Science.gov

Sample records for accurate ground truth

  1. Snowpack ground-truth manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, E. B.

    1983-01-01

    As remote sensing increasingly becomes more of an operational tool in the field of snow management and snow hydrology, there is need for some degree of standardization of ""snowpack ground truth'' techniques. This manual provides a first step in standardizing these procedures and was prepared to meet the needs of remote sensing researchers in planning missions requiring ground truth as well as those providing the ground truth. Focus is on ground truth for remote sensors primarily operating in the microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum; nevertheless, the manual should be of value to other types of sensor programs. This first edition of ground truth procedures must be updated as new or modified techniques are developed.

  2. Ground-truth measurement systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafin, R.; Seliga, T. A.; Lhermitte, R. M.; Nystuen, J. A.; Cherry, S.; Bringi, V. N.; Blackmer, R.; Heymsfield, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Ground-truth measurements of precipitation and related weather events are an essential component of any satellite system designed for monitoring rainfall from space. Such measurements are required for testing, evaluation, and operations; they provide detailed information on the actual weather events, which can then be compared with satellite observations intended to provide both quantitative and qualitative information about them. Also, very comprehensive ground-truth observations should lead to a better understanding of precipitation fields and their relationships to satellite data. This process serves two very important functions: (a) aiding in the development and interpretation of schemes of analyzing satellite data, and (b) providing a continuing method for verifying satellite measurements.

  3. Development of mine explosion ground truth smart sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Steven R.; Harben, Phillip E.; Jarpe, Steve; Harris, David B.

    2015-09-14

    Accurate seismo-acoustic source location is one of the fundamental aspects of nuclear explosion monitoring. Critical to improved location is the compilation of ground truth data sets for which origin time and location are accurately known. Substantial effort by the National Laboratories and other seismic monitoring groups have been undertaken to acquire and develop ground truth catalogs that form the basis of location efforts (e.g. Sweeney, 1998; Bergmann et al., 2009; Waldhauser and Richards, 2004). In particular, more GT1 (Ground Truth 1 km) events are required to improve three-dimensional velocity models that are currently under development. Mine seismicity can form the basis of accurate ground truth datasets. Although the location of mining explosions can often be accurately determined using array methods (e.g. Harris, 1991) and from overhead observations (e.g. MacCarthy et al., 2008), accurate origin time estimation can be difficult. Occasionally, mine operators will share shot time, location, explosion size and even shot configuration, but this is rarely done, especially in foreign countries. Additionally, shot times provided by mine operators are often inaccurate. An inexpensive, ground truth event detector that could be mailed to a contact, placed in close proximity (< 5 km) to mining regions or earthquake aftershock regions that automatically transmits back ground-truth parameters, would greatly aid in development of ground truth datasets that could be used to improve nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. We are developing an inexpensive, compact, lightweight smart sensor unit (or units) that could be used in the development of ground truth datasets for the purpose of improving nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. The units must be easy to deploy, be able to operate autonomously for a significant period of time (> 6 months) and inexpensive enough to be discarded after useful operations have expired (although this may not be part of our business

  4. Relating ground truth collection to model sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amar, Faouzi; Fung, Adrian K.; Karam, Mostafa A.; Mougin, Eric

    1993-01-01

    The importance of collecting high quality ground truth before a SAR mission over a forested area is two fold. First, the ground truth is used in the analysis and interpretation of the measured backscattering properties; second, it helps to justify the use of a scattering model to fit the measurements. Unfortunately, ground truth is often collected based on visual assessment of what is perceived to be important without regard to the mission itself. Sites are selected based on brief surveys of large areas, and the ground truth is collected by a process of selecting and grouping different scatterers. After the fact, it may turn out that some of the relevant parameters are missing. A three-layer canopy model based on the radiative transfer equations is used to determine, before hand, the relevant parameters to be collected. Detailed analysis of the contribution to scattering and attenuation of various forest components is carried out. The goal is to identify the forest parameters which most influence the backscattering as a function of frequency (P-, L-, and C-bands) and incident angle. The influence on backscattering and attenuation of branch diameters, lengths, angular distribution, and permittivity; trunk diameters, lengths, and permittivity; and needle sizes, their angular distribution, and permittivity are studied in order to maximize the efficiency of the ground truth collection efforts. Preliminary results indicate that while a scatterer may not contribute to the total backscattering, its contribution to attenuation may be significant depending on the frequency.

  5. The true false ground truths: What interest?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chehdi, K.; Cariou, C.

    2016-10-01

    The existence of a few unreliable ground truth (GT) data sets which are often used as reference by the remote sensing community for the assessment and comparison of classification results is really problematic and poses a number of questions. Two of these ground truth data sets can be cited: "Pavia University" and "Indian Pine". A rigorous analysis of spectral signatures of pixels in these images shows that some classes which are considered as homogeneous from the ground truth are clearly not, since the pixels which belong to the same classes have different spectral signatures, and probably do not belong to the same category. The persistence in using data sets from a biased ground truth does not allow objective comparisons between classification methods and does not contribute to providing explanation of physical phenomena that images are supposed to reflect. In this communication, we present a fine and complete analysis of the spectral signatures of pixels within each class for the two ground truth data sets mentioned above. The metrics used show some incoherence and inaccuracy of these data which wrongly serve as references in several classification comparative studies.

  6. NASA Ground-Truthing Capabilities Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Isaac; Seibert, Marc A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Research and Education Network (NREN) ground truthing is a method of verifying the scientific validity of satellite images and clarifying irregularities in the imagery. Ground-truthed imagery can be used to locate geological compositions of interest for a given area. On Mars, astronaut scientists could ground truth satellite imagery from the planet surface and then pinpoint optimum areas to explore. These astronauts would be able to ground truth imagery, get results back, and use the results during extravehicular activity without returning to Earth to process the data from the mission. NASA's first ground-truthing experiment, performed on June 25 in the Utah desert, demonstrated the ability to extend powerful computing resources to remote locations. Designed by Dr. Richard Beck of the Department of Geography at the University of Cincinnati, who is serving as the lead field scientist, and assisted by Dr. Robert Vincent of Bowling Green State University, the demonstration also involved researchers from the NASA Glenn Research Center and the NASA Ames Research Center, who worked with the university field scientists to design, perform, and analyze results of the experiment. As shown real-time Hyperion satellite imagery (data) is sent to a mass storage facility, while scientists at a remote (Utah) site upload ground spectra (data) to a second mass storage facility. The grid pulls data from both mass storage facilities and performs up to 64 simultaneous band ratio conversions on the data. Moments later, the results from the grid are accessed by local scientists and sent directly to the remote science team. The results are used by the remote science team to locate and explore new critical compositions of interest. The process can be repeated as required to continue to validate the data set or to converge on alternate geophysical areas of interest.

  7. Ground Truth Studies. Teacher Handbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Jesse; And Others

    Ground Truth Studies is an interdisciplinary activity-based program that draws on the broad range of sciences that make up the study of global change and the complementary technology of remote sensing. It integrates local environmental issues with global change topics, such as the greenhouse effect, loss of biological diversity, and ozone…

  8. Ground truth for oceanic rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorman, C. E.

    1981-01-01

    Communications systems operating at frequencies in excess of 10 GHz are degraded significantly by rainfall. To provide the information needed for design of these millimeter wave systems, rain attentuation models were developed and data bases of propagation related information were accumulated. These data bases were developed based on the signal level measurements of geostationary satellite beacons at selected frequencies. Groundbased radar reflection measurements were able to develop data bases for system design. The rain attenuation models allow accurate correlation between the rain rate and the attenuation.

  9. GEOS-3 phase B ground truth summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, C. L.; Goodman, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    Ground truth data collected during the experiment systems calibration and evaluation phase of the Geodynamics experimental Ocean Satellite (GEOS-3) experiment are summarized. Both National Weather Service analyses and aircraft sensor data are included. The data are structured to facilitate the use of the various data products in calibrating the GEOS-3 radar altimeter and in assessing the altimeter's sensitivity to geophysical phenomena. Brief statements are made concerning the quality and completeness of the included data.

  10. Fiber-optic ground-truth thermometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, C.A. Jr.; Forman, P.; Veeser, L.

    1993-07-01

    By making a high accuracy measurement of the optical length of a long fiber optic cable, the authors can determine the absolute temperature averaged over its length and the temperature of a material in contact with it. They describe how to set up such a measurement and use it to determine the average temperature of the surface of the earth over a large enough area to be useful as a ground truth calibration for a satellite imaging system.

  11. Ground Truth Sampling and LANDSAT Accuracy Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, J. W.; Gunther, F. J.; Campbell, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    It is noted that the key factor in any accuracy assessment of remote sensing data is the method used for determining the ground truth, independent of the remote sensing data itself. The sampling and accuracy procedures developed for nuclear power plant siting study are described. The purpose of the sampling procedure was to provide data for developing supervised classifications for two study sites and for assessing the accuracy of that and the other procedures used. The purpose of the accuracy assessment was to allow the comparison of the cost and accuracy of various classification procedures as applied to various data types.

  12. Ground truth observations for TRMM. [Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiele, Otto W.

    1989-01-01

    Plans to obtain ground truth data for the validation of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) are examined. The experimental rainfall measuring techniques considered for the program are discussed, including optical and Doppler rain gages, satellite beacon attenuation, underwater hydrophones, profilers, microwave attenuation, multiple frequency/polarization radar, and scanning and airborne Doppler radar. The TRMM validation program is considered, noting observations to compare averaged TRMM rainfall data with similar ground truth data and to compare the rainfall and height distribution data from TRMM with instantaneous ground truth data.

  13. Fish farms at sea: the ground truth from Google Earth.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Pablo; Piroddi, Chiara; Jacquet, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In the face of global overfishing of wild-caught seafood, ocean fish farming has augmented the supply of fresh fish to western markets and become one of the fastest growing global industries. Accurate reporting of quantities of wild-caught fish has been problematic and we questioned whether similar discrepancies in data exist in statistics for farmed fish production. In the Mediterranean Sea, ocean fish farming is prevalent and stationary cages can be seen off the coasts of 16 countries using satellite imagery available through Google Earth. Using this tool, we demonstrate here that a few trained scientists now have the capacity to ground truth farmed fish production data reported by the Mediterranean countries. With Google Earth, we could examine 91% of the Mediterranean coast and count 248 tuna cages (circular cages >40 m diameter) and 20,976 other fish cages within 10 km offshore, the majority of which were off Greece (49%) and Turkey (31%). Combining satellite imagery with assumptions about cage volume, fish density, harvest rates, and seasonal capacity, we make a conservative approximation of ocean-farmed finfish production for 16 Mediterranean countries. Our overall estimate of 225,736 t of farmed finfish (not including tuna) in the Mediterranean Sea in 2006 is only slightly more than the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization reports. The results demonstrate the reliability of recent FAO farmed fish production statistics for the Mediterranean as well as the promise of Google Earth to collect and ground truth data.

  14. Remote and Ground Truth Spectral Measurement Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Kira Jorgensen; Hamada, Kris; Guyote, Michael; Okada, Jennifer; Barker, Edwin

    2007-01-01

    FORMOSAT III are a set of six research satellites from Taiwan that were launched in April 2006. The satellites are in 800 km, 71 degree inclination orbits and separated by 24 degrees in ascending node. Ground truth spectral measurements were taken of outer surface materials on FORMOSAT III. From those measurements, a computer model was built to predict the spectral reflectance, which included phase angle and orientation of the spacecraft relative to the observer. However, materials exposed to the space environment have exhibited spectral changes including a darkening and a reddening of the spectra. This reddening was seen as an increase in slope of the reflectance as the wavelength increases. Therefore, the model of pristine materials was augmented to include the space weathering effects. Remote data were collected on two of the six FORMOSAT satellites using the 1.6 meter telescope at AMOS (Air Force Maui Optical and Supercomputing) site with the Spica spectrometer. Due to the separation in ascending node, observations were made on whichever one of the six satellites was visible on that specific night. Three nights of data were collected using the red (6000 9500 angstroms) filter and two nights of data were collected using the blue (3200 -6600 angstroms) filter. A comparison of the data showed a good match to the pristine model for the blue filter region. The absorption feature near 5500 angstroms due to the copper colored Kapton multi-layer insulation (MLI) was very apparent in the remote samples and a good fit to the data was seen in both satellites observed. The features in the red filter regime agreed with the pristine model up through 7000 angstroms where the reddening begins and the slope of the remote sample increases. A comparison of the two satellites showed similar features in the red and blue filter regions, i.e. the satellites were aging at the same rate. A comparison of the pristine model to the first month of remote measurements showed the amount by

  15. Ground truth delineation for medical image segmentation based on Local Consistency and Distribution Map analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Irene; Sun, Xinyao; Alsufyani, Noura; Xiong, Zhihui; Major, Paul; Basu, Anup

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) systems are being increasingly deployed for medical applications in recent years with the goal to speed up tedious tasks and improve precision. Among others, segmentation is an important component in CAD systems as a preprocessing step to help recognize patterns in medical images. In order to assess the accuracy of a CAD segmentation algorithm, comparison with ground truth data is necessary. To-date, ground truth delineation relies mainly on contours that are either manually defined by clinical experts or automatically generated by software. In this paper, we propose a systematic ground truth delineation method based on a Local Consistency Set Analysis approach, which can be used to establish an accurate ground truth representation, or if ground truth is available, to assess the accuracy of a CAD generated segmentation algorithm. We validate our computational model using medical data. Experimental results demonstrate the robustness of our approach. In contrast to current methods, our model also provides consistency information at distributed boundary pixel level, and thus is invariant to global compensation error.

  16. Snowpack ground truth Donner Pass site, Soda Springs, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, E. B.

    1977-01-01

    Ground truth data taken near Soda Springs, California, on January 18, 1977, in support of the NASA Airborne Instrumentation Research Program are presented. Ground truth data taken in support of this mission were as follows: (1) snow depths were taken every 400 feet; (2) snow densities were taken every 1,200 feet; (3) two snowpits were dug, and limited density, vertical layer classifications, and soil observations were taken; and (4) temperatures of the upper 6 inches of the snowpack were taken at one location.

  17. A Ground Truthing Method for AVIRIS Overflights Using Canopy Absorption Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamon, John A.; Serrano, Lydia; Roberts, Dar A.; Ustin, Susan L.

    1996-01-01

    Remote sensing for ecological field studies requires ground truthing for accurate interpretation of remote imagery. However, traditional vegetation sampling methods are time consuming and hard to relate to the scale of an AVIRIS scene. The large errors associated with manual field sampling, the contrasting formats of remote and ground data, and problems with coregistration of field sites with AVIRIS pixels can lead to difficulties in interpreting AVIRIS data. As part of a larger study of fire risk in the Santa Monica Mountains of southern California, we explored a ground-based optical method of sampling vegetation using spectrometers mounted both above and below vegetation canopies. The goal was to use optical methods to provide a rapid, consistent, and objective means of "ground truthing" that could be related both to AVIRIS imagery and to conventional ground sampling (e.g., plot harvests and pigment assays).

  18. The importance of ground truth data in remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    Surface observation data is discussed as an essential part of remote sensing research. One of the most important aspects of ground truth is the collection of measurements and observations about the type, size, condition and other physical or chemical properties of importance concerning the materials on the earth's surface that are being sensed remotely. The use of a variety of sensor systems in combination at different altitudes is emphasized.

  19. Aeolian dunes as ground truth for atmospheric modeling on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayward, R.K.; Titus, T.N.; Michaels, T.I.; Fenton, L.K.; Colaprete, A.; Christensen, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    Martian aeolian dunes preserve a record of atmosphere/surface interaction on a variety of scales, serving as ground truth for both Global Climate Models (GCMs) and mesoscale climate models, such as the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS). We hypothesize that the location of dune fields, expressed globally by geographic distribution and locally by dune centroid azimuth (DCA), may record the long-term integration of atmospheric activity across a broad area, preserving GCM-scale atmospheric trends. In contrast, individual dune morphology, as expressed in slipface orientation (SF), may be more sensitive to localized variations in circulation, preserving topographically controlled mesoscale trends. We test this hypothesis by comparing the geographic distribution, DCA, and SF of dunes with output from the Ames Mars GCM and, at a local study site, with output from MRAMS. When compared to the GCM: 1) dunes generally lie adjacent to areas with strongest winds, 2) DCA agrees fairly well with GCM modeled wind directions in smooth-floored craters, and 3) SF does not agree well with GCM modeled wind directions. When compared to MRAMS modeled winds at our study site: 1) DCA generally coincides with the part of the crater where modeled mean winds are weak, and 2) SFs are consistent with some weak, topographically influenced modeled winds. We conclude that: 1) geographic distribution may be valuable as ground truth for GCMs, 2) DCA may be useful as ground truth for both GCM and mesoscale models, and 3) SF may be useful as ground truth for mesoscale models. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. AMS Ground Truth Measurements: Calibration and Test Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, P.

    2013-11-01

    Airborne gamma spectrometry is one of the primary techniques used to define the extent of ground contamination after a radiological incident. Its usefulness was demonstrated extensively during the response to the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident in March-May 2011. To map ground contamination a set of scintillation detectors is mounted on an airborne platform (airplane or helicopter) and flown over contaminated areas. The acquisition system collects spectral information together with the aircraft position and altitude every second. To provide useful information to decision makers, the count rate data expressed in counts per second (cps) needs to be converted to the terrestrial component of the exposure rate 1 m above ground, or surface activity of isotopes of concern. This is done using conversion coefficients derived from calibration flights. During a large scale radiological event, multiple flights may be necessary and may require use of assets from different agencies. However, as the production of a single, consistent map product depicting the ground contamination is the primary goal, it is critical to establish very early into the event a common calibration line. Such a line should be flown periodically in order to normalize data collected from different aerial acquisition systems and potentially flown at different flight altitudes and speeds. In order to verify and validate individual aerial systems, the calibration line needs to be characterized in terms of ground truth measurements. This is especially important if the contamination is due to short-lived radionuclides. The process of establishing such a line, as well as necessary ground truth measurements, is described in this document.

  1. Compositional Ground Truth of Diviner Lunar Radiometer Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhagen, B. T.; Thomas, I. R.; Bowles, N. E.; Allen, C. C.; Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Foote, E. J.; Paige, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    The Moon affords us a unique opportunity to "ground truth" thermal infrared (i.e. 3 to 25 micron) observations of an airless body. The Moon is the most accessable member of the most abundant class of solar system bodies, which includes Mercury, astroids, and icy satellites. The Apollo samples returned from the Moon are the only extraterrestrial samples with known spatial context. And the Diviner Lunar Radiometer (Diviner) is the first instrument to globally map the spectral thermal emission of an airless body. Here we compare Diviner observations of Apollo sites to compositional and spectral measurements of Apollo lunar soil samples in simulated lunar environment (SLE).

  2. Automatic trajectory clustering for generating ground truth data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moehrmann, Julia; Heidemann, Gunther

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel approach towards the creation of vision based recognition tasks. A lot of domain specific recognition systems have been presented in the past which make use of the large amounts of available video data. The creation of ground truth data sets for the training of theses systems remains difficult and tiresome. We present a system which automatically creates clusters of 2D trajectories. The results of this clustering can then be used to perform the actual labeling of the data, or rather the selection of events or features of interest by the user. The selected clusters can be used as positive training data for a user defined recognition task - without the need to adapt the system. The proposed technique reduces the necessary user interaction and allows the creation of application independent ground truth data sets with minimal effort. In order to achieve the automatic clustering we have developed a distance metric based on the Hidden Markov Model representations of three sequences - movement, speed and orientation - derived from the initial trajectory. The proposed system yields promising results and could prove to be an important steps towards mining very large data sets.

  3. A dataset of stereoscopic images and ground-truth disparity mimicking human fixations in peripersonal space.

    PubMed

    Canessa, Andrea; Gibaldi, Agostino; Chessa, Manuela; Fato, Marco; Solari, Fabio; Sabatini, Silvio P

    2017-03-28

    Binocular stereopsis is the ability of a visual system, belonging to a live being or a machine, to interpret the different visual information deriving from two eyes/cameras for depth perception. From this perspective, the ground-truth information about three-dimensional visual space, which is hardly available, is an ideal tool both for evaluating human performance and for benchmarking machine vision algorithms. In the present work, we implemented a rendering methodology in which the camera pose mimics realistic eye pose for a fixating observer, thus including convergent eye geometry and cyclotorsion. The virtual environment we developed relies on highly accurate 3D virtual models, and its full controllability allows us to obtain the stereoscopic pairs together with the ground-truth depth and camera pose information. We thus created a stereoscopic dataset: GENUA PESTO-GENoa hUman Active fixation database: PEripersonal space STereoscopic images and grOund truth disparity. The dataset aims to provide a unified framework useful for a number of problems relevant to human and computer vision, from scene exploration and eye movement studies to 3D scene reconstruction.

  4. A dataset of stereoscopic images and ground-truth disparity mimicking human fixations in peripersonal space

    PubMed Central

    Canessa, Andrea; Gibaldi, Agostino; Chessa, Manuela; Fato, Marco; Solari, Fabio; Sabatini, Silvio P.

    2017-01-01

    Binocular stereopsis is the ability of a visual system, belonging to a live being or a machine, to interpret the different visual information deriving from two eyes/cameras for depth perception. From this perspective, the ground-truth information about three-dimensional visual space, which is hardly available, is an ideal tool both for evaluating human performance and for benchmarking machine vision algorithms. In the present work, we implemented a rendering methodology in which the camera pose mimics realistic eye pose for a fixating observer, thus including convergent eye geometry and cyclotorsion. The virtual environment we developed relies on highly accurate 3D virtual models, and its full controllability allows us to obtain the stereoscopic pairs together with the ground-truth depth and camera pose information. We thus created a stereoscopic dataset: GENUA PESTO—GENoa hUman Active fixation database: PEripersonal space STereoscopic images and grOund truth disparity. The dataset aims to provide a unified framework useful for a number of problems relevant to human and computer vision, from scene exploration and eye movement studies to 3D scene reconstruction. PMID:28350382

  5. Generating high precision ionospheric ground-truth measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komjathy, Attila (Inventor); Sparks, Lawrence (Inventor); Mannucci, Anthony J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method, apparatus and article of manufacture provide ionospheric ground-truth measurements for use in a wide-area augmentation system (WAAS). Ionospheric pseudorange/code and carrier phase data as primary observables is received by a WAAS receiver. A polynomial fit is performed on the phase data that is examined to identify any cycle slips in the phase data. The phase data is then leveled. Satellite and receiver biases are obtained and applied to the leveled phase data to obtain unbiased phase-leveled ionospheric measurements that are used in a WAAS system. In addition, one of several measurements may be selected and data is output that provides information on the quality of the measurements that are used to determine corrective messages as part of the WAAS system.

  6. Computed tomography as ground truth for stereo vision measurements of skin.

    PubMed

    Vanberlo, Amy M; Campbell, Aaron R; Ellis, Randy E

    2011-01-01

    Although dysesthesia is a common surgical complication, there is no accepted method for quantitatively tracking its progression. To address this, two types of computer vision technologies were tested in a total of four configurations. Surface regions on plastic models of limbs were delineated with colored tape, imaged, and compared with computed tomography scans. The most accurate system used visually projected texture captured by a binocular stereo camera, capable of measuring areas to within 3.4% of the ground-truth areas. This simple, inexpensive technology shows promise for postoperative monitoring of dysesthesia surrounding surgical scars.

  7. Field Experiment Provides Ground Truth for Surface NMR Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, R. J.; Abraham, J. D.; Cannia, J. C.; Dlubac, K. I.; Grau, B.; Grunewald, E. D.; Irons, T.; Song, Y.; Walsh, D.

    2010-12-01

    months later, borehole NMR T2 measurements were repeated with a second instrument; and logging measurements were made of the ambient magnetic field. Comparison of the three measurements of NMR relaxation show that T2* at this site is affected by inhomogeneity in the background magnetic field; this effect is most pronounced in sand and gravel units where dephasing, rather than surface relaxation, dominates the NMR response. When the borehole T2 measurements are transformed to T2*, by incorporating a term to account for this effect, we find good agreement between the two forms of measurement over the investigated depth range. The ability to ground truth the SNMR measurement has advanced our understanding of the time constant measured by SNMR, T2*, and its relationship to pore-scale properties. This is a critical step in developing SNMR as a reliable geophysical method for evaluation of groundwater resources.

  8. Truth.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jon

    2014-04-01

    What exactly do we mean by truth? Although the concept is nebulous across the array of theoretical perspectives in psychoanalysis, it is fundamental to all discourses. Is psychoanalysis in a position to offer a theory of truth despite the fact that at present it has no explicit, formal theory regarding the matter? A general metatheory is proposed here that allows for discrete categories and instantiations of truth as metacontextual appearance. In revisiting the ancient notion of aletheia as disclosedness or unconcealment, we may discover a distinct psychoanalytic contribution to truth conditioned on unconscious processes reappropriated from Heidegger's project of fundamental ontology. Construed as a dialectics of truth, this notion accords well with how psychoanalysts understand the dynamic unconscious and how it functions to both reveal and conceal. Given that clinical experience demonstrates the workings of dynamic unconscious activity, psychoanalytic theory may contribute a vocabulary relevant to philosophy by explicating the motives and mechanisms that create the appearances of contextual truth as such, phenomena whose causes have previously gone undescribed.

  9. Ground truth and mapping capability of urban areas in large scale using GE images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramzi, Ahmed I.

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring and mapping complex urban features (e.g. roads and buildings) from remotely sensed data multispectral and hyperspectral has gained enormous research interest. Accurate ground truth allows for high quality assessment of classified images and to verify the produced map. Ground truth can be acquired from: field using the handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) device and from Images with high resolution extracted from Google Earth in additional to field. Ground truth or training samples could be achieved from VHR satellite images such as QuickBird, Ikonos, Geoeye-1 and Wordview images. Archived images are costly for researchers in developing countries. Images from GE with high spatial resolution are free for public and can be used directly producing large scale maps, in producing LULC mapping and training samples. Google Earth (GE) provides free access to high resolution satellite imagery, but is the quality good enough to map urban areas. Costal of the Red sea, Marsa Alam could be mapped using GE images. The main objective of this research is exploring the accuracy assessment of producing large scale maps from free Google Earth imagery and to collect ground truth or training samples in limited geographical extend. This research will be performed on Marsa Alam city or located on the western shore of the Red Sea, Red sea Governorate, Egypt. Marsa Alam is located 274 km south of Hurghada. The proposed methodology involves image collection taken into consideration the resolution of collected photographs which depend on the height of view. After that, image rectification using suitable rectification methods with different number and distributions of GCPs and CPs. Database and Geographic information systems (GIS) layers were created by on-screen vectorization based on the requirement of large scale maps. Attribute data have been collected from the field. The obtained results show that the planmetric accuracy of the produced map from Google Earth Images met map

  10. Modeling Truth Existence in Truth Discovery.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Shi; Zhao, Bo; Tong, Wenzhu; Gao, Jing; Yu, Dian; Ji, Heng; Han, Jiawei

    2015-08-01

    When integrating information from multiple sources, it is common to encounter conflicting answers to the same question. Truth discovery is to infer the most accurate and complete integrated answers from conflicting sources. In some cases, there exist questions for which the true answers are excluded from the candidate answers provided by all sources. Without any prior knowledge, these questions, named no-truth questions, are difficult to be distinguished from the questions that have true answers, named has-truth questions. In particular, these no-truth questions degrade the precision of the answer integration system. We address such a challenge by introducing source quality, which is made up of three fine-grained measures: silent rate, false spoken rate and true spoken rate. By incorporating these three measures, we propose a probabilistic graphical model, which simultaneously infers truth as well as source quality without any a priori training involving ground truth answers. Moreover, since inferring this graphical model requires parameter tuning of the prior of truth, we propose an initialization scheme based upon a quantity named truth existence score, which synthesizes two indicators, namely, participation rate and consistency rate. Compared with existing methods, our method can effectively filter out no-truth questions, which results in more accurate source quality estimation. Consequently, our method provides more accurate and complete answers to both has-truth and no-truth questions. Experiments on three real-world datasets illustrate the notable advantage of our method over existing state-of-the-art truth discovery methods.

  11. Improved ground truth geoid for the GEOS-3 calibration area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mourad, A. G.; Gopalapillai, S.; Kuhner, M.; Fubara, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to develop methods and procedures are reported for computing a detailed geoid to be used as geodetic ground truth for the calibration and verification of GEOS-3 altimeter data. The technique developed is based on rectifying the best available detailed geoid so that the rectified geoid will have correct scale, orientation, shape and position with respect to the geocenter. The approach involved the development of a mathematical model based on a second degree polynomial, in rectangular Cartesian coordinates, describing the geoid undulations at the control stations. A generalized least squares solution was obtained for the polynomial which describes the variation of the undulation differences between the control stations geoid and the gravimetric geoid. Three rectified geoid were determined. These geoids correspond to three sets of tracking station data: (1) WFC/C-band data; (2) GSFC/C-band data; and (3) OSU-275 data. The absolute accuracy of these rectified geoids is linearly correlated with the uncertainties of the tracking station coordinates and, to a certain extent, with those of the detailed geoid being rectified.

  12. Ground truth data generation for skull-face overlay.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, O; Cavalli, F; Campomanes-Álvarez, B R; Campomanes-Álvarez, C; Valsecchi, A; Huete, M I

    2015-05-01

    Objective and unbiased validation studies over a significant number of cases are required to get a more solid picture on craniofacial superimposition reliability. It will not be possible to compare the performance of existing and upcoming methods for craniofacial superimposition without a common forensic database available for the research community. Skull-face overlay is a key task within craniofacial superimposition that has a direct influence on the subsequent task devoted to evaluate the skull-face relationships. In this work, we present the procedure to create for the first time such a dataset. We have also created a database with 19 skull-face overlay cases for which we are trying to overcome legal issues that allow us to make it public. The quantitative analysis made in the segmentation and registration stages, together with the visual assessment of the 19 face-to-face overlays, allows us to conclude that the results can be considered as a gold standard. With such a ground truth dataset, a new horizon is opened for the development of new automatic methods whose performance could be now objectively measured and compared against previous and future proposals. Additionally, other uses are expected to be explored to better understand the visual evaluation process of craniofacial relationships in craniofacial identification. It could be very useful also as a starting point for further studies on the prediction of the resulting facial morphology after corrective or reconstructive interventionism in maxillofacial surgery.

  13. Object Segmentation and Ground Truth in 3D Embryonic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Bhavna; Uriu, Koichiro; Valentin, Guillaume; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Oates, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Many questions in developmental biology depend on measuring the position and movement of individual cells within developing embryos. Yet, tools that provide this data are often challenged by high cell density and their accuracy is difficult to measure. Here, we present a three-step procedure to address this problem. Step one is a novel segmentation algorithm based on image derivatives that, in combination with selective post-processing, reliably and automatically segments cell nuclei from images of densely packed tissue. Step two is a quantitative validation using synthetic images to ascertain the efficiency of the algorithm with respect to signal-to-noise ratio and object density. Finally, we propose an original method to generate reliable and experimentally faithful ground truth datasets: Sparse-dense dual-labeled embryo chimeras are used to unambiguously measure segmentation errors within experimental data. Together, the three steps outlined here establish a robust, iterative procedure to fine-tune image analysis algorithms and microscopy settings associated with embryonic 3D image data sets. PMID:27332860

  14. Object Segmentation and Ground Truth in 3D Embryonic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Bhavna; Uriu, Koichiro; Valentin, Guillaume; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Oates, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    Many questions in developmental biology depend on measuring the position and movement of individual cells within developing embryos. Yet, tools that provide this data are often challenged by high cell density and their accuracy is difficult to measure. Here, we present a three-step procedure to address this problem. Step one is a novel segmentation algorithm based on image derivatives that, in combination with selective post-processing, reliably and automatically segments cell nuclei from images of densely packed tissue. Step two is a quantitative validation using synthetic images to ascertain the efficiency of the algorithm with respect to signal-to-noise ratio and object density. Finally, we propose an original method to generate reliable and experimentally faithful ground truth datasets: Sparse-dense dual-labeled embryo chimeras are used to unambiguously measure segmentation errors within experimental data. Together, the three steps outlined here establish a robust, iterative procedure to fine-tune image analysis algorithms and microscopy settings associated with embryonic 3D image data sets.

  15. A Method for Assessing Ground-Truth Accuracy of the 5DCT Technique

    PubMed Central

    Dou, T. H.; Thomas, D. H.; O'Connell, D.; Lamb, J.M.; Lee, P.; Low, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop a technique that assesses the accuracy of the breathing phase-specific volume image generation process by patient-specific breathing motion model using the original free-breathing CT scans as ground truths. Methods 16 lung cancer patients underwent a previously published protocol in which 25 free-breathing fast helical CT scans were acquired with a simultaneous breathing surrogate. A patient-specific motion model was constructed based on the tissue displacements determined by a state-of-the-art deformable image registration. The first image was arbitrarily selected as the reference image. The motion model was used, along with the free-breathing phase information of the original 25 image datasets, to generate a set of deformation vector fields (DVF) that mapped the reference image to the 24 non-reference images. The high-pitch helically acquired original scans served as ground truths because they captured the instantaneous tissue positions during free breathing. Image similarity between the simulated and the original scans was assessed using deformable registration that evaluated the point-wise discordance throughout the lungs. Results Qualitative comparisons using image overlays showed excellent agreement between the simulated and the original images. Even large 2 cm diaphragm displacements were very well modeled, as was sliding motion across the lung-chest wall boundary. The mean error across the patient cohort was 1.15±0.37 mm, while the mean 95th percentile error was 2.47±0.78 mm. Conclusion The proposed ground truth based technique provided voxel-by-voxel accuracy analysis that could identify organ or tumor-specific motion modeling errors for treatment planning. Despite a large variety of breathing patterns and lung deformations during the free-breathing scanning session, the 5DCT technique was able to accurately reproduce the original helical CT scans, suggesting its applicability to a wide range of patients. PMID:26530763

  16. Ground truth seismic events and location capability at Degelen mountain, Kazakhstan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trabant, C.; Thurber, C.; Leith, W.

    2002-01-01

    We utilized nuclear explosions from the Degelen Mountain sub-region of the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS), Kazakhstan, to assess seismic location capability directly. Excellent ground truth information for these events was either known or was estimated from maps of the Degelen Mountain adit complex. Origin times were refined for events for which absolute origin time information was unknown using catalog arrival times, our ground truth location estimates, and a time baseline provided by fixing known origin times during a joint hypocenter determination (JHD). Precise arrival time picks were determined using a waveform cross-correlation process applied to the available digital data. These data were used in a JHD analysis. We found that very accurate locations were possible when high precision, waveform cross-correlation arrival times were combined with JHD. Relocation with our full digital data set resulted in a mean mislocation of 2 km and a mean 95% confidence ellipse (CE) area of 6.6 km2 (90% CE: 5.1 km2), however, only 5 of the 18 computed error ellipses actually covered the associated ground truth location estimate. To test a more realistic nuclear test monitoring scenario, we applied our JHD analysis to a set of seven events (one fixed) using data only from seismic stations within 40?? epicentral distance. Relocation with these data resulted in a mean mislocation of 7.4 km, with four of the 95% error ellipses covering less than 570 km2 (90% CE: 438 km2), and the other two covering 1730 and 8869 km2 (90% CE: 1331 and 6822 km2). Location uncertainties calculated using JHD often underestimated the true error, but a circular region with a radius equal to the mislocation covered less than 1000 km2 for all events having more than three observations. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Combining Ground-Truthing and Technology to Improve Accuracy in Establishing Children's Food Purchasing Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Coakley, Hannah Lee; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Hopkins, Laura; Braunstein, Nadine; Mui, Yeeli; Gittelsohn, Joel

    Developing nutrition-focused environmental interventions for youth requires accurate assessment of where they purchase food. We have developed an innovative, technology-based method to improve the accuracy of food source recall among children using a tablet PC and ground-truthing methodologies. As part of the B'more Healthy Communties for Kids study, we mapped and digitally photographed every food source within a half-mile radius of 14 Baltimore City recreation centers. This food source database was then used with children from the surrounding neighborhoods to search for and identify the food sources they frequent. This novel integration of traditional data collection and technology enables researchers to gather highly accurate information on food source usage among children in Baltimore City. Funding is provided by the NICHD U-54 Grant #1U54HD070725-02.

