that some indicators and methods can result in clear early-warning signals, while other methods may have limited utility in ecosystem-based management as they show no or weak potential for early-warning. We therefore propose a multiple method approach for early detection of ecosystem regime shifts in monitoring data that may be useful in informing timely management actions in the face of ecosystem change.

  8. Quantum dots hold promise for early cancer imaging and detection.

    PubMed

    Pericleous, Pericles; Gazouli, Maria; Lyberopoulou, Anna; Rizos, Spyros; Nikiteas, Nikolaos; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios P

    2012-08-01

    Despite all major breakthroughs in recent years of research concerning the complex events that lead to cancer expression and metastasis, we are not yet able to effectively treat cancer that has spread to vital organs. The various clinical phases originating from cancer diagnosis through treatment and prognosis require a comprehensive understanding of these events, to utilise pre-symptomatic, minimally invasive and targeted cancer management techniques. Current imaging modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and gamma scintigraphy facilitate the pre-operative study of tumours, but they have been rendered unable to visualise cancer in early stages, due to their intrinsic limitations. The semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) have excellent photo-physical properties, and the QDs-based probes have achieved encouraging developments in cellular (in vitro) and in vivo molecular imaging. However, the same unique physical and chemical properties which renowned QDs attractive may be associated with their potentially catastrophic effects on living cells and tissues. There are critical issues that need to be further examined to properly assess the risks associated with the manufacturing and use of QDs in cancer management. In this review, we aim to describe the current utilisation of QDs as well as their future prospective to decipher and confront cancer.

  9. The use of electro-acoustic impedance measurements in detecting early clinical otosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Van Wagoner, R S; Campbell, J D

    1976-02-01

    The first evidence that sodium fluoride (NaFl) can stop the otosclerotic process was recently presented. This development has placed new emphasis on the early detection of clinical otosclerosis. Electro-acoustic impedance measurements often detect minute changes in absolute impedance and compliance of the ossicular chain. The most valuable diagnostic information, however, is a negative on-off (biphasic) type of acoustic reflex. These results are often evident prior to the detection of positive clinical signs of otosclerosis. The negative on-off acoustic reflex is reviewed in this paper along with case discussions involving medical/surgical management of early otosclerosis.

  10. A versatile ratiometric nanosensing approach for sensitive and accurate detection of Hg(2+) and biological thiols based on new fluorescent carbon quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Fu, Huili; Ji, Zhongyin; Chen, Xuejie; Cheng, Anwei; Liu, Shucheng; Gong, Peiwei; Li, Guoliang; Chen, Guang; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhao, Xianen; Cheng, Feng; You, Jinmao

    2017-03-01

    Herein, we first reported a facile synthesis method for fabrication of highly photoluminescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) using sodium alginate as the carbon source and histidine as both the nitrogen source and functional monomer by one-pot hydrothermal synthesis. The as-prepared CQDs gave a high quantum yield of 32%. By employing the new CQDs and rhodamine B (RhB), we demonstrated a simple, facile, sensitive, and accurate ratiometric sensor for detection of Hg(2+) and biological thiols. The photoluminescence of CQDs in the ratiometric sensor can be selectively and intensively suppressed by Hg(2+) due to strong electrostatic interaction between the surface functional groups of the CQDs and Hg(2+). When glutathione (GSH) was introduced into the "Turn Off" CQDs-RhB-Hg(2+) sensing system, the fluorescence of the CQDs can be recovered rapidly due to the stronger affinity between thiol and Hg(2+), while the fluorescence of the RhB remained constant in this sensing process. Based on the above principle, the ratiometric strategy for detecting Hg(2+) and GSH can be achieved readily, and gives satisfactory limit of detections (LODs) of 30 and 20 nM for Hg(2+) and GSH, respectively. The dual-emission fluorescent CQDs-RhB sensor does not need the complicated molecular design and the synthesis of dual-emission fluorophores. Meanwhile, the feasibility of the proposed method for analysis of water samples, food samples, and biological samples (plasma from mice oxidative stress study) was investigated. The developed ratiometric nanosensor is proven to be facile, with less sample consumption, rapid, lost cost, highly sensitive, and very selective for Hg(2+) and biological thiol detection, which offers a new approach for environmental, food, and biological analysis. Graphical abstract Ratiometric nanosensing approach detection of Hg(2+) and biological thiols.

  11. Helicopter Based Magnetic Detection Of Wells At The Teapot Dome (Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 Oilfield: Rapid And Accurate Geophysical Algorithms For Locating Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbert, W.; Hammack, R.; Veloski, G.; Hodge, G.

    2011-12-01

    In this study Airborne magnetic data was collected by Fugro Airborne Surveys from a helicopter platform (Figure 1) using the Midas II system over the 39 km2 NPR3 (Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3) oilfield in east-central Wyoming. The Midas II system employs two Scintrex CS-2 cesium vapor magnetometers on opposite ends of a transversely mounted, 13.4-m long horizontal boom located amidships (Fig. 1). Each magnetic sensor had an in-flight sensitivity of 0.01 nT. Real time compensation of the magnetic data for magnetic noise induced by maneuvering of the aircraft was accomplished using two fluxgate magnetometers mounted just inboard of the cesium sensors. The total area surveyed was 40.5 km2 (NPR3) near Casper, Wyoming. The purpose of the survey was to accurately locate wells that had been drilled there during more than 90 years of continuous oilfield operation. The survey was conducted at low altitude and with closely spaced flight lines to improve the detection of wells with weak magnetic response and to increase the resolution of closely spaced wells. The survey was in preparation for a planned CO2 flood to enhance oil recovery, which requires a complete well inventory with accurate locations for all existing wells. The magnetic survey was intended to locate wells that are missing from the well database and to provide accurate locations for all wells. The well location method used combined an input dataset (for example, leveled total magnetic field reduced to the pole), combined with first and second horizontal spatial derivatives of this input dataset, which were then analyzed using focal statistics and finally combined using a fuzzy combination operation. Analytic signal and the Shi and Butt (2004) ZS attribute were also analyzed using this algorithm. A parameter could be adjusted to determine sensitivity. Depending on the input dataset 88% to 100% of the wells were located, with typical values being 95% to 99% for the NPR3 field site.

  12. Detection and quantitation of trace phenolphthalein (in pharmaceutical preparations and in forensic exhibits) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, a sensitive and accurate method.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kakali; Sharma, Shiba P; Lahiri, Sujit C

    2013-01-01

    Phenolphthalein, an acid-base indicator and laxative, is important as a constituent of widely used weight-reducing multicomponent food formulations. Phenolphthalein is an useful reagent in forensic science for the identification of blood stains of suspected victims and for apprehending erring officials accepting bribes in graft or trap cases. The pink-colored alkaline hand washes originating from the phenolphthalein-smeared notes can easily be determined spectrophotometrically. But in many cases, colored solution turns colorless with time, which renders the genuineness of bribe cases doubtful to the judiciary. No method is known till now for the detection and identification of phenolphthalein in colorless forensic exhibits with positive proof. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry had been found to be most sensitive, accurate method capable of detection and quantitation of trace phenolphthalein in commercial formulations and colorless forensic exhibits with positive proof. The detection limit of phenolphthalein was found to be 1.66 pg/L or ng/mL, and the calibration curve shows good linearity (r(2) = 0.9974).

  13. A colorimetric method for highly sensitive and accurate detection of iodide by finding the critical color in a color change process using silver triangular nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiu-Hua; Ling, Jian; Peng, Jun; Cao, Qiu-E; Ding, Zhong-Tao; Bian, Long-Chun

    2013-10-10

    In this contribution, we demonstrated a novel colorimetric method for highly sensitive and accurate detection of iodide using citrate-stabilized silver triangular nanoplates (silver TNPs). Very lower concentration of iodide can induce an appreciable color change of silver TNPs solution from blue to yellow by fusing of silver TNPs to nanoparticles, as confirmed by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The principle of this colorimetric assay is not an ordinary colorimetry, but a new colorimetric strategy by finding the critical color in a color change process. With this strategy, 0.1 μM of iodide can be recognized within 30 min by naked-eyes observation, and lower concentration of iodide down to 8.8 nM can be detected using a spectrophotometer. Furthermore, this high sensitive colorimetric assay has good accuracy, stability and reproducibility comparing with other ordinary colorimetry. We believe this new colorimetric method will open up a fresh insight of simple, rapid and reliable detection of iodide and can find its future application in the biochemical analysis or clinical diagnosis.

  14. Early detection of encephalitis with (18)F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Gaeta, M C; Godani, M; Nunziata, R; Capellini, C; Ciarmiello, A

    2015-01-01

    Encephalitis is a relatively rare condition for which making an accurate diagnosis can be challenging. In fact, clinical features are not specific and structural imaging can be normal in a considerable number of cases. However, an early diagnosis is important as many forms of treatment are effective if started promptly. Even though recent guidelines do not recommend (18)F-FDG PET/CT for patients with suspected encephalitis, the case presented suggests that (18)F-FDG PET/CT may play a relevant role for the early diagnosis of this clinical condition.

  15. Early detection monitoring for larval dreissenid mussels: How much plankton sampling is enough?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, Timothy D.; Bollens, Stephen M.

    2017-01-01

    The development of quagga and zebra mussel (dreissenids) monitoring programs in the Pacific Northwest provides a unique opportunity to evaluate a regional invasive species detection effort early in its development. Recent studies suggest that the ecological and economic costs of a dreissenid infestation in the Pacific Northwest of the USA would be significant. Consequently, efforts are underway to monitor for the presence of dreissenids. However, assessments of whether these efforts provide for early detection are lacking. We use information collected from 2012 to 2014 to characterize the development of larval dreissenid monitoring programs in the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington in the context of introduction and establishment risk. We also estimate the effort needed for high-probability detection of rare planktonic taxa in four Columbia and Snake River reservoirs and assess whether the current level of effort provides for early detection. We found that the effort expended to monitor for dreissenid mussels increased substantially from 2012 to 2014, that efforts were distributed across risk categories ranging from high to very low, and that substantial gaps in our knowledge of both introduction and establishment risk exist. The estimated volume of filtered water required to fully census planktonic taxa or to provide high-probability detection of rare taxa was high for the four reservoirs examined. We conclude that the current level of effort expended does not provide for high-probability detection of larval dreissenids or other planktonic taxa when they are rare in these reservoirs. We discuss options to improve early detection capabilities.

  16. Screening Instruments for the Early Detection of Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zemon, Vance; Rath, Joseph F.; Picone, MaryAnn; Gromisch, Elizabeth S.; Glubo, Heather; Smith-Wexler, Lucia; Foley, Frederick W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cognitive impairments are common in individuals with MS and adversely affect functioning. Early detection of cognitive impairment, therefore, would enable earlier, and possibly more effective, treatment. We sought to compare self-reports with a short neuropsychological test as possible screening tools for cognitive impairment. Methods: One hundred patients with MS were tested with the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis; z scores were used to derive the Cognitive Index (CI). Receiver operator characteristic curve analyses were performed, with criteria for impairment set at −1.5 and −2.0 SD below the mean. Scores from two self-reports (the Multiple Sclerosis Neuropsychological Screening Questionnaire–Patient Version and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function–Adult Version [BRIEF-A]) and a neuropsychological test (the Symbol Digit Modalities Test [SDMT]) were entered as test variables. Exploratory regression analyses were conducted with 1) CI and self-reports and 2) CI and the Problem-Solving Inventory (PSI). Results: Classification accuracy was high or moderately high for SDMT when the criterion was −2.0 or −1.5 SD, respectively, but low for the self-reports. Hierarchical linear regression showed that the SDMT alone was the best predictor of cognitive impairment; adding the self-reports did not improve the model. Exploratory analyses indicated that certain self-reports (BRIEF-A, PSI) provided some explanatory power in separate models. Conclusions: The SDMT is a more accurate screening tool for cognitive impairment; however, self-reports provide additional information and may complement objective testing. Results suggest that screening for cognitive impairment may require a multidimensional approach. PMID:28243180

  17. Biomarkers for Early Detection of Clinically Relevant Prostate Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Validation Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    diagnosed with early stage prostate cancer a critical need exists for molecular assays that accurately distinguish aggressive prostate cancer from those...their ability to distinguish aggressive cancers from indolent cancers. We have established agreements with three commercial companies to analyze their...in clinical practice to predict aggressive disease. The accuracy of each biomarker for predicting short- and long-term progression will be

  18. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for early detection of plant diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krezhova, Dora; Maneva, Svetla; Zdravev, Tomas

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications in Earth observation. Nowadays spectral remote sensing techniques allow presymptomatic monitoring of changes in the physiological state of plants with high spectral resolution. Hyperspectral leaf reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence proved to be highly suitable for identification of growth anomalies of cultural plants that result from the environmental changes and different stress factors. Hyperspectral technologies can find place in many scientific areas, as well as for monitoring of plants status and functioning to help in making timely management decisions. This research aimed to detect a presence of viral infection in young pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) caused by Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) by using hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence data and to assess the effect of some growth regulators on the development of the disease. In Bulgaria CMV is one of the widest spread pathogens, causing the biggest economical losses in crop vegetable production. Leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence data were collected by a portable fibre-optics spectrometer in the spectral ranges 450÷850 nm and 600-900 nm. Greenhouse experiment with pepper plants of two cultivars, Sivria (sensitive to CMV) and Ostrion (resistant to CMV) were used. The plants were divided into six groups. The first group consisted of healthy (control) plants. At growth stage 4-6 expanded leaf, the second group was inoculated with CMV. The other four groups were treated with growth regulators: Spermine, MEIA (beta-monomethyl ester of itaconic acid), ВТН (benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester) and Phytoxin. On the next day, the pepper plants of these four groups were inoculated with CMV. The viral concentrations in the plants were determined by the serological method DAS-ELISA. Statistical, first derivative and cluster analysis were applied and several vegetation indices were

  19. Computational Analysis of Specific MicroRNA Biomarkers for Noninvasive Early Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tianci; Liang, Yanchun; Cao, Zhongbo

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease residing in various tissues of human body, accompanied with many abnormalities and mutations in genomes, transcriptome, and epigenome. Early detection plays a crucial role in extending survival time of all major cancer types. Recent advances in microarray and sequencing techniques have given more support to identifying effective biomarkers for early detection of cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are more and more frequently used as candidates for biomarkers in cancer related studies due to their regulation of target gene expression. In this paper, the comparative analysis is used to discover miRNA expression patterns in cancer versus normal samples on early stage of eight prevalent cancer types. Our work focuses on the specific miRNAs biomarkers identification and function analysis. Several identified miRNA biomarkers in this paper are matched well with those reported in existing researches, and most of them could serve as potential candidate indicators for clinical early diagnosis applications. PMID:28357401

  20. Panel-based Genetic Diagnostic Testing for Inherited Eye Diseases is Highly Accurate and Reproducible and More Sensitive for Variant Detection Than Exome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Bujakowska, Kinga M.; Sousa, Maria E.; Fonseca-Kelly, Zoë D.; Taub, Daniel G.; Janessian, Maria; Wang, Dan Yi; Au, Elizabeth D.; Sims, Katherine B.; Sweetser, David A.; Fulton, Anne B.; Liu, Qin; Wiggs, Janey L.; Gai, Xiaowu; Pierce, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Next-generation sequencing (NGS) based methods are being adopted broadly for genetic diagnostic testing, but the performance characteristics of these techniques have not been fully defined with regard to test accuracy and reproducibility. Methods We developed a targeted enrichment and NGS approach for genetic diagnostic testing of patients with inherited eye disorders, including inherited retinal degenerations, optic atrophy and glaucoma. In preparation for providing this Genetic Eye Disease (GEDi) test on a CLIA-certified basis, we performed experiments to measure the sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility as well as the clinical sensitivity of the test. Results The GEDi test is highly reproducible and accurate, with sensitivity and specificity for single nucleotide variant detection of 97.9% and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity for variant detection was notably better than the 88.3% achieved by whole exome sequencing (WES) using the same metrics, due to better coverage of targeted genes in the GEDi test compared to commercially available exome capture sets. Prospective testing of 192 patients with IRDs indicated that the clinical sensitivity of the GEDi test is high, with a diagnostic rate of 51%. Conclusion The data suggest that based on quantified performance metrics, selective targeted enrichment is preferable to WES for genetic diagnostic testing. PMID:25412400

  1. Accurate mass determination, quantification and determination of detection limits in liquid chromatography-high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry: challenges and practical solutions.

    PubMed

    Vergeynst, Leendert; Van Langenhove, Herman; Joos, Pieter; Demeestere, Kristof

    2013-07-30

    Uniform guidelines for the data processing and validation of qualitative and quantitative multi-residue analysis using full-spectrum high-resolution mass spectrometry are scarce. Through systematic research, optimal mass accuracy and sensitivity are obtained after refining the post-processing of the HRMS data. For qualitative analysis, transforming the raw profile spectra to centroid spectra is recommended resulting in a 2.3 fold improved precision on the accurate mass determination of spectrum peaks. However, processing centroid data for quantitative purposes could lead to signal interruption when too narrow mass windows are applied for the construction of extracted ion chromatograms. Therefore, peak integration on the raw profile data is recommended. An optimal width of the mass window of 50 ppm, which is a trade-off between sensitivity and selectivity, was obtained for a TOF instrument providing a resolving power of 20,000 at full width at half maximum (FWHM). For the validation of HRMS analytical methods, widespread concepts such as the signal-to-noise ratios for the determination of decision limits and detection capabilities have shown to be not always applicable because in some cases almost no noise can be detected anymore. A statistical methodology providing a reliable alternative is extended and applied.

  2. An electrochemical biosensor to simultaneously detect VEGF and PSA for early prostate cancer diagnosis based on graphene oxide/ssDNA/PLLA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lung-Hsuan; Kuo, Shin-Hung; Lin, Tzu-Yang; Lin, Chih-Wen; Fang, Po-Yu; Yang, Hung-Wei

    2017-03-15

    Early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) is critical for the prevention of metastasis and for early treatment; therefore, a simple and accurate device must be developed for this purpose. In this study, we reported a novel fabrication method for producing a dual-modality biosensor that can simultaneously detect vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in human serum for early diagnosis of PCa. This biosensor was constructed by coating graphene oxide/ssDNA (GO-ssDNA) on an Au-electrode for VEGF detection, and incorporated with poly-L-lactide nanoparticles (PLLA NPs) for signal amplification and PSA detection. The results showed that this biosensor has wide liner detection ranges (0.05-100ng/mL for VEGF and 1-100ng/mL for PSA), as well as high levels of sensitivity and selectivity (i.e., resisting interference from external factors, such as glucose, ascorbic acid human serum protein, immunoglobulin G, and immunoglobulin M), and demonstrated a high correlation with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for sample detection in patients. Therefore, this biosensor could be utilized for early clinical diagnosis of PCa in the future.

  3. Portable microfluidic raman system for rapid, label-free early disease signature detection

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Meiye; Davis, Ryan Wesley; Hatch, Anson

    2015-09-01

    In the early stages of infection, patients develop non-specific or no symptoms at all. While waiting for identification of the infectious agent, precious window of opportunity for early intervention is lost. The standard diagnostics require affinity reagents and sufficient pathogen titers to reach the limit of detection. In the event of a disease outbreak, triaging the at-risk population rapidly and reliably for quarantine and countermeasure is more important than the identification of the pathogen by name. To expand Sandia's portfolio of Biological threat management capabilities, we will utilize Raman spectrometry to analyze immune subsets in whole blood to rapidly distinguish infected from non-infected, and bacterial from viral infection, for the purpose of triage during an emergency outbreak. The goal of this one year LDRD is to determine whether Raman spectroscopy can provide label-free detection of early disease signatures, and define a miniaturized Raman detection system meeting requirements for low- resource settings.

  4. Development of a strand-specific real-time qRT-PCR for the accurate detection and quantitation of West Nile virus RNA.

