Science.gov

Sample records for accurate geographic location

  1. 25 CFR 571.10 - Geographical location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Geographical location. 571.10 Section 571.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONS MONITORING AND INVESTIGATIONS Subpoenas and Depositions § 571.10 Geographical location. The attendance...

  2. 25 CFR 571.10 - Geographical location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Geographical location. 571.10 Section 571.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONS MONITORING AND INVESTIGATIONS Subpoenas and Depositions § 571.10 Geographical location. The attendance...

  3. 25 CFR 571.10 - Geographical location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Geographical location. 571.10 Section 571.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONS MONITORING AND INVESTIGATIONS Subpoenas and Depositions § 571.10 Geographical location. The attendance...

  4. 25 CFR 571.10 - Geographical location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Geographical location. 571.10 Section 571.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONS MONITORING AND INVESTIGATIONS Subpoenas and Depositions § 571.10 Geographical location. The attendance...

  5. 25 CFR 571.10 - Geographical location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Geographical location. 571.10 Section 571.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONS MONITORING AND INVESTIGATIONS Subpoenas and Depositions § 571.10 Geographical location. The attendance...

  6. Location of geographical objects in crisis situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybansky, M.; Kratochvil, V.

    2014-02-01

    This article summarizes the various expressions of object positioning using different coordinate data and different methods, such as use of maps, exploiting the properties of digital Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) networks, Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS), Inertial Navigation Systems (INS), Inertial Measurement Systems (IMS), hybrid methods and non-contact (remote sensing) methods; all with varying level of accuracy. Furthermore, the article describes some geographical identifiers and verbal means to describe location of geographical objects such as settlements, rivers, forest, roads, etc. All of the location methods have some advantages and disadvantages, especially in emergency situations, when usually the crisis management has a lack of time in a decision process.

  7. Nonexposure accurate location K-anonymity algorithm in LBS.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jinying; Zhang, Fengli

    2014-01-01

    This paper tackles location privacy protection in current location-based services (LBS) where mobile users have to report their exact location information to an LBS provider in order to obtain their desired services. Location cloaking has been proposed and well studied to protect user privacy. It blurs the user's accurate coordinate and replaces it with a well-shaped cloaked region. However, to obtain such an anonymous spatial region (ASR), nearly all existent cloaking algorithms require knowing the accurate locations of all users. Therefore, location cloaking without exposing the user's accurate location to any party is urgently needed. In this paper, we present such two nonexposure accurate location cloaking algorithms. They are designed for K-anonymity, and cloaking is performed based on the identifications (IDs) of the grid areas which were reported by all the users, instead of directly on their accurate coordinates. Experimental results show that our algorithms are more secure than the existent cloaking algorithms, need not have all the users reporting their locations all the time, and can generate smaller ASR. PMID:24605060

  8. Nonexposure Accurate Location K-Anonymity Algorithm in LBS

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper tackles location privacy protection in current location-based services (LBS) where mobile users have to report their exact location information to an LBS provider in order to obtain their desired services. Location cloaking has been proposed and well studied to protect user privacy. It blurs the user's accurate coordinate and replaces it with a well-shaped cloaked region. However, to obtain such an anonymous spatial region (ASR), nearly all existent cloaking algorithms require knowing the accurate locations of all users. Therefore, location cloaking without exposing the user's accurate location to any party is urgently needed. In this paper, we present such two nonexposure accurate location cloaking algorithms. They are designed for K-anonymity, and cloaking is performed based on the identifications (IDs) of the grid areas which were reported by all the users, instead of directly on their accurate coordinates. Experimental results show that our algorithms are more secure than the existent cloaking algorithms, need not have all the users reporting their locations all the time, and can generate smaller ASR. PMID:24605060

  9. Accurate eye center location through invariant isocentric patterns.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Roberto; Gevers, Theo

    2012-09-01

    Locating the center of the eyes allows for valuable information to be captured and used in a wide range of applications. Accurate eye center location can be determined using commercial eye-gaze trackers, but additional constraints and expensive hardware make these existing solutions unattractive and impossible to use on standard (i.e., visible wavelength), low-resolution images of eyes. Systems based solely on appearance are proposed in the literature, but their accuracy does not allow us to accurately locate and distinguish eye centers movements in these low-resolution settings. Our aim is to bridge this gap by locating the center of the eye within the area of the pupil on low-resolution images taken from a webcam or a similar device. The proposed method makes use of isophote properties to gain invariance to linear lighting changes (contrast and brightness), to achieve in-plane rotational invariance, and to keep low-computational costs. To further gain scale invariance, the approach is applied to a scale space pyramid. In this paper, we extensively test our approach for its robustness to changes in illumination, head pose, scale, occlusion, and eye rotation. We demonstrate that our system can achieve a significant improvement in accuracy over state-of-the-art techniques for eye center location in standard low-resolution imagery. PMID:22813958

  10. Accurate tremor locations from coherent S and P waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armbruster, John G.; Kim, Won-Young; Rubin, Allan M.

    2014-06-01

    Nonvolcanic tremor is an important component of the slow slip processes which load faults from below, but accurately locating tremor has proven difficult because tremor rarely contains clear P or S wave arrivals. Here we report the observation of coherence in the shear and compressional waves of tremor at widely separated stations which allows us to detect and accurately locate tremor events. An event detector using data from two stations sees the onset of tremor activity in the Cascadia tremor episodes of February 2003, July 2004, and September 2005 and confirms the previously reported south to north migration of the tremor. Event detectors using data from three and four stations give Sand P arrival times of high accuracy. The hypocenters of the tremor events fall at depths of ˜30 to ˜40 km and define a narrow plane dipping at a shallow angle to the northeast, consistent with the subducting plate interface. The S wave polarizations and P wave first motions define a source mechanism in agreement with the northeast convergence seen in geodetic observations of slow slip. Tens of thousands of locations determined by constraining the events to the plate interface show tremor sources highly clustered in space with a strongly similar pattern of sources in the three episodes examined. The deeper sources generate tremor in minor episodes as well. The extent to which the narrow bands of tremor sources overlap between the three major episodes suggests relative epicentral location errors as small as 1-2 km.

  11. Accurate Tremor Locations in Japan from Coherent S-Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armbruster, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    The tremor detectors developed for accurately locating tectonic tremor in Cascadia [Armbruster et al., JGR 2014] have been applied to data from the HINET seismic network in Japan. The best results were obtained in the Tokai region with stations ASU, ASH and TYE having relatively close spacing (11-18 km). 330 days with active tremor, 2004-2014, near these stations were found on the daily epicentral distributions of tremor on the HINET web site. The detector sees numbers of detections per day comparable to minor tremor episodes in Cascadia. Major tremor episodes in Cascadia are associated with geodetic signals stronger than those seen in Japan. If the tremor is located by constraining it to the plate interface, a pattern of persistent sources is seen, with some intense sources. This is similar to what was seen in Cascadia. In southwest Shikoku 139 days with tremor were identified. Stations UWA, OOZ and IKT see tremor with persistent patterns and strong sources but with approximately one fifth as many detections per day on active days, compared to ASU-ASH-TYE. The web site tremor distributions show activity here as strong as in Tokai. We believe the lesser number of detections in Shikoku is primarily the result of wider station spacing, 19-30 km, than in Tokai, although there may be other factors. Yabe and Ide [EPS 2013] detect and locate tremor in Kyushu on July 17-18 2005 and December 4-6 2008. A detector with stations NRA, SUK and KTM, station spacing 21-22 km, sees tremor which resembles minor episodes in Cascadia. The relative arrival times are consistent with their locations. We conclude that the methods developed in Cascadia will work in Japan but the typical spacing of HINET stations, ~20 km, is greater than the optimum distance found in analysis of data from Cascadia, 8 to 15 km.

  12. Accurate source location from P waves scattered by surface topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, N.; Shen, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate source locations of earthquakes and other seismic events are fundamental in seismology. The location accuracy is limited by several factors, including velocity models, which are often poorly known. In contrast, surface topography, the largest velocity contrast in the Earth, is often precisely mapped at the seismic wavelength (> 100 m). In this study, we explore the use of P-coda waves generated by scattering at surface topography to obtain high-resolution locations of near-surface seismic events. The Pacific Northwest region is chosen as an example. The grid search method is combined with the 3D strain Green's tensor database type method to improve the search efficiency as well as the quality of hypocenter solution. The strain Green's tensor is calculated by the 3D collocated-grid finite difference method on curvilinear grids. Solutions in the search volume are then obtained based on the least-square misfit between the 'observed' and predicted P and P-coda waves. A 95% confidence interval of the solution is also provided as a posterior error estimation. We find that the scattered waves are mainly due to topography in comparison with random velocity heterogeneity characterized by the von Kάrmάn-type power spectral density function. When only P wave data is used, the 'best' solution is offset from the real source location mostly in the vertical direction. The incorporation of P coda significantly improves solution accuracy and reduces its uncertainty. The solution remains robust with a range of random noises in data, un-modeled random velocity heterogeneities, and uncertainties in moment tensors that we tested.

  13. Accurate source location from waves scattered by surface topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nian; Shen, Yang; Flinders, Ashton; Zhang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Accurate source locations of earthquakes and other seismic events are fundamental in seismology. The location accuracy is limited by several factors, including velocity models, which are often poorly known. In contrast, surface topography, the largest velocity contrast in the Earth, is often precisely mapped at the seismic wavelength (>100 m). In this study, we explore the use of P coda waves generated by scattering at surface topography to obtain high-resolution locations of near-surface seismic events. The Pacific Northwest region is chosen as an example to provide realistic topography. A grid search algorithm is combined with the 3-D strain Green's tensor database to improve search efficiency as well as the quality of hypocenter solutions. The strain Green's tensor is calculated using a 3-D collocated-grid finite difference method on curvilinear grids. Solutions in the search volume are obtained based on the least squares misfit between the "observed" and predicted P and P coda waves. The 95% confidence interval of the solution is provided as an a posteriori error estimation. For shallow events tested in the study, scattering is mainly due to topography in comparison with stochastic lateral velocity heterogeneity. The incorporation of P coda significantly improves solution accuracy and reduces solution uncertainty. The solution remains robust with wide ranges of random noises in data, unmodeled random velocity heterogeneities, and uncertainties in moment tensors. The method can be extended to locate pairs of sources in close proximity by differential waveforms using source-receiver reciprocity, further reducing errors caused by unmodeled velocity structures.

  14. Weighted-traffic-network-based geographic profiling for serial crime location prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Cheng; Wang, Yubo; Cao, Jinde; Lu, Jianquan; Kurths, Jürgen

    2011-03-01

    Geographic profiling plays a significant role in serial crime detection nowadays, in which Rossmo's formula is applied for future crime location prediction. However, the limited accuracy and demanding for vast data have largely impeded the efficiency of this technology. In this letter, a traffic network is introduced to geographic profiling. The problem is remodeled with weighted traffic network and the original Euclidean distance is replaced by the shortest path between nodes for better location prediction. A serial crime case is used to validate the correctness, efficiency and robustness of the proposed method. The main contributions of this letter can be concluded as follows: 1) the proposed model displays a higher accuracy and is less dependent on crime data; 2) strong robustness is testified by sensitive analysis, i.e. the developed model can produce an accurate prediction based on somewhat inaccurate former crime data; 3) further application in counter-terrorism is put forward with some adjustments.

  15. How do I get MISR data for my particular geographic location?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-19

    Data for particular geographic locations can be searched via the MISR Order and Customization Tool by selecting products, region of interest, and date. The MISR Browse Tool provides information to help determine paths, orbits and block...

  16. Location Matters: Geographic Location and Educational Placement of Students with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Matthew E.; Schaefer, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of advocacy, most students with developmental disabilities continue to spend the majority of the school day in self-contained special education classrooms. However, there is tremendous variability of educational placement across the United States. Identification of geographic trends that explain this variability could provide…

  17. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Lipopeptide from Bacillus Strains Isolated from Diverse Geographical Locations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been applied to characterize lipopeptide biomarkers from 54 different strains of Bacillis from most taxa within the B. subtilis - B. licheniformis clade, isolated from 7 different geographic locations on ...

  18. Optimal Location of Radiation Therapy Centers With Respect to Geographic Access

    SciTech Connect

    Santibáñez, Pablo; Gaudet, Marc; French, John; Liu, Emma; Tyldesley, Scott

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To develop a framework with which to evaluate locations of radiation therapy (RT) centers in a region based on geographic access. Methods and Materials: Patient records were obtained for all external beam radiation therapy started in 2011 for the province of British Columbia, Canada. Two metrics of geographic access were defined. The primary analysis was percentage of patients (coverage) within a 90-minute drive from an RT center (C90), and the secondary analysis was the average drive time (ADT) to an RT center. An integer programming model was developed to determine optimal center locations, catchment areas, and capacity required under different scenarios. Results: Records consisted of 11,096 courses of radiation corresponding to 161,616 fractions. Baseline geographic access was estimated at 102.5 minutes ADT (each way, per fraction) and 75.9% C90. Adding 2 and 3 new centers increased C90 to 88% and 92%, respectively, and decreased ADT by between 43% and 61%, respectively. A scenario in which RT was provided in every potential location that could support at least 1 fully utilized linear accelerator resulted in 35.3 minutes' ADT and 93.6% C90. Conclusions: The proposed framework and model provide a data-driven means to quantitatively evaluate alternative configurations of a regional RT system. Results suggest that the choice of location for future centers can significantly improve geographic access to RT.

  19. Piagetian Conservation Tasks in Ghanaian Children: The Role of Geographical Location, Gender and Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assan, Evelyn Ama; Sarfo, Jacob Owusu

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of geographical location, gender and age on the performance of Piagetian Conservation tasks. Four conservation tasks; conservation of liquid, length, substance amount and number respectively were administered to children [4-6 years] from rural and urban Ghana and their performance on each task were recorded.…

  20. Development of an accurate transmission line fault locator using the global positioning system satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Harry

    1994-01-01

    A highly accurate transmission line fault locator based on the traveling-wave principle was developed and successfully operated within B.C. Hydro. A transmission line fault produces a fast-risetime traveling wave at the fault point which propagates along the transmission line. This fault locator system consists of traveling wave detectors located at key substations which detect and time tag the leading edge of the fault-generated traveling wave as if passes through. A master station gathers the time-tagged information from the remote detectors and determines the location of the fault. Precise time is a key element to the success of this system. This fault locator system derives its timing from the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. System tests confirmed the accuracy of locating faults to within the design objective of +/-300 meters.

  1. Hydrogen atoms can be located accurately and precisely by x-ray crystallography.

    PubMed

    Woińska, Magdalena; Grabowsky, Simon; Dominiak, Paulina M; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2016-05-01

    Precise and accurate structural information on hydrogen atoms is crucial to the study of energies of interactions important for crystal engineering, materials science, medicine, and pharmacy, and to the estimation of physical and chemical properties in solids. However, hydrogen atoms only scatter x-radiation weakly, so x-rays have not been used routinely to locate them accurately. Textbooks and teaching classes still emphasize that hydrogen atoms cannot be located with x-rays close to heavy elements; instead, neutron diffraction is needed. We show that, contrary to widespread expectation, hydrogen atoms can be located very accurately using x-ray diffraction, yielding bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms (A-H) that are in agreement with results from neutron diffraction mostly within a single standard deviation. The precision of the determination is also comparable between x-ray and neutron diffraction results. This has been achieved at resolutions as low as 0.8 Å using Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR). We have applied HAR to 81 crystal structures of organic molecules and compared the A-H bond lengths with those from neutron measurements for A-H bonds sorted into bonds of the same class. We further show in a selection of inorganic compounds that hydrogen atoms can be located in bridging positions and close to heavy transition metals accurately and precisely. We anticipate that, in the future, conventional x-radiation sources at in-house diffractometers can be used routinely for locating hydrogen atoms in small molecules accurately instead of large-scale facilities such as spallation sources or nuclear reactors. PMID:27386545

  2. Hydrogen atoms can be located accurately and precisely by x-ray crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Woińska, Magdalena; Grabowsky, Simon; Dominiak, Paulina M.; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2016-01-01

    Precise and accurate structural information on hydrogen atoms is crucial to the study of energies of interactions important for crystal engineering, materials science, medicine, and pharmacy, and to the estimation of physical and chemical properties in solids. However, hydrogen atoms only scatter x-radiation weakly, so x-rays have not been used routinely to locate them accurately. Textbooks and teaching classes still emphasize that hydrogen atoms cannot be located with x-rays close to heavy elements; instead, neutron diffraction is needed. We show that, contrary to widespread expectation, hydrogen atoms can be located very accurately using x-ray diffraction, yielding bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms (A–H) that are in agreement with results from neutron diffraction mostly within a single standard deviation. The precision of the determination is also comparable between x-ray and neutron diffraction results. This has been achieved at resolutions as low as 0.8 Å using Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR). We have applied HAR to 81 crystal structures of organic molecules and compared the A–H bond lengths with those from neutron measurements for A–H bonds sorted into bonds of the same class. We further show in a selection of inorganic compounds that hydrogen atoms can be located in bridging positions and close to heavy transition metals accurately and precisely. We anticipate that, in the future, conventional x-radiation sources at in-house diffractometers can be used routinely for locating hydrogen atoms in small molecules accurately instead of large-scale facilities such as spallation sources or nuclear reactors. PMID:27386545

  3. New spatial clustering-based models for optimal urban facility location considering geographical obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javadi, Maryam; Shahrabi, Jamal

    2014-03-01

    The problems of facility location and the allocation of demand points to facilities are crucial research issues in spatial data analysis and urban planning. It is very important for an organization or governments to best locate its resources and facilities and efficiently manage resources to ensure that all demand points are covered and all the needs are met. Most of the recent studies, which focused on solving facility location problems by performing spatial clustering, have used the Euclidean distance between two points as the dissimilarity function. Natural obstacles, such as mountains and rivers, can have drastic impacts on the distance that needs to be traveled between two geographical locations. While calculating the distance between various supply chain entities (including facilities and demand points), it is necessary to take such obstacles into account to obtain better and more realistic results regarding location-allocation. In this article, new models were presented for location of urban facilities while considering geographical obstacles at the same time. In these models, three new distance functions were proposed. The first function was based on the analysis of shortest path in linear network, which was called SPD function. The other two functions, namely PD and P2D, were based on the algorithms that deal with robot geometry and route-based robot navigation in the presence of obstacles. The models were implemented in ArcGIS Desktop 9.2 software using the visual basic programming language. These models were evaluated using synthetic and real data sets. The overall performance was evaluated based on the sum of distance from demand points to their corresponding facilities. Because of the distance between the demand points and facilities becoming more realistic in the proposed functions, results indicated desired quality of the proposed models in terms of quality of allocating points to centers and logistic cost. Obtained results show promising

  4. Impact of Geographic Location on Vitamin D Status and Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Song, Byeng Chun; Joo, Nam-Seok

    2016-01-01

    A significant decline of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration [25(OH)D] with increasing latitude has been reported only for Caucasians. To determine the association between serum 25(OH)D and geographic location and its impact on bone mineral density (BMD) in an Asian population, a total of 17,508 subjects (8910 men and 8598 women) from the 2008–2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were stratified into four age groups and analyzed for 25(OH)D and BMD according to geographic location (South, 33° N–35° N; Middle, 36° N; North, 37° N–38° N). Mean 25(OH)D were 47.7 and 41.2 nmol/L; calcium intake, 564.9 & 442.3 mg/d; femoral neck BMD, 0.829 & 0.721 g/cm2; and lumbar spine BMD, 0.960 & 0.918 g/cm2 for men and women, respectively. Both men and women living in the South had significantly higher 25(OH)D and femoral neck BMD for those ≥50 years old. Lumbar spine BMD was significantly higher in men ≥50 years old, and for women 10–29 & 50–69 years old living in the South. A 1 or 2 degree difference in latitude has a significant effect on serum 25(OH)D and BMD in this low vitamin D status population. Thus, consideration of geographic location for a recommendation of vitamin D intake may be necessary. PMID:26848670

  5. Solar photovoltaic powered refrigerators/freezers for medical use in remote geographic locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darkazalli, G.; Hein, G. F.

    1983-01-01

    One of the obstacles preventing widespread immunication against disease is the virtual absence of reliable, low maintenance refrigeration systems for storage of vaccines in remote geographic locations. A system which consists of a solar photovoltaic cell array and an integrated refrigerator/freezer-energy storage unit is discussed herein. The array converts solar radiation into direct current (DC) electricity with no moving parts and no intermediate steps. A detailed description of the refrigeration system, its design and an analysis thereof, performance test procedures, and test results are presented. A system schematic is also provided.

  6. Accurate Damage Location in Complex Composite Structures and Industrial Environments using Acoustic Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, M.; Pearson, M.; Lee, W.; Pullin, R.

    2015-07-01

    The ability to accurately locate damage in any given structure is a highly desirable attribute for an effective structural health monitoring system and could help to reduce operating costs and improve safety. This becomes a far greater challenge in complex geometries and materials, such as modern composite airframes. The poor translation of promising laboratory based SHM demonstrators to industrial environments forms a barrier to commercial up take of technology. The acoustic emission (AE) technique is a passive NDT method that detects elastic stress waves released by the growth of damage. It offers very sensitive damage detection, using a sparse array of sensors to detect and globally locate damage within a structure. However its application to complex structures commonly yields poor accuracy due to anisotropic wave propagation and the interruption of wave propagation by structural features such as holes and thickness changes. This work adopts an empirical mapping technique for AE location, known as Delta T Mapping, which uses experimental training data to account for such structural complexities. The technique is applied to a complex geometry composite aerospace structure undergoing certification testing. The component consists of a carbon fibre composite tube with varying wall thickness and multiple holes, that was loaded under bending. The damage location was validated using X-ray CT scanning and the Delta T Mapping technique was shown to improve location accuracy when compared with commercial algorithms. The onset and progression of damage were monitored throughout the test and used to inform future design iterations.

  7. Distributed fiber sensing system with wide frequency response and accurate location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yi; Feng, Hao; Zeng, Zhoumo

    2016-02-01

    A distributed fiber sensing system merging Mach-Zehnder interferometer and phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometer (Φ-OTDR) is demonstrated for vibration measurement, which requires wide frequency response and accurate location. Two narrow line-width lasers with delicately different wavelengths are used to constitute the interferometer and reflectometer respectively. A narrow band Fiber Bragg Grating is responsible for separating the two wavelengths. In addition, heterodyne detection is applied to maintain the signal to noise rate of the locating signal. Experiment results show that the novel system has a wide frequency from 1 Hz to 50 MHz, limited by the sample frequency of data acquisition card, and a spatial resolution of 20 m, according to 200 ns pulse width, along 2.5 km fiber link.

  8. Assessment of intestinal microbiota of full-term breast-fed infants from two different geographical locations.

    PubMed

    Echarri, Patricia Peso; Graciá, Carmen Martínez; Berruezo, Gaspar Ros; Vives, Inmaculada; Ballesta, Maria; Solís, Gonzalo; Morillas, Isabel Vasallo; Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G de Los; Margolles, Abelardo; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    The intestinal microbiota in the breast-fed infant is considered as ideally healthy. We assessed the microbiota of breast-fed full-term neonates from two different Spanish locations. Statistically significant geographical differences for different bacterial groups were found, underlining the need to consider and define geographical-related effects on microbiota. PMID:21501935

  9. Accurate Vehicle Location System Using RFID, an Internet of Things Approach

    PubMed Central

    Prinsloo, Jaco; Malekian, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Modern infrastructure, such as dense urban areas and underground tunnels, can effectively block all GPS signals, which implies that effective position triangulation will not be achieved. The main problem that is addressed in this project is the design and implementation of an accurate vehicle location system using radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology in combination with GPS and the Global system for Mobile communication (GSM) technology, in order to provide a solution to the limitation discussed above. In essence, autonomous vehicle tracking will be facilitated with the use of RFID technology where GPS signals are non-existent. The design of the system and the results are reflected in this paper. An extensive literature study was done on the field known as the Internet of Things, as well as various topics that covered the integration of independent technology in order to address a specific challenge. The proposed system is then designed and implemented. An RFID transponder was successfully designed and a read range of approximately 31 cm was obtained in the low frequency communication range (125 kHz to 134 kHz). The proposed system was designed, implemented, and field tested and it was found that a vehicle could be accurately located and tracked. It is also found that the antenna size of both the RFID reader unit and RFID transponder plays a critical role in the maximum communication range that can be achieved. PMID:27271638

  10. Accurate Vehicle Location System Using RFID, an Internet of Things Approach.

    PubMed

    Prinsloo, Jaco; Malekian, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Modern infrastructure, such as dense urban areas and underground tunnels, can effectively block all GPS signals, which implies that effective position triangulation will not be achieved. The main problem that is addressed in this project is the design and implementation of an accurate vehicle location system using radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology in combination with GPS and the Global system for Mobile communication (GSM) technology, in order to provide a solution to the limitation discussed above. In essence, autonomous vehicle tracking will be facilitated with the use of RFID technology where GPS signals are non-existent. The design of the system and the results are reflected in this paper. An extensive literature study was done on the field known as the Internet of Things, as well as various topics that covered the integration of independent technology in order to address a specific challenge. The proposed system is then designed and implemented. An RFID transponder was successfully designed and a read range of approximately 31 cm was obtained in the low frequency communication range (125 kHz to 134 kHz). The proposed system was designed, implemented, and field tested and it was found that a vehicle could be accurately located and tracked. It is also found that the antenna size of both the RFID reader unit and RFID transponder plays a critical role in the maximum communication range that can be achieved. PMID:27271638

  11. Differences in crop bacterial community structure between hoatzins from different geographical locations.

    PubMed

    Godoy-Vitorino, Filipa; Leal, Sara J; Díaz, Wilmer A; Rosales, Judith; Goldfarb, Katherine C; García-Amado, María A; Michelangeli, Fabían; Brodie, Eoin L; Domínguez-Bello, María G

    2012-04-01

    The hoatzin is the only known folivorous bird with foregut fermentation, and is distributed in Venezuela in rivers of the central savannas to the eastern Orinoco River. Differences in diet are expected to affect the digestive microbiota and we hypothesized that hoatzins from different habitats might have a different crop microbiota. We thus characterized the microbiota of six birds from the Cojedes and Orinoco Rivers using the G2 PhyloChip and, in parallel, we compared plant availability and foraging behavior of the hoatzins from the two locations. Plant composition differed between the 2 locations, which shared 5 out of 18 plant families and 1 plant genus--Coccoloba--that was highly consumed in both locations. The PhyloChip detected ∼1600 phylotypes from 42 phyla. There was a core microbiota with ~50% of the OTUs shared by at least 4 of the 6 individuals, but there were also differences in the crop microbiota of animals from the two regions. There existed a higher relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria in the crops of birds from the Cojedes River and of Clostridia and Deltaproteobacteria in the crops of birds from the Orinoco River. The results showed both a core crop microbiota and also the bacterial taxa responsible for geographical differences among individuals from the two locations with different vegetation, suggesting an effect of both diet and geography in shaping the crop bacterial community of the hoatzin. PMID:22313738

  12. Connecting streamlined subglacial bedforms with the geological/geographical environment in which they are located.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, Tom; Möller, Per; Greenwood, Sarah; Spagnolo, Matteo; Åkesson, Maria; Fraser, Stephen; Hughs, Anna; Clark, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Much work has qualitatively shown that there appears to be a relationship between the morphology of streamlined subglacial bedforms (drumlinoids) and the geological/geographical environment in which said bedforms are located upon, particularly in terms of bedrock influence. However, the one quantitative study that has been carried out on this connectivity (Greenwood and Clark, 2010) found that there appears to be a connection between bedrock type and morphology only at a local scale. At a regional scale the most important geological factor seemed to be the properties of the substrate, usually till. In order to investigate these connections further, self-organising maps (SOM) are used to investigate the role of contextual geology/geography in drumlinoid morphology. The SOM method allows the statistical exploration of data that cannot normally be evaluated by traditional means; categorical data (e.g. bedrock type) can be used in the same analysis as continuous/vector data (e.g. drift depth). Here, three large morphological data sets from Sweden (20 041), Britain (36 104) and Ireland (13 454) are combined with bedrock type, drift depth, basal elevation and distance to esker to see if there are any relationships to be found between them. The results indicate that there are pervasive, statistically significant, and weak to very weak correlations between contextual geological/geographical factors and drumlinoid morphology. The most important contextual factor appears to be 'drift depth', followed by 'distance to esker'. Therefore, models of drumlinoid formation and any efforts to use such features for palaeo-ice reconstruction must take into account the geological and geographical environment in which they are situated. The logical extension of this is that models of ice-sheet growth and retreat must also take into account and be sensitive to the type of substratum present beneath the ice. Further research into the effect of drift properties on the flow of ice is needed.

  13. The Evolutionary Relationships between Endosymbiotic Green Algae of Paramecium bursaria Syngens Originating from Different Geographical Locations.

    PubMed

    Zagata, Patrycja; Greczek-Stachura, Magdalena; Tarcz, Sebastian; Rautian, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Paramecium bursaria (Ehrenberg 1831), a freshwater ciliate, typically harbors hundreds of green algal symbionts inside the cell. The aim of present study was the molecular identification of newly analyzed P. bursaria symbionts. The second aspect of the present survey was testing a hypothesis whether endosymbionts prefer the specified syngen of the host, and the specified geographical distribution. Ten strains of endosymbionts isolated from strains of P. bursaria originating from different geographical locations were studied. We analyzed for the first time, both the fragment of plastid genome containing 3'rpl36-5' infA genes and a fragment of a nuclear gene encoding large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rDNA). The analysis of the LSU rDNA sequences showed the existence of 3 haplotypes and the haplotype diversity of 0.733, and 8 haplotypes for the 3'rpl36-5' infA gene fragment and haplotype diversity of 0.956. The endosymbionts isolated from P. bursaria strains were identified as Chlorella vulgaris, Ch. variabilis and Micractinium conductrix. There was no correlation between the syngen of P. bursaria and the species of endosymbiont. PMID:27172712

  14. A portable system for measuring the absolute geographic location of distant objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuscer, Lovro; Diaci, Janez

    2010-10-01

    This contribution presents the development of a lightweight, man-portable system for measuring the absolute geographic location of distant objects. The system is built entirely from COTS (Commercial Of-The-Shelf) components that are controlled using custom software and hardware solutions. It consists of a laser rangefinder, an electronic compass and inclinometer, an optical incremental encoder, a GPS receiver, a CMOS camera, an LCOS viewfinder and an FPGA module that serves as a system controller. With the use of the FPGA, low power consumption and high processing power was achieved. The user interface comprises the viewfinder and a multidirectional button. While performing measurements, the live image of the target, sensor data and calculated coordinates are displayed in the viewfinder. The measuring system also features an SD card slot for data storage and WLAN connectivity to transfer the acquired data to a geographic information system. The contribution also presents the results of field tests used to verify the system operation and Monte Carlo simulations employed to evaluate its measuring characteristics.

  15. Stress Tolerance Variations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains from Diverse Ecological Sources and Geographical Locations

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yan-Lin; Wang, Shi-An

    2015-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a platform organism for bioethanol production from various feedstocks and robust strains are desirable for efficient fermentation because yeast cells inevitably encounter stressors during the process. Recently, diverse S. cerevisiae lineages were identified, which provided novel resources for understanding stress tolerance variations and related shaping factors in the yeast. This study characterized the tolerance of diverse S. cerevisiae strains to the stressors of high ethanol concentrations, temperature shocks, and osmotic stress. The results showed that the isolates from human-associated environments overall presented a higher level of stress tolerance compared with those from forests spared anthropogenic influences. Statistical analyses indicated that the variations of stress tolerance were significantly correlated with both ecological sources and geographical locations of the strains. This study provides guidelines for selection of robust S. cerevisiae strains for bioethanol production from nature. PMID:26244846

  16. Impacts of geographical locations and sociocultural traits on the Vietnamese entrepreneurship.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Quan Hoang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents new results obtained from investigating the data from a 2015 Vietnamese entrepreneurs' survey, containing 3071 observations. Evidence from the estimations using multinomial logits was found to support relationships between several sociocultural factors and entrepreneurship-related performance or traits. Specifically, those relationships include: (a) Active participation in entrepreneurs' social networks and reported value of creativity; (b) CSR-willingness and reported entrepreneurs' perseverance; (c) Transforming of sociocultural values and entrepreneurs' decisiveness; and, (d) Lessons learned from others' failures and perceived chance of success. Using geographical locations as the control variate, evaluations of the baseline-category logits models indicate their varying effects on the outcomes when combined with the sociocultural factors that are found to be statistically significant. Empirical probabilities that give further detail about behavioral patterns are provided; and toward the end, the paper offers some conclusions with some striking insights and useful explanations on the Vietnamese entrepreneurship processes. PMID:27516927

  17. Stress Tolerance Variations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains from Diverse Ecological Sources and Geographical Locations.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yan-Lin; Wang, Shi-An

    2015-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a platform organism for bioethanol production from various feedstocks and robust strains are desirable for efficient fermentation because yeast cells inevitably encounter stressors during the process. Recently, diverse S. cerevisiae lineages were identified, which provided novel resources for understanding stress tolerance variations and related shaping factors in the yeast. This study characterized the tolerance of diverse S. cerevisiae strains to the stressors of high ethanol concentrations, temperature shocks, and osmotic stress. The results showed that the isolates from human-associated environments overall presented a higher level of stress tolerance compared with those from forests spared anthropogenic influences. Statistical analyses indicated that the variations of stress tolerance were significantly correlated with both ecological sources and geographical locations of the strains. This study provides guidelines for selection of robust S. cerevisiae strains for bioethanol production from nature. PMID:26244846

  18. The energy performance of electrochromic windows in heating-dominated geographic locations

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.; Lee, E.S.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of electrochromic windows in heating-dominated geographic locations under a variety of state-switching control strategies. The authors used the DOE-2.1E energy simulation program to analyze the annual heating, cooling and lighting energy use and performance as a function of glazing type, size, and electrochromic control strategy. They simulated a prototypical commercial office building module located in Madison, Wisconsin. Control strategies analyzed were based on daylight illuminance, incident total solar radiation, and space cooling load. The results show that overall energy performance is best if the electrochromic is left in its clear or bleached state during the heating season, but controlled during the cooling season using daylight illuminance as a control strategy. Even in such heating dominated locations as madison, there is still a well-defined cooling season when electrochromic switching will be beneficial. However, having the electrochromic remain in its bleached state during the winter season may result in glare and visual comfort problems for occupants much in the same way as conventional glazings.

  19. Accurate prediction of V1 location from cortical folds in a surface coordinate system

    PubMed Central

    Hinds, Oliver P.; Rajendran, Niranjini; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Augustinack, Jean C.; Wiggins, Graham; Wald, Lawrence L.; Rosas, H. Diana; Potthast, Andreas; Schwartz, Eric L.; Fischl, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated substantial variability of the location of primary visual cortex (V1) in stereotaxic coordinates when linear volume-based registration is used to match volumetric image intensities (Amunts et al., 2000). However, other qualitative reports of V1 location (Smith, 1904; Stensaas et al., 1974; Rademacher et al., 1993) suggested a consistent relationship between V1 and the surrounding cortical folds. Here, the relationship between folds and the location of V1 is quantified using surface-based analysis to generate a probabilistic atlas of human V1. High-resolution (about 200 μm) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 7 T of ex vivo human cerebral hemispheres allowed identification of the full area via the stria of Gennari: a myeloarchitectonic feature specific to V1. Separate, whole-brain scans were acquired using MRI at 1.5 T to allow segmentation and mesh reconstruction of the cortical gray matter. For each individual, V1 was manually identified in the high-resolution volume and projected onto the cortical surface. Surface-based intersubject registration (Fischl et al., 1999b) was performed to align the primary cortical folds of individual hemispheres to those of a reference template representing the average folding pattern. An atlas of V1 location was constructed by computing the probability of V1 inclusion for each cortical location in the template space. This probabilistic atlas of V1 exhibits low prediction error compared to previous V1 probabilistic atlases built in volumetric coordinates. The increased predictability observed under surface-based registration suggests that the location of V1 is more accurately predicted by the cortical folds than by the shape of the brain embedded in the volume of the skull. In addition, the high quality of this atlas provides direct evidence that surface-based intersubject registration methods are superior to volume-based methods at superimposing functional areas of cortex, and therefore are better

  20. a Geographic Analysis of Optimal Signage Location Selection in Scenic Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Ling; Long, Ying; Zhang, Ling; Wu, Xiao Ling

    2016-06-01

    As an important part of the scenic area infrastructure services, signage guiding system plays an indispensable role in guiding the way and improving the quality of tourism experience. This paper proposes an optimal method in signage location selection and direction content design in a scenic area based on geographic analysis. The object of the research is to provide a best solution to arrange limited guiding boards in a tourism area to show ways arriving at any scenic spot from any entrance. There are four steps to achieve the research object. First, the spatial distribution of the junction of the scenic road, the passageway and the scenic spots is analyzed. Then, the count of scenic roads intersection on the shortest path between all entrances and all scenic spots is calculated. Next, combing with the grade of the scenic road and scenic spots, the importance of each road intersection is estimated quantitatively. Finally, according to the importance of all road intersections, the most suitable layout locations of signage guiding boards can be provided. In addition, the method is applied in the Ming Tomb scenic area in China and the result is compared with the existing signage guiding space layout.

  1. Relationships between Geographic Origins, Externship Placement, and Practice Location Subsequent to Graduation of UMKC School of Pharmacy Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Daniel U.; Mares, Kenneth R.

    The relationships among geographic origins, externship placement, and post-graduation practice location of University of Missouri Kansas City (UMKC) 1977-79 pharmacy graduates were studied. The aim was to help select, prepare, and encourage students to locate in underserved communities. It is assumed the data can help decide whether to retain,…

  2. Impact of Mountain Pine Beetle Infestation on Snowmelt: Variations with Vegetation Structure and Geographical Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni-Meister, W.

    2015-12-01

    The warming climate resulted in the current outbreak of mountain pine beetles (MPB) in western and northwestern US. and Western Canada. Colorado, Wyoming, South Dakota, Nebraska, and British Columbia are also currently experiencing widespread mountain pine beetle infestations. Forest disturbance due to MPB can have a large impact on hydrological processes specifically snow accumulation and snowmelt. In those regions, spring snowmelt is a major water resource and MPB infestations can have a big impact on water resource management. MPB infestations cause forest canopies to gradually diminish over the course of several years, they therefore impact snow interception and radiation balance at snow surface, thus snowmelt. Past studies on this topic have achieved contradicting results. This study focuses on understanding how the impacts of MPB infestations on snow surface radiation balance and snowmelt rates vary with vegetation structure and geographical locations. We selected four sites in northern Colorado and four sites in the Cascade Mountains in Oregon with varying intensities of MPB. Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) data from SNOTEL sites and MPB-caused forest disturbance data extracted from Landsat time series disturbance maps were used for our analysis. Our results show that MPB sites show larger snow accumulation for sites in Colorado and Cascade Mountains. However snowmelt rate varies differently. For sites in Colorado, snow melts faster in the MPB sites than in the healthy forest sites. In contrary, in the Cascade Mountains, snow stays longer in MPB sites than in healthy and undisturbed sites. Our modeling study shows that shortwave radiation is a dominant factor for radiation balance in the mid-latitude region (Colorado). There, MPB infestations lead to increased shortwave radiation and faster snowmelt. However, long wave radiation plays an important role for radiation balance in high latitude areas. MPB infestations decrease longwave radiation and result in snow

  3. Plasmid analysis of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 isolates obtained from widely scattered geographical locations.

    PubMed Central

    Haider, K; Kay, B A; Talukder, K A; Huq, M I

    1988-01-01

    Plasmid profiles and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of 343 strains of Shigella dysenteriae type 1, obtained from 18 different geographical locations, were analyzed. Three plasmids, with molecular sizes of 140, 6, and 2 megadaltons (MDa), were present in 94, 98, and 96%, respectively, of the 343 strains isolated during either epidemic or nonepidemic periods from 1965 to 1987. In addition to these plasmids, 83% of the strains harbored a 4-MDa plasmid and 25% harbored a 20-MDa plasmid. Various plasmid profiles were observed in which the 140-, 6-, and 2-MDa plasmids occurred commonly, irrespective of the place of isolation and drug resistance pattern of the strains. Certain profiles showed significant association with drug resistance patterns. These findings suggest that three plasmids, of molecular sizes 140, 6, and 2 MDa, are unique to S. dysenteriae type 1 strains and may indicate the global spread of a pathogenic bacterial clone. Additionally, these core plasmids, plus plasmids of various other sizes, could be used to identify emerging subclones which are causing both epidemic and sporadic disease. Thus, plasmid profiles of S. dysenteriae type 1 strains can be used to monitor possible pandemic strains as well as individual epidemic strains. Images PMID:3053762

  4. Does Geographic Location Matter on the Prevalence of Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Collegiate Baseball Pitchers?

    PubMed Central

    Zaremski, Jason L.; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Donlan, Robert M.; Brisbane, Sonya Tang; Farmer, Kevin W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There has been a significant amount of research in the prevention of throwing injuries. However, one area of research that is lacking is geographic location of play. Warm climates may permit year-round play and increased exposure to throwing arm injury risk. Hypotheses: (1) Pitchers from southern institutions would have greater rates of ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCL-R) compared with pitchers from northern institutions. (2) Pitchers originating from high school teams in warm weather states would have a greater risk of undergoing UCL-R while in college. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: This study was completed by reviewing publicly obtained records of male collegiate baseball players during the 2008 through 2014 seasons. Data were accessed through online search engines, online baseball media guides, and school websites. Results: A total of 5315 player-years and 2575 pitcher-years were identified. Fifty-eight UCL-R cases were found in collegiate pitchers, 40 of which occurred in the Southeastern Conference (SEC) and 18 in the Big Ten. More injuries (36/58) occurred in pitchers who participated in high school baseball in southern states as compared with northern states (22/58), regardless of location of collegiate participation (χ2 = 28.8, P < .05). The injury rate for pitchers who participated in high school baseball in southern states was 25.3 per 1000 player-years versus 19.1 per 1000 player-years in northern states, with a risk ratio of 1.32 (χ2 = 0.89, P = .35). The injury rate for the SEC versus Big Ten pitchers was 13.3 per 1000 player-years versus 7.8 per 1000 player-years, with a risk ratio of 1.71 (χ2 = 1.45, P = .23). Conclusion: There is a greater likelihood of undergoing UCL-R in the SEC compared with the Big Ten. There is also an increased risk for UCL-R for pitchers who played high school baseball in southern states versus northern states, irrespective of collegiate play location. Clinical Relevance

  5. The influence of geographic location on population exposure to emissions from power plants throughout China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Levy, Jonathan I; Evans, John S; Hammitt, James K

    2006-04-01

    This analysis seeks to evaluate the influence of emission source location on population exposure in China to fine particles and sulfur dioxide. We use the concept of intake fraction, defined as the fraction of material or its precursor released from a source that is eventually inhaled or ingested by a population. We select 29 power-plant sites throughout China and estimate annual average intake fractions at each site, using identical source characteristics to isolate the influence of geographic location. In addition, we develop regression models to interpret the intake fraction values and allow for extrapolation to other sites. To model the concentration increase due to emissions from selected power plants, we used a detailed long-range atmospheric dispersion model, CALPUFF. Primary fine particles have the highest average intake fraction (1 x 0(-5)), followed by sulfur dioxide (5 x 10(-6)), sulfate from sulfur dioxide (4 x 10(-6)), and nitrate from nitrogen oxides (4 x 10(-6)). For all pollutants, the intake fractions span approximately an order of magnitude across sites. In the regression analysis, the independent variables are meteorological proxies (such as climate region and precipitation) and population at various distances from the source. We find that population terms can explain a substantial percentage of variability in the intake fraction for all pollutants (R(2) between 0.86 and 0.95 across pollutants), with a significant modifying influence of meteorological regime. Near-source population is more important for primary coarse particles while population at medium to long distance is more important for primary fine particles and secondary particles. A significant portion of intake fraction (especially for secondary particles and primary fine particles) occurs beyond 500 km of the source, emphasizing the need for detailed long-range dispersion modeling. These findings demonstrate that intake fractions for power plants in China can be estimated with

  6. Handy Key to Your "National Geographics"; Subject and Picture Locater. Twelfth Edition, 1915-Dec. 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underhill, Charles S., Comp.

    This index lists all articles and pictures which have appeared in National Geographic Magazine from 1915 to the present. Some 66 subject headings and numerous subheadings appear alphabetically, but within these headings, organization may be geographical, chronological, or other. Citations include only the subject area, date of issue, and presence…

  7. Variation in honey bee gut microbial diversity affected by ontogenetic stage, age and geographic location.

    PubMed

    Hroncova, Zuzana; Havlik, Jaroslav; Killer, Jiri; Doskocil, Ivo; Tyl, Jan; Kamler, Martin; Titera, Dalibor; Hakl, Josef; Mrazek, Jakub; Bunesova, Vera; Rada, Vojtech

    2015-01-01

    Social honey bees, Apis mellifera, host a set of distinct microbiota, which is similar across the continents and various honey bee species. Some of these bacteria, such as lactobacilli, have been linked to immunity and defence against pathogens. Pathogen defence is crucial, particularly in larval stages, as many pathogens affect the brood. However, information on larval microbiota is conflicting. Seven developmental stages and drones were sampled from 3 colonies at each of the 4 geographic locations of A. mellifera carnica, and the samples were maintained separately for analysis. We analysed the variation and abundance of important bacterial groups and taxa in the collected bees. Major bacterial groups were evaluated over the entire life of honey bee individuals, where digestive tracts of same aged bees were sampled in the course of time. The results showed that the microbial tract of 6-day-old 5th instar larvae were nearly equally rich in total microbial counts per total digestive tract weight as foraging bees, showing a high percentage of various lactobacilli (Firmicutes) and Gilliamella apicola (Gammaproteobacteria 1). However, during pupation, microbial counts were significantly reduced but recovered quickly by 6 days post-emergence. Between emergence and day 6, imago reached the highest counts of Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria, which then gradually declined with bee age. Redundancy analysis conducted using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis identified bacterial species that were characteristic of each developmental stage. The results suggest that 3-day 4th instar larvae contain low microbial counts that increase 2-fold by day 6 and then decrease during pupation. Microbial succession of the imago begins soon after emergence. We found that bacterial counts do not show only yearly cycles within a colony, but vary on the individual level. Sampling and pooling adult bees or 6th day larvae may lead to high errors and variability, as both of these stages may

  8. Variation in Honey Bee Gut Microbial Diversity Affected by Ontogenetic Stage, Age and Geographic Location

    PubMed Central

    Hroncova, Zuzana; Havlik, Jaroslav; Killer, Jiri; Doskocil, Ivo; Tyl, Jan; Kamler, Martin; Titera, Dalibor; Hakl, Josef; Mrazek, Jakub; Bunesova, Vera; Rada, Vojtech

    2015-01-01

    Social honey bees, Apis mellifera, host a set of distinct microbiota, which is similar across the continents and various honey bee species. Some of these bacteria, such as lactobacilli, have been linked to immunity and defence against pathogens. Pathogen defence is crucial, particularly in larval stages, as many pathogens affect the brood. However, information on larval microbiota is conflicting. Seven developmental stages and drones were sampled from 3 colonies at each of the 4 geographic locations of A. mellifera carnica, and the samples were maintained separately for analysis. We analysed the variation and abundance of important bacterial groups and taxa in the collected bees. Major bacterial groups were evaluated over the entire life of honey bee individuals, where digestive tracts of same aged bees were sampled in the course of time. The results showed that the microbial tract of 6-day-old 5th instar larvae were nearly equally rich in total microbial counts per total digestive tract weight as foraging bees, showing a high percentage of various lactobacilli (Firmicutes) and Gilliamella apicola (Gammaproteobacteria 1). However, during pupation, microbial counts were significantly reduced but recovered quickly by 6 days post-emergence. Between emergence and day 6, imago reached the highest counts of Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria, which then gradually declined with bee age. Redundancy analysis conducted using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis identified bacterial species that were characteristic of each developmental stage. The results suggest that 3-day 4th instar larvae contain low microbial counts that increase 2-fold by day 6 and then decrease during pupation. Microbial succession of the imago begins soon after emergence. We found that bacterial counts do not show only yearly cycles within a colony, but vary on the individual level. Sampling and pooling adult bees or 6th day larvae may lead to high errors and variability, as both of these stages may

  9. Overcoming the Triad of Rural Health Disparities: How Local Culture, Lack of Economic Opportunity, and Geographic Location Instigate Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Tami L.; DiClemente, Ralph; Snell, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To discuss how the effects of culture, economy, and geographical location intersect to form a gestalt triad determining health-related disparities in rural areas. Methods: We critically profile each component of the deterministic triad in shaping current health-related disparities in rural areas; evaluate the uniquely composed…

  10. Effect of geographical location, year and cultivar on survival of Malus sp. dormant buds stored in vapors of liquid nitrogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Woody plant crop germplasm is often grown in different geographical locations with various climatic conditions. One of the methods of a secure back-up of tree crop is storing winter buds in liquid nitrogen. It was thought that dormant buds from colder climates would have a higher post storage surviv...