  18. Combining Ground-Truthing and Technology to Improve Accuracy in Establishing Children's Food Purchasing Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Coakley, Hannah Lee; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Hopkins, Laura; Braunstein, Nadine; Mui, Yeeli; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Developing nutrition-focused environmental interventions for youth requires accurate assessment of where they purchase food. We have developed an innovative, technology-based method to improve the accuracy of food source recall among children using a tablet PC and ground-truthing methodologies. As part of the B'more Healthy Communties for Kids study, we mapped and digitally photographed every food source within a half-mile radius of 14 Baltimore City recreation centers. This food source database was then used with children from the surrounding neighborhoods to search for and identify the food sources they frequent. This novel integration of traditional data collection and technology enables researchers to gather highly accurate information on food source usage among children in Baltimore City. Funding is provided by the NICHD U-54 Grant #1U54HD070725-02. PMID:25729465

  19. Ground truth crop proportion summaries for US segments, 1976-1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, R. (Principal Investigator); Rice, D.; Wessling, T.

    1981-01-01

    The original ground truth data was collected, digitized, and registered to LANDSAT data for use in the LACIE and AgRISTARS projects. The numerous ground truth categories were consolidated into fewer classes of crops or crop conditions and counted occurrences of these classes for each segment. Tables are presented in which the individual entries are the percentage of total segment area assigned to a given class. The ground truth summaries were prepared from a 20% sample of the scene. An analysis indicates that this size of sample provides sufficient accuracy for use of the data in initial segment screening.

  20. Assessment of MTI Water Temperature Thermal Discharge Retrievals with Ground Truth

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzeja, R.J.

    2002-12-06

    Surface water temperatures calculated from Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) brightness temperatures and the robust retrieval algorithm, developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), are compared with ground truth measurements at a mid-latitude cold-water site along the Atlantic coast near Plymouth, MA. In contrast to the relative uniformity of the sea-surface temperature in the open ocean the water temperature near Pilgrim exhibits strong spatial gradients and temporal variability. This made it critical that all images be accurately registered in order to extract temperature values at the six buoy locations. Sixteen images during a one-year period from August 2000 to July 2001 were selected for the study. The RMS error of Pilgrim water temperature is about 3.5 C for the 4 buoys located in open water. The RMS error of the combined temperatures from 3 of the open-water buoys is 2.8 C. The RMS error includes errors in the ground truth. The magnitude of this error is estimated to range between 0.8 and 2.3 C. The two main components of this error are warm-layer effect and spatial variability. The actual error in the MTI retrievals for Pilgrim daytime conditions is estimated to be between 2.7 and 3.4 C for individual buoys and between 1.7 and 2.7 C for the combined open-water buoys.

  1. Ground truth management system to support multispectral scanner /MSS/ digital analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coiner, J. C.; Ungar, S. G.

    1977-01-01

    A computerized geographic information system for management of ground truth has been designed and implemented to relate MSS classification results to in situ observations. The ground truth system transforms, generalizes and rectifies ground observations to conform to the pixel size and shape of high resolution MSS aircraft data. These observations can then be aggregated for comparison to lower resolution sensor data. Construction of a digital ground truth array allows direct pixel by pixel comparison between classification results of MSS data and ground truth. By making comparisons, analysts can identify spatial distribution of error within the MSS data as well as usual figures of merit for the classifications. Use of the ground truth system permits investigators to compare a variety of environmental or anthropogenic data, such as soil color or tillage patterns, with classification results and allows direct inclusion of such data into classification operations. To illustrate the system, examples from classification of simulated Thematic Mapper data for agricultural test sites in North Dakota and Kansas are provided.

  2. Estimation of the probability of error without ground truth and known a priori probabilities. [remote sensor performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havens, K. A.; Minster, T. C.; Thadani, S. G.

    1976-01-01

    The probability of error or, alternatively, the probability of correct classification (PCC) is an important criterion in analyzing the performance of a classifier. Labeled samples (those with ground truth) are usually employed to evaluate the performance of a classifier. Occasionally, the numbers of labeled samples are inadequate, or no labeled samples are available to evaluate a classifier's performance; for example, when crop signatures from one area from which ground truth is available are used to classify another area from which no ground truth is available. This paper reports the results of an experiment to estimate the probability of error using unlabeled test samples (i.e., without the aid of ground truth).

  3. Modeling Truth Existence in Truth Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Shi; Zhao, Bo; Tong, Wenzhu; Gao, Jing; Yu, Dian; Ji, Heng; Han, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    When integrating information from multiple sources, it is common to encounter conflicting answers to the same question. Truth discovery is to infer the most accurate and complete integrated answers from conflicting sources. In some cases, there exist questions for which the true answers are excluded from the candidate answers provided by all sources. Without any prior knowledge, these questions, named no-truth questions, are difficult to be distinguished from the questions that have true answers, named has-truth questions. In particular, these no-truth questions degrade the precision of the answer integration system. We address such a challenge by introducing source quality, which is made up of three fine-grained measures: silent rate, false spoken rate and true spoken rate. By incorporating these three measures, we propose a probabilistic graphical model, which simultaneously infers truth as well as source quality without any a priori training involving ground truth answers. Moreover, since inferring this graphical model requires parameter tuning of the prior of truth, we propose an initialization scheme based upon a quantity named truth existence score, which synthesizes two indicators, namely, participation rate and consistency rate. Compared with existing methods, our method can effectively filter out no-truth questions, which results in more accurate source quality estimation. Consequently, our method provides more accurate and complete answers to both has-truth and no-truth questions. Experiments on three real-world datasets illustrate the notable advantage of our method over existing state-of-the-art truth discovery methods. PMID:26705507

  4. Semi-automated based ground-truthing GUI for airborne imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Chung; Lydic, Rich; Moore, Tim; Trang, Anh; Agarwal, Sanjeev; Tiwari, Spandan

    2005-06-01

    Over the past several years, an enormous amount of airborne imagery consisting of various formats has been collected and will continue into the future to support airborne mine/minefield detection processes, improve algorithm development, and aid in imaging sensor development. The ground-truthing of imagery is a very essential part of the algorithm development process to help validate the detection performance of the sensor and improving algorithm techniques. The GUI (Graphical User Interface) called SemiTruth was developed using Matlab software incorporating signal processing, image processing, and statistics toolboxes to aid in ground-truthing imagery. The semi-automated ground-truthing GUI is made possible with the current data collection method, that is including UTM/GPS (Universal Transverse Mercator/Global Positioning System) coordinate measurements for the mine target and fiducial locations on the given minefield layout to support in identification of the targets on the raw imagery. This semi-automated ground-truthing effort has developed by the US Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), Countermine Division, Airborne Application Branch with some support by the University of Missouri-Rolla.

  5. An Empirical Study into Annotator Agreement, Ground Truth Estimation, and Algorithm Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lampert, Thomas A; Stumpf, Andre; Gancarski, Pierre

    2016-03-21

    Although agreement between annotators who mark feature locations within images has been studied in the past from a statistical viewpoint, little work has attempted to quantify the extent to which this phenomenon affects the evaluation of foreground-background segmentation algorithms. Many researchers utilise ground truth in experimentation and more often than not this ground truth is derived from one annotator's opinion. How does the difference in opinion affect an algorithm's evaluation? A methodology is applied to four image processing problems to quantify the inter-annotator variance and to offer insight into the mechanisms behind agreement and the use of ground truth. It is found that when detecting linear structures annotator agreement is very low. The agreement in a structure's position can be partially explained through basic image properties. Automatic segmentation algorithms are compared to annotator agreement and it is found that there is a clear relation between the two. Several ground truth estimation methods are used to infer a number of algorithm performances. It is found that: the rank of a detector is highly dependent upon the method used to form the ground truth; and that although STAPLE and LSML appear to represent the mean of the performance measured using individual annotations, when there are few annotations, or there is a large variance in them, these estimates tend to degrade. Furthermore, one of the most commonly adopted combination methods-consensus voting- accentuates more obvious features, resulting in an overestimation of performance. It is concluded that in some datasets it is not possible to confidently infer an algorithm ranking when evaluating upon one ground truth.

  6. Retina Lesion and Microaneurysm Segmentation using Morphological Reconstruction Methods with Ground-Truth Data

    SciTech Connect

    Karnowski, Thomas Paul; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William; Chaum, Edward; Muthusamy Govindasamy, Vijaya Priya

    2009-09-01

    In this work we report on a method for lesion segmentation based on the morphological reconstruction methods of Sbeh et. al. We adapt the method to include segmentation of dark lesions with a given vasculature segmentation. The segmentation is performed at a variety of scales determined using ground-truth data. Since the method tends to over-segment imagery, ground-truth data was used to create post-processing filters to separate nuisance blobs from true lesions. A sensitivity and specificity of 90% of classification of blobs into nuisance and actual lesion was achieved on two data sets of 86 images and 1296 images.

  7. Automated Analysis of Radar Imagery of Venus: Handling Lack of Ground Truth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burl, M.; Fayyad, U.; Perona, P.; Smyth, P.

    1994-01-01

    Lack of verifiable ground truth is a common problem in remote sensing image analysis. For example, consider the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image data of Venus obtained by the Magellan spacecraft. Planetary scientists are interested in automatically cataloging the locations of all the small volcanoes in this data set; however, the problem is very difficult and cannot be performed with perfect reliability even by human experts. Thus, training and evaluating the performance of an automatic algorithm on this data set must be handled carefully. We discuss the use of weighted free-response receiver-operating characteristics (wFROC) for evaluating detection performance when the ground truth is subjective.

  8. Retina lesion and microaneurysm segmentation using morphological reconstruction methods with ground-truth data.

    PubMed

    Karnowski, Thomas P; Govindasamy, V; Tobin, Kenneth W; Chaum, Edward; Abramoff, M D

    2008-01-01

    In this work we report on a method for lesion segmentation based on the morphological reconstruction methods of Sbeh et. al. We adapt the method to include segmentation of dark lesions with a given vasculature segmentation. The segmentation is performed at a variety of scales determined using ground-truth data. Since the method tends to over-segment imagery, ground-truth data was used to create post-processing filters to separate nuisance blobs from true lesions. A sensitivity and specificity of 90% of classification of blobs into nuisance and actual lesion was achieved on two data sets of 86 images and 1296 images.

  9. Ground truth methods for optical cross-section modeling of biological aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalter, J.; Thrush, E.; Santarpia, J.; Chaudhry, Z.; Gilberry, J.; Brown, D. M.; Brown, A.; Carter, C. C.

    2011-05-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems have demonstrated some capability to meet the needs of a fastresponse standoff biological detection method for simulants in open air conditions. These systems are designed to exploit various cloud signatures, such as differential elastic backscatter, fluorescence, and depolarization in order to detect biological warfare agents (BWAs). However, because the release of BWAs in open air is forbidden, methods must be developed to predict candidate system performance against real agents. In support of such efforts, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab (JHU/APL) has developed a modeling approach to predict the optical properties of agent materials from relatively simple, Biosafety Level 3-compatible bench top measurements. JHU/APL has fielded new ground truth instruments (in addition to standard particle sizers, such as the Aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) or GRIMM aerosol monitor (GRIMM)) to more thoroughly characterize the simulant aerosols released in recent field tests at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG). These instruments include the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), the Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVAPS), and the Aspect Aerosol Size and Shape Analyser (Aspect). The SMPS was employed as a means of measuring smallparticle concentrations for more accurate Mie scattering simulations; the UVAPS, which measures size-resolved fluorescence intensity, was employed as a path toward fluorescence cross section modeling; and the Aspect, which measures particle shape, was employed as a path towards depolarization modeling.

  10. Detailed analysis of CAMS procedures for phase 3 using ground truth inventories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a study of Procedure 1 as used during LACIE Phase 3 are presented. The study was performed by comparing the Procedure 1 classification results with digitized ground-truth inventories. The proportion estimation accuracy, dot labeling accuracy, and clustering effectiveness are discussed.

  11. Soil moisture ground truth: Steamboat Springs, Colorado, site and Walden, Colorado, site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    Ground-truth data taken at Steamboat Springs and Walden, Colorado in support of the NASA missions in these areas during the period March 8, 1976 through March 11, 1976 was presented. This includes the following information: snow course data for Steamboat Springs and Walden, snow pit and snow quality data for Steamboat Springs, and soil moisture report.

  12. Application of remote sensing in agriculture and forestry and ground truth documentation in resource planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Varied small scale imagery was used for detecting and assessing damage by the southern pine beetle. The usefulness of ERTS scanner imagery for vegetation classification and pine beetle damage detection and assessment is evaluated. Ground truth acquisition for forest identification using multispectral aerial photographs is reviewed.

  13. Skepticism, truth as coherence, and constructivist epistemology: grounds for resolving the discord between science and religion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staver, John R.

    2010-03-01

    Science and religion exhibit multiple relationships as ways of knowing. These connections have been characterized as cousinly, mutually respectful, non-overlapping, competitive, proximate-ultimate, dominant-subordinate, and opposing-conflicting. Some of these ties create stress, and tension between science and religion represents a significant chapter in humans' cultural heritage before and since the Enlightenment. Truth, knowledge, and their relation are central to science and religion as ways of knowing, as social institutions, and to their interaction. In religion, truth is revealed through God's word. In science, truth is sought after via empirical methods. Discord can be viewed as a competition for social legitimization between two social institutions whose goals are explaining the world and how it works. Under this view, the root of the discord is truth as correspondence. In this concept of truth, knowledge corresponds to the facts of reality, and conflict is inevitable for many because humans want to ask which one—science or religion—gets the facts correct. But, the root paradox, also known as the problem of the criterion, suggests that seeking to know nature as it is represents a fruitless endeavor. The discord can be set on new ground and resolved by taking a moderately skeptical line of thought, one which employs truth as coherence and a moderate form of constructivist epistemology. Quantum mechanics and evolution as scientific theories and scientific research on human consciousness and vision provide support for this line of argument. Within a constructivist perspective, scientists would relinquish only the pursuit of knowing reality as it is. Scientists would retain everything else. Believers who hold that religion explains reality would come to understand that God never revealed His truth of nature; rather, He revealed His truth in how we are to conduct our lives.

  14. Ground truth and CT image model simulation for pathophysiological human airway system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortner, Margarete; Fetita, Catalin; Brillet, Pierre-Yves; Pr"teux, Françoise; Grenier, Philippe

    2010-02-01

    Recurrent problem in medical image segmentation and analysis, establishing a ground truth for assessment purposes is often difficult. Facing this problem, the scientific community orients its efforts towards the development of objective methods for evaluation, namely by building up or simulating the missing ground truth for analysis. This paper focuses on the case of human pulmonary airways and develops a method 1) to simulate the ground truth for different pathophysiological configurations of the bronchial tree as a mesh model, and 2) to generate synthetic 3D CT images of airways associated with the simulated ground truth. The airway model is here built up based on the information provided by a medial axis (describing bronchus shape, subdivision geometry and local radii), which is computed from real CT data to ensure realism and matching with a patient-specific morphology. The model parameters can be further on adjusted to simulate various pathophysiological conditions of the same patient (longitudinal studies). Based on the airway mesh model, a 3D image model is synthesized by simulating the CT acquisition process. The image realism is achieved by including textural features of the surrounding pulmonary tissue which are obtained by segmentation from the same original CT data providing the airway axis. By varying the scanning simulation parameters, several 3D image models can be generated for the same airway mesh ground truth. Simulation results for physiological and pathological configurations are presented and discussed, illustrating the interest of such a modeling process for designing computer-aided diagnosis systems or for assessing their sensitivity, mainly for follow-up studies in asthma and COPD.

  15. Operational Assessment of CAS in COIN: Airing the Ground Truth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    might be excessively predisposed to organic fires. Such was the case during Anaconda, as a key lesson identified was the failure to include airmen...firing ordnance) might be optimal for a B-1 Bomber. This could be the case if an Army patrol is pinned in a valley based on SIGINT of enemy...build on practices adopted from service-oriented private industry rather than defense R&D constructs. The customer in this case is any ground commander

  16. Success Stories: Data Collection And Ground Truth For The Portuguese Case Study (Caia Irrigation District)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdigão, A.; Oliveira, P.; Chinita, A.; Chinita, S.; Maia, J.; Nunes, J.

    2006-08-01

    A Field Campaign has been carried on the Caia Irrigation District area pilot zone, in order to obtain ground truth for EO calibration and for an improved Irrigation Advisory System, owing to supply a more reliable and quick information to the water board district and to the farmer. These ground truth observations included weekly data on crop phenology and vegetation fraction for Maize, Sugar Beet and Tomato. The aim of the operation was to provide maps based on GIS technology of crop phenological parameters, based on methods (models and algorithms) in order to derive them from EO (for each pixel) and to obtain DEMETER products (which may involve spatial aggregation or separation). Irrigation Advisory Services using Earth Observation Technologies are important management tools, owing to improve monitoring and water management, supplying farmers with important information concerning water use in order to be in accordance with the eco-compatibility principles

  17. Soil moisture ground truth, Lafayette, Indiana, site; St. Charles Missouri, site; Centralia, Missouri, site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, E. B.

    1975-01-01

    The soil moisture ground-truth measurements and ground-cover descriptions taken at three soil moisture survey sites located near Lafayette, Indiana; St. Charles, Missouri; and Centralia, Missouri are given. The data were taken on November 10, 1975, in connection with airborne remote sensing missions being flown by the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan under the auspices of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Emphasis was placed on the soil moisture in bare fields. Soil moisture was sampled in the top 0 to 1 in. and 0 to 6 in. by means of a soil sampling push tube. These samples were then placed in plastic bags and awaited gravimetric analysis.

  18. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground truth data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Anthony; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz; Norikane, L.; Way, Jobea

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Geographic Information System for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground truth data are presented. Topics covered include: scientific objectives; schedule; and Geographic Information System.

  19. Verification of retail food outlet location data from a local health department using ground-truthing and remote-sensing technology: assessing differences by neighborhood characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rossen, Lauren M; Pollack, Keshia M; Curriero, Frank C

    2012-09-01

    Obtaining valid and accurate data on community food environments is critical for research evaluating associations between the food environment and health outcomes. This study utilized ground-truthing and remote-sensing technology to validate a food outlet retail list obtained from an urban local health department in Baltimore, Maryland in 2009. Ten percent of outlets (n=169) were assessed, and differences in accuracy were explored by neighborhood characteristics (96 census tracts) to determine if discrepancies were differential or non-differential. Inaccuracies were largely unrelated to a variety of neighborhood-level variables, with the exception of number of vacant housing units. Although remote-sensing technologies are a promising low-cost alternative to direct observation, this study demonstrated only moderate levels of agreement with ground-truthing.

  20. Reference-free ground truth metric for metal artifact evaluation in CT images

    SciTech Connect

    Kratz, Baerbel; Ens, Svitlana; Mueller, Jan; Buzug, Thorsten M.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: In computed tomography (CT), metal objects in the region of interest introduce data inconsistencies during acquisition. Reconstructing these data results in an image with star shaped artifacts induced by the metal inconsistencies. To enhance image quality, the influence of the metal objects can be reduced by different metal artifact reduction (MAR) strategies. For an adequate evaluation of new MAR approaches a ground truth reference data set is needed. In technical evaluations, where phantoms can be measured with and without metal inserts, ground truth data can easily be obtained by a second reference data acquisition. Obviously, this is not possible for clinical data. Here, an alternative evaluation method is presented without the need of an additionally acquired reference data set. Methods: The proposed metric is based on an inherent ground truth for metal artifacts as well as MAR methods comparison, where no reference information in terms of a second acquisition is needed. The method is based on the forward projection of a reconstructed image, which is compared to the actually measured projection data. Results: The new evaluation technique is performed on phantom and on clinical CT data with and without MAR. The metric results are then compared with methods using a reference data set as well as an expert-based classification. It is shown that the new approach is an adequate quantification technique for artifact strength in reconstructed metal or MAR CT images. Conclusions: The presented method works solely on the original projection data itself, which yields some advantages compared to distance measures in image domain using two data sets. Beside this, no parameters have to be manually chosen. The new metric is a useful evaluation alternative when no reference data are available.

  1. Field Ground Truthing Data Collector - a Mobile Toolkit for Image Analysis and Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, X.

    2012-07-01

    Field Ground Truthing Data Collector is one of the four key components of the NASA funded ICCaRS project, being developed in Southeast Michigan. The ICCaRS ground truthing toolkit entertains comprehensive functions: 1) Field functions, including determining locations through GPS, gathering and geo-referencing visual data, laying out ground control points for AEROKAT flights, measuring the flight distance and height, and entering observations of land cover (and use) and health conditions of ecosystems and environments in the vicinity of the flight field; 2) Server synchronization functions, such as, downloading study-area maps, aerial photos and satellite images, uploading and synchronizing field-collected data with the distributed databases, calling the geospatial web services on the server side to conduct spatial querying, image analysis and processing, and receiving the processed results in field for near-real-time validation; and 3) Social network communication functions for direct technical assistance and pedagogical support, e.g., having video-conference calls in field with the supporting educators, scientists, and technologists, participating in Webinars, or engaging discussions with other-learning portals. This customized software package is being built on Apple iPhone/iPad and Google Maps/Earth. The technical infrastructures, data models, coupling methods between distributed geospatial data processing and field data collector tools, remote communication interfaces, coding schema, and functional flow charts will be illustrated and explained at the presentation. A pilot case study will be also demonstrated.

  2. Model vs. design sensitivity to the ground-truth problem of rainfall observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Chulsang; Ha, Eunho; Shin, Sha-Chul

    In this study three multi-dimensional rainfall models, the Waymire-Gupta-Rodriguez-Iturbe multi-dimensional rainfall model (WGR model) [Water Resour. Res. 20 (10) (1984) 1453], the noise forced diffusive rainfall model (NFD model) [J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 6 (1989) 985] and the Yoo-Valdes-North model (YVN model) [Water Resour. Res. 32 (7) (1996) 2175], are compared with their applications to the ground-truth problem to capture the sensor bias using multiple raingauges. All the model parameters used are those estimated tuned to the GATE by Valdes et al. [J. Geophys. Res. (Atmos.) 95 (D3) (1990) 2101], North and Nakamoto [J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 6 (1989) 985] and Yoo et al. [Water Resour. Res. 32 (7) (1996) 2175], respectively, and the root mean square errors (RMSEs) for each model are estimated to compare. The difference among models can be seen easily from the comparison of their spectra, which, in turn, affects the RMSEs for the ground-truth problem. Two conclusions could be deduced from the results of the study: (1) The rainfall model is the more crucial factor for the ground-truth problem than the ground-truth design. That is, the design factors, such as the number of raingauges, the size of the field of view (FOV), and the distance between the first and the last raingauges, were found to be much less sensitive to the RMSEs than the model itself. For example, the RMSEs estimated for a model could be more than twice of another model's, which could result in more than four times of satellite observations required to capture the sensor bias. However, twice the number of raingauges, twice the size of the FOV, or twice the length between the first and the last raingauges resulted in less than 20% difference of the RMSEs. (2) The model sensitivity is much higher than the parameter sensitivity to the RMSEs. For example, just about 25% difference of the RMSEs could be expected even when applying the NFD model parameters 100% bigger or smaller. Considering that the

  3. TRMM ground truth in a monsoon environment - Darwin, Australia. [Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, T. D.; Holland, G. J.; Manton, M. J.; Simpson, J.

    1988-01-01

    A ground truth station for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is described. The station is situated in Darwin, Australia in a monsoon environment typical for Southeast Asia. The climatological features of the site, and the Darwin observational program are examined. The instruments and operations at the station are discussed, including a Doppler radar making full upper tropospheric soundings every 12 hrs and wind soundings every 6 hrs, and a mesoscale raingauge and surface observing network operating continuously through the summer monsoon seasons. The spatial and temporal characteristics of rainfall in the area and an outline of the research objectives of the program are presented.

  4. Snowpack ground truth: Radar test site, Steamboat Springs, Colorado, 8-16 April 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, S.; Jones, E. B.; Leaf, C. F.

    1976-01-01

    Ground-truth data taken at Steamboat Springs, Colorado is presented. Data taken during the period April 8, 1976 - April 16, 1976 included the following: (1) snow depths and densities at selected locations (using a Mount Rose snow tube); (2) snow pits for temperature, density, and liquid water determinations using the freezing calorimetry technique and vertical layer classification; (3) snow walls were also constructed of various cross sections and documented with respect to sizes and snow characteristics; (4) soil moisture at selected locations; and (5) appropriate air temperature and weather data.

  5. Ground Truth Studies - A hands-on environmental science program for students, grades K-12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzenberger, John; Chappell, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the background and the objectives of the Ground Truth Studies (GTSs), an activity-based teaching program which integrates local environmental studies with global change topics, utilizing remotely sensed earth imagery. Special attention is given to the five key concepts around which the GTS programs are organized, the pilot program, the initial pilot study evaluation, and the GTS Handbook. The GTS Handbook contains a primer on global change and remote sensing, aerial and satellite images, student activities, glossary, and an appendix of reference material. Also described is a K-12 teacher training model. International participation in the program is to be initiated during the 1992-1993 school year.

  6. New Ground Truth Capability from InSAR Time Series Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, S; Vincent, P; Yang, D

    2005-07-13

    We demonstrate that next-generation interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) processing techniques applied to existing data provide rich InSAR ground truth content for exploitation in seismic source identification. InSAR time series analyses utilize tens of interferograms and can be implemented in different ways. In one such approach, conventional InSAR displacement maps are inverted in a final post-processing step. Alternatively, computationally intensive data reduction can be performed with specialized InSAR processing algorithms. The typical final result of these approaches is a synthesized set of cumulative displacement maps. Examples from our recent work demonstrate that these InSAR processing techniques can provide appealing new ground truth capabilities. We construct movies showing the areal and temporal evolution of deformation associated with previous nuclear tests. In other analyses, we extract time histories of centimeter-scale surface displacement associated with tunneling. The potential exists to identify millimeter per year surface movements when sufficient data exists for InSAR techniques to isolate and remove phase signatures associated with digital elevation model errors and the atmosphere.

  7. Phantom-based ground-truth generation for cerebral vessel segmentation and pulsatile deformation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schetelig, Daniel; Säring, Dennis; Illies, Till; Sedlacik, Jan; Kording, Fabian; Werner, René

    2016-03-01

    Hemodynamic and mechanical factors of the vascular system are assumed to play a major role in understanding, e.g., initiation, growth and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. Among those factors, cardiac cycle-related pulsatile motion and deformation of cerebral vessels currently attract much interest. However, imaging of those effects requires high spatial and temporal resolution and remains challenging { and similarly does the analysis of the acquired images: Flow velocity changes and contrast media inflow cause vessel intensity variations in related temporally resolved computed tomography and magnetic resonance angiography data over the cardiac cycle and impede application of intensity threshold-based segmentation and subsequent motion analysis. In this work, a flow phantom for generation of ground-truth images for evaluation of appropriate segmentation and motion analysis algorithms is developed. The acquired ground-truth data is used to illustrate the interplay between intensity fluctuations and (erroneous) motion quantification by standard threshold-based segmentation, and an adaptive threshold-based segmentation approach is proposed that alleviates respective issues. The results of the phantom study are further demonstrated to be transferable to patient data.

  8. Development, importance, and effect of a ground truth correction for the Moon Mineralogy Mapper reflectance data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, Peter J.; Petro, Noah E.; Pieters, Carle M.; Besse, Sebastien; Boardman, Joseph W.; Clark, Roger N.; Green, Robert O.; Lundeen, Sarah; Malaret, Erick; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2013-03-01

    We evaluate the effect and importance of a ground truth correction for the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) level 2 (reflectance) data set. This correction is derived from extensive laboratory characterizations of mature feldspathic lunar soils and is designed to improve the accuracy of 1 µm absorption features in M3 reflectance data. To evaluate the correction, the band strength across a subset of the feldspathic highlands terrane (FHT) is analyzed with M3 imaging spectroscopy data. Using M3 reflectance data and derived products, we find significant differences in band strength and shape between M3 observations collected over identical terrain but under different observational and operational conditions. The ground truth correction minimizes these differences in 1 µm band strengths and also brings the 1 µm band strengths measured with M3 data into closer agreement with laboratory measurements of lunar soil samples. Although the FHT region studied was found to have very low band strengths, the M3 ground truth correction results in overall stronger absorption features for all mature soils relative to uncorrected level 2 (reflectance) data for the same region. These differences between M3 data collected under different operational conditions and the effects of the ground truth correction, while minor in appearance, can have significant implications for interpretations of any regional soil analyses with M3 data that rely on absolute 1 µm absorption feature strength. The M3 ground truth correction corrects only wavelengths below ~1500 nm, and comparisons between corrected and uncorrected wavelengths must be done with caution.

  9. Evaluation of Event-Based Algorithms for Optical Flow with Ground-Truth from Inertial Measurement Sensor.

    PubMed

    Rueckauer, Bodo; Delbruck, Tobi

    2016-01-01

    In this study we compare nine optical flow algorithms that locally measure the flow normal to edges according to accuracy and computation cost. In contrast to conventional, frame-based motion flow algorithms, our open-source implementations compute optical flow based on address-events from a neuromorphic Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS). For this benchmarking we created a dataset of two synthesized and three real samples recorded from a 240 × 180 pixel Dynamic and Active-pixel Vision Sensor (DAVIS). This dataset contains events from the DVS as well as conventional frames to support testing state-of-the-art frame-based methods. We introduce a new source for the ground truth: In the special case that the perceived motion stems solely from a rotation of the vision sensor around its three camera axes, the true optical flow can be estimated using gyro data from the inertial measurement unit integrated with the DAVIS camera. This provides a ground-truth to which we can compare algorithms that measure optical flow by means of motion cues. An analysis of error sources led to the use of a refractory period, more accurate numerical derivatives and a Savitzky-Golay filter to achieve significant improvements in accuracy. Our pure Java implementations of two recently published algorithms reduce computational cost by up to 29% compared to the original implementations. Two of the algorithms introduced in this paper further speed up processing by a factor of 10 compared with the original implementations, at equal or better accuracy. On a desktop PC, they run in real-time on dense natural input recorded by a DAVIS camera.

  10. Evaluation of Event-Based Algorithms for Optical Flow with Ground-Truth from Inertial Measurement Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Rueckauer, Bodo; Delbruck, Tobi

    2016-01-01

    In this study we compare nine optical flow algorithms that locally measure the flow normal to edges according to accuracy and computation cost. In contrast to conventional, frame-based motion flow algorithms, our open-source implementations compute optical flow based on address-events from a neuromorphic Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS). For this benchmarking we created a dataset of two synthesized and three real samples recorded from a 240 × 180 pixel Dynamic and Active-pixel Vision Sensor (DAVIS). This dataset contains events from the DVS as well as conventional frames to support testing state-of-the-art frame-based methods. We introduce a new source for the ground truth: In the special case that the perceived motion stems solely from a rotation of the vision sensor around its three camera axes, the true optical flow can be estimated using gyro data from the inertial measurement unit integrated with the DAVIS camera. This provides a ground-truth to which we can compare algorithms that measure optical flow by means of motion cues. An analysis of error sources led to the use of a refractory period, more accurate numerical derivatives and a Savitzky-Golay filter to achieve significant improvements in accuracy. Our pure Java implementations of two recently published algorithms reduce computational cost by up to 29% compared to the original implementations. Two of the algorithms introduced in this paper further speed up processing by a factor of 10 compared with the original implementations, at equal or better accuracy. On a desktop PC, they run in real-time on dense natural input recorded by a DAVIS camera. PMID:27199639

  11. Ground Truth Collection for Mining Explosions in Northern Fennoscandia and Northwestern Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D B; Ringdal, R; Kremenetskaya, E; Mykkeltveit, S; Rock, D W; Maercklin, N; Schweitzer, J; Hauk, T F; Lewis, J P

    2005-07-13

    We concluded comprehensive ground truth collection at the Khibiny, Olenegorsk, Kovdor, and Zapolyarnyi mines, and have basic information on 2,052 explosions. In the past two years we used this ground truth information to extract waveform data from the ARCES array and a number of regional stations (KEV, LVZ, APA) as well as from six stations that we deployed along two lines stretching between the Khibiny Massif mines and the region around the ARCES array. We calculated P/S ratios using the ARCES array data for many of these events comprising several source types (compact underground explosions, underground ripple-fired explosions, surface ripple-fired explosions). We found that the P/S ratios of small compact underground explosions in mines of the Khibiny Massif are systematically lower than the P/S ratios of large ripple-fired surface explosions. We had anticipated that smaller underground shots would appear more like single well-coupled explosions, thus having higher P/S ratios than large ripple-fired explosions. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that the compact underground explosions in these mines are designed to fracture and drop a large quantity of ore from the ceiling of a horizontal shaft. The potential energy released by the falling ore may express as shear wave energy, which may be considerably greater than the (P wave) energy released directly by the explosive. We concluded the deployment of the six stations along the Khibiny-ARCES lines this past summer; this year we are examining the data from these stations to see how P/S ratios vary with range from the source. We have an update on the P/S ratio analysis contrasting different source types, with the addition of an analysis of range dependence using data from the temporary stations. The portable stations were redeployed in the fall of 2004 to the Kiruna and Malmberget underground mines in northern Sweden. The stations deployed in Malmberget also record events from the surface mining

  12. A new device for acquiring ground truth on the absorption of light by turbid waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Srna, R.; Treasure, W.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A new device, called a Spectral Attenuation Board, has been designed and tested, which enables ERTS-1 sea truth collection teams to monitor the attenuation depths of three colors continuously, as the board is being towed behind a boat. The device consists of a 1.2 x 1.2 meter flat board held below the surface of the water at a fixed angle to the surface of the water. A camera mounted above the water takes photographs of the board. The resulting film image is analyzed by a micro-densitometer trace along the descending portion of the board. This yields information on the rate of attenuation of light penetrating the water column and the Secchi depth. Red and green stripes were painted on the white board to approximate band 4 and band 5 of the ERTS MSS so that information on the rate of light absorption by the water column of light in these regions of the visible spectrum could be concurrently measured. It was found that information from a red, green, and white stripe may serve to fingerprint the composition of the water mass. A number of these devices, when automated, could also be distributed over a large region to provide a cheap method of obtaining valuable satellite ground truth data at present time intervals.

  13. Design of the primary pre-TRMM and TRMM ground truth site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garstang, Michael

    1988-01-01

    The primary objective of the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) were to: integrate the rain gage measurements with radar measurements of rainfall using the KSFC/Patrick digitized radar and associated rainfall network; delineate the major rain bearing systems over Florida using the Weather Service reported radar/rainfall distributions; combine the integrated measurements with the delineated rain bearing systems; use the results of the combined measurements and delineated rain bearing systems to represent patterns of rainfall which actually exist and contribute significantly to the rainfall to test sampling strategies and based on the results of these analyses decide upon the ground truth network; and complete the design begun in Phase 1 of a multi-scale (space and time) surface observing precipitation network centered upon KSFC. Work accomplished and in progress is discussed.

  14. The ground truth analysis of rain gauge data for the TRMM project. [Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalewsky, Karen J.; Thiele, Otto

    1989-01-01

    As a part of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Missioin (TRMM) ground truth program to determine the diurnal variability of the area wide rain rates, the rain rate PDFs, and their effect on the area integral algorithm, rain rate data have been collected from a network of gages located in the area near the Cape Canaveral and Kennedy Space Center, in the period beginning in September 1987. In the preliminary statistical analysis, based on the rain rates derived from the eleven gages, the seasonal diurnal rainfall and network averaged rain rates are determined. The analysis was performed in two steps: determination of the hourly and daily rain accumulations and rain rates; and computation of the fraction of hourly and daily rain rates that exceed a particular threshold, and analysis of the hourly and daily rain rate PDFs for the network. The results indicate that there are diurnal and seasonal variations in the components which determine the network rain rate PDFs.

  15. Comparing Eyewitness-Derived Trajectories of Bright Meteors to Ground Truth Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, D. E.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Meteoroid Environment Office is a US government agency tasked with analyzing meteors of public interest. When queried about a meteor observed over the United States, the MEO must respond with a characterization of the trajectory, orbit, and size within a few hours. If the event is outside meteor network coverage and there is no imagery recorded by the public, a timely assessment can be difficult if not impossible. In this situation, visual reports made by eyewitnesses may be the only resource available. This has led to the development of a tool to quickly calculate crude meteor trajectories from eyewitness reports made to the American Meteor Society. A description of the tool, example case studies, and a comparison to ground truth data observed by the NASA All Sky Fireball Network are presented.