    PubMed

    Lim, Stephanie M; Koraka, Penelope; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Martina, Byron E E

    2013-12-01

    Studying the tropism and replication kinetics of West Nile virus (WNV) in different cell types in vitro and in tissues in animal models is important for understanding its pathogenesis. As detection of the negative strand viral RNA is a more reliable indicator of active replication for single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses, the specificity of qRT-PCR assays currently used for the detection of WNV positive and negative strand RNA was reassessed. It was shown that self- and falsely-primed cDNA was generated during the reverse transcription step in an assay employing unmodified primers and several reverse transcriptases. As a result, a qRT-PCR assay using the thermostable rTth in combination with tagged primers was developed, which greatly improved strand specificity by circumventing the events of self- and false-priming. The reliability of the assay was then addressed in vitro using BV-2 microglia cells as well as in C57/BL6 mice. It was possible to follow the kinetics of positive and negative-strand RNA synthesis both in vitro and in vivo; however, the sensitivity of the assay will need to be optimized in order to detect and quantify negative-strand RNA synthesis in the very early stages of infection. Overall, the strand-specific qRT-PCR assay developed in this study is an effective tool to quantify WNV RNA, reassess viral replication, and study tropism of WNV in the context of WNV pathogenesis.

  5. The impact of early detection and intervention of breast cancer-related lymphedema: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shah, Chirag; Arthur, Douglas W; Wazer, David; Khan, Atif; Ridner, Sheila; Vicini, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) has become an increasingly important clinical issue as noted by the recent update of the 2015 NCCN breast cancer guidelines which recommends to "educate, monitor, and refer for lymphedema management." The purpose of this review was to examine the literature regarding early detection and management of BCRL in order to (1) better characterize the benefit of proactive surveillance and intervention, (2) clarify the optimal monitoring techniques, and (3) help better define patient groups most likely to benefit from surveillance programs. A Medline search was conducted for the years 1992-2015 to identify articles addressing early detection and management of BCRL. After an initial search, 127 articles were identified, with 13 of these studies focused on early intervention (three randomized (level of evidence 1), four prospective (level of evidence 2-3), six retrospective trials (level of evidence 4)). Data from two, small (n = 185 cases), randomized trials with limited follow-up demonstrated a benefit to early intervention (physiotherapy, manual lymphatic drainage) with regard to reducing the rate of chronic BCRL (>50% reduction) with two additional studies underway (n = 1280). These findings were confirmed by larger prospective and retrospective series. Several studies were identified that demonstrate that newer diagnostic modalities (bioimpedance spectroscopy, perometry) have increased sensitivity allowing for the earlier detection of BCRL. Current data support the development of surveillance programs geared toward the early detection and management of BCRL in part due to newer, more sensitive diagnostic modalities.

  6. Accurate detection for a wide range of mutation and editing sites of microRNAs from small RNA high-throughput sequencing profiles

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yun; Ji, Bo; Song, Renhua; Wang, Shengpeng; Li, Ting; Zhang, Xiaotuo; Chen, Kun; Li, Tianqing; Li, Jinyan

    2016-01-01

    Various types of mutation and editing (M/E) events in microRNAs (miRNAs) can change the stabilities of pre-miRNAs and/or complementarities between miRNAs and their targets. Small RNA (sRNA) high-throughput sequencing (HTS) profiles can contain many mutated and edited miRNAs. Systematic detection of miRNA mutation and editing sites from the huge volume of sRNA HTS profiles is computationally difficult, as high sensitivity and low false positive rate (FPR) are both required. We propose a novel method (named MiRME) for an accurate and fast detection of miRNA M/E sites using a progressive sequence alignment approach which refines sensitivity and improves FPR step-by-step. From 70 sRNA HTS profiles with over 1.3 billion reads, MiRME has detected thousands of statistically significant M/E sites, including 3′-editing sites, 57 A-to-I editing sites (of which 32 are novel), as well as some putative non-canonical editing sites. We demonstrated that a few non-canonical editing sites were not resulted from mutations in genome by integrating the analysis of genome HTS profiles of two human cell lines, suggesting the existence of new editing types to further diversify the functions of miRNAs. Compared with six existing studies or methods, MiRME has shown much superior performance for the identification and visualization of the M/E sites of miRNAs from the ever-increasing sRNA HTS profiles. PMID:27229138

  7. Sensitive, accurate and rapid detection of trace aliphatic amines in environmental samples with ultrasonic-assisted derivatization microextraction using a new fluorescent reagent for high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang; Liu, Jianjun; Liu, Mengge; Li, Guoliang; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhang, Shijuan; Song, Cuihua; Wang, Hua; Suo, Yourui; You, Jinmao

    2014-07-25

    A new fluorescent reagent, 1-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-2-(2-phenyl-1H-phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazol-1-yl)ethanone (IPPIE), is synthesized, and a simple pretreatment based on ultrasonic-assisted derivatization microextraction (UDME) with IPPIE is proposed for the selective derivatization of 12 aliphatic amines (C1: methylamine-C12: dodecylamine) in complex matrix samples (irrigation water, river water, waste water, cultivated soil, riverbank soil and riverbed soil). Under the optimal experimental conditions (solvent: ACN-HCl, catalyst: none, molar ratio: 4.3, time: 8 min and temperature: 80°C), micro amount of sample (40 μL; 5mg) can be pretreated in only 10 min, with no preconcentration, evaporation or other additional manual operations required. The interfering substances (aromatic amines, aliphatic alcohols and phenols) get the derivatization yields of <5%, causing insignificant matrix effects (<4%). IPPIE-analyte derivatives are separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and quantified by fluorescence detection (FD). The very low instrumental detection limits (IDL: 0.66-4.02 ng/L) and method detection limits (MDL: 0.04-0.33 ng/g; 5.96-45.61 ng/L) are achieved. Analytes are further identified from adjacent peaks by on-line ion trap mass spectrometry (MS), thereby avoiding additional operations for impurities. With this UDME-HPLC-FD-MS method, the accuracy (-0.73-2.12%), precision (intra-day: 0.87-3.39%; inter-day: 0.16-4.12%), recovery (97.01-104.10%) and sensitivity were significantly improved. Successful applications in environmental samples demonstrate the superiority of this method in the sensitive, accurate and rapid determination of trace aliphatic amines in micro amount of complex samples.

  8. RED Alert – Early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED)

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, Alina

    2016-07-13

    This is the PDF of a presentation for a webinar given by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED). First, there is an overview of LANL biosurveillance tools. Then, information is given about RED Alert. Next, a demonstration is given of a component prototype. RED Alert is an analysis tool that can provide early warning or detection of the re-emergence of an infectious disease at the global level, but through a local lens.

  9. Prostate cancer early detection, version 1.2014. Featured updates to the NCCN Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Peter R; Parsons, J Kellogg; Andriole, Gerald; Bahnson, Robert R; Barocas, Daniel A; Catalona, William J; Dahl, Douglas M; Davis, John W; Epstein, Jonathan I; Etzioni, Ruth B; Giri, Veda N; Hemstreet, George P; Kawachi, Mark H; Lange, Paul H; Loughlin, Kevin R; Lowrance, William; Maroni, Paul; Mohler, James; Morgan, Todd M; Nadler, Robert B; Poch, Michael; Scales, Chuck; Shanefelt, Terrence M; Vickers, Andrew J; Wake, Robert; Shead, Dorothy A; Ho, Maria

    2014-09-01

    The NCCN Guidelines for Prostate Cancer Early Detection provide recommendations for men choosing to participate in an early detection program for prostate cancer. These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight notable recent updates. Overall, the 2014 update represents a more streamlined and concise set of recommendations. The panel stratified the age ranges at which initiating testing for prostate cancer should be considered. Indications for biopsy include both a cutpoint and the use of multiple risk variables in combination. In addition to other biomarkers of specificity, the Prostate Health Index has been included to aid biopsy decisions in certain men, given recent FDA approvals.

  10. Application of SVM classifier in thermographic image classification for early detection of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleszkiewicz, Witold; Cichosz, Paweł; Jagodziński, Dariusz; Matysiewicz, Mateusz; Neumann, Łukasz; Nowak, Robert M.; Okuniewski, Rafał

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the application of machine learning algorithms for early detection of breast cancer on the basis of thermographic images. Supervised learning model: Support vector machine (SVM) and Sequential Minimal Optimization algorithm (SMO) for the training of SVM classifier were implemented. The SVM classifier was included in a client-server application which enables to create a training set of examinations and to apply classifiers (including SVM) for the diagnosis and early detection of the breast cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of SVM classifier were calculated based on the thermographic images from studies. Furthermore, the heuristic method for SVM's parameters tuning was proposed.

  11. Use of reflectance spectroscopy for early detection of calcium deficiency in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bingqing; Wah, Liew Oi; Asundi, Anand K.

    2005-04-01

    This article investigates calcium deficiency symptoms of the plants grown under hydroponics conditions. Leaf reflectance data were collected from plants, and then transformed to L*, a*, b* values, which provide color information of the leaves. After comparing the color information of deficient plants to control plants, a set of deficiency criterion was established for early detection of calcium deficiency in the plants. Calcium deficiency could be detected as early as two days from the onset of stress in mature plants when optical data were collected from terminal young leaves. Young plants subjected to calcium stress for 9 days could not be distinguished from nutrient sufficient plants.

  12. Proteomics approaches for early detection and targeted therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Tripti; Khare, Sharad; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer related mortality worldwide. HCC incidences have increased worldwide though more prevalent in Asia and Africa. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections are mostly responsible of increased number of HCC cases. Biomarkers can help early detection and improve treatment regimen in patients as advanced stage is chemo-refractive with limited treatment options. Potential of proteomics in finding new biomarkers for early detection has been explored more recently. Future developments in this area rely on how efficiently we manage vast amount of data generated by these techniques and speed up the clinical trials to improve patient care. PMID:28144394

  13. Efficacy of light based detection systems for early detection of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders: Systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Reddy-Kantharaj, Yashoda-Bhoomi; Rakesh, Nagaraju; Janardhan-Reddy, Sujatha; Sahu, Shashikant

    2016-01-01

    Background Earlier detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) is essential for dental professionals to improve patient survival rates. The aim of this systematic review is to to evaluate the effectiveness of devices that utilise the principles of chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence as adjuncts in the detection of OSCC and OPMD. Material and Methods The electronic retrieval systems and databases searched for relevant articles were PubMed [MEDLINE] and Science direct. The search was for limited articles published in English or with an English abstract and articles published during the period from January 2005 to April 2014. Clinical trials utilized ViziLite, Microlux TM/DL and Visual Enhanced Light scope (VELscope) for early detection of OPMD and OSCC. Results Twenty primary studies published satisfied our criteria for selection - 10 utilised chemiluminescence and 10 tissue autofluorescence. Senstivity of Vizilite for detecting OSCC nad OPMD ranged from 77.1 % to 100% and specificity was low that ranged from 0% to 27.8%.Most have shown that chemiluminescence increases the brightness and margins of oral mucosal white lesions and thus assist in identification of mucosal lesions not considered under Conventional visual examination. However, it preferentially detects leukoplakia and may fail to spot red patches. Clinical trials demonstrated that sensitivity of VELscope in detecting malignancy and OPMD ranged from 22 % to 100 % and specificity ranged from 16 % to 100%. Most studies concluded that VELscope can help the experienced clinician to find oral precursor malignant lesions. But it couldnot differentiate between dysplasia and benign inflammatory conditions. Conclusions Both devices are simple, non-invasive test of the oral mucosa but are suited for clinicians with sufficient experience and training. More clinical trials in future should be conducted to establish optical imaging as an efficacious adjunct

  14. Rapid and accurate measurement of left ventricular function with a new second-harmonic fast-rotating transducer and semi-automated border detection.

    PubMed

    Krenning, Boudewijn J; Voormolen, Marco M; van Geuns, Robert-Jan; Vletter, W B; Lancée, Charles T; de Jong, Nico; Ten Cate, Folkert J; van der Steen, Anton F W; Roelandt, Jos R T C

    2006-07-01

    Measurement of left ventricular (LV) volume and function are the most common clinical referral questions to the echocardiography laboratory. A fast, practical, and accurate method would offer important advantages to obtain this important information. To validate a new practical method for rapid measurement of LV volume and function. We developed a continuous fast-rotating transducer, with second-harmonic capabilities, for three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE). Fifteen cardiac patients underwent both 3DE and magnetic resonance imaging (reference method) on the same day. 3DE image acquisition was performed during a 10-second breath-hold with a frame rate of 100 frames/sec and a rotational speed of 6 rotations/sec. The individual images were postprocessed with Matlab software using multibeat data fusion. Subsequently, with these images, 12 datasets per cardiac cycle were reconstructed, each comprising seven equidistant cross-sectional images for analysis in the new TomTec 4DLV analysis software, which uses a semi-automated border detection (ABD) algorithm. The ABD requires an average analysis time of 15 minutes per patient. A strong correlation was found between LV end-diastolic volume (r = 0.99; y = 0.95x - 1.14 ml; SEE = 6.5 ml), LV end-systolic volume (r = 0.96; y = 0.89x + 7.91 ml; SEE = 7.0 ml), and LV ejection fraction (r = 0.93; y = 0.69x + 13.36; SEE = 2.4%). Inter- and intraobserver agreement for all measurements was good. The fast-rotating transducer with new ABD software is a dedicated tool for rapid and accurate analysis of LV volume and function.

  15. Early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer: strategic map for innovation--a white paper.

    PubMed

    Kenner, Barbara J; Chari, Suresh T; Cleeter, Deborah F; Go, Vay Liang W

    2015-07-01

    Innovation leading to significant advances in research and subsequent translation to clinical practice is urgently necessary in early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer. Addressing this need, the Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference was conducted by Kenner Family Research Fund in conjunction with the 2014 American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society Meeting. International interdisciplinary scientific representatives engaged in strategic facilitated conversations based on distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. Ideas generated from the summit have led to the development of a Strategic Map for Innovation built upon 3 components: formation of an international collaborative effort, design of an actionable strategic plan, and implementation of operational standards, research priorities, and first-phase initiatives. Through invested and committed efforts of leading researchers and institutions, philanthropic partners, government agencies, and supportive business entities, this endeavor will change the future of the field and consequently the survival rate of those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer.

  16. A Novel Arc Fault Detector for Early Detection of Electrical Fires.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Zhang, Rencheng; Yang, Jianhong; Liu, Canhua; Chen, Shouhong; Zhang, Fujiang

    2016-04-09

    Arc faults can produce very high temperatures and can easily ignite combustible materials; thus, they represent one of the most important causes of electrical fires. The application of arc fault detection, as an emerging early fire detection technology, is required by the National Electrical Code to reduce the occurrence of electrical fires. However, the concealment, randomness and diversity of arc faults make them difficult to detect. To improve the accuracy of arc fault detection, a novel arc fault detector (AFD) is developed in this study. First, an experimental arc fault platform is built to study electrical fires. A high-frequency transducer and a current transducer are used to measure typical load signals of arc faults and normal states. After the common features of these signals are studied, high-frequency energy and current variations are extracted as an input eigenvector for use by an arc fault detection algorithm. Then, the detection algorithm based on a weighted least squares support vector machine is designed and successfully applied in a microprocessor. Finally, an AFD is developed. The test results show that the AFD can detect arc faults in a timely manner and interrupt the circuit power supply before electrical fires can occur. The AFD is not influenced by cross talk or transient processes, and the detection accuracy is very high. Hence, the AFD can be installed in low-voltage circuits to monitor circuit states in real-time to facilitate the early detection of electrical fires.

  17. A Novel Arc Fault Detector for Early Detection of Electrical Fires

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai; Zhang, Rencheng; Yang, Jianhong; Liu, Canhua; Chen, Shouhong; Zhang, Fujiang

    2016-01-01

    Arc faults can produce very high temperatures and can easily ignite combustible materials; thus, they represent one of the most important causes of electrical fires. The application of arc fault detection, as an emerging early fire detection technology, is required by the National Electrical Code to reduce the occurrence of electrical fires. However, the concealment, randomness and diversity of arc faults make them difficult to detect. To improve the accuracy of arc fault detection, a novel arc fault detector (AFD) is developed in this study. First, an experimental arc fault platform is built to study electrical fires. A high-frequency transducer and a current transducer are used to measure typical load signals of arc faults and normal states. After the common features of these signals are studied, high-frequency energy and current variations are extracted as an input eigenvector for use by an arc fault detection algorithm. Then, the detection algorithm based on a weighted least squares support vector machine is designed and successfully applied in a microprocessor. Finally, an AFD is developed. The test results show that the AFD can detect arc faults in a timely manner and interrupt the circuit power supply before electrical fires can occur. The AFD is not influenced by cross talk or transient processes, and the detection accuracy is very high. Hence, the AFD can be installed in low-voltage circuits to monitor circuit states in real-time to facilitate the early detection of electrical fires. PMID:27070618

  18. Factors Influencing Early Detection of Oral Cancer by Primary Health-Care Professionals.

    PubMed

    Hassona, Y; Scully, C; Shahin, A; Maayta, W; Sawair, F

    2016-06-01

    The purposes of this study are to determine early detection practices performed by primary healthcare professionals, to compare medical and dental sub-groups, and to identify factors that influence the ability of medical and dental practitioners to recognize precancerous changes and clinical signs of oral cancer. A 28-item survey instrument was used to interview a total of 330 Jordanian primary health-care professionals (165 dental and 165 medical). An oral cancer knowledge scale (0 to 31) was generated from correct responses on oral cancer general knowledge. An early detection practice scale (0 to 24) was generated from the reported usage and frequency of procedures in oral cancer examination. Also, a diagnostic ability scale (0 to 100) was generated from correct selections of suspicious oral lesions. Only 17.8 % of the participants reported that they routinely performed oral cancer screening in practices. Their oral cancer knowledge scores ranged from 3 to 31 with a mean of 15.6. The early detection practice scores ranged from 2 to 21 with a mean of 11.6. A significant positive correlation was found between knowledge scores and early detection practice scores (r = 0.22; p < 0.001). The diagnostic ability scores ranged from 11.5 to 96 with a mean of 43.6. The diagnostic ability score was significantly correlated with knowledge scores (r = 0.39; p < 0.001), but not with early detection practice scores (r = 0.01; p = 0.92). Few significant differences were found between medical and dental primary care professionals. Continuous education courses on early diagnosis of oral cancer and oral mucosal lesions are needed for primary health-care professionals.

  19. Current and Future Trends in Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer: Molecular Targets and PET Probes.

    PubMed

    Alauddin, Mian M; De Palatis, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of pancreatic cancer has been a long-standing challenge in determining prognosis and management of the deadly disease. Although the incidence of pancreatic cancer is low (2% of all malignancies), it is the fourth leading cause of deaths attributable to cancer in the U.S. A major cause for the high mortality rate, which exceeds 85%, is the difficulty in diagnosing the disease early in its development. The relative lack of reliable diagnostic tools to screen patients who are asymptomatic prior to the aggressive progression of disease has been the primary contributing factor in the high mortality rate in this patient population. Indeed, 80-90% of patients with pancreatic cancer have relatively small unresectable tumors at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, there is an unmet need for a highly sensitive diagnostic imaging modality to detect early-stage pancreatic cancer, as this may save the lives of many thousands of patients. Many literature reviews have been published on various aspects of pancreatic cancer, including biology, screening, and therapy; however, limited information is available on early detection, especially the use of highly sensitive modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET). Current [(18)F]FDG/PET imaging combined with CT (PET/CT) lacks the necessary sensitivity and specificity for detection of small lesions (~2-3 mm) of pancreatic cancer that may be resectable and curable. Furthermore, accumulation of [(18)F]FDG in inflammatory tissue is a major problem; therefore, an appropriate PET tracer that is both highly sensitive and specific for carcinoma is necessary for PET imaging of early stage pancreatic cancer. This review focuses on early detection of pancreatic cancer by PET, including new targets and the development and application of new PET tracers.

  20. All-optical photoacoustic imaging and detection of early-stage dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Hughes, David A.; Longbottom, Chris; Kirk, Katherine J.