  11. Using XTE as Part of the IPN to Derive Accurate GRB Locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelmy, S.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this final report was to integrate the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer PCA into the 3rd Interplanetary Network of gamma-ray burst detectors, to allow more bursts to be detected and accurately localized. Although the necessary software was implemented to do this at Goddard and at UC Berkeley, several factors made a full integration impossible or impractical.

  12. Accurate identification of centromere locations in yeast genomes using Hi-C.

    PubMed

    Varoquaux, Nelle; Liachko, Ivan; Ay, Ferhat; Burton, Joshua N; Shendure, Jay; Dunham, Maitreya J; Vert, Jean-Philippe; Noble, William S

    2015-06-23

    Centromeres are essential for proper chromosome segregation. Despite extensive research, centromere locations in yeast genomes remain difficult to infer, and in most species they are still unknown. Recently, the chromatin conformation capture assay, Hi-C, has been re-purposed for diverse applications, including de novo genome assembly, deconvolution of metagenomic samples and inference of centromere locations. We describe a method, Centurion, that jointly infers the locations of all centromeres in a single genome from Hi-C data by exploiting the centromeres' tendency to cluster in three-dimensional space. We first demonstrate the accuracy of Centurion in identifying known centromere locations from high coverage Hi-C data of budding yeast and a human malaria parasite. We then use Centurion to infer centromere locations in 14 yeast species. Across all microbes that we consider, Centurion predicts 89% of centromeres within 5 kb of their known locations. We also demonstrate the robustness of the approach in datasets with low sequencing depth. Finally, we predict centromere coordinates for six yeast species that currently lack centromere annotations. These results show that Centurion can be used for centromere identification for diverse species of yeast and possibly other microorganisms. PMID:25940625

  13. The relative influence of geographic location and reach-scale habitat on benthic invertebrate assemblages in six ecoregions.

    PubMed

    Munn, Mark D; Waite, Ian R; Larsen, David P; Herlihy, Alan T

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relative influence of reach-specific habitat variables and geographic location on benthic invertebrate assemblages within six ecoregions across the Western USA. This study included 417 sites from six ecoregions. A total of 301 taxa were collected with the highest richness associated with ecoregions dominated by streams with coarse substrate (19-29 taxa per site). Lowest richness (seven to eight taxa per site) was associated with ecoregions dominated by fine-grain substrate. Principle component analysis (PCA) on reach-scale habitat separated the six ecoregions into those in high-gradient mountainous areas (Coast Range, Cascades, and Southern Rockies) and those in lower-gradient ecoregions (Central Great Plains and Central California Valley). Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) models performed best in ecoregions dominated by coarse-grain substrate and high taxa richness, along with coarse-grain substrates sites combined from multiple ecoregions regardless of location. In contrast, ecoregions or site combinations dominated by fine-grain substrate had poor model performance (high stress). Four NMS models showed that geographic location (i.e. latitude and longitude) was important for: (1) all ecoregions combined, (2) all sites dominated by coarse-grain sub strate combined, (3) Cascades Ecoregion, and (4) Columbia Ecoregion. Local factors (i.e. substrate or water temperature) seem to be overriding factors controlling invertebrate composition across the West, regardless of geographic location. PMID:18629444

  14. Handy Key to Your "National Geographics": Subject and Picture Locator. 15th Edition, 1915-1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underhill, Charles S., Comp.

    This classified subject index provides access to articles and illustrations appearing in the National Geographic Magazine over a period of 67 years. Detailed topics are grouped under broader alphabetical headings, and people are listed only as featured subjects of articles. See and see also references are included. The introduction explains the…

  15. Draw-a-Person-in-the-Rain: Does Geographic Location Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Adam; Jones, Leslie; Kaplan, Frances F.

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study examines an aspect of construct validity of the Draw-a-Person-in-the-Rain (DAPR) assessment utilizing a sample ("N" = 58) of third-grade public school children from three geographic regions of the United States (Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, and Pacific Northwest) that differ in climate and frequency of precipitation. A…

  16. Circles of Influence: An Analysis of Charter School Location and Racial Patterns at Varying Geographic Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulosino, Charisse; d'Entremont, Chad

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and dynamic mapping to examine student enrollments in New Jersey charter schools. Consistent with previous research, we find evidence of increased racial segregation. Greater percentages of African-Americans attend charter schools than reside in surrounding areas. We add to the existing charter…

  17. Mapping Socio-Economic Status, Geographical Location and Matriculation Pass Rates in Gauteng, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pienaar, Richelle; Morton McKay, Tracey

    2014-01-01

    In South Africa, prior to 1994, the racially defined geographical neighbourhood in which a child resided usually determined which school they could enrol in. Post 1994, this changed to legally allow enrolment in any public school. Unfortunately, due to the legacy of apartheid, in particular, resource allocation inequity, schools in African areas…

  18. A secondary structural common core in the ribosomal ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer) of Culexspecies from diverse geographical locations

    PubMed Central

    Bhargavi, Ryavarapu; Vishwakarma, Siddharth; Murty, Upadhyayula Suryanarayana

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, sequence and structural analysis of ITS2 region (the spacer segment between 5.8S and 28S rRNA of mature rRNA sequences) of 7 Culex species belonging to 5 different geographical locations was carried out. Alignment of the ITS2 sequence from the 7 species revealed 8 homologous domains. Four species namely C. vishnui, C. annulus, C. pipiens, C. quiquefasciatusshowed high sequence (98­100%) and RNA secondary structure similarity. The ITS2 similarity among different species is high despite their varying geographical locations. Several common features of secondary structure are shared among these species, with some of them supported by compensatory changes, suggesting the significant role by ITS2 as an RNA domain during ribosome biogenesis. PMID:17597853

  19. Use of Loran-C navigation system to accurately determine sampling site location in an above ground cooling reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, R.E.; Blankinship, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Environmental monitoring programs often require accurate determination of sampling site locations in aquatic environments. This is especially true when a {open_quotes}picture{close_quotes} of high resolution is needed for observing a changing variable in a given area and location is assumed to be important to the distribution of that variable. Sample site location can be difficult if few visible land marks are available for reference on a large body of water. The use of navigational systems such as Global Positioning System (GPS) and its predecessor, Loran-C, provide an excellent method for sample site location. McFarland (1992) discusses the practicality of GPS for location determination. This article discusses the use of Loran-C in a sampling scheme implemented at the South Texas Project Electrical Generating Station (STPEGS), Wadsworth, Texas.

  20. Accurate estimation of object location in an image sequence using helicopter flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Yuan-Liang; Kasturi, Rangachar

    1994-01-01

    In autonomous navigation, it is essential to obtain a three-dimensional (3D) description of the static environment in which the vehicle is traveling. For a rotorcraft conducting low-latitude flight, this description is particularly useful for obstacle detection and avoidance. In this paper, we address the problem of 3D position estimation for static objects from a monocular sequence of images captured from a low-latitude flying helicopter. Since the environment is static, it is well known that the optical flow in the image will produce a radiating pattern from the focus of expansion. We propose a motion analysis system which utilizes the epipolar constraint to accurately estimate 3D positions of scene objects in a real world image sequence taken from a low-altitude flying helicopter. Results show that this approach gives good estimates of object positions near the rotorcraft's intended flight-path.

  1. Extending Geographic Weights of Evidence Models for Use in Location Based Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonwalkar, Mukul Dinkar

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the use and modeling of spatio-temporal data for the purposes of providing applications for location based services. One of the major issues in dealing with spatio-temporal data for location based services is the availability and sparseness of such data. Other than the hardware costs associated with collecting movement…

  2. Locating a geography of nursing: space, place and the progress of geographical thought.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Gavin J

    2003-10-01

    Although traditionally, nursing research has paid little attention to geographical approaches, recent years have witnessed some initial research interest in the dynamic between nursing, space and place. Such research potentially represents the foundations of what may be termed a 'geography of nursing'. Although, to date, some novel and valuable perspectives have been gained into the spatial features of nursing, no consideration has been given to the theoretical development of, and basis for, a geography of nursing. Furthermore, no consideration has been given to philosophical heritage; the treatment of space and place in human geography and the insights that this may provide for the new field of research. In this context, this paper provides an historical review of geographical research and traces the evolution of how space and place have been conceptualized and operationalized by it. The paper outlines the emergence of a health geography subdiscipline and its own changing and diverse perspectives. In the final section, the central themes of the current geography of nursing are considered and, reflecting back on the theoretical concerns of contemporary human geography, the paper outlines some philosophies and theories on which future geography of nursing could be based. From a disciplinary perspective, one potential role of the geography of nursing is argued to be the maintenance of the relationship between health geography and mainstream health service and medical concerns, but in a place-sensitive, patient-sensitive and qualitative form. PMID:12969453

  3. Malnutrition among children under the age of five in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): does geographic location matter?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although there are inequalities in child health and survival in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the influence of distal determinants such as geographic location on children's nutritional status is still unclear. We investigate the impact of geographic location on child nutritional status by mapping the residual net effect of malnutrition while accounting for important risk factors. Methods We examine spatial variation in under-five malnutrition with flexible geo-additive semi-parametric mixed model while simultaneously controlling for spatial dependence and possibly nonlinear effects of covariates within a simultaneous, coherent regression framework based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. Individual data records were constructed for children. Each record represents a child and consists of nutritional status information and a list of covariates. For the 8,992 children born within the last five years before the survey, 3,663 children have information on anthropometric measures. Our novel empirical approach is able to flexibly determine to what extent the substantial spatial pattern of malnutrition is driven by detectable factors such as socioeconomic factors and can be attributable to unmeasured factors such as conflicts, political, environmental and cultural factors. Results Although childhood malnutrition was more pronounced in all provinces of the DRC, after accounting for the location's effects, geographic differences were significant: malnutrition was significantly higher in rural areas compared to urban centres and this difference persisted after multiple adjustments. The findings suggest that models of nutritional intervention must be carefully specified with regard to residential location. Conclusion Childhood malnutrition is spatially structured and rates remain very high in the provinces that rely on the mining industry and comparable to the level seen in Eastern provinces under conflicts. Even in provinces such as Bas-Congo that

  4. Biofouling community composition across a range of environmental conditions and geographical locations suitable for floating marine renewable energy generation.

    PubMed

    Macleod, Adrian K; Stanley, Michele S; Day, John G; Cook, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of biofouling typical of marine structures is essential for engineers to define appropriate loading criteria in addition to informing other stakeholders about the ecological implications of creating novel artificial environments. There is a lack of information regarding biofouling community composition (including weight and density characteristics) on floating structures associated with future marine renewable energy generation technologies. A network of navigation buoys were identified across a range of geographical areas, environmental conditions (tidal flow speed, temperature and salinity), and deployment durations suitable for future developments. Despite the perceived importance of environmental and temporal factors, geographical location explained the greatest proportion of the observed variation in community composition, emphasising the importance of considering geography when assessing the impact of biofouling on device functioning and associated ecology. The principal taxa associated with variation in biofouling community composition were mussels (Mytilus edulis), which were also important when determining loading criteria. PMID:26900732

  5. What influences national and foreign physicians’ geographic distribution? An analysis of medical doctors’ residence location in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The debate over physicians’ geographical distribution has attracted the attention of the economic and public health literature over the last forty years. Nonetheless, it is still to date unclear what influences physicians’ location, and whether foreign physicians contribute to fill the geographical gaps left by national doctors in any given country. The present research sets out to investigate the current distribution of national and international physicians in Portugal, with the objective to understand its determinants and provide an evidence base for policy-makers to identify policies to influence it. Methods A cross-sectional study of physicians currently registered in Portugal was conducted to describe the population and explore the association of physician residence patterns with relevant personal and municipality characteristics. Data from the Portuguese Medical Council on physicians’ residence and characteristics were analysed, as well as data from the National Institute of Statistics on municipalities’ population, living standards and health care network. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, negative binomial and logistic regression modelling were applied to determine: (a) municipality characteristics predicting Portuguese and International physicians’ geographical distribution, and; (b) doctors’ characteristics that could increase the odds of residing outside the country’s metropolitan areas. Results There were 39,473 physicians in Portugal in 2008, 51.1% of whom male, and 40.2% between 41 and 55 years of age. They were predominantly Portuguese (90.5%), with Spanish, Brazilian and African nationalities also represented. Population, Population’s Purchasing Power, Nurses per capita and Municipality Development Index (MDI) were the municipality characteristics displaying the strongest association with national physicians’ location. For foreign physicians, the MDI was not statistically significant, while municipalities

  6. Accurate location of nuclear explosions at Azgir, Kazakhstan, from satellite images and seismic data: Implications for monitoring decoupled explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, Lynn R.; Deng, Jishu; Lyubomirskiy, Paul

    1993-09-01

    The 10 largest tamped nuclear explosions detonated by the Former Soviet Union in and near two salt domes near Azgir were relocated using seismic data and the locations of shot points on a SPOT satellite image taken in 1988. Many of the shot points are clearly recognized on the satellite image and can be located with an accuracy of 60 m even though testing was carried out at those points many years earlier, i. e. between 1966 and 1979. Onsite inspections and a local seismic monitoring network combined with our accurate locations of previous explosions would insure that any cavities that remain standing from those events could not be used for undetected decoupled nuclear testing down to a very small yield. Since the Azgir area, like much of the Pre-Caspian depression, is arid, it would not be a suitable place for constructing large cavities in salt by solution mining and then using them for clandestine nuclear testing.

  7. A U.S. Geological Survey Data Standard (Specifications for representation of geographic point locations for information interchange)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1983-01-01

    This standard establishes uniform formats for geographic point location data. Geographic point location refers to the use of a coordinate system to define the position of a point that may be on, above, or below the Earth's surface. It provides a means for representing these data in digital form for the purpose of interchanging information among data systems and improving clarity and accuracy of interpersonal communications. This document is an expansion and clarification of National Bureau of Standards FIPS PUB 70, issued October 24, 1980. There are minor editorial changes, plus the following additions and modifications: (I) The representation of latitude and longitude using radian measure was added. (2) Alternate 2 for Representation of Hemispheric Information was deleted. (3) Use of the maximum precision for all numerical values was emphasized. The Alternate Representation of Precision was deleted. (4) The length of the zone representation for the State Plane Coordinate System was standardized. (5) The term altitude was substituted for elevation throughout to conform with international usage. (6) Section 3, Specifications for Altitude Data, was expanded and upgraded significantly to the same level of detail as for the horizontal values. (7) A table delineating the coverage of Universal Transverse Mercator zones and the longitudes of the Central Meridians was added and the other tables renumbered. (8) The total length of the representation of point location data at maximum precision was standardized.

  8. Factors influencing the heavy metal bioaccessibility in soils were site dependent from different geographical locations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaodong; Yang, Fen; Wei, Chaoyang

    2015-09-01

    A soil survey was conducted in urban areas from five sites, including Beijing, Baotou, Datong, Fuyang, and Xiantao in China. The objective was to explore the most significant factors that may impact the bioaccessibility of heavy metals (Bio-HMs), including As, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn, in soils. Twenty to 30 composite soil samples were collected at each site. The various soil properties, including pH, particle size, Fe/Mn, and organic matter contents, were analyzed. The chemical operated forms of HMs in soils were measured by the Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction scheme, while the Bio-HMs were determined by the simple bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET) procedure. The concentrations of total heavy metals (T-HMs) in soils from different sites (cities) were in the range as As (5.69-9.86), Cr (77.42-230.20), Cu (15.68-36.54), Pb (14.12-58.93), and Zn (38.66-183.46) mg/kg. Cu and Pb had higher relative bioaccessibilities (48-70%) than those of As and Cr (6-15%), indicating higher health risks of the former than the latter two HMs. The Bio-HMs for various HMs were comparable to the first two or three combined BCR extracted fractions, with an exception of Cu, whose Bio-HMs were larger than the combined three BCR fractions, indicating that Cu was highly accessible in soils as compared with other HMs. Factor analysis showed that all variables, including soil property parameters and BCR extracted fractions, could be represented by three common factors extracted with higher than 0.5 loadings and ∼80% cumulative contribution to the total variance. Among the three common factors, factor 1, containing mainly pH, texture, and Fe/Mn variables, and factor 3, containing mainly organic matter variable, could be attributed to geographical regions, while factor 2, containing mainly BCR extracted fractions, could be ascribed to relative bioaccessibility of HMs (R-Bio-HMs). Interactive mapping of the main factors and cluster analysis were consistent, which supported the

  9. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution particulate matter (PM) is responsible for more than 500,000 deaths worldwide each year. PM pollution is a complex mixture containing dozens of different compounds; the composition of PM can vary dramatically among different locations depending on the sources of pa...

  10. Gender, Geographic Locations, Achievement Goals and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students from Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K.J.

    2013-01-01

    The paper examined gender, geography location, achievement goals and academic performance of senior secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria. The sample consists of 827 students from 18 public boarding secondary schools across South and North of Borno State: 414 (50.1 per cent) males and 413 (49.9 per cent) are females; 414 (50.1 per…

  11. It's the Local Economy, Stupid! Geographic Wealth Dispersion and Conflict Outbreak Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhaug, Halvard; Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede; Holtermann, Helge; Ostby, Gudrun; Tollefsen, Andreas Foro

    2011-01-01

    Income varies considerably within countries and the locations where conflicts emerge are rarely typical or representative for states at large. Yet, most research on conflict has only examined national income averages and neglected spatial variation. The authors argue that civil conflicts are more likely to erupt in areas with low absolute income,…

  12. The location and scope of geographic remote sensing training in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawley, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    Maps displaying the distribution of graduate departments of geography in the United States and enrollments in remote sensing courses in all geography departments during the past two calendar years were compiled. It was anticipated that the two distributions would show a marked similarity since remote sensing is a relatively new geographic tool requiring specialized training to use as well as equipment not normally found in most geography departments. Thus only the larger graduate departments can afford to devote time and resources to this specialty. A broad correspondence does exist between the graduate departments of geography and the courses in remote ensing. However, the correlation is far from complete and the exceptions are frequent and large enough to cast doubt upon the accuracy of the original hypothesis. Whereas many large departments do offer courses in remote sensing, many smaller colleges and universities do also. A number of possible explanations can be offered for the discrepancies: (1) course titles, (2) the liberal arts orientation of geography departments in many universities, (3) job-oriented skills which many smaller departments have emphasized, and (4) in the tight job market many new graduates of even the larger departments have had to accept position in smaller departments and colleges.

  13. The Spectrum of Chromobacterium violaceum Infections from a Single Geographic Location.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi dan; Majumdar, Suman S; Hennessy, Jann; Baird, Robert W

    2016-04-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum is a bacterium associated with soil and water exposure in tropical regions and causes rare and serious clinical infections that are often fatal. We reviewed the demographic and clinical details of 28 patients with C. violaceum detected over 15 years from 2000 to 2015, from the Top End of the Northern Territory. Of these patients, 18 had infections attributable toC. violaceum Patients with infections were more commonly male (55.6%), and in the 16- to 60-year (61.1%) age group. Skin and soft tissue infections (50%), predominantly involving the limbs, were the major clinical manifestation. Water, mud exposure, and trauma were all noted as precipitating circumstances and comorbidities were present in 61.1% of the patients with infections. Of the 28 patients, 10 (35.8%) had C. violaceum isolated as an incidental finding or as asymptomatic colonization; these 10 patients did not require or receive therapy for C. violaceum bacterial infections. There were no relapsing infections in this group.Chromobacterium violaceum remains a serious infection, with seven patients (25%) in our series requiring intensive care management. However, the mortality rate (7.1%) in our series was far lower than previously described. This case series of C. violaceum infections from a single geographic area provides additional information of the characteristics of infection with this pathogen. PMID:26903614

  14. Sequence Diversity in MIC6 Gene among Toxoplasma gondii Isolates from Different Hosts and Geographical Locations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhong-Yuan; Song, Hui-Qun; Chen, Jia; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic protozoan parasite that can infect almost all warm-blooded animals including humans with a worldwide distribution. Micronemes play an important role in invasion process of T. gondii, associated with the attachment, motility, and host cell recognition. In this research, sequence diversity in microneme protein 6 (MIC6) gene among 16 T. gondii isolates from different hosts and geographical regions and 1 reference strain was examined. The results showed that the sequence of all the examined T. gondii strains was 1,050 bp in length, and their A + T content was between 45.7% and 46.1%. Sequence analysis presented 33 nucleotide mutation positions (0-1.1%), resulting in 23 amino acid substitutions (0-2.3%) aligned with T. gondii RH strain. Moreover, T. gondii strains representing the 3 classical genotypes (Type I, II, and III) were separated into different clusters based on the locus of MIC6 using phylogenetic analyses by Bayesian inference (BI), maximum parsimony (MP), and maximum likelihood (ML), but T. gondii strains belonging to ToxoDB #9 were separated into different clusters. Our results suggested that MIC6 gene is not a suitable marker for T. gondii population genetic studies. PMID:26174829

  15. Sequence Diversity in MIC6 Gene among Toxoplasma gondii Isolates from Different Hosts and Geographical Locations.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong-Yuan; Song, Hui-Qun; Chen, Jia; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic protozoan parasite that can infect almost all warm-blooded animals including humans with a worldwide distribution. Micronemes play an important role in invasion process of T. gondii, associated with the attachment, motility, and host cell recognition. In this research, sequence diversity in microneme protein 6 (MIC6) gene among 16 T. gondii isolates from different hosts and geographical regions and 1 reference strain was examined. The results showed that the sequence of all the examined T. gondii strains was 1,050 bp in length, and their A + T content was between 45.7% and 46.1%. Sequence analysis presented 33 nucleotide mutation positions (0-1.1%), resulting in 23 amino acid substitutions (0-2.3%) aligned with T. gondii RH strain. Moreover, T. gondii strains representing the 3 classical genotypes (Type I, II, and III) were separated into different clusters based on the locus of MIC6 using phylogenetic analyses by Bayesian inference (BI), maximum parsimony (MP), and maximum likelihood (ML), but T. gondii strains belonging to ToxoDB #9 were separated into different clusters. Our results suggested that MIC6 gene is not a suitable marker for T. gondii population genetic studies. PMID:26174829

  16. Biodiversity of Jinggangshan Mountain: The Importance of Topography and Geographical Location in Supporting Higher Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Huang, Fang-Fang; Liu, Jin-Gang; Liao, Wen-Bo; Wang, Ying-Yong; Ren, Si-Jie; Chen, Chun-Quan; Peng, Shao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Diversity is mainly determined by climate and environment. In addition, topography is a complex factor, and the relationship between topography and biodiversity is still poorly understood. To understand the role of topography, i.e., altitude and slope, in biodiversity, we selected Jinggangshan Mountain (JGM), an area with unique topography, as the study area. We surveyed plant and animal species richness of JGM and compared the biodiversity and the main geographic characteristics of JGM with the adjacent 4 mountains. Gleason’s richness index was calculated to assess the diversity of species. In total, 2958 spermatophyte species, 418 bryophyte species, 355 pteridophyte species and 493 species of vertebrate animals were recorded in this survey. In general, the JGM biodiversity was higher than that of the adjacent mountains. Regarding topographic characteristics, 77% of JGM’s area was in the mid-altitude region and approximately 40% of JGM’s area was in the 10°–20° slope range, which may support more vegetation types in JGM area and make it a biodiversity hotspot. It should be noted that although the impact of topography on biodiversity was substantial, climate is still a more general factor driving the formation and maintenance of higher biodiversity. Topographic conditions can create microclimates, and both climatic and topographic conditions contribute to the formation of high biodiversity in JGM. PMID:25763820

  17. Geographical location and key sensitivity issues of post-industrial regions in Europe.

    PubMed

    Stuczynski, Tomasz; Siebielec, Grzegorz; Korzeniowska-Puculek, Renata; Koza, Piotr; Pudelko, Rafal; Lopatka, Artur; Kowalik, Monika

    2009-04-01

    Primary objectives of our work were to spatially delineate post industrial areas of the EU-27 and indicate key environmental, social and economic sensitivity issues for these regions. The density of industrial sites within NUTS-x regions for EU-27 countries was assessed by using CORINE 2000 land cover layer. A development of postindustrial society in Europe represents a strong geographic diversity. There are distinct historical and current differences between regions which form major groups, comprising similar internal characteristics and definable trends in environmental and socioeconomic sense. Regions grouped into postindustrial clusters are fundamentally different from the European average, and are facing specific problems related to global market and political changes. Eastern postindustrial regions can be characterized as socially and economically weak, exhibiting high unemployment rate, low GDP, negative population growth and a strong environmental pressure, represented by a high density of dump sites. Most of the western EU postindustrial areas have been successfully recovered and moved into new economy as shown by most of the indicators. In urban postindustrial zones, however, emission sources of pollutants seem to continually be a major problem--not necessarily in terms of exceeding thresholds, but through a remarkable difference in the amount of pollutants produced relative to other regions. PMID:18437515

  18. Overcoming scepticism: Interacting influences of geographical location on perceived climate change adaptation measures to water resources in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Ana; Garrote, Luis; Bardaji, Isabel; Iglesias, Pedro; Granados, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    Though many climate adaptation efforts attempt to be defined with the participation of local communities, these strategies may be ineffective because among citizens affected equally, a local risk perception rather than scientific understanding largely drives adaptation choices. Further, the geographical location may polarize climate risk perceptions, making some adaptation efforts ineffective among sceptics. This study examines how the local degradation of the environment and water resources relates to adaption choices and in turn, climate change risk perception among a range of citizens in the Tagus basin, Spain (n = 300). We find respondents of less degraded areas have individualistic responses, and are significantly less likely to accept adaptation strategies than respondents in water stressed communities. The interaction between climate knowledge and adaptation choices is positively related to acceptance of adaptation choices in both groups, and had a stronger positive relationship among individualists. There is no statistical difference in acceptance of adaptation between individualists and communitarians at high levels of knowledge (top decile). Thus, education efforts specific to climate change may counteract divisions based geographical location and environmental stress.

  19. Accurate modeling and inversion of electrical resistivity data in the presence of metallic infrastructure with known location and dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Timothy C.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2015-06-26

    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has been widely used in environmental applications to study processes associated with subsurface contaminants and contaminant remediation. Anthropogenic alterations in subsurface electrical conductivity associated with contamination often originate from highly industrialized areas with significant amounts of buried metallic infrastructure. The deleterious influence of such infrastructure on imaging results generally limits the utility of ERT where it might otherwise prove useful for subsurface investigation and monitoring. In this manuscript we present a method of accurately modeling the effects of buried conductive infrastructure within the forward modeling algorithm, thereby removing them from the inversion results. The method is implemented in parallel using immersed interface boundary conditions, whereby the global solution is reconstructed from a series of well-conditioned partial solutions. Forward modeling accuracy is demonstrated by comparison with analytic solutions. Synthetic imaging examples are used to investigate imaging capabilities within a subsurface containing electrically conductive buried tanks, transfer piping, and well casing, using both well casings and vertical electrode arrays as current sources and potential measurement electrodes. Results show that, although accurate infrastructure modeling removes the dominating influence of buried metallic features, the presence of metallic infrastructure degrades imaging resolution compared to standard ERT imaging. However, accurate imaging results may be obtained if electrodes are appropriately located.

  20. Subalpine conifers in different geographical locations host highly similar foliar bacterial endophyte communities.

    PubMed

    Carrell, Alyssa A; Carper, Dana L; Frank, A Carolin

    2016-08-01

    Pines in the subalpine environment at Niwot Ridge, CO, have been found to host communities of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) within their needles. The significance and ubiquity of this pattern is not known, but recent evidence of nitrogen (N)-fixing activity in Pinus flexilis (limber pine) foliage calls for a better understanding of the processes that regulate endophytic communities in forest tree canopies. Here, to test if AAB dominate the foliar bacterial microbiota in other subalpine locations, we compared the 16S rRNA community in needles from P. flexilis and P. contorta (lodgepole pine) growing in the Eastern Sierra Nevada, CA, and Niwot Ridge, CO. AAB made up the majority of the bacterial community in both species at both sites. Multiple distinct AAB taxa, resolved at the single nucleotide level, were shared across host species and sites, with dominant OTUs identical or highly similar to database sequences from cold environments, including high altitude air sampled in Colorado, and the endosphere of Arctic plants. Our results suggest strong selection for community composition, potentially amplified by the long lifespan of individual Pinus needles, along with low dispersal constraints on canopy bacteria. PMID:27267931

  1. Potassium status of Northeast Thai constructors in three different geographic locations.

    PubMed

    Tosukhowong, P; Sriboonlue, P; Tungsanga, K; Bovornpadungkitti, S; Chatuporn, S; Muktahant, B; Prapunwattana, P; Sangwatanaroj, S; Sitprija, V

    2001-06-01

    Sudden and unexpected death of young adults during sleep is a phenomenon among Southeast Asians and particularly young Northeast (NE) Thailand constructors in Singapore. Survivor of sudden unexplained death syndrome (SUDS) without structural heart disease with idopathic ventricular fibrillation (VF) has been documented. Low plasma potassium (K) and depletion of K can occur simply through a reduction of K intake and are associated with increased risk of VF. The K-status of the populations was evaluated in the NE (Group 1, n=30), Bangkok (Group 2, n=48) and Singapore (Group 3, n=46). Groups 2 and 3 were further subdivided into Group 2A (worked in Bangkok < or = 1 year, n=8), Group 2B (worked in Bangkok > 1 year, n=40), Group 3A (consumed self-prepared or ready-to-buy meals, n=25) and Group 3B (regularly consumed foods provided free-of-charge by construction companies, n=21). Thirty-four male healthy university personnels from the NE and Bangkok served as the control--Group 4. Two 24-h urine samples and a fasting blood sample were collected from each subject. Dietary-K from food was determined by duplicated meal analysis. All these samples were then analyzed for their K-content. Group 3A had the lowest K-status: their K-intake, serum-K, and urinary-K level were 29 +/- 5.8 mmol/day (% low K-intake=100), 3.43 +/- 0.34 mmol/L (% hypokalemia=48) and 19.23 +/- 8.2 mmol/day (% hypokaliuria=87.5), respectively. Among the construction workers, average K-intake, serum-K and urinary-K levels were 45.5 +/- 6.1 mmol/day (% low K-intake = 37.5), 3.93 +/- 0.2 mmol/L (% hypokalemia = 2.5) and 39.6 +/- 9.2 mmol/day (% hypokaliuria = 12.5), respectively. The values of Group 2B were similar to Group 4. In addition, when the data from all of the groups were compared, there was a positive correlation between dietary-K (intake) and urinary-K (excretion) (r=0.881, p<0.001). In conclusion, NE Thailand constructors from various locations exhibited low K status with low dietary-K, high

  2. Location, Location, Location!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsdell, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Of prime importance in real estate, location is also a key element in the appeal of romances. Popular geographic settings and historical periods sell, unpopular ones do not--not always with a logical explanation, as the author discovered when she conducted a survey on this topic last year. (Why, for example, are the French Revolution and the…

  3. Assessing the Relative Effects of Geographic Location and Soil Type on Microbial Communities Associated with Straw Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyue; Wang, Feng; Jiang, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Decomposition of plant residues is largely mediated by soil-dwelling microorganisms whose activities are influenced by both climate conditions and properties of the soil. However, a comprehensive understanding of their relative importance remains elusive, mainly because traditional methods, such as soil incubation and environmental surveys, have a limited ability to differentiate between the combined effects of climate and soil. Here, we performed a large-scale reciprocal soil transplantation experiment, whereby microbial communities associated with straw decomposition were examined in three initially identical soils placed in parallel in three climate regions of China (red soil, Chao soil, and black soil, located in midsubtropical, warm-temperate, and cold-temperate zones). Maize straws buried in mesh bags were sampled at 0.5, 1, and 2 years after the burial and subjected to chemical, physical, and microbiological analyses, e.g., phospholipid fatty acid analysis for microbial abundance, community-level physiological profiling, and 16S rRNA gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, respectively, for functional and phylogenic diversity. Results of aggregated boosted tree analysis show that location rather soil is the primary determining factor for the rate of straw decomposition and structures of the associated microbial communities. Principal component analysis indicates that the straw communities are primarily grouped by location at any of the three time points. In contrast, microbial communities in bulk soil remained closely related to one another for each soil. Together, our data suggest that climate (specifically, geographic location) has stronger effects than soil on straw decomposition; moreover, the successive process of microbial communities in soils is slower than those in straw residues in response to climate changes. PMID:23524671

  4. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum): (II) Phytochemical Profiles of Four Prime Maca Phenotypes Grown in Two Geographically-Distant Locations

    PubMed Central

    O. Meissner, Henry; Mscisz, Alina; Piatkowska, Ewa; Baraniak, Marek; Mielcarek, Sebastian; Kedzia, Bogdan; Holderna-Kedzia, Elzbieta; Pisulewski, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    Peruvian Maca crops (Lepidium peruvianum), grown in two geographically-distant cultivation sites located at similar altitudes in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes (Junin at 4,200 m a.s.l. and Ancash 4,150 m a.s.l.), were used in the study. Four prime Maca phenotypes, distinguished by hypocotyl colours labelled as “Yellow”, “Purple”, “Red” and “Black” were selected to determine distribution in levels and corresponding ratios between individual Glucosinolates (Glucotropaeolin and m-methylglucotropaeolin) in an attempt to identify four Peruvian Maca phenotypes from analyses of powdered hypocotyls. There were highly significant differences (P<0.01) in hypocotyl weight/size of four Maca phenotypes harvested in two locations. The Junin crop represented a mostly “large” class (13.3 g) with “small” size hypocotyls (7.2 g), while a “small” class was predominant in Ancash (3.5 g). Powdered Yellow Maca showed significantly higher (P<0.001) microbial contamination than the other three, with Black Maca being the least infected. Only minor, statistically-confirmed differences were detected in nutritive characteristics between the four Maca phenotypes grown in Junin, however highly significant differences (P<0.01) in Glucosinolates existed between the Red and Black Maca grown in Junin and Ancash. Irrespective of the cultivation location, Red phenotypes showed the highest content of Total Glucosinolates, followed by Black and Purple, with the Yellow phenotype showing consistently lower levels. Highly significant P<0.01) differences determined in ratios of individual Glucosinolates between four Maca phenotypes grown in two locations, confirms an earlier assumption that sums of individual Glucosinolates, their ratios and profiles, may be feasible to explore in analytically identifying individual Maca phenotypes in pulverised marketed Maca products. PMID:27127450

  5. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum): (II) Phytochemical Profiles of Four Prime Maca Phenotypes Grown in Two Geographically-Distant Locations.

    PubMed

    O Meissner, Henry; Mscisz, Alina; Piatkowska, Ewa; Baraniak, Marek; Mielcarek, Sebastian; Kedzia, Bogdan; Holderna-Kedzia, Elzbieta; Pisulewski, Pawel

    2016-03-01

    Peruvian Maca crops (Lepidium peruvianum), grown in two geographically-distant cultivation sites located at similar altitudes in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes (Junin at 4,200 m a.s.l. and Ancash 4,150 m a.s.l.), were used in the study. Four prime Maca phenotypes, distinguished by hypocotyl colours labelled as "Yellow", "Purple", "Red" and "Black" were selected to determine distribution in levels and corresponding ratios between individual Glucosinolates (Glucotropaeolin and m-methylglucotropaeolin) in an attempt to identify four Peruvian Maca phenotypes from analyses of powdered hypocotyls. There were highly significant differences (P<0.01) in hypocotyl weight/size of four Maca phenotypes harvested in two locations. The Junin crop represented a mostly "large" class (13.3 g) with "small" size hypocotyls (7.2 g), while a "small" class was predominant in Ancash (3.5 g). Powdered Yellow Maca showed significantly higher (P<0.001) microbial contamination than the other three, with Black Maca being the least infected. Only minor, statistically-confirmed differences were detected in nutritive characteristics between the four Maca phenotypes grown in Junin, however highly significant differences (P<0.01) in Glucosinolates existed between the Red and Black Maca grown in Junin and Ancash. Irrespective of the cultivation location, Red phenotypes showed the highest content of Total Glucosinolates, followed by Black and Purple, with the Yellow phenotype showing consistently lower levels. Highly significant P<0.01) differences determined in ratios of individual Glucosinolates between four Maca phenotypes grown in two locations, confirms an earlier assumption that sums of individual Glucosinolates, their ratios and profiles, may be feasible to explore in analytically identifying individual Maca phenotypes in pulverised marketed Maca products. PMID:27127450

  6. Accurate Analysis of the Change in Volume, Location, and Shape of Metastatic Cervical Lymph Nodes During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Takao, Seishin; Tadano, Shigeru; Taguchi, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Koichi; Onimaru, Rikiya; Ishikawa, Masayori; Bengua, Gerard; Suzuki, Ryusuke; Shirato, Hiroki

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To establish a method for the accurate acquisition and analysis of the variations in tumor volume, location, and three-dimensional (3D) shape of tumors during radiotherapy in the era of image-guided radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Finite element models of lymph nodes were developed based on computed tomography (CT) images taken before the start of treatment and every week during the treatment period. A surface geometry map with a volumetric scale was adopted and used for the analysis. Six metastatic cervical lymph nodes, 3.5 to 55.1 cm{sup 3} before treatment, in 6 patients with head and neck carcinomas were analyzed in this study. Three fiducial markers implanted in mouthpieces were used for the fusion of CT images. Changes in the location of the lymph nodes were measured on the basis of these fiducial markers. Results: The surface geometry maps showed convex regions in red and concave regions in blue to ensure that the characteristics of the 3D tumor geometries are simply understood visually. After the irradiation of 66 to 70 Gy in 2 Gy daily doses, the patterns of the colors had not changed significantly, and the maps before and during treatment were strongly correlated (average correlation coefficient was 0.808), suggesting that the tumors shrank uniformly, maintaining the original characteristics of the shapes in all 6 patients. The movement of the gravitational center of the lymph nodes during the treatment period was everywhere less than {+-}5 mm except in 1 patient, in whom the change reached nearly 10 mm. Conclusions: The surface geometry map was useful for an accurate evaluation of the changes in volume and 3D shapes of metastatic lymph nodes. The fusion of the initial and follow-up CT images based on fiducial markers enabled an analysis of changes in the location of the targets. Metastatic cervical lymph nodes in patients were suggested to decrease in size without significant changes in the 3D shape during radiotherapy. The movements of the

  7. Finding faces among faces: human faces are located more quickly and accurately than other primate and mammal faces.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Elizabeth A; Buchin, Zachary; Werner, Katie; Worrell, Rey; Jakobsen, Krisztina V

    2014-11-01

    We tested the specificity of human face search efficiency by examining whether there is a broad window of detection for various face-like stimuli-human and animal faces-or whether own-species faces receive greater attentional allocation. We assessed the strength of the own-species face detection bias by testing whether human faces are located more efficiently than other animal faces, when presented among various other species' faces, in heterogeneous 16-, 36-, and 64-item arrays. Across all array sizes, we found that, controlling for distractor type, human faces were located faster and more accurately than primate and mammal faces, and that, controlling for target type, searches were faster when distractors were human faces compared to animal faces, revealing more efficient processing of human faces regardless of their role as targets or distractors (Experiment 1). Critically, these effects remained when searches were for specific species' faces (human, chimpanzee, otter), ruling out a category-level explanation (Experiment 2). Together, these results suggest that human faces may be processed more efficiently than animal faces, both when task-relevant (targets) and task-irrelevant (distractors), even in direct competition with other faces. These results suggest that there is not a broad window of detection for all face-like patterns but that human adults process own-species' faces more efficiently than other species' faces. Such own-species search efficiencies may arise through experience with own-species faces throughout development or may be privileged early in development, due to the evolutionary importance of conspecifics' faces. PMID:25113852

  8. Genotype by environment interaction for the interval from calving to first insemination with regard to calving month and geographic location in Holstein cows in Denmark and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ismael, Ahmed; Strandberg, Erling; Berglund, Britt; Kargo, Morten; Fogh, Anders; Løvendahl, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate genotype by environment interaction effects, with environments defined as calving month and geographic location, on the interval from calving to first insemination (CFI) of Holstein cows in Denmark and Sweden. The data set included 811,285 records on CFI for first-parity cows from January 2010 to January 2014 housed in 7,458 herds. The longest mean CFI was 84.7 d for cows calving in April and the shortest was 76.3 d for cows calving in September. The longest mean CFI of 87.1 d was recorded at the northernmost location (LOC-8), whereas the shortest mean CFI of 73.5 d was recorded at the southernmost location (LOC-1). The multiple trait approach, in which CFI values in different calving months and different geographic locations were treated as different traits, was used to estimate the variance components and genetic correlations for CFI by using the average information (AI)-REML procedure in a bivariate sire model. Estimates of genetic variance and heritability were highest for January calvings and 3 times smaller for June calvings. Location 2 had the highest heritability and LOC-8 the lowest, with heritability estimates decreasing from LOC-2 to LOC-8. Genetic correlations of CFI between calving months were weakest between cold months (December and January) and warm months (June, August, and September); the lowest estimate was found between January and September calvings. Genetic correlations of CFI between the different geographic locations were generally strong, and the weakest correlation was between LOC-3 and LOC-8. These results indicate a genotype by environment interaction for CFI primarily regarding seasons described by calving months. The effect of geographic location was less important, mostly producing a scaling effect of CFI in different locations. We concluded that CFI is more sensitive to seasonal effects than geographic locations in Denmark and Sweden. PMID:27085411

  9. Influence of harvest date and geographical location on kernel symptoms, fungal infestation and embryo viability of malting barley.

    PubMed

    Hudec, Kamil

    2007-01-25

    This study focused on the influence of harvest timing and geographical location on spring malting barley (potential malting variety) in terms of fungal infestation and seedling viability in symptomatic and asymptomatic kernels. The study was conducted over two consecutive crop years (2003-2004) at four locations in Slovakia. The following categories of the barley kernels were used for the assessment: kernels with black point symptoms (BPK), kernels with black cover on their surface (BCK), pink-colored kernels (PCK) and asymptomatic kernels (AK). The occurrence of various fungi was detected in all kernel categories ranging from 60 to 100%. The most frequent fungal contaminants were members of the genus Alternaria, recovered from BPK in the range of 52.6-69.85%, BCK (62.36-73.28%) and AK (55.35-69.58%). The prevalence of Alternaria spp. was recorded for each harvest time. Other dematiaceous fungi, Epicoccum nigrum and Cochliobolus sativus were found with medium frequency in the same three categories. However, C. sativus was recovered with a higher frequency in BPK (2.6-25.3%). In PCK, the most commonly recovered fungi were species of Fusarium with F. avenaceum (59.2-93.2%) as the most prevalent. The infestation of kernels by fungi from other genera showed only low frequency within all the kernel categories investigated. There was no significant influence of the year and location on the proportion of the symptomatic kernel categories. Kernel germination was inhibited to a greater degree in the wetter and colder year. The strongest inhibition of germination ranging from 2.35 to 22.45% was recorded in PCK in all locations and both years. Germination declined from PCK to BCK (43.2-90.32%), and BPK (45.6-91.61%), while it was highest in AK at all harvest times (63-93.6%). This study found that the black covering symptoms (BCK) caused greater damage to viability of the kernels than black point symptoms (BPK). The delayed harvest time resulted not only in increasing numbers

  10. Bacterial diversity and composition in major fresh produce growing soils affected by physiochemical properties and geographic locations.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jincai; Ibekwe, A Mark; Yang, Ching-Hong; Crowley, David E

    2016-09-01

    Microbial diversity of agricultural soils has been well documented, but information on leafy green producing soils is limited. In this study, we investigated microbial diversity and community structures in 32 (16 organic, 16 conventionally managed soils) from California (CA) and Arizona (AZ) using pyrosequencing, and identified factors affecting bacterial composition. Results of detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and dissimilarity analysis showed that bacterial community structures of conventionally managed soils were similar to that of organically managed soils; while the bacterial community structures in soils from Salinas, California were different (P<0.05) from those in soils from Yuma, Arizona and Imperial Valley, California. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) analysis of bacterial community structures and soil variables showed that electrical conductivity (EC), clay content, water-holding capacity (WHC), pH, total nitrogen (TN), and organic carbon (OC) significantly (P<0.05) correlated with microbial communities. CCA based variation partitioning analysis (VPA) showed that soil physical properties (clay, EC, and WHC), soil chemical variables (pH, TN, and OC) and sampling location explained 16.3%, 12.5%, and 50.9%, respectively, of total variations in bacterial community structure, leaving 13% of the total variation unexplained. Our current study showed that bacterial community composition and diversity in major fresh produce growing soils from California and Arizona is a function of soil physiochemical characteristics and geographic distances of sampling sites. PMID:27135583

  11. Identifying suitable sanitary landfill locations in the state of Morelos, México, using a Geographic Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín, Luis E.; Torres, Vicente; Bolongaro, Andrea; Reyna, José A.; Pohle, O.; Hernández-Espriú, A.; Chavarría, Jerónimo; García-Barrios, R.; Tabla, Hugo Francisco Parra

    GIS is a powerful tool that may help to better manage natural resources. In this paper, we present a GIS model developed for the state of Morelos as an aid to determine whether a potential site, Loma de Mejia, met the Mexican Federal Guidelines. The Mexican Government has established federal guidelines for sanitary landfill site selection (NOM-083-SERMARNAT-2003). These guidelines were translated into a water-based Geographic Information System and applied to the state of Morelos, Mexico. For these examples, we used the SIGAM® (Sistema de Información Geográfico del Agua en México; a water-based GIS for Mexico) which has at least 60 layers from the National Water Commission (CONAGUA), the national mapping agency (INEGI; Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática), NASA, and academic institutions. Results show that a GIS is a powerful tool that may allow federal, state and municipal policy makers to conduct an initial regional site reconnaissance rapidly. Once potential sites are selected, further characterization must be carried out in order to determine if proposed locations are suitable or not for a sanitary landfill. Based on the SIGAM© software, the Loma de Mejia would not comply with the Mexican Federal Guidelines.

  12. Conservation of the 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol biosynthesis locus among fluorescent Pseudomonas strains from diverse geographic locations.

    PubMed Central

    Keel, C; Weller, D M; Natsch, A; Défago, G; Cook, R J; Thomashow, L S

    1996-01-01

    The broad-spectrum antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (PHL) is a major determinant in the biological control of a range of plant pathogens by many fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. A 4.8-kb chromosomal DNA region from Pseudomonas fluorescens Q2-87, carrying PHL biosynthetic genes, was used as a probe to determine if the PHL biosynthetic locus is conserved within PHL-producing Pseudomonas strains of worldwide origin. The phl gene probe hybridized with the genomic DNA of all 45 PHL-producing Pseudomonas strains tested, including well-characterized biocontrol strains from the United States and Europe and strains isolated from disease-suppressive soils from Switzerland, Washington, Italy, and Ghana. The PHL producers displayed considerable phenotypic and genotypic diversity. Two phenotypically distinct groups were detected. The first produced PHL, pyoluteorin, and hydrogen cyanide and consisted of 13 strains from almost all locations sampled in the United States, Europe, and Africa. The second produced only PHL and HCN and consisted of 32 strains from the U.S. and European soils. Analysis of restriction patterns of genomic DNA obtained after hybridization with the phl gene probe and cluster analysis of restriction patterns of amplified DNA coding for 16S rRNA (ARDRA) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers indicated that the strains that produced both PHL and pyoluteorin were genetically highly similar. In contrast, there was more diversity at the genotypic level in the strains that produced PHL but not pyoluteorin. ARDRA analysis of these strains indicated two clusters which, on the basis of RAPD analysis, split into several subgroups with additional polymorphisms. In general, the occurrence of phenotypically and genotypically similar groups of PHL producers did not correlate with the geographic origin of the isolates, and highly similar strains could be isolated from diverse locations worldwide. PMID:8593055

  13. Characterization of Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Isolates Obtained From Broiler Breeders, Turkeys, and Prairie Chickens Located in Various Geographical Regions in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) isolates obtained from broiler breeders, turkeys, and prairie chickens located in three different geographical regions in the USA, and three isolates obtained from known contaminated live-virus vaccines were characterized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) a...

  14. Using side scan sonar data in a geographic information system to locate and display lake trout spawning habitat in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Charles L.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Waltermire, Robert G.; White, Barbara

    1988-01-01

    The National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has extensively used a side scan sonar to survey and pinpoint lake trout spawning grounds in the Great Lakes. The Geographic Information System (GIS) of the National Ecology Research Center produced maps from the side scan sonar data showing the exact location of the spawning grounds; this will enable current stocking programs to be carried out at those locations. These maps show the geographic position (latitude and longitude) of both the color-coded primary substrate types and the secondary substrate types, which are denoted by overstrikes. The maps must be supplemented with a Loran-C navigation grid for field use. The maps are proving useful to fishery managers by locating lake trout stocking areas in Lakes Michigan and Huron, as well as to researchers who investigate habitat quality on lake trout spawning grounds.