  16. Ground truth measurement for the analysis of airborne SAR data recorded over Oberpfaffenhofen, FRG, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayer, T.; Wieneke, F.; Winter, R.

    1990-01-01

    As a preliminary investigation to the joint multiparameter SIR-C/X-SAR shuttle experiment of NASA/JPL (USA), DLR (FRG), and PSN (Italy) which is scheduled for the year 1992 an airborne SAR campaign was conducted over Oberpfaffenhofen, FRG, in August 1989. Primarily this campaign was planned to test and verify equipment and algorithms developed at the DLR to calibrate multifrequency polarimetric SAR data. Oberpfaffenhofen is designated as one of the super test sites for the SIR-C/X-SAR experiment which will be imaged under all circumstances except severe mission errors. A super test site drives radar parameters and look directions and the recorded SAR data will be calibrated. In addition ancillary data will be available for the site. During the airborne STAR campaign conducted in the week of August 14th 1989 various sensor types were used to record remote sensing data over the calibration test site and its vicinity: the polarimetric DC-8 JPL-SAR (P-, L-, C-band), the DLR airborne SAR (C-, X-band), color infrared aerial photography (DLR), and the truck-mounted scatterometer (C- and X-band) of the Institute for Navigation, University of Stuttgart (INS). Because of this variety of different sensor types used and out of the fact that sufficiently large forested and agriculturally used areas were planned to be covered by these sensors, the interest of several German research groups involved in investigations concerning SAR land applications arose. The following groups carried out different ground-truth measurements: University of Bonn, Institute for plant cultivation (plant morphology and moisture content); University of Braunschweig, Institute for Geography (soil moisture and surface roughness); University of Freiburg, Institute for Geography (dielectric soil properties, landuse); and University of Munich, Institute for Geography (landuse inventory, plant, surface, and soil parameters). This paper presents the joint ground truth activities of the Institute for Geography

  17. Towards a repository for standardized medical image and signal case data annotated with ground truth.

    PubMed

    Deserno, Thomas M; Welter, Petra; Horsch, Alexander

    2012-04-01

    Validation of medical signal and image processing systems requires quality-assured, representative and generally acknowledged databases accompanied by appropriate reference (ground truth) and clinical metadata, which are composed laboriously for each project and are not shared with the scientific community. In our vision, such data will be stored centrally in an open repository. We propose an architecture for a standardized case data and ground truth information repository supporting the evaluation and analysis of computer-aided diagnosis based on (a) the Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS) provided by the NASA Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (ISO 14721:2003), (b) the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) Element Set (ISO 15836:2009), (c) the Open Archive Initiative (OAI) Protocol for Metadata Harvesting, and (d) the Image Retrieval in Medical Applications (IRMA) framework. In our implementation, a portal bunches all of the functionalities that are needed for data submission and retrieval. The complete life cycle of the data (define, create, store, sustain, share, use, and improve) is managed. Sophisticated search tools make it easier to use the datasets, which may be merged from different providers. An integrated history record guarantees reproducibility. A standardized creation report is generated with a permanent digital object identifier. This creation report must be referenced by all of the data users. Peer-reviewed e-publishing of these reports will create a reputation for the data contributors and will form de-facto standards regarding image and signal datasets. Good practice guidelines for validation methodology complement the concept of the case repository. This procedure will increase the comparability of evaluation studies for medical signal and image processing methods and applications.

  18. Ground truth and detection threshold from WWII naval clean-up in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Tine B.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine; Voss, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The sea bed below the Danish territorial waters is still littered with unexploded mines and other ammunition from World War II. The mines were air dropped by the RAF and the positions of the mines are unknown. As the mines still pose a potential threat to fishery and other marine activities, the Admiral Danish Fleet under the Danish Navy searches for the mines and destroy them by detonation, where they are found. The largest mines destroyed in this manner in 2012 are equivalent to 800 kg TNT each. The Seismological Service at the National Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland is notified by the navy when ammunition in excess of 100 kg TNT is detonated. The notifications include information about position, detonation time and the estimated amount of explosives. The larger explosions are clearly registered not only on the Danish seismographs, but also on seismographs in the neighbouring countries. This includes the large seismograph arrays in Norway, Sweden, and Finland. Until recently the information from the Danish navy was only utilized to rid the Danish earthquake catalogue of explosions. But the high quality information provided by the navy enables us to use these ground truth events to assess the quality of our earthquake catalogue. The mines are scattered though out the Danish territorial waters, thus we can use the explosions to test the accuracy of the determined epicentres in all parts of the country. E.g. a detonation of 135 kg in Begstrup Vig in the central part of Denmark was located using Danish, Norwegian and Swedish stations with an accuracy of less than 2 km from ground truth. A systematic study of the explosions will sharpen our understanding of the seismicity in Denmark, and result in a more detailed understanding of the detection threshold. Furthermore the study will shed light on the sensitivity of the network to various seismograph outages.

  19. MTI Ground Truth Collection Ivanpah Dry Lake Bed, California, May, July, and August 2002

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Hawley

    2002-10-01

    A multi-agency collaboration successfully completed a series of ground truth measurements at the Ivanpah Dry Lake bed during FY 2002. Four collection attempts were made: two in May, one in July, and one in August. The objective was to collect ground-based measurements and airborne data during Multispectral Thermal Imager satellite overpasses. The measurements were to aid in the calibration of the satellite data and in algorithm validation. The Remote Sensing Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Los Alamos National Laboratory; and the University of Arizona participated in the effort. Field instrumentation included a sun photometer on loan from the University of Arizona and the Remote Sensing Laboratory's radiosonde weather balloon, weather station, thermal infrared radiometers, and spectral radiometer. In addition, three reflectance panels were deployed; certain tests used water baths set at two different temperatures. Local weather data as well as sky photography were collected. May presented several excellent days; however, it was later learned that tasking for the satellite was not available. A combination of cloud cover, wind, and dusty conditions limited useful data collections to two days, August 28 and 29. Despite less-than- ideal weather conditions, the data for the Multispectral Thermal Imager calibration were obtained. A unique set of circumstances also allowed data collection during overpasses of the LANDSAT7 and ASTER satellites.

  20. Semi-automatic ground truth generation using unsupervised clustering and limited manual labeling: Application to handwritten character recognition

    PubMed Central

    Vajda, Szilárd; Rangoni, Yves; Cecotti, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    For training supervised classifiers to recognize different patterns, large data collections with accurate labels are necessary. In this paper, we propose a generic, semi-automatic labeling technique for large handwritten character collections. In order to speed up the creation of a large scale ground truth, the method combines unsupervised clustering and minimal expert knowledge. To exploit the potential discriminant complementarities across features, each character is projected into five different feature spaces. After clustering the images in each feature space, the human expert labels the cluster centers. Each data point inherits the label of its cluster’s center. A majority (or unanimity) vote decides the label of each character image. The amount of human involvement (labeling) is strictly controlled by the number of clusters – produced by the chosen clustering approach. To test the efficiency of the proposed approach, we have compared, and evaluated three state-of-the art clustering methods (k-means, self-organizing maps, and growing neural gas) on the MNIST digit data set, and a Lampung Indonesian character data set, respectively. Considering a k-nn classifier, we show that labeling manually only 1.3% (MNIST), and 3.2% (Lampung) of the training data, provides the same range of performance than a completely labeled data set would. PMID:25870463

  1. Ground Truth Collection for Mining Explosions in Northern Fennoscandia and Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D; Ringdal, F; Kremenetskaya, E; Mykkeltveit, S; Rock, D E; Schweitzer, J; Hauk, T; Lewis, J

    2004-07-15

    Analysis of data from our deployments and ground truth collection in northern Fennoscandia and northwestern Russia shows systematic variations in the P/S ratios of different types of explosions. The fact that this fundamental discriminant varies with firing practice is not in itself surprising - such variations probably contribute to the spread in P/S ratios normally observed for ripple-fired explosions. However, the nature of the variations is sometimes counterintuitive. Last year [Harris, 2003] we found that the P/S ratios of small compact underground explosions in mines of the Khibiny Massif are systematically lower than the P/S ratios of large ripple-fired surface explosions. We had anticipated that smaller underground shots would be more like single well-coupled explosions, thus having higher P/S ratios than large ripple-fired explosions. We now are performing a more extensive analysis of the data including compact and large ripple-fired explosions at additional mines and different types of explosions: small surface shots and large ripple-fired underground explosions. Our data are more complete as a result of an additional year of collection and allow a more complete sampling of the signals in range from the source. As of this writing we have measured Pn/Lg ratios on a larger number of explosions of three types: compact underground explosions, surface ripple-fired explosions and now underground ripple-fired explosions. We find that both types of underground explosions have systematically lower P/S ratios than surface ripple-fired shots; this effect is most pronounced in the 4-8 Hz frequency band. This result appears to be due to relatively diminished shear wave excitation by the surface explosions. We speculate that the relatively large shear phases in underground explosions may be caused by large amounts of rockfall in these events, which are designed to collapse the ceilings of tunnels. We have continued comprehensive ground truth collection at the Khibiny

  2. On Solving the Problem of Identifying Unreliable Sensors Without a Knowledge of the Ground Truth: The Case of Stochastic Environments.

    PubMed

    Yazidi, Anis; Oommen, B John; Goodwin, Morten

    2016-04-28

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a solution to an extremely pertinent problem, namely, that of identifying unreliable sensors (in a domain of reliable and unreliable ones) without any knowledge of the ground truth. This fascinating paradox can be formulated in simple terms as trying to identify stochastic liars without any additional information about the truth. Though apparently impossible, we will show that it is feasible to solve the problem, a claim that is counter-intuitive in and of itself. One aspect of our contribution is to show how redundancy can be introduced, and how it can be effectively utilized in resolving this paradox. Legacy work and the reported literature (for example, in the so-called weighted majority algorithm) have merely addressed assessing the reliability of a sensor by comparing its reading to the ground truth either in an online or an offline manner. Unfortunately, the fundamental assumption of revealing the ground truth cannot be always guaranteed (or even expected) in many real life scenarios. While some extensions of the Condorcet jury theorem [9] can lead to a probabilistic guarantee on the quality of the fused process, they do not provide a solution to the unreliable sensor identification problem. The essence of our approach involves studying the agreement of each sensor with the rest of the sensors, and not comparing the reading of the individual sensors with the ground truth-as advocated in the literature. Under some mild conditions on the reliability of the sensors, we can prove that we can, indeed, filter out the unreliable ones. Our approach leverages the power of the theory of learning automata (LA) so as to gradually learn the identity of the reliable and unreliable sensors. To achieve this, we resort to a team of LA, where a distinct automaton is associated with each sensor. The solution provided here has been subjected to rigorous experimental tests, and the results presented are, in our opinion, both novel and

  3. Comparisons of Ground Truth and Remote Spectral Measurements of the FORMOSAT and ANDE Spacecrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    JorgensenAbercromby, Kira; Hamada, Kris; Okada, Jennifer; Guyote, Michael; Barker, Edwin

    2006-01-01

    Determining the material type of objects in space is conducted using laboratory spectral reflectance measurements from common spacecraft materials and comparing the results to remote spectra. This past year, two different ground-truth studies commenced. The first, FORMOSAT III, is a Taiwanese set of six satellites to be launched in March 2006. The second is ANDE (Atmospheric Neutral Density Experiment), a Naval Research Laboratory set of two satellites set to launch from the Space Shuttle in November 2006. Laboratory spectra were obtained of the spacecraft and a model of the anticipated spectra response was created for each set of satellites. The model takes into account phase angle and orientation of the spacecraft relative to the observer. Once launched, the spacecraft are observed once a month to determine the space aging effects of materials as deduced from the remote spectra. Preliminary results will be shown of the FORMOSAT III comparison with laboratory data and remote data while results from only the laboratory data will be shown for the ANDE spacecraft.

  4. The ground-truth problem for satellite estimates of rain rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, Gerald R.; Valdes, Juan B.; Eunho, HA; Shen, Samuel S. P.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper a scheme is proposed to use a point raingage to compare contemporaneous measurements of rain rate from a single-field-of-view (FOV) estimate based on a satellite remote sensor such as a microwave radiometer. Even in the ideal case the measurements are different because one is at a point and the other is an area average over the field of view. Also the point gage will be located randomly inside the field of view on different overpasses. A space-time spectral formalism is combined with a simple stochastic rain field to find the mean-square deviations between the two systems. It is found that by combining about 60 visits of the satellite to the ground-truth site, the expected error can be reduced to about 10% of the standard deviation of the fluctuations of the systems alone. This seems to be a useful level of tolerance in terms of isolating and evaluating typical biases that might be contaminating retrieval algorithms.

  5. Comparing Eyewitness-Derived Trajectories of Bright Meteors to Ground Truth Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, D. E.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) is the only US government agency tasked with analyzing meteors of public interest. When queried about a meteor observed over the United States, the MEO must respond with a characterization of the trajectory, orbit, and size within a few hours. Using observations from meteor networks like the NASA All Sky Fireball Network or the Southern Ontario Meteor Network, such a characterization is often easy. If found, casual recordings from the public and stationary web cameras can be used to roughly analyze a meteor if the camera's location can be identified and its imagery calibrated. This technique was used with great success in the analysis of the Chelyabinsk meteorite fall. But if the event is outside meteor network coverage, if an insufficient number of videos are found, or if the imagery cannot be geolocated or calibrated, a timely assessment can be difficult if not impossible. In this situation, visual reports made by eyewitnesses may be the only resource available. This has led to the development of a tool to quickly calculate crude meteor trajectories from eyewitness reports made to the American Meteor Society. The output is illustrated in Figure 1. A description of the tool, example case studies, and a comparison to ground truth data observed by the NASA All Sky Fireball Network will be presented.

  6. Ground truth measurements plan for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A.J.

    2000-01-03

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) have developed a diverse group of algorithms for processing and analyzing the data that will be collected by the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) after launch late in 1999. Each of these algorithms must be verified by comparison to independent surface and atmospheric measurements. SRTC has selected 13 sites in the continental U.S. for ground truth data collections. These sites include a high altitude cold water target (Crater Lake), cooling lakes and towers in the warm, humid southeastern US, Department of Energy (DOE) climate research sites, the NASA Stennis satellite Validation and Verification (V and V) target array, waste sites at the Savannah River Site, mining sites in the Four Corners area and dry lake beds in the southwestern US. SRTC has established mutually beneficial relationships with the organizations that manage these sites to make use of their operating and research data and to install additional instrumentation needed for MTI algorithm V and V.

  7. Ground-truthing electrical resistivity methods in support of submarine groundwater discharge studies: Examples from Hawaii, Washington, and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Cordell; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Richardson, Christina M.; Smith, Christopher G.; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Ganguli, Priya M.

    2015-01-01

    Rigorous ground-truthing at each field site showed that multi-channel electrcial resistivity techniques can reproduce the scales and dynamics of a seepage field when such data are correctly collected, and when the model inversions are tuned to field site characteristics. Such information can provide a unique perspective on the scales and dynamics of exchange processes within a coastal aquifer—information essential to scientists and resource managers alike.

  8. A systematic review of automated melanoma detection in dermatoscopic images and its ground truth data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Abder-Rahman A.; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2012-02-01

    Malignant melanoma is the third most frequent type of skin cancer and one of the most malignant tumors, accounting for 79% of skin cancer deaths. Melanoma is highly curable if diagnosed early and treated properly as survival rate varies between 15% and 65% from early to terminal stages, respectively. So far, melanoma diagnosis is depending subjectively on the dermatologist's expertise. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems based on epiluminescense light microscopy can provide an objective second opinion on pigmented skin lesions (PSL). This work systematically analyzes the evidence of the effectiveness of automated melanoma detection in images from a dermatoscopic device. Automated CAD applications were analyzed to estimate their diagnostic outcome. Searching online databases for publication dates between 1985 and 2011, a total of 182 studies on dermatoscopic CAD were found. With respect to the systematic selection criterions, 9 studies were included, published between 2002 and 2011. Those studies formed databases of 14,421 dermatoscopic images including both malignant "melanoma" and benign "nevus", with 8,110 images being available ranging in resolution from 150 x 150 to 1568 x 1045 pixels. Maximum and minimum of sensitivity and specificity are 100.0% and 80.0% as well as 98.14% and 61.6%, respectively. Area under the receiver operator characteristics (AUC) and pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostics odds ratio are respectively 0.87, 0.90, 0.81, and 15.89. So, although that automated melanoma detection showed good accuracy in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and AUC, but diagnostic performance in terms of DOR was found to be poor. This might be due to the lack of dermatoscopic image resources (ground truth) that are needed for comprehensive assessment of diagnostic performance. In future work, we aim at testing this hypothesis by joining dermatoscopic images into a unified database that serves as a standard reference for dermatology related research in

  9. Ground-truthing 6. 5-kHz side scan sonographs: What are we really imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.V.; Field, M.E.; Lee, H.; Edwards, B.E. ); Masson, D.G.; Kenyon, N. ); Kidd, R.B. )

    1991-04-10

    A 1,000-km{sup 2} area on the distal lobe of Monterey Fan shows a digitate pattern of juxtaposed high and low backscatter on GLORIA side scan sonographs. This area was investigated using stereo photography, high-resolution seismic profiles, and measurements of physical properties of cores to quantitatively evaluate the causes of backscatter from the 6.5-kHz side scan sonar. Stereo photography and bottom video were used to determine that the sediment-water interface typically has a bed roughness less than 10 cm over the entire ground truth area; consequently, bed roughness is not a significant contributor to the sonar backscatter. Vertical-incidence 3.5-kHz profiles reveal that high-backscatter areas allow less penetration and have slightly more relief than low-backscatter areas. Closely spaced measurements of {rho} wave velocity, density, and grain size made on transponder-navigated cores are used to investigate the geoacoustic properties of the sediment with the aid of a numerical model. The model results demonstrate that the sediment-water interface is, in most cases, acoustically transparent to the sonar energy and that most or all of the energy is refracted into the sediment to depths of at least a few meters rather than scattered from the surface. In this area, thick (up to 50 cm) sand deposits with thin interbeds of silty clay correlate with lower backscatter than do silty clay deposits with thin interbeds of sand. This suggests that volume inhomogeneities and complex constructive and destructive interferences caused by the subsurface volume inhomogeneities within the top few meters of the sediment ultimately modulate the intensity of backscatter. Although 6.5-kHz sonographs appear easy to interpret in a conventional and simplistic manner, caution should be used when interpreting lithofacies from backscatter intensities.

  10. Sunrise-driven movements of dust on the Moon: Apollo 12 Ground-truth measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Brian J.; Hollick, Monique

    2015-12-01

    The first sunrise after Apollo 12 astronauts left the Moon caused dust storms across the site where rocket exhausts had disrupted about 2000 kg of smooth fine dust. The next few sunrises started progressively weaker dust storms, and the Eastern horizon brightened, adding to direct sunlight for half an hour. These Ground truth measurements were made 100 cm above the surface by the 270 g Apollo 12 Dust Detector Experiment we invented in 1966. Dust deposited on the horizontal solar cell during two lunar days after the first sunrise was almost 30% of the total it then measured over 6 years. The vertical east-facing solar cell measured horizon brightening on 14 of the first 17 lunations, with none detected on the following 61 Lunar Days. Based on over 2 million such measurements we propose a new qualitative model of sunrise-driven transport of individual dust particles freed by Apollo 12 activities from strong particle-to-particle cohesive forces. Each sunrise caused sudden surface charging which, during the first few hours, freshly mobilised and lofted the dust remaining free, microscopically smoothing the disrupted local areas. Evidence of reliability of measurements includes consistency among all 6 sensors in measurements throughout an eclipse. We caution Google Lunar XPrize competitors and others planning missions to the Moon and large airless asteroids that, after a spacecraft lands, dust hazards may occur after each of the first few sunrises. Mechanical problems in its first such period stranded Chinese lunar rover Yutu in 2014, although we would not claim yet that the causes were dust. On the other hand, sunrise-driven microscopic smoothing of disturbed areas may offer regular natural mitigations of dust consequences of mining lunar resources and reduce fears that many expeditions might cause excessive fine dust globally around the Moon.

  11. Identification of buried landmines using electromagnetic induction spectroscopy: evaluation of a blind test against ground truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haoping; San Filipo, Bill; Norton, Steve; Won, I. J.

    2005-06-01

    The Geophex GEM-3 sensor was tested at a government test site comprised of 980 1-m squares containing buried landmines and clutter (metallic debris). Electromagnetic (EM) induction spectroscopy (EMIS) was used to discriminate between the landmines and clutter items. Receiver-operator characteristics (ROC) were constructed based on the results of the analysis. Approximately 92% of the landmines were correctly identified as such, with a false alarm rate of 12%. In this report, we present a comparison of our identification results against the ground truth. The EMIS method works well for high-metal mines for which the misfit threshold can be easily established, yielding a correct declaration in all cases without false alarms. For medium-metal mines, even though the misfit differences between the mines and clutter are not as clear as those for the high-metal mines, these mines were still identified at very low false alarm rates with the GEM-3 sensor. The low-metal mines may be discriminated from clutter if they yield reliable signals, but often at a much higher false alarm rate. The primary reason for this is that the EM signals from the low-metal mines are intrinsically weak and thus more subject to distortion by noise. There are several possibilities for improving the low-metal mine identification, including (1) increasing the upper limit of the frequency band to obtain a stronger signal and better defined spectra; (2) decreasing the size of the sensing head to further localize the region of sensitivity of the sensor; (3) displaying the spectral curves and performing the identification in real time to allow operator inspection of the spectral match; and (4) defining a generalized misfit that incorporates signal amplitude and possibly other spectral features such as the quadrature peak.

  12. A global ground truth view of the lunar air pressure tide L2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, Michael; Dobslaw, Henryk

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive model of the lunar air pressure tide L2 is developed on the basis of 2315 ground truth estimates from land barometers and moored buoys. Regional-scale features of the tide and its seasonal modulations are well resolved by the in situ scatter and gridded to a 2° mesh through multiquadric interpolation. The resulting climatologies serve as an independent standard to validate the lunar semidiurnal tidal signal that is present in ERA-Interim reanalysis products despite the absence of L2-related gravitational forcing mechanisms in the prescribed model physics. Inconsistencies between the reanalysis solution of the barometric lunar tide and its empirical account are generally small, yet when averaged over the period 1979-2010, ERA-Interim underestimates the 100 μbar open ocean tidal amplitude in the Tropics by up to 20 μbar and produces times of peak pressure that are too early by 10 lunar minutes. Large-amplitude features of the reanalysis tide off the coast of Alaska, the eastern U.S., and Great Britain are evidently spurious, introduced to the analysis system by assimilating marine pressure data at an invariant reference surface instead of properly accounting for vertical sensor movements associated with the M2 ocean tide. Additionally, a credible L2 signal is documented for the ERA-20C pilot reanalysis of the twentieth century. The fact that this model rests upon input data from mere surface observations provides an unambiguous indication that the lunar tidal oscillation in atmospheric analysis systems is closely tied to the assimilation of conventional pressure measurements from stations and marine objects.

  13. Towards ground-truthing of spaceborne estimates of above-ground biomass and leaf area index in tropical rain forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, P.; Huth, A.

    2010-05-01

    The canopy height of forests is a key variable which can be obtained using air- or spaceborne remote sensing techniques such as radar interferometry or lidar. If new allometric relationships between canopy height and the biomass stored in the vegetation can be established this would offer the possibility for a global monitoring of the above-ground carbon content on land. In the absence of adequate field data we use simulation results of a tropical rain forest growth model to propose what degree of information might be generated from canopy height and thus to enable ground-truthing of potential future satellite observations. We here analyse the correlation between canopy height in a tropical rain forest with other structural characteristics, such as above-ground biomass (AGB) (and thus carbon content of vegetation) and leaf area index (LAI). The process-based forest growth model FORMIND2.0 was applied to simulate (a) undisturbed forest growth and (b) a wide range of possible disturbance regimes typically for local tree logging conditions for a tropical rain forest site on Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia) in South-East Asia. It is found that for undisturbed forest and a variety of disturbed forests situations AGB can be expressed as a power-law function of canopy height h (AGB=a·hb) with an r2~60% for a spatial resolution of 20 m×20 m (0.04 ha, also called plot size). The regression is becoming significant better for the hectare wide analysis of the disturbed forest sites (r2=91%). There seems to exist no functional dependency between LAI and canopy height, but there is also a linear correlation (r2~60%) between AGB and the area fraction in which the canopy is highly disturbed. A reasonable agreement of our results with observations is obtained from a comparison of the simulations with permanent sampling plot data from the same region and with the large-scale forest inventory in Lambir. We conclude that the spaceborne remote sensing techniques have the potential to

  14. Using Apollo Sites and Soils to Compositionally Ground Truth Diviner Lunar Radiometer Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Lucey, P. G.; Song, E.; Thomas, I R.; Bowles, N. E.; DonaldsonHanna, K. L.; Allen, C.; Foote, E. J.; Paige, D .A.

    2012-01-01

    Apollo landing sites and returned soils afford us a unique opportunity to "ground truth" Diviner Lunar Radiometer compositional observations, which are the first global, high resolution , thermal infrared measurements of an airless body. The Moon is the most accessible member of the most abundant class of solar system objects, which includes Mercury, asteroids, and icy satellites. And the Apollo samples returned from the Moon are the only extraterrestrial samples with known spatial context. Here we compare Diviner observations of Apollo landing sites and compositional and spectral laboratory measurements of returned Apollo soils. Diviner, onboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, has three spectral channels near 8 micron that were designed to characterize the mid-infrared emissivity maximum known as the Christiansen feature (CF), a well-studied indicator of silicate mineralogy. It has been observed that thermal infrared spectra measured in simulated lunar environment (SLE) are significantly altered from spectra measured under terrestrial or martian conditions, with enhanced CF contrast and shifted CF position relative to other spectral features. Therefore only thermal emission experiments conducted in SLE are directly comparable to Diviner data. With known compositions, Apollo landing sites and soils are important calibration points for the Diviner dataset, which includes all six Apollo sites at approximately 200 m spatial resolution. Differences in measured CFs caused by composition and space weathering are apparent in Diviner data. Analyses of Diviner observations and SLE measurements for a range of Apollo soils show good agreement, while comparisons to thermal reflectance measurements under ambient conditions do not agree well, which underscores the need for SLE measurements and validates our measurement technique. Diviner observations of Apollo landing sites are also correlated with geochemical measurements of Apollo soils from the Lunar Sample Compendium

  15. A multivariate analytical method to characterize sediment attributes from high-frequency acoustic backscatter and ground-truthing data (Jade Bay, German North Sea coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondo, Manuela; Bartholomä, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    modelled relationships were used to: 1) asses the automated segmentation performance, 2) obtain a ranking of most discriminant seabed attributes responsible for acoustic diversity, 3) select the best-fit ground-truthing information to characterize each acoustic class. Using a supervised Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), relationships between seabed parameters and acoustic classes discrimination were modelled, and acoustic classes for each data point were predicted. The model predicted a success rate of 63.5%. An unsupervised LDA was used to model relationships between acoustic variables and clustered seabed categories with the scope of identifying misrepresentative ground-truthing data points. The model prediction scored a success rate of 50.8%. Misclassified data points were disregarded for final classification. Analyses led to clearer, more accurate appreciation of relationship patterns and improved understanding of site-specific processes affecting the acoustic signal. Value to the qualitative classification output was added by comparing the latter with a more recent set of acoustic and ground-truthing information (2014). Classification resulted in the first acoustic sediment map ever produced in the area and offered valuable knowledge for detailed sediment variability. The method proved to be a simple, repeatable strategy that may be applied to similar work and environments.

  16. Implementation of a ground truth process for development of a submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) mapping protocol using hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Carlton R.; Bostater, Charles R., Jr.; Virnstein, Robert W.

    2006-09-01

    Protocol development for science based mapping of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) requires comprehensive ground truth data describing the full range of variability observed in the target. The Indian River Lagoon, Florida, extends along 250 km of the east central Florida coast adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean. The lagoon crosses the transition zone between the Caribbean and Carolinian zoogeographic provinces making it highly diverse. For large scale mapping and management of SAV four common and three uncommon species of seagrass (Tracheophyta) and three broad groups of macroalgae; red algae (Rhodophyta), green algae (Chlorophyta), and brown algae (Phaeophyta) are recognized. Based on technical and cost limitations we established twenty, 7-10 km long flight transects for collection of 1.2 m2 spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery covering the length of the lagoon. Emphasis was placed on the area near the Sebastian River and adjacent Sebastian Inlet. Twenty six 40 m long ground truth transects were established in the lagoon using 1 m2 white panels to mark each transect end. Each transect target was located in the field using high precision GPS. Transects were positioned to cover a range of depths, SAV densities, mixed and monotypic species beds, water quality conditions and general sediment types. A 3 m wide by 30 m long grid was centered on each transect to avoid spectral influences of the white targets. Water depth, species of seagrasses, estimates of vegetation cover percentage, estimates of epiphytic density, and measured canopy height were made for each 1 m2 (n=90). This target based grid arrangement allows for identification and extraction of pixel based hyperspectral signatures corresponding to individual ground truth grid cells without significant concern for rectification and registration error.

  17. Mid-Pacific Ground-Truth Data For Validation of the CrIMSS Sensor Suite Aboard Suomi-NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollner, A. K.; Wessel, J.; Gaab, K. M.; Cardoza, D. M.; LaLumondiere, S. D.; Karuza, P.; Caponi, D.; Lotshaw, W. T.; Nalli, N. R.; Reale, T.; Divakarla, M.; Gambacorta, A.; Barnet, C.; Maddy, E. S.; Tan, C.; Xiong, X.; Porter, O.

    2013-12-01

    The Aerospace Transportable Lidar System 2 (ATLS-2) provides ground truth humidity and temperature data for the testing and evaluation of instruments aboard environmental satellites. The Aerospace ground-truth data consist of collocated state-of-the art lidar and radiosonde observations (RAOBs). The lidar system consists of a pulsed UV transmitter, 36-inch collection telescope, and detection channels for water Raman, nitrogen Raman, and Rayleigh/Mie scattering. All channels are separated into two altitude bins to improve the dynamic range of the system. Dedicated balloon-borne radiosondes are Vaisala RS-92, processed with the current version of the Digicora-III software. The synergy between the Raman lidar data and radiosonde data produce high accuracy, quality-controlled vertical profiles of humidity (0 - 20 km) and temperature (0 - 60 km). Starting in May 2012, The Aerospace Corporation has exercised ATLS-2 to collect dedicated ground truth data sets in support of calibration and validation (cal/val) efforts for the Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounding Suite (CrIMSS) aboard the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite. Data sets are collected from the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) on the west coast of Kauai and are timed to be coincident with S-NPP overpasses. The Aerospace PMRF datasets complement the ensemble of similar datasets collected from DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) and NOAA Aerosols and Ocean Science Expedition (AEROSE) sites, which are compared to CrIMSS Environmental Data Records (EDRs) by the NOAA/NESDIS/STAR cal/val team for validation of algorithm performance and algorithm improvement. In addition to providing the only dedicated CrIMSS data in the mid-pacific, The Aerospace Corporation was the first site to provide ground truth data to the EDR cal/val team. As a result, ATLS-2 data sets served as the initial benchmarks for EDR performance testing. Details of the ATLS-2 system and data products as well

  18. Ground truthing for methane hotspots at Railroad Valley, NV - application to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detweiler, A. M.; Kelley, C. A.; Bebout, B.; McKay, C. P.; DeMarines, J.; Yates, E. L.; Iraci, L. T.

    2011-12-01

    .7%. Temperature and relative humidity sensors were placed in the playa at 5, 20, and 30 cm below the surface. Since the relative humidity neared 100% (down to 20 cm below the surface), high enough to support microbial life, the observed absence of methane production in the playa itself is likely due to the low POC content, compared to other methane-producing environments. The spatial distribution of methane in combination with the spectral reflectance at the RRV dry lakebed makes it a good Mars analog. The ground truthing and satellite calibration work accomplished at RRV is a good exercise in preparation to identifying the origins of methane observed in the atmosphere of Mars during the upcoming 2012 Mars Science Laboratory and 2016 ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter missions.

  19. Ground-Truth Observations of Ice-Covered North Slope Lakes Imaged by Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    published by the American Society for Testing and Materi- als, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia, Pa. 19103. Cover: Radar image of the north coast of Alaska...truth observations of ice-covered North Slope lakes imaged by radar W.F. Weeks, A.J. Cow and R.J. Schertler J October 1981 ’AA Prepared for OCEAN...PROCESSES BRANCH NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION By UNITED STATES ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LABORATORY

  20. Groundwater storage change in the Ngadda Catchment of the Lake Chad Basin using GRACE and ground truth data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaskevych, A.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    The present study is to analyze groundwater storage variations in the Ngadda Catchment located in the southwestern edge of Lake Chad Basin using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data. We collected monthly total water storage data from GRACE and monthly soil moisture data from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) for the period of 2005 - 2009 with the spatial resolution of 1 and 0.25 degrees. We assumed surface water contributions to be negligible in the study area. The estimated groundwater storage changes were compared to the ground truth groundwater depth data collected in 2005 and 2009. The challenge of the present study is sparseness of the ground truth data in space and time. The study area is one of the data poor regions in the world due to the limited accessibility to the area. Different geostatistical techniques such as Kriging, Thiessen polygons, and Bayesian updating were applied to overcome such sparseness and modeling uncertainty under different scales and resolution. The study shows a significant increase of groundwater storage in the Ngadda catchment during the study period. Uncertainty is significant though depending on the size of the model and modeling technique. The study discusses advantages of using remote sensing data in data poor regions and how geostatistical techniques can be applied to deal with modeling uncertainty.

  1. The GSFC Mark-2 three band hand-held radiometer. [thematic mapper for ground truth data collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Jones, W. H.; Kley, W. A.; Sundstrom, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    A self-contained, portable, hand-radiometer designed for field usage was constructed and tested. The device, consisting of a hand-held probe containing three sensors and a strap supported electronic module, weighs 4 1/2 kilograms. It is powered by flashlight and transistor radio batteries, utilizes two silicon and one lead sulfide detectors, has three liquid crystal displays, sample and hold radiometric sampling, and its spectral configuration corresponds to LANDSAT-D's thematic mapper bands. The device was designed to support thematic mapper ground-truth data collection efforts and to facilitate 'in situ' ground-based remote sensing studies of natural materials. Prototype instruments were extensively tested under laboratory and field conditions with excellent results.

  2. A procedure used for a ground truth study of a land use map of North Alabama generated from LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, S. W., Jr.; Sharma, G. C.; Bagwell, C.

    1977-01-01

    A land use map of a five county area in North Alabama was generated from LANDSAT data using a supervised classification algorithm. There was good overall agreement between the land use designated and known conditions, but there were also obvious discrepancies. In ground checking the map, two types of errors were encountered - shift and misclassification - and a method was developed to eliminate or greatly reduce the errors. Randomly selected study areas containing 2,525 pixels were analyzed. Overall, 76.3 percent of the pixels were correctly classified. A contingency coefficient of correlation was calculated to be 0.7 which is significant at the alpha = 0.01 level. The land use maps generated by computers from LANDSAT data are useful for overall land use by regional agencies. However, care must be used when making detailed analysis of small areas. The procedure used for conducting the ground truth study together with data from representative study areas is presented.

  3. Generating regional infrasound celerity-range models using ground-truth information and the implications for event location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nippress, Alexandra; Green, David N.; Marcillo, Omar E.; Arrowsmith, Stephen J.

    2014-05-01

    Celerity-range models, where celerity is defined as the epicentral distance divided by the total traveltime (similar to the definition of group velocity for dispersed seismic surface waves), can be used for the association of infrasound automatic detections, for event location and for the validation of acoustic propagation simulations. Signals recorded from ground truth events are used to establish celerity-range models, but data coverage is uneven in both space and time. To achieve a high density of regional recordings we use data from USArray seismic stations recording air-to-ground coupled waves from explosions during the summers of 2004-2008 at the Utah Training and Test Range, in the western United States, together with data from five microbarograph arrays at regional distances (<1000 km). We have developed a consistent methodology for analysing the infrasound and seismic data, including choosing filter characteristics from a limited group of two-octave wide filter bands and picking the maximum peak-to-peak arrival. We clearly observe tropospheric, thermospheric and stratospheric arrivals, in agreement with regional ray tracing models. Due to data availability and the dependence of infrasound propagation on the season, we develop three regional celerity-range models for the U.S. summer, with a total of 2211 data picks. The new models suggest event locations using the Geiger method could be improved in terms of both accuracy (up to 80 per cent closer to ground truth) and precision (error ellipse area reduced by >90 per cent) when compared to those estimated using the global International Data Center model, particularly for events where stations detect arrivals at ranges <350 km. Whilst adding data-based prior information into the Bayesian Infrasound Source Localization (BISL) method is also shown to increase precision, to increase accuracy, the parameter space must be expanded to include station-specific celerity distributions.