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries remain one of the most common oral diseases in the world. Current detection methods, such as dental explorer and X-ray radiography, suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease because of the small size (< 100 microns) of early-stage lesions. We have developed a fine-resolution (480 nm), ultra-broadband (1 GHz), all-optical photoacoustic imaging (AOPAI) system to image and detect early stages of tooth decay. This AOPAI system provides a non-contact, non-invasive and non-ionizing means of detecting early-stage dental caries. Ex-vivo teeth exhibiting early-stage, white-spot lesions were imaged using AOPAI. Experimental scans targeted each early-stage lesion and a reference healthy enamel region. Photoacoustic (PA) signals were generated in the tooth using a 532-nm pulsed laser and the light-induced broadband ultrasound signal was detected at the surface of the tooth with an optical path-stabilized Michelson interferometer operating at 532 nm. The measured time-domain signal was spatially resolved and back-projected to form 2D and 3D maps of the lesion using k-wave reconstruction methods. Experimental data collected from areas of healthy and diseased enamel indicate that the lesion generated a larger PA response compared to healthy enamel. The PA-signal amplitude alone was able to detect a lesion on the surface of the tooth. However, time- reversal reconstructions of the PA scans also quantitatively depicted the depth of the lesion. 3D PA reconstruction of the diseased tooth indicated a sub-surface lesion at a depth of 0.6 mm, in addition to the surface lesion. These results suggest that our AOPAI system is well suited for rapid clinical assessment of early-stage dental caries. An overview of the AOPAI system, fine-resolution PA and histology results of diseased and healthy teeth will be presented.

  1. Early Detection of Dengue Infections using Cluster Sampling Around Index Cases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    EARLY DETECTION OF DENGUE INFECTIONS USING CLUSTER SAMPLING AROUND INDEX CASES CHARMAGNE G. BECKETT, HERMAN KOSASIH, INDRA FAISAL, NURHAYATI, RATNA...Abstract. A two-year study using a cluster investigation method was conducted in West Jakarta, Indonesia to demonstrate the detection of dengue cases prior...to onset of clinical illness. The clusters consisted of family members and neighbors of 53 hospitalized dengue index cases. Among 785 adult and child

  2. Analytical notes - Electrochemical method for early detection and monitoring of coliforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Boykin, E. H.

    1976-01-01

    An electrochemical method for detecting bacteria, based on a linear relationship between inoculum size and the time of hydrogen evolution, was tested for the early detection and monitoring of coliforms in naturally contaminated estuarine and fresh water samples. Standard methods for coliform analysis were performed on each sample, and membrane filtration counts were used to construct dose-response curves; relationships and results are discussed herein.

  3. Targeting Cell Surface Proteins in Molecular Photoacoustic Imaging to Detect Ovarian Cancer Early

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    ABSTRACTS, AND PRESENTATIONS: Lay Press: CDMRP Ovarian Cancer Research Program 2013, Early Detection and Diagnosis , highlighted project. Peer-Reviewed...et al., Detection of elevated plasma levels of epidermal growth factor receptor before breast cancer diagnosis among hormone therapy users. Cancer Res...peritoneal serous carcinoma from breast carcinoma in effusions. Journal of cellular and molecular medicine 15, 535 (Mar, 2011). 17. L. E. Kelemen, The

  4. TOWARD EARLY-WARNING DETECTION OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM COMPACT BINARY COALESCENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, Kipp; Cariou, Romain; Chapman, Adrian; Fotopoulos, Nickolas; Privitera, Stephen; Searle, Antony; Singer, Leo; Weinstein, Alan; Crispin-Ortuzar, Mireia; Frei, Melissa; Hanna, Chad; Kara, Erin; Keppel, Drew; Liao, Laura

    2012-04-01

    Rapid detection of compact binary coalescence (CBC) with a network of advanced gravitational-wave detectors will offer a unique opportunity for multi-messenger astronomy. Prompt detection alerts for the astronomical community might make it possible to observe the onset of electromagnetic emission from CBC. We demonstrate a computationally practical filtering strategy that could produce early-warning triggers before gravitational radiation from the final merger has arrived at the detectors.

  5. Early Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2010-01-01

    According to the College Board's review of data from the Organization of Economic Co-Operation and Development, the U.S. ranks 12th out of 36 nations in terms of postsecondary attainment among citizens 25 to 34 years old. Completion is the mantra since President Barack Obama challenged higher education by setting an ambitious goal for 60 percent…

  6. Early detection of population declines: high power of genetic monitoring using effective population size estimators

    PubMed Central

    Antao, Tiago; Pérez-Figueroa, Andrés; Luikart, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Early detection of population declines is essential to prevent extinctions and to ensure sustainable harvest. We evaluated the performance of two Ne estimators to detect population declines: the two-sample temporal method and a one-sample method based on linkage disequilibrium (LD). We used simulated data representing a wide range of population sizes, sample sizes and number of loci. Both methods usually detect a population decline only one generation after it occurs if Ne drops to less than approximately 100, and 40 microsatellite loci and 50 individuals are sampled. However, the LD method often out performed the temporal method by allowing earlier detection of less severe population declines (Ne approximately 200). Power for early detection increased more rapidly with the number of individuals sampled than with the number of loci genotyped, primarily for the LD method. The number of samples available is therefore an important criterion when choosing between the LD and temporal methods. We provide guidelines regarding design of studies targeted at monitoring for population declines. We also report that 40 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers give slightly lower precision than 10 microsatellite markers. Our results suggest that conservation management and monitoring strategies can reliably use genetic based methods for early detection of population declines. PMID:25567959

  7. Early non-destructive biofouling detection and spatial distribution: Application of oxygen sensing optodes.

    PubMed

    Farhat, N M; Staal, M; Siddiqui, A; Borisov, S M; Bucs, Sz S; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2015-10-15

    Biofouling is a serious problem in reverse osmosis/nanofiltration (RO/NF) applications, reducing membrane performance. Early detection of biofouling plays an essential role in an adequate anti-biofouling strategy. Presently, fouling of membrane filtration systems is mainly determined by measuring changes in pressure drop, which is not exclusively linked to biofouling. Non-destructive imaging of oxygen concentrations (i) is specific for biological activity of biofilms and (ii) may enable earlier detection of biofilm accumulation than pressure drop. The objective of this study was to test whether transparent luminescent planar O2 optodes, in combination with a simple imaging system, can be used for early non-destructive biofouling detection. This biofouling detection is done by mapping the two-dimensional distribution of O2 concentrations and O2 decrease rates inside a membrane fouling simulator (MFS). Results show that at an early stage, biofouling development was detected by the oxygen sensing optodes while no significant increase in pressure drop was yet observed. Additionally, optodes could detect spatial heterogeneities in biofouling distribution at a micro scale. Biofilm development started mainly at the feed spacer crossings. The spatial and quantitative information on biological activity will lead to better understanding of the biofouling processes, contributing to the development of more effective biofouling control strategies.

  8. Environmental DNA as a new method for early detection of New Zealand mudsnails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, Caren S.; Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Baumgardt, Jeremy; Waits, Lisette P.

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of aquatic invasive species is a critical task for management of aquatic ecosystems. This task is hindered by the difficulty and cost of surveying aquatic systems thoroughly. The New Zealand mudsnail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) is a small, invasive parthenogenic mollusk that can reach very high population densities and severely affects ecosystem functioning. To assist in the early detection of this invasive species, we developed and validated a highly sensitive environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA) assay. We used a dose–response laboratory experiment to investigate the relationship between New Zealand mudsnail density and eDNA detected through time. We documented that as few as 1 individual in 1.5 L of water for 2 d could be detected with this method, and that eDNA from this species may remain detectable for 21 to 44 d after mudsnail removal. We used the eDNA method to confirm the presence of New Zealand mudsnail eDNA at densities as low as 11 to 144 snails/m2 in a eutrophic 5th-order river. Combined, these results demonstrate the high potential for eDNA surveys to assist with early detection of a widely distributed invasive aquatic invertebrate.

  9. Early fault detection in automotive ball bearings using the minimum variance cepstrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Choon-Su; Choi, Young-Chul; Kim, Yang-Hann

    2013-07-01

    Ball bearings in automotive wheels play an important role in a vehicle. They enable an automobile to run and simultaneously support the vehicle. Once faults are generated, even if they are small, they often grow fast even under normal driving condition and cause vibration and noise. Therefore, it is critical to detect faults as early as possible to prevent bearings from generating harsh noise and vibration. How early faults can be detected is associated with how well a detecting method finds the information of early faults from measured signal. Incipient faults are so small that the fault signal is inherently buried by noise. Minimum variance cepstrum (MVC) has been introduced for the observation of periodic impulse signal under noisy environments. We are particularly focusing on the definition of MVC that goes back to the original definition by Bogert et al. in comparison with the recently prevalent definition of cepstral analysis. In this work, the MVC is, therefore, obtained by liftering a logarithmic power spectrum, and the lifter bank is designed by the minimum variance algorithm. Furthermore, it is also shown how efficient the method is for detecting periodic fault signal made by early faults by using automotive ball bearings, with which an automobile is equipped under running conditions. We were able to detect incipient faults in 4 out of 12 normal bearings which passed acceptance test as well as in bearings that were recalled due to noise and vibration. In addition, we compared the results of the proposed method with results obtained using other older well-established early fault detection methods that were chosen from 4 groups of methods which were classified by the domain of observation. The results demonstrated that MVC determined bearing fault periods more clearly than other methods under the given condition.

  10. Early Detection of Infection in Pigs through an Online Monitoring System.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Avilés, M; Fernández-Carrión, E; López García-Baones, J M; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2017-04-01

    Late detection of emergency diseases causes significant economic losses for pig producers and governments. As the first signs of animal infection are usually fever and reduced motion that lead to reduced consumption of water and feed, we developed a novel smart system to monitor body temperature and motion in real time, facilitating the early detection of infectious diseases. In this study, carried out within the framework of the European Union research project Rapidia Field, we tested the smart system on 10 pigs experimentally infected with two doses of an attenuated strain of African swine fever. Biosensors and an accelerometer embedded in an eartag captured data before and after infection, and video cameras were used to monitor the animals 24 h per day. The results showed that in 8 of 9 cases, the monitoring system detected infection onset as an increase in body temperature and decrease in movement before or simultaneously with fever detection based on rectal temperature measurement, observation of clinical signs, the decrease in water consumption or positive qPCR detection of virus. In addition, this decrease in movement was reliably detected using automatic analysis of video images therefore providing an inexpensive alternative to direct motion measurement. The system can be set up to alert staff when high fever, reduced motion or both are detected in one or more animals. This system may be useful for monitoring sentinel herds in real time, considerably reducing the financial and logistical costs of periodic sampling and increasing the chances of early detection of infection.

  11. Loss of dystrophin staining in cardiomyocytes: a novel method for detection early myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, Satwat; Al-Salam, Suhail

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is the most frequent diagnosis made in majority of sudden death cases subjected to clinical and medicolegal autopsies. When sudden death occurs at a very early stage of MI, traditional macroscopic examination, or histological stains cannot easily detect the myocardial changes. For this reason we propose a new method for detecting MI at an early stage. Murine model of MI was used to induce MI through permanent ligation of left anterior descending branch of left coronary artery. Five groups of C57B6/J mice were used for inducing MI, which includes 20 minutes, 30 minutes, one hour, four hours and 24 hours post MI groups. One naïve group and sham-operated groups were used as controls. There is loss of dystrophin membranous staining in cardiac myocytes occurs as early as 20 minutes post myocardial infarction. This can be used as a novel method to diagnose early myocardial infarction in post mortem cases where diagnosis is unclear. In conclusion, evaluation of immunohistochemical expression of dystrophin represents a highly sensitive method for detecting early myocardial infarction due to the loss of staining in the infarcted areas. Dystrophin immunostaining can also be used to assess myocardial architecture. PMID:23330010

  12. Role of EEG as Biomarker in the Early Detection and Classification of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qazzaz, Noor Kamal; Ali, Sawal Hamid Bin MD.; Ahmad, Siti Anom; Chellappan, Kalaivani; Islam, Md. Shabiul; Escudero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The early detection and classification of dementia are important clinical support tasks for medical practitioners in customizing patient treatment programs to better manage the development and progression of these diseases. Efforts are being made to diagnose these neurodegenerative disorders in the early stages. Indeed, early diagnosis helps patients to obtain the maximum treatment benefit before significant mental decline occurs. The use of electroencephalogram as a tool for the detection of changes in brain activities and clinical diagnosis is becoming increasingly popular for its capabilities in quantifying changes in brain degeneration in dementia. This paper reviews the role of electroencephalogram as a biomarker based on signal processing to detect dementia in early stages and classify its severity. The review starts with a discussion of dementia types and cognitive spectrum followed by the presentation of the effective preprocessing denoising to eliminate possible artifacts. It continues with a description of feature extraction by using linear and nonlinear techniques, and it ends with a brief explanation of vast variety of separation techniques to classify EEG signals. This paper also provides an idea from the most popular studies that may help in diagnosing dementia in early stages and classifying through electroencephalogram signal processing and analysis. PMID:25093211

  13. Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method for the accurate quantification of colistin in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Chepyala, Divyabharathi; Tsai, I-Lin; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Lin, Shu-Wen; Kuo, Ching-Hua

    2015-02-01

    Recently, colistin has become one of the most important drugs for treating infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended to ensure the safety and efficacy of colistin and to improve clinical outcomes. This study developed an accurate and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method for the quantification of colistin in human plasma. The sample preparation included protein precipitation using trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and methanol, followed by in-solid phase extraction (In-SPE) derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl). A Poroshell 120 EC-C18 2.1×100mm (2.7μm) column was used in the HPLC method with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile (ACN), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and deionized (DI) water (82%, 2%, 16% (v/v), respectively). Polymyxin B1 was used as the internal standard. The total analysis time was 22min under optimal separation conditions. The HPLC-FLD method was validated over a therapeutic range of 0.3-6.0μgmL(-1). The intra-day and inter-day precisions for colistin A and colistin B were below 9.9% and 4.5% relative standard deviations, respectively. The accuracy test results were between 100.2 and 118.4%. The extraction recoveries were between 81.6 and 94.1%. The method was linear over the test range, with a 0.9991 coefficient of determination. The limit of detection was 0.1μgmL(-1). The validated HPLC-FLD method was successfully applied to quantify the colistin concentrations in 2 patient samples for therapeutic drug monitoring.

  14. Performance of a Micro-Strip Gas Chamber for event wise, high rate thermal neutron detection with accurate 2D position determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mindur, B.; Alimov, S.; Fiutowski, T.; Schulz, C.; Wilpert, T.

    2014-12-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) position sensitive detector for neutron scattering applications based on low-pressure gas amplification and micro-strip technology was built and tested with an innovative readout electronics and data acquisition system. This detector contains a thin solid neutron converter and was developed for time- and thus wavelength-resolved neutron detection in single-event counting mode, which improves the image contrast in comparison with integrating detectors. The prototype detector of a Micro-Strip Gas Chamber (MSGC) was built with a solid natGd/CsI thermal neutron converter for spatial resolutions of about 100 μm and counting rates up to 107 neutrons/s. For attaining very high spatial resolutions and counting rates via micro-strip readout with centre-of-gravity evaluation of the signal amplitude distributions, a fast, channel-wise, self-triggering ASIC was developed. The front-end chips (MSGCROCs), which are very first signal processing components, are read out into powerful ADC-FPGA boards for on-line data processing and thereafter via Gigabit Ethernet link into the data receiving PC. The workstation PC is controlled by a modular, high performance dedicated software suite. Such a fast and accurate system is crucial for efficient radiography/tomography, diffraction or imaging applications based on high flux thermal neutron beam. In this paper a brief description of the detector concept with its operation principles, readout electronics requirements and design together with the signals processing stages performed in hardware and software are presented. In more detail the neutron test beam conditions and measurement results are reported. The focus of this paper is on the system integration, two dimensional spatial resolution, the time resolution of the readout system and the imaging capabilities of the overall setup. The detection efficiency of the detector prototype is estimated as well.

  15. Development of Highly Sensitive Bulk Acoustic Wave Device Biosensor Arrays for Screening and Early Detection of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic Wave Device Biosensor Arrays for Screening and Early Detection of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Anthony J. Dickherber, Ph.D...Arrays for Screening and Early Detection of Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-07-1-0099 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...of developing a cost-effective, highly sensitive and highly selective sensor array for the detection of early cancer proliferation. First I report

  16. Determination of Catechol Estrogen Adducts by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Establishing Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-01

    Catechol Estrogen Adducts by High- Performance Liquid Chromatography: Establishing Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL...DAMD17-98-1-8216 Chromatography: Establishing Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer 6. AUTHOR(S) Douglas E. Stack, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING...ultimate goal of this research is the development of a biomarker for the early detection of breast cancer. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Breast

  17. Cross-Cultural Evaluation of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Darren; Young, Robyn; Angelica, Maria; Gallegos, Juarez; Salazar, Carlos, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    A Spanish translation of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC-SP) was administered to 115 children aged 15-73 months in Mexico. In Phase 1, children with Autistic Disorder (AD), a non-Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) diagnosis or typical development were assessed with the ADEC-SP by a clinician blind to the child's diagnostic…

  18. 77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers...

  19. Challenges of Early Detection of Oral Cancer: Raising Awareness as a First Step to Successful Campaigning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Eva; Koller, Michael; Wiltfang, Jörg; Wenz, Hans-Jürgen; Möller, Björn; Hertrampf, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    In Germany, ~13 000 people are found to have oral and pharyngeal cancer every year. Awareness and knowledge about this cancer remain insufficient, particularly amongst elderly people. A campaign for early detection was launched in Northern Germany in April 2012. The first step of the campaign was to increase awareness about oral cancer. Prior to a…

  20. Early Detection Monitoring Approaches for Non-indigenous Species in Vulnerable Great Lakes Coastal Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes harbors/embayments are vulnerable to introductions of non-indigenous species (NIS). Early detection of new NIS is desirable to allow for a timely management response, raising the question of how to accomplish this in a consistent, cost-effective manner. To that end, ...

  1. In-situ plant hyperspectral sensing for early detection of soybean injury from dicamba

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dicamba (3, 6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) drift onto non-target crops is a major concern because dicamba is highly active on susceptible crops even at low doses. Early detection of crop injury is critical in crop management. A field study was conducted to determine spectral characteristics of s...

  2. Early detection of prostate cancer. Role of prostate-specific antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakaran, V. M.

    1996-01-01

    Pressure to request prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests for early detection of prostate cancer in middle-aged and older men is increasing. However, current scientific data suggest that such testing does more harm than good. Most professional groups do not advise routine screening for prostate cancer. This paper reviews the current status of PSA testing. PMID:8653039

  3. Changing Concepts of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Early Detection

    PubMed Central

    Battista, Renaldo N.; Huston, Patricia; Davis, M. William L.

    1986-01-01

    The understanding of primary open-angle glaucoma has changed over the past 20 years and recommendations on early detection are being revised. In this paper the use of Shiotz tonometry is critically examined, and the problems encountered in instituting alternative screening techniques are reviewed. ImagesFigure 3c PMID:21267099

  4. [The level of evidence for the use of biomarkers in the early detection of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Lamy, Pierre-Jean; Gauchez, Anne-Sophie; Salomon, Laurent; Haugh, Margaret; Ceraline, Jocelyn; Fulla, Yvonne; Georges, Agnès; Larré, Stéphane; Loric, Sylvain; Luporsi, Elisabeth; Martin, Pierre-Marie; Mazerolles, Catherine; Molinié, Vincent; Mongiat-Artus, Pierre; Piffret, Jacques; Thuillier, François; Perrin, Paul; Rebillard, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    To systematically review the evidence for the use of PSA and other biomarkers in the early detection of prostate cancer, we searched PubMed for clinical trials and studies assessing PSA and other biomarkers in the early detection of prostate cancer, published between 2000 and May 2013 that included >200 subjects. The level of evidence (LOE) for clinical utility was evaluated using the tumor marker utility grading system. A total of 84 publications, corresponding to 70 trials and studies were selected for inclusion in this review. We attributed a level of evidence (LoE) of IA to PSA for early PCa detection, but we do not recommend its use in mass screening. Emerging biomarkers were assessed in prospective case-control and cohort studies: PCA3 (n=3); kallikreins (n=3); [-2]proPSA (n=5); fusion oncogenes (n=2). These studies used biopsy results for prostate cancer to determine specificity and sensitivity, but they did not assess the effect on PCa mortality. The LoE attributed was III-C. PSA can be used for early prostate cancer detection but mass screening is not recommended. Studies on other biomarkers suggest that they could be used, individually or in combination, to improve the selection of patients with elevated PSA levels for biopsy, but RCTs assessing their impact on prostate cancer management and mortality are needed. A better use of available tests is possible for men at risk in order to maximize the risk-benefit ratio.