  15. Bacterial Community Features Are Shaped by Geographic Location, Physicochemical Properties, and Oil Contamination of Soil in Main Oil Fields of China.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jingqiu; Wang, Jie; Huang, Yi

    2015-08-01

    Geographic location and physicochemical properties are thought to represent major factors that shape soil bacterial community abundance and diversity. Crude oil contamination is becoming a notable concern with respect to soil property variation; however, the quantifiable influences of geographic location, physicochemical properties, and oil contamination are still poorly understood. In this study, the 16S ribosomal RNA genes of bacteria in the four oil fields in China were analyzed by using pyrosequencing. Results showed that physicochemical properties were the most dominant factor of bacterial community distribution, followed by geographical location. Oil contamination was a driving factor whose indirect influence was stronger than its direct influence. Under the impact of these three factors, different oil fields presented diversified and distinguishable bacterial community features. The soil of sites with the highest total petroleum hydrocarbon content (HB), nitrogen content (DQ), and phosphorus content (XJ) contained the largest proportion of functional groups participating in hydrocarbon degradation, nitrogen turnover, and phosphorus turnover, respectively. The first dominant phylum of the site with loam soil texture (HB) was Actinobacteria instead of Proteobacteria in other sites with sandy or sandy loam soil texture (DQ, SL, XJ). The site with the highest salinization and alkalization (SL) exhibited the largest proportion of unique local bacteria. The site that was located in the desert with extremely low precipitation (XJ) had the most diversified bacteria distribution. The bacterial community diversity was strongly influenced by soil physicochemical properties. PMID:25676171

  16. INTERNATIONAL STUDY ON 'ARTEMIA' XI. AMINO ACID COMPOSITION AND ELECTROPHORETIC PROTEIN PATTERNS OF 'ARTEMIA' FROM FIVE GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cysts of five geographical strains of Artemia were hatched and the newly hatched nauplii were acid hydrolyzed and analyzed for their amino acid content. Strains from Australia, Brazil, Italy, and Utah were similar in amino acid content, whereas the San Pablo Bay, California s...

  17. Fast, Accurate and Precise Mid-Sagittal Plane Location in 3D MR Images of the Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergo, Felipe P. G.; Falcão, Alexandre X.; Yasuda, Clarissa L.; Ruppert, Guilherme C. S.

    Extraction of the mid-sagittal plane (MSP) is a key step for brain image registration and asymmetry analysis. We present a fast MSP extraction method for 3D MR images, based on automatic segmentation of the brain and on heuristic maximization of the cerebro-spinal fluid within the MSP. The method is robust to severe anatomical asymmetries between the hemispheres, caused by surgical procedures and lesions. The method is also accurate with respect to MSP delineations done by a specialist. The method was evaluated on 64 MR images (36 pathological, 20 healthy, 8 synthetic), and it found a precise and accurate approximation of the MSP in all of them with a mean time of 60.0 seconds per image, mean angular variation within a same image (precision) of 1.26o and mean angular difference from specialist delineations (accuracy) of 1.64o.

  18. A metabolomics study delineating geographical location-associated primary metabolic changes in the leaves of growing tobacco plants by GC-MS and CE-MS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanni; Zhao, Jieyu; Zhao, Chunxia; Zhou, Huina; Li, Yanli; Zhang, Junjie; Li, Lili; Hu, Chunxiu; Li, Wenzheng; Peng, Xiaojun; Lu, Xin; Lin, Fucheng; Xu, Guowang

    2015-01-01

    Ecological conditions and developmental senescence significantly affect the physiological metabolism of plants, yet relatively little is known about the influence of geographical location on dynamic changes in plant leaves during growth. Pseudotargeted gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring-mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry were used to investigate a time course of the metabolic responses of tobacco leaves to geographical location. Principal component analysis revealed obvious metabolic discrimination between growing districts relative to cultivars. A complex carbon and nitrogen metabolic network was modulated by environmental factors during growth. When the Xuchang and Dali Districts in China were compared, the results indicated that higher rates of photosynthesis, photorespiration and respiration were utilized in Xuchang District to generate the energy and carbon skeletons needed for the biosynthesis of nitrogen-containing metabolites. The increased abundance of defense-associated metabolites generated from the shikimate-phenylpropanoid pathway in Xuchang relative to Dali was implicated in protection against stress. PMID:26549189

  19. A metabolomics study delineating geographical location-associated primary metabolic changes in the leaves of growing tobacco plants by GC-MS and CE-MS

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanni; Zhao, Jieyu; Zhao, Chunxia; Zhou, Huina; Li, Yanli; Zhang, Junjie; Li, Lili; Hu, Chunxiu; Li, Wenzheng; Peng, Xiaojun; Lu, Xin; Lin, Fucheng; Xu, Guowang

    2015-01-01

    Ecological conditions and developmental senescence significantly affect the physiological metabolism of plants, yet relatively little is known about the influence of geographical location on dynamic changes in plant leaves during growth. Pseudotargeted gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring-mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry were used to investigate a time course of the metabolic responses of tobacco leaves to geographical location. Principal component analysis revealed obvious metabolic discrimination between growing districts relative to cultivars. A complex carbon and nitrogen metabolic network was modulated by environmental factors during growth. When the Xuchang and Dali Districts in China were compared, the results indicated that higher rates of photosynthesis, photorespiration and respiration were utilized in Xuchang District to generate the energy and carbon skeletons needed for the biosynthesis of nitrogen-containing metabolites. The increased abundance of defense-associated metabolites generated from the shikimate-phenylpropanoid pathway in Xuchang relative to Dali was implicated in protection against stress. PMID:26549189

  20. Alignment of leading-edge and peak-picking time of arrival methods to obtain accurate source locations

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E.; Fox, C.; and Vanderlinde, O.

    2009-08-01

    The location of a radiating source can be determined by time-tagging the arrival of the radiated signal at a network of spatially distributed sensors. The accuracy of this approach depends strongly on the particular time-tagging algorithm employed at each of the sensors. If different techniques are used across the network, then the time tags must be referenced to a common fiducial for maximum location accuracy. In this report we derive the time corrections needed to temporally align leading-edge, time-tagging techniques with peak-picking algorithms. We focus on broadband radio frequency (RF) sources, an ionospheric propagation channel, and narrowband receivers, but the final results can be generalized to apply to any source, propagation environment, and sensor. Our analytic results are checked against numerical simulations for a number of representative cases and agree with the specific leading-edge algorithm studied independently by Kim and Eng (1995) and Pongratz (2005 and 2007).

  1. One dimensional P wave velocity structure of the crust beneath west Java and accurate hypocentre locations from local earthquake inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Supardiyono; Santosa, Bagus Jaya

    2012-06-20

    A one-dimensional (1-D) velocity model and station corrections for the West Java zone were computed by inverting P-wave arrival times recorded on a local seismic network of 14 stations. A total of 61 local events with a minimum of 6 P-phases, rms 0.56 s and a maximum gap of 299 Degree-Sign were selected. Comparison with previous earthquake locations shows an improvement for the relocated earthquakes. Tests were carried out to verify the robustness of inversion results in order to corroborate the conclusions drawn out from our reasearch. The obtained minimum 1-D velocity model can be used to improve routine earthquake locations and represents a further step toward more detailed seismotectonic studies in this area of West Java.

  2. Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer: Mission Design for Rapid, Accurate Location of Gamma-ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bundas, David J.

    2004-01-01

    The Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer is a NASA Mid-sized Explorer (MIDEX) with the primary mission of determining the origins of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). It will be the first mission to autonomously respond to newly-discovered GRBs and provide immediate follow-up narrow field instruments capable of multi-wavelength (UV, Optical, X-ray) observations. The characteristics of GRBs that are the key mission design drivers, are their non-repeating and brief duration bursts of multi-wavelength photons. In addition, rapid notification of the location and characteristics of the GRBs to ground-and-space- based observatories drive the end-to-end data analysis and distribution requirements. The Swift mission is managed by the GSFC, and includes an international team of contributors that each bring their unique perspective that have proven invaluable to the mission. The spacecraft bus, provided by Spectrum Astro, Inc. was procured through a Rapid Spacecraft Development Office (RSDO) contract by the GSFC. There are three instruments: the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) provided by the GSFC; the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) provided by a team led by the Pennsylvania State University (PSU); and the Ultra-Violet Optical Telescope (UVOT), again managed by PSU. The Mission Operations Center (MOC) was developed by and is located at PSU. Science archiving and data analysis centers are located at the GSFC, in the UK and in Italy.

  3. Helicopter Based Magnetic Detection Of Wells At The Teapot Dome (Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 Oilfield: Rapid And Accurate Geophysical Algorithms For Locating Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbert, W.; Hammack, R.; Veloski, G.; Hodge, G.

    2011-12-01

    In this study Airborne magnetic data was collected by Fugro Airborne Surveys from a helicopter platform (Figure 1) using the Midas II system over the 39 km2 NPR3 (Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3) oilfield in east-central Wyoming. The Midas II system employs two Scintrex CS-2 cesium vapor magnetometers on opposite ends of a transversely mounted, 13.4-m long horizontal boom located amidships (Fig. 1). Each magnetic sensor had an in-flight sensitivity of 0.01 nT. Real time compensation of the magnetic data for magnetic noise induced by maneuvering of the aircraft was accomplished using two fluxgate magnetometers mounted just inboard of the cesium sensors. The total area surveyed was 40.5 km2 (NPR3) near Casper, Wyoming. The purpose of the survey was to accurately locate wells that had been drilled there during more than 90 years of continuous oilfield operation. The survey was conducted at low altitude and with closely spaced flight lines to improve the detection of wells with weak magnetic response and to increase the resolution of closely spaced wells. The survey was in preparation for a planned CO2 flood to enhance oil recovery, which requires a complete well inventory with accurate locations for all existing wells. The magnetic survey was intended to locate wells that are missing from the well database and to provide accurate locations for all wells. The well location method used combined an input dataset (for example, leveled total magnetic field reduced to the pole), combined with first and second horizontal spatial derivatives of this input dataset, which were then analyzed using focal statistics and finally combined using a fuzzy combination operation. Analytic signal and the Shi and Butt (2004) ZS attribute were also analyzed using this algorithm. A parameter could be adjusted to determine sensitivity. Depending on the input dataset 88% to 100% of the wells were located, with typical values being 95% to 99% for the NPR3 field site.

  4. Effect of precipitation, geographical location and biosynthesis on New Zealand milk powder bulk and fatty acids D/H ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frew, R.; Emad Ehtesham, R.; Van Hale, R.; Hayman, A.; Baisden, T.

    2012-04-01

    D/H ratio measurements provide useful information for the investigation of biogeochemical influences on natural and agricultural produce, particularly with application to food traceability and authentication. Numerous studies have shown that variation of a product's D/H ratio is influenced by both environmental factors and biological processes. This study investigates the D/H ratio of New Zealand milk powder and individual fatty acids, and causal determinants of isotopic variation. One of the key environmental factors is precipitation, and the D/H ratio "isoscaping" of NZ has been undertaken. New Zealand provides a unique geography for these kinds of study in terms of proximity to the ocean and natural geographical variability from sea level to elevations as high as 3700 m. Milk powder samples were collected from different geographical regions from milk processing units, which were supplied by producers in the immediate region. H/D ratios of bulk milk powder and of individual fatty acids were determined. Initial comparison of the precipitation and milk powder bulk D/H data show a very good differentiation from north to southernmost parts of New Zealand and a relation between rain and milk bulk D/H abundance ratio. Almost 98% of milk FAs are in the form of triglycerides that have been extracted and hydrolysed to free FAs. Free FAs were esterified and analyzed with GC-IRMS. Individual FAs show variation in D/H ratio, and all values are depleted relative to the precipitation data. The difference in D/H ratio amongst individual FAs reflects the geographical environment and biological processes i.e. micro-organisms activity in the rumen of the cow. Short chain FAs (less than 8 carbons), particularly C4 (Butyric acid), appear to be key determinants. The variation in the data can be rationalized using statistical multivariate analysis.

  5. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms distinguish Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjo-bovis isolates from different geographical locations.

    PubMed Central

    Zuerner, R L; Ellis, W A; Bolin, C A; Montgomery, J M

    1993-01-01

    Genetic variability among Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjo-bovis isolates representing several geographical regions was determined by restriction endonuclease analysis. Five previously unidentified EcoRI digestion patterns and one previously unidentified HhaI digestion pattern were seen with the various isolates. The copy number and genomic distribution of an L. borgpetersenii insertion sequence (IS1533) was determined. Hardjo-bovis isolate 033 (the type strain for hardjo-bovis) contained 40 well dispersed copies of IS1533. IS1533 probes were used to compare hardjo-bovis isolates by DNA blot hybridization analysis. Use of these probes showed the presence of additional genetic heterogeneity among hardjo-bovis isolates, which restriction endonuclease analysis did not show. Pulsed-field gel electrophoretic analysis of DNAs from several isolates suggested that some polymorphisms arose by genomic rearrangements. All hardjo-bovis isolates were categorized into 14 distinct groups on the basis of common hybridization and endonuclease digestion patterns. Most of these groups were isolated from distinct geographical regions, suggesting that several different clonal populations of hardjo-bovis exist. Images PMID:7681437

  6. Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer: Mission Design for Rapid, Accurate Location of Gamma-ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bundas, David J.

    2005-01-01

    The Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer is a NASA Mid-sized Explorer (MIDEX) with the primary mission of determining the origins of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). It will be the first mission to autonomously respond to newly-discovered GRBs and provide immediate follow-up with narrow field instruments capable of multi-wavelength (UT, Optical, X-ray) observations. The characteristics of GRBs that are the key mission design drivers, are their non-repeating and brief duration bursts of multi-wavelength photons. In addition, rapid notification of the location and characteristics of the GRBs to ground-and-space-based observatories drive the end-to-end data analysis and distribution requirements.

  7. Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer: Mission Design for Rapid, Accurate Location of Gamma-ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bundas, David J.

    2004-01-01

    The Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer is a NASA Mid-sized Explorer (MIDEX) with the primary mission of determining the origins of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). It will be the first mission to autonomously respond to newly-discovered GRBs and provide immediate follow-up with narrow field instruments capable of multi-wavelength (UV, Optical, X-ray) observations. The characteristics of GRBs that are the key mission design drivers, are their non-repeating and brief duration bursts of multi-wavelength photons. In addition, rapid notification of the location and characteristics of the GRBs to ground-and-space-based observatories drive the end-to-end data analysis and distribution requirements.

  8. Seismic monitoring of EGS tests at the Coso Geothermal area, California, using accurate MEQ locations and full moment tensors

    SciTech Connect

    Foulger, G.R.; B.R. Julian, B.R.; F. Monastero

    2008-04-01

    We studied high-resolution relative locations and full moment tensors of microearthquakes (MEQs) occurring before, during and following Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) experiments in two wells at the Coso geothermal area, California. The objective was to map new fractures, determine the mode and sense of failure, and characterize the stress cycle associated with injection. New software developed for this work combines waveform crosscorrelation measurement of arrival times with relative relocation methods, and assesses confidence regions for moment tensors derived using linearprogramming methods. For moment tensor determination we also developed a convenient Graphical User Interface (GUI), to streamline the work. We used data from the U.S. Navy’s permanent network of three-component digital borehole seismometers and from 14 portable three-component digital instruments. The latter supplemented the permanent network during injection experiments in well 34A-9 in 2004 and well 34-9RD2 in 2005. In the experiment in well 34A-9, the co-injection earthquakes were more numerous, smaller, more explosive and had more horizontal motion, compared with the pre-injection earthquakes. In the experiment in well 34-9RD2 the relocated hypocenters reveal a well-defined planar structure, 700 m long and 600 m high in the depth range 0.8 to 1.4 km below sea level, striking N 20° E and dipping at 75° to the WNW. The moment tensors show that it corresponds to a mode I (opening) crack. For both wells, the perturbed stress state near the bottom of the well persisted for at least two months following the injection.

  9. Geographical Locational Knowledge as an Indicator of Children's Views of the World: Research from Sweden and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Ruth; Vinterek, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Children's locational knowledge is often used to clarify underlying conceptual understandings of the world in which they live. Although there has been some exploration of how European children view their world there is little recent research on Scandinavian children's knowledge and associated perceptions of the wider world, or about Australian…

  10. Chemical composition and mosquito repellency of essential oil of Conyza newii propagated in different geographical locations of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mayeku, W P; Omollo, N I; Odalo, O J; Hassanali, A

    2014-09-01

    Previously, essential oil of Conyza newii (Asterale: Asteracea, Oliv. & Hiern) growing in the northern part of West Pokot (35°E, 1°N) of Kenya was shown to be highly repellent [RD50 = 8.9 × 10(-5) mg/cm(2) , 95% confidence interval (CL)] to Anopheles gambiae s.s. Fumigant toxicity of the oil to the mosquito was also demonstrated. The major constituents of the oil were found to be monoterpenoids, including (S)-(-)-perillyl alcohol, (S)-(-)-perillaldehyde, geraniol, (R)-(+)-limonene, trans-β-ocimene and 1,8-cineol. In this study, the chemical composition and repellency of essential oils of the plant seedlings collected from West Pokot (35°E, 1°N) and propagated in seven different geographical regions of Kenya [West Pokot (35°E, 1°N), Kilome (37°E, 1°S), Naivasha (36°E, 0°), Webuye (34°E, 1°N), Nyakach (34°E, 0°), Kericho (35°E, 0°) and Nairobi (36°E, 1°S)] were compared. There were significant variations (P < 0.01, 95% CL) in the relative proportions of the six constituents and this was reflected in the repellency of the essential oils (P < 0.01, 95% CL). Higher repellency of the oil was associated with greater proportions of (S)-(-) perillyl alcohol, (S)-(-)-perillaldehyde and geraniol, and lower repellency was associated with an increased proportion of (R)-(+)-limonene. The results suggest significant epigenetic (chemotypic) variations in the repellency and composition of C. newii essential oils growing in different regions of Kenya. PMID:24266583

  11. Predicting the home location of serial offenders: a preliminary comparison of the accuracy of human judges with a geographic profiling system.

    PubMed

    Snook, Brent; Canter, David; Bennell, Craig

    2002-01-01

    The accuracy with which human judges, before and after 'training', could predict the likely home location of serial offenders was compared with predictions produced by a geographic profiling system known as Dragnet. All predictions were derived from ten spatial displays, one for each of ten different U.S. serial murderers, indicating five crime locations. In all conditions participants were asked to place an 'X' on each spatial display corresponding to where they thought the offender lived. In the control condition, a comparison was made between the accuracy of these predictions for 21 participants on two separate occasions a few minutes apart. In the experimental condition, between their first and second predictions the 21 participants were given two heuristics to follow--distance-decay and circle hypothesis. Results showed that participants with no previous knowledge of geographic profiling were able to use the two heuristics to improve the accuracy of their predictions. The overall accuracy of the second set of predictions for the experimental group was also not significantly different from the accuracy of predictions generated by Dragnet. PMID:11979494

  12. Provitamin A potential of landrace orange maize variety (Zea mays L.) grown in different geographical locations of central Malawi.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Taeyoung; Ndolo, Victoria U; Katundu, Mangani; Nyirenda, Blessings; Bezner-Kerr, Rachel; Arntfield, Susan; Beta, Trust

    2016-04-01

    The provitamin A potential of landrace orange maize from different locations (A, B, C and D) of central Malawi has been evaluated. Physicochemical compositions, color, total carotenoid content (TCC), carotenoid profiles, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity as antioxidant capacities of maize were determined. Color values of orange maize had correlations with β-cryptoxanthin (r>0.36). TCC of white and orange maize averaged 2.12 and 59.5 mg/kg, respectively. Lutein was the most abundant carotenoid (47.8%) in orange maize, followed by zeaxanthin (24.2%), β-carotene (16.4%) and β-cryptoxanthin (11.6%). Location D showed the highest levels of lutein, zeaxanthin and antioxidant capacity. Provitamin A content of orange maize met the target level (15 μg/g) of biofortification. Retinol activity equivalent (RAE) from β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene in orange maize averaged 81.73 μg/100g. In conclusion, orange maize has the potential to be a natural source of provitamin A. PMID:26593622

  13. Evaluation of Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Compositions in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Grown in Different Geographical Locations

    PubMed Central

    Sami, Rokayya; Lianzhou, Jiang; Yang, Li; Ma, Ying; Jing, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%), since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%), it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT) unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18–43.26%), linoleic acid (32.22–43.07%), linolenic acid (6.79–12.34%), stearic acid (6.36–7.73%), oleic acid (4.31–6.98%), arachidic acid (ND–3.48%), margaric acid (1.44–2.16%), pentadecylic acid (0.63–0.92%), and myristic acid (0.21–0.49%). Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location. PMID:24171167

  14. Evaluation of fatty acid and amino acid compositions in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) grown in different geographical locations.

    PubMed

    Sami, Rokayya; Lianzhou, Jiang; Yang, Li; Ma, Ying; Jing, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%), since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%), it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT) unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18-43.26%), linoleic acid (32.22-43.07%), linolenic acid (6.79-12.34%), stearic acid (6.36-7.73%), oleic acid (4.31-6.98%), arachidic acid (ND-3.48%), margaric acid (1.44-2.16%), pentadecylic acid (0.63-0.92%), and myristic acid (0.21-0.49%). Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location. PMID:24171167

  15. Season and tissue type affect fungal endophyte communities of the Indian medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia more strongly than geographic location.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ashish; Gond, Surendra K; Kumar, Anuj; Sharma, Vijay K; Verma, Satish K; Kharwar, Ravindra N; Sieber, Thomas N

    2012-08-01

    A total of 1,151 endophytic fungal isolates representing 29 taxa were isolated from symptom-less, surface-sterilized segments of stem, leaf, petiole, and root of Tinospora cordifolia which had been collected at three locations differing in air pollution in India (Ramnagar, Banaras Hindu University, Maruadih) during three seasons (summer, monsoon, winter). Endophytes were most abundant in leaf tissues (29.38% of all isolates), followed by stem (18.16%), petiole (10.11%), and root segments (6.27%). The frequency of colonization (CF) varied more strongly among tissue type and season than location. CF was maximal during monsoon followed by winter and minimal during summer. A species each of Guignardia and Acremonium could only be isolated from leaves, whereas all other species occurred in at least two tissue types. Penicillium spp. were dominant (12.62% of all isolates), followed by Colletotrichum spp. (11.8%), Cladosporium spp. (8.9%), Chaetomium globosum (8.1%), Curvularia spp. (7.6%), and Alternaria alternata (6.8%). Species richness, evenness, and the Shannon-Wiener diversity index followed the same pattern as the CF with the tissue type and the season having the greatest effect on these indices, suggesting that tissue type and season are more influential than geography. Dissimilarity of endophyte communities in regards to species composition was highest among seasons. Colletotrichum linicola occurred almost exclusively in winter, Fusarium oxysporum only in winter and summer but never during monsoon and Curvularia lunata only in winter and during monsoon but never in summer. Emissions of NO(2), SO(2), and suspended particulate matter were negatively correlated with the CF. Ozone did not have any effect. The frequency of most species declined with increasing pollution, but some showed an opposite trend (e.g., Aspergillus flavus). Five unnamed taxa (sterile mycelia) were identified as Aspergillus tubingensis, Colletotrichum crassipes, Botryosphaeria rhodina

  16. Correlation between precipitation and geographical location of the δ2H values of the fatty acids in milk and bulk milk powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehtesham, E.; Baisden, W. T.; Keller, E. D.; Hayman, A. R.; Van Hale, R.; Frew, R. D.

    2013-06-01

    Hydrogen isotope ratios (δ2H) have become a tool for food traceability and authentication of agricultural products. The principle is that the isotopic composition of the produce is influenced by environmental and biological factors and hence exhibits a spatial differentiation of δ2H. This study investigates the variation in δ2H values of New Zealand milk, both in the bulk powder and individual fatty acids extracted from milk samples from dairy factories across New Zealand. Multivariate statistical analyses were used to test for relationships between δ2H of bulk milk powder, milk fatty acid and geographical location. Milk powder samples from different regions of New Zealand were found to exhibit patterns in isotopic composition similar to the corresponding regional precipitation associated with their origin. A model of δ2H in precipitation was developed based on measurements between 2007 and 2010 at 51 stations across New Zealand (Frew and Van Hale, 2011). The model uses multiple linear regressions to predict daily δ2H from 2 geographic and 5 rain-weighted climate variables from the 5 × 5 km New Zealand Virtual Climate Station Network (VCSN). To approximate collection radius for a drying facility the modelled values were aggregated within a 50 km radius of each dairy factory and compared to observed δ2H values of precipitation and bulk milk powder. Daily δ2H predictions for the period from August to December for the area surrounding the sample collection sites were highly correlated with the δ2H values of bulk milk powder. Therefore the δ2H value of milk fatty acids demonstrates promise as a tool for determining the provenance of milk powders and products where milk powder is an ingredient. Separation of milk powder origin to geographic sub-regions within New Zealand was achieved. Hydrogen isotope measurements could be used to complement traditional tracking systems in verifying point of origin.

  17. Use of remote sensing and geographic information systems to predict locations of Anopheles darlingi-positive breeding sites within the Sibun River in Belize, Central America.

    PubMed

    Achee, Nicole L; Grieco, John P; Masuoka, Penny; Andre, Richard G; Roberts, Donald R; Thomas, James; Briceno, Ireneo; King, Russell; Rejmankova, Eliska

    2006-03-01

    Previous studies have identified several anopheline species integral to the transmission of malaria in Belize. The highly efficient vector, Anopheles darlingi Root, is currently considered the most important. The preferred larval habitat of An. darlingi has been described as floating detritus patches, which are commonly associated with overhanging spiny bamboo, Guadua longifolia (E. Fourn.), along river margins. The objectives of this study were to use remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) tools to 1) define the landscape features (i.e., river curvature, land cover, and house locations) associated with An. darlingi-positive breeding habitats and 2) determine the association between cleared land cover and the growth of spiny bamboo. A systematic survey was conducted in which all detritus patches of at least 1 m2 were sampled, mapped using GPS, and characterized by cause of habitat lodging. Bamboo stretches growing along the river margins also were mapped. Spatial analyses of satellite imagery found no associations between river characteristics or land cover with positive An. darlingi habitats. In addition, there was no significant difference in cleared versus forested land cover in relation to the presence or absence of bamboo. Results indicate that the average distance from homes to negative habitats was significantly greater than from positive detritus mats. Based on the land cover and river characteristics used, our results do not support the use of remote sensing as a predictive tool to locate specific areas within rivers positive for An. darlingi habitats. PMID:16619625

  18. BlueDetect: An iBeacon-Enabled Scheme for Accurate and Energy-Efficient Indoor-Outdoor Detection and Seamless Location-Based Service

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Han; Jiang, Hao; Luo, Yiwen; Zhu, Jianjie; Lu, Xiaoxuan; Xie, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    The location and contextual status (indoor or outdoor) is fundamental and critical information for upper-layer applications, such as activity recognition and location-based services (LBS) for individuals. In addition, optimizations of building management systems (BMS), such as the pre-cooling or heating process of the air-conditioning system according to the human traffic entering or exiting a building, can utilize the information, as well. The emerging mobile devices, which are equipped with various sensors, become a feasible and flexible platform to perform indoor-outdoor (IO) detection. However, power-hungry sensors, such as GPS and WiFi, should be used with caution due to the constrained battery storage on mobile device. We propose BlueDetect: an accurate, fast response and energy-efficient scheme for IO detection and seamless LBS running on the mobile device based on the emerging low-power iBeacon technology. By leveraging the on-broad Bluetooth module and our proposed algorithms, BlueDetect provides a precise IO detection service that can turn on/off on-board power-hungry sensors smartly and automatically, optimize their performances and reduce the power consumption of mobile devices simultaneously. Moreover, seamless positioning and navigation services can be realized by it, especially in a semi-outdoor environment, which cannot be achieved by GPS or an indoor positioning system (IPS) easily. We prototype BlueDetect on Android mobile devices and evaluate its performance comprehensively. The experimental results have validated the superiority of BlueDetect in terms of IO detection accuracy, localization accuracy and energy consumption. PMID:26907295

  19. BlueDetect: An iBeacon-Enabled Scheme for Accurate and Energy-Efficient Indoor-Outdoor Detection and Seamless Location-Based Service.

    PubMed

    Zou, Han; Jiang, Hao; Luo, Yiwen; Zhu, Jianjie; Lu, Xiaoxuan; Xie, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    The location and contextual status (indoor or outdoor) is fundamental and critical information for upper-layer applications, such as activity recognition and location-based services (LBS) for individuals. In addition, optimizations of building management systems (BMS), such as the pre-cooling or heating process of the air-conditioning system according to the human traffic entering or exiting a building, can utilize the information, as well. The emerging mobile devices, which are equipped with various sensors, become a feasible and flexible platform to perform indoor-outdoor (IO) detection. However, power-hungry sensors, such as GPS and WiFi, should be used with caution due to the constrained battery storage on mobile device. We propose BlueDetect: an accurate, fast response and energy-efficient scheme for IO detection and seamless LBS running on the mobile device based on the emerging low-power iBeacon technology. By leveraging the on-broad Bluetooth module and our proposed algorithms, BlueDetect provides a precise IO detection service that can turn on/off on-board power-hungry sensors smartly and automatically, optimize their performances and reduce the power consumption of mobile devices simultaneously. Moreover, seamless positioning and navigation services can be realized by it, especially in a semi-outdoor environment, which cannot be achieved by GPS or an indoor positioning system (IPS) easily. We prototype BlueDetect on Android mobile devices and evaluate its performance comprehensively. The experimental results have validated the superiority of BlueDetect in terms of IO detection accuracy, localization accuracy and energy consumption. PMID:26907295

  20. Extractives content in cooperage oak wood during natural seasoning and toasting; influence of tree species, geographic location, and single-tree effects.

    PubMed

    Doussot, Franck; De Jéso, Bernard; Quideau, Stéphane; Pardon, Patrick

    2002-10-01

    The chemical composition of cooperage oak wood is highly variable, depending upon the tree species (Quercus robur L. versus Quercus petraea Liebl.), its geographic location, and the single-tree effect. In the process of cask-making, natural seasoning and toasting contribute strongly to the modification of the oak wood chemical composition and therefore influence wine cooperaging. HPLC and GC quantification of ellagitannins and volatile compounds such as whiskey-lactones, eugenol, and vanillin over a sample set of 61 pedunculate oaks and 72 sessile oaks originating from six different forests showed that natural drying leads to a decrease of the ellagitannins and total extractives content level and a quasi constant level of the volatile compounds. Toasting (medium type) drastically enhanced the loss of ellagitannins and the gain in volatile compounds. Statistical treatment showed that the species effect remained significant throughout the process of drying and toasting, but not the provenance. The poor correlation with ring width of extractives levels measured on fresh timber remained unchanged as did the single-tree effect, with high variability found for all chemical parameters. These results provide further evidence that cooperage oak selection should not be based solely on the wood grain or the provenance but rather on a species-provenance combination. PMID:12358465

  1. Pyroclastic Eruptions in a Mars Climate Model: The Effects of Grain Size, Plume Height, Density, Geographical Location, and Season on Ash Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, L. A.; Head, J. W.; Madeleine, J.; Wilson, L.; Forget, F.

    2010-12-01

    Pyroclastic volcanism has played a major role in the geologic history of the planet Mars. In addition to several highland patera features interpreted to be composed of pyroclastic material, there are a number of vast, fine-grained, friable deposits which may have a volcanic origin. The physical processes involved in the explosive eruption of magma, including the nucleation of bubbles, the fragmentation of magma, the incorporation of atmospheric gases, the formation of a buoyant plume, and the fall-out of individual pyroclasts has been modeled extensively for martian conditions [Wilson, L., J.W. Head (2007), Explosive volcanic eruptions on Mars: Tephra and accretionary lapilli formation, dispersal and recognition in the geologic record, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 163, 83-97]. We have further developed and expanded this original model in order to take into account differing temperature, pressure, and wind regimes found at different altitudes, at different geographic locations, and during different martian seasons. Using a well-established Mars global circulation model [LMD-GCM, Forget, F., F. Hourdin, R. Fournier, C. Hourdin, O. Talagrand (1999), Improved general circulation models of the martian atmosphere from the surface to above 80 km, J. Geophys. Res. 104, 24,155-24,176] we are able to link the volcanic eruption model of Wilson and Head (2007) to the spatially and temporally dynamic GCM temperature, pressure, and wind profiles to create three-dimensional maps of expected ash deposition on the surface. Here we present results exploring the effects of grain-size distribution, plume height, density of ash, latitude, season, and atmospheric pressure on the areal extent and shape of the resulting ash distribution. Our results show that grain-size distribution and plume height most strongly effect the distance traveled by the pyroclasts from the vent, while latitude and season can have a large effect on the direction in which the pyroclasts travel and the final shape

  2. An intelligent method for geographic Web search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Kun; Yuan, Ying

    2008-10-01

    While the electronically available information in the World-Wide Web is explosively growing and thus increasing, the difficulty to find relevant information is also increasing for search engine user. In this paper we discuss how to constrain web queries geographically. A number of search queries are associated with geographical locations, either explicitly or implicitly. Accurately and effectively detecting the locations where search queries are truly about has huge potential impact on increasing search relevance, bringing better targeted search results, and improving search user satisfaction. Our approach focus on both in the way geographic information is extracted from the web and, as far as we can tell, in the way it is integrated into query processing. This paper gives an overview of a spatially aware search engine for semantic querying of web document. It also illustrates algorithms for extracting location from web documents and query requests using the location ontologies to encode and reason about formal semantics of geographic web search. Based on a real-world scenario of tourism guide search, the application of our approach shows that the geographic information retrieval can be efficiently supported.

  3. The Chthonomonas calidirosea Genome Is Highly Conserved across Geographic Locations and Distinct Chemical and Microbial Environments in New Zealand's Taupō Volcanic Zone

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kevin C.; Stott, Matthew B.; Dunfield, Peter F.; Huttenhower, Curtis; McDonald, Ian R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chthonomonas calidirosea T49T is a low-abundance, carbohydrate-scavenging, and thermophilic soil bacterium with a seemingly disorganized genome. We hypothesized that the C. calidirosea genome would be highly responsive to local selection pressure, resulting in the divergence of its genomic content, genome organization, and carbohydrate utilization phenotype across environments. We tested this hypothesis by sequencing the genomes of four C. calidirosea isolates obtained from four separate geothermal fields in the Taupō Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. For each isolation site, we measured physicochemical attributes and defined the associated microbial community by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Despite their ecological and geographical isolation, the genome sequences showed low divergence (maximum, 1.17%). Isolate-specific variations included single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), restriction-modification systems, and mobile elements but few major deletions and no major rearrangements. The 50-fold variation in C. calidirosea relative abundance among the four sites correlated with site environmental characteristics but not with differences in genomic content. Conversely, the carbohydrate utilization profiles of the C. calidirosea isolates corresponded to the inferred isolate phylogenies, which only partially paralleled the geographical relationships among the sample sites. Genomic sequence conservation does not entirely parallel geographic distance, suggesting that stochastic dispersal and localized extinction, which allow for rapid population homogenization with little restriction by geographical barriers, are possible mechanisms of C. calidirosea distribution. This dispersal and extinction mechanism is likely not limited to C. calidirosea but may shape the populations and genomes of many other low-abundance free-living taxa. IMPORTANCE This study compares the genomic sequence variations and metabolisms of four strains of Chthonomonas calidirosea, a rare

  4. The Role of Color Cues in Facilitating Accurate and Rapid Location of Aided Symbols by Children with and without Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Krista; Carlin, Michael; Thistle, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This research examined how the color distribution of symbols within a visual aided augmentative and alternative communication array influenced the speed and accuracy with which participants with and without Down syndrome located a target picture symbol. Method: Eight typically developing children below the age of 4 years, 8 typically…

  5. Child mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo: cross-sectional evidence of the effect of geographic location and prolonged conflict from a national household survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The child mortality rate is a good indicator of development. High levels of infectious diseases and high child mortality make the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) one of the most challenging environments for health development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Recent conflicts in the eastern part of the country and bad governance have compounded the problem. This study aimed to examine province-level geographic variation in under-five mortality (U5M), accounting for individual- and household-level risk factors including environmental factors such as conflict. Methods Our analysis used the nationally representative cross-sectional household sample of 8,992 children under five in the 2007 DRC Demographic and Health Survey. In the survey year, 1,005 deaths among this group were observed. Information on U5M was aggregated to the 11 provinces, and a Bayesian geo-additive discrete-time survival mixed model was used to map the geographic distribution of under-five mortality rates (U5MRs) at the province level, accounting for observable and unobservable risk factors. Results The overall U5MR was 159 per 1,000 live births. Significant associations with risk of U5M were found for < 24 month birth interval [posterior odds ratio and 95% credible region: 1.14 (1.04, 1.26)], home birth [1.13 (1.01, 1.27)] and living with a single mother [1.16 (1.03, 1.33)]. Striking variation was also noted in the risk of U5M by province of residence, with the highest risk in Kasaï-Oriental, a non-conflict area of the DRC, and the lowest in the conflict area of North Kivu. Conclusion This study reveals clear geographic patterns in rates of U5M in the DRC and shows the potential role of individual child, household and environmental factors, which are unexplained by the ongoing conflict. The displacement of mothers to safer areas may explain the lower U5MR observed at the epicentre of the conflict in North Kivu, compared with rates in conflict-free areas. Overall, the U5M maps point

  6. Integrated multi-criteria decision making techniques AHP with Geographic Information System for Modelling of suitable Landfill location: a case study in Keraniganj of Dhaka city, Bangladesh.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M.

    2015-12-01

    This study is approaches a GIS based multi-criteria decision making technique to select potential land fill in Keraniganj of Dhaka city in Bangladesh. Site selection of landfill for Municipal solid waste is an important concern for the urban government in whole world. Dhaka city is highly dense populated city in Bangladesh and municipal solid waste generation rate is increase rapidly day by day. These large amount of generated municipal waste needs appropriate landfill considering environmental, geological, social and technical aspect of the region. The traditional process of site selection process is much difficult, time consuming and costly and needs to replace by a new approaches. An integration of Geographical Information System (GIS) and Multi-criteria Evaluation (MCE) method is best combination to solve complex decision and used to select suitable site. Analytical Hierarchy process (AHP) is world widely most popular decision making MCE technique. In this study AHP used as a multi-criteria decision making to compare five suitability attributes with each other and evaluate weight according to attributes potentiality. Various type raster map layer created using GIS tool for this study. Five suitability raster was assigned with the AHP calculated weight value. A combined weighted spatial layer obtained name as suitability map which is overlapped with a restriction raster map, as result a final suitable map was obtained. The result shows that 12.2% of the area is suitable for constructing landfill site where 4.9% is very high suitable, 2.6% is moderate suitable and 4.7% is low suitable. The final site is constructed after detail field investigation, other technical investigation, land ownership status and public acceptancy. Suitable site selection for non-hazardous landfill is not easy and its needs to consider many environmental factor at time. GIS tool combining with many decision making tool such as multi-criteria evaluation can solve this problem. A combining

  7. Characterization of Brassica nigra collections using simple sequence repeat markers reveals distinct groups associated with geographical location, and frequent mislabelling of species identity.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Aneeta; Nelson, Matthew N; Plummer, Julie A; Cowling, Wallace A; Yan, Guijun

    2011-01-01

    Genetic diversity of 180 Brassica nigra (L.) Kochgenotypes from 60 different accessions was evaluated using 15 simple sequence repeat markers with known locations on the Brassica A, B, and C genomes. Two lines each from Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Brassica carinata Braunwere also included as comparator species. A total of 218 high quality alleles were used to generate a genetic distance matrix, and clustering and multidimensional scaling analyses were used to investigate genetic relationships among the accessions. Accessions from the same country of origin tended to cluster together. Surprisingly, 13 accessions declared to be B. nigra had A- and B-genome alleles and morphology consistent with them being B. juncea, which was supported by their positioning near B. juncea in the cluster analysis. Two B. nigra accessions possessed alleles associated more closely with the A genome than the B genome, and these may be Brassica rapa L. accessions. One B. nigra accession had B- and C-genome alleles and morphology consistent with it being B. carinata. The remaining 44 accessions (73%) appeared to be truly B. nigra and formed morphologically and genetically distinct groups associated with country or region of origin, notably Ethiopia, Israel, India, and Europe. Most B. nigra accessions were highly heterozygous, consistent with their obligate outcrossing habit. This study demonstrated the value of using molecular markers with known genome locations (in this case, in the Brassica A, B, and C genomes) to confirm species identity in families such as Brassicaceae where species identification based solely on morphological characters is difficult. PMID:21217806

  8. How environmentally significant is water consumption during wastewater treatment? Application of recent developments in LCA to WWT technologies used at 3 contrasted geographical locations.

    PubMed

    Risch, Eva; Loubet, Philippe; Núñez, Montserrat; Roux, Philippe

    2014-06-15

    Environmental impact assessment models are readily available for the assessment of pollution-related impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA). These models have led to an increased focus on water pollution issues resulting in numerous LCA studies. Recently, there have been significant developments in methods assessing freshwater use. These improvements widen the scope for the assessment of wastewater treatment (WWT) technologies, now allowing us to apprehend, for the first time, a combination of operational (energy and chemicals use), qualitative (environmental pollution) and quantitative (water deprivation) issues in wastewater treatment. This enables us to address the following question: Is water consumption during wastewater treatment environmentally significant compared to other impacts? To answer this question, a standard life cycle inventory (LCI) was performed with a focus on consumptive water uses at plant level, where several WWT technologies were operating, in different climatic conditions. The impacts of water consumption were assessed by integrating regionalized characterization factors for water deprivation within an existing life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) method. Results at the midpoint level, show that water deprivation impacts are highly variable in relation to the chosen WWT technology (water volume used) and of WWTP location (local water scarcity). At the endpoint level, water deprivation impacts on ecosystem quality and on the resource damage categories are significant for WWT technologies with great water uses in water-scarce areas. Therefore, our study shows the consideration of water consumption-related impacts is essential and underlines the need for a greater understanding of the water consumption impacts caused by WWT systems. This knowledge will help water managers better mitigate local water deprivation impacts, especially in selecting WWT technologies suitable for arid and semi-arid areas. PMID:24704901

  9. Geographical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Norman J.

    1981-01-01

    This annual review discusses works relevant to geographical education published in Europe, North America, Australia, Japan, and Africa. The journal is available from Edward Arnold (publishers) Ltd., 41 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3DQ England. (RM)

  10. Magnetospirillum caucaseum sp. nov., Magnetospirillum marisnigri sp. nov. and Magnetospirillum moscoviense sp. nov., freshwater magnetotactic bacteria isolated from three distinct geographical locations in European Russia.

    PubMed

    Dziuba, Marina; Koziaeva, Veronika; Grouzdev, Denis; Burganskaya, Ekaterina; Baslerov, Roman; Kolganova, Tatjana; Chernyadyev, Alexander; Osipov, Georgy; Andrianova, Ekaterina; Gorlenko, Vladimir; Kuznetsov, Boris

    2016-05-01

    Three strains of helical, magnetotactic bacteria, SO-1T, SP-1T and BB-1T, were isolated from freshwater sediments collected from three distinct locations in European Russia. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the strains belong to the genus Magnetospirillum. Strains SO-1T and SP-1T showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum MS-1T (99.3 and 98.1 %, respectively), and strain BB-1T with Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1T (97.3 %). The tree based on concatenated deduced amino acid sequences of the MamA, B, K, M, O, P, Q and T proteins, which are involved in magnetosome formation, was congruent with the tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains SO-1T, SP-1T and BB-1T were 65.9, 63.0 and 65.2 mol%, respectively. As major fatty acids, C18 : 1ω9, C16 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0 and C18 : 0 were detected. DNA-DNA hybridization values between the novel strains and their closest relatives in the genus Magnetospirillum were less than 51.7 ± 2.3 %. In contrast to M. magnetotacticum MS-1T, the strains could utilize butyrate and propionate; strains SO-1T and BB-1T could also utilize glycerol. Strain SP-1T showed strictly microaerophilic growth, whereas strains SO-1T and BB-1T were more tolerant of oxygen. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the strains from each other as well as from the two species of Magnetospirillum with validly published names. Therefore, the strains represent novel species, for which we propose the names Magnetospirillum caucaseum sp. nov. (type strain SO-1T = DSM 28995T = VKM B-2936T), Magnetospirillum marisnigri sp. nov. (type strain SP-1T = DSM 29006T = VKM B-2938T) and Magnetospirillum moscoviense sp. nov. (type strain BB-1T = DSM 29455T = VKM B-2939T). PMID:26921147

  11. Generation of geographical profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Yuan-Biao; Liang, Kai-Fa; Lu, Zhen-Xing

    2010-08-01

    To provide help for the police's investigation on serial criminals, we develop a mathematical model in the paper. First, we use Inherently Continuous Model and Improved Kinetic Model to generate the offender's geographical profile. However, there is a difference in two models' results. For better synthesizing the difference, we develop a Combination Model and generate a new geographical profile. As a result, we estimate the offender's location and carry on a series of analysis. What's more, the models created can be applied in other fields, such as market's investigation, military operations and so on.

  12. Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs: Announcement of the Implementation and Extension of Temporary Moratoria on Enrollment of Part B Non-Emergency Ground Ambulance Suppliers and Home Health Agencies in Designated Geographic Locations and Lifting of the Temporary Moratoria on Enrollment of Part B Emergency Ground Ambulance Suppliers in All Geographic Locations. Extension, implementation, and lifting of temporary moratoria.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    This document announces the extension of temporary moratoria on the enrollment of new Medicare Part B non-emergency ground ambulance suppliers and Medicare home health agencies (HHAs), subunits, and branch locations in specific locations within designated metropolitan areas in Florida, Illinois, Michigan, Texas, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey to prevent and combat fraud, waste, and abuse. It also announces the implementation of temporary moratoria on the enrollment of new Medicare Part B non-emergency ground ambulance suppliers and Medicare HHAs, subunits, and branch locations in Florida, Illinois, Michigan, Texas, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey on a statewide basis. In addition, it announces the lifting of the moratoria on all Part B emergency ground ambulance suppliers. These moratoria, and the changes described in this document, also apply to the enrollment of HHAs and non-emergency ground ambulance suppliers in Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program. PMID:27487581

  13. Geographic Information System Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Chad; Casad, Christopher; Floriano, Luis G.; Hill, Tracie; Johnson, Rashida K.; Locklear, J. Mark; Penn, Stephen; Rhoulac, Tori; Shay, Adam H.; Taylor, Antone; Thorpe, Karina

    1995-01-01

    Data was collected in order to further NASA Langley Research Center's Geographic Information System(GIS). Information on LaRC's communication, electrical, and facility configurations was collected. Existing data was corrected through verification, resulting in more accurate databases. In addition, Global Positioning System(GPS) points were used in order to accurately impose buildings on digitized images. Overall, this project will help the Imaging and CADD Technology Team (ICTT) prove GIS to be a valuable resource for LaRC.

  14. Feasibility study for locating archaeological village sites by satellite remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, J. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. As a result of ground truth activities, the accurate geographic location of an old fish camp was established as 64 deg 12 min 38 sec N, 158 deg 30 min 42 sec W. Previously the location of this very large abandoned village site was given only on a map sketched in 1935. This location and two other nearby sites will be used as ERTS training areas.

  15. Geographic Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center's need to conduct real-time monitoring of Space Shuttle operations led to the development of Netlander Inc.'s JTouch system. The technology behind JTouch allows engineers to view Space Shuttle and ground support data from any desktop computer using a web browser. Companies can make use of JTouch to better monitor locations scattered around the world, increasing decision-making speed and reducing travel costs for site visits.

  16. Geographic Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Alan C.; Phillips, Rachel L.; Hageman, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Geographic atrophy (GA) is the major cause of blind registration in Western communities, although, with few exceptions, it is less common than choroidal neovascular disease. The variation of phenotype implies that age-related macular degeneration (AMD) does not follow the same course from one case to another and that phenotyping may be important before initiating a therapeutic trial. OBJECTIVE To document photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell loss and other changes at the RPE-choroid interface in donated human eyes in which visual loss was deemed to be due to GA. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Histological study of a consecutive series of eyes donated by individuals previously diagnosed clinically as having GA. Donors were chosen on the basis of available clinical records (from MidAmerica Transplant Services, St Louis, Missouri; the Iowa Lions Eye Bank, Iowa City; and the Utah Lions Eye Bank, Salt Lake City) and selected were those considered to have GA due to AMD. Tissues in the regions of atrophy were examined with light, electron, and autofluorescence microscopy. RESULTS In most of the 37 donors examined, there was marked loss of photoreceptor cells for variable distances distal from the edge of the GA. Rod loss was greater than cone loss. An inverse relationship existed between the quantity of autofluorescent inclusions in the RPE and the thickness of sub-RPE basal laminar deposit. Integrity of the choroid varied from one eye to another and was not related strictly to photoreceptor survival. In some eyes, photoreceptor loss existed in the absence of obvious morphological changes in the Bruch membrane or RPE. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The findings support the view that photoreceptor loss occurs early in AMD in a proportion of cases and imply that photoreceptor-cell loss may contribute to the functional loss recorded in early stages of AMD at least in part. The variation of changes from one eye to another implies that patients

  17. The National Map - geographic names

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yost, Lou; Carswell, William J., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about the official names for places, features, and areas in the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the territories and outlying areas of the United States, including Antarctica. It is the geographic names component of The National Map. The BGN maintains working relationships with State names authorities to cooperate in achieving the standardization of geographic names. The GNIS contains records on more than 2 million geographic names in the United States - from populated places, schools, reservoirs, and parks to streams, valleys, springs, ridges, and every feature type except roads and highways. Entries include information such as the federally-recognized name and variant names and spellings for the feature; former names; the status of the name as determined by the BGN; county or counties in which each named feature is located; geographic coordinates that locate the approximate center of an aerial feature or the mouth and source of a linear feature, such as a stream; name of the cell of the USGS topographic map or maps on which the feature may appear; elevation figures derived from the National Elevation Dataset; bibliographic code for the source of the name; BGN decision dates and historical information are available for some features. Data from the GNIS are used for emergency preparedness, mapmaking, local and regional planning, service delivery routing, marketing, site selection, environmental analysis, genealogical research, and other applications.