  4. Estimation of snowpack matching ground-truth data and MODIS satellite-based observations by using regression kriging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan Collados-Lara, Antonio; Pardo-Iguzquiza, Eulogio; Pulido-Velazquez, David

    2016-04-01

    The estimation of Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) is essential for an appropriate assessment of the available water resources in Alpine catchment. The hydrologic regime in these areas is dominated by the storage of water in the snowpack, which is discharged to rivers throughout the melt season. An accurate estimation of the resources will be necessary for an appropriate analysis of the system operation alternatives using basin scale management models. In order to obtain an appropriate estimation of the SWE we need to know the spatial distribution snowpack and snow density within the Snow Cover Area (SCA). Data for these snow variables can be extracted from in-situ point measurements and air-borne/space-borne remote sensing observations. Different interpolation and simulation techniques have been employed for the estimation of the cited variables. In this paper we propose to estimate snowpack from a reduced number of ground-truth data (1 or 2 campaigns per year with 23 observation point from 2000-2014) and MODIS satellite-based observations in the Sierra Nevada Mountain (Southern Spain). Regression based methodologies has been used to study snowpack distribution using different kind of explicative variables: geographic, topographic, climatic. 40 explicative variables were considered: the longitude, latitude, altitude, slope, eastness, northness, radiation, maximum upwind slope and some mathematical transformation of each of them [Ln(v), (v)^-1; (v)^2; (v)^0.5). Eight different structure of regression models have been tested (combining 1, 2, 3 or 4 explicative variables). Y=B0+B1Xi (1); Y=B0+B1XiXj (2); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2Xj (3); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2XjXl (4); Y=B0+B1XiXk+B2XjXl (5); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2Xj+B3Xl (6); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2Xj+B3XlXk (7); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2Xj+B3Xl+B4Xk (8). Where: Y is the snow depth; (Xi, Xj, Xl, Xk) are the prediction variables (any of the 40 variables); (B0, B1, B2, B3) are the coefficients to be estimated. The ground data are employed to calibrate the multiple regressions. In

  5. Procedures for gathering ground truth information for a supervised approach to a computer-implemented land cover classification of LANDSAT-acquired multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, A. T.

    1978-01-01

    Procedures for gathering ground truth information for a supervised approach to a computer-implemented land cover classification of LANDSAT acquired multispectral scanner data are provided in a step by step manner. Criteria for determining size, number, uniformity, and predominant land cover of training sample sites are established. Suggestions are made for the organization and orientation of field team personnel, the procedures used in the field, and the format of the forms to be used. Estimates are made of the probable expenditures in time and costs. Examples of ground truth forms and definitions and criteria of major land cover categories are provided in appendixes.

  6. SAGE ground truth plan: Correlative measurements for the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) on the AEM-B satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B. (Editor); Cunnold, D. M.; Grams, G. W.; Laver, J.; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Murcray, D. G.; Pepin, T. J.; Perry, T. W.; Planet, W. G.

    1979-01-01

    The ground truth plan is outlined for correlative measurements to validate the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) sensor data. SAGE will fly aboard the Applications Explorer Mission-B satellite scheduled for launch in early 1979 and measure stratospheric vertical profiles of aerosol, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and molecular extinction between 79 N and 79 S. latitude. The plan gives details of the location and times for the simultaneous satellite/correlative measurements for the nominal launch time, the rationale and choice of the correlative sensors, their characteristics and expected accuracies, and the conversion of their data to extinction profiles. In addition, an overview of the SAGE expected instrument performance and data inversion results are presented. Various atmospheric models representative of stratospheric aerosols and ozone are used in the SAGE and correlative sensor analyses.

  7. Methods for improving accuracy and extending results beyond periods covered by traditional ground-truth in remote sensing classification of a complex landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful development of approaches to quantify impacts of diverse landuse and associated agricultural management practices on ecosystem services is frequently limited by lack of historical and contemporary landuse data. We hypothesized that recent ground truth data could be used to extrapolate pre...

  8. Truth Troubles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullis Owen, Jillian A.; McRae, Chris; Adams, Tony E.; Vitale, Alisha

    2009-01-01

    "truth" is an issue of public discussion, research, and everyday performance. Processes of navigating truth, however, are obscure and often unknown. In this project, the authors highlight truth(s) of written life texts. They conceive of truth as "a" rather than "the" "rhetorical device" to use for evaluating personal research and believe that…

  9. Seasonal variations of infrasonic arrivals from long term ground truth observations in Nevada and implication for event location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negraru, Petru; Golden, Paul