  5. Development of a Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Program for Nurses Working with African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Sandra Millon

    1999-01-01

    Evaluation of a program for 250 nurses working with African Americans showed it enhanced their ability to provide cancer education, screening, and follow-up. It also heightened sensitivity to, and understanding of, issues and trends influencing prevention and early detection for this population. (SK)

  6. A Model for Early Detection and Primary Prevention of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forness, Steven R.; Serna, Loretta A.; Nielsen, Elizabeth; Lambros, Katina; Hale, Mary Johnell; Kavale, Kenneth A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes an example of the use of early detection of emotional/behavioral disorders and a self-determination curriculum in the Head Start Program of Youth Development Incorporated in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The rationale for this approach is discussed and preliminary data on the program's effectiveness are presented. (Contains…

  7. Early detection of crop injury from glyphosate on soybean and cotton using plant leaf hyperspectral data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, we describe early detection of crop injury from glyphosate using traditionally used spectral indices and newly extracted features from leaf hyperspectral reflectance data in non-glyphosate-resistant (non-GR) soybean and non-GR cotton. Spectral bands used in the new features are select...

  8. Aquatic invasive species early detection in the Great Lakes: Lessons concerning strategy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal systems are vulnerable to introduction of a wide variety of non-indigenous species (NIS), and the desire to effectively respond to future invaders is prompting efforts towards establishing a broad early-detection network. Such a network requires statistically...

  9. Early detection of non-native fishes using next-generation DNA sequencing of fish larvae

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy based on next-generation DNA sequencing to investigate potential efficiencies. Our approach was to intensively sample a Great Lakes non-nati...

  10. 75 FR 57472 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the...

  11. PCR real time assays for the early detection of BKV-DNA in immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, Katia; Bagnarelli, Patrizia; Gaffi, Gianni; Trappolini, Silvia; Leoni, Pietro; Paggi, Alessandra Mataloni; Della Vittoria, Agnese; Scalise, Giorgio; Varaldo, Pietro Emanuele; Menzo, Stefano

    2007-07-01

    Testing for viral BKV-DNA in urine is a non-invasive early detection and monitoring tool in the diagnostic of BKV-related pathologies: quantitative analysis by Real-Time PCR can provide useful information in addition to cytologic analysis, although our study suggests that high BKV viruria is not necessarily associated with kidney or bladder damage.

  12. Rapid and early detection of salmonella serotypes with hyperspectral microscope and multivariate data analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to evaluate hyperspectral microscope images for early and rapid detection of Salmonella serotypes: S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, S. Infantis, S. Kentucky, and S. Typhimurium at incubation times of 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 hours. Images were collected by an acousto-optical tunab...

  13. Towards Integrated Practices in Early Detection of and Intervention for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storbeck, Claudine; Calvert-Evers, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    It is well documented that undetected hearing loss can have a profound effect on a child's holistic development, including communicative, language and cognitive development. It is crucial therefore that deaf and hard of hearing infants are detected as early as possible so that appropriate intervention services and support can be initiated. To…

  14. Utility of Pamphlets in Promoting Knowledge and Positive Attitudes about Two Early Cancer Detection Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.

    Informational pamphlets about breast self-examination (BSE) and testicular self-examination (TSE) are widely distributed in health care settings, but the pamphlets' effectiveness in promoting knowledge and positive attitudes about these early cancer detection procedures is largely unknown. A study compared pamphlets with alternative methods of…

  15. Progress towards design elements for a Great Lakes-wide aquatic invasive species early detection network

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal systems are vulnerable to introduction of a wide variety of non-indigenous species (NIS), and the desire to effectively respond to future invaders is prompting efforts towards establishing a broad early-detection network. Such a network requires statistically...

  16. Measuring Pragmatic Skills: Early Detection of Infants at Risk for Communication Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocquyt, Mie; Mommaerts, Maurice Yves; Dewart, Hazel; Zink, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Background: For the early detection of children who are at risk of communication problems, we need appropriate assessment instruments. Two Dutch-language standardised screening instruments are available: the Dutch version of the Non Speech Test (NNST) and the Dutch version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (N-CDIs). These…

  17. Extensive Peptide Fractionation and y1 Ion-Based Interference Detection Method for Enabling Accurate Quantification by Isobaric Labeling and Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Niu, Mingming; Cho, Ji-Hoon; Kodali, Kiran; Pagala, Vishwajeeth; High, Anthony A; Wang, Hong; Wu, Zhiping; Li, Yuxin; Bi, Wenjian; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xusheng; Zou, Wei; Peng, Junmin

    2017-02-22

    Isobaric labeling quantification by mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a powerful technology for multiplexed large-scale protein profiling, but measurement accuracy in complex mixtures is confounded by the interference from coisolated ions, resulting in ratio compression. Here we report that the ratio compression can be essentially resolved by the combination of pre-MS peptide fractionation, MS2-based interference detection, and post-MS computational interference correction. To recapitulate the complexity of biological samples, we pooled tandem mass tag (TMT)-labeled Escherichia coli peptides at 1:3:10 ratios and added in ∼20-fold more rat peptides as background, followed by the analysis of two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS. Systematic investigation shows that quantitative interference was impacted by LC fractionation depth, MS isolation window, and peptide loading amount. Exhaustive fractionation (320 × 4 h) can nearly eliminate the interference and achieve results comparable to the MS3-based method. Importantly, the interference in MS2 scans can be estimated by the intensity of contaminated y1 product ions, and we thus developed an algorithm to correct reporter ion ratios of tryptic peptides. Our data indicate that intermediate fractionation (40 × 2 h) and y1 ion-based correction allow accurate and deep TMT profiling of more than 10 000 proteins, which represents a straightforward and affordable strategy in isobaric labeling proteomics.

  18. Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management.

    PubMed

    Mulshine, James L; Avila, Rick; Yankelevitz, David; Baer, Thomas M; Estépar, Raul San Jose; Ambrose, Laurie Fenton; Aldigé, Carolyn R

    2015-05-01

    The Prevent Cancer Foundation Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management was held in New York, NY on May 16 and 17, 2014. The two goals of the Workshop were to define strategies to drive innovation in precompetitive quantitative research on the use of imaging to assess new therapies for management of early lung cancer and to discuss a process to implement a national program to provide high quality computed tomography imaging for lung cancer and other tobacco-induced disease. With the central importance of computed tomography imaging for both early detection and volumetric lung cancer assessment, strategic issues around the development of imaging and ensuring its quality are critical to ensure continued progress against this most lethal cancer.

  19. Road to early detection of pancreatic cancer: Attempts to utilize epigenetic biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Fukushige, Shinichi; Horii, Akira

    2014-01-28

    The prognosis of pancreatic cancer is extremely poor, mainly because of its aggressive biological behavior and late onset of symptoms for clinical diagnosis; these impose limitations on therapeutic intervention. Deeper genomic sequencing analyses of pancreatic cancers revealed 12 core pathways and a long duration, nearly 20 years from initiation to distant metastases. This evidence will offer a broader aspect and time window of opportunity for early detection, thus preventing deaths from this cruel cancer. Epigenetic biomarkers can be utilized for assessing cancer risk, early detection, and predicting prognosis and therapeutic responses. In this review, we briefly summarize relevant issues associated with pancreatic cancer progression and recent advances in epigenetic biomarkers such as DNA methylation, miRNAs, satellite repeats, and histone modifications for early diagnosis.

  20. UWB based low-cost and non-invasive practical breast cancer early detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayasarveswari, V.; Khatun, S.; Fakir, M. M.; Jusoh, M.; Ali, S.

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the main causes of women death worldwide. Breast tumor is an early stage of cancer that locates in cells of a human breast. As there is no remedy, early detection is crucial. Towards this, Ultra-Wideband (UWB) is a prominent candidate. It is a wireless communication technology which can achieve high bandwidth with low power utilization. UWB is suitable to be used for short range communication systems including breast cancer detection since it is secure, non-invasive and human health friendly. This paper presents the low-cost and non-invasive early breast cancer detection strategy using UWB sensor (or antenna). Emphasis is given here to detect breast tumor in 2D and 3D environments. The developed system consisted of hardware and software. Hardware included UWB transceiver and a pair of home-made directional sensor/antenna. The software included feed-forward back propagation Neural Network (NN) module to detect the tumor existence, size and location along with soft interface between software and hardware. Forward scattering technique was used by placing two sensors diagonally opposite sides of a breast phantom. UWB pulses were transmitted from one side of phantom and received from other side, controlled by the software interface in PC environment. Collected received signals were then fed into the NN module for training, testing and validation. The system exhibited detection efficiency on tumor existence, location (x, y, z), and size were approximately 100%, (78.17%, 70.66%, 92.46%), 85.86% respectively. The proposed UWB based early breast cancer detection system could be more practical with low-cost, user friendly and non-harmful features. This project may help users to monitor their breast health regularly at their home.

  1. Early Detection of Breast Cancer Using Autoantibody Markers — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    To identify large numbers of antigens that can be used to recognize the presence of cancer by detecting antibodies to tumor proteins in the serum of the test subjects. Our technology will provide an early detection test for breast cancer in asymptomatic women. We will use bioinformatics techniques to analyze these protein microarray-immunoassays to discriminate between cancer patients and healthy subjects so as to detect disease prior to standard diagnoses as well as discriminate patients with benign conditions or other cancers that might be a false positive in less specific assays.

  2. Utilizing Existing Clinical and Population Biospecimen Resources for Discovery or Validation of Markers for Early Cancer Detection

    Cancer.gov

    Utilizing Existing Clinical and Population Biospecimen Resources for Discovery or Validation of Markers for Early Cancer Detection, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  3. Immediate-Early Gene Transcriptional Activation in Hippocampus Ca1 and Ca3 Does Not Accurately Reflect Rapid, Pattern Completion-Based Retrieval of Context Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pevzner, Aleksandr; Guzowski, John F.

    2015-01-01

    No studies to date have examined whether immediate-early gene (IEG) activation is driven by context memory recall. To address this question, we utilized the context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE) paradigm. In CPFE, animals acquire contextual fear conditioning through hippocampus-dependent rapid retrieval of a previously formed contextual…

  4. An analysis of media coverage on the prevention and early detection of CKD in Australia.

    PubMed

    Tong, Allison; Chapman, Simon; Sainsbury, Peter; Craig, Jonathan C

    2008-07-01

    News media raise public awareness about health and can influence public policy agenda. Recently, nephrologists have sought to make prevention and early detection of chronic kidney disease (CKD) a health care priority. We assessed the extent and manner in which Australian television news and newspapers cover CKD prevention or early detection. Electronic news databases for print media and television programs were searched (May 2005 to March 2007) for items referring to CKD prevention or early detection. We analyzed all relevant items for spokespeople, main news frame, focus of responsibility, proposed solutions, and trigger/reason for publication. Of 2,439 newspaper articles and 10,430 television broadcasts retrieved, only 214 articles (8.77%) and 7 broadcasts (0.06%) were eligible. Kidney transplantation dominated CKD-related news. Lay person or high-profile advocates were virtually absent. Risks of cardiovascular disease and mortality conferred by CKD were not emphasized by news reports; instead, CKD received peripheral mention as a secondary consequence of diabetes or obesity. Few reports cited the economic consequences of CKD. The media focused on lifestyle causes and solutions, whereas nonlifestyle causes and screening and prevention strategies were rarely mentioned. Kidney health professionals need to actively engage with the media in efforts to amplify desired messages on CKD prevention or early detection. Medical journals, research institutions, universities, hospitals, and advocacy groups should issue press releases that highlight newsworthy aspects of this topic. Extending news media coverage can help exert an influence on health policies and agenda setting and increase public awareness to improve prevention and early detection of CKD.

  5. Early detection of Trichinella spiralis DNA in the feces of experimentally infected mice by using PCR.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao Lin; Ren, Hua Nan; Shi, Ya Li; Hu, Chen Xi; Song, Yan Yan; Duan, Jiang Yang; Zhang, Hui Ping; Du, Xin Rui; Liu, Ruo Dan; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Zhong Quan; Cui, Jing

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to detect Trichinella spiralis DNA in mouse feces during the early stages of infection using PCR. The target gene fragment, a 1.6kb repetitive sequence of T. spiralis genome, was amplified by PCR from feces of mice infected with 100 or 300 larvae at 3-24h post infection (hpi) and 2-28dpi. The sensitivity of PCR was 0.016 larvae in feces. The primers used were highly specific for T. spiralis. No cross-reactivity was observed with the DNA of other intestinal helminths. T. spiralis DNA was detected in 100% (12/12) of feces of mice infected with 100 or 300 larvae as early as 3hpi, with the peak detection lasting to 12-24hpi, and then fluctuating before declining gradually. By 28dpi, the detection rate of T. spiralis DNA in feces of the two groups of infected mice decreased to 8.33% and 25%, respectively. PCR detection of T. spiralis DNA in feces is simple and specific; it might be useful for the early diagnosis of Trichinella infection.

  6. A Context-Aware EEG Headset System for Early Detection of Driver Drowsiness.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Chung, Wan-Young

    2015-08-21

    Driver drowsiness is a major cause of mortality in traffic accidents worldwide. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signal, which reflects the brain activities, is more directly related to drowsiness. Thus, many Brain-Machine-Interface (BMI) systems have been proposed to detect driver drowsiness. However, detecting driver drowsiness at its early stage poses a major practical hurdle when using existing BMI systems. This study proposes a context-aware BMI system aimed to detect driver drowsiness at its early stage by enriching the EEG data with the intensity of head-movements. The proposed system is carefully designed for low-power consumption with on-chip feature extraction and low energy Bluetooth connection. Also, the proposed system is implemented using JAVA programming language as a mobile application for on-line analysis. In total, 266 datasets obtained from six subjects who participated in a one-hour monotonous driving simulation experiment were used to evaluate this system. According to a video-based reference, the proposed system obtained an overall detection accuracy of 82.71% for classifying alert and slightly drowsy events by using EEG data alone and 96.24% by using the hybrid data of head-movement and EEG. These results indicate that the combination of EEG data and head-movement contextual information constitutes a robust solution for the early detection of driver drowsiness.

  7. A Context-Aware EEG Headset System for Early Detection of Driver Drowsiness

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Chung, Wan-Young

    2015-01-01

    Driver drowsiness is a major cause of mortality in traffic accidents worldwide. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signal, which reflects the brain activities, is more directly related to drowsiness. Thus, many Brain-Machine-Interface (BMI) systems have been proposed to detect driver drowsiness. However, detecting driver drowsiness at its early stage poses a major practical hurdle when using existing BMI systems. This study proposes a context-aware BMI system aimed to detect driver drowsiness at its early stage by enriching the EEG data with the intensity of head-movements. The proposed system is carefully designed for low-power consumption with on-chip feature extraction and low energy Bluetooth connection. Also, the proposed system is implemented using JAVA programming language as a mobile application for on-line analysis. In total, 266 datasets obtained from six subjects who participated in a one-hour monotonous driving simulation experiment were used to evaluate this system. According to a video-based reference, the proposed system obtained an overall detection accuracy of 82.71% for classifying alert and slightly drowsy events by using EEG data alone and 96.24% by using the hybrid data of head-movement and EEG. These results indicate that the combination of EEG data and head-movement contextual information constitutes a robust solution for the early detection of driver drowsiness. PMID:26308002

  8. On the Design of a Bioacoustic Sensor for the Early Detection of the Red Palm Weevil

    PubMed Central

    Rach, Miguel Martínez; Gomis, Héctor Migallón; Granado, Otoniel López; Malumbres, Manuel Perez; Campoy, Antonio Martí; Martín, Juan José Serrano

    2013-01-01

    During the last two decades Red Palm Weevil (RPW, Rynchophorus Ferrugineus) has become one of the most dangerous threats to palm trees in many parts of the World. Its early detection is difficult, since palm trees do not show visual evidence of infection until it is too late for them to recover. For this reason the development of efficient early detection mechanisms is a critical element of RPW pest management systems. One of the early detection mechanisms proposed in the literature is based on acoustic monitoring, as the activity of RPW larvae inside the palm trunk is audible for human operators under acceptable environmental noise levels (rural areas, night periods, etc.). In this work we propose the design of an autonomous bioacoustic sensor that can be installed in every palm tree under study and is able to analyze the captured audio signal during large periods of time. The results of the audio analysis would be reported wirelessly to a control station, to be subsequently processed and conveniently stored. That control station is to be accessible via the Internet. It is programmed to send warning messages when predefined alarm thresholds are reached, thereby allowing supervisors to check on-line the status and evolution of the palm tree orchards. We have developed a bioacoustic sensor prototype and performed an extensive set of experiments to measure its detection capability, achieving average detection rates over 90%. PMID:23364196

  9. Evaluation of the diagnostic value of 64 simultaneously measured autoantibodies for early detection of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Simone; Chen, Hongda; Butt, Julia; Michel, Angelika; Knebel, Phillip; Holleczek, Bernd; Zörnig, Inka; Eichmüller, Stefan B.; Jäger, Dirk; Pawlita, Michael; Waterboer, Tim; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Autoantibodies against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) have been suggested as biomarkers for early detection of gastric cancer. However, studies that systematically assess the diagnostic performance of a large number of autoantibodies are rare. Here, we used bead-based multiplex serology to simultaneously measure autoantibody responses against 64 candidate TAAs in serum samples from 329 gastric cancer patients, 321 healthy controls and 124 participants with other diseases of the upper digestive tract. At 98% specificity, sensitivities for the 64 tested autoantibodies ranged from 0–12% in the training set and a combination of autoantibodies against five TAAs (MAGEA4 + CTAG1 + TP53 + ERBB2_C + SDCCAG8) was able to detect 32% of the gastric cancer patients at a specificity of 87% in the validation set. Sensitivities for early and late stage gastric cancers were similar, while chronic atrophic gastritis, a precursor lesion of gastric cancer, was not detectable. However, the 5-marker combination also detected 26% of the esophageal cancer patients. In conclusion, the tested autoantibodies and combinations alone did not reach sufficient sensitivity for gastric cancer screening. Nevertheless, some autoantibodies, such as anti-MAGEA4, anti-CTAG1 or anti-TP53 and their combinations could possibly contribute to the development of cancer early detection tests (not necessarily restricted to gastric cancer) when being combined with other markers. PMID:27140836

  10. On the design of a bioacoustic sensor for the early detection of the red palm weevil.

    PubMed

    Martínez Rach, Miguel; Migallón Gomis, Héctor; López Granado, Otoniel; Perez Malumbres, Manuel; Martí Campoy, Antonio; Serrano Martín, Juan José

    2013-01-30

    During the last two decades Red Palm Weevil (RPW, Rynchophorus Ferrugineus) has become one of the most dangerous threats to palm trees in many parts of the World. Its early detection is difficult, since palm trees do not show visual evidence of infection until it is too late for them to recover. For this reason the development of efficient early detection mechanisms is a critical element of RPW pest management systems. One of the early detection mechanisms proposed in the literature is based on acoustic monitoring, as the activity of RPW larvae inside the palm trunk is audible for human operators under acceptable environmental noise levels (rural areas, night periods, etc.). In this work we propose the design of an autonomous bioacoustic sensor that can be installed in every palm tree under study and is able to analyze the captured audio signal during large periods of time. The results of the audio analysis would be reported wirelessly to a control station, to be subsequently processed and conveniently stored. That control station is to be accessible via the Internet. It is programmed to send warning messages when predefined alarm thresholds are reached, thereby allowing supervisors to check on-line the status and evolution of the palm tree orchards. We have developed a bioacoustic sensor prototype and performed an extensive set of experiments to measure its detection capability, achieving average detection rates over 90%.