  18. Geographic Information Systems and Martian Data: Compatibility and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Planning future landed Mars missions depends on accurate, informed data. This research has created and used spatially referenced instrument data from NASA missions such as the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) on the Mars Odyssey Orbiter and the Mars Orbital Camera (MOC) on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter. Creating spatially referenced data enables its use in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) such as ArcGIS. It has then been possible to integrate this spatially referenced data with global base maps and build and populate location based databases that are easy to access.

  19. Geographical Knowledge of University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Robert W.; And Others

    In order to obtain information on the status of geographical knowledge possessed by University of South Dakota (Vermillion) students, a geography survey designed to determine specific knowledge about the locations of bodies of water, countries, and cities was conducted. One map was used for identifying cities, while the second was used for…

  20. Location-assured, multifactor authentication on smartphones via LTE communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuseler, Torben; Lami, Ihsan A.; Al-Assam, Hisham

    2013-05-01

    With the added security provided by LTE, geographical location has become an important factor for authentication to enhance the security of remote client authentication during mCommerce applications using Smartphones. Tight combination of geographical location with classic authentication factors like PINs/Biometrics in a real-time, remote verification scheme over the LTE layer connection assures the authenticator about the client itself (via PIN/biometric) as well as the client's current location, thus defines the important aspects of "who", "when", and "where" of the authentication attempt without eaves dropping or man on the middle attacks. To securely integrate location as an authentication factor into the remote authentication scheme, client's location must be verified independently, i.e. the authenticator should not solely rely on the location determined on and reported by the client's Smartphone. The latest wireless data communication technology for mobile phones (4G LTE, Long-Term Evolution), recently being rolled out in various networks, can be employed to enhance this location-factor requirement of independent location verification. LTE's Control Plane LBS provisions, when integrated with user-based authentication and independent source of localisation factors ensures secure efficient, continuous location tracking of the Smartphone. This feature can be performed during normal operation of the LTE-based communication between client and network operator resulting in the authenticator being able to verify the client's claimed location more securely and accurately. Trials and experiments show that such algorithm implementation is viable for nowadays Smartphone-based banking via LTE communication.

  1. Thinking Like a Geographer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chernosky, Margaret Shaw

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an activity that engages the student in the geographic inquiry process, the student acquires geographic data and analyzes geographic information to answer a geographic question. The question is: "Do students in my class have place name mastery of the 50 states?" The activity assesses students' geo-literacy and shows the…

  2. Impact of Travel on Geographic Competency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bein, Frederick L.

    A geography skills test was administered to over 3,000 Indiana college students enrolled in introductory geography courses in 1987. The National Council for Geographic Education Competency-Based Geography Test, Secondary Level, Form D, was used to measure geographic ability in the area of map skills, place name location, physical geography, and…

  3. Geographic Information Processings for Astronomical Site Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, N.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The geographic information is of great importance for the site survey of ground-based telescopes. Especially, an effective utilization of the geographic information system (GIS) has been one of the most significant methods for the remote analysis of modern site survey. The astronomical site survey should give consideration to the following geographical conditions: a large relative fall, convenient traffic conditions, and far away from populated areas. Taking into account of the convenience of construction and maintenance of the observatories as well as the living conditions of the scientists-in-residence, the optimum candidate locations may meet the conditions to be at a altitude between 3000 m and 5000 m and within one-hour drive from villages/towns. In this paper, as an example, we take the regions of the Great Baicao mountain ridge at Dayao county in Yunnan province to research the role of the GIS for site survey task. The results indicate that the GIS can provide accurate and intuitive data for us to understand the three dimensional landforms, rivers, roads, villages, and the distributions of the electric power as well as to forecast the tendency of the population and city development around. According to the analysis based on the GIS, we find that the top of the Great Baicao mountain ridge is flat and droughty. There are few inhabitants to distribute around the place while the traffic conditions are convenient. Moreover, it is a natural conservation area protected by the local government, and no industry with pollution sources exists in this region. Its top is 1500 m higher than the nearby village 10 km away, and 1800 m higher than the town center 50 km away. The Great Baicao mountain ridge is definitely an isolated peak in the area of the Yi nationality of Yunnan. Therefore, the GIS data analysis is a very useful for the remote investigation stage for site survey, and the GIS is the indispensable source for modern astronomical site survey.

  4. Analyzing geographic clustered response

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S.; Mohr, M.S.

    1991-08-01

    In the study of geographic disease clusters, an alternative to traditional methods based on rates is to analyze case locations on a transformed map in which population density is everywhere equal. Although the analyst's task is thereby simplified, the specification of the density equalizing map projection (DEMP) itself is not simple and continues to be the subject of considerable research. Here a new DEMP algorithm is described, which avoids some of the difficulties of earlier approaches. The new algorithm (a) avoids illegal overlapping of transformed polygons; (b) finds the unique solution that minimizes map distortion; (c) provides constant magnification over each map polygon; (d) defines a continuous transformation over the entire map domain; (e) defines an inverse transformation; (f) can accept optional constraints such as fixed boundaries; and (g) can use commercially supported minimization software. Work is continuing to improve computing efficiency and improve the algorithm. 21 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. 47 CFR 10.450 - Geographic targeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Alert Message... targeting of Alert Messages. A Participating CMS Provider will determine which of its network facilities, elements, and locations will be used to geographically target Alert Messages. A Participating CMS...

  6. 47 CFR 10.450 - Geographic targeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Alert Message... targeting of Alert Messages. A Participating CMS Provider will determine which of its network facilities, elements, and locations will be used to geographically target Alert Messages. A Participating CMS...

  7. 47 CFR 10.450 - Geographic targeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Alert Message... targeting of Alert Messages. A Participating CMS Provider will determine which of its network facilities, elements, and locations will be used to geographically target Alert Messages. A Participating CMS...

  8. 47 CFR 10.450 - Geographic targeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS Alert Message Requirements... targeting of Alert Messages. A Participating CMS Provider will determine which of its network facilities, elements, and locations will be used to geographically target Alert Messages. A Participating CMS...

  9. 47 CFR 10.450 - Geographic targeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS Alert Message Requirements... targeting of Alert Messages. A Participating CMS Provider will determine which of its network facilities, elements, and locations will be used to geographically target Alert Messages. A Participating CMS...

  10. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  11. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  12. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  13. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  14. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  15. Geographic Media Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukinbeal, Chris

    2014-01-01

    While the use of media permeates geographic research and pedagogic practice, the underlying literacies that link geography and media remain uncharted. This article argues that geographic media literacy incorporates visual literacy, information technology literacy, information literacy, and media literacy. Geographic media literacy is the ability…

  16. Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs: announcement of the extended temporary moratoria on enrollment of ambulance suppliers and home health agencies in designated geographic locations. Extension of temporary moratoria.

    PubMed

    2014-08-01

    This document announces the extension of temporary moratoria on the enrollment of new ambulance suppliers and home health agencies (HHAs) in specific locations within designated metropolitan areas in Florida, Illinois, Michigan, Texas, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey to prevent and combat fraud, waste, and abuse. PMID:25122941

  17. Geographical Database Integrity Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Derya; Kauffman, Paul; Blackstock, Dexter

    2000-01-01

    Airport Safety Modeling Data (ASMD) was developed at the request of a 1997 White House Conference on Aviation Safety and Security. Politicians, military personnel, commercial aircraft manufacturers and the airline industry attended the conference. The objective of the conference was to study the airline industry and make recommendations to improve safety and security. One of the topics discussed at the conference was the loss of situational awareness by aircraft pilots. Loss of situational awareness occurs when a pilot loses his geographic position during flight and can result in crashes into terrain and obstacles. It was recognized at the conference that aviation safety could be improved by reducing the loss of situational awareness. The conference advised that a system be placed in the airplane cockpit that would provide pilots with a visual representation of the terrain around airports. The system would prevent airline crashes during times of inclement weather and loss of situational awareness. The system must be based on accurate data that represents terrain around airports. The Department of Defense and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) released ASMD to be used for the development of a visual system for aircraft pilots. ASMD was constructed from NIMA digital terrain elevation data (DTED).

  18. Assessment of the geographic origins of pinewood nematode isolates via single nucleotide polymorphism in effector genes.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Joana; Simões, Maria José; Gomes, Paula; Barroso, Cristina; Pinho, Diogo; Conceição, Luci; Fonseca, Luís; Abrantes, Isabel; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição

    2013-01-01

    The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is native to North America but it only causes damaging pine wilt disease in those regions of the world where it has been introduced. The accurate detection of the species and its dispersal routes are thus essential to define effective control measures. The main goals of this study were to analyse the genetic diversity among B. xylophilus isolates from different geographic locations and identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) markers for geographic origin, through a comparative transcriptomic approach. The transcriptomes of seven B. xylophilus isolates, from Continental Portugal (4), China (1), Japan (1) and USA (1), were sequenced in the next generation platform Roche 454. Analysis of effector gene transcripts revealed inter-isolate nucleotide diversity that was validated by Sanger sequencing in the genomic DNA of the seven isolates and eight additional isolates from different geographic locations: Madeira Island (2), China (1), USA (1), Japan (2) and South Korea (2). The analysis identified 136 polymorphic positions in 10 effector transcripts. Pairwise comparison of the 136 SNPs through Neighbor-Joining and the Maximum Likelihood methods and 5-mer frequency analysis with the alignment-independent bilinear multivariate modelling approach correlated the SNPs with the isolates geographic origin. Furthermore, the SNP analysis indicated a closer proximity of the Portuguese isolates to the Korean and Chinese isolates than to the Japanese or American isolates. Each geographic cluster carried exclusive alleles that can be used as SNP markers for B. xylophilus isolate identification. PMID:24391785

  19. Assessment of the Geographic Origins of Pinewood Nematode Isolates via Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Effector Genes

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Joana; Simões, Maria José; Gomes, Paula; Barroso, Cristina; Pinho, Diogo; Conceição, Luci; Fonseca, Luís; Abrantes, Isabel; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição

    2013-01-01

    The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is native to North America but it only causes damaging pine wilt disease in those regions of the world where it has been introduced. The accurate detection of the species and its dispersal routes are thus essential to define effective control measures. The main goals of this study were to analyse the genetic diversity among B. xylophilus isolates from different geographic locations and identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) markers for geographic origin, through a comparative transcriptomic approach. The transcriptomes of seven B. xylophilus isolates, from Continental Portugal (4), China (1), Japan (1) and USA (1), were sequenced in the next generation platform Roche 454. Analysis of effector gene transcripts revealed inter-isolate nucleotide diversity that was validated by Sanger sequencing in the genomic DNA of the seven isolates and eight additional isolates from different geographic locations: Madeira Island (2), China (1), USA (1), Japan (2) and South Korea (2). The analysis identified 136 polymorphic positions in 10 effector transcripts. Pairwise comparison of the 136 SNPs through Neighbor-Joining and the Maximum Likelihood methods and 5-mer frequency analysis with the alignment-independent bilinear multivariate modelling approach correlated the SNPs with the isolates geographic origin. Furthermore, the SNP analysis indicated a closer proximity of the Portuguese isolates to the Korean and Chinese isolates than to the Japanese or American isolates. Each geographic cluster carried exclusive alleles that can be used as SNP markers for B. xylophilus isolate identification. PMID:24391785

  20. A 10-year wildlife survey of 15 species of Canadian carnivores identifies new hosts or geographic locations for Trichinella genotypes T2, T4, T5, and T6.

    PubMed

    Gajadhar, Alvin A; Forbes, Lorry B

    2010-02-26

    A survey of wild carnivores in Canada was conducted over a 10-year period to determine the prevalence and genotypes of Trichinella. Muscle samples collected from 1409 animals representing 15 hosts species were enzymatically digested to recover Trichinella larvae. Larvae were recovered from a total of 287 (20.4%) animals and PCR identified four genotypes of Trichinella. Trichinella nativa was found in 5 host species and was the most commonly found genotype. Trichinella T6 was present in 7 species of carnivores, and coyote and badger are new host records for this genotype. The recovery of T. pseudospiralis and T. murrelli from cougars is the first documentation of these species in Canada and in cougars. The cougar was also the only host species in which all four genotypes of Trichinella were identified. Black bears and walruses had the highest tissue levels of larvae in this study and are also the species most frequently associated with human trichinellosis in Canada. This work identifies additional host species and expanded geographic ranges for 4 genotypes of Trichinella in North America. Failure to demonstrate T. spiralis in wildlife and continued negative results from ongoing surveillance activities in swine provide additional evidence that T. spiralis is not present in Canada. PMID:19926223

  1. Finding Home: Challenges Faced by Geographically Mobile Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the dialectical dimensions of home as experienced by geographically mobile couples. Informants (N = 48) defined home as having multiple meanings and locations, with 4 dialectical tensions embedded within their experience. Home was situated between (a) geographic spaces that were here and there, (b) geographic spaces…

  2. The Development of Geographic Categories and Biases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerkman, Dennis D.; Friedman, Alinda; Brown, Norman R.; Stea, David; Carmichael, Alanna

    2003-01-01

    Examined geographical representations among children and young adults. Found that a distinct home region was apparent at age 9. At age 11, children divided North America into regions the same as university students. Children used new location information to update location estimates. Children preserved ordinal structure of initial location…

  3. Pan-information Location Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X. Y.; Guo, W.; Huang, L.; Hu, T.; Gao, W. X.

    2013-11-01

    A huge amount of information, including geographic, environmental, socio-economic, personal and social network information, has been generated from diverse sources. Most of this information exists separately and is disorderly even if some of it is about the same person, feature, phenomenon or event. Users generally need to collect related information from different sources and then utilize them in applications. An automatic mechanism, therefore, for establishing a connection between potentially-related information will profoundly expand the usefulness of this huge body of information. A connection tie is semantic location describing semantically concepts and attributes of locations as well as relationships between locations, since 80% of information contains some kind of geographic reference but not all of geographic reference has explicit geographic coordinates. Semantic location is an orthogonal form of location representation which can be represented as domain ontology or UML format. Semantic location associates various kinds of information about a same object to provide timely information services according to users' demands, habits, preferences and applications. Based on this idea, a Pan-Information Location Map (PILM) is proposed as a new-style 4D map to associates semantic location-based information dynamically to organize and consolidate the locality and characteristics of corresponding features and events, and delivers on-demand information with a User-Adaptive Smart Display (UASD).

  4. Perceiving Virtual Geographical Slant: Action Influences Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creem-Regehr, Sarah H.; Gooch, Amy A.; Sahm, Cynthia S.; Thompson, William B.

    2004-01-01

    In 4 experiments, the authors varied the extent and nature of participant movement in a virtual environment to examine the influence of action on estimates of geographical slant. Previous studies showed that people consciously overestimate hill slant but can still accurately guide an action toward the hill (D. R. Proffitt, M. Bhalla, R.…

  5. Laser measuring system accurately locates point coordinates on photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doede, J. H.; Lindenmeyer, C. W.; Vonderohe, R. H.

    1966-01-01

    Laser activated ultraprecision ranging apparatus interfaced with a computer determines point coordinates on a photograph. A helium-neon gas CW laser provides collimated light for a null balancing optical system. This system has no mechanical connection between the ranging apparatus and the photograph.

  6. Environmental geographic information system.

    SciTech Connect

    Peek, Dennis; Helfrich, Donald Alan; Gorman, Susan

    2010-08-01

    This document describes how the Environmental Geographic Information System (EGIS) was used, along with externally received data, to create maps for the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) Source Document project. Data quality among the various classes of geographic information system (GIS) data is addressed. A complete listing of map layers used is provided.

  7. Situating Economic Geographical Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Trevor J.

    2006-01-01

    This article makes an argument for an economic geographical pedagogy that is post-disciplinary, emphasizing non-hierarchical, student-based knowledge, disciplinary interconnectedness, epistemological plurality, and material embodiedness and embeddedness. Key to this conception of economic geographical pedagogy are recent writings of Timothy…

  8. Geographic names of Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Board on Geographic Names; Department of the Interior; Burrill, Meredith F.; Bertrand, Kenneth J.; Alberts, Fred G.

    1956-01-01

    The geographic nomenclature of Antarctica was long in need of an overall systematic treatment, objective in approach and based upon thorough examination of all the evidence. The results of such treatment over a period of about three years were presented in Geographical Names of Antarctica, Special Publication No. 86 of the Board on Geographical Names, in May 1947, two supplements to which were issued in 1949 and 1951. The continuing program since that publication has now covered most of the geographic naming in Antarctica. As research has filled in many of the previous gaps in knowledge, a number of names have been modified and minor amendments have been made in the policies. This revised publication brings together the greatly enlarged body of names officially standardized for use by the United States Government, together with new pertinent background information.

  9. Geographic Names Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1984-01-01

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is an automated data system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to standardize and disseminate information on geographic names. GNIS provides primary information for all known places, features, and areas in the United States identified by a proper name. The information in the system can be manipulated to meet varied needs. You can incorporate information from GNIS into your own data base for special applications.

  10. Design and implementation of geographic information systems, remote sensing, and global positioning system-based information platform for locust control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Zhu, Dehai; Ye, Sijing; Yao, Xiaochuang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Nan; Han, Yueqi; Zhang, Long

    2014-01-01

    To monitor and control locusts efficiently, an information platform for locust control based on the global positioning system (GPS), remote sensing (RS), and geographic information systems (GIS) was developed. The platform can provide accurate information about locust occurrence and control strategies for a specific geographic place. The platform consists of three systems based on modern pest control: field ecology (locust occurrence) and GIS in a mobile GPS pad, a processing system for locust information based on GIS and RS, and a WebGIS-based real-time monitoring and controlling system. This platform was run at different geographical locations for three years and facilitated locust control in China with high efficiency and great accuracy.

  11. Availability Estimation for Facilities in Extreme Geographical Locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Gerd M.; Omotoso, Oluseun; Chen, Guangming; Evans, John W.

    2012-01-01

    A value added analysis for the Reliability. Availability and Maintainability of McMurdo Ground Station was developed, which will be a useful tool for system managers in sparing, maintenance planning and determining vital performance metrics needed for readiness assessment of the upgrades to the McMurdo System. Output of this study can also be used as inputs and recommendations for the application of Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) for the system. ReliaSoft's BlockSim. a commercial Reliability Analysis software package, has been used to model the availability of the system upgrade to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Near Earth Network (NEN) Ground Station at McMurdo Station in the Antarctica. The logistics challenges due to the closure of access to McMurdo Station during the Antarctic winter was modeled using a weighted composite of four Weibull distributions. one of the possible choices for statistical distributions throughout the software program and usually used to account for failure rates of components supplied by different manufacturers. The inaccessibility of the antenna site on a hill outside McMurdo Station throughout one year due to severe weather was modeled with a Weibull distribution for the repair crew availability. The Weibull distribution is based on an analysis of the available weather data for the antenna site for 2007 in combination with the rules for travel restrictions due to severe weather imposed by the administrating agency, the National Science Foundation (NSF). The simulations resulted in an upper bound for the system availability and allowed for identification of components that would improve availability based on a higher on-site spare count than initially planned.

  12. A barcode of organellar genome polymorphisms identifies the geographic origin of Plasmodium falciparum strains.

    PubMed

    Preston, Mark D; Campino, Susana; Assefa, Samuel A; Echeverry, Diego F; Ocholla, Harold; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; Stewart, Lindsay B; Conway, David J; Borrmann, Steffen; Michon, Pascal; Zongo, Issaka; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Djimde, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Nosten, Francois; Pain, Arnab; Bousema, Teun; Drakeley, Chris J; Fairhurst, Rick M; Sutherland, Colin J; Roper, Cally; Clark, Taane G

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem that is actively being addressed in a global eradication campaign. Increased population mobility through international air travel has elevated the risk of re-introducing parasites to elimination areas and dispersing drug-resistant parasites to new regions. A simple genetic marker that quickly and accurately identifies the geographic origin of infections would be a valuable public health tool for locating the source of imported outbreaks. Here we analyse the mitochondrion and apicoplast genomes of 711 Plasmodium falciparum isolates from 14 countries, and find evidence that they are non-recombining and co-inherited. The high degree of linkage produces a panel of relatively few single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that is geographically informative. We design a 23-SNP barcode that is highly predictive (~92%) and easily adapted to aid case management in the field and survey parasite migration worldwide. PMID:24923250

  13. A barcode of organellar genome polymorphisms identifies the geographic origin of Plasmodium falciparum strains

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Mark D.; Campino, Susana; Assefa, Samuel A.; Echeverry, Diego F.; Ocholla, Harold; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; Stewart, Lindsay B.; Conway, David J.; Borrmann, Steffen; Michon, Pascal; Zongo, Issaka; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Djimde, Abdoulaye A.; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Nosten, Francois; Pain, Arnab; Bousema, Teun; Drakeley, Chris J.; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Sutherland, Colin J.; Roper, Cally; Clark, Taane G.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem that is actively being addressed in a global eradication campaign. Increased population mobility through international air travel has elevated the risk of re-introducing parasites to elimination areas and dispersing drug-resistant parasites to new regions. A simple genetic marker that quickly and accurately identifies the geographic origin of infections would be a valuable public health tool for locating the source of imported outbreaks. Here we analyse the mitochondrion and apicoplast genomes of 711 Plasmodium falciparum isolates from 14 countries, and find evidence that they are non-recombining and co-inherited. The high degree of linkage produces a panel of relatively few single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that is geographically informative. We design a 23-SNP barcode that is highly predictive (~92%) and easily adapted to aid case management in the field and survey parasite migration worldwide. PMID:24923250

  14. A geographic information system applied to a malaria field study in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Hightower, A W; Ombok, M; Otieno, R; Odhiambo, R; Oloo, A J; Lal, A A; Nahlen, B L; Hawley, W A

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes use of the global positioning system (GPS) in differential mode (DGPS) to obtain highly accurate longitudes, latitudes, and altitudes of 1,169 houses, 15 schools, 40 churches, four health care centers, 48 major mosquito breeding sites, 10 borehole wells, seven shopping areas, major roads, streams, the shore of Lake Victoria, and other geographic features of interest associated with a longitudinal study of malaria in 15 villages in western Kenya. The area mapped encompassed approximately 70 km2 and included 42.0 km of roads, 54.3 km of streams, and 15.0 km of lake shore. Location data were entered into a geographic information system for map production and linkage with various databases for spatial analyses. Spatial analyses using parasitologic and entomologic data are presented as examples. Background information on DGPS is presented along with estimates of effort and expense to produce the map information. PMID:9546401

  15. Eldercare Locator

    MedlinePlus

    ... page content Skip Navigation Department of Health and Human Services Your Browser ... Welcome to the Eldercare Locator, a public service of the U.S. Administration on Aging connecting you to services for older ...

  16. Grading More Accurately

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rom, Mark Carl

    2011-01-01

    Grades matter. College grading systems, however, are often ad hoc and prone to mistakes. This essay focuses on one factor that contributes to high-quality grading systems: grading accuracy (or "efficiency"). I proceed in several steps. First, I discuss the elements of "efficient" (i.e., accurate) grading. Next, I present analytical results…

  17. Natural products discovery needs improved taxonomic and geographic information.

    PubMed

    Leal, Miguel C; Hilário, Ana; Munro, Murray H G; Blunt, John W; Calado, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    Covering: up to 2016Marine and terrestrial organisms yield a remarkable chemical diversity and are important sources for discovery of new chemical products. In order to maximize the bioprospecting efficiency of natural products (NP), taxonomy, geography and biodiversity are starting to be used to draw conclusions on which taxonomic groups and/or regions may be of interest for future research. However, accurate taxonomic information and sampling location of source organisms have often been overlooked. Although these issues were already reported a few decades ago and improvements have been made, such outstanding problems are still recurrent in recent peer-reviewed literature. Here, we focus on the importance of taxonomic and geographic identification of source material and illustrate how taxonomic and geographic data of source organisms continues to be poorly handled. It is our opinion that this issue needs to be discussed within the NP community with the ultimate goal of improving publication standards and guaranteeing the scientific principle of research reproducibility. Moreover, by doing so, it will be possible to take advantage of information available in the literature to develop cross-disciplinary meta-analyses that may help to advance the state of the art of NP research and future bioprospecting endeavours. PMID:26892141

  18. Field validation of food service listings: a comparison of commercial and online geographic information system databases.

    PubMed

    Seliske, Laura; Pickett, William; Bates, Rebecca; Janssen, Ian

    2012-08-01

    Many studies examining the food retail environment rely on geographic information system (GIS) databases for location information. The purpose of this study was to validate information provided by two GIS databases, comparing the positional accuracy of food service places within a 1 km circular buffer surrounding 34 schools in Ontario, Canada. A commercial database (InfoCanada) and an online database (Yellow Pages) provided the addresses of food service places. Actual locations were measured using a global positioning system (GPS) device. The InfoCanada and Yellow Pages GIS databases provided the locations for 973 and 675 food service places, respectively. Overall, 749 (77.1%) and 595 (88.2%) of these were located in the field. The online database had a higher proportion of food service places found in the field. The GIS locations of 25% of the food service places were located within approximately 15 m of their actual location, 50% were within 25 m, and 75% were within 50 m. This validation study provided a detailed assessment of errors in the measurement of the location of food service places in the two databases. The location information was more accurate for the online database, however, when matching criteria were more conservative, there were no observed differences in error between the databases. PMID:23066385

  19. Field Validation of Food Service Listings: A Comparison of Commercial and Online Geographic Information System Databases

    PubMed Central

    Seliske, Laura; Pickett, William; Bates, Rebecca; Janssen, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Many studies examining the food retail environment rely on geographic information system (GIS) databases for location information. The purpose of this study was to validate information provided by two GIS databases, comparing the positional accuracy of food service places within a 1 km circular buffer surrounding 34 schools in Ontario, Canada. A commercial database (InfoCanada) and an online database (Yellow Pages) provided the addresses of food service places. Actual locations were measured using a global positioning system (GPS) device. The InfoCanada and Yellow Pages GIS databases provided the locations for 973 and 675 food service places, respectively. Overall, 749 (77.1%) and 595 (88.2%) of these were located in the field. The online database had a higher proportion of food service places found in the field. The GIS locations of 25% of the food service places were located within approximately 15 m of their actual location, 50% were within 25 m, and 75% were within 50 m. This validation study provided a detailed assessment of errors in the measurement of the location of food service places in the two databases. The location information was more accurate for the online database, however, when matching criteria were more conservative, there were no observed differences in error between the databases. PMID:23066385

  20. 47 CFR 73.1120 - Station location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station location. 73.1120 Section 73.1120... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1120 Station location. Each AM, FM, TV and Class A TV... be the geographical station location....

  1. 47 CFR 73.1120 - Station location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station location. 73.1120 Section 73.1120... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1120 Station location. Each AM, FM, TV and Class A TV... be the geographical station location....

  2. 47 CFR 73.1120 - Station location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station location. 73.1120 Section 73.1120... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1120 Station location. Each AM, FM, TV and Class A TV... be the geographical station location....

  3. 47 CFR 73.1120 - Station location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station location. 73.1120 Section 73.1120... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1120 Station location. Each AM, FM, TV and Class A TV... be the geographical station location....

  4. Geographical Information Systems: A Tool for Institutional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prather, James E.; Carlson, Christina E.

    This paper addresses the application of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), a computerized tool for associating key information by geographical location, to the institutional research function at institutions of higher education. The first section investigates the potential of GIS as an analytical and planning tool for institutional…

  5. Research in Geographical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Peter, Ed.; And Others

    This publication contains 19 papers presented at the inaugural meeting of the Australian Geographical Education Research Association held in Brisbane, December 1980. The papers surveyed a wide and diverse range of research. The introductory group of papers present several new views on curriculum development, course content, and teaching methods…

  6. Making Geographical Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, John

    2015-01-01

    Although there are surprisingly few academic books about geography with the term "future" or "futures" in their titles, this paper indicates that for much of the twentieth century geographers contributed to important discussions about the shape of worlds to come. The paper offers a review of these debates within Anglo-American…

  7. Minimum variance geographic sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, G. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Resource inventories require samples with geographical scatter, sometimes not as widely spaced as would be hoped. A simple model of correlation over distances is used to create a minimum variance unbiased estimate population means. The fitting procedure is illustrated from data used to estimate Missouri corn acreage.

  8. Geographic information systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1992-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) technology can be used for scientific investigations, resource management, and developmental planning. For example, a GIS might allow emergency planners to easily calculate emergency response times in the event of a natural disaster, or a GIS might be used to find wetlands that need protection form pollution.

  9. Geographic Education in Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author analyzes and summarizes geographic education in Louisiana from a historical perspective with a specific emphasis on the degree to which geography was implemented into the state's standards. To accomplish that, he draws from the following three sources of information: active and retired social studies teachers from a…

  10. Accurate monotone cubic interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1991-01-01

    Monotone piecewise cubic interpolants are simple and effective. They are generally third-order accurate, except near strict local extrema where accuracy degenerates to second-order due to the monotonicity constraint. Algorithms for piecewise cubic interpolants, which preserve monotonicity as well as uniform third and fourth-order accuracy are presented. The gain of accuracy is obtained by relaxing the monotonicity constraint in a geometric framework in which the median function plays a crucial role.

  11. Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.

  12. Geographic searching for ecological studies: A new frontier

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Important ecological knowledge contained in published literature is often overlooked by researchers, resource managers, and policymakers in part because most literature search tools are thematically focused and do not explicitly consider the geographic location of the research. Searching for ecologi...

  13. Geographic exposure modeling: a valuable extension of geographic information systems for use in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Beyea, J

    1999-01-01

    Geographic modeling of individual exposures using air pollution modeling techniques can help in both the design of environmental epidemiologic studies and in the assignment of measures that delineate regions that receive the highest exposure in space and time. Geographic modeling can help in the interpretation of environmental sampling data associated with airborne concentration or deposition, and can act as a sophisticated interpolator for such data, allowing values to be assigned to locations between points where the data have actually been collected. Recent advances allow for quantification of the uncertainty in a geographic model and the resulting impact on estimates of association, variability, and study power. In this paper we present the terminology and methodology of geographic modeling, describe applications to date in the field of epidemiology, and evaluate the potential of this relatively new tool. PMID:10229717

  14. Geographical Topics Learning of Geo-Tagged Social Images.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Ji, Shufan; Wang, Senzhang; Li, Zhoujun; Lv, Xueqiang

    2016-03-01

    With the availability of cheap location sensors, geotagging of images in online social media is very popular. With a large amount of geo-tagged social images, it is interesting to study how these images are shared across geographical regions and how the geographical language characteristics and vision patterns are distributed across different regions. Unlike textual document, geo-tagged social image contains multiple types of content, i.e., textual description, visual content, and geographical information. Existing approaches usually mine geographical characteristics using a subset of multiple types of image contents or combining those contents linearly, which ignore correlations between different types of contents, and their geographical distributions. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel method to discover geographical characteristics of geo-tagged social images using a geographical topic model called geographical topic model of social images (GTMSIs). GTMSI integrates multiple types of social image contents as well as the geographical distributions, in which image topics are modeled based on both vocabulary and visual features. In GTMSI, each region of the image would have its own topic distribution, and hence have its own language model and vision pattern. Experimental results show that our GTMSI could identify interesting topics and vision patterns, as well as provide location prediction and image tagging. PMID:25861092

  15. Geographic data from space

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, Robert H.

    1964-01-01

    Space science has been called “the collection of scientific problems to which space vehicles can make some specific contributions not achievable by ground-based experiments.” Geography, the most spatial of the sciences, has now been marked as one of these “space sciences.” The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is sponsoring an investigation to identify the Potential geographic benefits from the nation’s space program. This is part of NASA’s long-range inquiry to determine the kinds of scientific activities which might profitably be carried out on future space missions. Among such future activities which are now being planned by NASA are a series of manned earth orbital missions, many of which would be devoted to research. Experiments in physics, astronomy, geophysics, meteorology, and biology are being discussed for these long-range missions. The question which is being put to geographers is, essentially, what would it mean to geographic research to have an observation satellite (or many such satellites) orbiting the earth, gathering data about earth-surface features and environments?

  16. Geographical distribution of the dermatophytes: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Philpot, C. M.

    1978-01-01

    In these days of rapid transit from continent to continent, and the increasing mobility of people, agents of disease are no longer geographically restricted. Disease contracted half way across the world may become manifest in a country in which the pathogen is not normally found. Thus knowledge of the geographical distribution of pathogens becomes increasingly important when a diagnosis is being made. This is as true of ringworm fungi as of any other group of microorganisms. In the last 12 years, in the Mycological Reference Laboratory, an increasing number of exotic dermatophytes have been seen, related in part at least to the great increase in the number of non-British residents. Not all species of dermatophytes are cosmopolitan in their distribution throughout the world. While some have been recorded from every continent, others have geographically limited areas of greater or lesser extent. Surveys taken at intervals in a country may show a rise and fall in occurrence of several species as habits change, populations move and medical facilities became increasingly well-distributed. There have been few geographical surveys of ringworm fungi that have covered the world. Ajello (1960, 1974) has reviewed the individual species with regard to geographical location, while Vanbreuseghem & de Vroey (1970) attempted to estimate the relative importance of the various species in terms of numbers of isolations reported. This paper therefore reviews the world dermatophyte flora in terms of the dominant agents in the various countries, and some of the changes that have been recorded. PMID:75918

  17. [Research progress on the risk factors of geographic tongue].

    PubMed

    Huamei, Yang; Yu, Zhou; Xin, Zeng; Ga, Liao; Qianming, Chen

    2015-02-01

    Geographic tongue, also called benign migratory glossitis, is a common and superficial benign inflammatory disorder that affects the tongue epithelium. The majority of geographic tongue lesions typically manifest as irregular central erythematous patches. These lesions, which are caused by the loss of filiform papillae, are defined by an elevated whitish band-like border that can change location, size, and pattern over a period of time. Histological observations of the oral mucosa affected by geographic tongue revealed nonspecific inflammation. Some reports described cases of migratory stomatitis, wherein lesions simultaneously manifested on the extra lingual oral mucosa. This condition is also called ectopic geographic tongue, which is clinically and histologically similar to the type normally confined to the tongue. In most cases, patients are asymptomatic and do not require treatment. The condition may spontaneously exhibit periods of remission and exacerbation with good prognosis. The specific etiology of geographic tongue remains unknown. Geographic tongue is age-related and is prevalent among young individuals. Various etiological factors that have been suggested in literature include immunological factors, genetic factors, atopic or allergic tendency, emotional stress, tobacco consumption, hormonal disturbances, and zinc deficiency. Geographic tongue may coexist with other disorders, such as fissured tongue, psoriasis, diabetes mellitus, gastroin- testinal diseases, burning mouth syndrome, and Down syndrome. Experts currently disagree on whether geographic tongue is an oral manifestation of psoriasis. Moreover, some scholars suggest that geographic tongue is a prestage of fissured tongue. The objective of this review is to summarize current research on risk factors of geographic tongue. PMID:25872308

  18. Patterns and causes of geographic variation in bat echolocation pulses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tinglei; Wu, Hui; Feng, Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Evolutionary biologists have a long-standing interest in how acoustic signals in animals vary geographically, because divergent ecology and sensory perception play an important role in speciation. Geographic comparisons are valuable in determining the factors that influence divergence of acoustic signals. Bats are social mammals and they depend mainly on echolocation pulses to locate prey, to navigate and to communicate. Mounting evidence shows that geographic variation of bat echolocation pulses is common, with a mean 5-10 kHz differences in peak frequency, and a high level of individual variation may be nested in this geographical variation. However, understanding the geographic variation of echolocation pulses in bats is very difficult, because of differences in sample and statistical analysis techniques as well as the variety of factors shaping the vocal geographic evolution. Geographic differences in echolocation pulses of bats generally lack latitudinal, longitudinal and elevational patterns, and little is known about vocal dialects. Evidence is accumulating to support the fact that geographic variation in echolocation pulses of bats may be caused by genetic drift, cultural drift, ecological selection, sexual selection and social selection. Future studies could relate geographic differences in echolocation pulses to social adaptation, vocal learning strategies and patterns of dispersal. In addition, new statistical techniques and acoustic playback experiments may help to illustrate the causes and consequences of the geographic evolution of echolocation pulse in bats. PMID:25664901

  19. Accurate measurement of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itano, Wayne M.; Ramsey, Norman F.

    1993-07-01

    The paper discusses current methods for accurate measurements of time by conventional atomic clocks, with particular attention given to the principles of operation of atomic-beam frequency standards, atomic hydrogen masers, and atomic fountain and to the potential use of strings of trapped mercury ions as a time device more stable than conventional atomic clocks. The areas of application of the ultraprecise and ultrastable time-measuring devices that tax the capacity of modern atomic clocks include radio astronomy and tests of relativity. The paper also discusses practical applications of ultraprecise clocks, such as navigation of space vehicles and pinpointing the exact position of ships and other objects on earth using the GPS.

  20. Accurate quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.

  1. Geographic Landscape of Place Names.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritzner, Charles F.

    1988-01-01

    Explores the origins of many geographic place names. Suggests that using toponyms (place names) to study geographic conditions of an area offers rich diversity for the teaching of map skills and regional geography. (DH)

  2. Trace element fingerprinting of cockle (Cerastoderma edule) shells can reveal harvesting location in adjacent areas.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Fernando; Génio, Luciana; Costa Leal, Miguel; Albuquerque, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Rosa, Rui; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Determining seafood geographic origin is critical for controlling its quality and safeguarding the interest of consumers. Here, we use trace element fingerprinting (TEF) of bivalve shells to discriminate the geographic origin of specimens. Barium (Ba), manganese (Mn), magnesium (Mg), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) were quantified in cockle shells (Cerastoderma edule) captured with two fishing methods (by hand and by hand-raking) and from five adjacent fishing locations within an estuarine system (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal). Results suggest no differences in TEF of cockle shells captured by hand or by hand-raking, thus confirming that metal rakes do not act as a potential source of metal contamination that could somehow bias TEF results. In contrast, significant differences were recorded among locations for all trace elements analysed. A Canonical Analysis of Principal Coordinates (CAP) revealed that 92% of the samples could be successfully classified according to their fishing location using TEF. We show that TEF can be an accurate, fast and reliable method to determine the geographic origin of bivalves, even among locations separated less than 1 km apart within the same estuarine system. Nonetheless, follow up studies are needed to determine if TEF can reliably discriminate between bivalves originating from different ecosystems. PMID:26149418

  3. GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM (GNIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and h...

  4. Volunteered Geographic Information in Wikipedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Darren

    2010-01-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online collaborative…

  5. The National Map - Geographic Names

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2002-01-01

    Governments depend on a common set of base geographic information as a tool for economic and community development, land and natural resource management, and health and safety services. Emergency management and homeland security applications rely on this information. Private industry, nongovernmental organizations, and individual citizens use the same geographic data. Geographic information underpins an increasingly large part of the Nation's economy.

  6. Teaching Business Shops and Stores' Locations through Field Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Daihu; Wang, Ziying; Wu, Xianliang; Fu, Wenru

    2014-01-01

    Location, where geographic elements interwork spatially and dynamically, has been one of the enduring themes in geographic studies. There are a number of location theories to explain why things are located where they are. Alfred Weber's location theory stresses that the least cost of delivering products is a key factor in location selection,…

  7. Geographic information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Information and activities are provided to: (1) enhance the ability to distinguish between a Geographic Information System (GIS) and a data management system; (2) develop understanding of spatial data handling by conventional methods versus the automated approach; (3) promote awareness of GIS design and capabilities; (4) foster understanding of the concepts and problems of data base development and management; (5) facilitate recognition of how a computerized GIS can model conditions in the present "real world" to project conditions in the future; and (6) appreciate the utility of integrating LANDSAT and other remotely sensed data into the GIS.

  8. Geographic science team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, N.

    1982-01-01

    The rational for using remote sensing in land use/land cover, geomorphology, and cartography applications is stated as well as potential uses in each of these areas. The next step to be perfected is indicated. Spatial and spectral resolution requirements for photointerpretations and/or multispectral pattern recognition of geomorphic elements and of cultural surface cover are listed. Requirements for photographic/analog or digital photogrammetry from spaceborne multispectral linear array sensors are included. A prioritized summary of data gaps in the geographic sciences is included.

  9. The Use of Planisphere to Locate Planets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Ping-Wai

    2013-01-01

    Planisphere is a simple and useful tool in locating constellations of the night sky at a specific time, date and geographic location. However it does not show the planet positions because planets are not fixed on the celestial sphere. It is known that the planet orbital planes are nearly coplanar and close to the ecliptic plane. By making…

  10. Geographic names information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1987-01-01

    of the data in each of the data elements of the four data bases of GNIS. The GNIS program, which includes the automated names system and the National Gazetteer program, is a coordinated effort under the direction of Donald J. Orth, Chief of the Branch of Geographic Names. The automated system was initially developed by Sam Stulberg and Roger L. Payne. System enhancement and software development is coordinated by Judy J. Stella, head programmer for GNIS, and special projects coordinator is Louis A. Yost IV. Coordination of the research and compilation of certain gazetteers is directed by Robin D. Worcester with research assistance and support from Jon Campbell, Linda S. Davis, and Nancy Engel.

  11. Underwater hydrophone location survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Jack B.

    1993-01-01

    The Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) is a U.S. Navy test range located on Andros Island, Bahamas, and a Division of the Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC), Newport, RI. The Headquarters of AUTEC is located at a facility in West Palm Beach, FL. AUTEC's primary mission is to provide the U.S. Navy with a deep-water test and evaluation facility for making underwater acoustic measurements, testing and calibrating sonars, and providing accurate underwater, surface, and in-air tracking data on surface ships, submarines, aircraft, and weapon systems. Many of these programs are in support of Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW), undersea research and development programs, and Fleet assessment and operational readiness trials. Most tests conducted at AUTEC require precise underwater tracking (plus or minus 3 yards) of multiple acoustic signals emitted with the correct waveshape and repetition criteria from either a surface craft or underwater vehicle.

  12. The Level of Realizing Geographical Skills in Geography Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unlu, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Learning geography for an individual starts with the relationship between human and location. This relationship develops depending on gaining some skills which are necessary for understanding and using the geographical location as effective as possible. One of the main goals of high school geography education is to enable individuals to gain…

  13. Application of a geographic information system for radiologic emergency response

    SciTech Connect

    Best, R.G.; Doyle, J.F.

    1995-03-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) is a multifunctional analytical tool that can be used to compile available data and derive information. A GIS is a computerized database management system for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis, and display of spatial data. Maps are the most common type of spatial data, but any type of data that can be referenced by an x-y location or geographic coordinate can be used in a GIS. In a radiological emergency, it is critical that data of all types be rapidly compiled into a common format in order to make accurate observations and informed decisions. Developing a baseline GIS for nuclear facilities would offer a significant incentive for all organizations to contribute to and utilize this powerful data management tool. The system being developed could integrate all elements of emergency planning, from the initial protective actions based on models through the emergency monitoring phase, and finally ending with the complex reentry and recovery phase. Within the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), there is a continuing effort to improve the data management and communication process. To demonstrate the potential of GIS for emergency response, the system has been utilized in interagency FRMAC exercises. An interactive GIS system has been deployed and used to analyze the available spatial data to help determine the impact of a hypothetical radiological release and to develop mitigation plans. For this application, both hardcopy and real-time spatial displays were generated with the GIS. Composite maps with different sizes, scales, and themes were produced to support the exercises.

  14. Modeling crash spatial heterogeneity: random parameter versus geographically weighting.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengpeng; Huang, Helai

    2015-02-01

    The widely adopted techniques for regional crash modeling include the negative binomial model (NB) and Bayesian negative binomial model with conditional autoregressive prior (CAR). The outputs from both models consist of a set of fixed global parameter estimates. However, the impacts of predicting variables on crash counts might not be stationary over space. This study intended to quantitatively investigate this spatial heterogeneity in regional safety modeling using two advanced approaches, i.e., random parameter negative binomial model (RPNB) and semi-parametric geographically weighted Poisson regression model (S-GWPR). Based on a 3-year data set from the county of Hillsborough, Florida, results revealed that (1) both RPNB and S-GWPR successfully capture the spatially varying relationship, but the two methods yield notably different sets of results; (2) the S-GWPR performs best with the highest value of Rd(2) as well as the lowest mean absolute deviance and Akaike information criterion measures. Whereas the RPNB is comparable to the CAR, in some cases, it provides less accurate predictions; (3) a moderately significant spatial correlation is found in the residuals of RPNB and NB, implying the inadequacy in accounting for the spatial correlation existed across adjacent zones. As crash data are typically collected with reference to location dimension, it is desirable to firstly make use of the geographical component to explore explicitly spatial aspects of the crash data (i.e., the spatial heterogeneity, or the spatially structured varying relationships), then is the unobserved heterogeneity by non-spatial or fuzzy techniques. The S-GWPR is proven to be more appropriate for regional crash modeling as the method outperforms the global models in capturing the spatial heterogeneity occurring in the relationship that is model, and compared with the non-spatial model, it is capable of accounting for the spatial correlation in crash data. PMID:25460087

  15. Towards Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Implementation: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    "Despite its central role in real-world geography, the Geographic Information System (GIS) has had little uptake to date in School Geography." (Wiegand, 2001) This statement can be accurately applied to the author's current school setting and was the focus of her and her colleagues' case study, commenced in 2004 and continued into 2005. The study…

  16. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Bradonjic, Milan; Percus, Allon; Muller, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  17. Geographic Characteristics and First-Year Retention: An Examination of the Linkages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Mingchu; Williams, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Enrollment practitioners commonly discuss the effect of geographic factors on retention at rural or small-city institutions. This study examined the correlations between geographic characteristics of first-year college students' home location and their retention to the second year at a university located in a small city. The dimension of…

  18. The Potential Geographic Range of Pyrenophora semeniperda.

    PubMed

    Yonow, Tania; Kriticos, Darren J; Medd, Richard W

    2004-08-01

    ABSTRACT There is no evidence that Pyrenophora semeniperda, the causal agent of leaf spotting in many annual and perennial grasses, currently occurs in Europe or Asia. However, there is potential phytosanitary concern that the importation of infected commodities could result in the introduction of this fungus into Eurasia, putting crops at risk and possibly resulting in economic losses. To assist in assessing the risk of geographic range extension of P. semeniperda, an analysis was undertaken to estimate the potential global distribution of this species, based on climatic suitability. Geographic distribution data for P. semeniperda in part of its current range were used to fit parameter values in a CLIMEX pest risk assessment model, and the remaining distribution data were used to validate the model. The CLIMEX model correctly predicts that virtually all locations where P. semeniperda has been found are climatically suitable. Only five locations worldwide where the fungus was recorded present are predicted as being unsuitable. These "outliers" may have been transient populations occurring during a favorable season and then dying out. Exploratory adjustments of the model to accommodate these records created unsatisfactory distortions in the projected climatic suitability surfaces, extending the suitable climatic zone beyond well-established traditional range boundaries. We are therefore confident that the model is credibly predicting the potential distribution of P. semeniperda worldwide. The CLIMEX model suggests that P. semeniperda could potentially extend its range throughout Europe and temperate regions of Asia, Africa, and South America. Our heavy reliance upon geographic data to build this CLIMEX model departs from most previous published examples in plant pathology, which have depended primarily upon experimentally derived physiological data to estimate model parameters. The use of geographic data to infer climate parameters is popular in CLIMEX models of

  19. International Refugees: A Geographical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demko, George J.; Wood, William B.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the problem of international refugees from a geographical perspective. Focuses on sub-saharan Africa, Afghanistan, Central America, and southeast Asia. Concludes that geographers can and should use their skills and intellectual tools to address and help resolve this global problem. (JDH)

  20. Adaptive Cartography and Geographical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konecny, Milan; Stanek, Karel

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on adaptive cartography and its potential for geographical education. After briefly describing the wider context of adaptive cartography, it is suggested that this new cartographic approach establishes new demands and benefits for geographical education, especially in offering the possibility for broader individual…

  1. Submerged marine streamer locator

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, F.A.