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYLong term <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> observations were collected at two infrasound arrays in Nevada to investigate how seasonal atmospheric variations affect the detection, travel time and signal characteristics (azimuth, trace velocity, frequency content and amplitudes) of infrasonic arrivals at regional distances. The arrays were located in different azimuthal directions from a munition disposal facility in Nevada. FNIAR, located 154 km north of the source has a high detection rate throughout the year. Over 90% of the detonations have travel times indicative of stratospheric arrivals, while tropospheric waveguides are observed from only 27% of the detonations. The second array, DNIAR, located 293 km southeast of the source exhibits strong seasonal variations with high stratospheric detection rates in winter and the virtual absence of stratospheric arrivals in summer. Tropospheric waveguides and thermospheric arrivals are also observed for DNIAR. Modelling through the Naval Research Laboratory <span class="hlt">Ground</span> to Space (G2S) atmospheric sound speeds leads to mixed results: FNIAR arrivals are usually not predicted to be present at all (either stratospheric or tropospheric), while DNIAR arrivals are usually correctly predicted, but summer arrivals show a consistent travel time bias. In the end we show the possible improvement in location using empirically calibrated travel time and azimuth observations. Using the Bayesian Infrasound Source Localization we show that we can decrease the area enclosed by the 90% credibility contours by a factor of 2.5.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800038771&hterms=truth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dtruth','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800038771&hterms=truth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dtruth"><span>Gulf stream <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> project - Results of the NRL airborne sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mcclain, C. R.; Chen, D. T.; Hammond, D. L.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Results of an airborne study of the waves in the Gulf Stream are presented. These results show that the active microwave sensors (high-flight radar and wind-wave radar) provide consistent and <span class="hlt">accurate</span> estimates of significant wave height and surface wind speed, respectively. The correlation between the wave height measurements of the high-flight radar and a laser profilometer is excellent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750022555','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750022555"><span>Skylab program earth resources experiment package: <span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> data for test sites (SL-2)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Field measurements were performed at selected <span class="hlt">ground</span> sites in order to provide comparative calibration measurements of sensors for the Earth Resources Experiment Package. Specifically, the solar radiation (400 to 1300 namometers) and thermal radiation (8-14 micrometers) were measured. Sites employed for the thermal measurements consisted of warm and cold water lakes. The thermal brightness temperature of the lake water, the temperature and humidity profile above the lake, and near surface meteorology (wind speed, pressure, etc.) were measured near the time of overpass. Sites employed for the solar radiation measurements were two desert type sites. <span class="hlt">Ground</span> measurements consisted of: (1) direct solar radiation - optical depth; (2) diffuse solar radiation; (3) total solar radiation, (4) target directional (normal) reflectance; (5) target hemispherical reflectance; and (6) near surface meteorology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930016609&hterms=truth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dtruth','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930016609&hterms=truth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dtruth"><span>Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Freeman, Anthony; Way, Jo Bea; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>We seek to combine high-resolution remotely sensed data with models and <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> measurements, in the context of a Geographical Information System, integrated with specialized image processing software. We will use this integrated system to analyze the data from two Case Studies, one at a bore Al forest site, the other a tropical forest site. We will assess the information content of the different components of the data, determine the optimum data combinations to study biogeophysical changes in the forest, assess the best way to visualize the results, and validate the models for the forest response to different radar wavelengths/polarizations. During the 1990's, unprecedented amounts of high-resolution images from space of the Earth's surface will become available to the applications scientist from the LANDSAT/TM series, European and Japanese ERS-1 satellites, RADARSAT and SIR-C missions. When the Earth Observation Systems (EOS) program is operational, the amount of data available for a particular site can only increase. The interdisciplinary scientist, seeking to use data from various sensors to study his site of interest, may be faced with massive difficulties in manipulating such large data sets, assessing their information content, determining the optimum combinations of data to study a particular parameter, visualizing his results and validating his model of the surface. The techniques to deal with these problems are also needed to support the analysis of data from NASA's current program of Multi-sensor Airborne Campaigns, which will also generate large volumes of data. In the Case Studies outlined in this proposal, we will have somewhat unique data sets. For the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (Case I) calibrated DC-8 SAR data and extensive <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> measurement are already at our disposal. The data set shows documented evidence to temporal change. The Belize Forest Experiment (Case II) will produce calibrated DC-8 SAR and AVIRIS data, together with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19105754','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19105754"><span>Science results from a Mars drilling simulation (Río Tinto, Spain) and <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> for remote science observations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Stoker, Carol R</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>Science results from a field-simulated lander payload and post-mission laboratory investigations provided "<span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span>" to interpret remote science observations made as part of the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling mission simulation. The experiment was successful in detecting evidence for life, habitability, and preservation potential of organics in a relevant astrobiological analogue of Mars. SCIENCE RESULTS: Borehole 7 was drilled near the Río Tinto headwaters at Peña de Hierro (Spain) in the upper oxidized remnant of an acid rock drainage system. Analysis of 29 cores (215 cm of core was recovered from 606 cm penetrated depth) revealed a matrix of goethite- (42-94%) and hematite-rich (47-87%) rocks with pockets of phyllosilicates (47-74%) and fine- to coarse-grained loose material. Post-mission X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the range of hematite:goethite mixtures that were visually recognizable (approximately 1:1, approximately 1:2, and approximately 1:3 mixtures displayed a yellowish-red color whereas 3:1 mixtures displayed a dark reddish-brown color). Organic carbon was poorly preserved in hematite/goethite-rich materials (C(org) <0.05 wt %) beneath the biologically active organic-rich soil horizon (C(org) approximately 3-11 wt %) in contrast to the phyllosilicate-rich zones (C(org) approximately 0.23 wt %). <span class="hlt">GROUND</span> <span class="hlt">TRUTH</span> VS. REMOTE SCIENCE ANALYSIS: Laboratory-based analytical results were compared to the analyses obtained by a Remote Science Team (RST) using a blind protocol. Ferric iron phases, lithostratigraphy, and inferred geologic history were correctly identified by the RST with the exception of phyllosilicate-rich materials that were misinterpreted as weathered igneous rock. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) luminometry, a tool available to the RST, revealed ATP amounts above background noise, i.e., 278-876 Relative Luminosity Units (RLUs) in only 6 cores, whereas organic carbon was detected in all</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA469462','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA469462"><span>Global <span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Data Set with Waveform and Improved Arrival Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-09-29</p> <p>Seismic Research Review: <span class="hlt">Ground</span>-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies Our next example (Figure 4) is from the south flank of Kilauea Volcano ...local network. Sb) c) -I w .15Ř’ *•S| -195.4’ - .. " -in’ 410 -1115 -IisA " l Figure 4. (a) RCA geometry for the Kilauea Volcano south flank, Hawaii...status all 56 events, including the two offshore events near the underwater volcano , Loihi, off the coast of Hawaii and more than 20 km outside the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160012386','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160012386"><span><span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truthing</span> Orbital Clay Mineral Observations with the APXS Onboard Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schroeder, C.; Gellert, R.; VanBommel, S.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. S.; Yen, A. S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been exploring approximately 22 km diameter Endeavour crater since 2011. Its rim segments predate the Hesperian-age Burns formation and expose Noachian-age material, which is associated with orbital Fe3+-Mg-rich clay mineral observations [1,2]. Moving to an orders of magnitude smaller instrumental field of view on the <span class="hlt">ground</span>, the clay minerals were challenging to pinpoint on the basis of geochemical data because they appear to be the result of near-isochemical weathering of the local bedrock [3,4]. However, the APXS revealed a more complex mineral story as fracture fills and so-called red zones appear to contain more Al-rich clay minerals [5,6], which had not been observed from orbit. These observations are important to constrain clay mineral formation processes. More detail will be added as Opportunity is heading into her 10th extended mission, during which she will investigate Noachian bedrock that predates Endeavour crater, study sedimentary rocks inside Endeavour crater, and explore a fluid-carved gully. ESA's ExoMars rover will land on Noachian-age Oxia Planum where abundant Fe3+-Mg-rich clay minerals have been observed from orbit, but the story will undoubtedly become more complex once seen from the <span class="hlt">ground</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930071705&hterms=truth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtruth','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930071705&hterms=truth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtruth"><span>Comparison of land surface temperatures derived from satellite observations with <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> during FIFE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sugita, M.; Brutsaert, W.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Surface temperatures of the FIFE (First ISLSCP Field Experiment) experimental area derived from thermal infrared radiances recorded from different satellite platforms at different scales were compared with reference observations by means of infrared thermometers at <span class="hlt">ground</span> stations distributed over the area. FIFE was conducted during late spring, summer and fall over an area of 15 km by 15 km in a hilly tall-grass prairie region in northeastern Kansas. The data available for this purpose were produced by AVHRR and TOVS instruments aboard NOAA-9 and NOAA-10, the TM instrument aboard Landsat-5, and VISSR instrument aboard GOES-7. The scales covered by these instruments span a wide range, namely between hundreds of meters (Landsat TM) and hundreds of kilometers (TOVS). The data are analyzed both with and without the application of an atmospheric correction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/350952','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/350952"><span>Operation of an array of field-change detectors to provide <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> for FORTE data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Massey, R.S.; Eack, K.B.; Eberle, M.H.; Shao, X.M.; Smith, D.A.; Wiens, K.C.</p> <p>1999-06-01</p> <p>The authors have deployed an array of fast electric-field-change sensors around the state of New Mexico to help identify the lightning processes responsible for the VHF RF signals detected by the FORTE satellite`s wide-band transient radio emission receivers. The array provides them with locations and electric-field waveforms for events within New Mexico and into surrounding states, and operates continuously. They are particularly interested in events for which there are coincident FORTE observations. For these events, they can correct both the array and FORTE waveforms for time of flight, and can plot the two waveforms on a common time axis. Most of the coincident events are from cloud-go-<span class="hlt">ground</span> discharges, but the most powerful are from a little-studied class of events variously called narrow bipolar events and compact intra-cloud discharges. They have therefore focused their attention on these events whether or not FORTE was in position to observe them.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27830168','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27830168"><span>A large dataset of synthetic SEM images of powder materials and their <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> 3D structures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>DeCost, Brian L; Holm, Elizabeth A</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>This data article presents a data set comprised of 2048 synthetic scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of powder materials and descriptions of the corresponding 3D structures that they represent. These images were created using open source rendering software, and the generating scripts are included with the data set. Eight particle size distributions are represented with 256 independent images from each. The particle size distributions are relatively similar to each other, so that the dataset offers a useful benchmark to assess the fidelity of image analysis techniques. The characteristics of the PSDs and the resulting images are described and analyzed in more detail in the research article "Characterizing powder materials using keypoint-based computer vision methods" (B.L. DeCost, E.A. Holm, 2016) [1]. These data are freely available in a Mendeley Data archive "A large dataset of synthetic SEM images of powder materials and their <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> 3D structures" (B.L. DeCost, E.A. Holm, 2016) located at http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/tj4syyj9mr.1[2] for any academic, educational, or research purposes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V53E3154B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V53E3154B"><span>A 3-D view of field-scale fault-zone cementation from geologically <span class="hlt">ground-truthed</span> electrical resistivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barnes, H.; Spinelli, G. A.; Mozley, P.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Fault-zones are an important control on fluid flow, affecting groundwater supply, hydrocarbon/contaminant migration, and waste/carbon storage. However, current models of fault seal are inadequate, primarily focusing on juxtaposition and entrainment effects, despite the recognition that fault-zone cementation is common and can dramatically reduce permeability. We map the 3D cementation patterns of the variably cemented Loma Blanca fault from the land surface to ~40 m depth, using electrical resistivity and induced polarization (IP). The carbonate-cemented fault zone is a region of anomalously low normalized chargeability, relative to the surrounding host material. Zones of low-normalized chargeability immediately under the exposed cement provide the first <span class="hlt">ground-truth</span> that a cemented fault yields an observable IP anomaly. Low-normalized chargeability extends down from the surface exposure, surrounded by zones of high-normalized chargeability, at an orientation consistent with normal faults in the region; this likely indicates cementation of the fault zone at depth, which could be confirmed by drilling and coring. Our observations are consistent with: 1) the expectation that carbonate cement in a sandstone should lower normalized chargeability by reducing pore-surface area and bridging gaps in the pore space, and 2) laboratory experiments confirming that calcite precipitation within a column of glass beads decreases polarization magnitude. The ability to characterize spatial variations in the degree of fault-zone cementation with resistivity and IP has exciting implications for improving predictive models of the hydrogeologic impacts of cementation within faults.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.3517L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.3517L"><span>Determining olivine composition of basaltic dunes in Gale Crater, Mars, from orbit: Awaiting <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> from Curiosity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lane, Melissa D.; Christensen, Philip R.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>successful landing of the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover in Gale Crater, Mars, presents a rare opportunity for validation of a spectral index developed for determining olivine chemistry from orbital midinfrared remote-sensing data. Here, a spectral index is developed using laboratory emissivity data of 13 synthetic Mg-Fe olivines. Utilizing this spectral index, a prediction of olivine composition (~Fo55 ± 5) is made from orbital data for a NE-SW trending dune field near the Curiosity rover. This dune field will be crossed during the mission as the rover travels toward a ~5 km-high sediment stack (Mount Sharp) that contains orbitally detected clays and sulfates. Curiosity can use its instrument suite (ChemMin, Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer, ChemCam) when it reaches the dunes to verify or refute the olivine-chemistry prediction presented here. The ability to validate the developed spectral index using the rover's <span class="hlt">ground-truth</span> instruments will strengthen olivine-chemistry mapping across the Martian surface using this spectral index.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19268708','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19268708"><span>On the construction of a <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> framework for evaluating voxel-based diffusion tensor MRI analysis methods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Van Hecke, Wim; Sijbers, Jan; De Backer, Steve; Poot, Dirk; Parizel, Paul M; Leemans, Alexander</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>Although many studies are starting to use voxel-based analysis (VBA) methods to compare diffusion tensor images between healthy and diseased subjects, it has been demonstrated that VBA results depend heavily on parameter settings and implementation strategies, such as the applied coregistration technique, smoothing kernel width, statistical analysis, etc. In order to investigate the effect of different parameter settings and implementations on the accuracy and precision of the VBA results quantitatively, <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> knowledge regarding the underlying microstructural alterations is required. To address the lack of such a gold standard, simulated diffusion tensor data sets are developed, which can model an array of anomalies in the diffusion properties of a predefined location. These data sets can be employed to evaluate the numerous parameters that characterize the pipeline of a VBA algorithm and to compare the accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of different post-processing approaches quantitatively. We are convinced that the use of these simulated data sets can improve the understanding of how different diffusion tensor image post-processing techniques affect the outcome of VBA. In turn, this may possibly lead to a more standardized and reliable evaluation of diffusion tensor data sets of large study groups with a wide range of white matter altering pathologies. The simulated DTI data sets will be made available online (http://www.dti.ua.ac.be).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSH21D..08M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSH21D..08M"><span>Completing a <span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truth</span> View of the Global Heliosphere: What Does IMAP Tell Us?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matthaeus, W. H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Recent and planned advances in heliospheric research promise to provide for the first time a fairly complete picture of the processes that shape the Geospace environment and the Heliospheric envelope that defines the magnetic and plasma neighborhood of the Sun. The upcoming Solar Orbiter and Solar probe Plus missions will vastly extend our knowledge of the inner heliospheric drivers that impact the entire system. However to develop understanding of energy and particle transport that controls the Geospace plasma and radiation envirionment, it is necessary to maintain an <span class="hlt">accurate</span> monitoring of the plasma and electromagnetic properties of the solar wind near 1 AU. To complete understanding of the Heliosphere we must also extend understanding of energy and plasma transport to regions beyond 1 AU and throughout the Heliosphere. This understanding will complete the connection between the the corona, the 1AU environment and the outer boundaries recently explored by the Voyagers and IBEX. This talk will focus on the linkages between inner heliosphere, the Geospace environment and the outer heliosphere, with an emphasis on what an L1 monitor such as IMAP can provde for the next decade of great discoveries in space physics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780034338&hterms=truth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dtruth','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780034338&hterms=truth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dtruth"><span>Optimal spatial sampling techniques for <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> data in microwave remote sensing of soil moisture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rao, R. G. S.; Ulaby, F. T.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The paper examines optimal sampling techniques for obtaining <span class="hlt">accurate</span> spatial averages of soil moisture, at various depths and for cell sizes in the range 2.5-40 acres, with a minimum number of samples. Both simple random sampling and stratified sampling procedures are used to reach a set of recommended sample sizes for each depth and for each cell size. Major conclusions from statistical sampling test results are that (1) the number of samples required decreases with increasing depth; (2) when the total number of samples cannot be prespecified or the moisture in only one single layer is of interest, then a simple random sample procedure should be used which is based on the observed mean and SD for data from a single field; (3) when the total number of samples can be prespecified and the objective is to measure the soil moisture profile with depth, then stratified random sampling based on optimal allocation should be used; and (4) decreasing the sensor resolution cell size leads to fairly large decreases in samples sizes with stratified sampling procedures, whereas only a moderate decrease is obtained in simple random sampling procedures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26430292','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26430292"><span>Objective evaluation of reconstruction methods for quantitative SPECT imaging in the absence of <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jha, Abhinav K; Song, Na; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C</p> <p>2015-04-13</p> <p>Quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is emerging as an important tool in clinical studies and biomedical research. There is thus a need for optimization and evaluation of systems and algorithms that are being developed for quantitative SPECT imaging. An appropriate objective method to evaluate these systems is by comparing their performance in the end task that is required in quantitative SPECT imaging, such as estimating the mean activity concentration in a volume of interest (VOI) in a patient image. This objective evaluation can be performed if the true value of the estimated parameter is known, i.e. we have a gold standard. However, very rarely is this gold standard known in human studies. Thus, no-gold-standard techniques to optimize and evaluate systems and algorithms in the absence of gold standard are required. In this work, we developed a no-gold-standard technique to objectively evaluate reconstruction methods used in quantitative SPECT when the parameter to be estimated is the mean activity concentration in a VOI. We studied the performance of the technique with realistic simulated image data generated from an object database consisting of five phantom anatomies with all possible combinations of five sets of organ uptakes, where each anatomy consisted of eight different organ VOIs. Results indicate that the method provided <span class="hlt">accurate</span> ranking of the reconstruction methods. We also demonstrated the application of consistency checks to test the no-gold-standard output.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9416E..1KJ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9416E..1KJ"><span>Objective evaluation of reconstruction methods for quantitative SPECT imaging in the absence of <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jha, Abhinav K.; Song, Na; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is emerging as an important tool in clinical studies and biomedical research. There is thus a need for optimization and evaluation of systems and algorithms that are being developed for quantitative SPECT imaging. An appropriate objective method to evaluate these systems is by comparing their performance in the end task that is required in quantitative SPECT imaging, such as estimating the mean activity concentration in a volume of interest (VOI) in a patient image. This objective evaluation can be performed if the true value of the estimated parameter is known, i.e. we have a gold standard. However, very rarely is this gold standard known in human studies. Thus, no-gold-standard techniques to optimize and evaluate systems and algorithms in the absence of gold standard are required. In this work, we developed a no-gold-standard technique to objectively evaluate reconstruction methods used in quantitative SPECT when the parameter to be estimated is the mean activity concentration in a VOI. We studied the performance of the technique with realistic simulated image data generated from an object database consisting of five phantom anatomies with all possible combinations of five sets of organ uptakes, where each anatomy consisted of eight different organ VOIs. Results indicate that the method pro- vided <span class="hlt">accurate</span> ranking of the reconstruction methods. We also demonstrated the application of consistency checks to test the no-gold-standard output.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4580633','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4580633"><span>Improvements on GPS Location Cluster Analysis for the Prediction of Large Carnivore Feeding Activities: <span class="hlt">Ground-Truth</span> Detection Probability and Inclusion of Activity Sensor Measures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Blecha, Kevin A.; Alldredge, Mat W.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Animal space use studies using GPS collar technology are increasingly incorporating behavior based analysis of spatio-temporal data in order to expand inferences of resource use. GPS location cluster analysis is one such technique applied to large carnivores to identify the timing and location of feeding events. For logistical and financial reasons, researchers often implement predictive models for identifying these events. We present two separate improvements for predictive models that future practitioners can implement. Thus far, feeding prediction models have incorporated a small range of covariates, usually limited to spatio-temporal characteristics of the GPS data. Using GPS collared cougar (Puma concolor) we include activity sensor data as an additional covariate to increase prediction performance of feeding presence/absence. Integral to the predictive modeling of feeding events is a <span class="hlt">ground-truthing</span> component, in which GPS location clusters are visited by human observers to confirm the presence or absence of feeding remains. Failing to account for sources of <span class="hlt">ground-truthing</span> false-absences can bias the number of predicted feeding events to be low. Thus we account for some <span class="hlt">ground-truthing</span> error sources directly in the model with covariates and when applying model predictions. Accounting for these errors resulted in a 10% increase in the number of clusters predicted to be feeding events. Using a double-observer design, we show that the <span class="hlt">ground-truthing</span> false-absence rate is relatively low (4%) using a search delay of 2–60 days. Overall, we provide two separate improvements to the GPS cluster analysis techniques that can be expanded upon and implemented in future studies interested in identifying feeding behaviors of large carnivores. PMID:26398546</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26398546','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26398546"><span>Improvements on GPS Location Cluster Analysis for the Prediction of Large Carnivore Feeding Activities: <span class="hlt">Ground-Truth</span> Detection Probability and Inclusion of Activity Sensor Measures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blecha, Kevin A; Alldredge, Mat W</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Animal space use studies using GPS collar technology are increasingly incorporating behavior based analysis of spatio-temporal data in order to expand inferences of resource use. GPS location cluster analysis is one such technique applied to large carnivores to identify the timing and location of feeding events. For logistical and financial reasons, researchers often implement predictive models for identifying these events. We present two separate improvements for predictive models that future practitioners can implement. Thus far, feeding prediction models have incorporated a small range of covariates, usually limited to spatio-temporal characteristics of the GPS data. Using GPS collared cougar (Puma concolor) we include activity sensor data as an additional covariate to increase prediction performance of feeding presence/absence. Integral to the predictive modeling of feeding events is a <span class="hlt">ground-truthing</span> component, in which GPS location clusters are visited by human observers to confirm the presence or absence of feeding remains. Failing to account for sources of <span class="hlt">ground-truthing</span> false-absences can bias the number of predicted feeding events to be low. Thus we account for some <span class="hlt">ground-truthing</span> error sources directly in the model with covariates and when applying model predictions. Accounting for these errors resulted in a 10% increase in the number of clusters predicted to be feeding events. Using a double-observer design, we show that the <span class="hlt">ground-truthing</span> false-absence rate is relatively low (4%) using a search delay of 2-60 days. Overall, we provide two separate improvements to the GPS cluster analysis techniques that can be expanded upon and implemented in future studies interested in identifying feeding behaviors of large carnivores.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PApGe.167..401K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PApGe.167..401K"><span>Analysis of Signals from an Unique <span class="hlt">Ground-Truth</span> Infrasound Source Observed at IMS Station IS26 in Southern Germany</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koch, Karl</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Quantitative modeling of infrasound signals and development and verification of the corresponding atmospheric propagation models requires the use of well-calibrated sources. Numerous sources have been detected by the currently installed network of about 40 of the final 60 IMS infrasound stations. Besides non-nuclear explosions such as mining and quarry blasts and atmospheric phenomena like auroras, these sources include meteorites, volcanic eruptions and supersonic aircraft including re-entering spacecraft and rocket launches. All these sources of infrasound have one feature in common, in that their source parameters are not precisely known and the quantitative interpretation of the corresponding signals is therefore somewhat ambiguous. A source considered well-calibrated has been identified producing repeated infrasound signals at the IMS infrasound station IS26 in the Bavarian forest. The source results from propulsion tests of the ARIANE-5 rocket's main engine at a testing facility near Heilbronn, southern Germany. The test facility is at a range of 320 km and a backazimuth of ~280° from IS26. <span class="hlt">Ground-truth</span> information was obtained for nearly 100 tests conducted in a 5-year period. Review of the available data for IS26 revealed that at least 28 of these tests show signals above the background noise level. These signals are verified based on the consistency of various signal parameters, e.g., arrival times, durations, and estimates of propagation characteristics (backazimuth, apparent velocity). Signal levels observed are a factor of 2-8 above the noise and reach values of up to 250 mPa for peak amplitudes, and a factor of 2-3 less for RMS measurements. Furthermore, only tests conducted during the months from October to April produce observable signals, indicating a significant change in infrasound propagation conditions between summer and winter months.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMED43F..04P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMED43F..04P"><span>Remote Sensing across the Globe: Best Practices in Bringing Together Satellite Imagery, Telecommunications and <span class="hlt">Ground-Truth</span> Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Probst, R.; Walker, C. E.; Martin, C.; Dorame, B.; Ochoa, H.; Orellana, D.; Isbell, D. M.; Pompea, S. M.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>A special student-to-student videoconference was held mid-May 2006 between students in Tucson, Arizona and La Serena, Chile, the headquarters for the north and south offices of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). Fifty participants at each location reported on a remote-sensing activity conducted by hundreds of students during February, March and April, 2006. The students became acquainted with the geography and geology of their area using Landsat satellite remote sensing imaging. The Tucson students then analyzed images of La Serena and students from Chile analyzed images of Tucson. Since top-down satellite views may not provide complete information, students from one country emailed students from the other country and requested them to be human "rovers," taking local pictures of areas under question to establish <span class="hlt">ground-truth</span>. Student reaction to the project was unequivocally positive. "The remote sensing project was one of the most fun things in my junior year. I learned how to use a map of La Serena, Chile. I learned about the electromagnetic spectrum, used to form false color images. It was incredible for us Latino students to use our Spanish language to e-mail students in Chile", said Bisbail Dorame, student coordinator for the project at Howenstine High School in Tucson. The success of this cross-cultural program has motivated NOAO outreach staff to broaden the project to schools in other countries, coordinated by students as their service-learning project. To facilitate this effort, a special, yet generic, worksheet is being developed. The worksheet can be by teachers to include local landmarks and geographical features. Once completed and tested, the worksheet will be placed on the NOAO website, along with Landsat7 satellite images for different areas around the world. In 2007, the program will be expanded to examine the surface of Mars using Google Mars and NASA images. NOAO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMIN53B1739B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMIN53B1739B"><span><span class="hlt">Ground-Truthing</span> Moderate Resolution Satellite Imagery with Near-Surface Canopy Images in Hawai'i's Tropical Cloud Forests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bergstrom, R.; Miura, T.; Lepczyk, C.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Nullet, M. A.; Nagai, S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Phenological studies are gaining importance globally as the onset of climate change is impacting the timing of green up and senescence in forest canopies and agricultural regions. Many studies use and analyze land surface phenology (LSP) derived from satellite vegetation index time series (VI's) such as those from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to monitor changes in phenological events. Seasonality is expected in deciduous temperate forests, while tropical regions are predicted to show more static reflectance readings given their stable and steady state. Due to persistent cloud cover and atmospheric interference in tropical regions, satellite VI time series are often subject to uncertainties and thus require near surface vegetation monitoring systems for <span class="hlt">ground-truthing</span>. This study has been designed to assess the precision of MODIS phenological signatures using above-canopy, down-looking digital cameras installed on flux towers on the Island of Hawai'i. The cameras are part of the expanding Phenological Eyes Network (PEN) which has been implementing a global network of above-canopy, hemispherical digital cameras for forest and agricultural phenological monitoring. Cameras have been installed at two locations in Hawaii - one on a flux tower in close proximity to the Thurston Lave Tube (HVT) in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park and the other on a weather station in a section of the Hawaiian Tropical Experimental Forest in Laupaphoehoe (LEF). HVT consists primarily of a single canopy species, ohi'a lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha), with an understory of hapu'u ferns (Cibotium spp), while LEF is similarly comprised with an additional dominant species, Koa (Acacia Koa), included in the canopy structure. Given these species' characteristics, HVT is expected to show little seasonality, while LEF has the potential to deviate slightly during periods following dry and wet seasons. MODIS VI time series data are being analyzed and will be compared to images</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/900062','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/900062"><span><span class="hlt">GROUND</span> <span class="hlt">TRUTH</span>, MAGNITUDE CALIBRATION AND REGIONAL PHASE PROPAGATION AND DETECTION IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND HORN OF AFRICA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nyblade, A; Adams, A; Brazier, R; Park, Y; Rodgers, A</p> <p>2006-07-10</p> <p>In this project, we are exploiting unique and open source seismic data sets to improve seismic monitoring across the Middle East (including the Iranian Plateau, Zagros Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Turkish Plateau, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift) and the Horn of Africa (including the northern part of the East African Rift, Afar Depression, southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden). The data sets are being used to perform three related tasks. (1) We are determining moment tensors, moment magnitudes and source depths for regional events in the magnitude 3.0 to 6.0 range. (2) These events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds, especially from events in Iran recorded at stations across the Arabian Peninsula. (3) We are collecting location <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> at GT5 (local) and GT20 (regional) levels for seismic events with M > 2.5, including source geometry information and source depths. In the first phase of this project, seismograms from earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains recorded at regional distances have been inverted for moment tensors, and source depths for the earthquakes have been determined via waveform matching. Early studies of the distribution of seismicity in the Zagros region found evidence for earthquakes in the upper mantle. But subsequent relocations of teleseismic earthquakes suggest that source depths are generally much shallower, lying mainly within the upper crust. Nine events with magnitudes between 5 and 6 have been studied so far. Source depths for six of the events are within the upper crust, and three are located within the lower crust. The uncertainty in the source depths of the lower crustal events allows for the possibility that some of them may have even nucleated within the upper mantle. Eight events have thrust mechanisms and one has a strike-slip mechanism. We also report estimates of three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Arabian</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/965952','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/965952"><span><span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truth</span>, Magnitude Calibration and Regional Phase Propagation and Detection in the Middle East and Horn of Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nyblade, A; Brazier, R; Adams, A; Park, Y; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A</p> <p>2007-07-08</p> <p>In this project, we are exploiting several seismic data sets to improve U.S. operational capabilities to monitor for low yield nuclear tests across the Middle East (including the Iranian Plateau, Zagros Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Turkish Plateau, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift) and the Horn of Africa (including the northern part of the East African Rift, Afar Depression, southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden). The data sets are being used to perform three related tasks. (1) We are determining moment tensors, moment magnitudes and source depths for regional events in the magnitude 3.0 to 6.0 range. (2) These events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds, especially from events in Iran recorded at stations across the Arabian Peninsula. (3) We are collecting location <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> at GT5 (local) and GT20 (regional) levels for seismic events with M > 2.5, including source geometry information and source depths. Towards meeting these objectives, seismograms from earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains recorded at regional distances have been inverted for moment tensors, which have then been used to create synthetic seismograms to determine the source depths of the earthquakes via waveform matching. The source depths have been confirmed by modeling teleseismic depth phases recorded on GSN and IMS stations. Early studies of the distribution of seismicity in the Zagros region found evidence for earthquakes in the upper mantle. But subsequent relocations of teleseismic earthquakes suggest that source depths are generally much shallower, lying mainly within the upper crust. All of the regional events studied so far nucleated within the upper crust, and most of the events have thrust mechanisms. The source mechanisms for these events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds for broadband seismic stations in the Arabian Peninsula, including IMS</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890067471&hterms=truth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dtruth','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890067471&hterms=truth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dtruth"><span>Using radar <span class="hlt">ground-truth</span> to validate and improve the location accuracy of a lightning direction-finding network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goodman, Steven J.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A technique is described in which isolated radar echoes associated with clusters of lightning strikes are used to validate and improve the location accuracy of a lightning-direction-finding network. Using this technique, site errors of a magnetic direction-finding network for locating lightning strikes to <span class="hlt">ground</span> were <span class="hlt">accurately</span> determined. The technique offers advantages over existing techniques in that large sample sizes are readily attainable over a broad area on a regular basis; the technique can also provide additional constraints to redundant data methods such as that described by Orville (1987). Since most lightning strike networks have either partial or full weather radar coverage, the technique is practical for all but a few users.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJAEO..38..115M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJAEO..38..115M"><span>Methods for improving accuracy and extending results beyond periods covered by traditional <span class="hlt">ground-truth</span> in remote sensing classification of a complex landscape</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mueller-Warrant, George W.; Whittaker, Gerald W.; Banowetz, Gary M.; Griffith, Stephen M.; Barnhart, Bradley L.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Successful development of approaches to quantify impacts of diverse landuse and associated agricultural management practices on ecosystem services is frequently limited by lack of historical and contemporary landuse data. We hypothesized that <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> data from one year could be used to extrapolate previous or future landuse in a complex landscape where cropping systems do not generally change greatly from year to year because the majority of crops are established perennials or the same annual crops grown on the same fields over multiple years. Prior to testing this hypothesis, it was first necessary to classify 57 major landuses in the Willamette Valley of western Oregon from 2005 to 2011 using normal same year <span class="hlt">ground-truth</span>, elaborating on previously published work and traditional sources such as Cropland Data Layers (CDL) to more fully include minor crops grown in the region. Available remote sensing data included Landsat, MODIS 16-day composites, and National Aerial Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery, all of which were resampled to a common 30 m resolution. The frequent presence of clouds and Landsat7 scan line gaps forced us to conduct of series of separate classifications in each year, which were then merged by choosing whichever classification used the highest number of cloud- and gap-free bands at any given pixel. Procedures adopted to improve accuracy beyond that achieved by maximum likelihood pixel classification included majority-rule reclassification of pixels within 91,442 Common Land Unit (CLU) polygons, smoothing and aggregation of areas outside the CLU polygons, and majority-rule reclassification over time of forest and urban development areas. Final classifications in all seven years separated annually disturbed agriculture, established perennial crops, forest, and urban development from each other at 90 to 95% overall 4-class validation accuracy. In the most successful use of subsequent year <span class="hlt">ground-truth</span> data to classify prior year landuse, an</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010BGeo....7.2531K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010BGeo....7.2531K"><span>Towards <span class="hlt">ground-truthing</span> of spaceborne estimates of above-<span class="hlt">ground</span> life biomass and leaf area index in tropical rain forests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Köhler, P.; Huth, A.</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>The canopy height h of forests is a key variable which can be obtained using air- or spaceborne remote sensing techniques such as radar interferometry or LIDAR. If new allometric relationships between canopy height and the biomass stored in the vegetation can be established this would offer the possibility for a global monitoring of the above-<span class="hlt">ground</span> carbon content on land. In the absence of adequate field data we use simulation results of a tropical rain forest growth model to propose what degree of information might be generated from canopy height and thus to enable <span class="hlt">ground-truthing</span> of potential future satellite observations. We here analyse the correlation between canopy height in a tropical rain forest with other structural characteristics, such as above-<span class="hlt">ground</span> life biomass (AGB) (and thus carbon content of vegetation) and leaf area index (LAI) and identify how correlation and uncertainty vary for two different spatial scales. The process-based forest growth model FORMIND2.0 was applied to simulate (a) undisturbed forest growth and (b) a wide range of possible disturbance regimes typically for local tree logging conditions for a tropical rain forest site on Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia) in South-East Asia. In both undisturbed and disturbed forests AGB can be expressed as a power-law function of canopy height h (AGB = a · hb) with an r2 ~ 60% if data are analysed in a spatial resolution of 20 m × 20 m (0.04 ha, also called plot size). The correlation coefficient of the regression is becoming significant better in the disturbed forest sites (r2 = 91%) if data are analysed hectare wide. There seems to exist no functional dependency between LAI and canopy height, but there is also a linear correlation (r2 ~ 60%) between AGB and the area fraction of gaps in which the canopy is highly disturbed. A reasonable agreement of our results with observations is obtained from a comparison of the simulations with permanent sampling plot (PSP) data from the same region and with the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SSRv..151..227S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SSRv..151..227S"><span>Toward <span class="hlt">Accurate</span> On-<span class="hlt">Ground</span> Attitude Determination for the Gaia Spacecraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Samaan, Malak A.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>The work presented in this paper concerns the <span class="hlt">accurate</span> On-<span class="hlt">Ground</span> Attitude (OGA) reconstruction for the astrometry spacecraft Gaia in the presence of disturbance and of control torques acting on the spacecraft. The reconstruction of the expected environmental torques which influence the spacecraft dynamics will be also investigated. The telemetry data from the spacecraft will include the on-board real-time attitude, which is of order of several arcsec. This raw attitude is the starting point for the further attitude reconstruction. The OGA will use the inputs from the field coordinates of known stars (attitude stars) and also the field coordinate differences of objects on the Sky Mapper (SM) and Astrometric Field (AF) payload instruments to improve this raw attitude. The on-board attitude determination uses a Kalman Filter (KF) to minimize the attitude errors and produce a more <span class="hlt">accurate</span> attitude estimation than the pure star tracker measurement. Therefore the first approach for the OGA will be an adapted version of KF. Furthermore, we will design a batch least squares algorithm to investigate how to obtain a more <span class="hlt">accurate</span> OGA estimation. Finally, a comparison between these different attitude determination techniques in terms of accuracy, robustness, speed and memory required will be evaluated in order to choose the best attitude algorithm for the OGA. The expected resulting accuracy for the OGA determination will be on the order of milli-arcsec.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7833N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7833N"><span>A 868MHz-based wireless sensor network for <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truthing</span> of soil moisture for a hyperspectral remote sensing campaign - design and preliminary results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Näthe, Paul; Becker, Rolf</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Soil moisture and plant available water are important environmental parameters that affect plant growth and crop yield. Hence, they are significant parameters for vegetation monitoring and precision agriculture. However, validation through <span class="hlt">ground</span>-based soil moisture measurements is necessary for accessing soil moisture, plant canopy temperature, soil temperature and soil roughness with airborne hyperspectral imaging systems in a corresponding hyperspectral imaging campaign as a part of the INTERREG IV A-Project SMART INSPECTORS. At this point, commercially available sensors for matric potential, plant available water and volumetric water content are utilized for automated measurements with smart sensor nodes which are developed on the basis of open-source 868MHz radio modules, featuring a full-scale microcontroller unit that allows an autarkic operation of the sensor nodes on batteries in the field. The generated data from each of these sensor nodes is transferred wirelessly with an open-source protocol to a central node, the so-called "gateway". This gateway collects, interprets and buffers the sensor readings and, eventually, pushes the data-time series onto a server-based database. The entire data processing chain from the sensor reading to the final storage of data-time series on a server is realized with open-source hardware and software in such a way that the recorded data can be accessed from anywhere through the internet. It will be presented how this open-source based wireless sensor network is developed and specified for the application of <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truthing</span>. In addition, the system's perspectives and potentials with respect to usability and applicability for vegetation monitoring and precision agriculture shall be pointed out. Regarding the corresponding hyperspectral imaging campaign, results from <span class="hlt">ground</span> measurements will be discussed in terms of their contributing aspects to the remote sensing system. Finally, the significance of the wireless sensor</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415407','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415407"><span><span class="hlt">Accurate</span> nonrelativistic <span class="hlt">ground</span>-state energies of 3d transition metal atoms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Scemama, A.; Applencourt, T.; Giner, E.; Caffarel, M.</p> <p>2014-12-28</p> <p>We present <span class="hlt">accurate</span> nonrelativistic <span class="hlt">ground</span>-state energies of the transition metal atoms of the 3d series calculated with Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo (FN-DMC). Selected multi-determinantal expansions obtained with the CIPSI (Configuration Interaction using a Perturbative Selection made Iteratively) method and including the most prominent determinants of the full configuration interaction expansion are used as trial wavefunctions. Using a maximum of a few tens of thousands determinants, fixed-node errors on total DMC energies are found to be greatly reduced for some atoms with respect to those obtained with Hartree-Fock nodes. To the best of our knowledge, the FN-DMC/(CIPSI nodes) <span class="hlt">ground</span>-state energies presented here are the lowest variational total energies reported so far. They differ from the recently recommended non-variational values of McCarthy and Thakkar [J. Chem. Phys. 136, 054107 (2012)] only by a few percents of the correlation energy. Thanks to the variational property of FN-DMC total energies, our results provide exact lower bounds for the absolute value of all-electron correlation energies, |E{sub c}|.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B41D0464C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B41D0464C"><span>UAS-Borne Photogrammetry for Surface Topographic Characterization: A <span class="hlt">Ground-Truth</span> Baseline for Future Change Detection and Refinement of Scaled Remotely-Sensed Datasets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coppersmith, R.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Sussman, A. J.; Vigil, S.; Dzur, R.; Norskog, K.; Kelley, R.; Miller, L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>While long-term objectives of monitoring and verification regimes include remote characterization and discrimination of surficial geologic and topographic features at sites of interest, <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> data is required to advance development of remote sensing techniques. Increasingly, it is desirable for these <span class="hlt">ground</span>-based or <span class="hlt">ground</span>-proximal characterization methodologies to be as nimble, efficient, non-invasive, and non-destructive as their higher-altitude airborne counterparts while ideally providing superior resolution. For this study, the area of interest is an alluvial site at the Nevada National Security Site intended for use in the Source Physics Experiment's (Snelson et al., 2013) second phase. <span class="hlt">Ground-truth</span> surface topographic characterization was performed using a DJI Inspire 1 unmanned aerial system (UAS), at very low altitude (< 5-30m AGL). 2D photographs captured by the standard UAS camera payload were imported into Agisoft Photoscan to create three-dimensional point clouds. Within the area of interest, careful installation of surveyed <span class="hlt">ground</span> control fiducial markers supplied necessary targets for field collection, and information for model georectification. The resulting model includes a Digital Elevation Model derived from 2D imagery. It is anticipated that this flexible and versatile characterization process will provide point cloud data resolution equivalent to a purely <span class="hlt">ground</span>-based LiDAR scanning deployment (e.g., 1-2cm horizontal and vertical resolution; e.g., Sussman et al., 2012; Schultz-Fellenz et al., 2013). In addition to drastically increasing time efficiency in the field, the UAS method also allows for more complete coverage of the study area when compared to <span class="hlt">ground</span>-based LiDAR. Comparison and integration of these data with conventionally-acquired airborne LiDAR data from a higher-altitude (~ 450m) platform will aid significantly in the refinement of technologies and detection capabilities of remote optical systems to identify and detect</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T53C..03M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T53C..03M"><span>Up-Scaling Field Observations to <span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Seismic Interpretations and Test Dynamic Models of Deep Water Rifted Margins: What are the Challenges?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Manatschal, G.; Nirrengarten, M.; Epin, M. E.