  11. Rapid and Accurate Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Sputum Samples by Cepheid Xpert MTB/RIF Assay—A Clinical Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Rachow, Andrea; Zumla, Alimuddin; Heinrich, Norbert; Rojas-Ponce, Gabriel; Mtafya, Bariki; Reither, Klaus; Ntinginya, Elias N.; O'Grady, Justin; Huggett, Jim; Dheda, Keertan; Boehme, Catharina; Perkins, Mark; Saathoff, Elmar; Hoelscher, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background A crucial impediment to global tuberculosis control is the lack of an accurate, rapid diagnostic test for detection of patients with active TB. A new, rapid diagnostic method, (Cepheid) Xpert MTB/RIF Assay, is an automated sample preparation and real-time PCR instrument, which was shown to have good potential as an alternative to current reference standard sputum microscopy and culture. Methods We performed a clinical validation study on diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF Assay in a TB and HIV endemic setting. Sputum samples from 292 consecutively enrolled adults from Mbeya, Tanzania, with suspected TB were subject to analysis by the Xpert MTB/RIF Assay. The diagnostic performance of Xpert MTB/RIF Assay was compared to standard sputum smear microscopy and culture. Confirmed Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a positive culture was used as a reference standard for TB diagnosis. Results Xpert MTB/RIF Assay achieved 88.4% (95%CI = 78.4% to 94.9%) sensitivity among patients with a positive culture and 99% (95%CI = 94.7% to 100.0%) specificity in patients who had no TB. HIV status did not affect test performance in 172 HIV-infected patients (58.9% of all participants). Seven additional cases (9.1% of 77) were detected by Xpert MTB/RIF Assay among the group of patients with clinical TB who were culture negative. Within 45 sputum samples which grew non-tuberculous mycobacteria the assay's specificity was 97.8% (95%CI = 88.2% to 99.9%). Conclusions The Xpert MTB/RIF Assay is a highly sensitive, specific and rapid method for diagnosing TB which has potential to complement the current reference standard of TB diagnostics and increase its overall sensitivity. Its usefulness in detecting sputum smear and culture negative patients needs further study. Further evaluation in high burden TB and HIV areas under programmatic health care settings to ascertain applicability, cost-effectiveness, robustness and local acceptance are required. PMID:21738575

  12. Detection of pathogenic viruses in sewage provided early warnings of hepatitis A virus and norovirus outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Hellmér, Maria; Paxéus, Nicklas; Magnius, Lars; Enache, Lucica; Arnholm, Birgitta; Johansson, Annette; Bergström, Tomas; Norder, Heléne

    2014-11-01

    Most persons infected with enterically transmitted viruses shed large amounts of virus in feces for days or weeks, both before and after onset of symptoms. Therefore, viruses causing gastroenteritis may be detected in wastewater, even if only a few persons are infected. In this study, the presence of eight pathogenic viruses (norovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus, hepatitis A virus [HAV], and hepatitis E virus) was investigated in sewage to explore whether their identification could be used as an early warning of outbreaks. Samples of the untreated sewage were collected in proportion to flow at Ryaverket, Gothenburg, Sweden. Daily samples collected during every second week between January and May 2013 were pooled and analyzed for detection of viruses by concentration through adsorption to milk proteins and PCR. The largest amount of noroviruses was detected in sewage 2 to 3 weeks before most patients were diagnosed with this infection in Gothenburg. The other viruses were detected at lower levels. HAV was detected between weeks 5 and 13, and partial sequencing of the structural VP1protein identified three different strains. Two strains were involved in an ongoing outbreak in Scandinavia and were also identified in samples from patients with acute hepatitis A in Gothenburg during spring of 2013. The third strain was unique and was not detected in any patient sample. The method used may thus be a tool to detect incipient outbreaks of these viruses and provide early warning before the causative pathogens have been recognized in health care.

  13. Early damage detection in epoxy matrix using cyclobutane-based polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jin; Liu, Yingtao; Shan, Bohan; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Dai, Lenore L.

    2014-09-01

    Identification of early damage in polymer composites is of great importance. We have incorporated cyclobutane-containing cross-linked polymers into an epoxy matrix, studied the effect on thermal and mechanical properties, and, more importantly, demonstrated early damage detection through mechanically induced fluorescence generation. Two cinnamate derivatives, 1,1,1-tris(cinnamoyloxymethyl) ethane (TCE) and poly(vinyl cinnamate) (PVCi), were photoirradiated to produce cyclobutane-containing polymer. The effects on the thermal and mechanical properties with the addition of cyclobutane-containing polymer into epoxy matrix were investigated. The emergence of cracks was detected by fluorescence at a strain level just beyond the yield point of the polymer blends, and the fluorescence intensified with accumulation of strain. Overall, the results show that damage can be detected through fluorescence generation along crack propagation.

  14. Spectrum and Image Texture Features Analysis for Early Blight Disease Detection on Eggplant Leaves.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuanqi; He, Yong

    2016-05-11

    This study investigated both spectrum and texture features for detecting early blight disease on eggplant leaves. Hyperspectral images for healthy and diseased samples were acquired covering the wavelengths from 380 to 1023 nm. Four gray images were identified according to the effective wavelengths (408, 535, 624 and 703 nm). Hyperspectral images were then converted into RGB, HSV and HLS images. Finally, eight texture features (mean, variance, homogeneity, contrast, dissimilarity, entropy, second moment and correlation) based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were extracted from gray images, RGB, HSV and HLS images, respectively. The dependent variables for healthy and diseased samples were set as 0 and 1. K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and AdaBoost classification models were established for detecting healthy and infected samples. All models obtained good results with the classification rates (CRs) over 88.46% in the testing sets. The results demonstrated that spectrum and texture features were effective for early blight disease detection on eggplant leaves.

  15. MONITORING TECHNOLOGY FOR EARLY DETECTION OF INTERNAL CORROSION FOR PIPELINE INTEGRITY

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn M. Light; Sang Y. Kim; Robert L. Spinks; Hegeon Kwun; Patrick C. Porter

    2003-09-01

    Transmission gas pipelines are an important part of energy-transportation infrastructure vital to the national economy. The prevention of failures and continued safe operation of these pipelines are therefore of national interest. These lines, mostly buried, are protected and maintained by protective coating and cathodic protection systems, supplemented by periodic inspection equipped with sensors for inspection. The primary method for inspection is ''smart pigging'' with an internal inspection device that traverses the pipeline. However, some transmission lines are however not suitable for ''pigging'' operation. Because inspection of these ''unpiggable'' lines requires excavation, it is cost-prohibitive, and the development of a methodology for cost-effectively assessing the structural integrity of ''unpiggable'' lines is needed. This report describes the laboratory and field evaluation of a technology called ''magnetostrictive sensor (MsS)'' for monitoring and early detection of internal corrosion in known susceptible sections of transmission pipelines. With the MsS technology, developed by Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} (SwRI{reg_sign}), a pulse of a relatively low frequency (typically under 100-kHz) mechanical wave (called guided wave) is launched along the pipeline and signals reflected from defects or welds are detected at the launch location in the pulse-echo mode. This technology can quickly examine a long length of piping for defects, such as corrosion wastage and cracking in circumferential direction, from a single test location, and has been in commercial use for inspection of above-ground piping in refineries and chemical plants. The MsS technology is operated primarily in torsional guided waves using a probe consisting of a thin ferromagnetic strip (typically nickel) bonded to a pipe and a number of coil-turns (typically twenty or so turns) wound over the strip. The MsS probe is relatively inexpensive compared to other guided wave approaches

  16. Computerized detection of vertebral compression fractures on lateral chest radiographs: Preliminary results with a tool for early detection of osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kasai, Satoshi; Li Feng; Shiraishi, Junji; Li Qiang; Doi, Kunio

    2006-12-15

    Vertebral fracture (or vertebral deformity) is a very common outcome of osteoporosis, which is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Early detection of vertebral fractures is important because timely pharmacologic intervention can reduce the risk of subsequent additional fractures. Chest radiographs are used routinely for detection of lung and heart diseases, and vertebral fractures can be visible on lateral chest radiographs. However, investigators noted that about 50% of vertebral fractures visible on lateral chest radiographs were underdiagnosed or under-reported, even when the fractures were severe. Therefore, our goal was to develop a computerized method for detection of vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs in order to assist radiologists' image interpretation and thus allow the early diagnosis of osteoporosis. The cases used in this study were 20 patients with severe vertebral fractures and 118 patients without fractures, as confirmed by the consensus of two radiologists. Radiologists identified the locations of fractured vertebrae, and they provided morphometric data on the vertebral shape for evaluation of the accuracy of detecting vertebral end plates by computer. In our computerized method, a curved search area, which included a number of vertebral end plates, was first extracted automatically, and was straightened so that vertebral end plates became oriented horizontally. Edge candidates were enhanced by use of a horizontal line-enhancement filter in the straightened image, and a multiple thresholding technique, followed by feature analysis, was used for identification of the vertebral end plates. The height of each vertebra was determined from locations of identified vertebral end plates, and fractured vertebrae were detected by comparison of the measured vertebral height with the expected height. The sensitivity of our computerized method for detection of fracture cases was 95% (19/20), with 1.03 (139/135) false

  17. Validation of Three Early Ejaculation Diagnostic Tools: A Composite Measure Is Accurate and More Adequate for Diagnosis by Updated Diagnostic Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Jern, Patrick; Piha, Juhana; Santtila, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To validate three early ejaculation diagnostic tools, and propose a new tool for diagnosis in line with proposed changes to diagnostic criteria. Significant changes to diagnostic criteria are expected in the near future. Available screening tools do not necessarily reflect proposed changes. Materials and Methods Data from 148 diagnosed early ejaculation patients (Mage = 42.8) and 892 controls (Mage = 33.1 years) from a population-based sample were used. Participants responded to three different questionnaires (Premature Ejaculation Profile; Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool; Multiple Indicators of Premature Ejaculation). Stopwatch measured ejaculation latency times were collected from a subsample of early ejaculation patients. We used two types of responses to the questionnaires depending on the treatment status of the patients 1) responses regarding the situation before starting pharmacological treatment and 2) responses regarding current situation. Logistic regressions and Receiver Operating Characteristics were used to assess ability of both the instruments and individual items to differentiate between patients and controls. Results All instruments had very good precision (Areas under the Curve ranging from .93-.98). A new five-item instrument (named CHecklist for Early Ejaculation Symptoms – CHEES) consisting of high-performance variables selected from the three instruments had validity (Nagelkerke R2 range .51-.79 for backwards/forwards logistic regression) equal to or slightly better than any individual instrument (i.e., had slightly higher validity statistics, but these differences did not achieve statistical significance). Importantly, however, this instrument was more in line with proposed changes to diagnostic criteria. Conclusions All three screening tools had good validity. A new 5-item diagnostic tool (CHEES) based on the three instruments had equal or somewhat more favorable validity statistics compared to the other three tools, but is

  18. Serum Protein Markers for the Early Detection of Lung Cancer: A Focus on Autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Broodman, Ingrid; Lindemans, Jan; van Sten, Jenny; Bischoff, Rainer; Luider, Theo

    2017-01-06

    Lung cancer has the highest mortality rate among cancer patients in the world, in particular because most patients are only diagnosed at an advanced and noncurable stage. Computed tomography (CT) screening on high-risk individuals has shown that early detection could reduce the mortality rate. However, the still high false-positive rate of CT screening may harm healthy individuals because of unnecessary follow-up scans and invasive follow-up procedures. Alternatively, false-negative and indeterminate results may harm patients due to the delayed diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Noninvasive biomarkers, complementary to CT screening, could lower the false-positive and false-negative rate of CT screening at baseline and thereby reduce the number of patients that need follow-up and diagnose patients at an earlier stage of lung cancer. Lung cancer tissue generates lung cancer-associated proteins to which the immune system might produce high-affinity autoantibodies. This autoantibody response to tumor-associated antigens starts during early stage lung cancer and may endure over years. Identification of tumor-associated antigens or the corresponding autoantibodies in body fluids as potential noninvasive biomarkers could thus be an effective approach for early detection and monitoring of lung cancer. We provide an overview of differentially expressed protein, antigen, and autoantibody biomarkers that combined with CT imaging might be of clinical use for early detection of lung cancer.

  19. Transvaginal Sonography Versus Cystoscopy for Detecting Urinary Bladder Invasion in Early Stage Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zutshi, Vijay; Garg, Anju; Batra, Swaraj

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Cervical cancer is a major cause of mortality from cancer among women. In it’s early stage pre operative staging with cystoscopy is a standard procedure for the detection of urinary bladder involvement. Aim The present study was conducted with the aim to compare the efficacy of Transvaginal Sonography (TVS) and cystoscopy in diagnosing bladder involvement in early stage cervical cancer patients by confirming it intraoperatively and further by histopathologic examination. Materials and Methods A prospective partially blinded study was conducted between March 2006 and September 2008 on 30 patients with early stage cervical cancer (Stage I and IIa) who were planned to undergo radical hysterectomy. Pre operatively, these patients underwent both TVS and cystoscopy to diagnose bladder involvement. Presence or absence of bladder involvement was then confirmed intra operatively and by histopathologic examination. Results In all the 30 patients studied, no bladder involvement was seen on cystoscopy where as TVS showed bladder involvement in three patients. Involvement of the bladder in these three patients was confirmed intra operatively and by histopathologic examination. Thus, in our study, TVS was 100% sensitive in detecting bladder involvement. Conclusion TVS is highly sensitive in diagnosing bladder involvement in early stage cervical cancer and could potentially detect cases missed with a cystoscopy.

  20. Potential utility of environmental DNA for early detection of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, Jeremy; Sepulveda, Adam; Sylvester, K; Thum, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Considering the harmful and irreversible consequences of many biological invasions, early detection of an invasive species is an important step toward protecting ecosystems (Sepulveda et al. 2012). Early detection increases the probability that suppression or eradication efforts will be successful because invasive populations are small and localized (Vander Zanden et al. 2010). However, most invasive species are not detected early because current tools have low detection probabilities when target species are rare and the sampling effort required to achieve acceptable detection capabilities with current tools is seldom tractable (Jerde et al. 2011). As a result, many invasive species go undetected until they are abundant and suppression efforts become costly. Novel DNA-based surveillance tools have recently revolutionized early detection abilities using environmental DNA (eDNA) present in the water (Darling and Mahon 2011, Bohmann et al. 2014). In brief, eDNA monitoring enables the identification of organisms from DNA present and collected in water samples. Aquatic and semiaquatic organisms release DNA contained in sloughed, damaged, or partially decomposed tissue and waste products into the water and molecular techniques allow this eDNA in the water column to be identified from simple and easy-tocollect water samples (Darling and Mahon 2011). Despite limited understanding of the production, persistence, and spread of DNA in water (Barnes et al. 2014), eDNA monitoring has been applied not only to invasive species (Jerde et al. 2011), but also to species that are rare, endangered, or highly elusive (Spear et al. 2014). However, most eDNA research and monitoring has focused on detection of invertebrates and vertebrates and less attentionhas been given to developing eDNA techniques for detecting aquatic invasive plants. Eurasian watermilfoil (EWM; Myriophyllum spicatum L.) is an invasive species for which improved early detection would be particularly helpful. Advanced

  1. Development of a Multiantigen Panel for Improved Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi Infection in Early Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Panas, Michael W.; Mao, Rong; Delanoy, Michelle; Flanagan, John J.; Binder, Steven R.; Rebman, Alison W.; Montoya, Jose G.; Soloski, Mark J.; Steere, Allen C.; Dattwyler, Raymond J.; Arnaboldi, Paul M.; Aucott, John N.

    2015-01-01

    The current standard for laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease in the United States is serologic detection of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a two-tiered testing algorithm; however, this scheme has limited sensitivity for detecting early Lyme disease. Thus, there is a need to improve diagnostics for Lyme disease at the early stage, when antibiotic treatment is highly efficacious. We examined novel and established antigen markers to develop a multiplex panel that identifies early infection using the combined sensitivity of multiple markers while simultaneously maintaining high specificity by requiring positive results for two markers to designate a positive test. Ten markers were selected from our initial analysis of 62 B. burgdorferi surface proteins and synthetic peptides by assessing binding of IgG and IgM to each in a training set of Lyme disease patient samples and controls. In a validation set, this 10-antigen panel identified a higher proportion of early-Lyme-disease patients as positive at the baseline or posttreatment visit than two-tiered testing (87.5% and 67.5%, respectively; P < 0.05). Equivalent specificities of 100% were observed in 26 healthy controls. Upon further analysis, positivity on the novel 10-antigen panel was associated with longer illness duration and multiple erythema migrans. The improved sensitivity and comparable specificity of our 10-antigen panel compared to two-tiered testing in detecting early B. burgdorferi infection indicates that multiplex analysis, featuring the next generation of markers, could advance diagnostic technology to better aid clinicians in diagnosing and treating early Lyme disease. PMID:26447113

  2. Development of a Multiantigen Panel for Improved Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi Infection in Early Lyme Disease.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Lauren J; Panas, Michael W; Mao, Rong; Delanoy, Michelle; Flanagan, John J; Binder, Steven R; Rebman, Alison W; Montoya, Jose G; Soloski, Mark J; Steere, Allen C; Dattwyler, Raymond J; Arnaboldi, Paul M; Aucott, John N; Robinson, William H

    2015-12-01

    The current standard for laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease in the United States is serologic detection of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a two-tiered testing algorithm; however, this scheme has limited sensitivity for detecting early Lyme disease. Thus, there is a need to improve diagnostics for Lyme disease at the early stage, when antibiotic treatment is highly efficacious. We examined novel and established antigen markers to develop a multiplex panel that identifies early infection using the combined sensitivity of multiple markers while simultaneously maintaining high specificity by requiring positive results for two markers to designate a positive test. Ten markers were selected from our initial analysis of 62 B. burgdorferi surface proteins and synthetic peptides by assessing binding of IgG and IgM to each in a training set of Lyme disease patient samples and controls. In a validation set, this 10-antigen panel identified a higher proportion of early-Lyme-disease patients as positive at the baseline or posttreatment visit than two-tiered testing (87.5% and 67.5%, respectively; P < 0.05). Equivalent specificities of 100% were observed in 26 healthy controls. Upon further analysis, positivity on the novel 10-antigen panel was associated with longer illness duration and multiple erythema migrans. The improved sensitivity and comparable specificity of our 10-antigen panel compared to two-tiered testing in detecting early B. burgdorferi infection indicates that multiplex analysis, featuring the next generation of markers, could advance diagnostic technology to better aid clinicians in diagnosing and treating early Lyme disease.