    1987-01-06

    An apparatus is described for use in determining relative to known geographic locations on a sea floor the position of a moving submerged marine seismic streamer while being towed through the sea by an exploration vessel, which comprises: spaced apart acoustic receivers and at least one acoustic transducer-receiver carried by the streamer. The transducer-receiver is capable of emitting acoustic command signals when triggered by means controllable from the moving vessel and the receivers are capable of receiving and distinguishing distinctly different acoustic frequencies to transmit distinguishable signals responsive thereto along the streamer to recording means on the vessel; at least three sea floor transponders spatially displaced from each other at known positions relative to the sea floor and each of the transponders being capable of responding to a single acoustic command signal from the transducer-receiver in the moving streamer while being towed by the vessel. Each of the transponders emits signals of a distinctly different frequency; and means for recording the time interval from initiation of a command signal from the streamer transducer to the receipt of each signal relayed along the streamer from each of the receivers in response to the signals from the transponders. In this way, the distance of each of the streamer receivers from each of the known positions of the transponders may be calculated.

  2. Multivariate Geographic Clustering as a Basis for Ecoregionalization in the Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2006-12-01

    Multivariate clustering based on fine spatial resolution maps of elevation, temperature, precipitation, soil characteristics, and solar inputs has been used to produce sets of quantitative ecoregion maps for the conterminous United States and the world at several levels of division. The coarse ecoregion divisions accurately capture intuitively-understood regional environmental differences, whereas the finer divisions highlight local condition gradients and ecotones. Such statistically-generated ecoregions can be produced based on user-selected continuous variables, allowing customized regions to be delineated for any specific problem. For example, 20 geographic domains having a similar climate were identified for the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), based on nine ecologically relevant climatic variables, including temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, and plant-available soil moisture at 1 sq km resolution. Because the ecoregion classification is quantitative, it can provide a basis for additional types of analyses. A red-green-blue visualization based on the first three Principal Component axes of ecoregion centroids indicates with color the relative combination of environmental conditions found within each ecoregion. Colors show the similarity of environmental conditions across regions. Multiple geographic areas can be classified into a single common set of quantitative ecoregions to provide a basis for comparison, or maps of a single area through time can be classified to portray climatic or environmental changes geographically in terms of current conditions. Quantified representativeness can characterize borders between ecoregions as gradual, sharp, or of changing character along their length. Similarity of any ecoregion to all other ecoregions can be quantified and displayed as a "representativeness" map. The representativeness of an existing spatial array of sample locations or study sites can be mapped relative to a set of quantitative

  3. The geographical accessibility of hospitals to the aged: a geographic information systems analysis within Illinois.

    PubMed Central

    Love, D; Lindquist, P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This article uses geographic information systems and their related tools to empirically measure and display the geographic accessibility of the aged population to hospital facilities within Illinois. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING. Geographic accessibility of Illinois' aged population is measured from each of the state's 10,796 census block groups to the state's 214 hospital facilities. Block group demographic compositions and centroids are obtained from 1990 census files. Hospital coordinates are obtained by the authors. STUDY DESIGN. Of five alternative measures of accessibility considered, empirical estimates are obtained for two: choice set and minimum distance. Access to both general hospitals and the subset having specialized geriatric facilities is measured with special attention to differences in accessibility between the aged within metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) and those outside MSAs. Cumulative accessibility distributions and their summary statistics provide a basis of comparison among subgroups. DATA COLLECTION AND EXTRACTION. Geographic information systems (GIS) and their related tools are used as a means of efficiently capturing, organizing, storing, and retrieving the required data. Hospitals and census block groups are geocoded to specific locations in the database, and aspatial attributes are assigned to the hospitals and block groups. The GIS database is queried to produce shaded isarithm and point distribution maps that show the location of hospitals relative to surrounding aged populations. CONCLUSION. The vast majority of Illinois' aged population is within close proximity to hospital facilities. Eighty percent (1,147,504 persons) of the aged in Illinois are within 4.8 miles (7.7 km) of a hospital and 11.6 miles (18.7 km) of two hospitals. However, geographic accessibility differences between the aged living in MSAs and those living outside MSAs to hospitals offering geriatric services are substantial; but there is no

  4. U Plant Geographic Zone Cleanup Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Romine, L.D.; Leary, K.D.; Lackey, M.B.; Robertson, J.R.

    2006-07-01

    The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as 'cleanup items') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is available to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) [1] was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living document that will

  5. U-PLANT GEOGRAPHIC ZONE CLEANUP PROTOTYPE

    SciTech Connect

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as ''cleanup items'') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is available to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living document that will

  6. Order from noise: Toward a social theory of geographic information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poore, B.S.; Chrisman, N.R.

    2006-01-01

    In the so-called Information Age, it is surprising that the concept of information is imprecisely defined and almost taken for granted. Historic and recent geographic information science (GIScience) literature relies on two conflicting metaphors, often espoused by the same author in adjacent paragraphs. The metaphor of invariance, derived from telecommunications engineering, defines information as a thing to be transported without loss through a conduit. Another metaphor, originating in the utopian movements of the 19th century, locates information within a hierarchy of refinement-a stopping place on the path to convert mere data into higher forms of knowledge and perhaps to wisdom. Both metaphors rely on long-forgotten debates outside geography and preclude us from seeing that there are important social and ethical concerns in the relationship between geographic information technologies and society. We examine the conflicts between competing metaphors and propose a social theory of geographic information. ?? 2006 by Association of American Geographers.

  7. NNLOPS accurate associated HW production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astill, William; Bizon, Wojciech; Re, Emanuele; Zanderighi, Giulia

    2016-06-01

    We present a next-to-next-to-leading order accurate description of associated HW production consistently matched to a parton shower. The method is based on reweighting events obtained with the HW plus one jet NLO accurate calculation implemented in POWHEG, extended with the MiNLO procedure, to reproduce NNLO accurate Born distributions. Since the Born kinematics is more complex than the cases treated before, we use a parametrization of the Collins-Soper angles to reduce the number of variables required for the reweighting. We present phenomenological results at 13 TeV, with cuts suggested by the Higgs Cross section Working Group.

  8. Teaching Location and Some Characteristics of Place: Using South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Jesse; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Using South Africa as its focus, outlines a middle school lesson plan for teaching geographic themes and location and place. Provides students practice using geographic skills. Includes instruction about major cultural and ethnic groups living in South Africa along with three maps for classroom use. (NL)

  9. Locating Chicago's Charter Schools: A Socio-Spatial Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFleur, Jennifer C.

    2016-01-01

    This project contributes to the body of research examining the implications of the geographic location of charter schools for student access, especially in high-poverty communities. Using geographic information systems (GIS) software, this paper uses data from the U.S. Census American Community Survey to identify the socioeconomic characteristics…

  10. Ice jam flooding: a location prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, H. A.

    2009-12-01

    Flooding created by ice jamming is a climatically dependent natural hazard frequently affecting cold regions with disastrous results. Basic known physical characteristics which combine in the landscape to create an ice jam flood are modeled on the Cattaraugus Creek Watershed, located in Western New York State. Terrain analysis of topographic features, and the built environment features is conducted using Geographic Information Systems in order to predict the location of ice jam flooding events. The purpose of this modeling is to establish a broadly applicable Watershed scale model for predicting the probable locations of ice jam flooding.location of historic ice jam flooding events

  11. How to accurately bypass damage

    PubMed Central

    Broyde, Suse; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation can cause cancer through DNA damage — specifically, by linking adjacent thymine bases. Crystal structures show how the enzyme DNA polymerase η accurately bypasses such lesions, offering protection. PMID:20577203

  12. Accurate Evaluation of Quantum Integrals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galant, David C.; Goorvitch, D.

    1994-01-01

    Combining an appropriate finite difference method with Richardson's extrapolation results in a simple, highly accurate numerical method for solving a Schr\\"{o}dinger's equation. Important results are that error estimates are provided, and that one can extrapolate expectation values rather than the wavefunctions to obtain highly accurate expectation values. We discuss the eigenvalues, the error growth in repeated Richardson's extrapolation, and show that the expectation values calculated on a crude mesh can be extrapolated to obtain expectation values of high accuracy.

  13. The Use of LIDAR and Volunteered Geographic Information to Map Flood Extents and Inundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDougall, K.; Temple-Watts, P.

    2012-07-01

    Floods are one of the most destructive natural disasters that threaten communities and properties. In recent decades, flooding has claimed more lives, destroyed more houses and ruined more agricultural land than any other natural hazard. The accurate prediction of the areas of inundation from flooding is critical to saving lives and property, but relies heavily on accurate digital elevation and hydrologic models. The 2011 Brisbane floods provided a unique opportunity to capture high resolution digital aerial imagery as the floods neared their peak, allowing the capture of areas of inundation over the various city suburbs. This high quality imagery, together with accurate LiDAR data over the area and publically available volunteered geographic imagery through repositories such as Flickr, enabled the reconstruction of flood extents and the assessment of both area and depth of inundation for the assessment of damage. In this study, approximately 20 images of flood damaged properties were utilised to identify the peak of the flood. Accurate position and height values were determined through the use of RTK GPS and conventional survey methods. This information was then utilised in conjunction with river gauge information to generate a digital flood surface. The LiDAR generated DEM was then intersected with the flood surface to reconstruct the area of inundation. The model determined areas of inundation were then compared to the mapped flood extent from the high resolution digital imagery to assess the accuracy of the process. The paper concludes that accurate flood extent prediction or mapping is possible through this method, although its accuracy is dependent on the number and location of sampled points. The utilisation of LiDAR generated DEMs and DSMs can also provide an excellent mechanism to estimate depths of inundation and hence flood damage

  14. Geographical distributions of lake trout strains stocked in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Schaner, Ted

    1996-01-01

    Geographical distributions of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) stocked at seven locations in U.S. waters and at four locations in Canadian waters of Lake Ontario were determined from fish caught with gill nets in September in 17 areas of U.S. waters and at 10 fixed locations in Canadian waters in 1986-95. For fish of a given strain stocked at a given location, geographical distributions were not different for immature males and immature females or for mature males and mature females. The proportion of total catch at the three locations nearest the stocking location was higher for mature fish than for immature fish in all 24 available comparisons (sexes combined) and was greater for fish stocked as yearlings than for those stocked as fingerlings in all eight comparisons. Mature fish were relatively widely dispersed from stocking locations indicating that their tendency to return to stocking locations for spawning was weak, and there was no appreciable difference in this tendency among strains. Mature lake trout were uniformly distributed among sampling locations, and the strain composition at stocking locations generally reflected the stocking history 5 to 6 years earlier. Few lake trout moved across Lake Ontario between the north and south shores or between the eastern outlet basin and the main lake basin. Limited dispersal from stocking sites supports the concept of stocking different genetic strains in various parts of the lake with the attributes of each strain selected to match environmental conditions in the portion of the lake where it is stocked.

  15. A synopsis of Phytophthora with accurate scientific names, host range, and geographic distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Phytophthora includes species such as Phytophthora infestans, causing late blight of potato, and P. ramorum, causing sudden oak death, that have proven capable of inflicting considerable financial and ecological damage. Within Phytophthora there are 78 accepted species and seven infraspec...

  16. Self-Teaching Student's Manual for Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, George

    This paper is a report of a project that was undertaken to produce a self-teaching manual for students wishing to acquire technical skills in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Such skills are required in the analysis of locational data such as those found in aerial photographs, satellite images and digital maps. The self-teaching manual…

  17. A Geographical History of Online Rhetoric and Composition Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirrell, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    The "Mapping Digital Technology in Rhetoric and Composition History" project can accommodate the geographical aspects of many relevant potential data sets, such as the locations of conferences, grant and award winners, book publications, graduate programs, job openings, and blog posts. The maps created for this article focus specifically on online…

  18. Modeling the Adoption of Innovations in the Presence of Geographic and Media Influences

    PubMed Central

    Toole, Jameson L.; Cha, Meeyoung; González, Marta C.

    2012-01-01

    While there is a large body of work examining the effects of social network structure on innovation adoption, models to date have lacked considerations of real geography or mass media. In this article, we show these features are crucial to making more accurate predictions of a social contagion and technology adoption at a city-to-city scale. Using data from the adoption of the popular micro-blogging platform, Twitter, we present a model of adoption on a network that places friendships in real geographic space and exposes individuals to mass media influence. We show that homophily both among individuals with similar propensities to adopt a technology and geographic location is critical to reproducing features of real spatiotemporal adoption. Furthermore, we estimate that mass media was responsible for increasing Twitter's user base two to four fold. To reflect this strength, we extend traditional contagion models to include an endogenous mass media agent that responds to those adopting an innovation as well as influencing agents to adopt themselves. PMID:22276119

  19. Evaluating geographic information systems technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guptill, Stephen C.

    1989-01-01

    Computerized geographic information systems (GISs) are emerging as the spatial data handling tools of choice for solving complex geographical problems. However, few guidelines exist for assisting potential users in identifying suitable hardware and software. A process to be followed in evaluating the merits of GIS technology is presented. Related standards and guidelines, software functions, hardware components, and benchmarking are discussed. By making users aware of all aspects of adopting GIS technology, they can decide if GIS is an appropriate tool for their application and, if so, which GIS should be used.

  20. Geographic representation in spatial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Harvey J.

    Spatial analysis mostly developed in an era when data was scarce and computational power was expensive. Consequently, traditional spatial analysis greatly simplifies its representations of geography. The rise of geographic information science (GISci) and the changing nature of scientific questions at the end of the 20th century suggest a comprehensive re-examination of geographic representation in spatial analysis. This paper reviews the potential for improved representations of geography in spatial analysis. Existing tools in spatial analysis and new tools available from GISci have tremendous potential for bringing more sophisticated representations of geography to the forefront of spatial analysis theory and application.

  1. Analysing surnames as geographic data.

    PubMed

    Cheshire, James

    2014-01-01

    With most surname research undertaken within the fields of anthropology and population genetics, geographers have overlooked surnames as a credible data source. In addition to providing a review of recent developments in surname analysis, this paper highlights areas where geographers can make important contributions to advancing surname research, both in terms of its quality and also its applications. The review discusses the emerging applications for surname research, not least in the mining of online data, and ends by suggesting three future research themes to ensure the building momentum of surname research continues to grow across disciplines. PMID:25020015

  2. Changes at the National Geographic Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwille, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    For more than 125 years, National Geographic has explored the planet, unlocking its secrets and sharing them with the world. For almost thirty of those years, National Geographic has been committed to K-12 educators and geographic education through its Network of Alliances. As National Geographic begins a new chapter, they remain committed to the…

  3. Regional location in western China

    SciTech Connect

    Cogbill, A.H.; Steck, L.K.

    1996-10-01

    Accurately locating seismic events in western China using only regional seismic stations is a challenge. Not only is the number of seismic stations available for locating events small, but most stations available to researchers are often over 10{degree} distant. Here the authors describe the relocation, using regional stations, of both nuclear and earthquake sources near the Lop Nor test site in western China. For such relocations, they used the Earthquake Data Reports provided by the US Geological Survey (USGS) for the reported travel times. Such reports provide a listing of all phases reported to the USGS from stations throughout the world, including many stations in the People`s Republic of China. LocSAT was used as the location code. The authors systematically relocated each event int his study several times, using fewer and fewer stations at reach relocation, with the farther stations being eliminated at each step. They found that location accuracy, judged by comparing solutions from few stations to the solution provided using all available stations, remained good typically until fewer than seven stations remained.With a good station distribution, location accuracy remained surprisingly good (within 7 km) using as few as 3 stations. Because these relocations were computed without good station corrections and without source-specific station corrections (that is, path corrections), they believe that such regional locations can be substantially improved, largely using static station corrections and source-specific station corrections, at least in the Lop nor area, where sources have known locations. Elsewhere in China, one must rely upon known locations of regionally-recorded explosions. Locating such sources is clearly one of the major problems to be overcome before one can provide event locations with any assurance from regional stations.

  4. Geographic trends in alfalfa stand age and crops that follow alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA-National Agricultural Statistics Service cropland data layers and Soil Survey Geographic Database layers were combined for six states (North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Minnesota, Iowa, and Wisconsin) and seven years (2006-2012) to determine how soil texture and geographic location affect t...

  5. Geographic Information Systems as Applied to the Manipulation of Environmental Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, J. M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Discusses two aspects of a Geographic Information System (GIS), a computerized system for processing geographic and/or mapped data and components/implementation of a GIS and GIS demonstration in natural resources management. Demonstrations related to lignite mining permit requirements in coastal zone, and location of potential landfills/hazardous…

  6. I/O efficient algorithms and applications in geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danner, Andrew

    Modern remote sensing methods such a laser altimetry (lidar) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR) produce georeferenced elevation data at unprecedented rates. Many Geographic Information System (GIS) algorithms designed for terrain modelling applications cannot process these massive data sets. The primary problem is that these data sets are too large to fit in the main internal memory of modern computers and must therefore reside on larger, but considerably slower disks. In these applications, the transfer of data between disk and main memory, or I/O, becomes the primary bottleneck. Working in a theoretical model that more accurately represents this two level memory hierarchy, we can develop algorithms that are I/O-efficient and reduce the amount of disk I/O needed to solve a problem. In this thesis we aim to modernize GIS algorithms and develop a number of I/O-efficient algorithms for processing geographic data derived from massive elevation data sets. For each application, we convert a geographic question to an algorithmic question, develop an I/O-efficient algorithm that is theoretically efficient, implement our approach and verify its performance using real-world data. The applications we consider include constructing a gridded digital elevation model (DEM) from an irregularly spaced point cloud, removing topological noise from a DEM, modeling surface water flow over a terrain, extracting river networks and watershed hierarchies from the terrain, and locating polygons containing query points in a planar subdivision. We initially developed solutions to each of these applications individually. However, we also show how to combine individual solutions to form a scalable geo-processing pipeline that seamlessly solves a sequence of sub-problems with little or no manual intervention. We present experimental results that demonstrate orders of magnitude improvement over previously known algorithms.

  7. Powerful Knowledge and Geographical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Michael Young has argued that pupils should be given access to "powerful knowledge." This article examines the extent to which his concept of powerful knowledge is applicable to geographical education, in particular to the study of urban geography. It explores the distinction Young makes between everyday and school knowledge, how this…

  8. Geographic Proximity and Enrollment Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zammuto, Raymond F.

    The use of a measure of geographic proximity to help explain enrollment competition among postsecondary institutions was investigated. The measure, the number of miles between institutions, was obtained by determining the longitude and latitude coordinates for about 99% of the schools in the Higher Education General Information System universe.…

  9. Family Oriented Geographic Field Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Karen Ann Lalk

    This paper describes a program of geographic education through field experience trips for family groups. Developed at Delta College in Michigan, the approach is unique because it emphasizes learning experiences for families rather than for individual students. The family is interpreted to include nuclear families, single-parent families with…

  10. SOIL SURVEY GEOGRAPHIC DATABASE (SSURGO)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set is a digital soil survey and is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. This data set consists of georeferenced digital map data and computerized attribute data. The map data are in a 7.5 minute quadrangle ...

  11. Territorial Decentration and Geographic Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoltman, Joseph P.

    Territorial decentration is a question of major significance to geographic educators. This paper reports the findings of a research project designed to determine the territorial decentration of an American sample of children. The primary purpose of the research was to determine if Piaget's territorial decentration stages are appropriate for…

  12. Maryland Automated Geographic Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    A computer based system designed for storing geographic data in a consistent and coordinated manner is described. The data are stored, retrieved, and analyzed using a 400 km sq/acre cell. Stored information can be displayed on computer maps in a manner similar to standard map graphics. The data bank contains various information for performing land use analysis in a variety of areas.

  13. Gender Differences in Geographical Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, William W.; Troster, Alexander I.

    1987-01-01

    Among college undergraduates, males consistently outperform females on tests of geographical knowledge. That difference may be caused by the fact that women have had less active control over distances and directions traveled in their lives, and thus less interest in learning about them. This may change as women's roles in society change. (PS)

  14. Domestic violence, poverty, and social services: does location matter?

    PubMed

    Hetling, Andrea; Zhang, Haiyan

    2010-01-01

    Objective. This study investigates whether or not domestic violence agencies are located in areas of need. Recent research indicates that community economic disadvantage is a risk factor for intimate partner violence, but related questions regarding the geographic location of social service agencies have not been investigated.Methods. Using Connecticut as a case study, we analyze the relationship of agency location and police-reported domestic violence incidents and assaults using OLS regression and correcting for spatial autocorrelation.Results. The presence of an agency within a town has no relationship with the rates of domestic violence. However, regional patterns are evident.Conclusion. Findings indicate that programs are not geographically mismatched with need, but neither are programs located in towns with higher rates of incidents or assaults. Future research and planning efforts should consider the geographic location of agencies. PMID:21117333

  15. Modeling urban growth with geographically weighted multinomial logistic regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jun; Kanala, Nagaraj Kapi

    2008-10-01

    Spatial heterogeneity is usually ignored in previous land use change studies. This paper presents a geographically weighted multinomial logistic regression model for investigating multiple land use conversion in the urban growth process. The proposed model makes estimation at each sample location and generates local coefficients of driving factors for land use conversion. A Gaussian function is used for determine the geographic weights guarantying that all other samples are involved in the calibration of the model for one location. A case study on Springfield metropolitan area is conducted. A set of independent variables are selected as driving factors. A traditional multinomial logistic regression model is set up and compared with the proposed model. Spatial variations of coefficients of independent variables are revealed by investigating the estimations at sample locations.

  16. Global Health, Geographical Contingency, and Contingent Geographies

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Health geography has emerged from under the “shadow of the medical” to become one of the most vibrant of all the subdisciplines. Yet, this success has also meant that health research has become increasingly siloed within this subdisciplinary domain. As this article explores, this represents a potential lost opportunity with regard to the study of global health, which has instead come to be dominated by anthropology and political science. Chief among the former's concerns are exploring the gap between the programmatic intentions of global health and the unintended or unanticipated consequences of their deployment. This article asserts that recent work on contingency within geography offers significant conceptual potential for examining this gap. It therefore uses the example of alcohol taxation in Botswana, an emergent global health target and tool, to explore how geographical contingency and the emergent, contingent geographies that result might help counter the prevailing tendency for geography to be side-stepped within critical studies of global health. At the very least, then, this intervention aims to encourage reflection by geographers on how to make explicit the all-too-often implicit links between their research and global health debates located outside the discipline. PMID:27611662

  17. Acquiring geographical data with web harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dramowicz, K.

    2016-04-01

    Many websites contain very attractive and up to date geographical information. This information can be extracted, stored, analyzed and mapped using web harvesting techniques. Poorly organized data from websites are transformed with web harvesting into a more structured format, which can be stored in a database and analyzed. Almost 25% of web traffic is related to web harvesting, mostly while using search engines. This paper presents how to harvest geographic information from web documents using the free tool called the Beautiful Soup, one of the most commonly used Python libraries for pulling data from HTML and XML files. It is a relatively easy task to process one static HTML table. The more challenging task is to extract and save information from tables located in multiple and poorly organized websites. Legal and ethical aspects of web harvesting are discussed as well. The paper demonstrates two case studies. The first one shows how to extract various types of information about the Good Country Index from the multiple web pages, load it into one attribute table and map the results. The second case study shows how script tools and GIS can be used to extract information from one hundred thirty six websites about Nova Scotia wines. In a little more than three minutes a database containing one hundred and six liquor stores selling these wines is created. Then the availability and spatial distribution of various types of wines (by grape types, by wineries, and by liquor stores) are mapped and analyzed.

  18. LLNL Location and Detection Research

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S C; Harris, D B; Anderson, M L; Walter, W R; Flanagan, M P; Ryall, F

    2003-07-16

    We present two LLNL research projects in the topical areas of location and detection. The first project assesses epicenter accuracy using a multiple-event location algorithm, and the second project employs waveform subspace Correlation to detect and identify events at Fennoscandian mines. Accurately located seismic events are the bases of location calibration. A well-characterized set of calibration events enables new Earth model development, empirical calibration, and validation of models. In a recent study, Bondar et al. (2003) develop network coverage criteria for assessing the accuracy of event locations that are determined using single-event, linearized inversion methods. These criteria are conservative and are meant for application to large bulletins where emphasis is on catalog completeness and any given event location may be improved through detailed analysis or application of advanced algorithms. Relative event location techniques are touted as advancements that may improve absolute location accuracy by (1) ensuring an internally consistent dataset, (2) constraining a subset of events to known locations, and (3) taking advantage of station and event correlation structure. Here we present the preliminary phase of this work in which we use Nevada Test Site (NTS) nuclear explosions, with known locations, to test the effect of travel-time model accuracy on relative location accuracy. Like previous studies, we find that the reference velocity-model and relative-location accuracy are highly correlated. We also find that metrics based on travel-time residual of relocated events are not a reliable for assessing either velocity-model or relative-location accuracy. In the topical area of detection, we develop specialized correlation (subspace) detectors for the principal mines surrounding the ARCES station located in the European Arctic. Our objective is to provide efficient screens for explosions occurring in the mines of the Kola Peninsula (Kovdor, Zapolyarny

  19. A geographical sampling method for surveys of mosquito larvae in an urban area using high-resolution satellite imagery

    PubMed Central

    Troyo, Adriana; Fuller, Douglas O.; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Beier, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Entomological surveys in urban areas are often biased by selecting houses or locations with known high vector densities. A sampling strategy was developed for Puntarenas, Costa Rica, using high-resolution satellite imagery. Grids from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer and a QuickBird classified land cover map were used to determine the optimal final grid area for surveys. A random sample (10% of cells) was selected, and sample suitability was assessed by comparing the mean percentage of tree cover between sample and total cells. Sample cells were used obtain entomological data from 581 locations: 26.3% of all locations positive for mosquito larvae were not households, they contained 29.5% of mosquito-positive habitats and 16% of Aedes aegypti pupae collected. Entomological indices for Ae. aegypti (pupae per person, Breteau index, container index, location index) were slightly lower when only household data were analyzed. High-resolution satellite imagery and geographical information systems appear useful for evaluating urban sites and randomly selecting locations for accurate entomological surveys. PMID:18697301

  20. Harvest locations of goose barnacles can be successfully discriminated using trace elemental signatures.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Swearer, Stephen E; Calado, Ricardo; Leandro, Sérgio M

    2016-01-01

    European Union regulations state that consumers must be rightfully informed about the provenance of fishery products to prevent fraudulent practices. However, mislabeling of the geographical origin is a common practice. It is therefore paramount to develop forensic methods that allow all players involved in the supply chain to accurately trace the origin of seafood. In this study, trace elemental signatures (TES) of the goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes, collected from ten sites along the Portuguese coast, were employed to discriminate individual's origin. Barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lithium (Li), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorous (P), lead (Pb), strontium (Sr) and zinc (Zn) - were quantified using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significant differences were recorded among locations for all elements. A regularized discriminant analysis (RDA) revealed that 83% of all individuals were correctly assigned. This study shows TES can be a reliable tool to confirm the geographic origin of goose barnacles at fine spatial resolution. Although additional studies are required to ascertain the reliability of TES on cooked specimens and the temporal stability of the signature, the approach holds great promise for the management of goose barnacles fisheries, enforcement of conservation policies and assurance in accurate labeling. PMID:27292413

  1. Harvest locations of goose barnacles can be successfully discriminated using trace elemental signatures

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Swearer, Stephen E.; Calado, Ricardo; Leandro, Sérgio M.

    2016-01-01

    European Union regulations state that consumers must be rightfully informed about the provenance of fishery products to prevent fraudulent practices. However, mislabeling of the geographical origin is a common practice. It is therefore paramount to develop forensic methods that allow all players involved in the supply chain to accurately trace the origin of seafood. In this study, trace elemental signatures (TES) of the goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes, collected from ten sites along the Portuguese coast, were employed to discriminate individual’s origin. Barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lithium (Li), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorous (P), lead (Pb), strontium (Sr) and zinc (Zn) - were quantified using Inductively Coupled Plasma−Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significant differences were recorded among locations for all elements. A regularized discriminant analysis (RDA) revealed that 83% of all individuals were correctly assigned. This study shows TES can be a reliable tool to confirm the geographic origin of goose barnacles at fine spatial resolution. Although additional studies are required to ascertain the reliability of TES on cooked specimens and the temporal stability of the signature, the approach holds great promise for the management of goose barnacles fisheries, enforcement of conservation policies and assurance in accurate labeling. PMID:27292413

  2. Examining the spatial congruence between data obtained with a novel activity location questionnaire, continuous GPS tracking, and prompted recall surveys

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Place and health researchers are increasingly interested in integrating individuals’ mobility and the experience they have with multiple settings in their studies. In practice, however, few tools exist which allow for rapid and accurate gathering of detailed information on the geographic location of places where people regularly undertake activities. We describe the development and validation of a new activity location questionnaire which can be useful in accounting for multiple environmental influences in large population health investigations. Methods To develop the questionnaire, we relied on a literature review of similar data collection tools and on results of a pilot study wherein we explored content validity, test-retest reliability, and face validity. To estimate convergent validity, we used data from a study of users of a public bicycle share program conducted in Montreal, Canada in 2011. We examined the spatial congruence between questionnaire data and data from three other sources: 1) one-week GPS tracks; 2) activity locations extracted from the GPS tracks; and 3) a prompted recall survey of locations visited during the day. Proximity and convex hull measures were used to compare questionnaire-derived data and GPS and prompted recall survey data. Results In the sample, 75% of questionnaire-reported activity locations were located within 400 meters of an activity location recorded on the GPS track or through the prompted recall survey. Results from convex hull analyses suggested questionnaire activity locations were more concentrated in space than GPS or prompted-recall locations. Conclusions The new questionnaire has high convergent validity and can be used to accurately collect data on regular activity spaces in terms of locations regularly visited. The methods, measures, and findings presented provide new material to further study mobility in place and health research. PMID:24025119

  3. Investigation of Error Patterns in Geographical Databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryer, David; Jacobs, Derya A.; Karayaz, Gamze; Gronbech, Chris; Jones, Denise R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the research conducted in this project is to develop a methodology to investigate the accuracy of Airport Safety Modeling Data (ASMD) using statistical, visualization, and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) techniques. Such a methodology can contribute to answering the following research questions: Over a representative sampling of ASMD databases, can statistical error analysis techniques be accurately learned and replicated by ANN modeling techniques? This representative ASMD sample should include numerous airports and a variety of terrain characterizations. Is it possible to identify and automate the recognition of patterns of error related to geographical features? Do such patterns of error relate to specific geographical features, such as elevation or terrain slope? Is it possible to combine the errors in small regions into an error prediction for a larger region? What are the data density reduction implications of this work? ASMD may be used as the source of terrain data for a synthetic visual system to be used in the cockpit of aircraft when visual reference to ground features is not possible during conditions of marginal weather or reduced visibility. In this research, United States Geologic Survey (USGS) digital elevation model (DEM) data has been selected as the benchmark. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNS) have been used and tested as alternate methods in place of the statistical methods in similar problems. They often perform better in pattern recognition, prediction and classification and categorization problems. Many studies show that when the data is complex and noisy, the accuracy of ANN models is generally higher than those of comparable traditional methods.

  4. Geographical Applications of Remote Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Qihao; Zhou, Yuyu; Quattrochi, Dale

    2013-02-28

    Data and Information derived through Earth observation technology have been extensively used in geographic studies, such as in the areas of natural and human environments, resources, land use and land cover, human-environment interactions, and socioeconomic issues. Land-use and land-cover change (LULCC), affecting biodiversity, climate change, watershed hydrology, and other surface processes, is one of the most important research topics in geography.

  5. Geographic relatedness and predictability of Escherichia coli along a peninsular beach complex of Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, M.B.; Shively, D.A.; Kleinheinz, G.T.; McDermott, C.M.; Schuster, W.; Chomeau, V.; Whitman, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    To determine more accurately the real-time concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in beach water, predictive modeling has been applied in several locations around the Great Lakes to individual or small groups of similar beaches. Using 24 beaches in Door County, Wisconsin, we attempted to expand predictive models to multiple beaches of complex geography. We examined the importance of geographic location and independent variables and the consequential limitations for potential beach or beach group models. An analysis of Escherichia coli populations over 4 yr revealed a geographic gradient to the beaches, with mean E. coli concentrations decreasing with increasing distance from the city of Sturgeon Bay. Beaches grouped strongly by water type (lake, bay, Sturgeon Bay) and proximity to one another, followed by presence of a storm or creek outfall or amount of shoreline enclosure. Predictive models developed for beach groups commonly included wave height and cumulative 48-h rainfall but generally explained little E. coli variation (adj. R2 = 0.19-0.36). Generally low concentrations of E. coli at the beaches influenced the effectiveness of model results presumably because of low signal-to-noise ratios and the rarity of elevated concentrations. Our results highlight the importance of the sensitivity of regressors and the need for careful methods evaluation. Despite the attractiveness of predictive models as an alternative beach monitoring approach, it is likely that FIB fluctuations at some beaches defy simple prediction approaches. Regional, multi-beach, and individual beach predictive models should be explored alongside other techniques for improving monitoring reliability at Great Lakes beaches. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  6. Geographic names of the Antarctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Board on Geographic Names; U.S. Geological Survey; Defense Mapping Agency; National Science Foundation

    1995-01-01

    This gazetteer contains 12,710 names approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names and the Secretary of the Interior for features in Antarctica and the area extending northward to the Antarctic Convergence. Included in this geographic area, the Antarctic region, are the off-lying South Shetland Islands, the South Orkney Islands, the South Sandwich Islands, South Georgia, Bouvetøya, Heard Island, and the Balleny Islands. These names have been approved for use by U.S. Government agencies. Their use by the Antarctic specialist and the public is highly recommended for the sake of accuracy and uniformity. This publication, which supersedes previous Board gazetteers or lists for the area, contains names approved as recently as December 1994. The basic name coverage of this gazetteer corresponds to that of maps at the scale of 1:250,000 or larger for coastal Antarctica, the off-lying islands, and isolated mountains and ranges of the continent. Much of the interior of Antarctica is a featureless ice plateau. That area has been mapped at a smaller scale and is nearly devoid of toponyms. All of the names are for natural features, such as mountains, glaciers, peninsulas, capes, bays, islands, and subglacial entities. The names of scientific stations have not been listed alphabetically, but they may appear in the texts of some decisions. For the names of submarine features, reference should be made to the Gazetteer of Undersea Features, 4th edition, U.S. Board on Geographic Names, 1990.

  7. Temporal uncertainty of geographical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Hong; Qi, Cuihong

    2005-10-01

    Temporal uncertainty is a crossing point of temporal and error-aware geographical information systems. In Geoinformatics, temporal uncertainty is of the same importance as spatial and thematic uncertainty of geographical information. However, until very recently, the standard organizations of ISO/TC211 and FGDC subsequently claimed that temporal uncertainty is one of geospatial data quality elements. Over the past decades, temporal uncertainty of geographical information is modeled insufficiently. To lay down a foundation of logically or physically modeling temporal uncertainty, this paper is aimed to clarify the semantics of temporal uncertainty to some extent. The general uncertainty is conceptualized with a taxonomy of uncertainty. Semantically, temporal uncertainty is progressively classified into uncertainty of time coordinates, changes, and dynamics. Uncertainty of multidimensional time (valid time, database time, and conceptual time, etc.) has been emphasized. It is realized that time scale (granularity) transition may lead to temporal uncertainty because of missing transition details. It is dialectically concluded that temporal uncertainty is caused by the complexity of the human-machine-earth system.

  8. 20. Raw Material for the Geographic Magazine. The mills of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Raw Material for the Geographic Magazine. The mills of the Champion International Company which make paper on which the National Geographic Magazine is printed are located in Lawrence, Mass. This picture shows great piles of pulp-wood ready for conversion into paper for the The Geographic. Parts of these wood piles are more than 50 feet high. The cars shown in the picture are on a trestle 21 feet high. The Geographic magazines mailed in a single year, if laid side by side, would reach from Quito, Ecuador, across Colombia and Caribbean, thence across the United States and Canada, through the North Pole, and across Siberia, China, and Siam to Bangkok. It takes 33,000 miles of wrappers to mail one year's edition. It would require a bookshelf more than three and a half miles long to hold all the copies of this month's issue of The Geographic. (p.235.) - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  9. Accurate measurement of unsteady state fluid temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaremkiewicz, Magdalena

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, two accurate methods for determining the transient fluid temperature were presented. Measurements were conducted for boiling water since its temperature is known. At the beginning the thermometers are at the ambient temperature and next they are immediately immersed into saturated water. The measurements were carried out with two thermometers of different construction but with the same housing outer diameter equal to 15 mm. One of them is a K-type industrial thermometer widely available commercially. The temperature indicated by the thermometer was corrected considering the thermometers as the first or second order inertia devices. The new design of a thermometer was proposed and also used to measure the temperature of boiling water. Its characteristic feature is a cylinder-shaped housing with the sheath thermocouple located in its center. The temperature of the fluid was determined based on measurements taken in the axis of the solid cylindrical element (housing) using the inverse space marching method. Measurements of the transient temperature of the air flowing through the wind tunnel using the same thermometers were also carried out. The proposed measurement technique provides more accurate results compared with measurements using industrial thermometers in conjunction with simple temperature correction using the inertial thermometer model of the first or second order. By comparing the results, it was demonstrated that the new thermometer allows obtaining the fluid temperature much faster and with higher accuracy in comparison to the industrial thermometer. Accurate measurements of the fast changing fluid temperature are possible due to the low inertia thermometer and fast space marching method applied for solving the inverse heat conduction problem.

  10. Location, Location, Location: Development of Spatiotemporal Sequence Learning in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkham, Natasha Z.; Slemmer, Jonathan A.; Richardson, Daniel C.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated infants' sensitivity to spatiotemporal structure. In Experiment 1, circles appeared in a statistically defined spatial pattern. At test 11-month-olds, but not 8-month-olds, looked longer at a novel spatial sequence. Experiment 2 presented different color/shape stimuli, but only the location sequence was violated during test;…

  11. 50 CFR 2.2 - Locations of regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Locations of regional offices. 2.2 Section 2.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS FIELD ORGANIZATION § 2.2 Locations of regional offices. The geographic jurisdictions and addresses of the U.S. Fish and...

  12. Locative view: visualizing geo-referenced objects in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlotto, Mark; Nebrich, Mark; Hylton, Paul

    2010-04-01

    Locative Viewing is a method for visualizing geographically-referenced 3-D objects in the local coordinate system of a geographically-referenced observer. A computer-graphics rendering of nearby geo-objects is superimposed over the visual surroundings of the observer as seen by a camera. This rendering changes as the observer moves. Locative viewing can be accomplished with a mobile device that 1) is able to determine its geographic location, and orientation, 2) contains a camera and image display, and 3) can project and overlay objects within the field of view of the camera with the camera image. A preliminary implementation of a locative viewer using Apple's iPhone is described and results presented.

  13. Regional Location Calibration in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steck, L. K.; Hartse, H.; Aprea, C.; Franks, J.; Velasco, A.; Randall, G.; Bradley, C.; Begnaud, M.; Aguilar-Chang, J.

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents a spectrum of issues and efforts involved in improving seismic location performance worldwide. Our efforts are largely designed around providing validated, rigorously calibrated travel times, azimuths, and slownesses along with accurate error estimates. To do so entails a significant effort that includes data mining, data integration, database management, developing optimal 1-, 2-, and 3-D Earth models, using the Earth models to predict wave propagation, developing corrections and errors for travel times, azimuths, and slownesses, and validation of all products. Results presented here will focus on Asia. For the region around station MAKZ in north-central Asia we have looked at several tens of published 1-D velocity models. For each model, travel time calculations were performed, predictions for P and S arrivals were established, and the predicted times were compared to the observed. We will present best-fit models for tectonic provinces out to regional distances from MAKZ. Previous work has shown that Non-stationary Modified Bayesian Kriging of travel time residuals successfully improves regional seismic event location, and this method is being extended to calculate corrections for azimuth and slowness. The ability to krig over 3-D Earth models is also being implemented. In order to produce the most useful corrections, we require accurate ground truth. For this we are continuing efforts to create a location database consisting of the best available seismic event locations and the most accurate and precise travel times. Building this database relies on participation from universities, other NNSA laboratories, and contacts in private industry. Through the kriging procedure we are able to stabilize location algorithms, but the ultimate usefulness of the corrections themselves is directly related to the quality of the ground truth from which the corrections are derived. Indeed, epicentral mislocations from EvLoc using travel time correction

  14. Helicopter magnetic survey conducted to locate wells

    SciTech Connect

    Veloski, G.A.; Hammack, R.W.; Stamp, V.; Hall, R.; Colina, K.

    2008-07-01

    A helicopter magnetic survey was conducted in August 2007 over 15.6 sq mi at the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3’s (NPR-3) Teapot Dome Field near Casper, Wyoming. The survey’s purpose was to accurately locate wells drilled there during more than 90 years of continuous oilfield operation. The survey was conducted at low altitude and with closely spaced flight lines to improve the detection of wells with weak magnetic response and to increase the resolution of closely spaced wells. The survey was in preparation for a planned CO2 flood for EOR, which requires a complete well inventory with accurate locations for all existing wells. The magnetic survey was intended to locate wells missing from the well database and to provide accurate locations for all wells. The ability of the helicopter magnetic survey to accurately locate wells was accomplished by comparing airborne well picks with well locations from an intense ground search of a small test area.

  15. Location, location, location: priority effects in wood decay communities may vary between sites.

    PubMed

    Hiscox, Jennifer; Savoury, Melanie; Johnston, Sarah R; Parfitt, David; Müller, Carsten T; Rogers, Hilary J; Boddy, Lynne

    2016-06-01

    Priority effects are known to have a major influence on fungal community development in decomposing wood, but it has not yet been established whether these effects are consistent between different geographical locations. Here, beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood disks that had been pre-colonized with three wood decay basidiomycetes were placed in seven woodland sites with similar characteristics for 12-24 months, and the successor communities profiled using culture-based techniques coupled with amplicon sequencing. On the majority of sites, assembly history differed as a result of primary versus secondary resource capture only (i.e. different communities developed in uncolonized control disks compared with those that had been pre-colonized), but on certain sites distinct successor communities followed each pre-colonizer species. This study provides preliminary evidence that differences in abiotic factors and species pools between sites can cause spatial variation in how priority effects influence wood decay communities. PMID:26626102

  16. 33 CFR 165.8 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD 83 only after...

  17. 33 CFR 165.8 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD 83 only after...

  18. 33 CFR 165.8 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD 83 only after...

  19. 33 CFR 165.8 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD 83 only after...

  20. 33 CFR 165.8 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD 83 only after...

  1. Snippet Generation for Geographic Information Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Norihito; Okumura, Manabu; Matsuura, Yumiko; Kataoka, Ryoji

    Geographic information retrieval (GIR) aims at the retrieval of geographic-related documents based through the use of not only on keyword relevance but also on geographic relationships between the query and the geographic information in the texts. However, how to show search results in GIR has not been studied well, especially with regard to generating snippets that reflect the geographic part of the query. This paper proposes a novel snippet generation method. Our method first converts geographic phrases in the target text into geographic coordinates, then scores each of them according to their distance from the query using the coordinates. Next, it extracts fragments of the target text based on the distribution of the query keyword and geographic scores, and presents the combined fragments as a snippet. Evaluations are conducted with regard to two different aspects. Both attributes confirm the effectiveness of our method.

  2. Close to home: An analysis of the relationship between location of residence and location of injury

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Barbara; Doumouras, Aristithes G.; Gomez, David; de Mestral, Charles; Boyes, Donald M.; Morrison, Laurie; Nathens, Avery B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Injury surveillance is critical in identifying the need for targeted prevention initiatives. Understanding the geographic distribution of injuries facilitates matching prevention programs with the population most likely to benefit. At the population level, however, the geographic site of injury is rarely known, leading to the use of location of residence as a surrogate. To determine the accuracy of this approach, we evaluated the relationship between site of injury and of residence over a large geographic area. METHODS Data were derived from a population-based, pre-hospital registry of persons meeting triage criteria for major trauma. Patients dying at the scene or transported to hospital were included. Distance between locations of residence and of injury was calculated using geographic information system network analysis. RESULTS Among 3,280 patients (2005-2010), 88% were injured within 10 miles of home (median 0.2 miles). There were significant differences in distance between residence and location of injury based on mechanism of injury, age and hospital disposition. The large majority of injuries involving children, the elderly, pedestrians, cyclists, falls, and assaults occurred less than 10 miles from the patient's residence. Only 77% of MVC occurred within 10 miles of the patient's residence. CONCLUSION Though the majority of patients are injured less than 10 miles from their residence, the probability of injury occurring “close to home” depends on patient and injury characteristics. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Epidemiological retrospective study. Level III. PMID:25807410

  3. The DOE Model for Improving Seismic Event Locations Using Travel Time Corrections: Description and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Hipp, J.R.; Moore, S.G.; Shepherd, E.; Young, C.J.

    1998-10-20

    The U.S. National Laboratories, under the auspices of the Department of Energy, have been tasked with improv- ing the capability of the United States National Data Center (USNDC) to monitor compliance with the Comprehen- sive Test Ban Trea~ (CTBT). One of the most important services which the USNDC must provide is to locate suspicious events, preferably as accurately as possible to help identify their origin and to insure the success of on-site inspections if they are deemed necessary. The seismic location algorithm used by the USNDC has the capability to generate accurate locations by applying geographically dependent travel time corrections, but to date, none of the means, proposed for generating and representing these corrections has proven to be entirely satisfactory. In this presentation, we detail the complete DOE model for how regional calibration travel time information gathered by the National Labs will be used to improve event locations and provide more realistic location error esti- mates. We begin with residual data and error estimates from ground truth events. Our model consists of three parts: data processing, data storage, and data retrieval. The former two are effectively one-time processes, executed in advance before the system is made operational. The last step is required every time an accurate event location is needed. Data processing involves applying non-stationary Bayesian kriging to the residwd data to densifi them, and iterating to find the optimal tessellation representation for the fast interpolation in the data retrieval task. Both the kriging and the iterative re-tessellation are slow, computationally-expensive processes but this is acceptable because they are performed off-line, before any events are to be located. In the data storage task, the densified data set is stored in a database and spatially indexed. Spatial indexing improves the access efficiency of the geographically-ori- ented data requests associated with event location

  4. Authorities and organizations involved with geographic names - 1989: United States, Canada, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orth, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    There is a need for accurate and standard geographic names usage in all levels of government, industry, commerce, communications, education, and research. There is also a growing number of organizations in North America that are, fully or partly, involved in the scholarly study of geographic names. This report is a list of official national, State/Provincial, and regional provincial authorities concerned with name standardization, and of organizations involved with the study of geographic names, in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. The appendixes are copies of documents that provide additional information about the organization, policies, procedures, and publications of some of these organizations.

  5. Automation technology using Geographic Information System (GIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Cynthia L.

    1994-01-01

    Airport Surface Movement Area is but one of the actions taken to increase the capacity and safety of existing airport facilities. The System Integration Branch (SIB) has designed an integrated system consisting of an electronic moving display in the cockpit, and includes display of taxi routes which will warn controllers and pilots of the position of other traffic and warning information automatically. Although, this system has in test simulation proven to be accurate and helpful; the initial process of obtaining an airport layout of the taxi-routes and designing each of them is a very tedious and time-consuming process. Other methods of preparing the display maps are being researched. One such method is the use of the Geographical Information System (GIS). GIS is an integrated system of computer hardware and software linking topographical, demographic and other resource data that is being referenced. The software can support many areas of work with virtually unlimited information compatibility due to the system's open architecture. GIS will allow us to work faster with increased efficiency and accuracy while providing decision making capabilities. GIS is currently being used at the Langley Research Center with other applications and has been validated as an accurate system for that task. GIS usage for our task will involve digitizing aerial photographs of the topology for each taxi-runway and identifying each position according to its specific spatial coordinates. The information currently being used can be integrated with the GIS system, due to its ability to provide a wide variety of user interfaces. Much more research and data analysis will be needed before this technique will be used, however we are hopeful this will lead to better usage of man-power and technological capabilities for the future.

  6. Predict amine solution properties accurately

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, S.; Meisen, A.; Chakma, A.

    1996-02-01

    Improved process design begins with using accurate physical property data. Especially in the preliminary design stage, physical property data such as density viscosity, thermal conductivity and specific heat can affect the overall performance of absorbers, heat exchangers, reboilers and pump. These properties can also influence temperature profiles in heat transfer equipment and thus control or affect the rate of amine breakdown. Aqueous-amine solution physical property data are available in graphical form. However, it is not convenient to use with computer-based calculations. Developed equations allow improved correlations of derived physical property estimates with published data. Expressions are given which can be used to estimate physical properties of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), monoethanolamine (MEA) and diglycolamine (DGA) solutions.

  7. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, Cameron J.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Stapleton, Andrew J.; Shapter, Joseph G.; Gibson, Christopher T.

    2016-03-01

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

  8. Accurate, reliable prototype earth horizon sensor head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F.; Cohen, H.

    1973-01-01

    The design and performance is described of an accurate and reliable prototype earth sensor head (ARPESH). The ARPESH employs a detection logic 'locator' concept and horizon sensor mechanization which should lead to high accuracy horizon sensing that is minimally degraded by spatial or temporal variations in sensing attitude from a satellite in orbit around the earth at altitudes in the 500 km environ 1,2. An accuracy of horizon location to within 0.7 km has been predicted, independent of meteorological conditions. This corresponds to an error of 0.015 deg-at 500 km altitude. Laboratory evaluation of the sensor indicates that this accuracy is achieved. First, the basic operating principles of ARPESH are described; next, detailed design and construction data is presented and then performance of the sensor under laboratory conditions in which the sensor is installed in a simulator that permits it to scan over a blackbody source against background representing the earth space interface for various equivalent plant temperatures.