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Recent advances on the study of rifted margins resulted from the development of new, high-resolution seismic imaging methods and dynamic modelling that enable to image the crustal scale structure of rifted margins and experiment under what conditions they formed. However, both the used parameter space as well as the seismic interpretations and model results need to be <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> by direct observations and data. In the case of deep-water rifted margins, the problem is that drill hole data is expensive, rare and only available from a handful of examples worldwide. In contrast, remnants preserving kilometre-scale outcrops of former deep-water rifted margins have been described from the Alps and the Pyrenees in Western Europe. These large-scale outcrops provide a direct access to mantle and crustal rocks and the associated sedimentary sequences and magmatic additions. The combination of world-class outcrops, classical, field-based mapping and analytical methods can provide the missing data that is necessary to calibrate and test dynamic models as well as to <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> seismic interpretations. In my presentation I will use observations and data from key outcrops from the most distal fossil Alpine Tethys margins exposed in SE Switzerland with the aim to describe the deformation processes and conditions during final rifting and to test rift modes (semi-ductile flow vs. brittle poly-phase faulting). I will in particular focus on the way strain is distributed and the bulk rheology evolves during hyper-extension and mantle exhumation and compare the observations with model results and seismic interpretations. Up-and down scaling observations/data and bridging multiple spatial and temporal scales is a key to understand the large-scale extensional processes that are at the origin of the formation of hyper-extend and exhumed mantle domains. The major challenge is to understand how the learnings obtained from the well-documented examples in the Alps and Pyrenees can be used</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S23B2509J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S23B2509J"><span>Southwest U.S. Seismo-Acoustic Network: An Autonomous Data Aggregation, Detection, Localization and <span class="hlt">Ground-Truth</span> Bulletin for the Infrasound Community</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jones, K. R.; Arrowsmith, S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The Southwest U.S. Seismo-Acoustic Network (SUSSAN) is a collaborative project designed to produce infrasound event detection bulletins for the infrasound community for research purposes. We are aggregating a large, unique, near real-time data set with available <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> information from seismo-acoustic arrays across New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, California, Texas and Hawaii. The data are processed in near real-time (~ every 20 minutes) with detections being made on individual arrays and locations determined for networks of arrays. The detection and location data are then combined with any available <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> information and compiled into a bulletin that will be released to the general public directly and eventually through the IRIS infrasound event bulletin. We use the open source Earthworm seismic data aggregation software to acquire waveform data either directly from the station operator or via the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology Data Management Center (IRIS DMC), if available. The data are processed using InfraMonitor, a powerful infrasound event detection and localization software program developed by Stephen Arrowsmith at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Our goal with this program is to provide the infrasound community with an event database that can be used collaboratively to study various natural and man-made sources. We encourage participation in this program directly or by making infrasound array data available through the IRIS DMC or other means. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. R&A 5317326</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9637E..1ZS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9637E..1ZS"><span>Derivation from the Landsat 7 NDVI and <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> validation of LAI and interception storage capacity for wetland ecosystems in Biebrza Valley, Poland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suliga, Joanna; Chormański, Jarosław; Szporak-Wasilewska, Sylwia; Kleniewska, Małgorzata; Berezowski, Tomasz; van Griensven, Ann; Verbeiren, Boud</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Wetlands are very valuable areas because they provide a wide range of ecosystems services therefore modeling of wetland areas is very relevant, however, the most widely used hydrological models were developed in the 90s and usually are not adjusted to simulate wetland conditions. In case of wetlands including interception storage into the model's calculation is even more challenging, because literature data hardly exists. This study includes the computation of interception storage capacity based on Landsat 7 image and <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truthing</span> measurements conducted in the Biebrza Valley, Poland. The method was based on collecting and weighing dry, wet and fully saturated samples of sedges. During the experiments measurements of fresh/dry biomass and leaf area index (LAI) were performed. The research was repeated three times during the same season (May, June and July 2013) to observe temporal variability of parameters. <span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">truthing</span> measurements were used for the validating estimation of parameters derived from images acquired in a similar period as the measurements campaigns. The use of remote sensing has as major advantage of being able to obtain an area covering spatially and temporally distributed estimate of the interception storage capacity. Results from this study proved that interception capacity of wetlands vegetation is changing considerably during the vegetation season (temporal variability) and reaches its maximum value when plants are fully developed. Different areas depending on existing plants species are characterized with different values of interception capacity (spatial variability). This research frames within the INTREV and HiWET projects, funded respectively by National Science Centre (NCN) in Poland and BELSPO STEREO III.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..350W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..350W"><span>Using <span class="hlt">ground</span>-based geophysics to rapidly and <span class="hlt">accurately</span> map sub-surface acidity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wong, Vanessa; Triantafilis, John; Johnston, Scott; Nhan, Terence; Page, Donald; Wege, Richard; Hirst, Phillip; Slavich, Peter</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p> sulfuric and sulfidic layers (oxidised and reduced ASS), acidic shallow groundwater, and features of the infilled palaeovalley (Triantafilis et al. 2012). <span class="hlt">Accurate</span> soil maps with high spatial resolution are required to develop appropriate management strategies for ASS and other soil types associated with low-lying coastal floodplains. The classes identified in this study form sensible soil management zones across the study area related to defined geomorphic units. EM data can then be used to build below-<span class="hlt">ground</span> 3D models to inform practical targeted management strategies on coastal floodplains to improve land and water quality outcomes. References Triantafilis J, Wong V, Santos FAM, Page D, Wege R (2012) Modeling the electrical conductivity of hydrogeological strata using joint-inversion of loop-loop electromagnetic data. Geophysics 77(4): WB99-WB107</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..12114651Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..12114651Z"><span>A study of National Lightning Detection Network responses to natural lightning based on <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> data acquired at LOG with emphasis on cloud discharge activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Y.; Rakov, V. A.; Tran, M. D.; Nag, A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) detection efficiency (DE) and classification accuracy (CA) for cloud discharge (IC) activity (identified here by a sequence of non-return-stroke-type electric field pulses not accompanied by channels to <span class="hlt">ground</span>) were evaluated using optical and electric field data acquired at the LOG (Lightning Observatory in Gainesville), Florida. Our <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> "IC events" include 26 "isolated IC events" (complete IC flashes), 58 "IC events before first return stroke," and 69 "IC events after first return stroke." For the total of 153 IC events, 33% were detected by the NLDN, and the classification accuracy was 86%. For complete IC flashes, the detection efficiency and classification accuracy were 73% and 95%, respectively, and the average number of NLDN-reported cloud pulses was 2.9 per detected event. For 24 preliminary breakdown pulse trains in CG flashes, the detection efficiency and classification accuracy were 46% and 82%, respectively. We have additionally estimated the DE and CA for return strokes in CG flashes. Irrespective of stroke order and polarity, the DE was 92% (339/367), and the CA was also 92% (312/339). The DEs for negative first and subsequent strokes were 98% and 90%, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA569455','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA569455"><span>Multiple-Array Detection, Association and Location of Infrasound and Seismo-Acoustic Events - Utilization of <span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Information</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>radius) of the array, the ray was identified as an eigenray for the infrasonic phase. Of the eigenrays computed on a given day, the ray with highest...turning height was selected as a representative 2010 Monitoring Research Review: <span class="hlt">Ground</span>-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies 674 eigenray for...study along with the ray-tracing results. The refraction altitudes of each daily eigenray from the mine to the individual arrays are superimposed on the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..NWS.H2002B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..NWS.H2002B"><span>Cosmological ``<span class="hlt">Truths</span>''</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bothun, Greg</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Ever since Aristotle placed us, with certainty, in the Center of the Cosmos, Cosmological models have more or less operated from a position of known <span class="hlt">truths</span> for some time. As early as 1963, for instance, it was ``known'' that the Universe had to be 15-17 billion years old due to the suspected ages of globular clusters. For many years, attempts to determine the expansion age of the Universe (the inverse of the Hubble constant) were done against this preconceived and biased notion. Not surprisingly when more precise observations indicated a Hubble expansion age of 11-13 billion years, stellar models suddenly changed to produce a new age for globular cluster stars, consistent with 11-13 billion years. Then in 1980, to solve a variety of standard big bang problems, inflation was introduced in a fairly ad hoc manner. Inflation makes the simple prediction that the net curvature of spacetime is zero (i.e. spacetime is flat). The consequence of introducing inflation is now the necessary existence of a dark matter dominated Universe since the known baryonic material could comprise no more than 1% of the necessary energy density to make spacetime flat. As a result of this new cosmological ``<span class="hlt">truth</span>'' a significant world wide effort was launched to detect the dark matter (which obviously also has particle physics implications). To date, no such cosmological component has been detected. Moreover, all available dynamical inferences of the mass density of the Universe showed in to be about 20% of that required for closure. This again was inconsistent with the <span class="hlt">truth</span> that the real density of the Universe was the closure density (e.g. Omega = 1), that the observations were biased, and that 99% of the mass density had to be in the form of dark matter. That is, we know the universe is two component -- baryons and dark matter. Another prevailing cosmological <span class="hlt">truth</span> during this time was that all the baryonic matter was known to be in galaxies that populated our galaxy catalogs. Subsequent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810020956','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810020956"><span>Evaluation of gravimetric <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> soil moisture data collected for the agricultural soil moisture experiment, 1978 Colby, Kansas, aircraft mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Arya, L. M.; Phinney, D. E. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Soil moisture data acquired to support the development of algorithms for estimating surface soil moisture from remotely sensed backscattering of microwaves from <span class="hlt">ground</span> surfaces are presented. Aspects of field uniformity and variability of gravimetric soil moisture measurements are discussed. Moisture distribution patterns are illustrated by frequency distributions and contour plots. Standard deviations and coefficients of variation relative to degree of wetness and agronomic features of the fields are examined. Influence of sampling depth on observed moisture content an variability are indicated. For the various sets of measurements, soil moisture values that appear as outliers are flagged. The distribution and legal descriptions of the test fields are included along with examinations of soil types, agronomic features, and sampling plan. Bulk density data for experimental fields are appended, should analyses involving volumetric moisture content be of interest to the users of data in this report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24745468','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24745468"><span>When the lie is the <span class="hlt">truth</span>: <span class="hlt">grounded</span> theory analysis of an online support group for factitious disorder.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lawlor, Aideen; Kirakowski, Jurek</p> <p>2014-08-15</p> <p>Factitious disorder (FD) is poorly understood because of the elusiveness of sufferers. What is known is based on speculation from observational case studies and this is evident by the manifold diagnostic and treatment issues associated with FD. This study sought to fill the gap in the literature and overcome the elusiveness of FD sufferers by analysing their text communications in two online communities. One hundred twenty four posts by 57 members amounting to approximately 38,000 words were analysed using <span class="hlt">grounded</span> theory. The analysis showed that contrary to current theories of FD, motivation is conscious and not unconscious, members did experience symptoms associated with the disorder, and they were also upset by their behaviour and wanted to recover but were deterred by fear. Furthermore, using the excessive appetitive model by Orford (2001) it is hypothesised that the characteristics of FD described by the members were congruent with those associated with addiction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820049374&hterms=sampling+distribution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsampling%2Bdistribution','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820049374&hterms=sampling+distribution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsampling%2Bdistribution"><span>Field size, length, and width distributions based on LACIE <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> data. [large area crop inventory experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pitts, D. E.; Badhwar, G.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The development of agricultural remote sensing systems requires knowledge of agricultural field size distributions so that the sensors, sampling frames, image interpretation schemes, registration systems, and classification systems can be properly designed. Malila et al. (1976) studied the field size distribution for wheat and all other crops in two Kansas LACIE (Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment) intensive test sites using <span class="hlt">ground</span> observations of the crops and measurements of their field areas based on current year rectified aerial photomaps. The field area and size distributions reported in the present investigation are derived from a representative subset of a stratified random sample of LACIE sample segments. In contrast to previous work, the obtained results indicate that most field-size distributions are not log-normally distributed. The most common field size observed in this study was 10 acres for most crops studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRG..112.4S09T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRG..112.4S09T"><span>Comparing different methods for assessing <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> of rover data analysis for the 2005 season of the Life in the Atacama Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, G. W.; Peate, I. Ukstins; Nakamoto, J.; Pudenz, E.; Glasgow, J.; Bretthauer, J.; Cabrol, N.; Wettergreen, D.; Grin, E.; Coppin, P.; Dohm, J. M.; Piatek, J. L.; Warren-Rhodes, K.; Hock, A. N.; Weinstein, S.; Fisher, G.; Diaz, G. Chong; Cockell, C.; Marinangeli, L.; Minkley, N.; Moersch, J.; Ori, G. G.; Smith, T.; Stubb, K.; Wagner, M.; Waggoner, A. S.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The scientific success of a remote exploration rover mission depends on the right combination of technology, teamwork and scientific insight. In order to quantitatively evaluate the success of a rover field trial, it is necessary to assess the accuracy of scientific interpretations made during the field test. This work compares three structured approaches to assessing the <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> of scientific findings from a science team conducting a remote investigation of a locale using an autonomous rover. For the first approach, independent assessment, the daily science summaries were analyzed and reduced to a series of 1082 factual statements, which were treated as hypotheses. An independent scientist traveled to the field area to assess these hypotheses. For the second approach, guided self-study, the mission scientists themselves traveled to the field area and evaluated their own scientific interpretations. The third approach, discrepancy investigation, searched for the root causes of differences between the scientific interpretations made in the control room and those made in the field. The independent investigation provided sensitive, quantitative data, but suffered from the lack of context and continuity developed in the mission control room. The guided evaluation benefited from the context of the mission, but lacked clarity and consistency. The discrepancy investigation provided insight into the root causes behind the discrepancies, but was expensive and time consuming. The independent investigation method yielded particularly compelling results, but each method offers advantages and a comprehensive rover field trial assessment should include a combination of all three.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4290429','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4290429"><span>The Sampled Red List Index for Plants, phase II: <span class="hlt">ground-truthing</span> specimen-based conservation assessments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Brummitt, Neil; Bachman, Steven P.; Aletrari, Elina; Chadburn, Helen; Griffiths-Lee, Janine; Lutz, Maiko; Moat, Justin; Rivers, Malin C.; Syfert, Mindy M.; Nic Lughadha, Eimear M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The IUCN Sampled Red List Index (SRLI) is a policy response by biodiversity scientists to the need to estimate trends in extinction risk of the world's diminishing biological diversity. Assessments of plant species for the SRLI project rely predominantly on herbarium specimen data from natural history collections, in the overwhelming absence of <span class="hlt">accurate</span> population data or detailed distribution maps for the vast majority of plant species. This creates difficulties in re-assessing these species so as to measure genuine changes in conservation status, which must be observed under the same Red List criteria in order to be distinguished from an increase in the knowledge available for that species, and thus re-calculate the SRLI. However, the same specimen data identify precise localities where threatened species have previously been collected and can be used to model species ranges and to target fieldwork in order to test specimen-based range estimates and collect population data for SRLI plant species. Here, we outline a strategy for prioritizing fieldwork efforts in order to apply a wider range of IUCN Red List criteria to assessments of plant species, or any taxa with detailed locality or natural history specimen data, to produce a more robust estimation of the SRLI. PMID:25561676</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25561676','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25561676"><span>The sampled Red List Index for plants, phase II: <span class="hlt">ground-truthing</span> specimen-based conservation assessments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brummitt, Neil; Bachman, Steven P; Aletrari, Elina; Chadburn, Helen; Griffiths-Lee, Janine; Lutz, Maiko; Moat, Justin; Rivers, Malin C; Syfert, Mindy M; Nic Lughadha, Eimear M</p> <p>2015-02-19</p> <p>The IUCN Sampled Red List Index (SRLI) is a policy response by biodiversity scientists to the need to estimate trends in extinction risk of the world's diminishing biological diversity. Assessments of plant species for the SRLI project rely predominantly on herbarium specimen data from natural history collections, in the overwhelming absence of <span class="hlt">accurate</span> population data or detailed distribution maps for the vast majority of plant species. This creates difficulties in re-assessing these species so as to measure genuine changes in conservation status, which must be observed under the same Red List criteria in order to be distinguished from an increase in the knowledge available for that species, and thus re-calculate the SRLI. However, the same specimen data identify precise localities where threatened species have previously been collected and can be used to model species ranges and to target fieldwork in order to test specimen-based range estimates and collect population data for SRLI plant species. Here, we outline a strategy for prioritizing fieldwork efforts in order to apply a wider range of IUCN Red List criteria to assessments of plant species, or any taxa with detailed locality or natural history specimen data, to produce a more robust estimation of the SRLI.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25542549','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25542549"><span>Discovering the <span class="hlt">truth</span> beyond the <span class="hlt">truth</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Becker, Gerhild; Jors, Karin; Block, Susan</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The question "What is <span class="hlt">truth</span>?" is one of the oldest questions in philosophy. <span class="hlt">Truth</span> within the field of medicine has gained relevance because of its fundamental relationship to the principle of patient autonomy. To fully participate in their medical care, patients must be told the <span class="hlt">truth</span>-even in the most difficult of situations. Palliative care emphasizes patient autonomy and a patient-centered approach, and it is precisely among patients with chronic, life-threatening, or terminal illnesses that <span class="hlt">truth</span> plays a particularly crucial role. For these patients, finding out the <span class="hlt">truth</span> about their disease forces them to confront existential fears. As physicians, we must understand that <span class="hlt">truth</span>, similar to the complexity of pain, is multidimensional. In this article, we discuss the <span class="hlt">truth</span> from three linguistic perspectives: the Latin veritas, the Greek aletheia, and the Hebrew emeth. Veritas conveys an understanding of <span class="hlt">truth</span> focused on facts and reality. Aletheia reveals <span class="hlt">truth</span> as a process, and emeth shows that <span class="hlt">truth</span> is experienced in <span class="hlt">truthful</span> encounters with others. In everyday clinical practice, <span class="hlt">truth</span> is typically equated with the facts. However, this limited understanding of the <span class="hlt">truth</span> does not account for the uniqueness of each patient. Although two patients may receive the same diagnosis (or facts), each will be affected by this <span class="hlt">truth</span> in a very individual way. To help patients apprehend the <span class="hlt">truth</span>, physicians are called to engage in a delicate back-and-forth of multiple difficult conversations in which each patient is accepted as a unique individual.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/957399','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/957399"><span>IMPROVED <span class="hlt">GROUND</span> <span class="hlt">TRUTH</span> IN SOUTHERN ASIA USING IN-COUNTRY DATA, ANALYST WAVEFORM REVIEW, AND ADVANCED ALGORITHMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Engdahl, Eric, R.; Bergman, Eric, A.; Myers, Stephen, C.; Ryall, Floriana</p> <p>2009-06-19</p> <p> respective errors. This is a significant advance, as outliers and future events with apparently anomalous depths can be readily identified and, if necessary, further investigated. The patterns of reliable focal depth distributions have been interpreted in the context of Middle Eastern active tectonics. Most earthquakes in the Iranian continental lithosphere occur in the upper crust, less than about 25-30 km in depth, with the crustal shortening produced by continental collision apparently accommodated entirely by thickening and distributed deformation rather than by subduction of crust into the mantle. However, intermediate-depth earthquakes associated with subducted slab do occur across the central Caspian Sea and beneath the Makran coast. A multiple-event relocation technique, specialized to use different kinds of near-source data, is used to calibrate the locations of 24 clusters containing 901 events drawn from the seismicity catalog. The absolute locations of these clusters are fixed either by comparing the pattern of relocated earthquakes with mapped fault geometry, by using one or more cluster events that have been <span class="hlt">accurately</span> located independently by a local seismic network or aftershock deployment, by using InSAR data to determine the rupture zone of shallow earthquakes, or by some combination of these near-source data. This technique removes most of the systematic bias in single-event locations done with regional and teleseismic data, resulting in 624 calibrated events with location uncertainties of 5 km or better at the 90% confidence level (GT590). For 21 clusters (847 events) that are calibrated in both location and origin time we calculate empirical travel times, relative to a standard 1-D travel time model (ak135), and investigate event to station travel-time anomalies as functions of epicentral distance and azimuth. Substantial travel-time anomalies are seen in the Iran region which make <span class="hlt">accurate</span> locations impossible unless observing stations are at very short</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFMPP22C..03P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFMPP22C..03P"><span>Archaeological Evidence for Abrupt Cimate Change: Results from Satellite Imagery Analysis and Subsequent <span class="hlt">Ground-Truthing</span> in the El-Manzalah Region, Northeast Egyptian Delta</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parcak, S. H.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>The abrupt global climate changes recorded at 8.2, 5.2 and 4.2 ka BP caused a wide range of transformations within ancient societies, including the focus of this study: ancient Egypt . In the case of the climatic changes that occurred at 4.2 ka BP, scholars have debated hotly the events surrounding the "collapse" of the Old Kingdom. Despite such studies into the Old Kingdom's "collapse", there have been insufficient regional settlement pattern studies in Egypt to augment hypotheses concerning the mechanisms behind the cultural transformations that occurred at the end of the Old Kingdom. Utilizing a combination of satellite imagery analysis and subsequent <span class="hlt">ground-truthing</span> techniques over a broad region in the East Delta, this study aims to reconstruct pharaonic settlement distributions in relation to the changing northeast delta topography, river courses, marshlands, and coastline. Although geo-political and religious factors played varying roles in settlement patterns, this study overlies the economic and environmental components behind the settlement of individual sites and areas. For instance, prior to the formation of the Manzala lagoon, beginning in the 4th century AD, the Mendesian branch of the Nile flowed past Mendes and its satellite, maritime port at Tell Tebilla: As early as the Old Kingdom, Tell Tebilla provided an ideal location for the formation of a town, being well-located to exploit both riverine and maritime transportation routes through trade, and regional floral and faunal resources from hunting, fishing, cultivation and animal husbandry. Key factors such as long-term fluctuations in precipitation, flood levels, and river courses, can affect dramatically the fortunes of individual settlements, areas, and regions, resulting in the decline and abandonment of some sites and the foundation and flourishing of other sites, especially within marginal regions. The Egyptian delta represents an ideal region for studying the impacts of climatic changes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8620M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8620M"><span>Wi-GIM system: a new wireless sensor network (WSN) for <span class="hlt">accurate</span> <span class="hlt">ground</span> instability monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mucchi, Lorenzo; Trippi, Federico; Schina, Rosa; Fornaciai, Alessandro; Gigli, Giovanni; Nannipieri, Luca; Favalli, Massimiliano; Marturia Alavedra, Jordi; Intrieri, Emanuele; Agostini, Andrea; Carnevale, Ennio; Bertolini, Giovanni; Pizziolo, Marco; Casagli, Nicola</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Landslides are among the most serious and common geologic hazards around the world. Their impact on human life is expected to increase in the next future as a consequence of human-induced climate change as well as the population growth in proximity of unstable slopes. Therefore, developing better performing technologies for monitoring landslides and providing local authorities with new instruments able to help them in the decision making process, is becoming more and more important. The recent progresses in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) allow us to extend the use of wireless technologies in landslide monitoring. In particular, the developments in electronics components have permitted to lower the price of the sensors and, at the same time, to actuate more efficient wireless communications. In this work we present a new wireless sensor network (WSN) system, designed and developed for landslide monitoring in the framework of EU Wireless Sensor Network for <span class="hlt">Ground</span> Instability Monitoring - Wi-GIM project (LIFE12 ENV/IT/001033). We show the preliminary performance of the Wi-GIM system after the first period of monitoring on the active Roncovetro Landslide and on a large subsiding area in the neighbourhood of Sallent village. The Roncovetro landslide is located in the province of Reggio Emilia (Italy) and moved an inferred volume of about 3 million cubic meters. Sallent village is located at the centre of the Catalan evaporitic basin in Spain. The Wi-GIM WSN monitoring system consists of three levels: 1) Master/Gateway level coordinates the WSN and performs data aggregation and local storage; 2) Master/Server level takes care of acquiring and storing data on a remote server; 3) Nodes level that is based on a mesh of peripheral nodes, each consisting in a sensor board equipped with sensors and wireless module. The nodes are located in the landslide <span class="hlt">ground</span> perimeter and are able to create an ad-hoc WSN. The location of each sensor on the <span class="hlt">ground</span> is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880001284','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880001284"><span><span class="hlt">Accurate</span> ab initio calculations which demonstrate a 3 Pi u <span class="hlt">ground</span> state for Al2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.; Walch, Stephen P.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The spectroscopic parameters and separations between the three low-lying X 3 Pi u, A 3 Sigma g -, and a 1 Sigma g + states of Al2 are studied as a function of both the one-particle and n-particle basis set. Approximate correlation treatments are calibrated against full Cl calculations correlating the six valence electrons in a double-zeta plus two d-function basis set. Since the CASSCF/MRCI 3 Pi u to 3 Sigma g - separation is in excellent agreement wtih the FCI value, the MRCI calculations were carried out in an extended (20s13p6d4f)/(6s5p3d2f) gaussian basis. Including a small correction for relativistic effects, the best estimate is that 3 Sigma g - state lies 174/cm above the 3 Pi u <span class="hlt">ground</span> state. The 1 Sigma g + state lies at least 2000/cm higher in energy. At the CPF level, inclusion of 2s and 2p correlation has little effect on D sub e, reduces T sub e by only 26/cm, and shortens the bond lengths by about 0.02 a sub o. Further strong support for a 3 Pi u <span class="hlt">ground</span> state comes from the experimental absorption spectra, since both observed transitions can be convincingly assigned as 3 Pi u yields 3 Pi g. The (2) 3 Pi g state is observed to be sensitive to the level of correlation treatment, and to have its minimum shifted to shorter rho values, such that the strongest experimental absorption peak probably corresponds to the 0 yields 2 transition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28368342','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28368342"><span>Strategy for <span class="hlt">Accurate</span> Detection of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 in <span class="hlt">Ground</span> Pork Using a Lateral Flow Immunoassay.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cheng, Song; Chen, Ming-Hui; Zhang, Gang-Gang; Yu, Zhi-Biao; Liu, Dao-Feng; Xiong, Yong-Hua; Wei, Hua; Lai, Wei-Hua</p> <p>2017-04-02</p> <p>Escherichia coli O157:H7 is known to cause serious diseases including hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. A gold nanoparticle lateral flow immunoassay (Au-LFIA) was used to detect Escherichia coli O157:H7 in <span class="hlt">ground</span> pork samples. False-positive results were detected using Au-LFIA; a Citrobacterfreundii strain was isolated from the <span class="hlt">ground</span> pork samples and identified by using CHROmagar(TM) plates, API 20E, and 16S RNA sequencing. Since C.freundii showed cross-reactivity with E. coli O157:H7 when Au-LFIA test strips were used, a novel method combining modified enrichment with a lateral flow immunoassay for <span class="hlt">accurate</span> and convenient detection of E. coli O157:H7 in <span class="hlt">ground</span> pork was developed in this study to minimize these false positives. MacConkey broth was optimized for E. coli O157:H7 enrichment and C.freundii inhibition by the addition of 5 mg/L potassium tellurite and 0.10 mg/L cefixime. Using the proposed modified enrichment procedure, the false-positive rate of <span class="hlt">ground</span> pork samples spiked with 100 CFU/g C.freundii decreased to 5%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.9294C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.9294C"><span>A persistent scatterer interpolation for retrieving <span class="hlt">accurate</span> <span class="hlt">ground</span> deformation over InSAR-decorrelated agricultural fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Jingyi; Zebker, Howard A.; Knight, Rosemary</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is a radar remote sensing technique for measuring surface deformation to millimeter-level accuracy at meter-scale resolution. Obtaining <span class="hlt">accurate</span> deformation measurements in agricultural regions is difficult because the signal is often decorrelated due to vegetation growth. We present here a new algorithm for retrieving InSAR deformation measurements over areas with severe vegetation decorrelation using adaptive phase interpolation between persistent scatterer (PS) pixels, those points at which surface scattering properties do not change much over time and thus decorrelation artifacts are minimal. We apply this algorithm to L-band ALOS interferograms acquired over the San Luis Valley, Colorado, and the Tulare Basin, California. In both areas, the pumping of groundwater for irrigation results in deformation of the land that can be detected using InSAR. We show that the PS-based algorithm can significantly reduce the artifacts due to vegetation decorrelation while preserving the deformation signature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150005526&hterms=Vision&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DVision','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150005526&hterms=Vision&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DVision"><span>Real-time <span class="hlt">Accurate</span> Surface Reconstruction Pipeline for Vision Guided Planetary Exploration Using Unmanned <span class="hlt">Ground</span> and Aerial Vehicles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Almeida, Eduardo DeBrito</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This report discusses work completed over the summer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology. A system is presented to guide <span class="hlt">ground</span> or aerial unmanned robots using computer vision. The system performs <span class="hlt">accurate</span> camera calibration, camera pose refinement and surface extraction from images collected by a camera mounted on the vehicle. The application motivating the research is planetary exploration and the vehicles are typically rovers or unmanned aerial vehicles. The information extracted from imagery is used primarily for navigation, as robot location is the same as the camera location and the surfaces represent the terrain that rovers traverse. The processed information must be very <span class="hlt">accurate</span> and acquired very fast in order to be useful in practice. The main challenge being addressed by this project is to achieve high estimation accuracy and high computation speed simultaneously, a difficult task due to many technical reasons.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22251319','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22251319"><span>Communication: An <span class="hlt">accurate</span> global potential energy surface for the <span class="hlt">ground</span> electronic state of ozone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dawes, Richard E-mail: hguo@unm.edu; Lolur, Phalgun; Li, Anyang; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua E-mail: hguo@unm.edu</p> <p>2013-11-28</p> <p>We report a new full-dimensional and global potential energy surface (PES) for the O + O{sub 2} → O{sub 3} ozone forming reaction based on explicitly correlated multireference configuration interaction (MRCI-F12) data. It extends our previous [R. Dawes, P. Lolur, J. Ma, and H. Guo, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 081102 (2011)] dynamically weighted multistate MRCI calculations of the asymptotic region which showed the widely found submerged reef along the minimum energy path to be the spurious result of an avoided crossing with an excited state. A spin-orbit correction was added and the PES tends asymptotically to the recently developed long-range electrostatic model of Lepers et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 137, 234305 (2012)]. This PES features: (1) excellent equilibrium structural parameters, (2) good agreement with experimental vibrational levels, (3) <span class="hlt">accurate</span> dissociation energy, and (4) most-notably, a transition region without a spurious reef. The new PES is expected to allow insight into the still unresolved issues surrounding the kinetics, dynamics, and isotope signature of ozone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMPP43C..02H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMPP43C..02H"><span>Geological "<span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truth</span>" of Sea-level Highstand Events During Warm Interglaciations (MIS 11 and 5e): Taking the Punch out of Proxy Precision</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hearty, P. J.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>High-resolution sea-level records for marine isotope stages (MIS) 11 and 5e from coastal outcrops in Bahamas, Bermuda, Hawaii, and Western Australia provide physical confirmation of extreme ice-melting events during Pleistocene interglacials. Field evidence indicates MIS 11 sea level rose in a series of oscillations to c. +20 m, while that of MIS 5e reached its maximum of +6-10 m. Because these were brief events (100s yrs), their true magnitude is generally muted or obscured in deep-sea oxygen isotope records; generally averaged over thousands of years by the combined effects of sampling, bioturbation, and sedimentation rates. Further unresolvable variables such as temperature and salinity further cloud the isotope proxy record. Thus, the tangible rock record is of greatest importance in understanding the nature of these extreme events. Geomorphology, sedimentary structures, taphonomy of and dating of organisms, and petrology provide <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> at field sites. Sea-level highstands preserve terraces and benches by erosion and subsequent deposition of sub- and intertidal sediments. Fenestral porosity is a measure of intertidal wetting and drying of sand, while decimetre-scale, high-angle cross beds of poorly-sorted sand and gravel indicate shallow subtidal conditions. In situ coral heads describe similar subtidal conditions. Delicate, sometimes partially articulated skeletons of birds and reptiles in sea caves reveal a protected shoreline. An early generation of isopachous, fibrous cement verifies the presence of marine phreatic water over a sustained period of time. These features, often misinterpreted (McMurtry, 2004, AGU Fall Meeting, OS21E-06), categorically exclude emplacement by tsunami waves. Oceanic isotope records cannot produce an equivalent level of resolution of short, extreme events via (in terms of age, duration, rates of sea-level and ice-volume changes), thus shifting the `burden of proof' to proxy methods to identify such events. In our quest to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/national/technical/nra/ceap/?cid=stelprdb1186080','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/national/technical/nra/ceap/?cid=stelprdb1186080"><span>Application of <span class="hlt">ground-truth</span> for classification and quantification of bird movements on migratory bird habitat initiative sites in southwest Louisiana: final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Barrow, Wylie C.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Randall, Lori A.; Pitre, John; Dudley, Kyle J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This project was initiated to assess migrating and wintering bird use of lands enrolled in the Natural Resources Conservation Service’s (NRCS) Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI). The MBHI program was developed in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, with the goal of improving/creating habitat for waterbirds affected by the spill. In collaboration with the University of Delaware (UDEL), we used weather surveillance radar data (Sieges 2014), portable marine radar data, thermal infrared images, and visual observations to assess bird use of MBHI easements. Migrating and wintering birds routinely make synchronous flights near dusk (e.g., departure during migration, feeding flights during winter). Weather radars readily detect birds at the onset of these flights and have proven to be useful remote sensing tools for assessing bird-habitat relations during migration and determining the response of wintering waterfowl to wetland restoration (e.g., Wetlands Reserve Program lands). However, <span class="hlt">ground-truthing</span> is required to identify radar echoes to species or species group. We designed a field study to <span class="hlt">ground-truth</span> a larger-scale, weather radar assessment of bird use of MBHI sites in southwest Louisiana. We examined seasonal bird use of MBHI fields in fall, winter, and spring of 2011-2012. To assess diurnal use, we conducted total area surveys of MBHI sites in the afternoon, collecting data on bird species composition, abundance, behavior, and habitat use. In the evenings, we quantified bird activity at the MBHI easements and described flight behavior (i.e., birds landing in, departing from, circling, or flying over the MBHI tract). Our field sampling captured the onset of evening flights and spanned the period of collection of the weather radar data analyzed. Pre- and post-dusk surveys were conducted using a portable radar system and a thermal infrared camera. Landbirds, shorebirds, and wading birds were commonly found on MBHI fields during diurnal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNS43B..02P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNS43B..02P"><span>Archaeogeophysical data acquisition and analysis at Tel Burna, Israel: a valuable opportunity for ongoing <span class="hlt">ground-truth</span> investigation and collaboration (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pincus, J. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>, acquired in a zigzag east-west direction, proceeding south. The area extended from the present excavation border to the north and east. The following paper will discuss the method of data acquisition, post-processing, and analysis of the results. The final conclusions of the survey show a continuation of several key walls to the east, a valuable sub-surface tracing of the limestone bedrock, and the limit to which the archaeological material is present spatially in Area B to the north. These results play a major role in determining where to focus excavation efforts in the 2014 excavation season. This unique collaboration with the archaeological team and ongoing opportunity for archaeological <span class="hlt">ground-truthing</span> will be documented and published as the site develops. As there is a limited presence of such data within the corpus of published archaeogeophysical research, we look forward to further investigations at the site in the coming years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37.2720S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37.2720S"><span>Extensions of the framework for evaluation of crater detection algorithms: new <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> catalogue with 57633 craters, additional subsystems and evaluations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salamunićcar, Goran</p> <p></p> <p>Crater detection algorithms' (CDAs) applications range from approximating the age of a planetary surface and autonomous landing to planets and asteroids to advanced statistical analyses [ASR, 33, 2281-2287]. A large amount of work on CDAs has already been published. However, problems arise when evaluation results of some new CDA have to be compared with already published evaluation results. The Framework for Evaluation of Crater Detection Algorithms (FECDA) was recently proposed as an initial step for solving the problem of objective evaluation of CDAs [ASR, in press, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2007.04.028]. The framework includes: (1) a definition of the measure for differences between craters; (2) test-field topography based on the 1/64° MOLA data; (3) the <span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truth</span> (GT) catalogue wherein each of 17582 impact craters is aligned with MOLA data and confirmed with catalogues by N. G. Barlow et al. and J. F. Rodionova et al.; (4) selection of methodology for training and testing; and (5) a Free-response Receiver Operating Characteristics (F-ROC) curves as a way to measure CDA performance. Recently, the GT catalogue with 17582 craters has been improved using cross-analysis. The result is a more complete GT catalogue with 18711 impact craters [7thMars abstract 3067]. Once this is done, the integration with Barlow, Rodionova, Boyce, Kuzmin and the catalogue from our previous work has been completed by merging. The result is even more complete GT catalogue with 57633 impact craters [39thLPS abstract 1372]. All craters from the resulting GT catalogue have been additionally registered, using 1/128° MOLA data as bases, with 1/256° THEMIS-DIR, 1/256° MDIM and 1/256° MOC data-sets. Thanks to that, the GT catalogue can also be used with these additional subsystems, so the FECDA can be extended with them. Part of the FECDA is also the Craters open-source C++ project. It already contains a number of implemented CDAs [38thLPS abstract 1351, 7thMars abstract 3066, 39thLPS abstracts</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14524232','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14524232"><span>[A problem of <span class="hlt">truth</span> in biological systematics].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stekol'nikov, A A</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A possibility to put a question of <span class="hlt">truth</span> of knowledge in biological systematics is studied. It is shown that the problem of <span class="hlt">truth</span> in reference to systematics is wider than a question of classified information reliability. Prerequisites needed for logically <span class="hlt">accurate</span> formulation of a definition and criteria of <span class="hlt">truth</span> are considered. It is shown that such prerequisites are present in taxonomic practice, namely in a process of diagnosis compiling. Philosophical analysis of this work has been carried out. Interpretation of an essence of systematics as classification is connected with use of classical concept of <span class="hlt">truth</span> (which defines <span class="hlt">truth</span> as correspondence between knowledge and object) in its undeveloped form. Carried analysis allows supposing that a theory of systematics based on diagnostics rather than on classification would be more prospective. Use of imperfect concept of <span class="hlt">truth</span> can be seen also in notions that system of taxa must reflect its evolutionary history. Development and modernization of Aristotle's orientation to discovery of the object form can become an alternative to such opinions. An aspiration to achieve the <span class="hlt">truth</span> is the main motive of systematic work. An influence of this aspiration on a selection of purposes of taxonomic work and theoretical comprehension of its bases is shown. Such features of modern biological systematics as its accessibility for new results, criticism in respect of external morphological characters, and interest in intraspecific variability are connected with this aspiration. This motive comes into contradiction with a tendency to withdraw the problem of <span class="hlt">truth</span> as such, which takes place in some brunches of theoretic systematics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1214669N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1214669N"><span>Development of a <span class="hlt">Ground</span>-Based Differential Absorption Lidar for High <span class="hlt">Accurate</span> Measurements of Vertical CO2 Concentration Profiles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nagasawa, Chikao; Abo, Makoto; Shibata, Yasukuni; Nagai, Tomohiro; Nakazato, Masahisa; Sakai, Tetsu; Tsukamoto, Makoto; Sakaizawa, Daisuku</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>High-<span class="hlt">accurate</span> vertical carbon dioxide (CO2) profiles are highly desirable in the inverse method to improve quantification and understanding of the global sink and source of CO2, and also global climate change. We have developed a <span class="hlt">ground</span> based 1.6μm differential absorption lidar (DIAL) to achieve high <span class="hlt">accurate</span> measurements of vertical CO2 profiles in the atmosphere. The DIAL system is constructed from the optical parametric oscillation(OPO) transmitter and the direct detection receiving system that included a near-infrared photomultiplier tube operating at photon counting mode. The primitive DIAL measurement was achieved successfully the vertical CO2 profile up to 7 km altitude with an error less than 1.0 % by integration time of 50 minutes and vertical resolution of 150m. We are developing the next generation 1.6 μm DIAL that can measure simultaneously the vertical CO2 concentration, temperature and pressure profiles in the atmosphere. The output laser of the OPO is 20mJ at a 500 Hz repetition rate and a 600mm diameter telescope is employed for this measurement. A very narrow interference filter (0.5nm FWHM) is used for daytime measurement. As the spectra of absorption lines of any molecules are influenced basically by the temperature and pressure in the atmosphere, it is important to measure them simultaneously so that the better accuracy of the DIAL measurement may be realized. Moreover, the value of the retrieved CO2 concentration will be improved remarkably by processing the iteration assignment of CO2 concentration, temperature and pressure, which measured by DIAL techniques. This work was financially supported by the Japan EOS Promotion Program by the MEXT Japan and System Development Program for Advanced Measurement and Analysis by the JST. Reference D. Sakaizawa, C. Nagasawa, T. Nagai, M. Abo, Y. Shibata, H. Nagai, M. Nakazato, and T. Sakai, Development of a 1.6μm differential absorption lidar with a quasi-phase-matching optical parametric oscillator and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A41C0115N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A41C0115N"><span>Development of <span class="hlt">Ground</span>-Based DIAL Techniques for High <span class="hlt">Accurate</span> Measurements of CO2 Concentration Profiles in the Atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nagasawa, C.; Abo, M.; Shibata, Y.; Nagai, T.; Nakazato, M.; Sakai, T.; Tsukamoto, M.; Sakaizawa, D.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>High-<span class="hlt">accurate</span> vertical carbon dioxide (CO2) profiles are highly desirable in the inverse method to improve quantification and understanding of the global sink and source of CO2, and also global climate change. We have developed a <span class="hlt">ground</span> based 1.6μm differential absorption lidar (DIAL) to achieve high <span class="hlt">accurate</span> measurements of vertical CO2 profiles in the atmosphere. The DIAL system is constructed from the optical parametric oscillation(OPO) transmitter and the direct detection receiving system that included a near-infrared photomultiplier tube operating at photon counting mode (Fig.1). The primitive DIAL measurement was achieved successfully the vertical CO2 profile up to 7 km altitude with an error less than 1.0 % by integration time of 50 minutes and vertical resolution of 150m. We develop the next generation 1.6 μm DIAL that can measure simultaneously the vertical CO2 concentration, temperature and pressure profiles in the atmosphere. The characteristics of the 1.6 μm DIALs of the primitive and next generations are shown in Table 1. As the spectra of absorption lines of any molecules are influenced basically by the temperature and pressure in the atmosphere, it is important to measure them simultaneously so that the better accuracy of the DIAL measurement may be realized. Moreover, the value of the retrieved CO2 concentration will be improved remarkably by processing the iteration assignment of CO2 concentration, temperature and pressure which measured by DIAL techniques. This work was financially supported by the Japan EOS Promotion Program by the MEXT Japan and System Development Program for Advanced Measurement and Analysis by the JST. Reference D. Sakaisawa et al., Development of a 1.6μm differential absorption lidar with a quasi-phase-matching optical parametric oscillator and photon-counting detector for the vertical CO2 profile, Applied Optics, Vol.48, No.4, pp.748-757, 2009. Fig. 1 Experimental setup of the 1.6 μm CO2 DIAL. Comparison of primitive</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=phillips&pg=3&id=EJ785128','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=phillips&pg=3&id=EJ785128"><span><span class="hlt">Truth</span> and Form</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kvernbekk, Tone</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In this article I discuss some problems concerning the <span class="hlt">truth</span> value of narratives; more specifically as this problematic is played out in empirical, narrative research. My point of departure is Jane O'Dea's critique of Denis Phillips' views of the topic. While Phillips thinks that <span class="hlt">truth</span> (in the correspondence sense) definitely should be a concern…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Historical+AND+Literary+AND+Theory&pg=4&id=EJ511525','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Historical+AND+Literary+AND+Theory&pg=4&id=EJ511525"><span><span class="hlt">Truth</span> and Methods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dasenbrock, Reed Way</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Examines literary theory's displacing of "method" in the New Historicist criticism. Argues that Stephen Greenblatt and Lee Paterson imply that no objective historical <span class="hlt">truth</span> is possible and as a result do not give methodology its due weight in their criticism. Questions the theory of "<span class="hlt">truth</span>" advanced in this vein of literary…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=williams+AND+exercises&pg=2&id=EJ924417','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=williams+AND+exercises&pg=2&id=EJ924417"><span>Teaching and <span class="hlt">Truthfulness</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cooper, David E.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Some tendencies in modern education--the stress on "performativity", for instance, and "celebration of difference"--threaten the value traditionally placed on <span class="hlt">truthful</span> teaching. In this paper, <span class="hlt">truthfulness</span> is mainly understood, following Bernard Williams, as a disposition to "Accuracy" and "Sincerity"--hence as a virtue. It is to be distinguished…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15804907','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15804907"><span>Evaluating the <span class="hlt">truth</span> brand.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Evans, W Douglas; Price, Simani; Blahut, Steven</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>The American Legacy Foundation developed the <span class="hlt">truth</span> campaign, an aspirational antismoking brand for adolescents. This study tested whether a multidimensional scale, brand equity in <span class="hlt">truth</span>, mediates the relationship between campaign exposure and youth smoking. We collected brand equity responses from 2,306 youth on a nationally representative telephone survey. Factor analysis indicates that the scale has excellent psychometric properties and effectively measures brand equity. We developed a structural equation model to test the mediation hypothesis. Results show that brand equity mediates the relationship between <span class="hlt">truth</span> and smoking. Analyses of potential cofounders show this relationship is robust. Behavioral branding (brands about a behavior or a lifestyle) is an important public health strategy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009595','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009595"><span>Evaluation of the Performance Characteristics of CGLSS II and U.S. NLDN Using <span class="hlt">Ground-Truth</span> Dalta from Launch Complex 398, Kennedy Space Center, Florida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mata, C. T.; Mata, A. G.; Rakov, V. A.; Nag, A.; Saul, J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A new comprehensive lightning instrumentation system has been designed for Launch Complex 39B (LC39B) at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. This new instrumentation system includes seven synchronized high-speed video cameras, current sensors installed on the nine downconductors of the new lightning protection system (LPS) for LC39B; four dH/dt, 3-axis measurement stations; and five dE/dt stations composed of two antennas each. The LPS received 8 direct lightning strikes (a total of 19 strokes) from March 31 through December 31 2011. The measured peak currents and locations are compared to those reported by the Cloud-to-<span class="hlt">Ground</span> Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS II) and the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). Results of comparison are presented and analyzed in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPA33C2197S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPA33C2197S"><span>Linking Samples to Orbital Imagery: Cataloging the Spectral Signatures of the Transantarctic Mountains for Future Compositional Studies and Remote <span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truthing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salvatore, M. R.; Morin, P. J.; Roth, G.; Grunow, A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Over the past five years, remote spectral investigations of ice-free Antarctic geology have become possible through improvements to atmospheric correction techniques and detailed laboratory- and field-based spectral validation. These investigations have provided new insight into the primary (inherent lithologic variability) and secondary (chemical weathering and surface alteration processes) geologic processes that have occurred across the Antarctic continent. While largely limited to familiar areas that have been thoroughly investigated in the field, such <span class="hlt">ground</span> validation is possible through analyzing well-documented samples returned by previous investigators. This work also provides the first critical steps towards examining the nature of atmospheric contributions to orbital data across the Antarctic continent and developing a means of effectively removing their contributions. In close collaboration with the Polar Geospatial Center (PGC) and the Polar Rock Repository (PRR), we have begun collecting and archiving visible and near-infrared (0.35 - 2.50 microns) hyperspectral data of samples currently archived at the PRR. These samples include a range of clasts and sediments that span the full diversity of Antarctic geology. As they are collected, these data are shared and archived at both the PGC and PRR, and will soon be incorporated into the PRR digital data archive that accompanies all lithologic samples. We will report on the progress of this investigation, including preliminary associations between the laboratory-derived spectra and high-resolution (meter-scale) orbital data from the PGC. These investigations suggest that first-order atmospheric removal and compositional investigations can be performed remotely for areas where samples have been collected and analyzed. Future work will continue to expand the geographic range of analyzed samples, particularly along the Antarctic coast.