  3. Progress towards early detection services for infants with hearing loss in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Swanepoel, De Wet; Chapchap, Mônica J; Castillo, Salvador; Habib, Hamed; Mukari, Siti Z; Martinez, Norberto V; Lin, Hung-Ching; McPherson, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Background Early detection of infants with permanent hearing loss through infant hearing screening is recognised and routinely offered as a vital component of early childhood care in developed countries. This article investigates the initiatives and progress towards early detection of infants with hearing loss in developing countries against the backdrop of the dearth of epidemiological data from this region. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study based on responses to a structured questionnaire eliciting information on the nature and scope of early hearing detection services; strategies for financing services; parental and professional attitudes towards screening; and the performance of screening programmes. Responses were complemented with relevant data from the internet and PubMed/Medline. Results Pilot projects using objective screening tests are on-going in a growing number of countries. Screening services are provided at public/private hospitals and/or community health centres and at no charge only in a few countries. Attitudes amongst parents and health care workers are typically positive towards such programmes. Screening efficiency, as measured by referral rate at discharge, was generally found to be lower than desired but several programmes achieved other international benchmarks. Coverage is generally above 90% but poor follow-up rates remain a challenge in some countries. The mean age of diagnosis is usually less than six months, even for community-based programmes. Conclusion Lack of adequate resources by many governments may limit rapid nationwide introduction of services for early hearing detection and intervention, but may not deter such services altogether. Parents may be required to pay for services in some settings in line with the existing practice where healthcare services are predominantly financed by out-of-pocket spending rather than public funding. However, governments and their international development partners need to complement

  4. Dielectric Spectroscopic Detection of Early Failures in 3-D Integrated Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Okoro, C. A.; Ahn, Jung-Joon; You, Lin; Kopanski, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    The commercial introduction of three dimensional integrated circuits (3D-ICs) has been hindered by reliability challenges, such as stress related failures, resistivity changes, and unexplained early failures. In this paper, we discuss a new RF-based metrology, based on dielectric spectroscopy, for detecting and characterizing electrically active defects in fully integrated 3D devices. These defects are traceable to the chemistry of the insolation dielectrics used in the through silicon via (TSV) construction. We show that these defects may be responsible for some of the unexplained early reliability failures observed in TSV enabled 3D devices. PMID:26664695

  5. Strategies for improving early detection and diagnosis of neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Pearse A; de Salvo, Gabriella; Sim, Dawn A; Goverdhan, Srini; Agrawal, Rupesh; Tufail, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has been revolutionized by the introduction of such agents as ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept. As a result, the incidence of legal blindness occurring secondary to AMD has fallen dramatically in recent years in many countries. While these agents have undoubtedly been successful in reducing visual impairment and blindness, patients with neovascular AMD typically lose some vision over time, and often lose the ability to read, drive, or perform other important activities of daily living. Efforts are therefore under way to develop strategies that allow for earlier detection and treatment of this disease. In this review, we begin by providing an overview of the rationale for, and the benefits of, early detection and treatment of neovascular AMD. To achieve this, we begin by providing an overview of the pathophysiology and natural history of choroidal neovascularization, before reviewing the evidence from both clinical trials and “real-world” outcome studies. We continue by highlighting an area that is often overlooked: the importance of patient education and awareness for early AMD detection. We conclude the review by reviewing an array of both established and emerging technologies for early detection of choroidal neovascularization, ranging from Amsler chart testing, to hyperacuity testing, to advanced imaging techniques, such as optical coherence tomography. PMID:25733802

  6. ITIH3 Is a Potential Biomarker for Early Detection of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Poh Kuan; Lee, Huiyin; Zhou, Jianbiao; Liu, Shaw-Cheng; Shia Loh, Marie Chiew; Wang, Ting Ting; Chan, Siew Pang; Smoot, Duane T.; Ashktorab, Hassan; Yan So, Jimmy Bok; Lim, Khong Hee; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Lim, Yoon Pin

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer has one of the highest morbidities and mortalities worldwide. Early detection is key measure to improve the outcome of gastric cancer patients. In our efforts to identify potential markers for gastric cancer detection, we coupled xenotransplantation mouse model with a plasma proteomic approach. MKN45 gastric cancer cells were subcutaneously injected into nude mice and plasma samples from mice bearing different sizes of tumors were collected and subjected to iTRAQ and mass spectrometry analysis. ITIH3 protein was found to be more highly expressed in plasma of tumor bearing mice compared to control. Subsequent screening of ITIH3 expression in 167 clinical plasma samples, including 83 cancer-free subjects and 84 gastric cancer patients, revealed higher ITIH3 level in the plasma of gastric cancer patients. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve estimated a maximal sensitivity of 96% at 66% specificity for ITIH3 in gastric cancer detection. In addition, plasma from early stage gastric cancer patient has significantly (p < 0.001) higher level of ITIH3 compared to that from noncancer subject. Our data suggest that ITIH3 may be a useful biomarker for early detection of gastric cancer. PMID:20515073

  7. Detection of early bronchial carcinoma by imaging of the tissue autofluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goujon, Didier; Glanzmann, Thomas M.; Gabrecht, Tanja; Zellweger, Matthieu; Radu, Alexandre; van den Bergh, Hubert; Monnier, Philippe; Wagnieres, Georges A.

    2001-10-01

    Early detection and localisation of bronchial cancer remains a challenging task. One approach is to exploit the changes in the autofluorescence characteristics of the bronchial tissue as a diagnostic tool with improved sensitivity. Evidence exists that this native fluorescence or autofluorescence of bronchial tissues changes when they turn dysplastic and to carcinoma in situ. There is an agreement in the literature that the lesions display a decrease of autofluorescence in the green region of the spectrum under illumination with violet light and a relative increase in the red region of the spectrum is often reported. Imaging devices rely on this principle to detect early cancerous lesions in the bronchi. Based on a previous spectroscopic study, an industrial imaging prototype has been developed to detect early cancerous lesions in collaboration with the firm 'Richard Wolf Endoskope GmbH'. A preliminary clinical trial involving 20 patients with this spectrally optimised system proved that autofluorescence can detect lesions that would otherwise have remained invisible even to an experienced endoscopist under white light illumination. A systematic analysis of the autofluorescence images pointed out that real-time decisional functions can be defined in order to reduce the number of false positive results. Using this method, a Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of 75% was achieved using autofluorescence only. A PPV of even 100% were obtained when white light mode and autofluorescence mode were combined under the applied conditions. Furthermore, the sensitivity was estimated to be twice as high in AF mode than in WL mode.

  8. The Detection of the Methylated Wif-1 Gene Is More Accurate than a Fecal Occult Blood Test for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Baumgaertner, Isabelle; Delchier, Jean-Charles; Tournigand, Christophe; Furet, Jean-Pierre; Carrau, Jean-Pierre; Canoui-Poitrine, Florence; Sobhani, Iradj

    2014-01-01

    Background The clinical benefit of guaiac fecal occult blood tests (FOBT) is now well established for colorectal cancer screening. Growing evidence has demonstrated that epigenetic modifications and fecal microbiota changes, also known as dysbiosis, are associated with CRC pathogenesis and might be used as surrogate markers of CRC. Patients and Methods We performed a cross-sectional study that included all consecutive subjects that were referred (from 2003 to 2007) for screening colonoscopies. Prior to colonoscopy, effluents (fresh stools, sera-S and urine-U) were harvested and FOBTs performed. Methylation levels were measured in stools, S and U for 3 genes (Wif1, ALX-4, and Vimentin) selected from a panel of 63 genes; Kras mutations and seven dominant and subdominant bacterial populations in stools were quantified. Calibration was assessed with the Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square, and discrimination was determined by calculating the C-statistic (Area Under Curve) and Net Reclassification Improvement index. Results There were 247 individuals (mean age 60.8±12.4 years, 52% of males) in the study group, and 90 (36%) of these individuals were patients with advanced polyps or invasive adenocarcinomas. A multivariate model adjusted for age and FOBT led to a C-statistic of 0.83 [0.77–0.88]. After supplementary sequential (one-by-one) adjustment, Wif-1 methylation (S or U) and fecal microbiota dysbiosis led to increases of the C-statistic to 0.90 [0.84–0.94] (p = 0.02) and 0.81 [0.74–0.86] (p = 0.49), respectively. When adjusted jointly for FOBT and Wif-1 methylation or fecal microbiota dysbiosis, the increase of the C-statistic was even more significant (0.91 and 0.85, p<0.001 and p = 0.10, respectively). Conclusion The detection of methylated Wif-1 in either S or U has a higher performance accuracy compared to guaiac FOBT for advanced colorectal neoplasia screening. Conversely, fecal microbiota dysbiosis detection was not more accurate. Blood and urine

  9. BioSense: implementation of a National Early Event Detection and Situational Awareness System.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Colleen A; Rolka, H; Walker, D; Loonsk, J

    2005-08-26

    BioSense is a CDC initiative to support enhanced early detection, quantification, and localization of possible biologic terrorism attacks and other events of public health concern on a national level. The goals of the BioSense initiative are to advance early detection by providing the standards, infrastructure, and data acquisition for near real-time reporting, analytic evaluation and implementation, and early event detection support for state and local public health officials. BioSense collects and analyzes Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs ambulatory clinical diagnoses and procedures and Laboratory Corporation of America laboratory-test orders. The application summarizes and presents analytical results and data visualizations by source, day, and syndrome for each ZIP code, state, and metropolitan area through maps, graphs, and tables. An initial proof of a concept evaluation project was conducted before the system was made available to state and local users in April 2004. User recruitment involved identifying and training BioSense administrators and users from state and local health departments. User support has been an essential component of the implementation and enhancement process. CDC initiated the BioIntelligence Center (BIC) in June 2004 to conduct internal monitoring of BioSense national data daily. BIC staff have supported state and local system monitoring, conducted data anomaly inquiries, and communicated with state and local public health officials. Substantial investments will be made in providing regional, state, and local data for early event detection and situational awareness, test beds for data and algorithm evaluation, detection algorithm development, and data management technologies, while maintaining the focus on state and local public health needs.

  10. Wavelength-Modulated Differential Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (WM-DPAS) for noninvasive early cancer detection and tissue hypoxia monitoring.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung Soo Sean; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin; Lashkari, Bahman; Kellnberger, Stephan; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-04-01

    This study introduces a novel noninvasive differential photoacoustic method, Wavelength Modulated Differential Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (WM-DPAS), for noninvasive early cancer detection and continuous hypoxia monitoring through ultrasensitive measurements of hemoglobin oxygenation levels (StO2 ). Unlike conventional photoacoustic spectroscopy, WM-DPAS measures simultaneously two signals induced from square-wave modulated laser beams at two different wavelengths where the absorption difference between maximum deoxy- and oxy-hemoglobin is 680 nm, and minimum (zero) 808 nm (the isosbestic point). The two-wavelength measurement efficiently suppresses background, greatly enhances the signal to noise ratio and thus enables WM-DPAS to detect very small changes in total hemoglobin concentration (CHb ) and oxygenation levels, thereby identifying pre-malignant tumors before they are anatomically apparent. The non-invasive nature also makes WM-DPAS the best candidate for ICU bedside hypoxia monitoring in stroke patients. Sensitivity tunability is another special feature of the technology: WM-DPAS can be tuned for different applications such as quick cancer screening and accurate StO2 quantification by selecting a pair of parameters, signal amplitude ratio and phase shift. The WM-DPAS theory has been validated with sheep blood phantom measurements. Sensitivity comparison between conventional single-ended signal and differential signal.

  11. Accurate in vitro cleavage by RNase III of phosphorothioate-substituted RNA processing signals in bacteriophage T7 early mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, A W; Niebling, K R; McOsker, P L; Robertson, H D

    1988-01-01

    To test the ability of an RNA processing enzyme to cleave chemically-modified RNA substrates, RNA transcripts containing RNase III cleavage sites were enzymatically synthesized in vitro to contain specific phosphorothioate diester internucleotide linkages. One transcript (R1.1 RNA) was generated using phage T7 RNA polymerase and a cloned segment of phage T7 DNA containing the R1.1 RNase III processing site. The second transcript was the phage T7 polycistronic early mRNA precursor, which was synthesized using E. coli RNA polymerase and T7 genomic DNA. The RNA transcripts contained phosphorothioate diester groups at positions including the scissile bonds. The modified RNAs were stable to incubation in Mg2+-containing buffer, and were specifically cleaved by RNase III. RNA oligonucleotide sequence analysis showed that the modified R1.1 RNA processing site was the same as the canonical site and contained a phosphorothioate bond. Furthermore, RNase III cleaved the phosphorothioate internucleotide bond with 5' polarity. RNase III cleavage of phosphorothioate substituted T7 polycistronic early mRNA precursor produced the same gel electrophoretic pattern as that obtained with the control transcript. Thus, RNase III cleavage specificity is not altered by phosphorothioate internucleotide linkages. Images PMID:3279395

  12. NCI Awards 18 Grants to Continue the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Biomarkers Effort | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI has awarded 18 grants to continue the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN), a national infrastructure that supports the integrated development, validation, and clinical application of biomarkers for the early detection of cancer. The awards fund 7 Biomarker Developmental Laboratories, 8 Clinical Validation Centers, 2 Biomarker Reference Laboratories, and a Data Management and Coordinating Center (DMCC). |

  13. A decade of aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection method development in the St. Louis River estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    As an invasion prone location, the St. Louis River Estuary (SLRE) has been a case study for ongoing research to develop the framework for a practical Great Lakes monitoring network for early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS). Early detection, however, necessitates findi...

  14. 77 FR 60703 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection...

  15. On-line early fault detection and diagnosis of municipal solid waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Jinsong Huang Jianchao; Sun Wei

    2008-11-15

    A fault detection and diagnosis framework is proposed in this paper for early fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in order to improve the safety and continuity of production. In this framework, principal component analysis (PCA), one of the multivariate statistical technologies, is used for detecting abnormal events, while rule-based reasoning performs the fault diagnosis and consequence prediction, and also generates recommendations for fault mitigation once an abnormal event is detected. A software package, SWIFT, is developed based on the proposed framework, and has been applied in an actual industrial MSWI. The application shows that automated real-time abnormal situation management (ASM) of the MSWI can be achieved by using SWIFT, resulting in an industrially acceptable low rate of wrong diagnosis, which has resulted in improved process continuity and environmental performance of the MSWI.

  16. On-line early fault detection and diagnosis of municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinsong; Huang, Jianchao; Sun, Wei

    2008-11-01

    A fault detection and diagnosis framework is proposed in this paper for early fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in order to improve the safety and continuity of production. In this framework, principal component analysis (PCA), one of the multivariate statistical technologies, is used for detecting abnormal events, while rule-based reasoning performs the fault diagnosis and consequence prediction, and also generates recommendations for fault mitigation once an abnormal event is detected. A software package, SWIFT, is developed based on the proposed framework, and has been applied in an actual industrial MSWI. The application shows that automated real-time abnormal situation management (ASM) of the MSWI can be achieved by using SWIFT, resulting in an industrially acceptable low rate of wrong diagnosis, which has resulted in improved process continuity and environmental performance of the MSWI.

  17. Application of a novel confocal imaging technique for early the detection of dental decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Christel; Girkin, John M.; Vaidya, Shilpa; Hall, Andrew F.; Whitters, C. J.; Creanor, Steve L.

    2002-06-01

    In order to stop or prevent the progression of dental disease, early detection and quantification of decay are crucially important. Dental decay (caries) detection methods have traditionally involved clinical examination by eye, using probes and dental radiography, but up to 60% of lesions are missed. What the dentist requires is a cheap, reliable method of detection of early disease, ideally with information on the depth and rate of growth or healing. Conventional commercial scanning confocal microscopes are unsuitable for use on dental patients. We report on a fibre optic based confocal microscope designed for in vivo examination of caries lesions. The system utilizes a common fibre both as the source and to detect the reflected confocal signal. The initial system has been optimized using dielectric mirrors and the thickness of the stack has been measured with high precision. Dental samples have been examined and the system has been demonstrated to provide information on the depth and mineral loss of a lesion. Fibre optic microscopy (FOCM) demonstrates a practical route to developing an in vivo caries profiler. In this paper, the FOCM and its applications in caries detection are described and the potential of this scheme as a practical dental probe is discussed.

  18. Detection and mapping of delays in early cortical folding derived from in utero MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habas, Piotr A.; Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia A.; Kim, Kio; Roosta, Ahmad; Rousseau, Francois; Barkovich, A. James; Glenn, Orit A.; Studholme, Colin

    2011-03-01

    Understanding human brain development in utero and detecting cortical abnormalities related to specific clinical conditions is an important area of research. In this paper, we describe and evaluate methodology for detection and mapping of delays in early cortical folding from population-based studies of fetal brain anatomies imaged in utero. We use a general linear modeling framework to describe spatiotemporal changes in curvature of the developing brain and explore the ability to detect and localize delays in cortical folding in the presence of uncertainty in estimation of the fetal age. We apply permutation testing to examine which regions of the brain surface provide the most statistical power to detect a given folding delay at a given developmental stage. The presented methodology is evaluated using MR scans of fetuses with normal brain development and gestational ages ranging from 20.57 to 27.86 weeks. This period is critical in early cortical folding and the formation of the primary and secondary sulci. Finally, we demonstrate a clinical application of the framework for detection and localization of folding delays in fetuses with isolated mild ventriculomegaly.

  19. Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate by leaf biochemical parameter inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feng; Guo, Yiqing; Huang, Yanbo; Reddy, Krishna N.; Lee, Matthew A.; Fletcher, Reginald S.; Thomson, Steven J.

    2014-09-01

    Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate is of significant importance in crop management. In this paper, we attempt to detect glyphosate-induced crop injury by PROSPECT (leaf optical PROperty SPECTra model) inversion through leaf hyperspectral reflectance measurements for non-Glyphosate-Resistant (non-GR) soybean and non-GR cotton leaves. The PROSPECT model was inverted to retrieve chlorophyll content (Ca+b), equivalent water thickness (Cw), and leaf mass per area (Cm) from leaf hyperspectral reflectance spectra. The leaf stress conditions were then evaluated by examining the temporal variations of these biochemical constituents after glyphosate treatment. The approach was validated with greenhouse-measured datasets. Results indicated that the leaf injury caused by glyphosate treatments could be detected shortly after the spraying for both soybean and cotton by PROSPECT inversion, with Ca+b of the leaves treated with high dose solution decreasing more rapidly compared with leaves left untreated, whereas the Cw and Cm showed no obvious difference between treated and untreated leaves. For both non-GR soybean and non-GR cotton, the retrieved Ca+b values of the glyphosate treated plants from leaf hyperspectral data could be distinguished from that of the untreated plants within 48 h after the treatment, which could be employed as a useful indicator for glyphosate injury detection. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of applying the PROSPECT inversion technique for the early detection of leaf injury from glyphosate and its potential for agricultural plant status monitoring.

  20. Early detection of Alzheimer's disease using histograms in a dissimilarity-based classification framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchtenberg, Anne; Simões, Rita; van Cappellen van Walsum, Anne-Marie; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2014-03-01

    Classification methods have been proposed to detect early-stage Alzheimer's disease using Magnetic Resonance images. In particular, dissimilarity-based classification has been applied using a deformation-based distance measure. However, such approach is not only computationally expensive but it also considers large-scale alterations in the brain only. In this work, we propose the use of image histogram distance measures, determined both globally and locally, to detect very mild to mild Alzheimer's disease. Using an ensemble of local patches over the entire brain, we obtain an accuracy of 84% (sensitivity 80% and specificity 88%).

  1. Early Detection of Coronary Artery Graft Dysfunction with Intraoperative 2-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Sisto, Donato A.; Hoffman, Darryl M.; Fernandes, Sylvia; Frater, Robert W.M.; Orihashi, Kazumasa; Oka, Yasu

    1992-01-01

    We report 5 cases in which intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography was instrumental in the early detection of a left ventricular wall-motion abnormality caused by acute dysfunction of a coronary artery bypass graft. The appearance of a wall-motion abnormality on transesophageal echocardiography preceded signs of myocardial ischemia when such signs were detectable with routine monitoring. By facilitating prompt, appropriate correction of technical problems, transesophageal echocardiography enabled the blood flow to be restored and the ischemic insult to be resolved without further complication. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1992;19:130-3) Images PMID:15227425

  2. Signal and image processing for early detection of coronary artery diseases: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobssite, Youness; Samir, B. Belhaouari; Mohamad Hani, Ahmed Fadzil B.

    2012-09-01

    Today biomedical signals and image based detection are a basic step to diagnose heart diseases, in particular, coronary artery diseases. The goal of this work is to provide non-invasive early detection of Coronary Artery Diseases relying on analyzing images and ECG signals as a combined approach to extract features, further classify and quantify the severity of DCAD by using B-splines method. In an aim of creating a prototype of screening biomedical imaging for coronary arteries to help cardiologists to decide the kind of treatment needed to reduce or control the risk of heart attack.

  3. Raman Spectrometric Detection Methods for Early and Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chia-Chi; Isidoro, Ciro

    2017-03-18

    The continuous increasing rate of patients suffering of Alzheimer's disease (AD) worldwide requires the adoption of novel techniques for non-invasive early diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. Here we review the various Raman spectroscopic techniques, including Fourier Transform-Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy, and confocal Raman microspectroscopy, that could be used for the diagnosis of AD. These techniques have shown the potential to detect AD biomarkers, such as the amyloid-β peptide and the tau protein, or the neurotransmitters involved in the disease (e.g., Glutamate and γ-Aminobutyric acid), or the typical structural alterations in specific brain areas. The possibility to detect the specific biomarkers in liquid biopsies and to obtain high resolution 3D microscope images of the affected area make the Raman spectroscopy a valuable ally in the early diagnosis and monitoring of AD.

  4. The role of gravity in ocean acoustics propagation and its implication to early tsunami detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Tiago; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Kadri, Usama

    2016-04-01

    Oceanic low frequency sound generated by submarine earthquake travels much faster than tsunamis and leaves pressure signatures that can act as tsunami precursors. In this regard, it is anticipated that the correct measurement and analysis of low frequency acoustics would enhance current early tsunami detection systems. In this work we model the low frequency acoustics generated by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake using the "Method of Normal Modes" and the "Acoustics-Gravity Wave" theory. Ocean acoustic theories usually neglect the effect of gravity. However, we show for rigid and elastic bottom conditions how gravity influences the acoustic normal mode propagation speed. Practically, our results can help in the real time characterization of low frequency sources in the ocean. This will enhance the robustness of early tsunami detection systems.

  5. Oral precancerous lesions: Problems of early detection and oral cancer prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gileva, Olga S.; Libik, Tatiana V.; Danilov, Konstantin V.