  9. Deactivation and Decommissioning Planning and Analysis with Geographic Information Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, James S.; Koffman, Larry D.; Austin, William E.

    2008-01-15

    From the mid-1950's through the 1980's, the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site produced nuclear materials for the weapons stockpile, for medical and industrial applications, and for space exploration. Although SRS has a continuing defense-related mission, the overall site mission is now oriented toward environmental restoration and management of legacy chemical and nuclear waste. With the change in mission, SRS no longer has a need for much of the infrastructure developed to support the weapons program. This excess infrastructure, which includes over 1000 facilities, will be decommissioned and demolished over the forthcoming years. Dis-positioning facilities for decommissioning and deactivation requires significant resources to determine hazards, structure type, and a rough-order-of-magnitude estimate for the decommissioning and demolition cost. Geographic information systems (GIS) technology was used to help manage the process of dis-positioning infrastructure and for reporting the future status of impacted facilities. Several thousand facilities of various ages and conditions are present at SRS. Many of these facilities, built to support previous defense-related missions, now represent a potential hazard and cost for maintenance and surveillance. To reduce costs and the hazards associated with this excess infrastructure, SRS has developed an ambitious plan to decommission and demolish unneeded facilities in a systematic fashion. GIS technology was used to assist development of this plan by: providing locational information for remote facilities, identifying the location of known waste units adjacent to buildings slated for demolition, and for providing a powerful visual representation of the impact of the overall plan. Several steps were required for the development of the infrastructure GIS model. The first step involved creating an accurate and current GIS representation of the infrastructure data. This data is maintained in a Computer Aided Design

  10. Location, location, location: the misprediction of satisfaction in housing lotteries.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Elizabeth W; Wilson, Timothy D; Gilbert, Daniel T

    2003-11-01

    People tend to overestimate the emotional consequences of future life events, exhibiting an impact bias. The authors replicated the impact bias in a real-life context in which undergraduates were randomly assigned to dormitories (or "houses"). Participants appeared to focus on the wrong factors when imagining their future happiness in the houses. They placed far greater weight on highly variable physical features than on less variable social features in predicting their future happiness in each house, despite accurately recognizing that social features were more important than physical features when asked explicitly about the determinants of happiness. In Experiment 2, we found that this discrepancy emerged in part because participants exhibited an isolation effect, focusing too much on factors that distinguished between houses and not enough on factors that varied only slightly, such as social features. PMID:15189579

  11. Geographic Uncertainty in Environmental Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlquist, Jon

    2008-06-01

    This volume contains 17 papers presented at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Fuzziness and Uncertainty held in Kiev, Ukraine, 28 June to 1 July 2006. Eleven of the papers deal with fuzzy set concepts, while the other six (papers 5, 7, 13, 14, 15, and 16) are not fuzzy. A reader with no prior exposure to fuzzy set theory would benefit from having an introductory text at hand, but the papers are accessible to a wide audience. In general, the papers deal with broad issues of classification and uncertainty in geographic information.

  12. Geo-Located Tweets. Enhancing Mobility Maps and Capturing Cross-Border Movement.

    PubMed

    Blanford, Justine I; Huang, Zhuojie; Savelyev, Alexander; MacEachren, Alan M

    2015-01-01

    Capturing human movement patterns across political borders is difficult and this difficulty highlights the need to investigate alternative data streams. With the advent of smart phones and the ability to attach accurate coordinates to Twitter messages, users leave a geographic digital footprint of their movement when posting tweets. In this study we analyzed 10 months of geo-located tweets for Kenya and were able to capture movement of people at different temporal (daily to periodic) and spatial (local, national to international) scales. We were also able to capture both long and short distances travelled, highlighting regional connections and cross-border movement between Kenya and the surrounding countries. The findings from this study has broad implications for studying movement patterns and mapping inter/intra-region movement dynamics. PMID:26086772

  13. Geo-Located Tweets. Enhancing Mobility Maps and Capturing Cross-Border Movement

    PubMed Central

    Blanford, Justine I.; Huang, Zhuojie; Savelyev, Alexander; MacEachren, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Capturing human movement patterns across political borders is difficult and this difficulty highlights the need to investigate alternative data streams. With the advent of smart phones and the ability to attach accurate coordinates to Twitter messages, users leave a geographic digital footprint of their movement when posting tweets. In this study we analyzed 10 months of geo-located tweets for Kenya and were able to capture movement of people at different temporal (daily to periodic) and spatial (local, national to international) scales. We were also able to capture both long and short distances travelled, highlighting regional connections and cross-border movement between Kenya and the surrounding countries. The findings from this study has broad implications for studying movement patterns and mapping inter/intra-region movement dynamics. PMID:26086772

  14. Cable-fault locator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cason, R. L.; Mcstay, J. J.; Heymann, A. P., Sr.

    1979-01-01

    Inexpensive system automatically indicates location of short-circuited section of power cable. Monitor does not require that cable be disconnected from its power source or that test signals be applied. Instead, ground-current sensors are installed in manholes or at other selected locations along cable run. When fault occurs, sensors transmit information about fault location to control center. Repair crew can be sent to location and cable can be returned to service with minimum of downtime.

  15. Location, Location, Location: Where Do Location-Based Services Fit into Your Institution's Social Media Mix?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nekritz, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Foursquare is a location-based social networking service that allows users to share their location with friends. Some college administrators have been thinking about whether and how to take the leap into location-based services, which are also known as geosocial networking services. These platforms, which often incorporate gaming elements like…

  16. Accurate ab Initio Spin Densities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We present an approach for the calculation of spin density distributions for molecules that require very large active spaces for a qualitatively correct description of their electronic structure. Our approach is based on the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm to calculate the spin density matrix elements as a basic quantity for the spatially resolved spin density distribution. The spin density matrix elements are directly determined from the second-quantized elementary operators optimized by the DMRG algorithm. As an analytic convergence criterion for the spin density distribution, we employ our recently developed sampling-reconstruction scheme [J. Chem. Phys.2011, 134, 224101] to build an accurate complete-active-space configuration-interaction (CASCI) wave function from the optimized matrix product states. The spin density matrix elements can then also be determined as an expectation value employing the reconstructed wave function expansion. Furthermore, the explicit reconstruction of a CASCI-type wave function provides insight into chemically interesting features of the molecule under study such as the distribution of α and β electrons in terms of Slater determinants, CI coefficients, and natural orbitals. The methodology is applied to an iron nitrosyl complex which we have identified as a challenging system for standard approaches [J. Chem. Theory Comput.2011, 7, 2740]. PMID:22707921

  17. Geographic distribution of Bhanja virus.

    PubMed

    Hubálek, Z

    1987-01-01

    A review on the geographic distribution, vectors and hosts of Bhanja virus (Bunyaviridae) is based on reports about: isolations of the virus; antibody surveys. Bhanja virus has been isolated in 15 countries of Asia, Africa and Europe, and antibodies against it have been detected in 15 additional countries. Vector range includes ticks of the family Ixodidae (subfam. Amblyomminae; not subfam. Ixodinae): 13 species of 6 genera (Haemaphysalis, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, Amblyomma, Rhipicephalus and Boophilus) yielded the virus. Bhanja virus has only rarely been isolated from vertebrates (Atelerix, Xerus, Ovis, Bos; possibly bats), though antibodies have been detected frequently in a wide range of mammals (Ruminantia being the major hosts), in several species of birds (Passeriformes, Galliformes) and even reptiles (Ophisaurus apodus). Natural foci of the Bhanja virus infections are of the boskematic type (sensu Rosický), associated closely with pastures of domestic ruminants infested by ticks in the regions of tropical, subtropical and partly temperate climatic zones. PMID:3108117

  18. Geographical range, heat tolerance and invasion success in aquatic species

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Amanda E.; McKelvie, Catherine M.; Sorte, Cascade J. B.; Morley, Simon A.; Jones, Nicholas A. R.; Mondon, Julie A.; Bird, Tomas J.; Quinn, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Species with broader geographical ranges are expected to be ecological generalists, while species with higher heat tolerances may be relatively competitive at more extreme and increasing temperatures. Thus, both traits are expected to relate to increased survival during transport to new regions of the globe, and once there, establishment and spread. Here, we explore these expectations using datasets of latitudinal range breadth and heat tolerance in freshwater and marine invertebrates and fishes. After accounting for the latitude and hemisphere of each species’ native range, we find that species introduced to freshwater systems have broader geographical ranges in comparison to native species. Moreover, introduced species are more heat tolerant than related native species collected from the same habitats. We further test for differences in range breadth and heat tolerance in relation to invasion success by comparing species that have established geographically restricted versus extensive introduced distributions. We find that geographical range size is positively related to invasion success in freshwater species only. However, heat tolerance is implicated as a trait correlated to widespread occurrence of introduced populations in both freshwater and marine systems. Our results emphasize the importance of formal risk assessments before moving heat tolerant species to novel locations. PMID:24266040

  19. Globalization or Hegemony? Childcare on the Brink: Hints from Three Geographically Distant Localities in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, John P.; Thirumurthy, Vidya; Field, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    In a previous publication the authors examined selected aspects of the structure and curriculum of fifteen childcare centers located in three geographically distant locations in North America and determined that contrasts within and between the regions in terms of structure and curriculum guided by the National Association for the Education of…

  20. Towards accurate and automatic morphing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhe; Sharkey, Paul M.

    2005-10-01

    Image morphing has proved to be a powerful tool for generating compelling and pleasing visual effects and has been widely used in entertainment industry. However, traditional image morphing methods suffer from a number of drawbacks: feature specification between images is tedious and the reliance on 2D information ignores the possible advantages to be gained from 3D knowledge. In this paper, we utilize recent advantages of computer vision technologies to diminish these drawbacks. By analyzing multi view geometry theories, we propose a processing pipeline based on three reference images. We first seek a few seed correspondences using robust methods and then recover multi view geometries using the seeds, through bundle adjustment. Guided by the recovered two and three view geometries, a novel line matching algorithm across three views is then deduced, through edge growth, line fitting and two and three view geometry constraints. Corresponding lines on a novel image is then obtained by an image transfer method and finally matched lines are fed into the traditional morphing methods and novel images are generated. Novel images generated by this pipeline have advantages over traditional morphing methods: they have an inherent 3D foundation and are therefore physically close to real scenes; not only images located between the baseline connecting two reference image centers, but also extrapolated images away from the baseline are possible; and the whole processing can be either wholly automatic, or at least the tedious task of feature specification in traditional morphing methods can be greatly relieved.

  1. Simulation and analysis of infrastructure interdependencies using a Petri net simulator in a geographical information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Yong; Xing, Xitao; Cheng, Qiuming

    2010-12-01

    Society relies greatly upon infrastructure networks that are highly interconnected and mutually dependent in complex ways. Simulation and modeling assist in dealing with the complexity of infrastructure networks, especially in the effective response and management of resources for rescue, recovery, and restoration. This paper introduces the Petri net into a geographical information system to develop the GeoPetri Net system, which can be used to simulate the complex geographical relationships among places and nodes. Unlike the ordinary Petri net, the GeoPetri Net deals with places and nodes with geographical locations and the geographical relationships between these nodes and records the statuses of nodes to produce simulated events. A case study involving an education layer with 15 nodes (schools) and a transportation layer with 25 node lines (streets) in a geographical information system is presented to substantiate the above conceptual arguments.

  2. [Determination of Ginsenosides Amount and Geographical Origins of Ginseng by NIR Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-jing; Yan, Shu-mo; Yang, Bin

    2015-07-01

    In the study, 74 samples of ginseng were harvested from three provinces located in the northeast of China. Method for the quantification of total amount of ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, and Re in samples with near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was developed with the application of partial least squares regression (PLSR). The reference analysis was performed using a UPLC method. Different pretreatments like multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), Norris-Derivative were applied on the spectra to optimize the calibration and the spectral regions from 6001 to 4007 cm(-1) and from 10,000 to 8786 cm(-1) were selected for the calculation of the PLSR model. The root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.115 and 0.167, respectively, and the correlation coefficients were 0.9477 and 0.9153, respectively. At the same time, the spectral region from 8531 to 7559 cm(-1) was chosen to establish a model for identification the geographical origins of ginseng samples. MSC and Savitzky-Golay smoothing were utilized on the spectral preprocessing. According to the result, 74 samples were separated into three clusters, corresponding to the three geographical origins, i.e., Jilin, Liaoning and Heilongjiang Province. The cross-validation ability and the prediction ability were 96% and 90%, respectively. In Chinese Pharmacopeia, the total amount of ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, and Re is used as one of the indexes to evaluate the quality of ginseng, the established quantification method herein is rapid and accurate, it can be applied as an alternative method for quality control of ginseng sample. PMID:26717745

  3. Sarsat location algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardi, Jerry

    The Satellite Aided Search and Rescue (Sarsat) is designed to detect and locate distress beacons using satellite receivers. Algorithms used for calculating the positions of 406 MHz beacons and 121.5/243 MHz beacons are presented. The techniques for matching, resolving and averaging calculated locations from multiple satellite passes are also described along with results pertaining to single pass and multiple pass location estimate accuracy.

  4. Reversible micromachining locator

    DOEpatents

    Salzer, Leander J.; Foreman, Larry R.

    1999-01-01

    This invention provides a device which includes a locator, a kinematic mount positioned on a conventional tooling machine, a part carrier disposed on the locator and a retainer ring. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls, placed in an equidistant position circumferentially around the locator. The kinematic mount includes a plurality of magnets which are in registry with the steel balls on the locator. In operation, a blank part to be machined is placed between a surface of a locator and the retainer ring (fitting within the part carrier). When the locator (with a blank part to be machined) is coupled to the kinematic mount, the part is thus exposed for the desired machining process. Because the locator is removably attachable to the kinematic mount, it can easily be removed from the mount, reversed, and reinserted onto the mount for additional machining. Further, the locator can likewise be removed from the mount and placed onto another tooling machine having a properly aligned kinematic mount. Because of the unique design and use of magnetic forces of the present invention, positioning errors of less than 0.25 micrometer for each machining process can be achieved.

  5. Reversible micromachining locator

    DOEpatents

    Salzer, L.J.; Foreman, L.R.

    1999-08-31

    This invention provides a device which includes a locator, a kinematic mount positioned on a conventional tooling machine, a part carrier disposed on the locator and a retainer ring. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls, placed in an equidistant position circumferentially around the locator. The kinematic mount includes a plurality of magnets which are in registry with the steel balls on the locator. In operation, a blank part to be machined is placed between a surface of a locator and the retainer ring (fitting within the part carrier). When the locator (with a blank part to be machined) is coupled to the kinematic mount, the part is thus exposed for the desired machining process. Because the locator is removably attachable to the kinematic mount, it can easily be removed from the mount, reversed, and reinserted onto the mount for additional machining. Further, the locator can likewise be removed from the mount and placed onto another tooling machine having a properly aligned kinematic mount. Because of the unique design and use of magnetic forces of the present invention, positioning errors of less than 0.25 micrometer for each machining process can be achieved. 7 figs.

  6. Inferring social ties from geographic coincidences

    PubMed Central

    Crandall, David J.; Backstrom, Lars; Cosley, Dan; Suri, Siddharth; Huttenlocher, Daniel; Kleinberg, Jon

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which social ties between people can be inferred from co-occurrence in time and space: Given that two people have been in approximately the same geographic locale at approximately the same time, on multiple occasions, how likely are they to know each other? Furthermore, how does this likelihood depend on the spatial and temporal proximity of the co-occurrences? Such issues arise in data originating in both online and offline domains as well as settings that capture interfaces between online and offline behavior. Here we develop a framework for quantifying the answers to such questions, and we apply this framework to publicly available data from a social media site, finding that even a very small number of co-occurrences can result in a high empirical likelihood of a social tie. We then present probabilistic models showing how such large probabilities can arise from a natural model of proximity and co-occurrence in the presence of social ties. In addition to providing a method for establishing some of the first quantifiable estimates of these measures, our findings have potential privacy implications, particularly for the ways in which social structures can be inferred from public online records that capture individuals’ physical locations over time. PMID:21148099

  7. Electricity and the geographical deconcentration of manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Barkenbus, J.N.

    1984-09-01

    Geographical deconcentration of manufacturing is occurring in this country in parallel with the dispersion of the general population. Access to relatively inexpensive energy, regardless of the location, has made deconcentration possible. Though the mobility of energy, and particularly electricity, is largely taken for granted today, its significance in permitting regionalization and decentralization should not be overlooked. The construction of a truly national energy system has taken place as manufacturers have gradually been moving away from the classical American manufacturing belt. Data are marshaled to document the movement of manufacturers away from the urban core of metropolitan areas and, a more recent trend, the movement from the larger metropolitan area itself and into the countryside. Based upon limited data, there appears to be a positive association between greater nonmetropolitan manufacturing employment and increasing electricity use. The deconcentration momentum has not stalled in the face of the energy shocks witnessed during the 1970s. Electrification and manufacturing deconcentration are likely to advance together in the future.

  8. Assessment of User Home Location Geoinference Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Joshua J.; Bell, Eric B.; Corley, Courtney D.; Dowling, Chase P.; Cowell, Andrew J.

    2015-05-29

    This study presents an assessment of multiple approaches to determine the home and/or other important locations to a Twitter user. In this study, we present a unique approach to the problem of geotagged data sparsity in social media when performing geoinferencing tasks. Given the sparsity of explicitly geotagged Twitter data, the ability to perform accurate and reliable user geolocation from a limited number of geotagged posts has proven to be quite useful. In our survey, we have achieved accuracy rates of over 86% in matching Twitter user profile locations with their inferred home locations derived from geotagged posts.

  9. System and Method of Locating Lightning Strikes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A system and method of determining locations of lightning strikes has been described. The system includes multiple receivers located around an area of interest, such as a space center or airport. Each receiver monitors both sound and electric fields. The detection of an electric field pulse and a sound wave are used to calculate an area around each receiver in which the lighting is detected. A processor is coupled to the receivers to accurately determine the location of the lighting strike. The processor can manipulate the receiver data to compensate for environmental variables such as wind, temperature, and humidity. Further, each receiver processor can discriminate between distant and local lightning strikes.

  10. Image Location Estimation by Salient Region Matching.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xueming; Zhao, Yisi; Han, Junwei

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, locations of images have been widely used in many application scenarios for large geo-tagged image corpora. As to images which are not geographically tagged, we estimate their locations with the help of the large geo-tagged image set by content-based image retrieval. In this paper, we exploit spatial information of useful visual words to improve image location estimation (or content-based image retrieval performances). We proposed to generate visual word groups by mean-shift clustering. To improve the retrieval performance, spatial constraint is utilized to code the relative position of visual words. We proposed to generate a position descriptor for each visual word and build fast indexing structure for visual word groups. Experiments show the effectiveness of our proposed approach. PMID:26241976

  11. The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System (OGIRS) is a highly interactive data entry, storage, manipulation, and display software system for use with geographically referenced data. Although originally developed for a project concerned with coal strip mine reclamation, OGIRS is capable of handling any geographically referenced data for a variety of natural resource management applications. A special effort has been made to integrate remotely sensed data into the information system. The timeliness and synoptic coverage of satellite data are particularly useful attributes for inclusion into the geographic information system.

  12. Geographic Information Retrieval for Just Your Surroundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Norihito; Toda, Hiroyuki

    Geographic information retrieval (GIR) is a new research area that aims at the retrieval of geographic-related documents based not only on keyword relevance but also on geographic relationships between the query and the geographic information in texts. It is natural for people to want information related to just their surroundings. Conventional GIR systems, however, have relatively poor granularity, such as city or province, because they use geographic information in restricted ways -- mostly just for filtering. To address this problem, we propose a geographic scoring method that considers extent implied by each geographic names appeared in texts to emphasize geographic names that focus specific areas, rather than broad geographic names. Furthermore, to improve robustness against errors in pre-processing such as geo-parsing and geo-coding, we also propose a noise elimination method based on clustering. Evaluation is conducted using standard TREC-style evaluation metrics including MAP, R-precision, and so on. The results show that our method outperforms two baseline approaches: full-text search and using the nearest point in the text.

  13. Geographically Modified PageRank Algorithms: Identifying the Spatial Concentration of Human Movement in a Geospatial Network.

    PubMed

    Chin, Wei-Chien-Benny; Wen, Tzai-Hung

    2015-01-01

    A network approach, which simplifies geographic settings as a form of nodes and links, emphasizes the connectivity and relationships of spatial features. Topological networks of spatial features are used to explore geographical connectivity and structures. The PageRank algorithm, a network metric, is often used to help identify important locations where people or automobiles concentrate in the geographical literature. However, geographic considerations, including proximity and location attractiveness, are ignored in most network metrics. The objective of the present study is to propose two geographically modified PageRank algorithms-Distance-Decay PageRank (DDPR) and Geographical PageRank (GPR)-that incorporate geographic considerations into PageRank algorithms to identify the spatial concentration of human movement in a geospatial network. Our findings indicate that in both intercity and within-city settings the proposed algorithms more effectively capture the spatial locations where people reside than traditional commonly-used network metrics. In comparing location attractiveness and distance decay, we conclude that the concentration of human movement is largely determined by the distance decay. This implies that geographic proximity remains a key factor in human mobility. PMID:26437000

  14. Geographically Modified PageRank Algorithms: Identifying the Spatial Concentration of Human Movement in a Geospatial Network

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A network approach, which simplifies geographic settings as a form of nodes and links, emphasizes the connectivity and relationships of spatial features. Topological networks of spatial features are used to explore geographical connectivity and structures. The PageRank algorithm, a network metric, is often used to help identify important locations where people or automobiles concentrate in the geographical literature. However, geographic considerations, including proximity and location attractiveness, are ignored in most network metrics. The objective of the present study is to propose two geographically modified PageRank algorithms—Distance-Decay PageRank (DDPR) and Geographical PageRank (GPR)—that incorporate geographic considerations into PageRank algorithms to identify the spatial concentration of human movement in a geospatial network. Our findings indicate that in both intercity and within-city settings the proposed algorithms more effectively capture the spatial locations where people reside than traditional commonly-used network metrics. In comparing location attractiveness and distance decay, we conclude that the concentration of human movement is largely determined by the distance decay. This implies that geographic proximity remains a key factor in human mobility. PMID:26437000

  15. GROW: Grade 10. Geographic Review of Our World: A Daily Five-Minute Geography Program for Grades 3-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaga, Jeffrey J.; And Others

    Student understanding of geographic aspects of the world will be enhanced by utilizing these questions during the first five minutes of each social studies class. One goal of the program is to improve students' ability to locate geographic features, such as landforms and water bodies, natural and political boundaries, and capitals. This method…

  16. Earthquake location in island arcs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engdahl, E.R.; Dewey, J.W.; Fujita, K.

    1982-01-01

    -velocity lithospheric slab. In application, JHD has the practical advantage that it does not require the specification of a theoretical velocity model for the slab. Considering earthquakes within a 260 km long by 60 km wide section of the Aleutian main thrust zone, our results suggest that the theoretical velocity structure of the slab is presently not sufficiently well known that accurate locations can be obtained independently of locally recorded data. Using a locally recorded earthquake as a calibration event, JHD gave excellent results over the entire section of the main thrust zone here studied, without showing a strong effect that might be attributed to spatially varying source-station anomalies. We also calibrated the ray-tracing method using locally recorded data and obtained results generally similar to those obtained by JHD. ?? 1982.

  17. Wave-equation Based Earthquake Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, P.; Yang, D.; Yang, X.; Chen, J.; Harris, J.

    2014-12-01

    Precisely locating earthquakes is fundamentally important for studying earthquake physics, fault orientations and Earth's deformation. In industry, accurately determining hypocenters of microseismic events triggered in the course of a hydraulic fracturing treatment can help improve the production of oil and gas from unconventional reservoirs. We develop a novel earthquake location method based on solving full wave equations to accurately locate earthquakes (including microseismic earthquakes) in complex and heterogeneous structures. Traveltime residuals or differential traveltime measurements with the waveform cross-correlation technique are iteratively inverted to obtain the locations of earthquakes. The inversion process involves the computation of the Fréchet derivative with respect to the source (earthquake) location via the interaction between a forward wavefield emitting from the source to the receiver and an adjoint wavefield reversely propagating from the receiver to the source. When there is a source perturbation, the Fréchet derivative not only measures the influence of source location but also the effects of heterogeneity, anisotropy and attenuation of the subsurface structure on the arrival of seismic wave at the receiver. This is essential for the accuracy of earthquake location in complex media. In addition, to reduce the computational cost, we can first assume that seismic wave only propagates in a vertical plane passing through the source and the receiver. The forward wavefield, adjoint wavefield and Fréchet derivative with respect to the source location are all computed in a 2D vertical plane. By transferring the Fréchet derivative along the horizontal direction of the 2D plane into the ones along Latitude and Longitude coordinates or local 3D Cartesian coordinates, the source location can be updated in a 3D geometry. The earthquake location obtained with this combined 2D-3D approach can then be used as the initial location for a true 3D wave

  18. Object locating system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, James L.; Petterson, Ben

    1998-06-09

    A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object's effect on electric fields. The object's effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions.

  19. Reversible micromachining locator

    SciTech Connect

    Salzer, Leander J.; Foreman, Larry R.

    2002-01-01

    A locator with a part support is used to hold a part onto the kinematic mount of a tooling machine so that the part can be held in or replaced in exactly the same position relative to the cutting tool for machining different surfaces of the part or for performing different machining operations on the same or different surfaces of the part. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls placed at equidistant positions around the planar surface of the locator and the kinematic mount has a plurality of magnets which alternate with grooves which accommodate the portions of the steel balls projecting from the locator. The part support holds the part to be machined securely in place in the locator. The locator can be easily detached from the kinematic mount, turned over, and replaced onto the same kinematic mount or another kinematic mount on another tooling machine without removing the part to be machined from the locator so that there is no need to touch or reposition the part within the locator, thereby assuring exact replication of the position of the part in relation to the cutting tool on the tooling machine for each machining operation on the part.

  20. Acoustic emission source location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Promboon, Yajai

    The objective of the research program was development of reliable source location techniques. The study comprised two phases. First, the research focused on development of source location methods for homogeneous plates. The specimens used in the program were steel railroad tank cars. Source location methods were developed and demonstrated for empty and water filled tanks. The second phase of the research was an exploratory study of source location method for fiber reinforced composites. Theoretical analysis and experimental measurement of wave propagation were carried out. This data provided the basis for development of a method using the intersection of the group velocity curves for the first three wave propagation modes. Simplex optimization was used to calculate the location of the source. Additional source location methods have been investigated and critically examined. Emphasis has been placed on evaluating different methods for determining the time of arrival of a wave. The behavior of wave in a water filled tank was studied and source location methods suitable for use in this situation have been examined through experiment and theory. Particular attention is paid to the problem caused by leaky Lamb waves. A preliminary study into the use of neural networks for source location in fiber reinforced composites was included in the research program. A preliminary neural network model and the results from training and testing data are reported.

  1. Reconstructing Spatial Distributions from Anonymized Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Horey, James L; Forrest, Stephanie; Groat, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Devices such as mobile phones, tablets, and sensors are often equipped with GPS that accurately report a person's location. Combined with wireless communication, these devices enable a wide range of new social tools and applications. These same qualities, however, leave location-aware applications vulnerable to privacy violations. This paper introduces the Negative Quad Tree, a privacy protection method for location aware applications. The method is broadly applicable to applications that use spatial density information, such as social applications that measure the popularity of social venues. The method employs a simple anonymization algorithm running on mobile devices, and a more complex reconstruction algorithm on a central server. This strategy is well suited to low-powered mobile devices. The paper analyzes the accuracy of the reconstruction method in a variety of simulated and real-world settings and demonstrates that the method is accurate enough to be used in many real-world scenarios.

  2. Targeted resequencing reveals geographical patterns of differentiation for loci implicated in parallel evolution.

    PubMed

    Westram, Anja M; Panova, Marina; Galindo, Juan; Butlin, Roger K

    2016-07-01

    Parallel divergence and speciation provide evidence for the role of divergent selection in generating biological diversity. Recent studies indicate that parallel phenotypic divergence may not have the same genetic basis in different geographical locations - 'outlier loci' (loci potentially affected by divergent selection) are often not shared among parallel instances of phenotypic divergence. However, limited sharing may be due, in part, to technical issues if false-positive outliers occur. Here, we test this idea in the marine snail Littorina saxatilis, which has evolved two partly isolated ecotypes (adapted to crab predation vs. wave action) in multiple locations independently. We argue that if the low extent of sharing observed in earlier studies in this system is due to sampling effects, we expect outliers not to show elevated FST when sequenced in new samples from the original locations and also not to follow predictable geographical patterns of elevated FST . Following a hierarchical sampling design (within vs. between country), we applied capture sequencing, targeting outliers from earlier studies and control loci. We found that outliers again showed elevated levels of FST in their original location, suggesting they were not generated by sampling effects. Outliers were also likely to show increased FST in geographically close locations, which may be explained by higher levels of gene flow or shared ancestral genetic variation compared with more distant locations. However, in contrast to earlier findings, we also found some outlier types to show elevated FST in geographically distant locations. We discuss possible explanations for this unexpected result. PMID:27061172

  3. Integrating Mathematics and Geographic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epps, Pamela D.; Savage, Tom V., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This article describes the development of a unit for a team-taught middle school program integrating mathematics skills with map and globe skills such as distance, direction, scale, longitude, latitude, location, and climate. Some of the learning activities of the unit are outlined. (Author/SJL)

  4. Geographical influences of an emerging network of gang rivalries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegemann, Rachel A.; Smith, Laura M.; Barbaro, Alethea B. T.; Bertozzi, Andrea L.; Reid, Shannon E.; Tita, George E.

    2011-10-01

    We propose an agent-based model to simulate the creation of street gang rivalries. The movement dynamics of agents are coupled to an evolving network of gang rivalries, which is determined by previous interactions among agents in the system. Basic gang data, geographic information, and behavioral dynamics suggested by the criminology literature are integrated into the model. The major highways, rivers, and the locations of gangs’ centers of activity influence the agents’ motion. We use a policing division of the Los Angeles Police Department as a case study to test our model. We apply common metrics from graph theory to analyze our model, comparing networks produced by our simulations and an instance of a Geographical Threshold Graph to the existing network from the criminology literature.

  5. Geographical epidemiology, spatial analysis and geographical information systems: a multidisciplinary glossary

    PubMed Central

    Rezaeian, Mohsen; Dunn, Graham; Leger, Selwyn St; Appleby, Louis

    2007-01-01

    We provide a relatively non‐technical glossary of terms and a description of the tools used in spatial or geographical epidemiology and associated geographical information systems. Statistical topics included cover adjustment and standardisation to allow for demographic and other background differences, data structures, data smoothing, spatial autocorrelation and spatial regression. We also discuss the rationale for geographical epidemiology and specific techniques such as disease clustering, disease mapping, ecological analyses, geographical information systems and global positioning systems. PMID:17234866

  6. Differential pathogenicity of five Streptococcus agalactiae isolates of diverse geographic origin in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an emerging pathogen of fish and has caused significant morbidity amd mortality worldwide. The work in this study assessed whether pathogenic differences exist among isolates from different geographic locations. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) were administered an...

  7. Sensors Locate Radio Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    After receiving a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center, Soneticom Inc., based in West Melbourne, Florida, created algorithms for time difference of arrival and radio interferometry, which it used in its Lynx Location System (LLS) to locate electromagnetic interference that can disrupt radio communications. Soneticom is collaborating with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to install and test the LLS at its field test center in New Jersey in preparation for deploying the LLS at commercial airports. The software collects data from each sensor in order to compute the location of the interfering emitter.

  8. 33 CFR 166.103 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... charts whose referenced horizontal datum is the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD 83 only after application of the...

  9. 33 CFR 166.103 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... charts whose referenced horizontal datum is the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD 83 only after application of the...

  10. 33 CFR 166.103 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... charts whose referenced horizontal datum is the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD 83 only after application of the...

  11. 33 CFR 166.103 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... charts whose referenced horizontal datum is the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD 83 only after application of the...

  12. 33 CFR 166.103 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... charts whose referenced horizontal datum is the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD 83 only after application of the...

  13. Treatment of geographic tongue with topical tacrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Purani, Jigar M; Purani, Hiral J

    2014-01-01

    Geographic tongue is an inflammatory condition of the dorsal surface and lateral border of the tongue, which may be asymptomatic. This article presents a case of geographic tongue in a 6-year-old child. Successful management was achieved with topical application of 0.1% tacrolimus. PMID:25085945

  14. 34 CFR 642.33 - Geographic distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographic distribution. 642.33 Section 642.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY... Grant? § 642.33 Geographic distribution. The Secretary, to the greatest extent possible, awards...

  15. 7 CFR 3565.213 - Geographic distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Geographic distribution. 3565.213 Section 3565.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Loan Requirements § 3565.213 Geographic distribution....

  16. 7 CFR 3565.213 - Geographic distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Geographic distribution. 3565.213 Section 3565.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Loan Requirements § 3565.213 Geographic distribution....

  17. Suggested Geographic Information Literacy for K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jason; Keller, C. Peter; Yore, Larry D.

    2005-01-01

    Geographic information literacy (GIL) is defined as the possession of concepts, abilities and habits of mind that allow an individual to understand and use geographic information properly. This paper reports the results of an online survey undertaken to get expert input into specifying the concepts and abilities associated with GIL that should be…

  18. Geographical Literacy and the Role of GIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Bryan A.

    1999-01-01

    Demonstrates how Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can help develop student skills that enhance learning. Describes the application of GIS within secondary geography education, providing an example of its use at the Windaroo Valley State High School (Australia). Discusses GIS and geographic literacy. (CMK)

  19. 38 CFR 36.4523 - Geographical limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographical limits. 36.4523 Section 36.4523 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Direct Loans § 36.4523 Geographical limits. Any real property purchased, constructed,...

  20. 38 CFR 36.4332 - Geographical limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographical limits. 36.4332 Section 36.4332 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Geographical limits. Any real property purchased, constructed, altered, improved, or repaired with the...

  1. 38 CFR 36.4411 - Geographical limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographical limits. 36.4411 Section 36.4411 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Geographical limits. Any real property purchased, constructed, altered, improved, repaired, or...

  2. 38 CFR 36.4214 - Geographical limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographical limits. 36.4214 Section 36.4214 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Preparation General Provisions § 36.4214 Geographical limits. The site for any manufactured home...

  3. Spatial relation query based on geographic ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Chong; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Si, Wangli; Liu, Bao; Zhang, Dapeng

    2010-11-01

    The description of a spatial relation is the reflection of human's cognition of spatial objects. It is not only affected by topology and metric, but also affected by geographic semantics, such as the categories of geographic entities and contexts. Currently, the researches about language aspects of spatial relations mostly focus on natural-language formalization, parsing of query sentences, and natural-language query interface. However, geographic objects are not simple geometric points, lines or polygons. In order to get a sound answer according with human cognition in spatial relation queries, we have to take geographic semantics into account. In this paper, the functions of natural-language spatial terms are designed based on previous work on natural-language formalization and human-subject tests. Then, the paper builds a geographic knowledge base based on geographic ontology using Protégé for discriminating geographic semantics. Finally, using the geographic knowledge in the knowledge base, a prototype of a query system is implemented on GIS platform.

  4. The Effect of Geographic Units of Analysis on Measuring Geographic Variation in Medical Services Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Heon; Hwang, Kyosang; Lee, Taesik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the effect of geographic units of analysis on measuring geographic variation in medical services utilization. For this purpose, we compared geographic variations in the rates of eight major procedures in administrative units (districts) and new areal units organized based on the actual health care use of the population in Korea. Methods: To compare geographic variation in geographic units of analysis, we calculated the age–sex standardized rates of eight major procedures (coronary artery bypass graft surgery, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, surgery after hip fracture, knee-replacement surgery, caesarean section, hysterectomy, computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance imaging scan) from the National Health Insurance database in Korea for the 2013 period. Using the coefficient of variation, the extremal quotient, and the systematic component of variation, we measured geographic variation for these eight procedures in districts and new areal units. Results: Compared with districts, new areal units showed a reduction in geographic variation. Extremal quotients and inter-decile ratios for the eight procedures were lower in new areal units. While the coefficient of variation was lower for most procedures in new areal units, the pattern of change of the systematic component of variation between districts and new areal units differed among procedures. Conclusions: Geographic variation in medical service utilization could vary according to the geographic unit of analysis. To determine how geographic characteristics such as population size and number of geographic units affect geographic variation, further studies are needed. PMID:27499165

  5. Incorporating variability in honey bee waggle dance decoding improves the mapping of communicated resource locations.

    PubMed

    Schürch, Roger; Couvillon, Margaret J; Burns, Dominic D R; Tasman, Kiah; Waxman, David; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2013-12-01

    Honey bees communicate to nestmates locations of resources, including food, water, tree resin and nest sites, by making waggle dances. Dances are composed of repeated waggle runs, which encode the distance and direction vector from the hive or swarm to the resource. Distance is encoded in the duration of the waggle run, and direction is encoded in the angle of the dancer's body relative to vertical. Glass-walled observation hives enable researchers to observe or video, and decode waggle runs. However, variation in these signals makes it impossible to determine exact locations advertised. We present a Bayesian duration to distance calibration curve using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations that allows us to quantify how accurately distance to a food resource can be predicted from waggle run durations within a single dance. An angular calibration shows that angular precision does not change over distance, resulting in spatial scatter proportional to distance. We demonstrate how to combine distance and direction to produce a spatial probability distribution of the resource location advertised by the dance. Finally, we show how to map honey bee foraging and discuss how our approach can be integrated with Geographic Information Systems to better understand honey bee foraging ecology. PMID:24132490

  6. Locational Factors in the New Textile Industry: Focus on the U.S. South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, James O.

    1998-01-01

    Chronicles the geographic and historical locational changes of the textile industry of the U.S. South. Economics of scope, flexible production, and quality of output characterize the contemporary textile industry. Provides basic geographic content enabling a teacher to develop a unit by applying geography to interpret the past and present. (CMK)

  7. Lunar Impact Flash Locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. M.; Kupferschmidt, L.; Feldman, J.

    2015-01-01

    A bright impact flash detected by the NASA Lunar Impact Monitoring Program in March 2013 brought into focus the importance of determining the impact flash location. A process for locating the impact flash, and presumably its associated crater, was developed using commercially available software tools. The process was successfully applied to the March 2013 impact flash and put into production on an additional 300 impact flashes. The goal today: provide a description of the geolocation technique developed.

  8. Infrared horizon locator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalink, A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A precise method and apparatus for locating the earth's infrared horizon from space that is independent of season and latitude is described. First and second integrations of the earth's radiance profile are made from space to earth with the second delayed with respect to the first. The second integration is multiplied by a predetermined constant R and then compared with the first integration. When the two are equal the horizon is located.

  9. Object locating system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, J.L.; Petterson, B.

    1998-06-09

    A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object`s effect on electric fields. The object`s effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions. 12 figs.

  10. 75 FR 70604 - Wireless E911 Location Accuracy Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ...In this document, the Federal Communications Commission (Commission) amends its rules to require wireless licensees subject to standards for wireless Enhanced 911 (E911) Phase II location accuracy and reliability to satisfy these standards at either a county-based or Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP)-based geographic level. The Commission takes this step in order to ensure an appropriate......

  11. Choice and Constraint in the Location of Urban Retail Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Iain

    1992-01-01

    Discusses problems that students have in appreciating the relevance of the philosophy underlying geography instruction. Presents an activity that requires students to apply geographic concepts to decisions concerning the location of urban retail outlets. Includes details on implementation, rationale and background, and procedures. (SG)

  12. Geographical distribution of Dermacentor marginatus and Dermacentor reticulatus in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rubel, Franz; Brugger, Katharina; Pfeffer, Martin; Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia; Didyk, Yuliya M; Leverenz, Sandra; Dautel, Hans; Kahl, Olaf

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this paper is to present up-to-date maps depicting the geographical distribution of Dermacentor species in Europe based on georeferenced sampling sites. Therefore, a dataset was compiled, resulting in 1286 D. marginatus (Sulzer, 1776) and 1209 D. reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) locations. Special emphasis is given to the region of the European Alps depicting a presumable climate barrier of the mountains and to overlaps in the distribution of both species as well as on the situation in eastern European countries. For the latter newly described Dermacentor findings comprise 59 locations in Romania and 62 locations in Ukraine. The geographical distributions of both species in Europe range from Portugal to Ukraine (and continue to the east of Kazakhstan). Although it is well known that D. marginatus is adapted to a warmer and drier climate at more southern latitudes and D. reticulatus to a moderately moist climate at more northern latitudes, the distribution limits of both species were not well known. Here, the northern and southern distribution limits for both species in Europe, as determined from the georeferenced database, were specified for D. marginatus by the belt of 33-51° N latitude and for D. reticulatus by the belt of 41-57° N latitude. Thus, overlapping species distributions were found between 41° N and 51° N. PMID:26552893

  13. Does where you live influence how your vestibular schwannoma is managed? Examining geographical differences in vestibular schwannoma treatment across the United States.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Matthew L; Glasgow, Amy E; Grossardt, Brandon R; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Link, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    The management of small- to medium-sized vestibular schwannoma (VS) remains controversial. Despite a lack of compelling evidence supporting one treatment modality over others, many providers and institutions remain highly biased toward one particular therapy-microsurgery, radiation, or primary observation. The objective of the current study was to estimate the impact of geography on disease presentation and initial treatment of VS in the United States. An analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database identified 9761 patients with VS that were managed across the 16 SEER geographic registry areas. Univariate analyses demonstrated strong associations between geographic location and tumor size at diagnosis (P < 0.0001). When analyzing the 6115 subjects with tumors between 0 and 3 cm in size, multivariable models identified strong associations between place of residence and treatment modality (P < 0.0001). These multivariable models demonstrated that in many cases the impact of place of residence on treatment selection was greater than other established variables such as tumor size and age. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate geographic trends in VS patient demographics, tumor size and management in the United States. These data suggest that disease presentation and treatment modality are significantly influenced by regional referral patterns, provider or institutional treatment preferences, and regional availability of subspecialty expertise. Understanding geographic bias is important for patients, referring physicians, and treatment providers alike. Until there is clear evidence supporting one therapy over others, multidisciplinary consultation with a minimum of a neurotologist, neurosurgeon, and radiation oncologist or radiosurgeon should be offered in order to provide balanced counseling and accurate informed consent. PMID:27334903

  14. Sampling designs matching species biology produce accurate and affordable abundance indices.

    PubMed

    Harris, Grant; Farley, Sean; Russell, Gareth J; Butler, Matthew J; Selinger, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife biologists often use grid-based designs to sample animals and generate abundance estimates. Although sampling in grids is theoretically sound, in application, the method can be logistically difficult and expensive when sampling elusive species inhabiting extensive areas. These factors make it challenging to sample animals and meet the statistical assumption of all individuals having an equal probability of capture. Violating this assumption biases results. Does an alternative exist? Perhaps by sampling only where resources attract animals (i.e., targeted sampling), it would provide accurate abundance estimates more efficiently and affordably. However, biases from this approach would also arise if individuals have an unequal probability of capture, especially if some failed to visit the sampling area. Since most biological programs are resource limited, and acquiring abundance data drives many conservation and management applications, it becomes imperative to identify economical and informative sampling designs. Therefore, we evaluated abundance estimates generated from grid and targeted sampling designs using simulations based on geographic positioning system (GPS) data from 42 Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos). Migratory salmon drew brown bears from the wider landscape, concentrating them at anadromous streams. This provided a scenario for testing the targeted approach. Grid and targeted sampling varied by trap amount, location (traps placed randomly, systematically or by expert opinion), and traps stationary or moved between capture sessions. We began by identifying when to sample, and if bears had equal probability of capture. We compared abundance estimates against seven criteria: bias, precision, accuracy, effort, plus encounter rates, and probabilities of capture and recapture. One grid (49 km(2) cells) and one targeted configuration provided the most accurate results. Both placed traps by expert opinion and moved traps between capture sessions

  15. Sampling designs matching species biology produce accurate and affordable abundance indices

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Sean; Russell, Gareth J.; Butler, Matthew J.; Selinger, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife biologists often use grid-based designs to sample animals and generate abundance estimates. Although sampling in grids is theoretically sound, in application, the method can be logistically difficult and expensive when sampling elusive species inhabiting extensive areas. These factors make it challenging to sample animals and meet the statistical assumption of all individuals having an equal probability of capture. Violating this assumption biases results. Does an alternative exist? Perhaps by sampling only where resources attract animals (i.e., targeted sampling), it would provide accurate abundance estimates more efficiently and affordably. However, biases from this approach would also arise if individuals have an unequal probability of capture, especially if some failed to visit the sampling area. Since most biological programs are resource limited, and acquiring abundance data drives many conservation and management applications, it becomes imperative to identify economical and informative sampling designs. Therefore, we evaluated abundance estimates generated from grid and targeted sampling designs using simulations based on geographic positioning system (GPS) data from 42 Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos). Migratory salmon drew brown bears from the wider landscape, concentrating them at anadromous streams. This provided a scenario for testing the targeted approach. Grid and targeted sampling varied by trap amount, location (traps placed randomly, systematically or by expert opinion), and traps stationary or moved between capture sessions. We began by identifying when to sample, and if bears had equal probability of capture. We compared abundance estimates against seven criteria: bias, precision, accuracy, effort, plus encounter rates, and probabilities of capture and recapture. One grid (49 km2 cells) and one targeted configuration provided the most accurate results. Both placed traps by expert opinion and moved traps between capture sessions, which

  16. Skylab-3 handheld photography alphabetized geographical features list

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcniel, J. L.; Deyalcourt, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    The data was thoroughly researched using the Times Index-Gazetteer of the World, the Times Atlas of the World, and the National Atlas of the United States of America to ensure correct spelling and location of named features. The spelling and major geographical features applied to smaller features (minor) such as cities, towns, mountain peaks, etc., are in accordance with these publications. It is understood that some political boundaries and names of countries are subject to change. The data was written on NASA keypunch transmittal sheets and punched into data cards. These data cards were then machine sorted alphabetically by major feature and minor feature.

  17. The Geographic Concentration of Enterprise in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Felkner, John S.; Townsend, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    A nation’s economic geography can have an enormous impact on its development. In Thailand, we show that a high concentration of enterprise in an area predicts high subsequent growth in and around that area. We also find spatially contiguous convergence of enterprise with stagnant areas left behind. Exogenous physiographic conditions are correlated with enterprise location and growth. We fit a structural, micro-founded model of occupation transitions with fine-tuned geographic capabilities to village data and replicate these salient facts. Key elements of the model include costs, credit constraints on occupation choice, and spatially varying expansion of financial service providers. PMID:22844158

  18. The Geographic Concentration of Enterprise in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Felkner, John S; Townsend, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    A nation's economic geography can have an enormous impact on its development. In Thailand, we show that a high concentration of enterprise in an area predicts high subsequent growth in and around that area. We also find spatially contiguous convergence of enterprise with stagnant areas left behind. Exogenous physiographic conditions are correlated with enterprise location and growth. We fit a structural, micro-founded model of occupation transitions with fine-tuned geographic capabilities to village data and replicate these salient facts. Key elements of the model include costs, credit constraints on occupation choice, and spatially varying expansion of financial service providers. PMID:22844158

  19. [Italian migration to Chile: its geographical distribution and locational preference in the city of Santiago].

    PubMed

    Maino Prado, V; Oehninger Greenwood, G J

    1987-01-01

    Italian immigration to Chile from the nineteenth century to the present day is reviewed using a variety of data from official and other sources. An analysis of the residential characteristics of the population of Italian origin in the city of Santiago in 1983 is also included. It is found that Italians have settled primarily near the city's commercial axis, a settlement pattern in contrast with those of other foreign residents of similar economic levels. (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12269145

  20. Action Research: Factors Influencing Recognition of Geographical Locations on a World Map.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Sandra F.

    This study was conducted to help teachers decide what factors govern high school students' knowledge of geography. Information was gathered about the students' background, including: gender, exposure to a course of study in world history, overall grade point average, travel experience outside the United States, and habits of reading newspapers and…

  1. Qualification testing of solar photovoltaic powered refrigerator freezers for medical use in remote geographic locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaszeta, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    One of the primary obstacles to the application of vaccination in developing countries is the lack of refrigerated storage. Vaccines exposed to elevated temperatures suffer a permanent loss of potency. Photovoltaic (PV) powered refrigerator/freezer (R/F) units could surmount the problem of refrigeration in remote areas where no reliable commercial power supply is available. The performance measurements of two different models of PV powered R/F units for medical use are presented. Qualification testing consisted of four major procedures: no-load pull down, ice making, steady-state (maintenance), and holdover. Both R/F units met the major World Health Organization (WHO) requirements. However, the testing performed does not provide complete characterization of the two units; such information could be derived only from further extensive test procedures.