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvL.112t3001O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvL.112t3001O"><span><span class="hlt">Accurate</span> <span class="hlt">Ground</span>-State Energies of Solids and Molecules from Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian S.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>We demonstrate that <span class="hlt">ground</span>-state energies approaching chemical accuracy can be obtained by combining the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation theorem with time-dependent density-functional theory. The key ingredient is a renormalization scheme, which eliminates the divergence of the correlation hole characteristic of any local kernel. This new class of renormalized kernels gives a significantly better description of the short-range correlations in covalent bonds compared to the random phase approximation (RPA) and yields a fourfold improvement of RPA binding energies in both molecules and solids. We also consider examples of barrier heights in chemical reactions, molecular adsorption, and graphene interacting with metal surfaces, which are three examples where the RPA has been successful. In these cases, the renormalized kernel provides results that are of equal quality or even slightly better than the RPA, with a similar computational cost.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/231990','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/231990"><span>Use of Loran-C navigation system to <span class="hlt">accurately</span> determine sampling site location in an above <span class="hlt">ground</span> cooling reservoir</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lockwood, R.E.; Blankinship, D.R.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>Environmental monitoring programs often require <span class="hlt">accurate</span> determination of sampling site locations in aquatic environments. This is especially true when a {open_quotes}picture{close_quotes} of high resolution is needed for observing a changing variable in a given area and location is assumed to be important to the distribution of that variable. Sample site location can be difficult if few visible land marks are available for reference on a large body of water. The use of navigational systems such as Global Positioning System (GPS) and its predecessor, Loran-C, provide an excellent method for sample site location. McFarland (1992) discusses the practicality of GPS for location determination. This article discusses the use of Loran-C in a sampling scheme implemented at the South Texas Project Electrical Generating Station (STPEGS), Wadsworth, Texas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870033336&hterms=magnetic+resonance&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dmagnetic%2Bresonance','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870033336&hterms=magnetic+resonance&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dmagnetic%2Bresonance"><span><span class="hlt">Accurate</span> determination of the fine-structure intervals in the 3P <span class="hlt">ground</span> states of C-13 and C-12 by far-infrared laser magnetic resonance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cooksy, A. L.; Saykally, R. J.; Brown, J. M.; Evenson, K. M.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Accurate</span> values are presented for the fine-structure intervals in the 3P <span class="hlt">ground</span> state of neutral atomic C-12 and C-13 as obtained from laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The rigorous analysis of C-13 hyperfine structure, the measurement of resonant fields for C-12 transitions at several additional far-infrared laser frequencies, and the increased precision of the C-12 measurements, permit significant improvement in the evaluation of these energies relative to earlier work. These results will expedite the direct and precise measurement of these transitions in interstellar sources and should assist in the determination of the interstellar C-12/C-13 abundance ratio.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN41C3663D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN41C3663D"><span>Moball-Buoy Network: A Near-Real-Time <span class="hlt">Ground-Truth</span> Distributed Monitoring System to Map Ice, Weather, Chemical Species, and Radiations, in the Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davoodi, F.; Shahabi, C.; Burdick, J.; Rais-Zadeh, M.; Menemenlis, D.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The work had been funded by NASA HQ's office of Cryospheric Sciences Program. Recent observations of the Arctic have shown that sea ice has diminished drastically, consequently impacting the environment in the Arctic and beyond. Certain factors such as atmospheric anomalies, wind forces, temperature increase, and change in the distribution of cold and warm waters contribute to the sea ice reduction. However current measurement capabilities lack the accuracy, temporal sampling, and spatial coverage required to effectively quantify each contributing factor and to identify other missing factors. Addressing the need for new measurement capabilities for the new Arctic regime, we propose a game-changing in-situ Arctic-wide Distributed Mobile Monitoring system called Moball-buoy Network. Moball-buoy Network consists of a number of wind-propelled self-powered inflatable spheres referred to as Moball-buoys. The Moball-buoys are self-powered. They use their novel mechanical control and energy harvesting system to use the abundance of wind in the Arctic for their controlled mobility and energy harvesting. They are equipped with an array of low-power low-mass sensors and micro devices able to measure a wide range of environmental factors such as the ice conditions, chemical species wind vector patterns, cloud coverage, air temperature and pressure, electromagnetic fields, surface and subsurface water conditions, short- and long-wave radiations, bathymetry, and anthropogenic factors such as pollutions. The stop-and-go motion capability, using their novel mechanics, and the heads up cooperation control strategy at the core of the proposed distributed system enable the sensor network to be reconfigured dynamically according to the priority of the parameters to be monitored. The large number of Moball-buoys with their <span class="hlt">ground</span>-based, sea-based, satellite and peer-to-peer communication capabilities would constitute a wireless mesh network that provides an interface for a global</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.P34C..01M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.P34C..01M"><span>Impact melt-bearing breccias of the Mistastin Lake impact structure: A unique planetary analogue for <span class="hlt">ground-truthing</span> proximal ejecta emplacement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mader, M. M.; Osinski, G. R.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p> in matrix content, melt-fragment concentration, and contact relationships with adjacent impactites. Initial findings suggest differing origins for impact melt-bearing breccias from a single impact event. Three examples are highlighted: 1) Impact melt-bearing breccias, on an inner terrace, formed in boundary zones where hot impact melt flowed over cooler, ballistically emplaced polymict impact breccias. 2) Locally, a dyke of impact melt-bearing breccia suggests that this unit originated as hot lithic flow that moved laterally along the <span class="hlt">ground</span> and then intruded as a fracture fill into target rocks. 3) A m-scale lens of melt-bearing breccia within the middle of a thick, 80m impact melt rock unit situated on an inner terrace, suggests that this lens may have originated from the crater floor and been incorporated into the melt pond during emplacement (i.e. movement of the melt from the crater floor to terrace shelf). In summary, the Mistastin Lake impact structure displays a multiple layered ejecta sequence that is consistent with, and requires, a multi-stage ejecta emplacement model as proposed by [1]. References: [1] Osinski et al. (2011) EPSL (310:167-181. [2] Melosh (1989) Oxford Univ. 245 pp. [3] French B. M. (1998) LPI Contribution 954,120pp. [4] Mader et al. (2011) 42nd LPSC, No.1608. [5] Mader et al. (2013) 43rd LPSC, No. 2517.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25833574','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25833574"><span><span class="hlt">Accurate</span> high level ab initio-based global potential energy surface and dynamics calculations for <span class="hlt">ground</span> state of CH2(+).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Y Q; Zhang, P Y; Han, K L</p> <p>2015-03-28</p> <p>A global many-body expansion potential energy surface is reported for the electronic <span class="hlt">ground</span> state of CH2 (+) by fitting high level ab initio energies calculated at the multireference configuration interaction level with the aug-cc-pV6Z basis set. The topographical features of the new global potential energy surface are examined in detail and found to be in good agreement with those calculated directly from the raw ab initio energies, as well as previous calculations available in the literature. In turn, in order to validate the potential energy surface, a test theoretical study of the reaction CH(+)(X(1)Σ(+))+H((2)S)→C(+)((2)P)+H2(X(1)Σg (+)) has been carried out with the method of time dependent wavepacket on the title potential energy surface. The total integral cross sections and the rate coefficients have been calculated; the results determined that the new potential energy surface can both be recommended for dynamics studies of any type and as building blocks for constructing the potential energy surfaces of larger C(+)/H containing systems.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.G13B..01C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.G13B..01C"><span>A persistent scatterer method for retrieving <span class="hlt">accurate</span> InSAR <span class="hlt">ground</span> deformation map over vegetation-decorrelated areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, J.; Zebker, H. A.; Knight, R. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>InSAR is commonly used to measure surface deformation between different radar passes at cm-scale accuracy and m-scale resolution. However, InSAR measurements are often decorrelated due to vegetation growth, which greatly limits high quality InSAR data coverage. Here we present an algorithm for retrieving InSAR deformation measurements over areas with significant vegetation decorrelation through the use of adaptive interpolation between persistent scatterer (PS) pixels, those points at which surface scattering properties do not change much over time and thus decorrelation artifacts are minimal. The interpolation filter restores phase continuity in space and greatly reduces errors in phase unwrapping. We apply this algorithm to process L-band ALOS interferograms acquired over the San Luis Valley, Colorado and the Tulare Basin, California. In both areas, groundwater extraction for irrigation results in land deformation that can be detected using InSAR. We show that the PS-based algorithm reduces the artifacts from vegetation decorrelation while preserving the deformation signature. The spatial sampling resolution achieved over agricultural fields is on the order of hundreds of meters, usually sufficient for groundwater studies. The improved InSAR data allow us further to reconstruct the SBAS <span class="hlt">ground</span> deformation time series and transform the measured deformation to head levels using the skeletal storage coefficient and time delay constant inferred from a joint InSAR-well data analysis. The resulting InSAR-head and well-head measurements in the San Luis valley show good agreement with primary confined aquifer pumping activities. This case study demonstrates that high quality InSAR deformation data can be obtained over vegetation-decorrrelated region if processed correctly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GReGr..41.2159B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GReGr..41.2159B"><span>The <span class="hlt">truth</span> in science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Breuer, Reinhard; Springer, Michael</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Are natural scientists gaining an ever more complete picture of reality through their objective insights, or are the <span class="hlt">truths</span> of the natural sciences no more than consensuses that change with time? The astrophysicist Jürgen Ehlers and the social scientist Rudolf Stichweh talk to Spektrum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22methodology+english%22&pg=2&id=EJ569932','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22methodology+english%22&pg=2&id=EJ569932"><span>Methods, <span class="hlt">Truths</span>, Reasons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Porter, Kevin J.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Advocates a position on the margins of English studies. Provides a general introduction to analytic philosophy of language. Elaborates Donald Davidson's work on interpretation, which demonstrates why <span class="hlt">truth</span> and rationality are inextricably linked to language and communication. Calls for reconfiguring the debate between and assessment of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=absence+AND+food&pg=6&id=ED312570','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=absence+AND+food&pg=6&id=ED312570"><span><span class="hlt">Truth</span> about Aging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.</p> <p></p> <p>This booklet examines aging, exposing various stereotypes and biases and describing the <span class="hlt">truth</span> about aging. These topics are discussed: (1) the absence of older adults from printed and aduiovisual materials and the need to ensure that elderly persons be visible in all communications; (2) societal myths that deny older persons their individuality;…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=music+AND+emotions&id=EJ802407','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=music+AND+emotions&id=EJ802407"><span>Music, Emotions, and <span class="hlt">Truth</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Packalen, Elina</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In this article Elina Packalen considers the notion of <span class="hlt">truth</span> in connection with music. Her starting-point is the question of how music can be expressive of emotions; therefore she first summarizes some recent philosophical ideas of this issue. These ideas naturally raise the question of whether describing music in emotive terms has an epistemic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Women%27s+AND+suffrage&pg=7&id=ED158313','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Women%27s+AND+suffrage&pg=7&id=ED158313"><span>Semantics and Sojourner <span class="hlt">Truth</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Arbur, Rosemarie</p> <p></p> <p>Sojourner <span class="hlt">Truth</span>'s "Ain't I a Woman?" speech is presented in this paper and shown to be an effective vehicle for helping students discover the power of language and of literature. The paper first discusses the potentially destructive way English teachers sometimes tell students about "hidden meanings" in long and complex works…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=4&id=EJ799475','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=4&id=EJ799475"><span>Two <span class="hlt">Truths</span> in My Pocket</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ruby, Lois</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>After having seen Jody Picoult's "Plain <span class="hlt">Truth</span>," which is on the paperback best-seller list from "New York Times Book Review," and an ad for a novel called "A Version of the <span class="hlt">Truth</span>," in this article the author talks about <span class="hlt">truth</span> and how it is being told by some writers from a different point of view. It seems that <span class="hlt">truth</span> is everywhere, and also…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA570369','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA570369"><span><span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Building Human Security</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>James Cricks , professor at the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, non-state personae include “pillars of social power in the affected...nations, in- cluding religious groups and tribal leaders.”27 Cricks then asks, “Who could possibly be (or become) better 13 equipped within the...United States Civilian Agencies Cricks was likely aware that in 2008 Congress au- thorized the Civilian Response Corps (CRC) within the Department of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830015771&hterms=truth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dtruth','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830015771&hterms=truth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dtruth"><span>AVE/VAS experiment: <span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Scoggins, J. R.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The visible/infrared spin scan radiometer (VISSR) atmospheric sounder (VAS) rawinsonde field program is discussed. Specific items covered include: planning, personnel requirements and training, operational requirement and procedures, sounding times and dates, methods of data processing, data inventory, and status of data processing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA616431','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA616431"><span>SpinSat Mission <span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Characterization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>launch via the SpaceX Falcon 9 CRS4 mission on 12 Sept 2014 and is to be deployed from the International Space Station (ISS) on 29 Sept. 2014. 2...ISS as part of the soft-stow cargo allotment on the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft launched by the SpaceX Falcon 9 two stage to orbit launch vehicle during</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22212034','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22212034"><span>On authenticity: the question of <span class="hlt">truth</span> in construction and autobiography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Collins, Sara</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Freud was occupied with the question of <span class="hlt">truth</span> and its verification throughout his work. He looked to archaeology for an evidence model to support his ideas on reconstruction. He also referred to literature regarding <span class="hlt">truth</span> in reconstruction, where he saw shifts between historical fact and invention, and detected such swings in his own case histories. In his late work Freud pondered over the impossibility of <span class="hlt">truth</span> in reconstruction by juxtaposing <span class="hlt">truth</span> with 'probability'. Developments on the role of fantasy and myth in reconstruction and contemporary debates over objectivity have increasingly highlighted the question of '<span class="hlt">truth</span>' in psychoanalysis. I will argue that 'authenticity' is a helpful concept in furthering the discussion over <span class="hlt">truth</span> in reconstruction. Authenticity denotes that which is genuine, trustworthy and emotionally <span class="hlt">accurate</span> in a reconstruction, as observed within the immediacy of the analyst/patient interaction. As authenticity signifies genuineness in a contemporary context its origins are verifiable through the analyst's own observations of the analytic process itself. Therefore, authenticity is about the likelihood and approximation of historical <span class="hlt">truth</span> rather than its certainty. In that respect it links with Freud's musings over 'probability'. Developments on writing '<span class="hlt">truths</span>' in autobiography mirror those in reconstruction, and lend corroborative support from another source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22423835','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22423835"><span><span class="hlt">Accurate</span> quantum wave packet calculations for the F + HCl → Cl + HF reaction on the <span class="hlt">ground</span> 1(2)A' potential energy surface.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bulut, Niyazi; Kłos, Jacek; Alexander, Millard H</p> <p>2012-03-14</p> <p>We present converged exact quantum wave packet calculations of reaction probabilities, integral cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients for the title reaction. Calculations have been carried out on the <span class="hlt">ground</span> 1(2)A' global adiabatic potential energy surface of Deskevich et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 224303 (2006)]. Converged wave packet reaction probabilities at selected values of the total angular momentum up to a partial wave of J = 140 with the HCl reagent initially selected in the v = 0, j = 0-16 rovibrational states have been obtained for the collision energy range from threshold up to 0.8 eV. The present calculations confirm an important enhancement of reactivity with rotational excitation of the HCl molecule. First, <span class="hlt">accurate</span> integral cross sections and rate constants have been calculated and compared with the available experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20023210','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20023210"><span>The <span class="hlt">truth</span> about the <span class="hlt">truth</span>: a meta-analytic review of the <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dechêne, Alice; Stahl, Christoph; Hansen, Jochim; Wänke, Michaela</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Repetition has been shown to increase subjective <span class="hlt">truth</span> ratings of trivia statements. This <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect can be measured in two ways: (a) as the increase in subjective <span class="hlt">truth</span> from the first to the second encounter (within-items criterion) and (b) as the difference in <span class="hlt">truth</span> ratings between repeated and other new statements (between-items criterion). Qualitative differences are assumed between the processes underlying both criteria. A meta-analysis of the <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect was conducted that compared the two criteria. In all, 51 studies of the repetition-induced <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect were included in the analysis. Results indicate that the between-items effect is larger than the within-items effect. Moderator analyses reveal that several moderators affect both effects differentially. This lends support to the notion that different psychological comparison processes may underlie the two effects. The results are discussed within the processing fluency account of the <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JEI....25f1620H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JEI....25f1620H"><span>LSM: perceptually <span class="hlt">accurate</span> line segment merging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hamid, Naila; Khan, Nazar</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Existing line segment detectors tend to break up perceptually distinct line segments into multiple segments. We propose an algorithm for merging such broken segments to recover the original perceptually <span class="hlt">accurate</span> line segments. The algorithm proceeds by grouping line segments on the basis of angular and spatial proximity. Then those line segment pairs within each group that satisfy unique, adaptive mergeability criteria are successively merged to form a single line segment. This process is repeated until no more line segments can be merged. We also propose a method for quantitative comparison of line segment detection algorithms. Results on the York Urban dataset show that our merged line segments are closer to human-marked <span class="hlt">ground-truth</span> line segments compared to state-of-the-art line segment detection algorithms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24859237','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24859237"><span>Lying relies on the <span class="hlt">truth</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Debey, Evelyne; De Houwer, Jan; Verschuere, Bruno</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Cognitive models of deception focus on the conflict-inducing nature of the <span class="hlt">truth</span> activation during lying. Here we tested the counterintuitive hypothesis that the <span class="hlt">truth</span> can also serve a functional role in the act of lying. More specifically, we examined whether the construction of a lie can involve a two-step process, where the first step entails activating the <span class="hlt">truth</span>, based upon which a lie response can be formulated in a second step. To investigate this hypothesis, we tried to capture the covert <span class="hlt">truth</span> activation in a reaction-time based deception paradigm. Together with each question, we presented either the <span class="hlt">truth</span> or lie response as distractors. If lying depends on the covert activation of the <span class="hlt">truth</span>, deceptive responses would thus be facilitated by <span class="hlt">truth</span> distractors relative to lie distractors. Our results indeed revealed such a "covert congruency" effect, both in errors and reaction times (Experiment 1). Moreover, stimulating participants to use the distractor information by increasing the proportion of <span class="hlt">truth</span> distractor trials enlarged the "covert congruency" effects, and as such confirmed that the effects operate at a covert response level (Experiment 2). Our findings lend support to the idea that lying relies on a first step of <span class="hlt">truth</span> telling, and call for a shift in theoretical thinking that highlights both the functional and interfering properties of the <span class="hlt">truth</span> activation in the lying process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=7&id=EJ799577','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=7&id=EJ799577"><span>Fiction Is <span class="hlt">Truth</span>, and Sometimes <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Is Fiction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hess, Carol Lakey</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The art of fiction tells <span class="hlt">truth</span> because it is the <span class="hlt">truth</span> of life that goes into making good fiction: love, hate, fear, courage, delight, sorrow, betrayal, loyalty, confusion, choice, circumstance, luck, injustice. These essential qualities, says the author, are also the qualities of sound theology, with a sense of time and place; and raising…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JASTP.136...16Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JASTP.136...16Z"><span>Some properties of negative cloud-to-<span class="hlt">ground</span> flashes from observations of a local thunderstorm based on <span class="hlt">accurate</span>-stroke-count studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Baoyou; Ma, Ming; Xu, Weiwei; Ma, Dong</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Properties of negative cloud-to-<span class="hlt">ground</span> (CG) lightning flashes, in terms of number of strokes per flash, inter-stroke intervals and the relative intensity of subsequent and first strokes, were presented by <span class="hlt">accurate</span>-stroke-count studies based on all 1085 negative flashes from a local thunderstorm. The percentage of single-stroke flashes and stroke multiplicity evolved significantly during the whole life cycle of the study thunderstorm. The occurrence probability of negative CG flashes decreased exponentially with the increasing number of strokes per flash. About 30.5% of negative CG flashes contained only one stroke and number of strokes per flash averaged 3.3. In a subset of 753 negative multiple-stroke flashes, about 41.4% contained at least one subsequent stroke stronger than the corresponding first stroke. Subsequent strokes tended to decrease in strength with their orders and the ratio of subsequent to first stroke peaks presented a geometric mean value of 0.52. Interestingly, negative CG flashes of higher multiplicity tended to have stronger initial strokes. 2525 inter-stroke intervals showed a more or less log-normal distribution and gave a geometric mean value of 62 ms. For CG flashes of particular multiplicity geometric mean inter-stroke intervals tended to decrease with the increasing number of strokes per flash, while those intervals associated with higher order strokes tended to be larger than those associated with low order strokes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23666848','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23666848"><span><span class="hlt">Accurate</span> double many-body expansion potential energy surface by extrapolation to the complete basis set limit and dynamics calculations for <span class="hlt">ground</span> state of NH2.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Yongqing; Yuan, Jiuchuang; Chen, Maodu; Ma, Fengcai; Sun, Mengtao</p> <p>2013-07-15</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">accurate</span> single-sheeted double many-body expansion potential energy surface is reported for the title system. A switching function formalism has been used to warrant the correct behavior at the H2(X1Σg+)+N(2D) and NH (X3Σ-)+H(2S) dissociation channels involving nitrogen in the <span class="hlt">ground</span> N(4S) and first excited N(2D) states. The topographical features of the novel global potential energy surface are examined in detail, and found to be in good agreement with those calculated directly from the raw ab initio energies, as well as previous calculations available in the literature. The novel surface can be using to treat well the Renner-Teller degeneracy of the 12A″ and 12A' states of NH 2. Such a work can both be recommended for dynamics studies of the N(2D)+H2 reaction and as building blocks for constructing the double many-body expansion potential energy surface of larger nitrogen/hydrogen-containing systems. In turn, a test theoretical study of the reaction N(2D)+H2(X1Σg+)(ν=0,j=0)→NH (X3Σ-)+H(2S) has been carried out with the method of quantum wave packet on the new potential energy surface. Reaction probabilities, integral cross sections, and differential cross sections have been calculated. Threshold exists because of the energy barrier (68.5 meV) along the minimum energy path. On the curve of reaction probability for total angular momentum J = 0, there are two sharp peaks just above threshold. The value of integral cross section increases quickly from zero to maximum with the increase of collision energy, and then stays stable with small oscillations. The differential cross section result shows that the reaction is a typical forward and backward scatter in agreement with experimental measurement result.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27112741','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27112741"><span>THE QUEST FOR <span class="hlt">TRUTH</span> AS THE FOUNDATION OF PSYCHOANALYTIC PRACTICE: A TRADITIONAL FREUDIAN-KLEINIAN PERSPECTIVE.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blass, Rachel B</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In responding to the question of whether <span class="hlt">truth</span> in psychoanalysis is relevant today, the author presents what she refers to as a traditional Freudian-Kleinian perspective. According to this perspective, <span class="hlt">truth</span> is not only relevant, but rather the quest for it is the alpha and omega of psychoanalytic practice. The author reviews Freud's approach to <span class="hlt">truth</span> and then discusses Klein's essential contribution to its understanding, <span class="hlt">grounding</span>, and enrichment, highlighting Klein's thinking about phantasy and the life and death instincts. Finally, the author contends with the opposing view that the quest for <span class="hlt">truth</span> is no longer relevant to contemporary analytic practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15005384','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15005384"><span>Groundtruth approach to <span class="hlt">accurate</span> quantitation of fluorescence microarrays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mascio-Kegelmeyer, L; Tomascik-Cheeseman, L; Burnett, M S; van Hummelen, P; Wyrobek, A J</p> <p>2000-12-01</p> <p>To more <span class="hlt">accurately</span> measure fluorescent signals from microarrays, we calibrated our acquisition and analysis systems by using groundtruth samples comprised of known quantities of red and green gene-specific DNA probes hybridized to cDNA targets. We imaged the slides with a full-field, white light CCD imager and analyzed them with our custom analysis software. Here we compare, for multiple genes, results obtained with and without preprocessing (alignment, color crosstalk compensation, dark field subtraction, and integration time). We also evaluate the accuracy of various image processing and analysis techniques (background subtraction, segmentation, quantitation and normalization). This methodology calibrates and validates our system for <span class="hlt">accurate</span> quantitative measurement of microarrays. Specifically, we show that preprocessing the images produces results significantly closer to the known <span class="hlt">ground-truth</span> for these samples.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25317989','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25317989"><span>Small and efficient basis sets for the evaluation of <span class="hlt">accurate</span> interaction energies: aromatic molecule-argon <span class="hlt">ground</span>-state intermolecular potentials and rovibrational states.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cybulski, Hubert; Baranowska-Łączkowska, Angelika; Henriksen, Christian; Fernández, Berta</p> <p>2014-11-06</p> <p>By evaluating a representative set of CCSD(T) <span class="hlt">ground</span> state interaction energies for van der Waals dimers formed by aromatic molecules and the argon atom, we test the performance of the polarized basis sets of Sadlej et al. (J. Comput. Chem. 2005, 26, 145; Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 1988, 53, 1995) and the augmented polarization-consistent bases of Jensen (J. Chem. Phys. 2002, 117, 9234) in providing <span class="hlt">accurate</span> intermolecular potentials for the benzene-, naphthalene-, and anthracene-argon complexes. The basis sets are extended by addition of midbond functions. As reference we consider CCSD(T) results obtained with Dunning's bases. For the benzene complex a systematic basis set study resulted in the selection of the (Z)Pol-33211 and the aug-pc-1-33321 bases to obtain the intermolecular potential energy surface. The interaction energy values and the shape of the CCSD(T)/(Z)Pol-33211 calculated potential are very close to the best available CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ-33211 potential with the former basis set being considerably smaller. The corresponding differences for the CCSD(T)/aug-pc-1-33321 potential are larger. In the case of the naphthalene-argon complex, following a similar study, we selected the (Z)Pol-3322 and aug-pc-1-333221 bases. The potentials show four symmetric absolute minima with energies of -483.2 cm(-1) for the (Z)Pol-3322 and -486.7 cm(-1) for the aug-pc-1-333221 basis set. To further check the performance of the selected basis sets, we evaluate intermolecular bound states of the complexes. The differences between calculated vibrational levels using the CCSD(T)/(Z)Pol-33211 and CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ-33211 benzene-argon potentials are small and for the lowest energy levels do not exceed 0.70 cm(-1). Such differences are substantially larger for the CCSD(T)/aug-pc-1-33321 calculated potential. For naphthalene-argon, bound state calculations demonstrate that the (Z)Pol-3322 and aug-pc-1-333221 potentials are of similar quality. The results show that these</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=present+AND+value+AND+measurement&pg=6&id=EJ921383','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=present+AND+value+AND+measurement&pg=6&id=EJ921383"><span>The <span class="hlt">Truth</span> and Bias Model of Judgment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>West, Tessa V.; Kenny, David A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We present a new model for the general study of how the <span class="hlt">truth</span> and biases affect human judgment. In the <span class="hlt">truth</span> and bias model, judgments about the world are pulled by 2 primary forces, the <span class="hlt">truth</span> force and the bias force, and these 2 forces are interrelated. The <span class="hlt">truth</span> and bias model differentiates force and value, where the force is the strength of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7871795','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7871795"><span>[<span class="hlt">Truth</span> and reality].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schneider, B</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Communication presumes the <span class="hlt">truth</span> of statements. According to H. Weyl, the direct occurrence is subjective and absolute, the objective world relative, represented by figures and symbols, after induction of a co-ordinate system into the world. Sentences shall express relations between persons, things and properties. The message of a sentence is true, if the facts of a case prove right in reality. Thomas von Aquin: "Veritas est adaequatio rei et intellectus." To recognize a fact the reception of both "objective" signs and "subjective" forming of models are necessary. The objective and the subjective are linked strongly in the cognition. A true sentence develops if the meaning of the signs, which derive from the facts are in harmony with those, which come from the sentence by itself. Signs have to be decoded (subjectively). The attempt of making accessible the "objective" world is done with a system of rules and methods, which is without contradiction and clear in itself. Reality can be recognized only in that manner in which language can present it. "A sentence is true, if the facts of the case, which is referred by the sentence, are true." The problem, the reference of this message by itself, was solved by Tarski, inducing the term "object language" and declaring the sentences as objects of the natural (meta-)language. There are no terms as "true" or "wrong" in the object language. K. R. Popper differentiates 3 worlds: world of reality, of subjectivity, and of objectivity. Communication results from the subjective world, she rouses up emotions and reflexes. Nevertheless objectivity remains the controlling instance for messages and imaginations of the subjective ideas. The objective ideas differ from subject ones because of the possibility of associating ideas of a certain class of constellation of signals to the reality (concrete ideas), or because they can be found in a system of rules, which enables one to associate to a constellation of signals and to control this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1569498','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1569498"><span>The Medawar Lecture 2004 The <span class="hlt">truth</span> about science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lipton, Peter</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The attitudes of scientists towards the philosophy of science is mixed and includes considerable indifference and some hostility. This may be due in part to unrealistic expectation and to misunderstanding. Philosophy is unlikely directly to improve scientific practices, but scientists may find the attempt to explain how science works and what it achieves of considerable interest nevertheless. The present state of the philosophy of science is illustrated by recent work on the ‘<span class="hlt">truth</span> hypothesis’, according to which, science is generating increasingly <span class="hlt">accurate</span> representations of a mind-independent and largely unobservable world. According to Karl Popper, although <span class="hlt">truth</span> is the aim of science, it is impossible to justify the <span class="hlt">truth</span> hypothesis. According to Thomas Kuhn, the <span class="hlt">truth</span> hypothesis is false, because scientists can only describe a world that is partially constituted by their own theories and hence not mind-independent. The failure of past scientific theories has been used to argue against the <span class="hlt">truth</span> hypothesis; the success of the best current theories has been used to argue for it. Neither argument is sound. PMID:16147521</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1769504','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1769504"><span>Medical science, culture, and <span class="hlt">truth</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gillett, Grant</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>There is a fairly closed circle between culture, language, meaning, and <span class="hlt">truth</span> such that the world of a given culture is a world understood in terms of the meanings produced in that culture. Medicine is, in fact, a subculture of a powerful type and has its own language and understanding of the range of illnesses that affect human beings. So how does medicine get at the <span class="hlt">truth</span> of people and their ills in such a way as to escape its own limited constructions? There is a way out of the closed circle implicit in the idea of a praxis and the engagement with reality that is central to it and the further possibility introduced by Jacques Lacan that signification is never comprehensive in relation to the subject's encounter with the real. I will explore both of these so as to develop a conception of <span class="hlt">truth</span> that is apt for the knowledge that arises in the clinic. PMID:17178003</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27112744','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27112744"><span>PSYCHOANALYSIS AND THE PROBLEM OF <span class="hlt">TRUTH</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Levine, Howard B</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>After briefly reviewing Freud's search for "the <span class="hlt">truth</span>" in psychoanalytic treatments, the author discusses Bion's views on <span class="hlt">truth</span> and its prominence in his thinking. The author then addresses various definitions of <span class="hlt">truth</span>, drawing particularly on recent comments by Ogden (2015). Considerations of the relationship between <span class="hlt">truth</span> and philosophy, and of that between <span class="hlt">truth</span> and the arts, follow; the author then returns to a focus on psychoanalytic <span class="hlt">truth</span> as emergent. Our view of the latter has been strongly influenced, he notes, by changing views of therapeutic action and the goals of psychoanalysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900011614','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900011614"><span>Time and <span class="hlt">truth</span> in plans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hazelton, Lyman R., Jr.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Some of the logical components of a rule based planning and scheduling system are described. The researcher points out a deficiency in the conventional <span class="hlt">truth</span> maintenance approach to this class of problems and suggests a new mechanism which overcomes the problem. This extension of the idea of justification <span class="hlt">truth</span> maintenance may seem at first to be a small philosophical step. However, it embodies a process of basic human reasoning which is so common and automatic as to escape conscious detection without careful introspection. It is vital to any successful implementation of a rule based planning reasoner.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780028925&hterms=truth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dtruth','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780028925&hterms=truth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dtruth"><span>The Seasat surface <span class="hlt">truth</span> experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shemdin, O. H.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>A surface <span class="hlt">truth</span> program for Seasat A is formulated in two phases: pre- and post-launch. The pre-launch phase (which includes the Marineland experiments, the JONSWAP-75 experiment, the West Coast experiment, and the altimeter experiment) is designed to provide data from aircraft over instrumented ocean sites during desirable geophysical events. The objective is to gather sufficient data for the development of algorithms which transfer space data into geophysical variables useful for applications. In the post-launch phase, the surface <span class="hlt">truth</span> program is designed to verify and improve the algorithms developed in the pre-launch phase and also to evaluate the performance of spaceborne sensors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Basil&pg=7&id=EJ794985','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Basil&pg=7&id=EJ794985"><span><span class="hlt">Truth</span> and <span class="hlt">Truthfulness</span> in the Sociology of Educational Knowledge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Young, Michael; Muller, Johan</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this article is to reflect on and explore questions of <span class="hlt">truth</span> and objectivity in the sociology of educational knowledge. It begins by reviewing the problems raised by the social constructivist approaches to knowledge associated with the "new sociology of education" of the I970s. It suggests that they have significant parallels…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED481433.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED481433.pdf"><span>Myth or <span class="hlt">Truth</span>: Independence Day.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gardner, Traci</p> <p></p> <p>Most Americans think of the Fourth of July as Independence Day, but is it really the day the U.S. declared and celebrated independence? By exploring myths and <span class="hlt">truths</span> surrounding Independence Day, this lesson asks students to think critically about commonly believed stories regarding the beginning of the Revolutionary War and the Independence Day…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25217927','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25217927"><span><span class="hlt">Accurate</span> evaluations of the field shift and lowest-order QED correction for the <span class="hlt">ground</span> 1¹S-states of some light two-electron ions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Frolov, Alexei M; Wardlaw, David M</p> <p>2014-09-14</p> <p>Mass-dependent and field shift components of the isotopic shift are determined to high accuracy for the <span class="hlt">ground</span> 1(1)S-states of some light two-electron Li(+), Be(2+), B(3+), and C(4+) ions. To determine the field components of these isotopic shifts we apply the Racah-Rosental-Breit formula. We also determine the lowest order QED corrections to the isotopic shifts for each of these two-electron ions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/magazine/issues/winter09/articles/winter09pg24.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/magazine/issues/winter09/articles/winter09pg24.html"><span>Heart Health: The Heart <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Campaign 2009</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health The Heart <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Campaign 2009 Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table ... one of the celebrities supporting this year's The Heart <span class="hlt">Truth</span> campaign. Both R&B singer Ashanti (center) ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5127192','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5127192"><span>Globally <span class="hlt">accurate</span> potential energy surface for the <span class="hlt">ground</span>-state HCS(X2A′) and its use in reaction dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Song, Yu-Zhi; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Gao, Shou-Bao; Meng, Qing-Tian</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A globally <span class="hlt">accurate</span> many-body expansion potential energy surface is reported for HCS(X2A′) by fitting a wealth of <span class="hlt">accurate</span> ab initio energies calculated at the multireference configuration interaction level using aug-cc-pVQZ and aug-cc-pV5Z basis sets via extrapolation to the complete basis set limit. The topographical features of the present potential energy surface are examined in detail and is in good agreement with the raw ab initio results, as well as other theoretical results available in literatures. By utilizing the potential energy surface of HCS(X2A′), the dynamic studies of the C(3P) + SH(X2Π) → H(2S) + CS(X1∑+) reaction has been carried out using quasi-classical trajectory method. PMID:27898106</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=3&id=EJ750942','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=3&id=EJ750942"><span>Reversing the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Effect: Learning the Interpretation of Processing Fluency in Judgments of <span class="hlt">Truth</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Unkelbach, Christian</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Repeated statements receive higher <span class="hlt">truth</span> ratings than new statements. Given that repetition leads to greater experienced processing fluency, the author proposes that fluency is used in <span class="hlt">truth</span> judgments according to its ecological validity. Thus, the <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect occurs because people learn that fluency and <span class="hlt">truth</span> tend to be positively correlated.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-20/pdf/2011-15179.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-20/pdf/2011-15179.pdf"><span>76 FR 35723 - <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-06-20</p> <p>...-1422] <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final rule... interprets the requirements of Regulation Z (<span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending). The Board is required to adjust annually the... INFORMATION: I. Background The <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending Act (TILA; 15 U.S.C. 1601-1666j) requires creditors...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-20/pdf/2011-15178.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-20/pdf/2011-15178.pdf"><span>76 FR 35722 - <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-06-20</p> <p>...-1424] <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final rule... interprets the requirements of Regulation Z, which implements the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending Act (TILA). Effective July... Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (Dodd-Frank Act) increases the threshold in the <span class="hlt">Truth</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-12-23/pdf/2010-31824.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-12-23/pdf/2010-31824.pdf"><span>75 FR 80675 - <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-12-23</p> <p>... CFR Part 226 <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION... implements the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending Act, in order to implement provisions of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform... October 28, 2010 (75 FR 66554) (Docket No. R- 1394), amending Regulation Z (<span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending) to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=5&id=EJ774680','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=5&id=EJ774680"><span><span class="hlt">Truth</span> and the Capability of Learning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hinchliffe, Geoffrey</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines learning as a capability, taking as its starting point the work of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. The paper is concerned to highlight the relation between learning and <span class="hlt">truth</span>, and it does so by examining the idea of a genealogy of <span class="hlt">truth</span> and also Donald Davidson's coherence theory. Thus the notion of <span class="hlt">truth</span> is understood to be…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-08-04/pdf/2010-19101.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-08-04/pdf/2010-19101.pdf"><span>75 FR 46837 - <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-08-04</p> <p>... / Wednesday, August 4, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 226 <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in... requirements of Regulation Z (<span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending). The Board is required to adjust annually the dollar amount.... Background The <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending Act (TILA; 15 U.S.C. 1601-1666j) requires creditors to disclose credit...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Barometers&pg=3&id=EJ786939','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Barometers&pg=3&id=EJ786939"><span>"<span class="hlt">Truth</span>" and "Reconciliation" as Social Indicators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gibson, James L.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Countries throughout the world are trying to move toward a more democratic future through <span class="hlt">truth</span> and reconciliation processes, under the assumption that <span class="hlt">truth</span> causes reconciliation and that reconciliation contributes to democratization. But are "<span class="hlt">truth</span>" and "reconciliation" concepts that can be measured rigorously and reliably? I…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Jasper&pg=4&id=EJ455641','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Jasper&pg=4&id=EJ455641"><span>Against Relativism: Restoring <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Writing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Couture, Barbara</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Argues against the relativist arguments of Jasper Neel and Herrnstein Smith which assert that <span class="hlt">truth</span> and writing are incompatible. Offers an introduction to their major arguments, and critiques the positions they share. Reveals that their vision of writing and <span class="hlt">truth</span> is bolstered by three questionable premises about the nature of <span class="hlt">truth</span> in human…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308379','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308379"><span><span class="hlt">Accurate</span> evaluations of the field shift and lowest-order QED correction for the <span class="hlt">ground</span> 1{sup 1}S−states of some light two-electron ions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Frolov, Alexei M.; Wardlaw, David M.</p> <p>2014-09-14</p> <p>Mass-dependent and field shift components of the isotopic shift are determined to high accuracy for the <span class="hlt">ground</span> 1{sup 1}S−states of some light two-electron Li{sup +}, Be{sup 2+}, B{sup 3+}, and C{sup 4+} ions. To determine the field components of these isotopic shifts we apply the Racah-Rosental-Breit formula. We also determine the lowest order QED corrections to the isotopic shifts for each of these two-electron ions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ARMS....4..425B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ARMS....4..425B"><span>Marine Viruses: <span class="hlt">Truth</span> or Dare</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Breitbart, Mya</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Over the past two decades, marine virology has progressed from a curiosity to an intensely studied topic of critical importance to oceanography. At concentrations of approximately 10 million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing their bacterial hosts, marine phages control bacterial abundance, affect community composition, and impact global biogeochemical cycles. In addition, phages influence their hosts through selection for resistance, horizontal gene transfer, and manipulation of bacterial metabolism. Recent work has also demonstrated that marine phages are extremely diverse and can carry a variety of auxiliary metabolic genes encoding critical ecological functions. This review is structured as a scientific "<span class="hlt">truth</span> or dare," revealing several well-established "<span class="hlt">truths</span>" about marine viruses and presenting a few "dares" for the research community to undertake in future studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20962136','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20962136"><span>The Inconvenient <span class="hlt">Truth</span>. Part 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Athanasiou, T.</p> <p>2007-01-15</p> <p>Essay-type of publication on what should happen next after Al Gore's presentations on the Inconvenient <span class="hlt">Truth</span> about the impacts of climate change. The essay states in the first lines: 'We've seen the movie, so we know the first part - we're in trouble deep. And it's time, past time, for at least some of us to go beyond warning to planning, to start talking seriously about a global crash program to stabilize the climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3616109','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3616109"><span>Telling Lies: The Irrepressible <span class="hlt">Truth</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Williams, Emma J.; Bott, Lewis A.; Patrick, John; Lewis, Michael B.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Telling a lie takes longer than telling the <span class="hlt">truth</span> but precisely why remains uncertain. We investigated two processes suggested to increase response times, namely the decision to lie and the construction of a lie response. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were directed or chose whether to lie or tell the <span class="hlt">truth</span>. A colored square was presented and participants had to name either the true color of the square or lie about it by claiming it was a different color. In both experiments we found that there was a greater difference between lying and telling the <span class="hlt">truth</span> when participants were directed to lie compared to when they chose to lie. In Experiments 3 and 4, we compared response times when participants had only one possible lie option to a choice of two or three possible options. There was a greater lying latency effect when questions involved more than one possible lie response. Experiment 5 examined response choice mechanisms through the manipulation of lie plausibility. Overall, results demonstrate several distinct mechanisms that contribute to additional processing requirements when individuals tell a lie. PMID:23573277</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140013252','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140013252"><span>Evaluation of the Performance Characteristics of the CGLSS and NLDN Systems Based on Two Years of <span class="hlt">Ground-Truth</span> Data from Launch Complex 39B, Kennedy Space Center, Florida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mata, Carlos T.; Hill, Jonathan D.; Mata, Angel G.; Cummins, Kenneth L.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>From May 2011 through July 2013, the lightning instrumentation at Launch Complex 39B (LC39B) at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, has obtained high-speed video records and field change waveforms (dE/dt and three-axis dH/dt) for 54 negative polarity return strokes whose strike termination locations and times are known with accuracy of the order of 10 m or less and 1 µs, respectively. A total of 18 strokes terminated directly to the LC39B lighting protection system (LPS), which contains three 181 m towers in a triangular configuration, an overhead catenary wire system on insulating masts, and nine down conductors. An additional 9 strokes terminated on the 106 m lightning protection mast of Launch Complex 39A (LC39A), which is located about 2.7 km southeast of LC39B. The remaining 27 return strokes struck either on the <span class="hlt">ground</span> or attached to low-elevation <span class="hlt">grounded</span> objects within about 500 m of the LC39B LPS. Leader/return stroke sequences were imaged at 3200 frames/sec by a network of six Phantom V310 high-speed video cameras. Each of the three towers on LC39B had two high-speed cameras installed at the 147 m level with overlapping fields of view of the center of the pad. The locations of the strike points of 54 return strokes have been compared to time-correlated reports of the Cloud-to-<span class="hlt">Ground</span> Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) and the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), and the results of this comparison will be presented and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415559','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415559"><span><span class="hlt">Accurate</span> high level ab initio-based global potential energy surface and dynamics calculations for <span class="hlt">ground</span> state of CH{sub 2}{sup +}</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Li, Y. Q.; Zhang, P. Y.; Han, K. L.