    2016-08-01

    The study presents the results of the research in the structure, local and systemic risk factors, peculiarities of the clinical manifestation, and quality of primary diagnosis of precancerous oral mucosa lesions (OMLs). In the study a wide range of OMLs and high (25.4%) proportion of oral precancerous lesions (OPLs) in their structure was indicated. The high percentage of different diagnostic errors and the lack of oncological awareness of dental practitioners, as well as the sharp necessity of inclusion of precancer/cancer early detection techniques into their daily practice were noted. The effectiveness of chemilumenescence system of early OPLs and oral cancer detection was demonstrated, the prospects of infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool were also discussed.

  6. Early detection of tooth wear by en-face optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mărcăuteanu, Corina; Negrutiu, Meda; Sinescu, Cosmin; Demjan, Eniko; Hughes, Mike; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2009-02-01

    Excessive dental wear (pathological attrition and/or abfractions) is a frequent complication in bruxing patients. The parafunction causes heavy occlusal loads. The aim of this study is the early detection and monitoring of occlusal overload in bruxing patients. En-face optical coherence tomography was used for investigating and imaging of several extracted tooth, with a normal morphology, derived from patients with active bruxism and from subjects without parafunction. We found a characteristic pattern of enamel cracks in patients with first degree bruxism and with a normal tooth morphology. We conclude that the en-face optical coherence tomography is a promising non-invasive alternative technique for the early detection of occlusal overload, before it becomes clinically evident as tooth wear.

  7. Early Detection of Severe Apnoea through Voice Analysis and Automatic Speaker Recognition Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Ruben; Blanco, Jose Luis; Díaz, David; Hernández, Luis A.; López, Eduardo; Alcázar, José

    This study is part of an on-going collaborative effort between the medical and the signal processing communities to promote research on applying voice analysis and Automatic Speaker Recognition techniques (ASR) for the automatic diagnosis of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Early detection of severe apnoea cases is important so that patients can receive early treatment. Effective ASR-based diagnosis could dramatically cut medical testing time. Working with a carefully designed speech database of healthy and apnoea subjects, we present and discuss the possibilities of using generative Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs), generally used in ASR systems, to model distinctive apnoea voice characteristics (i.e. abnormal nasalization). Finally, we present experimental findings regarding the discriminative power of speaker recognition techniques applied to severe apnoea detection. We have achieved an 81.25 % correct classification rate, which is very promising and underpins the interest in this line of inquiry.

  8. Impedance sensing device enables early detection of pressure ulcers in vivo.

    PubMed

    Swisher, Sarah L; Lin, Monica C; Liao, Amy; Leeflang, Elisabeth J; Khan, Yasser; Pavinatto, Felippe J; Mann, Kaylee; Naujokas, Agne; Young, David; Roy, Shuvo; Harrison, Michael R; Arias, Ana Claudia; Subramanian, Vivek; Maharbiz, Michel M

    2015-03-17

    When pressure is applied to a localized area of the body for an extended time, the resulting loss of blood flow and subsequent reperfusion to the tissue causes cell death and a pressure ulcer develops. Preventing pressure ulcers is challenging because the combination of pressure and time that results in tissue damage varies widely between patients, and the underlying damage is often severe by the time a surface wound becomes visible. Currently, no method exists to detect early tissue damage and enable intervention. Here we demonstrate a flexible, electronic device that non-invasively maps pressure-induced tissue damage, even when such damage cannot be visually observed. Using impedance spectroscopy across flexible electrode arrays in vivo on a rat model, we find that impedance is robustly correlated with tissue health across multiple animals and wound types. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of an automated, non-invasive 'smart bandage' for early detection of pressure ulcers.

  9. National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program partnerships in action.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Latasha D; Larkins, Teri L; Boyle, John N; George, Susan F; Triplett, Erin W; Leypoldt, Melissa D

    2014-08-15

    Since the inception of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) in 1990, partnerships have played a significant role in providing breast and cervical cancer screening and early detection to uninsured and underinsured women. The state, tribal, and territorial NBCCEDP grantees have shared resources and responsibilities with a variety of partners (eg, community-based organizations, government agencies, tribes, health care systems, companies, professional organizations) to achieve common goals. National partners, such as the American Cancer Society, Susan G. Komen for the Cure, and the Avon Foundation for Women, have provided funding, lobbied for national and state funding, supported outreach and education activities, and provided treatment referral services for the programs. This article provides an overview of grantee partnerships to illustrate the effects, successes, and challenges of these partnerships and how they have affected the populations served by the program.

  10. Early detection of childhood autism: a review of screening instruments and rating scales.

    PubMed

    Vostanis, P; Smith, B; Chung, M C; Corbett, J

    1994-01-01

    The detection and diagnosis of autism may be delayed until middle childhood, 3-4 years after its onset. This is more likely in high-functioning autism and in cases of co-morbidity with mental retardation. Such delays have serious effects on children and their families as well as on the provision of clinical and educational resources. In addition to greater awareness among professionals and to the development of comprehensive services, early detection could be facilitated by screening for early signs and symptoms of autism. The instruments that have been developed to rate autistic behaviours, particularly in pre-school children, are reviewed in this paper. Although the majority of these observational or informant-based measures were not initially designed for screening purposes, previous research findings from their application could be useful in the future development of such a screening instrument. Relevant research findings are discussed and suggestions are made for further evaluation in appropriate populations.

  11. Emerging Cardiac Imaging Modalities for the Early Detection of Cardiotoxicity due to Anticancer Therapies.

    PubMed

    López-Fernández, Teresa; Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh

    2017-02-08

    The undeniable advances in the field of oncology have finally led to a decrease in overall cancer-related mortality. However, this population of long-term cancer survivors is now facing a shift toward a substantial increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Because the development of overt cardiotoxicity can be associated with poor outcomes, preclinical identification of cardiac toxicity is important. This will promote early instauration of treatments to prevent overt heart dysfunction and allow oncologists to continue cancer therapy in an uninterrupted manner. Surveillance strategies for the early detection of cardiac injury include cardiac imaging and biomarkers during treatment. In this review, we outline existing cardiac imaging modalities to detect myocardial changes in patients undergoing cancer treatment and in survivors, and their strengths and limitations.

  12. Detection of early carious lesions using contrast enhancement with coherent light scattering (speckle imaging)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deana, A. M.; Jesus, S. H. C.; Koshoji, N. H.; Bussadori, S. K.; Oliveira, M. T.

    2013-07-01

    Currently, dental caries still represent one of the chronic diseases with the highest prevalence and present in most countries. The interaction between light and teeth (absorption, scattering and fluorescence) is intrinsically connected to the constitution of the dental tissue. Decay induced mineral loss introduces a shift in the optical properties of the affected tissue; therefore, study of these properties may produce novel techniques aimed at the early diagnosis of carious lesions. Based on the optical properties of the enamel, we demonstrate the application of first-order spatial statistics in laser speckle imaging, allowing the detection of carious lesions in their early stages. A highlight of this noninvasive, non-destructive, real time and cost effective approach is that it allows a dentist to detect a lesion even in the absence of biofilm or moisture.

  13. An endoscopic system for the early detection of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mckechnie, Tracy; Jahan, Ali; Tait, Iain; Cuschieri, Alfred; Sibbett, Wilson; Padgett, Miles

    1998-06-01

    We report a compact endoscopic imaging system suitable for the early detection of cancers throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The system incorporates a three-color camera to provide a conventional color image, a mercury lamp filtered between 360 and 450 nm to excite the photosensitizer, and an intensified camera to image the resulting fluorescence at 630 nm. Our results on over 30 resected specimens show a high optical contrast between the cancerous and healthy tissue.

  14. Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer by Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound-Targeted Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    in serum and its association with ovarian TAN in prospective study. 2a. Hens with ovaries appearing normal (with normal egg laying rates and low egg ...detective of ovarian TAN at early stage of OVCA. Animals: A total of 140 White Leghorn hens (3 years old) with low egg laying rates (eggs/year...matched 100 hens with low egg laying rates and 20 hens with normally egg laying rates and reared under similar environment were selected for CE-US

  15. Gadolinium metallo nanocongregates as potential magnetosensors for detecting early stage cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Ranu; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2015-04-27

    Gadolinium chelates and gadolinium based inorganic nanoparticles have been extensively studied, because of the high magnetic moment of gadolinium. Here, metallic gadolinium nanocongregates have been developed. Upon injecting these nanoparticles in the mice, they initially circulate in the blood stream and are localized at the cancer site, which could be visualized upon application of magnetic field hence acting as small magnetic nanosensors searching for even small cancers, detecting cancers at a very early stage.

  16. Students' Reports of Severe Violence in School as a Tool for Early Detection and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yablon, Yaacov B.

    2017-01-01

    Early detection of severe violence is a significant challenge for many schools. Three studies were conducted on samples of 6th, 8th, and 10th graders (12-16 years old). The first study, based on paired reports of teachers and students (n = 130), showed that a high percentage of both victims and perpetrators of severe violence are not identified by…

  17. The Development of Technological Support for RAF Early Failure Detection Centers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Key Words: Computer aided ; CASPA ; CAVE; debris analysis; Early Failure Detection Centres; equipment health monitoring; Royal Air Force; Wear Particle...of neural networks and image analysis techniques. CASPA : The Computer Aided Systematic Particle Analysis ( CASPA ) system has been developed as a...advantages of CASPA is that, as an expert system it may be 2 used by inexperienced personnel, while repeated use will train the operator in the

  18. The Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer in the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    and human cells were compared to discern whether CA19-9 is added to known carriers in the genetically engineered mouse system. CA19-9 labeled...elevated exposure to carcinogens present in diesel engine exhaust and cigarette smoke, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals...KEYWORDS: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, early detection, carcinogenesis, military, diesel engine exhaust, cigarette smoke, organoids. ACCOMPLISHMENTS

  19. Cardiovascular disease in the developing world: prevalences, patterns, and the potential of early disease detection.

    PubMed

    Celermajer, David S; Chow, Clara K; Marijon, Eloi; Anstey, Nicholas M; Woo, Kam S

    2012-10-02

    Over the past decade or more, the prevalence of traditional risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases has been increasing in the major populous countries of the developing world, including China and India, with consequent increases in the rates of coronary and cerebrovascular events. Indeed, by 2020, cardiovascular diseases are predicted to be the major causes of morbidity and mortality in most developing nations around the world. Techniques for the early detection of arterial damage have provided important insights into disease patterns and pathogenesis and especially the effects of progressive urbanization on cardiovascular risk in these populations. Furthermore, certain other diseases affecting the cardiovascular system remain prevalent and important causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in developing countries, including the cardiac effects of rheumatic heart disease and the vascular effects of malaria. Imaging and functional studies of early cardiovascular changes in those disease processes have also recently been published by various groups, allowing consideration of screening and early treatment opportunities. In this report, the authors review the prevalences and patterns of major cardiovascular diseases in the developing world, as well as potential opportunities provided by early disease detection.

  20. Inversion Method for Early Detection of ARES-1 Case Breach Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Ryan M.; Kulikov, Igor K.; Bajwa, Anupa; Berg, Peter; Smelyanskiy, Vadim

    2010-01-01

    A document describes research into the problem of detecting a case breach formation at an early stage of a rocket flight. An inversion algorithm for case breach allocation is proposed and analyzed. It is shown how the case breach can be allocated at an early stage of its development by using the rocket sensor data and the output data from the control block of the rocket navigation system. The results are simulated with MATLAB/Simulink software. The efficiency of an inversion algorithm for a case breach location is discussed. The research was devoted to the analysis of the ARES-l flight during the first 120 seconds after the launch and early prediction of case breach failure. During this time, the rocket is propelled by its first-stage Solid Rocket Booster (SRB). If a breach appears in SRB case, the gases escaping through it will produce the (side) thrust directed perpendicular to the rocket axis. The side thrust creates torque influencing the rocket attitude. The ARES-l control system will compensate for the side thrust until it reaches some critical value, after which the flight will be uncontrollable. The objective of this work was to obtain the start time of case breach development and its location using the rocket inertial navigation sensors and GNC data. The algorithm was effective for the detection and location of a breach in an SRB field joint at an early stage of its development.

  1. Calponin-h2: a potential serum marker for the early detection of human breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Debald, Manuel; Jin, Jian-Ping; Linke, Andrea; Walgenbach, Klaus-Jürgen; Rauch, Peter; Zellmer, Angela; Fimmers, Rolf; Kuhn, Walther; Hartmann, Gunther; Walgenbach-Brünagel, Gisela

    2014-11-01

    Early diagnosis is the key for the successful treatment of breast cancer. A serum marker for the early detection of breast cancer could significantly reduce breast cancer morbidity and mortality by bringing the time of diagnosis at an earlier and therefore still curable stage. So far, no biomarker for the early detection is available for the clinical routine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of calponin-h2 as a blood-based biomarker for the early diagnosis of this disease. Using two monoclonal antibodies against calponin-h2, we developed a sandwich ELISA to analyze the serum levels of calponin-h2. In order to evaluate the diagnostic potential of this biomarker, patients with breast cancer (n = 76), benign diseases of the breast (n = 51) and healthy females (n = 24) were analyzed. Serum levels above 10 ng/ml were only observed in patients with breast cancer (n = 8; 10.5%). Further large-scale studies and preanalytic evaluations are necessary to clarify the definite role of calponin-h2 as a biomarker in breast cancer management.

  2. Quadrant Field Pupillometry Detects Melanopsin Dysfunction in Glaucoma Suspects and Early Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Prakash; Zele, Andrew J.; Thomas, Ravi; Feigl, Beatrix

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to detect visual function deficits in patients at risk for glaucoma (glaucoma suspects) and at early disease stages with conventional ophthalmic tests such as perimetry. To this end, we introduce a novel quadrant field measure of the melanopsin retinal ganglion cell mediated pupil light response corresponding with typical glaucomatous arcuate visual field defects. The melanopsin-mediated post-illumination pupil response (PIPR) was measured in 46 patients with different stages of glaucoma including glaucoma suspects and compared to a healthy group of 21 participants with no disease. We demonstrate that the superonasal quadrant PIPR differentiated glaucoma suspects and early glaucoma patients from controls with fair (AUC = 0.74) and excellent (AUC = 0.94) diagnostic accuracy, respectively. The superonasal PIPR provides a linear functional correlate of structural retinal nerve fibre thinning in glaucoma suspects and early glaucoma patients. This first report that quadrant PIPR stimulation detects melanopsin dysfunction in patients with early glaucoma and at pre-perimetric stages may have future implications in treatment decisions of glaucoma suspects. PMID:27622679

  3. [Significance of high sensitive CRP assay for early detection of newborn babies infection diseases].

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Takaaki; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2002-01-01

    We have evaluated the accuracy of high sensitive CRP assay method using evanescent wave Immunoassy system(Evanet 20) and significance of this assay on the early detection of infectious diseases in newborn babies. In this assay system, prozone phenomenon was not detected up to 40 mg/dl. The reproducibility of this assay was quite good and the intra run CV value of the same sample was less than 5% for the assay of serum, plasma and whole blood. There was a high correlation between the CRP values in the serum and plasma(r = 0.98, regression formula y = 0.89x + 4.07). Similarly, the values in whole blood and serum samples were quite well correlated(r = 0.98, regression formula y = 0.91x - 6.75). Various humoral elements such as bilirubin, hemoglobin and Chyl did not significantly influence this assay method. A slight increase in blood CRP was clearly demonstrated in the early phase of infectious diseases of newborn babies and monitoring of CRP by this assay system seemed to be quite useful to detect the early phase of infectious diseases in newborn babies. This assay system requires only a small quantity of whole blood to perform quantitative analysis of very small amounts of other substances. Accordingly, this assay system seems to be quite effective for monitoring minute increases in various proteinaceous blood components in emergent laboratory examination or POCT.

  4. Leveraging biospecimen resources for discovery or validation of markers for early cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Schully, Sheri D; Carrick, Danielle M; Mechanic, Leah E; Srivastava, Sudhir; Anderson, Garnet L; Baron, John A; Berg, Christine D; Cullen, Jennifer; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Doria-Rose, V Paul; Goddard, Katrina A B; Hankinson, Susan E; Kushi, Lawrence H; Larson, Eric B; McShane, Lisa M; Schilsky, Richard L; Shak, Steven; Skates, Steven J; Urban, Nicole; Kramer, Barnett S; Khoury, Muin J; Ransohoff, David F

    2015-04-01

    Validation of early detection cancer biomarkers has proven to be disappointing when initial promising claims have often not been reproducible in diagnostic samples or did not extend to prediagnostic samples. The previously reported lack of rigorous internal validity (systematic differences between compared groups) and external validity (lack of generalizability beyond compared groups) may be effectively addressed by utilizing blood specimens and data collected within well-conducted cohort studies. Cohort studies with prediagnostic specimens (eg, blood specimens collected prior to development of clinical symptoms) and clinical data have recently been used to assess the validity of some early detection biomarkers. With this background, the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS) and the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) held a joint workshop in August 2013. The goal was to advance early detection cancer research by considering how the infrastructure of cohort studies that already exist or are being developed might be leveraged to include appropriate blood specimens, including prediagnostic specimens, ideally collected at periodic intervals, along with clinical data about symptom status and cancer diagnosis. Three overarching recommendations emerged from the discussions: 1) facilitate sharing of existing specimens and data, 2) encourage collaboration among scientists developing biomarkers and those conducting observational cohort studies or managing healthcare systems with cohorts followed over time, and 3) conduct pilot projects that identify and address key logistic and feasibility issues regarding how appropriate specimens and clinical data might be collected at reasonable effort and cost within existing or future cohorts.

  5. Absence of the Epithelial Glycocalyx As Potential Tumor Marker for the Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ramaker, Katrin; Bade, Steffen; Röckendorf, Niels; Meckelein, Barbara; Vollmer, Ekkehard; Schultz, Holger; Fröschle, Günter-Willi; Frey, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Detection of cancer at an early stage is pivotal for successful treatment and long term survival, yet early diagnosis requires sensitive and specific markers that can be easily detected by screening procedures. Differences in the surface structure of tumor and healthy cells, if sufficiently pronounced and discernible, may serve that purpose. We analyzed the luminal surface of healthy and neoplastic human colorectal tissues for the presence and architecture of the glycocalyx—a dense network of highly glycosylated proteins—using transmission electron microscopy. The ultrastructural analyses showed that 93% of healthy mucosae were covered by an intact glycocalyx. Contrarily, on over 90% of the surface of neoplastic cells the glycocalyx was absent. The sensitivity and specificity of our marker “absence of a glycocalyx” are excellent, being 91% (83–96%) and 96% (89–99%) for adenocarcinomas and 94% (73–100%) and 92% (85–97%) for precancerous polyps (means and 95% confidence intervals). Using a cell culture model we could demonstrate that a particulate probe targeting a cell surface receptor usually concealed beneath the glycocalyx can bind selectively to glycocalyx-free areas of a tumor cell layer. We propose that the absence of a glycocalyx may serve as novel type of tumor marker. If the absence of the glycocalyx can be detected e.g. via binding of imaging probes to non-shielded surface receptors of anomalously differentiated cells, this tumor marker could be used to enable early diagnosis of colorectal cancer. PMID:28033349

  6. The Walking Trail-Making Test is an early detection tool for mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Perrochon, Anaick; Kemoun, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Background Executive function impairment (in particular, mental flexibility) in the elderly, and in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), is strongly correlated with difficulties in performing complex walking tasks. The aim of this study was to determine if the adaptation of a neuropsychological test (the Trail-Making Test), to evaluate executive functions during walking, can be an early detection tool for cognitive impairment. Methods Fifty subjects (15 young, 20 older, presumably healthy, and 15 MCI) were first evaluated for cognitive functions (Mini-Mental State Examination, Frontal Assessment Battery, and Trail-Making Test) and motor functions (10-meter walking test). All subjects then performed a spatial navigation, or a complex walking test (the Walking Trail-Making Test: [WTMT]), and their spatiotemporal walking variables were analyzed using cluster analysis. Results Following evaluation of WTMT locomotor performance, cluster analysis revealed three groups that were distinctly different in age and cognitive abilities: a group of young subjects, a group of healthy older subjects, MCI subjects with amnestic impairment, and a group of MCI subjects with executive function impairment. The WTMT enabled early detection, (ie, borderline MCI) of dysexecutive impairment, with 78% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Conclusion The WTMT is of interest in that it can help provide early detection of dysexecutive cognitive impairment. PMID:24426778

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Detect Early Molecular and Cellular Changes in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Michael J.; McCann, Bryony; Kauppinen, Risto A.; Coulthard, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent pharmaceutical trials have demonstrated that slowing or reversing pathology in Alzheimer's disease is likely to be possible only in the earliest stages of disease, perhaps even before significant symptoms develop. Pathology in Alzheimer's disease accumulates for well over a decade before symptoms are detected giving a large potential window of opportunity for intervention. It is therefore important that imaging techniques detect subtle changes in brain tissue before significant macroscopic brain atrophy. Current diagnostic techniques often do not permit early diagnosis or are too expensive for routine clinical use. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the most versatile, affordable, and powerful imaging modality currently available, being able to deliver detailed analyses of anatomy, tissue volumes, and tissue state. In this mini-review, we consider how MRI might detect patients at risk of future dementia in the early stages of pathological change when symptoms are mild. We consider the contributions made by the various modalities of MRI (structural, diffusion, perfusion, relaxometry) in identifying not just atrophy (a late-stage AD symptom) but more subtle changes reflective of early dementia pathology. The sensitivity of MRI not just to gross anatomy but to the underlying “health” at the cellular (and even molecular) scales, makes it very well suited to this task. PMID:27378911

  8. Detection of Early Ischemic Changes in Noncontrast CT Head Improved with "Stroke Windows".

    PubMed

    Mainali, Shraddha; Wahba, Mervat; Elijovich, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Noncontrast head CT (NCCT) is the standard radiologic test for patients presenting with acute stroke. Early ischemic changes (EIC) are often overlooked on initial NCCT. We determine the sensitivity and specificity of improved EIC detection by a standardized method of image evaluation (Stroke Windows). Methods. We performed a retrospective chart review to identify patients with acute ischemic stroke who had NCCT at presentation. EIC was defined by the presence of hyperdense MCA/basilar artery sign; sulcal effacement; basal ganglia/subcortical hypodensity; and loss of cortical gray-white differentiation. NCCT was reviewed with standard window settings and with specialized Stroke Windows. Results. Fifty patients (42% females, 58% males) with a mean NIHSS of 13.4 were identified. EIC was detected in 9 patients with standard windows, while EIC was detected using Stroke Windows in 35 patients (18% versus 70%; P < 0.0001). Hyperdense MCA sign was the most commonly reported EIC; it was better detected with Stroke Windows (14% and 36%; P < 0.0198). Detection of the remaining EIC also improved with Stroke Windows (6% and 46%; P < 0.0001). Conclusions. Detection of EIC has important implications in diagnosis and treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Utilization of Stroke Windows significantly improved detection of EIC.