  2. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of leptospiral strains isolated from two geographic locations of Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Kanagavel, Murugesan; Princy Margreat, Alphonse Asirvatham; Arunkumar, Manivel; Prabhakaran, Shanmugarajan Gnanasekaran; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy

    2016-01-01

    Here the rodent carrier status for the transmission of human leptospirosis in Tiruchirappalli, district, Tamil Nadu, India was assessed. The predominantly circulating leptospiral STs were recognized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 113 rodents were trapped from different provinces of the Tiruchirappalli district. The most prevalent rodent was Bandicota bengalensis (37.2%), and of the total, 52.2% (n=59) rodents were found to be positive for leptospiral 16S rRNA. These results were validated with a leptospiral culture positivity of 45.8% (n=27). Three isolates from Chennai (2 rodents and 1 human) and 1 human isolate from Tiruchirappalli were included to understand the spatial variations and to track the source of human leptospirosis. The serogroup, serovar, and species level identification of all 31 isolates identified 28 to be Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Javanica and three as Leptospira interrogans serovar Autumnalis. MLST analysis defined all isolates to the existing ST profiles (ST145 and ST27) with the exception of 6 L. borgpetersenii (ST DR) isolates that showed variations in the sucA and pfkB loci. The DR ST was locally confined to Chatram province of Tiruchirappalli suggesting an epidemiological link. The predominant STs, ST145 and ST-DR form a group, indicating the presence of original strain that subsequently diverged evolutionarily into two STs. The variations between L. borgpetersenii in sucA and pfkB loci may be an indication that evolutionary changes transpired in Tiruchirappalli. PMID:26577860

  3. Arid soil microbial enzymatic activity profile as affected by geographical location and soil degradation status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluating soil health is critical for any successful remediation effort. Arid lands, with their minimal carbon and water contents, low nutritional status and restricted, seasonal microbial activity pose specific challenges to soil health restoration and by extension, restoration of ecosystem repr...

  4. North, South, Least, Best: Geographical Location and the Thinking Styles of Italian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofo, Francesco; Berzins, Michelle; Colapinto, Cinzia; Ammirato, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    There are economic and socio-cultural differences that characterise the north and south of Italy. A stereotype is that university students from rural southern Italy are more disadvantaged and isolated than those from the urban north. Past research has hypothesised that differences in socio-economic status impact on student learning, which is a…

  5. The ADHD Label, Analogue Methodology, and Participants' Geographic Location on Judgments of Social and Attentional Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koonce, Danel A.; Cruce, Michael K.; Aldridge, Jennifer O.; Langford, Courtney A.; Sporer, Amy K.; Stinnett, Terry A.

    2004-01-01

    Two hundred fifty-nine preservice teachers at a medium-sized university in the Southwest participated in the current study. The participants were randomly assigned to a labeled condition, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or nonlabeled condition, and were presented a vignette in one of three forms: a written case study, a video clip, or a…

  6. Seasonal Variation of Overall and Cardiovascular Mortality: A Study in 19 Countries from Different Geographic Locations

    PubMed Central

    Gubelmann, Cédric; Stringhini, Silvia; Bovet, Pascal; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Paccaud, Fred; Tsai, Dai-Hua; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) mortality has been shown to follow a seasonal pattern. Several studies suggested several possible determinants of this pattern, including misclassification of causes of deaths. We aimed at assessing seasonality in overall, CVD, cancer and non-CVD/non-cancer mortality using data from 19 countries from different latitudes. Methods and Findings Monthly mortality data were compiled from 19 countries, amounting to over 54 million deaths. We calculated ratios of the observed to the expected numbers of deaths in the absence of a seasonal pattern. Seasonal variation (peak to nadir difference) for overall and cause-specific (CVD, cancer or non-CVD/non-cancer) mortality was analyzed using the cosinor function model. Mortality from overall, CVD and non-CVD/non-cancer showed a consistent seasonal pattern. In both hemispheres, the number of deaths was higher than expected in winter. In countries close to the Equator the seasonal pattern was considerably lower for mortality from any cause. For CVD mortality, the peak to nadir differences ranged from 0.185 to 0.466 in the Northern Hemisphere, from 0.087 to 0.108 near the Equator, and from 0.219 to 0.409 in the Southern Hemisphere. For cancer mortality, the seasonal variation was nonexistent in most countries. Conclusions In countries with seasonal variation, mortality from overall, CVD and non-CVD/non-cancer show a seasonal pattern with mortality being higher in winter than in summer. Conversely, cancer mortality shows no substantial seasonality. PMID:25419711

  7. Spatial inventory integrating raster databases and point sample data. [Geographic Information System for timber inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahler, A. H.; Woodcock, C. E.; Logan, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    A timber inventory of the Eldorado National Forest, located in east-central California, provides an example of the use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) to stratify large areas of land for sampling and the collection of statistical data. The raster-based GIS format of the VICAR/IBIS software system allows simple and rapid tabulation of areas, and facilitates the selection of random locations for ground sampling. Algorithms that simplify the complex spatial pattern of raster-based information, and convert raster format data to strings of coordinate vectors, provide a link to conventional vector-based geographic information systems.

  8. Acoustic Location of Lightning Using Interferometric Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erives, H.; Arechiga, R. O.; Stock, M.; Lapierre, J. L.; Edens, H. E.; Stringer, A.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Acoustic arrays have been used to accurately locate thunder sources in lightning flashes. The acoustic arrays located around the Magdalena mountains of central New Mexico produce locations which compare quite well with source locations provided by the New Mexico Tech Lightning Mapping Array. These arrays utilize 3 outer microphones surrounding a 4th microphone located at the center, The location is computed by band-passing the signal to remove noise, and then computing the cross correlating the outer 3 microphones with respect the center reference microphone. While this method works very well, it works best on signals with high signal to noise ratios; weaker signals are not as well located. Therefore, methods are being explored to improve the location accuracy and detection efficiency of the acoustic location systems. The signal received by acoustic arrays is strikingly similar to th signal received by radio frequency interferometers. Both acoustic location systems and radio frequency interferometers make coherent measurements of a signal arriving at a number of closely spaced antennas. And both acoustic and interferometric systems then correlate these signals between pairs of receivers to determine the direction to the source of the received signal. The primary difference between the two systems is the velocity of propagation of the emission, which is much slower for sound. Therefore, the same frequency based techniques that have been used quite successfully with radio interferometers should be applicable to acoustic based measurements as well. The results presented here are comparisons between the location results obtained with current cross correlation method and techniques developed for radio frequency interferometers applied to acoustic signals. The data were obtained during the summer 2013 storm season using multiple arrays sensitive to both infrasonic frequency and audio frequency acoustic emissions from lightning. Preliminary results show that

  9. Marine cable location system

    SciTech Connect

    Zachariadis, R.G.

    1984-05-01

    An acoustic positioning system locates a marine cable at an exploration site, such cable employing a plurality of hydrophones at spaced-apart positions along the cable. A marine vessel measures water depth to the cable as the vessel passes over the cable and interrogates the hydrophones with sonar pulses along a slant range as the vessel travels in a parallel and horizontally offset path to the cable. The location of the hydrophones is determined from the recordings of water depth and slant range.

  10. Cable fault locator research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, C. A.; Honey, S. K.; Petro, J. P.; Phillips, A. C.

    1982-07-01

    Cable fault location and the construction of four field test units are discussed. Swept frequency sounding of mine cables with RF signals was the technique most thoroughly investigated. The swept frequency technique is supplemented with a form of moving target indication to provide a method for locating the position of a technician along a cable and relative to a suspected fault. Separate, more limited investigations involved high voltage time domain reflectometry and acoustical probing of mine cables. Particular areas of research included microprocessor-based control of the swept frequency system, a microprocessor based fast Fourier transform for spectral analysis, and RF synthesizers.

  11. RFI emitter location techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. L. J.

    1973-01-01

    The possibility is discussed of using Doppler techniques for determining the location of ground based emitters causing radio frequency interference with low orbiting satellites. An error analysis indicates that it is possible to find the emitter location within an error range of 2 n.mi. The parameters which determine the required satellite receiver characteristic are discussed briefly along with the non-real time signal processing which may by used in obtaining the Doppler curve. Finally, the required characteristics of the satellite antenna are analyzed.

  12. Ensuring Confidentiality of Geocoded Health Data: Assessing Geographic Masking Strategies for Individual-Level Data

    PubMed Central

    Zandbergen, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Public health datasets increasingly use geographic identifiers such as an individual's address. Geocoding these addresses often provides new insights since it becomes possible to examine spatial patterns and associations. Address information is typically considered confidential and is therefore not released or shared with others. Publishing maps with the locations of individuals, however, may also breach confidentiality since addresses and associated identities can be discovered through reverse geocoding. One commonly used technique to protect confidentiality when releasing individual-level geocoded data is geographic masking. This typically consists of applying a certain amount of random perturbation in a systematic manner to reduce the risk of reidentification. A number of geographic masking techniques have been developed as well as methods to quantity the risk of reidentification associated with a particular masking method. This paper presents a review of the current state-of-the-art in geographic masking, summarizing the various methods and their strengths and weaknesses. Despite recent progress, no universally accepted or endorsed geographic masking technique has emerged. Researchers on the other hand are publishing maps using geographic masking of confidential locations. Any researcher publishing such maps is advised to become familiar with the different masking techniques available and their associated reidentification risks. PMID:26556417

  13. Geographic tongue and psoriasis: clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical and genetic correlation - a literature review*

    PubMed Central

    Picciani, Bruna Lavinas Sayed; Domingos, Tábata Alves; Teixeira-Souza, Thays; dos Santos, Vanessa de Carla Batista; Gonzaga, Heron Fernando de Sousa; Cardoso-Oliveira, Juliana; Gripp, Alexandre Carlos; Dias, Eliane Pedra; Carneiro, Sueli

    2016-01-01

    Geographic tongue is a chronic, inflammatory, and immune-mediated oral lesion of unknown etiology. It is characterized by serpiginous white areas around the atrophic mucosa, which alternation between activity, remission and reactivation at various locations gave the names benign migratory glossitis and wandering rash of the tongue. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease with frequent cutaneous involvement and an immunogenetic basis of great importance in clinical practice. The association between geographic tongue and psoriasis has been demonstrated in various studies, based on observation of its fundamental lesions, microscopic similarity between the two conditions and the presence of a common genetic marker, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) HLA-C*06. The difficulty however in accepting the diagnosis of geographic tongue as oral psoriasis is the fact that not all patients with geographic tongue present psoriasis. Some authors believe that the prevalence of geographic tongue would be much greater if psoriatic patients underwent thorough oral examination. This study aimed to develop a literature review performed between 1980 and 2014, in which consultation of theses, dissertations and selected scientific articles were conducted through search in Scielo and Bireme databases, from Medline and Lilacs sources, relating the common characteristics between geographic tongue and psoriasis. We observed that the frequency of oral lesions is relatively common, but to establish a correct diagnosis of oral psoriasis, immunohistochemical and genetic histopathological analyzes are necessary, thus highlighting the importance of oral examination in psoriatic patients and cutaneous examination in patients with geographic tongue. PMID:27579734

  14. Geographic tongue and psoriasis: clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical and genetic correlation - a literature review.

    PubMed

    Picciani, Bruna Lavinas Sayed; Domingos, Tábata Alves; Teixeira-Souza, Thays; Santos, Vanessa de Carla Batista Dos; Gonzaga, Heron Fernando de Sousa; Cardoso-Oliveira, Juliana; Gripp, Alexandre Carlos; Dias, Eliane Pedra; Carneiro, Sueli

    2016-01-01

    Geographic tongue is a chronic, inflammatory, and immune-mediated oral lesion of unknown etiology. It is characterized by serpiginous white areas around the atrophic mucosa, which alternation between activity, remission and reactivation at various locations gave the names benign migratory glossitis and wandering rash of the tongue. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease with frequent cutaneous involvement and an immunogenetic basis of great importance in clinical practice. The association between geographic tongue and psoriasis has been demonstrated in various studies, based on observation of its fundamental lesions, microscopic similarity between the two conditions and the presence of a common genetic marker, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) HLA-C*06. The difficulty however in accepting the diagnosis of geographic tongue as oral psoriasis is the fact that not all patients with geographic tongue present psoriasis. Some authors believe that the prevalence of geographic tongue would be much greater if psoriatic patients underwent thorough oral examination. This study aimed to develop a literature review performed between 1980 and 2014, in which consultation of theses, dissertations and selected scientific articles were conducted through search in Scielo and Bireme databases, from Medline and Lilacs sources, relating the common characteristics between geographic tongue and psoriasis. We observed that the frequency of oral lesions is relatively common, but to establish a correct diagnosis of oral psoriasis, immunohistochemical and genetic histopathological analyzes are necessary, thus highlighting the importance of oral examination in psoriatic patients and cutaneous examination in patients with geographic tongue. PMID:27579734

  15. Particle impact location detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, S. O.

    1974-01-01

    Detector includes delay lines connected to each detector surface strip. When several particles strike different strips simultaneously, pulses generated by each strip are time delayed by certain intervals. Delay time for each strip is known. By observing time delay in pulse, it is possible to locate strip that is struck by particle.

  16. LOCATING AREAS OF CONCERN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple method to locate changes in vegetation cover, which can be used to identify areas under stress. The method only requires inexpensive NDVI data. The use of remotely sensed data is far more cost-effective than field studies and can be performed more quickly. Local knowledg...

  17. Location of Spirit's Home

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows where Earth would set on the martian horizon from the perspective of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit if it were facing northwest atop its lander at Gusev Crater. Earth cannot be seen in this image, but engineers have mapped its location. This image mosaic was taken by the hazard-identification camera onboard Spirit.

  18. Layers of Information: Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucking, Robert A.; Christmann, Edwin P.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Geographic Information System (GIS) which is capable of storing, manipulating, and displaying data allowing students to explore complex relationships through scientific inquiry. Explains applications of GIS in middle school classrooms and includes assessment strategies. (YDS)

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A GEOGRAPHIC VISUALIZATION AND COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS (GVCS) FOR MONITORING REMOTE VEHICLES

    SciTech Connect

    COLEMAN, P.; DUNCAN, M.; DURFEE, R.C.; GOELTZ, R; HARRISON, G.; HODGSON, M.E.; KOOK, M.; MCCLAIN, S.

    1998-03-30

    The purpose of this project is to integrate a variety of geographic information systems capabilities and telecommunication technologies for potential use in geographic network and visualization applications. The specific technical goals of the project were to design, develop, and simulate the components of an audio/visual geographic communications system to aid future real-time monitoring, mapping and managing of transport vehicles. The system components of this feasibility study are collectively referred to as a Geographic Visualization and Communications System (GVCS). State-of-the-art techniques will be used and developed to allow both the vehicle operator and network manager to monitor the location and surrounding environment of a transport vehicle during shipment.

  20. Precisely locating the Klamath Falls, Oregon, earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qamar, A.; Meagher, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    In this article we present preliminary results of a close-in, instrumental study of the Klamath Falls earthquake sequence, carried as a cooperative effort by scientists from the U.S Geological Survey (USGS) and universities in Washington, Orgeon, and California. In addition to obtaining much mroe accurate earthquake locations, this study has improved our understanding of the relationship between seismicity and mapped faults in the region. 

  1. Remote sensing and geographically based information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicone, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    A structure is proposed for a geographically-oriented computer-based information system applicable to the analysis of remote sensing digital data. The structure, intended to answer a wide variety of user needs, would permit multiple views of the data, provide independent management of data security, quality and integrity, and rely on automatic data filing. Problems in geographically-oriented data systems, including those related to line encoding and cell encoding, are considered.

  2. Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Services Locator Buprenorphine Physician Locator Find a Facility in Your State To locate the drug and ... Service . Privacy Policy . Home | About the Locator | Find Facilities Near You | Find Facilities by City, County, State ...

  3. Assigning African elephant DNA to geographic region of origin: Applications to the ivory trade

    PubMed Central

    Wasser, Samuel K.; Shedlock, Andrew M.; Comstock, Kenine; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Mutayoba, Benezeth; Stephens, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Resurgence of illicit trade in African elephant ivory is placing the elephant at renewed risk. Regulation of this trade could be vastly improved by the ability to verify the geographic origin of tusks. We address this need by developing a combined genetic and statistical method to determine the origin of poached ivory. Our statistical approach exploits a smoothing method to estimate geographic-specific allele frequencies over the entire African elephants' range for 16 microsatellite loci, using 315 tissue and 84 scat samples from forest (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) and savannah (Loxodonta africana africana) elephants at 28 locations. These geographic-specific allele frequency estimates are used to infer the geographic origin of DNA samples, such as could be obtained from tusks of unknown origin. We demonstrate that our method alleviates several problems associated with standard assignment methods in this context, and the absolute accuracy of our method is high. Continent-wide, 50% of samples were located within 500 km, and 80% within 932 km of their actual place of origin. Accuracy varied by region (median accuracies: West Africa, 135 km; Central Savannah, 286 km; Central Forest, 411 km; South, 535 km; and East, 697 km). In some cases, allele frequencies vary considerably over small geographic regions, making much finer discriminations possible and suggesting that resolution could be further improved by collection of samples from locations not represented in our study. PMID:15459317

  4. Effect of geographical distributions on the nutrient composition, phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity of Morus nigra.

    PubMed

    Khattak, Khanzadi Fatima; Rahman, Tajur Rahman

    2015-09-01

    Recent worldwide inclination for the consumption of natural compounds has extremely augmented the significance of persistent quality of plant materials. Consequently, there is an escalating scientific concern in the impact of geographical distributions of the plants on their chemical constituents, physical characteristics and biological activities. The current study was carried out to see the effect of geographical locations on the nutrient composition, mineral contents, phytochemical profile and free radical scavenging activity of Morus nigra fruit. The samples were collected from five different locations of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, which included districts of D. I. Khan, Karak, Peshawar, Swabi and Swat. The results revealed the considerable impact of geographical locations on the levels of proximate nutrient and selected minerals. Likewise, the concentrations of phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin and alkaloidal contents varied significantly (p<0.05) with respect to their geographical distributions. The physicochemical characteristic, extraction yields and DPPH scavenging activity of the samples also showed strong link with the sites of their cultivation. The data suggest that geographical distributions affect the levels of phytochemicals and conversely their biological activities. These variations must be taken into consideration while utilizing raw plant materials for industrial applications and traditional therapies. PMID:26408872

  5. Sequence Variability and Geographic Distribution of Lassa Virus, Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Stockelman, Michael G.; Moses, Lina M.; Park, Matthew; Stenger, David A.; Ansumana, Rashid; Bausch, Daniel G.; Lin, Baochuan

    2015-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic to parts of West Africa and causes highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. The multimammate rat (Mastomys natalensis) is the only known reservoir of LASV. Most human infections result from zoonotic transmission. The very diverse LASV genome has 4 major lineages associated with different geographic locations. We used reverse transcription PCR and resequencing microarrays to detect LASV in 41 of 214 samples from rodents captured at 8 locations in Sierra Leone. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of nucleoprotein (NP), glycoprotein precursor (GPC), and polymerase (L) genes showed 5 separate clades within lineage IV of LASV in this country. The sequence diversity was higher than previously observed; mean diversity was 7.01% for nucleoprotein gene at the nucleotide level. These results may have major implications for designing diagnostic tests and therapeutic agents for LASV infections in Sierra Leone. PMID:25811712

  6. Ethnic and Geographic Differentiation of Helicobacter pylori within Iran

    PubMed Central

    Latifi-Navid, Saeid; Siavoshi, Farideh; Linz, Bodo; Massarrat, Sadegh; Khegay, Tanya; Salmanian, Ali-Hatef; Shayesteh, Ali Akbar; Masoodi, Mohsen; Ghanadi, Koroush; Ganji, Azita; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Achtman, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The bacterium Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach, with individual infections persisting for decades. The spread of the bacterium has been shown to reflect both ancient and recent human migrations. We have sequenced housekeeping genes from H. pylori isolated from 147 Iranians with well-characterized geographical and ethnic origins sampled throughout Iran and compared them with sequences from strains from other locations. H. pylori from Iran are similar to others isolated from Western Eurasia and can be placed in the previously described HpEurope population. Despite the location of Iran at the crossroads of Eurasia, we found no evidence that the region been a major source of ancestry for strains across the continent. On a smaller scale, we found genetic affinities between the H. pylori isolated from particular Iranian populations and strains from Turks, Uzbeks, Palestinians and Israelis, reflecting documented historical contacts over the past two thousand years. PMID:20339588

  7. Dipole Well Location

    1998-08-03

    The problem here is to model the three-dimensional response of an electromagnetic logging tool to a practical situation which is often encountered in oil and gas exploration. The DWELL code provide the electromagnetic fields on the axis of a borehole due to either an electric or a magnetic dipole located on the same axis. The borehole is cylindrical, and is located within a stratified formation in which the bedding planes are not horizontal. The anglemore » between the normal to the bedding planes and the axis of the borehole may assume any value, or in other words, the borehole axis may be tilted with respect to the bedding planes. Additionally, all of the formation layers may have invasive zones of drilling mud. The operating frequency of the source dipole(s) extends from a few Hertz to hundreds of Megahertz.« less

  8. Electric current locator

    DOEpatents

    King, Paul E.; Woodside, Charles Rigel

    2012-02-07

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  9. Dipole Well Location

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Gregory

    1998-08-03

    The problem here is to model the three-dimensional response of an electromagnetic logging tool to a practical situation which is often encountered in oil and gas exploration. The DWELL code provide the electromagnetic fields on the axis of a borehole due to either an electric or a magnetic dipole located on the same axis. The borehole is cylindrical, and is located within a stratified formation in which the bedding planes are not horizontal. The angle between the normal to the bedding planes and the axis of the borehole may assume any value, or in other words, the borehole axis may be tilted with respect to the bedding planes. Additionally, all of the formation layers may have invasive zones of drilling mud. The operating frequency of the source dipole(s) extends from a few Hertz to hundreds of Megahertz.

  10. Marine cable location system

    SciTech Connect

    Ottsen, H.; Barker, Th.

    1985-04-23

    An acoustic positioning system for locating a marine cable at an exploration site employs a plurality of acoustic transponders, each having a characteristic frequency, at spaced-apart positions along the cable. A marine vessel measures the depth to the transponders as the vessel passes over the cable and measures the slant range from the vessel to each of the acoustic transponders as the vessel travels in a parallel and horizontally offset path to the cable.

  11. Magnetic Location Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegman, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Ferrofluidic device indicates point of highest magnetic-flux density in workspace. Consists of bubble of ferrofluid in immiscible liquid carrier in clear plastic case. Used in flat block or tube. Axes of centering circle on flat-block version used to mark location of maximum flux density when bubble in circle. Device used to find point on wall corresponding to known point on opposite side of wall.

  12. Ammonia Leak Locator Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Franklin T.; Wuest, Martin P.; Deffenbaugh, Danny M.

    1995-01-01

    The thermal control system of International Space Station Alpha will use liquid ammonia as the heat exchange fluid. It is expected that small leaks (of the order perhaps of one pound of ammonia per day) may develop in the lines transporting the ammonia to the various facilities as well as in the heat exchange equipment. Such leaks must be detected and located before the supply of ammonia becomes critically low. For that reason, NASA-JSC has a program underway to evaluate instruments that can detect and locate ultra-small concentrations of ammonia in a high vacuum environment. To be useful, the instrument must be portable and small enough that an astronaut can easily handle it during extravehicular activity. An additional complication in the design of the instrument is that the environment immediately surrounding ISSA will contain small concentrations of many other gases from venting of onboard experiments as well as from other kinds of leaks. These other vapors include water, cabin air, CO2, CO, argon, N2, and ethylene glycol. Altogether, this local environment might have a pressure of the order of 10(exp -7) to 10(exp -6) torr. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) was contracted by NASA-JSC to provide support to NASA-JSC and its prime contractors in evaluating ammonia-location instruments and to make a preliminary trade study of the advantages and limitations of potential instruments. The present effort builds upon an earlier SwRI study to evaluate ammonia leak detection instruments [Jolly and Deffenbaugh]. The objectives of the present effort include: (1) Estimate the characteristics of representative ammonia leaks; (2) Evaluate the baseline instrument in the light of the estimated ammonia leak characteristics; (3) Propose alternative instrument concepts; and (4) Conduct a trade study of the proposed alternative concepts and recommend promising instruments. The baseline leak-location instrument selected by NASA-JSC was an ion gauge.

  13. KBGIS-2: A knowledge-based geographic information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, T.; Peuquet, D.; Menon, S.; Agarwal, P.

    1986-01-01

    The architecture and working of a recently implemented knowledge-based geographic information system (KBGIS-2) that was designed to satisfy several general criteria for the geographic information system are described. The system has four major functions that include query-answering, learning, and editing. The main query finds constrained locations for spatial objects that are describable in a predicate-calculus based spatial objects language. The main search procedures include a family of constraint-satisfaction procedures that use a spatial object knowledge base to search efficiently for complex spatial objects in large, multilayered spatial data bases. These data bases are represented in quadtree form. The search strategy is designed to reduce the computational cost of search in the average case. The learning capabilities of the system include the addition of new locations of complex spatial objects to the knowledge base as queries are answered, and the ability to learn inductively definitions of new spatial objects from examples. The new definitions are added to the knowledge base by the system. The system is currently performing all its designated tasks successfully, although currently implemented on inadequate hardware. Future reports will detail the performance characteristics of the system, and various new extensions are planned in order to enhance the power of KBGIS-2.

  14. Geographic variation in speed of seed germination in central Oregon ponderosa pine ( pinus ponderosa' dougl. ex laws). Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, J.C.; Sorensen, F.C.

    1992-03-01

    Variation in speed of seed germination was investigated among ponderosa pine trees representing 225 locations in central Oregon. Results suggested that at least some of the geographic variation is related to the severity of summer drought. In general, germination speed was greater in locations with short, drought-limited growing seasons. Levels of geographic variation were highest in the region having the steepest precipitation gradients. Most of the variation occurred, however, within locations.

  15. Machine tool locator

    DOEpatents

    Hanlon, John A.; Gill, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    Machine tools can be accurately measured and positioned on manufacturing machines within very small tolerances by use of an autocollimator on a 3-axis mount on a manufacturing machine and positioned so as to focus on a reference tooling ball or a machine tool, a digital camera connected to the viewing end of the autocollimator, and a marker and measure generator for receiving digital images from the camera, then displaying or measuring distances between the projection reticle and the reference reticle on the monitoring screen, and relating the distances to the actual position of the autocollimator relative to the reference tooling ball. The images and measurements are used to set the position of the machine tool and to measure the size and shape of the machine tool tip, and examine cutting edge wear. patent

  16. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, National Geographic Society Photograph, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, National Geographic Society Photograph, 1971 Courtesy, National Geographic Society LIBRARY, 1971 - Townsend House, 2121 Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. The Usability of Online Geographic Virtual Reality for Urban Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Moore, A. B.

    2013-08-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology is starting to become widely and freely available (for example the online OpenSimulator tool), with potential for use in 3D urban planning and design tasks but still needing rigorous assessment to establish this. A previous study consulted with a small group of urban professionals, who concluded in a satisfaction usability test that online VR had potential value as a usable 3D communication and remote marketing tool but acknowledged that visual quality and geographic accuracy were obstacles to overcome. This research takes the investigation a significant step further to also examine the usability aspects of efficiency (how quickly tasks are completed) and effectiveness (how successfully tasks are completed), relating to OpenSimulator in an urban planning situation. The comparative study pits a three-dimensional VR model (with increased graphic fidelity and geographic content to address the feedback of the previous study) of a subdivision design (in a Dunedin suburb) against 3D models built with GIS (ArcGIS) and CAD (BricsCAD) tools, two types of software environment well established in urban professional practice. Urban professionals participated in the study by attempting to perform timed tasks correctly in each of the environments before being asked questions about the technologies involved and their perceived importance to their professional work. The results reinforce the positive feedback for VR of the previous study, with the graphical and geographic data issues being somewhat addressed (though participants stressed the need for accurate and precise object and terrain modification capabilities in VR). Ease-ofuse and associated fastest task completion speed were significant positive outcomes to emerge from the comparison with GIS and CAD, pointing to a strong future for VR in an urban planning context.

  18. Location capability of a sparse regional network (RSTN) using a multi-phase earthquake location algorithm (REGLOC)

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L.

    1994-01-01

    The Regional Seismic Test Network (RSTN) was deployed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine whether data recorded by a regional network could be used to detect and accurately locate seismic events that might be clandestine nuclear tests. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the location capability of the RSTN. A major part of this project was the development of the location algorithm REGLOC and application of Basian a prior statistics for determining the accuracy of the location estimates. REGLOC utilizes all identifiable phases, including backazimuth, in the location. Ninty-four events, distributed throughout the network area, detected by both the RSTN and located by local networks were used in the study. The location capability of the RSTN was evaluated by estimating the location accuracy, error ellipse accuracy, and the percentage of events that could be located, as a function of magnitude. The location accuracy was verified by comparing the RSTN results for the 94 events with published locations based on data from the local networks. The error ellipse accuracy was evaluated by determining whether the error ellipse includes the actual location. The percentage of events located was assessed by combining detection capability with location capability to determine the percentage of events that could be located within the study area. Events were located with both an average crustal model for the entire region, and with regional velocity models along with station corrections obtained from master events. Most events with a magnitude <3.0 can only be located with arrivals from one station. Their average location errors are 453 and 414 km for the average- and regional-velocity model locations, respectively. Single station locations are very unreliable because they depend on accurate backazimuth estimates, and backazimuth proved to be a very unreliable computation.

  19. Accurate adjoint design sensitivities for nano metal optics.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Paul; Hesselink, Lambertus

    2015-09-01

    We present a method for obtaining accurate numerical design sensitivities for metal-optical nanostructures. Adjoint design sensitivity analysis, long used in fluid mechanics and mechanical engineering for both optimization and structural analysis, is beginning to be used for nano-optics design, but it fails for sharp-cornered metal structures because the numerical error in electromagnetic simulations of metal structures is highest at sharp corners. These locations feature strong field enhancement and contribute strongly to design sensitivities. By using high-accuracy FEM calculations and rounding sharp features to a finite radius of curvature we obtain highly-accurate design sensitivities for 3D metal devices. To provide a bridge to the existing literature on adjoint methods in other fields, we derive the sensitivity equations for Maxwell's equations in the PDE framework widely used in fluid mechanics. PMID:26368483

  20. Measuring geographic segregation: a graph-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seong-Yun; Sadahiro, Yukio

    2014-04-01

    Residential segregation is a multidimensional phenomenon that encompasses several conceptually distinct aspects of geographical separation between populations. While various indices have been developed as a response to different definitions of segregation, the reliance on such single-figure indices could oversimplify the complex, multidimensional phenomena. In this regard, this paper suggests an alternative graph-based approach that provides more detailed information than simple indices: The concentration profile graphically conveys information about how evenly a population group is distributed over the study region, and the spatial proximity profile depicts the degree of clustering across different threshold levels. These graphs can also be summarized into single numbers for comparative purposes, but the interpretation can be more accurate by inspecting the additional information. To demonstrate the use of these methods, the residential patterns of three major ethnic groups in Auckland, namely Māori, Pacific peoples, and Asians, are examined using the 2006 census data.

  1. Mill profiler machines soft materials accurately

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1966-01-01

    Mill profiler machines bevels, slots, and grooves in soft materials, such as styrofoam phenolic-filled cores, to any desired thickness. A single operator can accurately control cutting depths in contour or straight line work.

  2. Remote balance weighs accurately amid high radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggenberger, D. N.; Shuck, A. B.

    1969-01-01

    Commercial beam-type balance, modified and outfitted with electronic controls and digital readout, can be remotely controlled for use in high radiation environments. This allows accurate weighing of breeder-reactor fuel pieces when they are radioactively hot.

  3. Improving exploration with geographical information system (GIS) technology

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, P.B.; Choiniere, M.R.; Harris, F.W.

    1996-12-31

    Timely reliable access to data is required by Earth Scientists and Engineers evaluating geology, facilities, environment, and new business opportunities. Geographical Information System (GIS) technology has been recently implemented to provide efficient and comprehensive access to data for exploration work in Venezuela. The GIS allows rapid comparisons, queries, sorting, and evaluation of data that in the past required multiple hardware platforms, multiple software packages, paper plots, spreadsheets, and time. A vendor GIS database package formed the foundation. This GIS provided regional coverage for the entire country of Venezuela at a scale of 1:250,000. It included 36,000 wells and associated attributes, facilities, geologic maps, potential field data, and transportation networks. Essential with GIS, all of the data were transformed from multiple cartographic datums to a single map projection. Proprietary and other tabular databases were incorporated into the vendor GIS by Chevron, significantly upgrading the value of the system for company exploration. Tabular databases were either imported, linked or converted to the GIS. They included Nomad, Paradox, Oracle, Openworks, and PC-based spreadsheets containing wells, seismic, and geochemistry data. Nontabular data types incorporated into the GIS included digital outcrop log and paleosections, maps, other GIS data, Global Positioning System control points, satellite imagery and scanned photographs. The enhanced GIS has proven valuable for facilitating access to, and rapid and accurate evaluation of, large geographic areas with multiple data sources and types.

  4. Improving exploration with geographical information system (GIS) technology

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, P.B.; Choiniere, M.R.; Harris, F.W. )

    1996-01-01

    Timely reliable access to data is required by Earth Scientists and Engineers evaluating geology, facilities, environment, and new business opportunities. Geographical Information System (GIS) technology has been recently implemented to provide efficient and comprehensive access to data for exploration work in Venezuela. The GIS allows rapid comparisons, queries, sorting, and evaluation of data that in the past required multiple hardware platforms, multiple software packages, paper plots, spreadsheets, and time. A vendor GIS database package formed the foundation. This GIS provided regional coverage for the entire country of Venezuela at a scale of 1:250,000. It included 36,000 wells and associated attributes, facilities, geologic maps, potential field data, and transportation networks. Essential with GIS, all of the data were transformed from multiple cartographic datums to a single map projection. Proprietary and other tabular databases were incorporated into the vendor GIS by Chevron, significantly upgrading the value of the system for company exploration. Tabular databases were either imported, linked or converted to the GIS. They included Nomad, Paradox, Oracle, Openworks, and PC-based spreadsheets containing wells, seismic, and geochemistry data. Nontabular data types incorporated into the GIS included digital outcrop log and paleosections, maps, other GIS data, Global Positioning System control points, satellite imagery and scanned photographs. The enhanced GIS has proven valuable for facilitating access to, and rapid and accurate evaluation of, large geographic areas with multiple data sources and types.

  5. Understanding the Code: keeping accurate records.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    2015-10-01

    In his continuing series looking at the legal and professional implications of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's revised Code of Conduct, Richard Griffith discusses the elements of accurate record keeping under Standard 10 of the Code. This article considers the importance of accurate record keeping for the safety of patients and protection of district nurses. The legal implications of records are explained along with how district nurses should write records to ensure these legal requirements are met. PMID:26418404

  6. Developmental aspects of memory for spatial location.

    PubMed

    Ellis, N R; Katz, E; Williams, J E

    1987-12-01

    The purpose was to show whether or not the encoding of location met criteria defining an automatic process (L. Hasher & R. T. Zacks, 1979, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 108, 356-388; 1984, American Psychologist, 39, 1372-1388). Among other criteria, automatic processes are not expected to show developmental changes beyond an early age, to be unrelated to intelligence level, and to be unaffected by instructions. In the first experiment preschool through sixth-grade children were compared on a 40-picturebook task following incidental (remember the names of pictures) or intentional (remember location) instruction. Subjects viewed and named pictures in sets of four, arranged in quadrants in the opened book, and then attempted to recall names of the objects pictured and to relocate pictures on blank pages. In the second experiment, second and sixth graders, college students, elderly persons, and mentally retarded persons were compared on a 60-picturebook task following either incidental or semantic incidental instructions (give the function of objects pictured). Memory for location was invariant across age groups and intelligence level. The only exception was that 3 and 4 year olds were more accurate following intentional instructions. Otherwise there were no differences between intentional and incidental instructions. Semantic instructions resulted in slightly more accurate locations. The results were interpreted as supportive of the Hasher and Zacks' automaticity hypothesis. PMID:3694123

  7. Little River Experimental Watershed, Tifton, GA, United States: A Geographic Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Little River Experimental Watershed is located in the headwaters of the Upper Suwannee River basin and is one of twelve national benchmark watersheds participating in the USDA Conservation Effects Assessment Project-Watershed Assessment Studies. A geographic database has been established to inc...

  8. An Activity-Based Learning Approach for Key Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Sanjeev Kumar; Tait, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the effect of active learning methods of concepts in geographical information systems where students participated in a series of interlocked learning experiences. These activities spanned several teaching weeks and involved the creation of a hand drawn map that was scanned and geo-referenced with locations' coordinates derived…

  9. Structural and geographical analysis of cross-border three-member areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, P. Ya.; Novikov, A. N.; Ptitsyn, A. B.

    2016-05-01

    A specific geographical structure identified at the junction point of the borders of three countries is characterized by a radial symmetry in the distribution of areas with varying degrees of nature management restrictions, which get tougher closer to the junction. The special protection areas are located in the junction point of the borders.

  10. Equalizing Access to Nursing Services: The Geographic Dimension. Health Manpower References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Frank A.; And Others

    As the second phase of a four-year research project on the geographic distribution of professional nurses, a study investigated what incentive or incentives motivate nurses in their choice of employment location. Data was analyzed from four sources: a survey of hospital directors of nursing, a survey of registered nurses, 1960 and 1970 U.S. Census…

  11. Geographic Skills Mismatch, Job Search, and Race. Discussion Paper No. 1288-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines whether a geographic skills mismatch exists between the location of less-educated minorities, in particular African Americans, and high-skill job concentrations, and if so, whether it contributes to the relatively poor employment outcomes of this group. It explores these questions by examining data on the recent geographic…

  12. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Mapping of Environmental Samples across College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis-Roberts, Kathleen L.; Moeur, Harriet P.; Zanella, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students take environmental samples at various locations around the college campuses, take geospatial coordinates with a global position systems (GPS) unit, and map their results on a geo-referenced campus map with geographical information systems (GIS) software. Nitrogen dioxide air pollution sampling is used as an…

  13. Developing a Multi-Mission Geographic Information System (MMGIS) for In-Situ Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calef, F. J.; Gengl, H. E.; Parker, T. J.; Deen, R. G.

    2015-06-01

    Locating science instrument data to mm accuracy on a planet surface can be manual and time-intensive. We're developing a multi-mission geographic information system (MMGIS) to standardize georeferencing & map display of in-situ science instruments.

  14. Integrating Geographic Information Systems in Business School Curriculum: An Initial Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Michael A.; Arnette, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    Geographic information systems have experienced rapid growth and user adoption over the last four decades, due to an increasing value to the business community. However, business schools are not teaching geospatial concepts and the related location intelligence to their students. This curriculum decision seems completely at odds with business'…

  15. 50 CFR 218.30 - Specified activity and specified geographical area and effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Training in the Gulf of Mexico Range Complex § 218.30 Specified activity and specified geographical area...), which is located along the Gulf of Mexico coast of the U.S. described in Figures 1 and 2 of the LOA... SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE...

  16. 50 CFR 218.30 - Specified activity and specified geographical area and effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Training in the Gulf of Mexico Range Complex § 218.30 Specified activity and specified geographical area...), which is located along the Gulf of Mexico coast of the U.S. described in Figures 1 and 2 of the LOA... SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE...

  17. Sonar Locator Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    An underwater locator device called a Pinger is attached to an airplane's flight recorder for recovery in case of a crash. Burnett Electronics Pinger Model 512 resulted from a Burnett Electronics Laboratory, Inc./Langley Research Center contract for development of a search system for underwater mines. The Pinger's battery-powered transmitter is activated when immersed in water, and sends multidirectional signals for up to 500 hours. When a surface receiver picks up the signal, a diver can retrieve the pinger and the attached airplane flight recorder. Other pingers are used to track whales, mark underwater discoveries and assist oil drilling vessels.

  18. Location of Planet X

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, R.S.

    1988-10-01

    Observed positions of Uranus and Neptune along with residuals in right ascension and declination are used to constrain the location of a postulated tenth planet. The residuals are converted into residuals in ecliptic longitude and latitude. The results are then combined into seasonal normal points, producing average geocentric residuals spaced slightly more than a year apart that are assumed to represent the equivalent heliocentric average residuals for the observed oppositions. Such a planet is found to most likely reside in the region of Scorpius, with considerably less likelihood that it is in Taurus. 8 references.

  19. [Electronic Apex Locator as a dental instrument].

    PubMed

    Lin, S; Winocur-Arias, O; Slutzky-Goldberg, I

    2009-04-01

    Electronic Apex Locators (EAL) have become widely used in the last decade. The first apex locator was introduced in 1962, based on a constant electrical resistance (6.5 K.) between the oral mucosa and periodontal ligament. The first and second generations of EAL were inaccurate and could not detect the apex in the presence of conducting fluids. The third generation solved this problem by using two alternating frequencies and calculating the impedance between them. This provided reliable and accurate results in dry canals, or in the presence of blood, electrolytes or other fluid in the root canals, when the pulp was necrotic or when there was a perforation along the root. The Root ZX and Apit (Endex) are the most documented devices. The new fourth generation of apex locators is a diverse group: some use multifrequency currents, others use a "lookup matrix" rather than calculate the readings. Several of the newer EALs are smaller, and others connect to computers. PMID:20162984

  20. Mining Co-Location Patterns from Spatial Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, C.; Xiao, W. D.; Tang, D. Q.

    2016-06-01

    Due to the widespread application of geographic information systems (GIS) and GPS technology and the increasingly mature infrastructure for data collection, sharing, and integration, more and more research domains have gained access to high-quality geographic data and created new ways to incorporate spatial information and analysis in various studies. There is an urgent need for effective and efficient methods to extract unknown and unexpected information, e.g., co-location patterns, from spatial datasets of high dimensionality and complexity. A co-location pattern is defined as a subset of spatial items whose instances are often located together in spatial proximity. Current co-location mining algorithms are unable to quantify the spatial proximity of a co-location pattern. We propose a co-location pattern miner aiming to discover co-location patterns in a multidimensional spatial data by measuring the cohesion of a pattern. We present a model to measure the cohesion in an attempt to improve the efficiency of existing methods. The usefulness of our method is demonstrated by applying them on the publicly available spatial data of the city of Antwerp in Belgium. The experimental results show that our method is more efficient than existing methods.

  1. METHOD OF LOCATING GROUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Macleish, K.G.

    1958-02-11

    ABS>This patent presents a method for locating a ground in a d-c circult having a number of parallel branches connected across a d-c source or generator. The complete method comprises the steps of locating the ground with reference to the mildpoint of the parallel branches by connecting a potentiometer across the terminals of the circuit and connecting the slider of the potentiometer to ground through a current indicating instrument, adjusting the slider to right or left of the mildpoint so as to cause the instrument to indicate zero, connecting the terminal of the network which is farthest from the ground as thus indicated by the potentiometer to ground through a condenser, impressing a ripple voltage on the circuit, and then measuring the ripple voltage at the midpoint of each parallel branch to find the branch in which is the lowest value of ripple voltage, and then measuring the distribution of the ripple voltage along this branch to determine the point at which the ripple voltage drops off to zero or substantially zero due to the existence of a ground. The invention has particular application where a circuit ground is present which will disappear if the normal circuit voltage is removed.

  2. Accurately Determining the Risks of Rising Sea Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marbaix, Philippe; Nicholls, Robert J.

    2007-10-01

    With the highest density of people and the greatest concentration of economic activity located in the coastal regions, sea level rise is an important concern as the climate continues to warm. Subsequent flooding may potentially disrupt industries, populations, and livelihoods, particularly in the long term if the climate is not quickly stabilized [McGranahan et al., 2007; Tol et al., 2006]. To help policy makers understand these risks, a more accurate description of hazards posed by rising sea levels is needed at the global scale, even though the impacts in specific regions are better known.

  3. Calibration Techniques for Accurate Measurements by Underwater Camera Systems.

    PubMed

    Shortis, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Calibration of a camera system is essential to ensure that image measurements result in accurate estimates of locations and dimensions within the object space. In the underwater environment, the calibration must implicitly or explicitly model and compensate for the refractive effects of waterproof housings and the water medium. This paper reviews the different approaches to the calibration of underwater camera systems in theoretical and practical terms. The accuracy, reliability, validation and stability of underwater camera system calibration are also discussed. Samples of results from published reports are provided to demonstrate the range of possible accuracies for the measurements produced by underwater camera systems. PMID:26690172

  4. Calibration Techniques for Accurate Measurements by Underwater Camera Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shortis, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Calibration of a camera system is essential to ensure that image measurements result in accurate estimates of locations and dimensions within the object space. In the underwater environment, the calibration must implicitly or explicitly model and compensate for the refractive effects of waterproof housings and the water medium. This paper reviews the different approaches to the calibration of underwater camera systems in theoretical and practical terms. The accuracy, reliability, validation and stability of underwater camera system calibration are also discussed. Samples of results from published reports are provided to demonstrate the range of possible accuracies for the measurements produced by underwater camera systems. PMID:26690172

  5. Acoustic wave-equation-based earthquake location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Ping; Yang, Dinghui; Liu, Qinya; Yang, Xu; Harris, Jerry

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel earthquake location method using acoustic wave-equation-based traveltime inversion. The linear relationship between the location perturbation (δt0, δxs) and the resulting traveltime residual δt of a particular seismic phase, represented by the traveltime sensitivity kernel K(t0, xs) with respect to the earthquake location (t0, xs), is theoretically derived based on the adjoint method. Traveltime sensitivity kernel K(t0, xs) is formulated as a convolution between the forward and adjoint wavefields, which are calculated by numerically solving two acoustic wave equations. The advantage of this newly derived traveltime kernel is that it not only takes into account the earthquake-receiver geometry but also accurately honours the complexity of the velocity model. The earthquake location is obtained by solving a regularized least-squares problem. In 3-D realistic applications, it is computationally expensive to conduct full wave simulations. Therefore, we propose a 2.5-D approach which assumes the forward and adjoint wave simulations within a 2-D vertical plane passing through the earthquake and receiver. Various synthetic examples show the accuracy of this acoustic wave-equation-based earthquake location method. The accuracy and efficiency of the 2.5-D approach for 3-D earthquake location are further verified by its application to the 2004 Big Bear earthquake in Southern California.

  6. A Framework for Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) based on geographic ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, H. Y.; Li, H. T.; Yan, L.; Lu, X. J.

    2015-06-01

    GEOBIA (Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis) is not only a hot topic of current remote sensing and geographical research. It is believed to be a paradigm in remote sensing and GIScience. The lack of a systematic approach designed to conceptualize and formalize the class definitions makes GEOBIA a highly subjective and difficult method to reproduce. This paper aims to put forward a framework for GEOBIA based on geographic ontology theory, which could implement "Geographic entities - Image objects - Geographic objects" true reappearance. It consists of three steps, first, geographical entities are described by geographic ontology, second, semantic network model is built based on OWL(ontology web language), at last, geographical objects are classified with decision rule or other classifiers. A case study of farmland ontology was conducted for describing the framework. The strength of this framework is that it provides interpretation strategies and global framework for GEOBIA with the property of objective, overall, universal, universality, etc., which avoids inconsistencies caused by different experts' experience and provides an objective model for mage analysis.

  7. Pre-Service Geography Teachers' Confidence in Geographical Subject Matter Knowledge and Teaching Geographical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harte, Wendy; Reitano, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This research tracked the confidence of 16 undergraduate and postgraduate pre-service geography teachers as they completed a single semester, senior phase geography curriculum course. The study focused specifically on the pre-service teachers' confidence in geographical subject matter knowledge and their confidence in teaching geographical skills.…

  8. Photographic Mosaics and Geographic Generalizations: A Perceptual Approach to Geographic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castner, Henry W.

    2003-01-01

    If vision can be considered the basis of geographic inquiry, then it must involve looking with discrimination--the ability to discern clues in our surroundings that speak to spatial processes or patterns in all aspects of geography--physical, cultural, economic, and so on. Geographic thinking also involves making spatial generalizations. We do…

  9. Geographic variation in marine turtle fibropapillomatosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenblatt, R.J.; Work, T.M.; Dutton, P.; Sutton, C.A.; Spraker, T.R.; Casey, R.N.; Diez, C.E.; Parker, Dana C.; St. Ledger, J.; Balazs, G.H.; Casey, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    We document three examples of fibropapillomatosis by histology, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and sequence analysis from three different geographic areas. Tumors compatible in morphology with fibropapillomatosis were seen in green turtles from Puerto Rico and San Diego (California) and in a hybrid loggerhead/ hawksbill turtle from Florida Bay (Florida). Tumors were confirmed as fibropapillomas on histology, although severity of disease varied between cases. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses revealed infection with the fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus (FPTHV) in all cases, albeit at highly variable copy numbers per cell. Alignment of a portion of the polymerase gene from each fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus isolate demonstrated geographic variation in sequence. These cases illustrate geographic variation in both the pathology and the virology of fibropapillomatosis.

  10. Development and Management of a Geographic Information System for Health Research in a Developing-country Setting: A Case Study from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Jonathan D.; Labrique, Alain B.; Salahuddin, Ahmad; Rashid, Mahbubur; Klemm, Rolf D.W.; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P.

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade, geographic information systems (GIS) have become accessible to researchers in developing countries, yet guidance remains sparse for developing a GIS. Drawing on experience in developing a GIS for a large community trial in rural Bangladesh, six stages for constructing, maintaining, and using a GIS for health research purposes were outlined. The system contains 0.25 million landmarks, including 150,000 houses, in an area of 435 sq km with over 650,000 people. Assuming access to reasonably accurate paper boundary maps of the intended working area and the absence of pre-existing digital local-area maps, the six stages are: to (a) digitize and update existing paper maps, (b) join the digitized maps into a large-area map, (c) reference this large-area map to a geographic coordinate system, (d) insert location landmarks of interest, (e) maintain the GIS, and (f) link it to other research databases. These basic steps can produce a household-level, updated, scaleable GIS that can both enhance field efficiency and support epidemiologic analyses of demographic patterns, diseases, and health outcomes. PMID:18402187

  11. Measuring access to urban health services using Geographical Information System (GIS): a case study of health service management in Bandar Abbas, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Masoodi, Mehdi; Rahimzadeh, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Background: The current distribution of and access to health services along with the future health needs of the population have prompted wide application of Geographic Information Systems (GISs). During recent years, GIS has been used in public health management for planning and organization of healthcare services. This study investigates geographical accessibility of residential areas in Bandar Abbas, Iran to healthcare services. Methods: Accessibility was evaluated by using Floating Catchment Area (FCA), minimum distance methods and Response Time (RT) accessibility technique. Results: More accurate measures of distances in Bandar Abbas, illustrated that Euclidean distances were not strongly correlated with network distances. The RT accessibility technique that utilizes shortest network path and time distances, presented detailed information about all the possible positions of the patients with respect to available healthcare services based on optimum and critical response times. Conclusion: Locations of public health services in Bandar Abbas were not related to the sites of populations. The RT accessibility technique provides a reasonably sensitive and robust evaluation of accessibility. PMID:26188808

  12. Groth Deep Locations Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer photographed this ultraviolet color blowup of the Groth Deep Image on June 22 and June 23, 2003. Hundreds of galaxies are detected in this portion of the image, and the faint red galaxies are believed to be 6 billion light years away. The white boxes show the location of these distant galaxies, of which more than a 100 can be detected in this image. NASA astronomers expect to detect 10,000 such galaxies after extrapolating to the full image at a deeper exposure level.

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer mission is led by the California Institute of Technology, which is also responsible for the science operations and data analysis. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., a division of Caltech, manages the mission and built the science instrument. The mission was developed under NASA's Explorers Program, managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The mission's international partners include South Korea and France.

  13. The relationship between left ventricle myocardial performance index of healthy women and geographical factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Ge, Miao; Dong, Jie; Wang, Zixuan; He, Jinwei; Yang, Rongrong

    2015-11-01

    The study focused on the relationship between geographical factors and left ventricular myocardial performance index (MPI)reference value, analyed the different distribution of MPI, and then provided a scientific basis for clinical examination. This study collected MPI reference values of 2545 healthy women from 91 cities in China, used the Moran's index to determin the spatial relationship, selected 25 geographical factors, examined the significance between MPI and geographical factors by correlation analysis, through the significance test, and extracted seven significant factors to build the artificial neural network (ANN) model and principal component analysis (PCA) model. Through calculating the relative error, the ANN model was chosen as the better model to predict the values. By normality test for the predicted values, the geographical distribution was made by disjunctive kriging interpolation. The predicted values decrease from north to south. If geographical factors are obtained in one location, the MPI of healthy women in this area can be predicted by the ANN model. Synthesizing the influence of physiological and geographical could be more scientific to formulate the MPI reference value.

  14. Methodology for classification of geographical features with remote sensing images: Application to tidal flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revollo Sarmiento, G. N.; Cipolletti, M. P.; Perillo, M. M.; Delrieux, C. A.; Perillo, Gerardo M. E.

    2016-03-01

    Tidal flats generally exhibit ponds of diverse size, shape, orientation and origin. Studying the genesis, evolution, stability and erosive mechanisms of these geographic features is critical to understand the dynamics of coastal wetlands. However, monitoring these locations through direct access is hard and expensive, not always feasible, and environmentally damaging. Processing remote sensing images is a natural alternative for the extraction of qualitative and quantitative data due to their non-invasive nature. In this work, a robust methodology for automatic classification of ponds and tidal creeks in tidal flats using Google Earth images is proposed. The applicability of our method is tested in nine zones with different morphological settings. Each zone is processed by a segmentation stage, where ponds and tidal creeks are identified. Next, each geographical feature is measured and a set of shape descriptors is calculated. This dataset, together with a-priori classification of each geographical feature, is used to define a regression model, which allows an extensive automatic classification of large volumes of data discriminating ponds and tidal creeks against other various geographical features. In all cases, we identified and automatically classified different geographic features with an average accuracy over 90% (89.7% in the worst case, and 99.4% in the best case). These results show the feasibility of using freely available Google Earth imagery for the automatic identification and classification of complex geographical features. Also, the presented methodology may be easily applied in other wetlands of the world and perhaps employing other remote sensing imagery.

  15. Knowing what and where: TMS evidence for the dual neural basis of geographical knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Paul; Crutch, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    All animals acquire knowledge about the topography of their immediate environment through direct exploration. Uniquely, humans also acquire geographical knowledge indirectly through exposure to maps and verbal information, resulting in a rich database of global geographical knowledge. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate the structure and neural basis of this critical but poorly understood component of semantic knowledge. Participants completed tests of geographical knowledge that probed either information about spatial locations (e.g., France borders Spain) or non-spatial taxonomic information (e.g., France is a country). TMS applied to the anterior temporal lobe, a region that codes conceptual knowledge for words and objects, had a general disruptive effect on the geographical tasks. In contrast, stimulation of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), a region involved in the coding of spatial and numerical information, had a highly selective effect on spatial geographical decisions but no effect on taxonomic judgements. Our results establish that geographical concepts lie at the intersection of two distinct neural representation systems, and provide insights into how the interaction of these systems shape our understanding of the world. PMID:26783734

  16. Geographical patterning of sixteen goat breeds from Italy, Albania and Greece assessed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Pariset, Lorraine; Cuteri, Antonella; Ligda, Christina; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Valentini, Alessio

    2009-01-01

    Background SNP data of goats of three Mediterranean countries were used for population studies and reconstruction of geographical patterning. 496 individuals belonging to Italian, Albanian and Greek breeds were genotyped to assess the basic population parameters. Results A total of 26 SNPs were used, for a total of 12,896 genotypes assayed. Statistical analysis revealed that breeds are not so similar in terms of genetic variability, as reported in studies performed using different markers. The Mantel test showed a strongly significant correlation between genetic and geographic distance. Also, PCA analysis revealed that breeds are grouped according to geographical origin, with the exception of the Greek Skopelos breed. Conclusion Our data point out that the use of SNP markers to analyze a wider breed sample could help in understanding the recent evolutionary history of domestic goats. We found correlation between genetic diversity and geographic distance. Also PCA analysis shows that the breeds are well differentiated, with good correspondence to geographical locations, thus confirming the correlation between geographical and genetic distances. This suggests that migration history of the species played a pivotal role in the present-day structure of the breeds and a scenario in which coastal routes were easier for migrating in comparison with inland routes. A westward coastal route to Italy through Greece could have led to gene flow along the Northern Mediterranean. PMID:19725964

  17. Knowing what and where: TMS evidence for the dual neural basis of geographical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Paul; Crutch, Sebastian

    2016-02-01

    All animals acquire knowledge about the topography of their immediate environment through direct exploration. Uniquely, humans also acquire geographical knowledge indirectly through exposure to maps and verbal information, resulting in a rich database of global geographical knowledge. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate the structure and neural basis of this critical but poorly understood component of semantic knowledge. Participants completed tests of geographical knowledge that probed either information about spatial locations (e.g., France borders Spain) or non-spatial taxonomic information (e.g., France is a country). TMS applied to the anterior temporal lobe, a region that codes conceptual knowledge for words and objects, had a general disruptive effect on the geographical tasks. In contrast, stimulation of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), a region involved in the coding of spatial and numerical information, had a highly selective effect on spatial geographical decisions but no effect on taxonomic judgements. Our results establish that geographical concepts lie at the intersection of two distinct neural representation systems, and provide insights into how the interaction of these systems shape our understanding of the world. PMID:26783734

  18. Enhancing robustness and immunization in geographical networks

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Liang; Yang Kongqing; Yang Lei

    2007-03-15

    We find that different geographical structures of networks lead to varied percolation thresholds, although these networks may have similar abstract topological structures. Thus, strategies for enhancing robustness and immunization of a geographical network are proposed. Using the generating function formalism, we obtain an explicit form of the percolation threshold q{sub c} for networks containing arbitrary order cycles. For three-cycles, the dependence of q{sub c} on the clustering coefficients is ascertained. The analysis substantiates the validity of the strategies with analytical evidence.

  19. Geographic information system/watershed model interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Gary T.

    1989-01-01

    Geographic information systems allow for the interactive analysis of spatial data related to water-resources investigations. A conceptual design for an interface between a geographic information system and a watershed model includes functions for the estimation of model parameter values. Design criteria include ease of use, minimal equipment requirements, a generic data-base management system, and use of a macro language. An application is demonstrated for a 90.1-square-kilometer subbasin of the Patuxent River near Unity, Maryland, that performs automated derivation of watershed parameters for hydrologic modeling.

  20. Global change: Geographical approaches (A Review)*

    PubMed Central

    Kotlyakov, V. M.; Mather, J. R.; Sdasyuk, G. V.; White, G. F.

    1988-01-01

    The International Geosphere Biosphere Program sponsored by the International Council of Scientific Unions is directing attention to geophysical and biological change as influenced by human modifications in global energy and mass exchanges. Geographers in the Soviet Union and the United States have joined in critical appraisal of their experience in studying environmental change. This initial report is on some promising approaches, such as the reconstruction of earlier landscape processes, modeling of the dynamics of present-day landscapes, analysis of causes and consequences of anthropogenic changes in specified regions, appraisal of social response to change, and enhanced geographic information systems supported by detailed site studies. PMID:16593971

  1. Computation of geographic variables for air pollution prediction models in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Eum, Youngseob; Song, Insang; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Leem, Jong-Han; Kim, Sun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Recent cohort studies have relied on exposure prediction models to estimate individuallevel air pollution concentrations because individual air pollution measurements are not available for cohort locations. For such prediction models, geographic variables related to pollution sources are important inputs. We demonstrated the computation process of geographic variables mostly recorded in 2010 at regulatory air pollution monitoring sites in South Korea. On the basis of previous studies, we finalized a list of 313 geographic variables related to air pollution sources in eight categories including traffic, demographic characteristics, land use, transportation facilities, physical geography, emissions, vegetation, and altitude. We then obtained data from different sources such as the Statistics Geographic Information Service and Korean Transport Database. After integrating all available data to a single database by matching coordinate systems and converting non-spatial data to spatial data, we computed geographic variables at 294 regulatory monitoring sites in South Korea. The data integration and variable computation were performed by using ArcGIS version 10.2 (ESRI Inc., Redlands, CA, USA). For traffic, we computed the distances to the nearest roads and the sums of road lengths within different sizes of circular buffers. In addition, we calculated the numbers of residents, households, housing buildings, companies, and employees within the buffers. The percentages of areas for different types of land use compared to total areas were calculated within the buffers. For transportation facilities and physical geography, we computed the distances to the closest public transportation depots and the boundary lines. The vegetation index and altitude were estimated at a given location by using satellite data. The summary statistics of geographic variables in Seoul across monitoring sites showed different patterns between urban background and urban roadside sites. This study

  2. Computation of geographic variables for air pollution prediction models in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Eum, Youngseob; Song, Insang; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Leem, Jong-Han; Kim, Sun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Recent cohort studies have relied on exposure prediction models to estimate individuallevel air pollution concentrations because individual air pollution measurements are not available for cohort locations. For such prediction models, geographic variables related to pollution sources are important inputs. We demonstrated the computation process of geographic variables mostly recorded in 2010 at regulatory air pollution monitoring sites in South Korea. On the basis of previous studies, we finalized a list of 313 geographic variables related to air pollution sources in eight categories including traffic, demographic characteristics, land use, transportation facilities, physical geography, emissions, vegetation, and altitude. We then obtained data from different sources such as the Statistics Geographic Information Service and Korean Transport Database. After integrating all available data to a single database by matching coordinate systems and converting non-spatial data to spatial data, we computed geographic variables at 294 regulatory monitoring sites in South Korea. The data integration and variable computation were performed by using ArcGIS version 10.2 (ESRI Inc., Redlands, CA, USA). For traffic, we computed the distances to the nearest roads and the sums of road lengths within different sizes of circular buffers. In addition, we calculated the numbers of residents, households, housing buildings, companies, and employees within the buffers. The percentages of areas for different types of land use compared to total areas were calculated within the buffers. For transportation facilities and physical geography, we computed the distances to the closest public transportation depots and the boundary lines. The vegetation index and altitude were estimated at a given location by using satellite data. The summary statistics of geographic variables in Seoul across monitoring sites showed different patterns between urban background and urban roadside sites. This study

  3. Geographic variation in the plumage coloration of willow flycatchers Empidonax traillii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, Eben H.; Sogge, Mark K.; Koronkiewicz, Thomas J.; McLeod, Mary Anne; Theimer, Tad C.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to identify distinct taxonomic groups of birds (species, subspecies, geographic races) can advance ecological research efforts by determining connectivity between the non-breeding and breeding grounds for migrant species, identifying the origin of migrants, and helping to refine boundaries between subspecies or geographic races. Multiple methods are available to identify taxonomic groups (e.g., morphology, genetics), and one that has played an important role for avian taxonomists over the years is plumage coloration. With the advent of electronic devices that can quickly and accurately quantify plumage coloration, the potential of using coloration as an identifier for distinct taxonomic groups, even when differences are subtle, becomes possible. In this study, we evaluated the degree to which plumage coloration differs among the four subspecies of the willow flycatcher Empidonax traillii, evaluated sources of variation, and considered the utility of plumage coloration to assign subspecies membership for individuals of unknown origin. We used a colorimeter to measure plumage coloration of 374 adult willow flycatchers from 29 locations across their breeding range in 2004 and 2005. We found strong statistical differences among the mean plumage coloration values of the four subspecies; however, while individuals tended to group around their respective subspecies' mean color value, the dispersion of individuals around such means overlapped. Mean color values for each breeding site of the three western subspecies clustered together, but the eastern subspecies' color values were dispersed among the other subspecies, rather than distinctly clustered. Additionally, sites along boundaries showed evidence of intergradation and intermediate coloration patterns. We evaluated the predictive power of colorimeter measurements on flycatchers by constructing a canonical discriminant model to predict subspecies origin of migrants passing through the southwestern U

  4. A highly accurate interatomic potential for argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Ronald A.

    1993-09-01

    A modified potential based on the individually damped model of Douketis, Scoles, Marchetti, Zen, and Thakkar [J. Chem. Phys. 76, 3057 (1982)] is presented which fits, within experimental error, the accurate ultraviolet (UV) vibration-rotation spectrum of argon determined by UV laser absorption spectroscopy by Herman, LaRocque, and Stoicheff [J. Chem. Phys. 89, 4535 (1988)]. Other literature potentials fail to do so. The potential also is shown to predict a large number of other properties and is probably the most accurate characterization of the argon interaction constructed to date.

  5. Close binding of identity and location in visual feature perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, J. C.; Pashler, H.

    1990-01-01

    The binding of identity and location information in disjunctive feature search was studied. Ss searched a heterogeneous display for a color or a form target, and reported both target identity and location. To avoid better than chance guessing of target identity (by choosing the target less likely to have been seen), the difficulty of the two targets was equalized adaptively; a mathematical model was used to quantify residual effects. A spatial layout was used that minimized postperceptual errors in reporting location. Results showed strong binding of identity and location perception. After correction for guessing, no perception of identity without location was found. A weak trend was found for accurate perception of target location without identity. We propose that activated features generate attention-calling "interrupt" signals, specifying only location; attention then retrieves the properties at that location.

  6. The geographic concentration of blue carbon in the continental US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feagin, R. A.; Hinson, A.

    2014-12-01

    Salt water wetlands have the potential to be bought and sold as relatively rich reservoirs of carbon in the context of sequestration projects. However, little is known about the geographic distribution of this potential, and no coarse scale investigation has addressed this ecosystem service at the continental scale. Our objective was to determine blue carbon stocks and flux in coastal wetland soils in the United States and categorize the potential for projects by estuarine basin, state, and wetland type. We linked National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) data with the Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) through spatial analysis within a Geographic Information System (GIS). We then calculated and mapped soil organic carbon across the continental US. Results were filtered by state, estuarine basin, wetland type, and accumulation rate, and ranking lists for each categorization were produced. The results showed that belowground carbon accumulation is concentrated in specific regions, with the richest and largest reservoirs in the Gulf and Atlantic southeastern estuaries, for example mangrove zones in Florida. Salt marshes on the southern Pacific Coast were relatively low in carbon due to small areas of coverage and the presence of sandy and inorganic soil. The geomorphic position of a wetland within a given estuary, for example on an exposed barrier island versus recessed towards inflowing headwaters, accounted for a greater degree of soil carbon variation than the wetland type, for example woody mangroves versus herbaceous marshes. The potential of a blue carbon sequestration project in relation to its location could be influential in determining wetland policy, conservation, and restoration in the coming decades.

  7. Geographical and environmental approaches to urban malaria in Antananarivo (Madagascar)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies, conducted in the urban of Antananarivo, showed low rate of confirmed malaria cases. We used a geographical and environmental approach to investigate the contribution of environmental factors to urban malaria in Antananarivo. Methods Remote sensing data were used to locate rice fields, which were considered to be the principal mosquito breeding sites. We carried out supervised classification by the maximum likelihood method. Entomological study allowed vector species determination from collected larval and adult mosquitoes. Mosquito infectivity was studied, to assess the risk of transmission, and the type of mosquito breeding site was determined. Epidemiological data were collected from November 2006 to December 2007, from public health centres, to determine malaria incidence. Polymerase chain reaction was carried out on dried blood spots from patients, to detect cases of malaria. Rapid diagnostic tests were used to confirm malaria cases among febrile school children in a school survey. A geographical information system was constructed for data integration. Altitude, temperature, rainfall, population density and rice field surface area were analysed and the effects of these factors on the occurrence of confirmed malaria cases were studied. Results Polymerase chain reaction confirmed malaria in 5.1% of the presumed cases. Entomological studies showed An. arabiensis as potential vector. Rice fields remained to be the principal breeding sites. Travel report was considered as related to the occurrence of P. falciparum malaria cases. Conclusion Geographical and environmental factors did not show direct relationship with malaria incidence but they seem ensuring suitability of vector development. Absence of relationship may be due to a lack of statistical power. Despite the presence of An. arabiensis, scarce parasitic reservoir and rapid access to health care do not constitute optimal conditions to a threatening malaria transmission. However

  8. 41 CFR 102-83.95 - After an agency has identified that its geographic service area and delineated area are in an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... identified that its geographic service area and delineated area are in an urban area, what is the next step... Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.95 After an agency has identified that its geographic service area and delineated area are in an urban area, what is the next step for an agency? After an...

  9. 41 CFR 102-83.95 - After an agency has identified that its geographic service area and delineated area are in an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... identified that its geographic service area and delineated area are in an urban area, what is the next step... Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.95 After an agency has identified that its geographic service area and delineated area are in an urban area, what is the next step for an agency? After an...

  10. 41 CFR 102-83.95 - After an agency has identified that its geographic service area and delineated area are in an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... identified that its geographic service area and delineated area are in an urban area, what is the next step... Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.95 After an agency has identified that its geographic service area and delineated area are in an urban area, what is the next step for an agency? After an...

  11. Method and apparatus for accurately manipulating an object during microelectrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Parvin, Bahram A.; Maestre, Marcos F.; Fish, Richard H.; Johnston, William E.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus using electrophoresis provides accurate manipulation of an object on a microscope stage for further manipulations add reactions. The present invention also provides an inexpensive and easily accessible means to move an object without damage to the object. A plurality of electrodes are coupled to the stage in an array whereby the electrode array allows for distinct manipulations of the electric field for accurate manipulations of the object. There is an electrode array control coupled to the plurality of electrodes for manipulating the electric field. In an alternative embodiment, a chamber is provided on the stage to hold the object. The plurality of electrodes are positioned in the chamber, and the chamber is filled with fluid. The system can be automated using visual servoing, which manipulates the control parameters, i.e., x, y stage, applying the field, etc., after extracting the significant features directly from image data. Visual servoing includes an imaging device and computer system to determine the location of the object. A second stage having a plurality of tubes positioned on top of the second stage, can be accurately positioned by visual servoing so that one end of one of the plurality of tubes surrounds at least part of the object on the first stage.

  12. Method and apparatus for accurately manipulating an object during microelectrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Parvin, B.A.; Maestre, M.F.; Fish, R.H.; Johnston, W.E.

    1997-09-23

    An apparatus using electrophoresis provides accurate manipulation of an object on a microscope stage for further manipulations and reactions. The present invention also provides an inexpensive and easily accessible means to move an object without damage to the object. A plurality of electrodes are coupled to the stage in an array whereby the electrode array allows for distinct manipulations of the electric field for accurate manipulations of the object. There is an electrode array control coupled to the plurality of electrodes for manipulating the electric field. In an alternative embodiment, a chamber is provided on the stage to hold the object. The plurality of electrodes are positioned in the chamber, and the chamber is filled with fluid. The system can be automated using visual servoing, which manipulates the control parameters, i.e., x, y stage, applying the field, etc., after extracting the significant features directly from image data. Visual servoing includes an imaging device and computer system to determine the location of the object. A second stage having a plurality of tubes positioned on top of the second stage, can be accurately positioned by visual servoing so that one end of one of the plurality of tubes surrounds at least part of the object on the first stage. 11 figs.

  13. The Geographic Distribution of a Tropical Montane Bird Is Limited by a Tree: Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) and Colombian Oaks (Quercus humboldtii) in the Northern Andes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Species distributions are limited by a complex array of abiotic and biotic factors. In general, abiotic (climatic) factors are thought to explain species’ broad geographic distributions, while biotic factors regulate species’ abundance patterns at local scales. We used species distribution models to test the hypothesis that a biotic interaction with a tree, the Colombian oak (Quercus humboldtii), limits the broad-scale distribution of the Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) in the Northern Andes of South America. North American populations of Acorn Woodpeckers consume acorns from Quercus oaks and are limited by the presence of Quercus oaks. However, Acorn Woodpeckers in the Northern Andes seldom consume Colombian oak acorns (though may regularly drink sap from oak trees) and have been observed at sites without Colombian oaks, the sole species of Quercus found in South America. We found that climate-only models overpredicted Acorn Woodpecker distribution, suggesting that suitable abiotic conditions (e.g. in northern Ecuador) exist beyond the woodpecker’s southern range margin. In contrast, models that incorporate Colombian oak presence outperformed climate-only models and more accurately predicted the location of the Acorn Woodpecker’s southern range margin in southern Colombia. These findings support the hypothesis that a biotic interaction with Colombian oaks sets Acorn Woodpecker’s broad-scale geographic limit in South America, probably because Acorn Woodpeckers rely on Colombian oaks as a food resource (possibly for the oak’s sap rather than for acorns). Although empirical examples of particular plants limiting tropical birds’ distributions are scarce, we predict that similar biotic interactions may play an important role in structuring the geographic distributions of many species of tropical montane birds with specialized foraging behavior. PMID:26083262

  14. Atom location by electron channeling analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pennycook, S.J.

    1984-07-01

    For many years the orientation dependence of the characteristic x-ray emission close to a Bragg reflection has been regarded as a hindrance to accurate microanalysis, and a random incident beam direction has always been recommended for accurate composition analysis. However, this orientation dependence can be put to use to extract information on the lattice location of foreign atoms within the crystalline matrix. Here a generalization of the technique is described which is applicable to any crystal structure including monatomic crystals, and can quantitatively determine substitutional fractions of impurities. The technique was referred to as electron channeling analysis, by analogy with the closely related and widely used bulk technique of ion channeling analysis, and was developed for lattice location studies of dopants in semiconductors at high spatial resolution. Only two spectra are required for each channeling analysis, one in each of the channeling conditions described above. If the matrix and dopant x-ray yields vary identically between the two orientations then the dopant necessarily lies within the reflecting matrix planes. If the dopant x-ray yield does not vary the dopant atoms are randomly located with respect to the matrix planes. 10 references, 2 figures.

  15. Object Locating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A portable system is provided that is operational for determining, with three dimensional resolution, the position of a buried object or approximately positioned object that may move in space or air or gas. The system has a plurality of receivers for detecting the signal front a target antenna and measuring the phase thereof with respect to a reference signal. The relative permittivity and conductivity of the medium in which the object is located is used along with the measured phase signal to determine a distance between the object and each of the plurality of receivers. Knowing these distances. an iteration technique is provided for solving equations simultaneously to provide position coordinates. The system may also be used for tracking movement of an object within close range of the system by sampling and recording subsequent position of the object. A dipole target antenna. when positioned adjacent to a buried object, may be energized using a separate transmitter which couples energy to the target antenna through the medium. The target antenna then preferably resonates at a different frequency, such as a second harmonic of the transmitter frequency.

  16. AOTV bow shock location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desautel, D.

    1985-01-01

    Hypersonic bow-shock location and geometry are of central importance to the aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTVs), but they are difficult to predict for a given vehicle configuration. This paper reports experimental measurements of shock standoff distance for the 70 deg cone AOTV configuration in shock-tunnel-test flows at Mach numbers of 3.8 to 7.9 and for angles of attack from 0 deg to 20 deg. The controlling parameter for hypersonic bow-shock standoff distance (for a given forebody shape) is the mean normal-shock density ratio. Values for this parameter in the tests reported are in the same range as those of the drag-brake AOTV perigee regime. Results for standoff distance are compared with those previously reported in the literature for this AOTV configuration. It is concluded that the AOTV shock standoff distance for the conical configuration, based on frustrum (base) radius, is equivalent to that of a sphere with a radius about 35 percent greater than that of the cone; the distance is, therefore, much less than reported in previous studies. Some reasons for the discrepancies between the present and previous are advanced. The smaller standoff distance determined here implies there will be less radiative heat transfer than was previously expected.

  17. Diversity, Disability, and Geographic Digital Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumari, Melati; Carr, Erika; Ndebe-Ngovo, Manjerngie

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon called digital divide was the focus of this paper. Diversity, disability, and geographical digital divide were relevant to this collaborative project. An extensive review of the literature was conducted for the completion of this project. The evidence for the digital divide in terms of race, level of education, and gender in the…

  18. The Geographic Distribution of Indochinese Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Susan

    This paper presents information regarding the geographic distribution of Indochinese refugees in the United States and how it compares to that of the overall U.S. population and the non-refugee legal immigrant population. The following information is reported: Seventy percent of all Indochinese refugees currently reside in 10 States, with…

  19. Data Representations for Geographic Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Clifford A.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys the field and literature of geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial data representation as it relates to GIS. Highlights include GIS terms, data types, and operations; vector representations and raster, or grid, representations; spatial indexing; elevation data representations; large spatial databases; and problem areas and future…

  20. [Geographic data for Neotropical bats (Chiroptera)].

    PubMed

    Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania

    2014-03-01

    The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America. PMID:24912354

  1. Object-Oriented Geographical Database Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, M. L.; Bryant, N.; Sapounas, D.

    1996-01-01

    Terbase is an Object-Oriented database system under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Terbase is designed for flexibility, reusability, maintenace ease, multi-user collaboration and independence, and efficiency. This paper details the design and development of Terbase as a geographic data server...

  2. Filing Geographically. Student's Manual and Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Sadie

    Supporting performance objective 23 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on filing materials geographically are included in this packet. (The packet is the fifth in a set of nine on maintaining files and a library--CE 016 939-947.) The…

  3. Science Fiction for Geographers: Selected Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbow, Gary S.; Martinson, Tom L.

    1980-01-01

    Explains how college level teachers of geography can use works of science fiction to help students understand geographical settings and create impressionistic pictures of a given region in their minds. Particular areas in which science fiction is useful include invented terrestrial landscapes, specialized extraterrestrial landscapes, disaster…

  4. Agricultural Turns, Geographical Turns: Retrospect and Prospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Carol; Evans, Nick

    2004-01-01

    It is accepted that British rural geography has actively engaged with the "cultural turn", leading to a resurgence of research within the sub-discipline. However, a reading of recent reviews suggests that the cultural turn has largely, if not completely, bypassed those geographers interested in the agricultural sector. Farming centred engagements…

  5. Geographic Information Systems: Implications for Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audet, Richard H.; Abegg, Gerald L.

    1996-01-01

    Compares expert-/novice-based problem-solving behaviors with a Geographic Information Systems program. Uses naturalistic methods to analyze problem-solving strategies for occurrence of thematic elements. Reports that experts relied on logical formulations to query the database while novices used trial-and-error methods and midlevel cognitive…

  6. Interactive Computer Programs for Geographic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lougeay, Cheryl

    Examples of computer programs illustrate how instructors can introduce students to geographic concepts and models while creating a thinking environment in the classroom. The programs are designed to assist students in computational tasks and to provide both graphic and numeric output which will be stimulating. A population pyramid program…

  7. Cartography, Geographic Information, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monmonier, Mark S.

    1982-01-01

    Cartography is undergoing a digital transition with geographic data becoming available in machine-readable form and with the diminishing need to draw and print maps in order to communicate information. This automation will force cartographers to concentrate upon the institutional aspects of information management. Implications for geographic…

  8. Geographic Education in Turkish High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tas, Halil I.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a review of geographic curricula, teaching methods, materials and assessments in Turkish high schools. Geopolitics and political instability have contributed to large fluctuations in emphasis on geography in Turkish education and have also affected the content of the geography curriculum.

  9. Geographical Study of American Blues Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strait, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Music is not often utilized in teaching geography, despite the fact that many scholars orient their research around analyzing both the historical and spatial dimensions of musical expression. This article reports on the use of a teaching module that utilizes blues culture as a lens to understand the geographical history of the United States. The…

  10. Displaying Geographically-Based Domestic Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quann, J.; Dalton, J.; Banks, M.; Helfer, D.; Szczur, M.; Winkert, G.; Billingsley, J.; Borgstede, R.; Chen, J.; Chen, L.; Fuh, J.; Cyprych, E.

    1982-01-01

    Decision Information Display System (DIDS) is rapid-response information-retrieval and color-graphics display system. DIDS transforms tables of geographically-based domestic statistics (such as population or unemployment by county, energy usage by county, or air-quality figures) into high-resolution, color-coded maps on television display screen.

  11. Enhancing Geographic Learning and Literacy through Filmmaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dando, Christina E.; Chadwick, Jacob J.

    2014-01-01

    In this media-saturated society, students need to think more critically about the media they encounter and that they are producing. Through filmmaking, students can link geographic theory and the real world, bridging the distance from readings/lectures/discussions to the geography on the ground, making the abstract concrete. But constructing films…

  12. Geographical Information Systems for Dengue Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Duncombe, Jennifer; Clements, Archie; Hu, Wenbiao; Weinstein, Philip; Ritchie, Scott; Espino, Fe Esperanza

    2012-01-01

    This review provides details on the role of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in current dengue surveillance systems and focuses on the application of open access GIS technology to emphasize its importance in developing countries, where the dengue burden is greatest. It also advocates for increased international collaboration in transboundary disease surveillance to confront the emerging global challenge of dengue. PMID:22556070

  13. [Geographic spreading of lung cancer in Azerbaijan].

    PubMed

    Soltanov, A A

    2009-01-01

    Lung cancer is the second most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death for both men and women. The impact of geographic as well as of exogenous factor and factors of risk, life style and environment play an important role in etiology of lung cancer. Geographic spread of lung cancer data in literature is fragmentary. The limited existing literature does not report a consistent story of geographic variation in Azerbaijan for the incidence associated with lung cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of geographic variation on spread of lung cancer in Azerbaijan. Frequency of lung cancer in various regions of Azerbaijan; different histological types, sex, age and particular risk factors were investigated. It was revealed that epidermoid cancer was the most common histological type in all regions. The highest rate of epidermoid cancer 230 (55.56%) was revealed in industrial regions and industrial cities (Baku and Sumgait). The lowest rate of lung cancer was found in mountain region 12 (3.76%). Smoking and drinking alcohol increases risk of epidermoid cancer (41.2% of patients smoke and drink alcohol). The highest morbidity (13.55 per 100,000 population) and mortality (0.11) rates from lung cancer were observed in industrial regions. Analyses revealed that different endogenous and exogenous factors are associated with lung cancer. PMID:19202230

  14. Representing Historical Knowledge in Geographic Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossner, Karl Eric

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of historical scholars in social science and humanities fields are using geographic information systems (GIS) to help investigate spatial questions and map their findings. The nature of historical data and historiographic practices present several challenges in using GIS that have been addressed only partially to date. For…

  15. Teaching Geographic Concepts through Fieldwork and Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hupy, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the benefits of combining field-based learning within the context of a competitive setting in the geography curriculum. Findings and data are presented based on experiences gathered from teaching an upper-level university geography course that combined geographic techniques and theory into a game of capture-the-flag.…

  16. PENNSYLVANIA GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM LIBRARY: STATE GAMELAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pennsylvania Geographic Information System (GIS) Library provides a data set of state gameland boundaries digitized from 1:24,000 USGS topographic maps and verified from Pennsylvania Fish and Game Department information. Coverage is incomplete, certain areas are not mapped when ...

  17. Frontiers in Geographical Teaching. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chorley, Richard J., Ed.; Haggett, Peter, Ed.

    Composed of three parts, "Concepts,""Techniques," and "Teaching," this volume of essays by British geographers emerged from the editors' geography education courses and symposia at Cambridge University. It is addressed to two questions: what is happening in geography? and, what impact does this have on school geography? "Concepts" has seven essays…

  18. Validating a Geographical Image Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Bin; Chen, Hsinchun

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes a prototype geographical image retrieval system that demonstrates how to integrate image processing and information analysis techniques to support large-scale content-based image retrieval. Describes an experiment to validate the performance of this image retrieval system against that of human subjects by examining similarity analysis…

  19. Geographical and Environmental Education in Albania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Derek

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on a wide range of secondary and primary materials as well as personal experience of Albania dating from the 1970s to the present day, this paper describes and critically evaluates current geographical and environmental education in Albania in relation to three dimensions: (1) the changing nature of the curriculum over the past 20 years;…

  20. Mapware: Educational Applications of Geographic Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinker, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    Analyzes the applicability to mathematics and science education of geographic information systems. Gives examples of possible applications involving aerosol detection in the atmosphere, verification of satellite images, and the Kidnet Project. Sketches out a research agenda and describes needed characteristics of the software when applied to…

  1. Geographical Terminology Charts as Hypothetical Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles A.; Stansfield, Diane G.

    1971-01-01

    A hypothetical country is devised using geographical terms charts. Students act as advisors in predicting future development of the land and community growth by using present relationships between physical environment and land utilization in actual regions as a base model. (Author/MB)

  2. Promoting Geographic Information System Usage across Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Shaun; Kinikin, Janae

    2004-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss how they implemented and promoted Geographic Information System (GIS) applications at Weber State University (WSU), a four-year public institution with two campuses. GIS is a type of computer system made of hardware, software, and data that allows the mapping of spatially related layers that have a common…

  3. Geography and Geographical Information Science: Interdisciplinary Integrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellul, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To understand how Geography and Geographical Information Science (GIS) can contribute to Interdisciplinary Research (IDR), it is relevant to articulate the differences between the different types of such research. "Multidisciplinary" researchers work in a "parallel play" mode, completing work in their disciplinary work streams…

  4. Threading One's Way Through the Geographic Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    1982-01-01

    Designed for students in grades 7 through 12, the paper presents illustrative resource materials for teaching concepts related to geographic regions. Emphasis is on giving students an understanding of the interrelationship between regional characteristics and human behavior. The paper introduces students to the following notions: environmental…

  5. Teaching Geographic Field Methods Using Paleoecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Megan K.

    2014-01-01

    Field-based undergraduate geography courses provide numerous pedagogical benefits including an opportunity for students to acquire employable skills in an applied context. This article presents one unique approach to teaching geographic field methods using paleoecological research. The goals of this course are to teach students key geographic…

  6. Virtual Geographic Environments (VGEs): A New Generation of Geographic Analysis Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hui; Chen, Min; Lu, Guonian; Zhu, Qing; Gong, Jiahua; You, Xiong; Wen, Yongning; Xu, Bingli; Hu, Mingyuan

    2013-11-01

    Virtual Geographic Environments (VGEs) are proposed as a new generation of geographic analysis tool to contribute to human understanding of the geographic world and assist in solving geographic problems at a deeper level. The development of VGEs is focused on meeting the three scientific requirements of Geographic Information Science (GIScience) — multi-dimensional visualization, dynamic phenomenon simulation, and public participation. To provide a clearer image that improves user understanding of VGEs and to contribute to future scientific development, this article reviews several aspects of VGEs. First, the evolutionary process from maps to previous GISystems and then to VGEs is illustrated, with a particular focus on the reasons VGEs were created. Then, extended from the conceptual framework and the components of a complete VGE, three use cases are identified that together encompass the current state of VGEs at different application levels: 1) a tool for geo-object-based multi-dimensional spatial analysis and multi-channel interaction, 2) a platform for geo-process-based simulation of dynamic geographic phenomena, and 3) a workspace for multi-participant-based collaborative geographic experiments. Based on the above analysis, the differences between VGEs and other similar platforms are discussed to draw their clear boundaries. Finally, a short summary of the limitations of current VGEs is given, and future directions are proposed to facilitate ongoing progress toward forming a comprehensive version of VGEs.

  7. Using a Geographic Information System to Assess Site Suitability for Managed Aquifer Recharge using Stormwater Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, E. K.; Harmon, R. E.; Beganskas, S.; Young, K. S.; Fisher, A. T.; Weir, W. B.; Lozano, S.

    2015-12-01

    We are completing a regional analysis of Santa Cruz and northern Monterey Counties, CA, to assess the conditions amenable to managed aquifer recharge using stormwater runoff. Communities and water supply agencies across CA are struggling to mitigate the ongoing drought and to develop secure and sustainable water supplies to support long-term municipal, agricultural, environmental and other needs. Enhanced storage of groundwater is an important part of this effort in many basins. This work is especially timely because of the recently enacted "Sustainable Groundwater Management Act" (SGMA), which requires the development of groundwater sustainability agencies and implementation of basin management plans in coming decades. Our analysis focuses specifically on the distributed collection of stormwater runoff, a water source that has typically been treated as a nuisance or waste, from drainages having an area on the order of 40-160 hectares. The first part of this project is a geographic information system (GIS) analysis using surface and subsurface data sets. Developing complete and accurate datasets across the study region required considerable effort to locate, assemble, co-register, patch, and reconcile information from many sources and scales. We have complete spatial coverage for surface data, but subsurface data is more limited in lateral extent. Sites that are most suitable for distributed stormwater capture supporting MAR have high soil infiltration capacity, are well-connected to an underlying aquifer with good transmissive and storage properties, and have space to receive MAR. Additional considerations include method of infiltration, slope, and land use and access. Based on initial consideration of surface data and slope, 7% of the complete study region appears to be "suitable or highly suitable" for MAR (in the top third of the rating system), but there is considerable spatial heterogeneity based on the distribution of shallow soils and bedrock geology.

  8. Geographic information systems as a tool for control program management for schistosomiasis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, M S; El-Bahy, M M; Malone, J B; Thompson, R A; El Bahy, N M

    2001-04-27

    During a 4-year study a geographic information system (GIS) risk model was constructed for predicting the relative risk of schistosomiasis in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate, Egypt. A 1-year 1990-1991 time series on diurnal temperature difference (dT) prepared from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) sensor on the NOAA-11 satellite was used to develop a regional risk model for the Nile delta based on thermal-hydrological domains. A May 15, 1990 Landsat TM scene (path 177, Row 38) was used to develop a local 'village-scale' environmental risk model based on higher resolution satellite sensor data (30 m picture element size at earth surface). Four of ten classes derived from a tasseled cap (Tcap) transformation of the Landsat TM scene were shown to be significantly related to a 5-year Schistosoma mansoni prevalence database from the Ministry of Health. A risk model was developed based on dT and the proportional area of the four Tcap classes in 5 km(2) buffer zones centered on rural health unit (RHU) reporting units. Available historical data on S. mansoni and its snail host Biomphalaria alexandrina, as well as recent field collected data were gathered and incorporated as separate themes. Model validation was done using data collected on snail population bionomics-infection rates, water quality, underground water table and cercariometry at 13 hydrologically representative sites. The role of soil type, water table and water quality was studied at 79 of 154 rural health unit sites. The model permitted retrieval of relevant data by RHU point location. For the first time in Egypt, the Kafr El-Sheikh GIS schistosoma prediction model can support MOH efforts to make more accurate control program decisions based on environmental predilection sites of endemic Schistosomiasis mansoni. PMID:11378141

  9. Calibration of the Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) model using automatic calibration and geographical information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Abed, N. A.; Whiteley, H. R.

    2002-11-01

    Calibrating a comprehensive, multi-parameter conceptual hydrological model, such as the Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran model, is a major challenge. This paper describes calibration procedures for water-quantity parameters of the HSPF version 10·11 using the automatic-calibration parameter estimator model coupled with a geographical information system (GIS) approach for spatially averaged properties. The study area was the Grand River watershed, located in southern Ontario, Canada, between 79° 30 and 80° 57W longitude and 42° 51 and 44° 31N latitude. The drainage area is 6965 km2. Calibration efforts were directed to those model parameters that produced large changes in model response during sensitivity tests run prior to undertaking calibration. A GIS was used extensively in this study. It was first used in the watershed segmentation process. During calibration, the GIS data were used to establish realistic starting values for the surface and subsurface zone parameters LZSN, UZSN, COVER, and INFILT and physically reasonable ratios of these parameters among watersheds were preserved during calibration with the ratios based on the known properties of the subwatersheds determined using GIS. This calibration procedure produced very satisfactory results; the percentage difference between the simulated and the measured yearly discharge ranged between 4 to 16%, which is classified as good to very good calibration. The average simulated daily discharge for the watershed outlet at Brantford for the years 1981-85 was 67 m3 s-1 and the average measured discharge at Brantford was 70 m3 s-1. The coupling of a GIS with automatice calibration produced a realistic and accurate calibration for the HSPF model with much less effort and subjectivity than would be required for unassisted calibration.

  10. Geographic Profiling to Assess the Risk of Rare Plant Poaching in Natural Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, John A.; van Manen, Frank T.; Thatcher, Cindy A.

    2011-09-01

    We demonstrate the use of an expert-assisted spatial model to examine geographic factors influencing the poaching risk of a rare plant (American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius L.) in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA. Following principles of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), we identified a hierarchy of 11 geographic factors deemed important to poaching risk and requested law enforcement personnel of the National Park Service to rank those factors in a series of pair-wise comparisons. We used those comparisons to determine statistical weightings of each factor and combined them into a spatial model predicting poaching risk. We tested the model using 69 locations of previous poaching incidents recorded by law enforcement personnel. These locations occurred more frequently in areas predicted by the model to have a higher risk of poaching than random locations. The results of our study can be used to evaluate resource protection strategies and to target law enforcement activities.

  11. Improving Teacher-Student Contact in a Campus through a Location-Based Mobile Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Vítor Manuel; Ramos, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new mobile micro-broadcast (or near-me) Location-Based Service designed to promote face-to-face communication among users located within a given geographical area such as a University campus. Because the communication services provided are time dependent, the application decides whom to contact based on the geographic…

  12. Locating Self in the World: Elementary School Children in Japan, Macau, and Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmenter, Lynne; Lam, Carol; Seto, Flora; Tomita, Yuichi

    2000-01-01

    Examines how elementary school children locate themselves geographically and affectively in relation to the world. The study focused on fourth- and sixth-grade students in Japan, Macau, and Hong Kong (China). Discusses why Japanese children are less likely to locate themselves in an international sphere. Includes references. (CMK)

  13. Accurate pointing of tungsten welding electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegelmeier, P.

    1971-01-01

    Thoriated-tungsten is pointed accurately and quickly by using sodium nitrite. Point produced is smooth and no effort is necessary to hold the tungsten rod concentric. The chemically produced point can be used several times longer than ground points. This method reduces time and cost of preparing tungsten electrodes.

  14. 42 CFR 412.102 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic redesignation. 412.102 Section 412...: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic... additional amount that equals two-thirds of the difference between the urban standardized amount...

  15. 42 CFR 412.102 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic redesignation. 412.102 Section 412...: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic... additional amount that equals two-thirds of the difference between the urban standardized amount...

  16. 42 CFR 412.102 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic redesignation. 412.102 Section 412...: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic... additional amount that equals two-thirds of the difference between the urban standardized amount...

  17. 42 CFR 412.102 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic redesignation. 412.102 Section 412...: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic... additional amount that equals two-thirds of the difference between the urban standardized amount...

  18. Geographical structuring in the mtDNA of Italians.

    PubMed Central

    Barbujani, G; Bertorelle, G; Capitani, G; Scozzari, R

    1995-01-01

    Geographical patterns of mtDNA variation were studied in 12 Italian samples (1072 individuals) by two different spatial autocorrelation methods. Separate analyses of the frequencies of 12 restriction morphs show North-South clines, differences between Sardinia and the mainland populations, and the effects of isolation by distance. A recently developed autocorrelation statistic summarizing molecular similarity at all sites (AIDA; autocorrelation index for DNA analysis) confirms the presence of a clinical pattern; differences between random pairs of haplotypes tend to increase with their geographical distance. The partition of gene diversity, however, reveals that most variability occurs within populations, whereas differences between populations are minor (GST = 0.057). When the data from the 12 samples are pooled, two descriptors of genetic variability (number of polymorphic sites and average sequence difference between pairs of individuals) do not behave as expected under neutrality. The presence of clinal patterns, Tajima's tests, and a simulation experiment agree in suggesting that population sizes increased rapidly in Italy and Sicily but not necessarily so in Sardinia. The distribution of pairwise sequence differences in the Italian peninsula (excluding Sardinia) permits a tentative location of the demographic increase between 8000 and 20,500 years ago. These dates are consistent with archaeological estimates of two distinct expansion processes, occurring, respectively, in the Neolithic and after the last glacial maximum in the Paleolithic. Conversely, there is no genetic evidence that such processes have had a major impact on the Sardinian population. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7568095

  19. Geographic variation of human mitochondrial DNA from Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Stoneking, M.; Wilson, A.C. ); Jorde, L.B. ); Bhatia, K. )

    1990-03-01

    High resolution mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction maps, consisting of an average of 370 sites per mtDNA map, were constructed for 119 people from 25 localities in Papua, New Guinea (PNG). Comparison of these PNG restriction maps to published maps from Australian, Caucasian, Asian and African mtDNAs reveals that PNG has the lowest amount of mtDNA variation, and that PNG mtDNA lineages originated from Southeast Asia. The statistical significance of geographic structuring of populations with respect to mtDNA was assessed by comparing observed G{sub ST} values to a distribution of G{sub ST} values generated by random resampling of the data. These analyses show that there is significant structuring of mtDNA variation among worldwide populations, between highland and coastal PNG populations, and even between two highland PNG populations located approximately 200 km apart. However, coastal PNG populations are essentially panmictic, despite being spread over several hundred kilometers. The high resolution technique for examining mtDNA variation, coupled with extensive geographic sampling within a single defined area, leads to an enhanced understanding of the influence of geography on mtDNA variation in human populations.

  20. Arctic Cities and Climate Change: A Geographic Impact Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, N. I.; Streletskiy, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic climate change is a concern for the engineering community, land-use planners and policy makers as it may have significant impacts on socio-economic development and human activities in the northern regions. A warmer climate has potential for a series of positive economic effects, such as development of maritime transportation, enhanced agricultural production and decrease in energy consumption. However, these potential benefits may be outwaited by negative impacts related to transportation accessibility and stability of existing infrastructure, especially in permafrost regions. Compared with the Arctic zones of other countries, the Russian Arctic is characterized by higher population, greater industrial development and urbanization. Arctic urban areas and associated industrial sites are the location of some of intense interaction between man and nature. However, while there is considerable research on various aspects of Arctic climate change impacts on human society, few address effects on Arctic cities and their related industries. This presentation overviews potential climate-change impacts on Russian urban environments in the Arctic and discusses methodology for addressing complex interactions between climatic, permafrost and socio-economic systems at the range of geographical scales. We also provide a geographic assessment of selected positive and negative climate change impacts affecting several diverse Russian Arctic cities.