  9. Robust regression and posterior predictive simulation increase power to detect early bursts of trait evolution.

    PubMed

    Slater, Graham J; Pennell, Matthew W

    2014-05-01

    A central prediction of much theory on adaptive radiations is that traits should evolve rapidly during the early stages of a clade's history and subsequently slowdown in rate as niches become saturated--a so-called "Early Burst." Although a common pattern in the fossil record, evidence for early bursts of trait evolution in phylogenetic comparative data has been equivocal at best. We show here that this may not necessarily be due to the absence of this pattern in nature. Rather, commonly used methods to infer its presence perform poorly when when the strength of the burst--the rate at which phenotypic evolution declines--is small, and when some morphological convergence is present within the clade. We present two modifications to existing comparative methods that allow greater power to detect early bursts in simulated datasets. First, we develop posterior predictive simulation approaches and show that they outperform maximum likelihood approaches at identifying early bursts at moderate strength. Second, we use a robust regression procedure that allows for the identification and down-weighting of convergent taxa, leading to moderate increases in method performance. We demonstrate the utility and power of these approach by investigating the evolution of body size in cetaceans. Model fitting using maximum likelihood is equivocal with regards the mode of cetacean body size evolution. However, posterior predictive simulation combined with a robust node height test return low support for Brownian motion or rate shift models, but not the early burst model. While the jury is still out on whether early bursts are actually common in nature, our approach will hopefully facilitate more robust testing of this hypothesis. We advocate the adoption of similar posterior predictive approaches to improve the fit and to assess the adequacy of macroevolutionary models in general.

  10. Early Detection of Physical Activity for People With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Dasanayake, Isuru S.; Bevier, Wendy C.; Castorino, Kristin; Pinsker, Jordan E.; Seborg, Dale E.; Doyle, Francis J.; Dassau, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early detection of exercise in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) may allow changes in therapy to prevent hypoglycemia. Currently there is limited experience with automated methods that detect the onset and end of exercise in this population. We sought to develop a novel method to quickly and reliably detect the onset and end of exercise in these individuals before significant changes in blood glucose (BG) occur. Methods: Sixteen adults with T1DM were studied as outpatients using a diary, accelerometer, heart rate monitor, and continuous glucose monitor for 2 days. These data were used to develop a principal component analysis based exercise detection method. Subjects also performed 60 and 30 minute exercise sessions at 30% and 50% predicted heart rate reserve (HRR), respectively. The detection method was applied to the exercise sessions to determine how quickly the detection of start and end of exercise occurred relative to change in BG. Results: Mild 30% HRR and moderate 50% HRR exercise onset was identified in 6 ± 3 and 5 ± 2 (mean ± SD) minutes, while completion was detected in 3 ± 8 and 6 ± 5 minutes, respectively. BG change from start of exercise to detection time was 1 ± 6 and −1 ± 3 mg/dL, and, from the end of exercise to detection time was 6 ± 4 and −17 ± 13 mg/dL, respectively, for the 2 exercise sessions. False positive and negative ratios were 4 ± 2% and 21 ± 22%. Conclusions: The novel method for exercise detection identified the onset and end of exercise in approximately 5 minutes, with an average BG change of only −6 mg/dL. PMID:26134831

  11. Systematic review: serum autoantibodies in the early detection of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Werner, Simone; Chen, Hongda; Tao, Sha; Brenner, Hermann

    2015-05-15

    Antibodies against tumor-associated antigens have been found in serum of patients with various types of cancers and may serve as biomarkers for early detection of gastric cancer as well. This systematic review aims to give an overview about known autoantibodies and their diagnostic value in gastric cancer. We conducted a systematic literature search in two databases to identify studies which performed serological testing for autoantibodies in gastric cancer patients and controls. Data on study characteristics and results were extracted independently by two reviewers. Overall, 39 articles reporting the detection of 34 different autoantibodies met the inclusion criteria for this review. The most common antibody detection method was enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the most frequently assessed autoantibody was anti-p53, which was tested in 13 studies. Most antibodies were assessed in only one study and only few authors have evaluated the diagnostic value of combinations of multiple autoantibodies. For single autoantibodies, specificity was generally very high (median: 99.15%), but sensitivity was mostly rather low (median: 12.35%). For some autoantibody combinations, substantially higher sensitivity at reasonably high levels of specificity could be achieved. Development of extended and optimized multimarker panels of autoantibodies might be a promising approach for gastric cancer early detection.

  12. Pancreatic cancer early detection: expanding higher-risk group with clinical and metabolomics parameters.

    PubMed

    Urayama, Shiro

    2015-02-14

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth and fifth leading cause of cancer death for each gender in developed countries. With lack of effective treatment and screening scheme available for the general population, the mortality rate is expected to increase over the next several decades in contrast to the other major malignancies such as lung, breast, prostate and colorectal cancers. Endoscopic ultrasound, with its highest level of detection capacity of smaller pancreatic lesions, is the commonly employed and preferred clinical imaging-based PDAC detection method. Various molecular biomarkers have been investigated for characterization of the disease, but none are shown to be useful or validated for clinical utilization for early detection. As seen from studies of a small subset of familial or genetically high-risk PDAC groups, the higher yield and utility of imaging-based screening methods are demonstrated for these groups. Multiple recent studies on the unique cancer metabolism including PDAC, demonstrate the potential for utility of the metabolites as the discriminant markers for this disease. In order to generate an early PDAC detection screening strategy available for a wider population, we propose to expand the population of higher risk PDAC group with combination clinical and metabolomics parameters.

  13. Computer-aided detection of early interstitial lung diseases using low-dose CT images.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Cheol; Tan, Jun; Wang, Xingwei; Lederman, Dror; Leader, Joseph K; Kim, Soo Hyung; Zheng, Bin

    2011-02-21

    This study aims to develop a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to detect early interstitial lung disease (ILD) using low-dose computed tomography (CT) examinations. The CAD scheme classifies each pixel depicted on the segmented lung areas into positive or negative groups for ILD using a mesh-grid-based region growth method and a multi-feature-based artificial neural network (ANN). A genetic algorithm was applied to select optimal image features and the ANN structure. In testing each CT examination, only pixels selected by the mesh-grid region growth method were analyzed and classified by the ANN to improve computational efficiency. All unselected pixels were classified as negative for ILD. After classifying all pixels into the positive and negative groups, CAD computed a detection score based on the ratio of the number of positive pixels to all pixels in the segmented lung areas, which indicates the likelihood of the test case being positive for ILD. When applying to an independent testing dataset of 15 positive and 15 negative cases, the CAD scheme yielded the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.884 ± 0.064) and 80.0% sensitivity at 85.7% specificity. The results demonstrated the feasibility of applying the CAD scheme to automatically detect early ILD using low-dose CT examinations.

  14. Glypican1 identifies cancer exosomes and facilitates early detection of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Sonia A.; Luecke, Linda B.; Kahlert, Christoph; Fernandez, Agustin F.; Gammon, Seth T.; Kaye, Judith; LeBleu, Valerie S.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Weitz, Juergen; Rahbari, Nuh; Reissfelder, Christoph; Pilarsky, Christian; Fraga, Mario F.; Piwnica-Worms, David; Kalluri, Raghu

    2016-01-01

    Summary Exosomes are lipid bilayer-enclosed extracellular vesicles (EVs) that contain proteins and nucleic acids. They are secreted by all cells and circulate in the blood. Specific detection and isolation of cancer cell-derived exosomes in circulation is currently lacking. Using mass spectrometry analyses, we identified a cell surface proteoglycan, glypican-1 (GPC1), specifically enriched on cancer cell-derived exosomes. GPC1+ circulating exosomes (crExos) were monitored and isolated using flow cytometry from the serum of cancer patients and mice with cancer. GPC1+ crExos were detected in the serum of patients with pancreas cancer with absolute specificity and sensitivity, distinguishing healthy subjects and patients with a benign pancreas disease from patients with early and late stage pancreas cancer. Levels of GPC1+ crExos correlate with tumor burden and survival in patients pre- and post-surgical tumor resection. GPC1+ crExos from patients and from mice with spontaneous pancreas tumors driven by oncogenic KRAS contained RNA with specific KRAS mutation, and it emerges as a reliable biomarker for the detection of PanIN lesions despite negative signal by MRI in mice. GPC1+ crExos may serve as a potential non-invasive diagnostic and screening tool to detect early stages of pancreas cancer to facilitate possible curative surgical therapy. PMID:26106858

  15. Computer-aided detection of early interstitial lung diseases using low-dose CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Cheol; Tan, Jun; Wang, Xingwei; Lederman, Dror; Leader, Joseph K.; Kim, Soo Hyung; Zheng, Bin

    2011-02-01

    This study aims to develop a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to detect early interstitial lung disease (ILD) using low-dose computed tomography (CT) examinations. The CAD scheme classifies each pixel depicted on the segmented lung areas into positive or negative groups for ILD using a mesh-grid-based region growth method and a multi-feature-based artificial neural network (ANN). A genetic algorithm was applied to select optimal image features and the ANN structure. In testing each CT examination, only pixels selected by the mesh-grid region growth method were analyzed and classified by the ANN to improve computational efficiency. All unselected pixels were classified as negative for ILD. After classifying all pixels into the positive and negative groups, CAD computed a detection score based on the ratio of the number of positive pixels to all pixels in the segmented lung areas, which indicates the likelihood of the test case being positive for ILD. When applying to an independent testing dataset of 15 positive and 15 negative cases, the CAD scheme yielded the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.884 ± 0.064) and 80.0% sensitivity at 85.7% specificity. The results demonstrated the feasibility of applying the CAD scheme to automatically detect early ILD using low-dose CT examinations.

  16. Lake sediment multi-taxon DNA from North Greenland records early post-glacial appearance of vascular plants and accurately tracks environmental changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epp, L. S.; Gussarova, G.; Boessenkool, S.; Olsen, J.; Haile, J.; Schrøder-Nielsen, A.; Ludikova, A.; Hassel, K.; Stenøien, H. K.; Funder, S.; Willerslev, E.; Kjær, K.; Brochmann, C.

    2015-06-01

    High Arctic environments are particularly sensitive to climate changes, but retrieval of paleoecological data is challenging due to low productivity and biomass. At the same time, Arctic soils and sediments have proven exceptional for long-term DNA preservation due to their constantly low temperatures. Lake sediments contain DNA paleorecords of the surrounding ecosystems and can be used to retrieve a variety of organismal groups from a single sample. In this study, we analyzed vascular plant, bryophyte, algal (in particular diatom) and copepod DNA retrieved from a sediment core spanning the Holocene, taken from Bliss Lake on the northernmost coast of Greenland. A previous multi-proxy study including microscopic diatom analyses showed that this lake experienced changes between marine and lacustrine conditions. We inferred the same environmental changes from algal DNA preserved in the sediment core. Our DNA record was stratigraphically coherent, with no indication of leaching between layers, and our cross-taxon comparisons were in accordance with previously inferred local ecosystem changes. Authentic ancient plant DNA was retrieved from nearly all layers, both from the marine and the limnic phases, and distinct temporal changes in plant presence were recovered. The plant DNA was mostly in agreement with expected vegetation history, but very early occurrences of vascular plants, including the woody Empetrum nigrum, document terrestrial vegetation very shortly after glacial retreat. Our study shows that multi-taxon metabarcoding of sedimentary ancient DNA from lake cores is a valuable tool both for terrestrial and aquatic paleoecology, even in low-productivity ecosystems such as the High Arctic.

  17. Diagnostic value evaluation of trefoil factors family 3 for the early detection of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hui; Guo, Jian-Hai; An, Wei-Min; Tian, Sheng-Tao; Yu, Hai-Peng; Yang, Xue-Ling; Wang, Hua-Ming; Guo, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    AIM The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of trefoil factor family 3 (TFF3) for the early detection of colorectal cancer (CC). METHODS Serum TFF3 and carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) were detected in 527 individuals, including 115 healthy control (HC), 198 colorectal adenoma (CA), and 214 CC individuals in the training group. RESULTS Serum TFF3 showed no significant correlation with age, gender, or tumor location but showed significant correlation with the tumor stage. Serum TFF3 in the CC group was significantly higher than in the HC or CA group. The AUC values of TFF3 for discriminating between HC and CC and between CA and CC were 0.930 (0.903, 0.958) and 0.834 (0.796, 0.873). A multivariate model combining TFF3 and CEA was built. Compared to TFF3 or CEA alone, the multivariate model showed significant improvement (P < 0.001). For discriminating between HC and CC, HC and early stage CC, HC and advanced stage CC, CA and CC, CA and early stage CC, and CA and advanced stage CC in the training group, the sensitivities were 92.99%, 91.46%, 93.18%, 73.83%, 76.83%, and 81.82%, and the specificities were 91.30%, 91.30%, 93.91%, 88.38%, 77.27%, and 88.38%, respectively. After validation, the sensitivities were 89.39%, 85.71%, 90.79%, 72.73%, 71.43%, and 78.95%, and the specificities were 87.85%, 87.85%, 2.52%, 87.85%, 80.77%, and 87.50%, respectively. CONCLUSION The multivariate diagnostic model that included TFF3 and CEA showed significant improvement over the conventional biomarker CEA and might provide a potential method for the early detection of CC.

  18. Development of serum parameters panels for the early detection of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengjun; Zou, Meng; Wen, Xinyu; Gu, Feng; Li, Juan; Liu, Gaixia; Dong, Jingxiao; Deng, Xinxin; Gao, Jing; Li, Xiaolong; Jia, Xingwang; Dong, Zhennan; Chen, Luonan; Wang, Yong; Tian, Yaping

    2014-06-01

    Early detection of pancreatic cancer is promising for improving clinical outcome; however, no effective biomarker has yet been identified. Here, we detected 61 clinical serum parameters in 200 healthy controls (Ctrls), 163 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients and 109 benign pancreatitis patients (Benign) in the training group. A metropolis algorithm with Monte Carlo simulation was used for identifying parameter panels. Sera from 183 Ctrl, 129 PDAC and 95 Benign individuals were used for cross-validation. Samples from 77 breast, 72 cervical, 101 colorectal, 138 gastric, 108 prostate and 132 lung cancer patients were collected for evaluating cancer selectivity. A panel consisting of carbohydrate antigen (CA)19-9, albumin (ALB), C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-8 had the highest diagnostic value for discriminating between PDAC and Ctrl. The sensitivity (SN) was 99.39% for all-stage, 96.10% for early-stage and 98.80% for advanced-stage PDAC at 90% specificity (SP). In the validation group, the sensitivities were 93.80, 93.10 and 94.40%, respectively, at 90% SP. This panel also identified 80.52% of the breast cancer, 66.67% cervical cancer, 86.14% colorectal cancer, 89.86% gastric cancer, 71.30% prostate cancer and 93.85% lung cancer samples as non-PDAC. The panel consisting of CA19-9, carbon dioxide, CRP and IL-6 panel had the highest diagnostic value for discriminating between PDAC and Benign. The SN was 74.23% for all-stage, 75.30% for early-stage and 74.40% for advanced-stage PDAC at 90% SP. In the validation group, the sensitivities were 72.10, 76.10 and 67.20%, respectively, at 90% SP. Our parameter panels may aid in the early detection of PDAC to improve clinical outcome.

  19. On the potential of ultrasound elastography for pressure ulcer early detection

    PubMed Central

    Deprez, Jean-François; Brusseau, Elisabeth; Fromageau, Jérémie; Cloutier, Guy; Basset, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Pressure ulcers are areas of soft tissue breakdown induced by a sustained mechanical stress that damages the skin and underlying tissues. They represent a considerable burden to the society in terms of health care and cost. Yet, techniques for prevention and detection of pressure ulcers still remain very limited. In this article, the authors investigated the potential of ultrasound elastography for pressure ulcer early detection. Elastography is an imaging technique providing local information on biological tissue mechanical properties. It is relevant for pressure ulcer detection as this pathology is associated with a gradual stiffening of damaged tissues, beginning in the deeper tissues and progressing toward the skin surface. Methods A 2D ultrasound elastography method was proposed and its ability in terms of pressure ulcer detection was validated through numerical simulations and physical acquisitions on pressure ulcer mimicking phantoms. In vivo experiments on a rat model are also reported. A maintained pressure was applied on the animal thigh, with a view to generate a pressure ulcer, and ultrasound data were acquired and processed before and after application of this pressure. Results Numerical simulations demonstrated that a pressure ulcer can theoretically be detected at a very early stage with ultrasound elastography. Even when the ulcer region was characterized by a low stiffening (ratio of 1.8 relative to normal tissues), the corresponding elastogram clearly underlined the pathological area. This observation was confirmed by the results obtained on a physical phantom mimicking a pressure ulcer at an early stage. Computed elastograms showed strain differences between areas mimicking healthy and pathological tissues. Results corresponding to in vivo experiments revealed a difference in the way tissues behaved before and after the pressure was applied on the animal thigh, which strongly suggests the presence of a pathological area. Conclusions

  20. EO/IR satellite constellations for the early detection and tracking of collision events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatezalo, A.; El-Fallah, A.; Mahler, R.; Mehra, R. K.; Pham, K.

    2010-04-01

    The detection and tracking of collision events involving existing Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Resident Space Objects (RSOs) is becoming increasingly important with the higher LEO space objects traffic volume which is anticipated to increase even further in the near future. Changes in velocity that can lead to a collision are hard to detect early on time, and before the collision happens. Several collision events can happen at the same time and continuous monitoring of the LEO orbit is necessary in order to determine and implement collision avoidance strategies. We present a simulation of a constellation system consisting of multiple platforms carrying EO/IR sensors for the detection of such collisions. The presented simulation encompasses the full complexity of LEO trajectories changes which can collide with currently operating satellites. Efficient multitarget filter with information-theoretic multisensor management is implemented and evaluated on different constellations.