</p> <p>2015-03-28</p> <p>A global many-body expansion potential energy surface is reported for the electronic <span class="hlt">ground</span> state of CH{sub 2}{sup +} by fitting high level ab initio energies calculated at the multireference configuration interaction level with the aug-cc-pV6Z basis set. The topographical features of the new global potential energy surface are examined in detail and found to be in good agreement with those calculated directly from the raw ab initio energies, as well as previous calculations available in the literature. In turn, in order to validate the potential energy surface, a test theoretical study of the reaction CH{sup +}(X{sup 1}Σ{sup +})+H({sup 2}S)→C{sup +}({sup 2}P)+H{sub 2}(X{sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +}) has been carried out with the method of time dependent wavepacket on the title potential energy surface. The total integral cross sections and the rate coefficients have been calculated; the results determined that the new potential energy surface can both be recommended for dynamics studies of any type and as building blocks for constructing the potential energy surfaces of larger C{sup +}/H containing systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JChPh.134i4306H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JChPh.134i4306H"><span><span class="hlt">Accurate</span> ab initio determination of the adiabatic potential energy function and the Born-Oppenheimer breakdown corrections for the electronic <span class="hlt">ground</span> state of LiH isotopologues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holka, Filip; Szalay, Péter G.; Fremont, Julien; Rey, Michael; Peterson, Kirk A.; Tyuterev, Vladimir G.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>High level ab initio potential energy functions have been constructed for LiH in order to predict vibrational levels up to dissociation. After careful tests of the parameters of the calculation, the final adiabatic potential energy function has been composed from: (a) an ab initio nonrelativistic potential obtained at the multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles level including a size-extensivity correction and quintuple-sextuple ζ extrapolations of the basis, (b) a mass-velocity-Darwin relativistic correction, and (c) a diagonal Born-Oppenheimer (BO) correction. Finally, nonadiabatic effects have also been considered by including a nonadiabatic correction to the kinetic energy operator of the nuclei. This correction is calculated from nonadiabatic matrix elements between the <span class="hlt">ground</span> and excited electronic states. The calculated vibrational levels have been compared with those obtained from the experimental data [J. A. Coxon and C. S. Dickinson, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 9378 (2004)]. It was found that the calculated BO potential results in vibrational levels which have root mean square (rms) deviations of about 6-7 cm-1 for LiH and ˜3 cm-1 for LiD. With all the above mentioned corrections accounted for, the rms deviation falls down to ˜1 cm-1. These results represent a drastic improvement over previous theoretical predictions of vibrational levels for all isotopologues of LiH.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21384968','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21384968"><span><span class="hlt">Accurate</span> ab initio determination of the adiabatic potential energy function and the Born-Oppenheimer breakdown corrections for the electronic <span class="hlt">ground</span> state of LiH isotopologues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holka, Filip; Szalay, Péter G; Fremont, Julien; Rey, Michael; Peterson, Kirk A; Tyuterev, Vladimir G</p> <p>2011-03-07</p> <p>High level ab initio potential energy functions have been constructed for LiH in order to predict vibrational levels up to dissociation. After careful tests of the parameters of the calculation, the final adiabatic potential energy function has been composed from: (a) an ab initio nonrelativistic potential obtained at the multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles level including a size-extensivity correction and quintuple-sextuple ζ extrapolations of the basis, (b) a mass-velocity-Darwin relativistic correction, and (c) a diagonal Born-Oppenheimer (BO) correction. Finally, nonadiabatic effects have also been considered by including a nonadiabatic correction to the kinetic energy operator of the nuclei. This correction is calculated from nonadiabatic matrix elements between the <span class="hlt">ground</span> and excited electronic states. The calculated vibrational levels have been compared with those obtained from the experimental data [J. A. Coxon and C. S. Dickinson, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 9378 (2004)]. It was found that the calculated BO potential results in vibrational levels which have root mean square (rms) deviations of about 6-7 cm(-1) for LiH and ∼3 cm(-1) for LiD. With all the above mentioned corrections accounted for, the rms deviation falls down to ∼1 cm(-1). These results represent a drastic improvement over previous theoretical predictions of vibrational levels for all isotopologues of LiH.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=definition+AND+truth&pg=6&id=EJ225348','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=definition+AND+truth&pg=6&id=EJ225348"><span>Finding the Common <span class="hlt">Ground</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wallace, Dawn</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Describes an attempt to combine secondary English instruction emphasizing United States literature with science and history by finding "common <span class="hlt">ground</span>" between these disciplines in (1) the separation of <span class="hlt">truth</span> from falsehood and (2) logical thinking. Biographies combined history and literature, and science fiction combined science and English;…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023889','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023889"><span>Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio- Studies (<span class="hlt">TRUTHS</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fox, N.; Aiken, J.; Barnett, J.J.; Briottet, X.; Carvell, R.; Frohlich, C.; Groom, S.B.; Hagolle, O.; Haigh, J.D.; Kieffer, H.H.; Lean, J.; Pollock, D.B.; Quinn, T.; Sandford, M.C.W.; Schaepman, M.; Shine, K.P.; Schmutz, W.K.; Teillet, P.M.; Thome, K.J.; Verstraete, M.M.; Zalewski, E.; ,</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio- Studies (<span class="hlt">TRUTHS</span>) mission offers a novel approach to the provision of key scientific data with unprecedented radiometric accuracy for Earth Observation (EO) and solar studies, which will also establish well-calibrated reference targets/standards to support other EO missions. This paper will present the <span class="hlt">TRUTHS</span> mission and its objectives. <span class="hlt">TRUTHS</span> will be the first satellite mission to calibrate its instrumentation directly to SI in orbit, overcoming the usual uncertainties associated with drifts of sensor gain and spectral shape by using an electrical rather than an optical standard as the basis of its calibration. The range of instruments flown as part of the payload will also provide <span class="hlt">accurate</span> input data to improve atmospheric radiative transfer codes by anchoring boundary conditions, through simultaneous measurements of aerosols, particulates and radiances at various heights. Therefore, <span class="hlt">TRUTHS</span> will significantly improve the performance and accuracy of Earth observation missions with broad global or operational aims, as well as more dedicated missions. The provision of reference standards will also improve synergy between missions by reducing errors due to different calibration biases and offer cost reductions for future missions by reducing the demands for on-board calibration systems. Such improvements are important for the future success of strategies such as Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) and the implementation and monitoring of international treaties such as the Kyoto Protocol. <span class="hlt">TRUTHS</span> will achieve these aims by measuring the geophysical variables of solar and lunar irradiance, together with both polarised and un-polarised spectral radiance of the Moon, and the Earth and its atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024711','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024711"><span>Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial - and Helio- Studies (<span class="hlt">TRUTHS</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fox, N.; Aiken, J.; Barnett, J.J.; Briottet, X.; Carvell, R.; Frohlich, C.; Groom, S.B.; Hagolle, O.; Haigh, J.D.; Kieffer, H.H.; Lean, J.; Pollock, D.B.; Quinn, T.; Sandford, M.C.W.; Schaepman, M.; Shine, K.P.; Schmutz, W.K.; Teillet, P.M.; Thome, K.J.; Verstraete, M.M.; Zalewski, E.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio- Studies (<span class="hlt">TRUTHS</span>) mission offers a novel approach to the provision of key scientific data with unprecedented radiometric accuracy for Earth Observation (EO) and solar studies, which will also establish well-calibrated reference targets/standards to support other EO missions. This paper presents the <span class="hlt">TRUTHS</span> mission and its objectives. <span class="hlt">TRUTHS</span> will be the first satellite mission to calibrate its EO instrumentation directly to SI in orbit, overcoming the usual uncertainties associated with drifts of sensor gain and spectral shape by using an electrical rather than an optical standard as the basis of its calibration. The range of instruments flown as part of the payload will also provide <span class="hlt">accurate</span> input data to improve atmospheric radiative transfer codes by anchoring boundary conditions, through simultaneous measurements of aerosols, particulates and radiances at various heights. Therefore, <span class="hlt">TRUTHS</span> will significantly improve the performance and accuracy of EO missions with broad global or operational aims, as well as more dedicated missions. The provision of reference standards will also improve synergy between missions by reducing errors due to different calibration biases and offer cost reductions for future missions by reducing the demands for on-board calibration systems. Such improvements are important for the future success of strategies such as Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) and the implementation and monitoring of international treaties such as the Kyoto Protocol. <span class="hlt">TRUTHS</span> will achieve these aims by measuring the geophysical variables of solar and lunar irradiance, together with both polarised and unpolarised spectral radiance of the Moon, Earth and its atmosphere. Published by Elsevier Ltd of behalf of COSPAR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24923778','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24923778"><span>Lie, <span class="hlt">truth</span>, lie: the role of task switching in a deception context.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Debey, Evelyne; Liefooghe, Baptist; De Houwer, Jan; Verschuere, Bruno</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>A cornerstone of the task switching literature is the finding that task performance is typically slower and more error-prone when the task switches than when it repeats. So far, deception research has largely ignored that such cognitive switch costs should also emerge when switching between <span class="hlt">truth</span> telling and lying, and may affect the cognitive cost of lying as reflected in higher prefrontal brain activity and slower and less <span class="hlt">accurate</span> responding compared to <span class="hlt">truth</span> telling. To get a grasp on the relative size of the switch costs associated with lying and <span class="hlt">truth</span> telling, the current study had participants perform a reaction time-based deception task, in which they alternated between lying and telling the <span class="hlt">truth</span> to yes/no questions that were related to activities performed in the lab (Experiment 1) or neutral autobiographical facts (Experiment 2). In both experiments, the error and reaction time switch costs were found to be equally large for switching from <span class="hlt">truth</span> telling to lying and from lying to <span class="hlt">truth</span> telling. This symmetry in switch costs can be explained from the hypothesis that lying requires a first step of <span class="hlt">truth</span> telling, and demonstrates that task switching does not contribute to the cognitive cost of lying when the repetition/switch ratio is balanced. Theoretical and methodological implications are considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20433096','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20433096"><span>Inside <span class="hlt">truths</span>: '<span class="hlt">truth</span>' and mental illness in the Australian asylum seeker and detention debates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maglen, Krista</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>This article examines some of the key debates and interactions between the Australian government and medical profession in relation to the mental health consequences of the policy of mandatory detention of asylum seekers. It explores how, in a series of episodes between 2001 and 2005, each side claimed to represent <span class="hlt">accurately</span> the 'true' nature of the detention system through asserting superior 'objectivity' and commitment to 'scientific <span class="hlt">truth</span>' in their representations of the mental health of asylum seekers. Placing these debates within the particular political objectives of the Liberal Party during John Howard's term as Prime Minister, the article explores how science and medical advocacy have been characterized and made to signify larger conflicts within the Australian political arena. It shows how populist political ideas of 'elitism' have been used by the government to represent as 'elitist untruths' psychiatric research which has demonstrated a direct causal links between government border control policies and mental ill-health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A41E0102K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A41E0102K"><span>Broad-spectrum monitoring strategies for predicting occult precipitation contribution to water balance in a coastal watershed in California: <span class="hlt">Ground-truthing</span>, areal monitoring and isotopic analysis of fog in the San Francisco Bay region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koohafkan, M.; Thompson, S. E.; Leonardson, R.; Dufour, A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We showcase a fog monitoring study designed to quantitatively estimate the contribution of summer fog events to the water balance of a coastal watershed managed by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission. Two decades of research now clearly show that fog and occult precipitation can be major contributors to the water balance of watersheds worldwide. Monitoring, understanding and predicting occult precipitation is therefore as hydrologically compelling as forecasting precipitation or evaporation, particularly in the face of climate variability. We combine <span class="hlt">ground</span>-based monitoring and collection strategies with remote sensing technologies, time-lapse imagery, and isotope analysis to trace the ';signature' of fog in physical and ecological processes. Spatial coverage and duration of fog events in the watershed is monitored using time-lapse cameras and leaf wetness sensors strategically positioned to provide estimates of the fog bank extent and cloud base elevation, and this fine-scale data is used to estimate transpiration suppression by fog and is examined in the context of regional climate through the use of satellite imagery. Soil moisture sensors, throughfall collectors and advective fog collectors deployed throughout the watershed provide quantitative estimates of fog drip contribution to soil moisture and plants. Fog incidence records and streamflow monitoring provide daily estimates of fog contribution to streamflow. Isotope analysis of soil water, fog drip, stream water and vegetation samples are used to probe for evidence of direct root and leaf uptake of fog drip by plants. Using this diversity of fog monitoring methods, we develop an empirical framework for the inclusion of fog processes in water balance models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020897','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020897"><span>Effects of temporal variability in <span class="hlt">ground</span> data collection on classification accuracy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hoch, G.A.; Cully, J.F.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This research tested whether the timing of <span class="hlt">ground</span> data collection can significantly impact the accuracy of land cover classification. Ft. Riley Military Reservation, Kansas, USA was used to test this hypothesis. The U.S. Army's Land Condition Trend Analysis (LCTA) data annually collected at military bases was used to <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> disturbance patterns. <span class="hlt">Ground</span> data collected over an entire growing season and data collected one year after the imagery had a kappa statistic of 0.33. When using <span class="hlt">ground</span> data from only within two weeks of image acquisition the kappa statistic improved to 0.55. Potential sources of this discrepancy are identified. These data demonstrate that there can be significant amounts of land cover change within a narrow time window on military reservations. To <span class="hlt">accurately</span> conduct land cover classification at military reservations, <span class="hlt">ground</span> data need to be collected in as narrow a window of time as possible and be closely synchronized with the date of the satellite imagery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSM51A2519G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSM51A2519G"><span>Concepts and Results of New Method for <span class="hlt">Accurate</span> <span class="hlt">Ground</span> and In-Flight Calibration of the Particle Spectrometers of the Fast Plasma Investigation on NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gliese, U.; Gershman, D. J.; Dorelli, J.; Avanov, L. A.; Barrie, A. C.; Clark, G. B.; Kujawski, J. T.; Mariano, A. J.; Coffey, V. N.; Tucker, C. J.; Chornay, D. J.; Cao, N. T.; Zeuch, M. A.; Dickson, C.; Smith, D. L.; Salo, C.; MacDonald, E.; Kreisler, S.; Jacques, A. D.; Giles, B. L.; Pollock, C. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) on NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission employs 16 Dual Electron Spectrometers and 16 Dual Ion Spectrometers with 4 of each type on each of 4 spacecraft to enable fast (30 ms for electrons; 150 ms for ions) and spatially differentiated measurements of the full 3D particle velocity distributions. This approach presents a new and challenging aspect to the calibration and operation of these instruments on <span class="hlt">ground</span> and in flight. The response uniformity, the reliability of their calibration and the approach to handling any temporal evolution of these calibrated characteristics all assume enhanced importance in this application, where we attempt to understand the meaning of particle distributions within the ion and electron diffusion regions of magnetically reconnecting plasmas. We have developed a detailed model of the spectrometer detection system, its behavior and its signal, crosstalk and noise sources. Based on this, we have devised a new calibration method that enables <span class="hlt">accurate</span> and repeatable measurement of micro-channel plate (MCP) gain, signal loss due to variation in MCP gain and crosstalk effects in one single measurement. The foundational concepts of this new calibration method, named threshold scan, are presented. It is shown how this method has been successfully applied both on <span class="hlt">ground</span> and in-flight to achieve highly <span class="hlt">accurate</span> and precise calibration of all 64 spectrometers. Calibration parameters that will evolve in flight are determined daily providing a robust characterization of sensor suite performance, as a basis for both in-situ hardware adjustment and data processing to scientific units, throughout mission lifetime. This is shown to be very desirable as the instruments will produce higher quality raw science data that will require smaller post-acquisition data-corrections using results from in-flight derived pitch angle distribution measurements and <span class="hlt">ground</span> calibration measurements. The practical application</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=3&id=EJ875980','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=3&id=EJ875980"><span>The Philosophical Problem of <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Librarianship</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Labaree, Robert V.; Scimeca, Ross</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The authors develop a framework for addressing the question of <span class="hlt">truth</span> in librarianship and in doing so attempt to move considerations of <span class="hlt">truth</span> closer to the core of philosophical debates within the profession. After establishing ways in which philosophy contributes to social scientific inquiry in library science, the authors examine concepts of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=3&id=EJ945050','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=3&id=EJ945050"><span>Students' Conceptions of Knowledge, Information, and <span class="hlt">Truth</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alexander, Patricia A.; Winters, Fielding I.; Loughlin, Sandra M.; Grossnickle, Emily M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In this study, everyday conceptions of knowledge, information, and <span class="hlt">truth</span> were investigated as 161 US undergraduates completed three online tasks that investigated understandings of these foundational constructs. For the first task, respondents graphically represented the interrelations of knowledge, information, and <span class="hlt">truth</span>; the second task required…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-05-31/pdf/2011-12795.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-05-31/pdf/2011-12795.pdf"><span>76 FR 31221 - <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending; Correction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-05-31</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 226 RIN 7100-AD55 <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending; Correction AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal... April 25, 2011. The final rule amends Regulation Z, which implements the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending Act, in...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-02-22/pdf/2010-606.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-02-22/pdf/2010-606.pdf"><span>75 FR 7925 - <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-02-22</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 226 <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final... implements the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending Act (TILA), and the official staff commentary. The rule followed...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aristotle+AND+ethics&pg=4&id=EJ790058','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aristotle+AND+ethics&pg=4&id=EJ790058"><span>Two Views about <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in the Arts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shaw, Daniel Joseph</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Arguably, the profoundest classical treatment of literary <span class="hlt">truth</span>, and by extension, of <span class="hlt">truth</span> in the arts, can be found in Aristotle's "Poetics." But as the writings of two twentieth-century theorists show, Aristotle's insights can be taken in very different ways. In this essay, the author contrasts John Hospers's anti-cognitivist reading of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=SPACE+AND+RESEARCH&pg=4&id=EJ1048139','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=SPACE+AND+RESEARCH&pg=4&id=EJ1048139"><span>Ethics and <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Archival Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tesar, Marek</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The complexities of the ethics and <span class="hlt">truth</span> in archival research are often unrecognised or invisible in educational research. This paper complicates the process of collecting data in the archives, as it problematises notions of ethics and <span class="hlt">truth</span> in the archives. The archival research took place in the former Czechoslovakia and its turbulent political…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Kuhn&pg=6&id=EJ793073','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Kuhn&pg=6&id=EJ793073"><span>Does the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Matter in Science?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lipton, Peter</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Is science in the <span class="hlt">truth</span> business, discovering ever more about an independent and largely unobservable world? Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn, two of the most important figures in science studies in the 20th century, gave accounts of science that are in some tension with the <span class="hlt">truth</span> view. Their central claims about science are considered here, along with…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27112745','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27112745"><span>ON LANGUAGE AND <span class="hlt">TRUTH</span> IN PSYCHOANALYSIS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ogden, Thomas H</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The author's focus in this paper is on the role that language plays in bringing to life the <span class="hlt">truth</span> of the patient's lived experience in the analytic session. He discusses particular forms of discourse that enable the patient to experience with the analyst the <span class="hlt">truth</span> that the patient had previously been unable to experience, much less put into words, on his own. The three forms of discourse that the author explores-direct discourse, tangential discourse, and discourse of non sequiturs-do not simply serve as ways of communicating the <span class="hlt">truth</span>; they are integral aspects of the <span class="hlt">truth</span> of what is happening at any given moment of a session. The <span class="hlt">truth</span> that is experienced and expressed in the analytic discourse lies at least as much in the breaks (the disjunctions) in that discourse as in its manifest narrative.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20943416','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20943416"><span>Fluency and positivity as possible causes of the <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Unkelbach, Christian; Bayer, Myriam; Alves, Hans; Koch, Alex; Stahl, Christoph</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Statements' rated <span class="hlt">truth</span> increases when people encounter them repeatedly. Processing fluency is a central variable to explain this <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect. However, people experience processing fluency positively, and these positive experiences might cause the <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect. Three studies investigated positivity and fluency influences on the <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect. Study 1 found correlations between elicited positive feelings and rated <span class="hlt">truth</span>. Study 2 replicated the repetition-based <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect, but positivity did not influence the effect. Study 3 conveyed positive and negative correlations between positivity and <span class="hlt">truth</span> in a learning phase. We again replicated the <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect, but positivity only influenced judgments for easy statements in the learning phase. Thus, across three studies, we found positivity effects on rated <span class="hlt">truth</span>, but not on the repetition-based <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect: We conclude that positivity does not explain the standard <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect, but the role of positive experiences for <span class="hlt">truth</span> judgments deserves further investigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26705502','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26705502"><span>On the Discovery of Evolving <span class="hlt">Truth</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Yaliang; Li, Qi; Gao, Jing; Su, Lu; Zhao, Bo; Fan, Wei; Han, Jiawei</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>In the era of big data, information regarding the same objects can be collected from increasingly more sources. Unfortunately, there usually exist conflicts among the information coming from different sources. To tackle this challenge, <span class="hlt">truth</span> discovery, i.e., to integrate multi-source noisy information by estimating the reliability of each source, has emerged as a hot topic. In many real world applications, however, the information may come sequentially, and as a consequence, the <span class="hlt">truth</span> of objects as well as the reliability of sources may be dynamically evolving. Existing <span class="hlt">truth</span> discovery methods, unfortunately, cannot handle such scenarios. To address this problem, we investigate the temporal relations among both object <span class="hlt">truths</span> and source reliability, and propose an incremental <span class="hlt">truth</span> discovery framework that can dynamically update object <span class="hlt">truths</span> and source weights upon the arrival of new data. Theoretical analysis is provided to show that the proposed method is guaranteed to converge at a fast rate. The experiments on three real world applications and a set of synthetic data demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method over state-of-the-art <span class="hlt">truth</span> discovery methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19725478','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19725478"><span>[Medicine and <span class="hlt">truth</span>: between science and narrative].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Materia, Enrico; Baglio, Giovanni</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>To which idea of <span class="hlt">truth</span> may medicine refer? Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is rooted in the scientific <span class="hlt">truth</span>. To explain the meaning and to trace the evolution of scientific <span class="hlt">truth</span>, this article outlines the history of the Scientific Revolution and of the parable of Modernity, up to the arrival of pragmatism and hermeneutics. Here, the concept of <span class="hlt">truth</span> becomes somehow discomfiting and the momentum leans towards the integration of different points of view. The fuzzy set theory for the definition of disease, as well as the shift from disease to syndrome (which has operational relevance for geriatrics), seems to refer to a more complex perspective on knowledge, albeit one that is less defined as compared to the nosology in use. Supporters of narrative medicine seek the <span class="hlt">truth</span> in the interpretation of the patients' stories, and take advantage of the medical humanities to find the <span class="hlt">truth</span> in words, feelings and contact with the patients. Hence, it is possible to mention the parresia, which is the frank communication espoused by stoicism and epicureanism, a technical and ethical quality which allows one to care in the proper way, a true discourse for one's own moral stance. Meanwhile, EBM and narrative medicine are converging towards a point at which medicine is considered a practical knowledge. It is the perspective of complexity that as a zeitgeist explains these multiple instances and proposes multiplicity and uncertainty as key referents for the <span class="hlt">truth</span> and the practice of medicine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8029667','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8029667"><span>Japanese attitudes towards <span class="hlt">truth</span> disclosure in cancer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tanida, N</p> <p>1994-03-01</p> <p>Despite the increasing concerns of <span class="hlt">truth</span> disclosure, most cancer patients are not told the <span class="hlt">truth</span> about their disease in Japan. The author has tried to provide some insight into this issue by evaluating results from questionnaires given to hospital patients, clients in a mass cancer survey, and doctors of a college hospital. Results showed that 72% of patients and 83% of clients wanted to be told the <span class="hlt">truth</span>, but only 33% and 34% of them thought that the <span class="hlt">truth</span> should be told to cancer patients. These attitudes of patients and clients regarding <span class="hlt">truth</span> disclosure were more positive than those of the general public and health care workers in previous studies. At present, 13% of doctors inform cancer patients of their disease. These trends indicate that the Japanese attitude toward avoiding <span class="hlt">truth</span> disclosure stems primarily from paternalism but is also influenced by social characteristics including insufficient understanding of this issue. Open discussion involving all factions of society is necessary to attain a better understanding of this issue and to promote eventual <span class="hlt">truth</span> disclosure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4688022','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4688022"><span>On the Discovery of Evolving <span class="hlt">Truth</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Yaliang; Li, Qi; Gao, Jing; Su, Lu; Zhao, Bo; Fan, Wei; Han, Jiawei</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In the era of big data, information regarding the same objects can be collected from increasingly more sources. Unfortunately, there usually exist conflicts among the information coming from different sources. To tackle this challenge, <span class="hlt">truth</span> discovery, i.e., to integrate multi-source noisy information by estimating the reliability of each source, has emerged as a hot topic. In many real world applications, however, the information may come sequentially, and as a consequence, the <span class="hlt">truth</span> of objects as well as the reliability of sources may be dynamically evolving. Existing <span class="hlt">truth</span> discovery methods, unfortunately, cannot handle such scenarios. To address this problem, we investigate the temporal relations among both object <span class="hlt">truths</span> and source reliability, and propose an incremental <span class="hlt">truth</span> discovery framework that can dynamically update object <span class="hlt">truths</span> and source weights upon the arrival of new data. Theoretical analysis is provided to show that the proposed method is guaranteed to converge at a fast rate. The experiments on three real world applications and a set of synthetic data demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method over state-of-the-art <span class="hlt">truth</span> discovery methods. PMID:26705502</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=meaning+AND+thesis&pg=3&id=EJ873779','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=meaning+AND+thesis&pg=3&id=EJ873779"><span>Science, Religion, and the Quest for Knowledge and <span class="hlt">Truth</span>: An Islamic Perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Guessoum, Nidhal</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This article consists of two parts. The first one is to a large extent a commentary on John R. Staver's "Skepticism, <span class="hlt">truth</span> as coherence, and constructivist epistemology: <span class="hlt">grounds</span> for resolving the discord between science and religion?" The second part is a related overview of Islam's philosophy of knowledge and, to a certain degree, science. In…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27318939','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27318939"><span>Unveiling the <span class="hlt">truth</span>: warnings reduce the repetition-based <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nadarevic, Lena; Aßfalg, André</p> <p>2016-06-18</p> <p>Typically, people are more likely to consider a previously seen or heard statement as true compared to a novel statement. This repetition-based "<span class="hlt">truth</span> effect" is thought to rely on fluency-<span class="hlt">truth</span> attributions as the underlying cognitive mechanism. In two experiments, we tested the nature of the fluency-attribution mechanism by means of warning instructions, which informed participants about the <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect and asked them to prevent it. In Experiment 1, we instructed warned participants to consider whether a statement had already been presented in the experiment to avoid the <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect. However, warnings did not significantly reduce the <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect. In Experiment 2, we introduced control questions and reminders to ensure that participants understood the warning instruction. This time, warning reduced, but did not eliminate the <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect. Assuming that the <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect relies on fluency-<span class="hlt">truth</span> attributions, this finding suggests that warned participants could control their attributions but did not disregard fluency altogether when making <span class="hlt">truth</span> judgments. Further, we found no evidence that participants overdiscount the influence of fluency on their <span class="hlt">truth</span> judgments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060043601&hterms=truth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtruth','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060043601&hterms=truth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtruth"><span>MER vistas: <span class="hlt">ground-truth</span> for Earth-based radar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Haldemann, Albert F.; Larsen, Kristopher W.; Jurgens, Raymond F.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Slade, Martin A.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Earth-based delay-Doppler radar observations of Mars with four receiving stations were carried out during the Mars oppositions of 2001 and 2003 in support of Mars Exploration Rover landing site selection. This interferometric planetary radar technique has demonstrated radar mapping of Mars with a 5 km spatial resolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100009427','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100009427"><span>LRO Diviner Soil Composition Measurements - Lunar Sample <span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truth</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Allen, Carlton C.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Paige, David A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter [1,2] includes three thermal infrared channels spanning the wavelength ranges 7.55-8.05 microns 8.10-8.40 microns, and 8.38-8.68 microns. These "8 micron" bands were specifically selected to measure the "Christiansen feature". The wavelength location of this feature, referred to herein as CF, is particularly sensitive to silicate minerals including plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine the major crystalline components of lunar rocks and soil. The general trend is that lower CF values are correlated with higher silica content and higher CF values are correlated with lower silica content. In a companion abstract, Greenhagen et al. [3] discuss the details of lunar mineral identification using Diviner data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AAS...22934717N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AAS...22934717N"><span>Quantitative Morphology Measures in Galaxies: <span class="hlt">Ground-Truthing</span> from Simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Narayanan, Desika T.; Abruzzo, Matthew W.; Dave, Romeel; Thompson, Robert</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The process of galaxy assembly is a prevalent question in astronomy; there are a variety of potentially important effects, including baryonic accretion from the intergalactic medium, as well as major galaxy mergers. Recent years have ushered in the development of quantitative measures of morphology such as the Gini coefficient (G), the second-order moment of the brightest quintile of a galaxy’s light (M20), and the concentration (C), asymmetry (A), and clumpiness (S) of galaxies. To investigate the efficacy of these observational methods at identifying major mergers, we have run a series of very high resolution cosmological zoom simulations, and coupled these with 3D Monte Carlo dust radiative transfer. Our methodology is powerful in that it allows us to “observe” the simulation as an observer would, while maintaining detailed knowledge of the true merger history of the galaxy. In this presentation, we will present our main results from our analysis of these quantitative morphology measures, with a particular focus on high-redshift (z>2) systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760020566','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760020566"><span>Soil-moisture <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span>, Hand County, South Dakota</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jones, E. B.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Soil types were determined from the Soil Survey of Hand County, South Dakota. The soil types encountered on the soil moisture lines are summarized. The actual soil moisture data are presented. The data have been divided by range, township and section. The soil moisture data obtained in fields of winter wheat and spring wheat are briefly summarized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760023549','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760023549"><span>Soil-moisture <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span>, Hand County, South Dakota</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jones, E. B.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Soil samples were taken in the field and carefully preserved in taped metal containers for later laboratory gravimetric analysis to determine soil-moisture content. The typical sampling pattern used in this mission is illustrated, and the soil types encountered on the soil-moisture lines are summarized. The actual soil-moisture data were tabulated by range, township and section. Soil-moisture data obtained in fields of winter wheat and spring wheat are briefly summarized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA570025','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA570025"><span>Development of Mine Explosion <span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Smart Sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>interest. The two candidates are the GS11-D by Oyo Geospace that is used extensively in seismic monitoring of geothermal fields and the Sensor Nederland SM...Technologies 853 Figure 4. Our preferred sensors and processor for the GTMS. (a) Sensor Nederland SM-6 geophone with emplacement spike. (b</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA473142','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA473142"><span>Global <span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Data Set with Waveform and Arrival Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-07-30</p> <p>the NW by 18 km toward the African-European plate boundary. Even though the error ellipses are small, no events are promoted to GT5...17 10381 Rotorua, New Zealand -37.993 176.664 5.5 22 19 10386 Kileaua South Flank, Hawaii 19.312 -155.267 9.5 104 56 10500 Spitak, Armenia 41.012...recorded by 361 regional and teleseismic stations. The dashed line represents the plate boundary between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates (Bird</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S23E..07B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S23E..07B"><span>The <span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truth</span> of Crustal Anisotropy from Receiver Functions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bianchi, I.; Apoloner, M. T.; Qorbani, E.; Lloyd, S. M.; Gribovski, K.; Gerner, A.; Arneitz, P.; Jordakiev, P.; Bokelmann, G.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>As one of the rare observational tools for studying deformation and stress within the Earth, seismic anisotropy has been one of the focuses of geophysical studies over the last decade. Recently, in order to unravel the anisotropic properties of the crust, the teleseismic receiver functions (RFs) methodology has been largely applied. Effects of anisotropy on the RFs dataset were illustrated in more than one theoretical study, showing the strong backazimuthal dependence of RFs on the 3D characteristics of the traversed media. The use of teleseismic RFs has the advantage of not being affected by heterogeneous depth distribution of local earthquakes, since teleseismic rays sample the entire crust beneath the stations. The application of this technique anyway, needs to be critically assessed using a suitable field test. To test this technique, we need a crustal block where the underground structure is reasonably well-known, e.g., where there is extensive knowledge from local seismic experiments and drilling. Therefore a field test around the KTB (Kontinental Tiefbohrung) site in the Oberpfalz in Southeastern Germany, has been carried out to test the technique, and to compare with previous results from deep drilling, and high-frequency seismic experiments around the drill site. The investigated region has been studied extensively by local geophysical experiments. The deep borehole was placed into gneiss rocks of the Zone Erbendorf-Vohenstrauss. Drilling activity lasted from 1987 to 1994, and descended down to a depth of 9101 meters, sampling an alternating sequence of paragneiss and amphibolite, with metamorphism of upper amphibolite facies conditions, and ductile deformation produced a strong foliation of the rocks. The application of the RFs reveals strong seismic anisotropy in the upper crust related to the so-called Erbendorf body.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA224857','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA224857"><span>ALP FOPEN Site Description and <span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Summary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1990-02-01</p> <p>is comprised of inactive phloem cells. The next layer, which is usually only several millimeters thick, is the phloem layer. The cells in this layer...The bark layer; 2. The outside of the phloem layer, just to the inside of the cortex. Because this layer is often less than .10 cm thick, the outer...xylem layer is also influencing the dielectric constant measurement; 3. The inside of the phloem layer. The phloem layer can often be clearly separated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvE..90f2805H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvE..90f2805H"><span>Community detection in networks: Structural communities versus <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hric, Darko; Darst, Richard K.; Fortunato, Santo</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Algorithms to find communities in networks rely just on structural information and search for cohesive subsets of nodes. On the other hand, most scholars implicitly or explicitly assume that structural communities represent groups of nodes with similar (nontopological) properties or functions. This hypothesis could not be verified, so far, because of the lack of network datasets with information on the classification of the nodes. We show that traditional community detection methods fail to find the metadata groups in many large networks. Our results show that there is a marked separation between structural communities and metadata groups, in line with recent findings. That means that either our current modeling of community structure has to be substantially modified, or that metadata groups may not be recoverable from topology alone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070030107','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070030107"><span>Remote and <span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Spectral Measurement Comparisons of FORMOSAT III</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Abercromby, Kira Jorgensen; Hamada, Kris; Guyote, Michael; Okada, Jennifer; Barker, Edwin</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>FORMOSAT III are a set of six research satellites from Taiwan that were launched in April 2006. The satellites are in 800 km, 71 degree inclination orbits and separated by 24 degrees in ascending node. Laboratory spectral measurements were taken of outer surface materials on FORMOSAT III. From those measurements, a computer model was built to predict the spectral reflectance accounting for both solar phase angle and orientation of the spacecraft relative to the observer. However, materials exposed to the space environment have exhibited spectral changes including a darkening and a "reddening" of the spectra. This "reddening" is characterized by an increase in slope of the reflectance as the wavelength increases. Therefore, the model of pre-flight materials was augmented to include the presumed causative agent: space weathering effects. Remote data were collected on two of the six FORMOSAT satellites using the 1.6 meter telescope at the AMOS (Air Force Maui Optical and Supercomputing) site with the Spica spectrometer. Due to the separation in ascending node, observations were acquired of whichever one of the six satellites was visible on that specific night. Three nights of data were collected using the red (6000 - 9500 angstroms) filter and five nights of data were collected using the blue (3200 - 6600 angstroms) filter. A comparison of the data showed a good match to the pre-flight models for the blue filter region. The absorption feature near 5500 angstroms due to the copper colored Kapton multi-layer insulation (MLI) was very apparent in the remote samples and a good fit to the data was seen in all satellites observed. The features in the red filter regime agreed with the pre-flight model up through 7000 angstroms where the reddening begins and the slope of the remote sample increases. A comparison of the satellites showed similar features in the red and blue filter regions, i.e. the satellite surfaces were aging at the same rate. A comparison of the pre-flight model to the first month of remote measurements showed the amount by which the satellite had reddened. The second month of data observed a satellite at a higher altitude and was therefore, not compared to the first month. A third month of data was collected but of satellites at the lower altitude regime and can only be compared to the first month. One cause of the reddening that was ruled out in early papers was a possible calibration issue.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-10-28/pdf/2010-26671.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-10-28/pdf/2010-26671.pdf"><span>75 FR 66553 - <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-28</p> <p>...The Board is publishing for public comment an interim final rule amending Regulation Z (<span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending). The interim rule implements Section 129E of the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending Act (TILA), which was enacted on July 21, 2010, as Section 1472 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. TILA Section 129E establishes new requirements for appraisal independence for consumer credit......</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25051873','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25051873"><span>Empirical progress and nomic <span class="hlt">truth</span> approximation revisited.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuipers, Theo A F</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>In my From Instrumentalism to Constructive Realism (2000) I have shown how an instrumentalist account of empirical progress can be related to nomic <span class="hlt">truth</span> approximation. However, it was assumed that a strong notion of nomic theories was needed for that analysis. In this paper it is shown, in terms of <span class="hlt">truth</span> and falsity content, that the analysis already applies when, in line with scientific common sense, nomic theories are merely assumed to exclude certain conceptual possibilities as nomic possibilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED252502.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED252502.pdf"><span>Significant <span class="hlt">Truths</span> Our Society Has Failed to Learn at School.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Short, Edmund C.</p> <p></p> <p>It is the role of schools and colleges to teach certain <span class="hlt">truths</span> that can enhance the quality of one's life in society. Yet often these <span class="hlt">truths</span> are not learned at school because many students do not accept them as <span class="hlt">truths</span>, because they are not actually included in the curriculum, or because they are mistaught. These <span class="hlt">truths</span> revolve around eight…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20947772','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20947772"><span><span class="hlt">Truth</span> from language and <span class="hlt">truth</span> from fit: the impact of linguistic concreteness and level of construal on subjective <span class="hlt">truth</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hansen, Jochim; Wänke, Michaela</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>In four experiments, the impact of concreteness of language on judgments of <span class="hlt">truth</span> was examined. In Experiments 1 and 2, it was found that statements of the very same content were judged as more probably true when they were written in concrete language than when they were written in abstract language. Findings of Experiment 2 also showed that this linguistic concreteness effect on judgments of <span class="hlt">truth</span> could most likely be attributed to greater perceived vividness of concrete compared to abstract statements. Two further experiments demonstrated an additional fit effect: The <span class="hlt">truth</span> advantage of concrete statements occurred especially when participants were primed with a concrete (vs. abstract) mind-set (Experiment 3) or when the statements were presented in a spatially proximal (vs. distant) location (Experiment 4). Implications for communication strategies are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26930054','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26930054"><span>D-BRAIN: Anatomically <span class="hlt">Accurate</span> Simulated Diffusion MRI Brain Data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Perrone, Daniele; Jeurissen, Ben; Aelterman, Jan; Roine, Timo; Sijbers, Jan; Pizurica, Aleksandra; Leemans, Alexander; Philips, Wilfried</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Diffusion Weighted (DW) MRI allows for the non-invasive study of water diffusion inside living tissues. As such, it is useful for the investigation of human brain white matter (WM) connectivity in vivo through fiber tractography (FT) algorithms. Many DW-MRI tailored restoration techniques and FT algorithms have been developed. However, it is not clear how <span class="hlt">accurately</span> these methods reproduce the WM bundle characteristics in real-world conditions, such as in the presence of noise, partial volume effect, and a limited spatial and angular resolution. The difficulty lies in the lack of a realistic brain phantom on the one hand, and a sufficiently <span class="hlt">accurate</span> way of modeling the acquisition-related degradation on the other. This paper proposes a software phantom that approximates a human brain to a high degree of realism and that can incorporate complex brain-like structural features. We refer to it as a Diffusion BRAIN (D-BRAIN) phantom. Also, we propose an <span class="hlt">accurate</span> model of a (DW) MRI acquisition protocol to allow for validation of methods in realistic conditions with data imperfections. The phantom model simulates anatomical and diffusion properties for multiple brain tissue components, and can serve as a <span class="hlt">ground-truth</span> to evaluate FT algorithms, among others. The simulation of the acquisition process allows one to include noise, partial volume effects, and limited spatial and angular resolution in the images. In this way, the effect of image artifacts on, for instance, fiber tractography can be investigated with great detail. The proposed framework enables reliable and quantitative evaluation of DW-MR image processing and FT algorithms at the level of large-scale WM structures. The effect of noise levels and other data characteristics on cortico-cortical connectivity and tractography-based grey matter parcellation can be investigated as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=metaphysics&pg=5&id=ED530417','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=metaphysics&pg=5&id=ED530417"><span><span class="hlt">Truth</span>-Conditionally Inert Aspects of Content</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gordon, David A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Against a background of disagreement about what sorts of things linguistic contents are, many philosophers of language share the assumption that they're cut only as finely as the conditions under which they are true. This includes many theorists who would reject the program known as "<span class="hlt">truth</span>-conditional semantics". I argue that this point of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=elliot&pg=7&id=EJ748021','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=elliot&pg=7&id=EJ748021"><span>Consistency, Understanding and <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Educational Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Davis, Andrew</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>What do Elliot Eisner's discussions of objectivity mean for the strength of the link between consistency and <span class="hlt">truth</span> in educational research? Following his lead, I pursue this question by comparing aspects of qualitative educational research with appraising the arts. I argue that some departures from the highest levels of consistency in assessing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Classroom+AND+Management&pg=5&id=EJ951303','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Classroom+AND+Management&pg=5&id=EJ951303"><span>Five Half-<span class="hlt">Truths</span> about Classroom Management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Englehart, Joshua M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Teachers' classroom management practices are rooted in assumptions based on their experiences and perceptions. At times, these assumptions are only partially informed, and serve to limit action and perceived responsibility. In this article, five common "half-<span class="hlt">truths</span>" that guide classroom management are discussed. For each, the basic premise is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=transient+AND+analysis&pg=6&id=EJ812782','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=transient+AND+analysis&pg=6&id=EJ812782"><span>Complexity and <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Educational Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Radford, Mike</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This paper considers the impact of complexity theory on the way in which we see propositions corresponding to the reality that they describe, and our concept of <span class="hlt">truth</span> in that context. A contingently associated idea is the atomistic expectation that we can reduce language to primitive units of meaning, and tie those in with agreed units of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=post+AND+truth&pg=4&id=EJ701963','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=post+AND+truth&pg=4&id=EJ701963"><span>In Search of <span class="hlt">Truth</span>, on the Internet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Goldsborough, Reid</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Is it true? There's no more important question to ask when online. <span class="hlt">Truth</span> telling has never been a requirement to provide information online. Standards for accuracy, to a large extent, don't exist. As a general rule, the "real time" communication that takes place in instant messaging sessions and chat rooms is the most unreliable. One level up in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-02/pdf/2011-4385.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-02/pdf/2011-4385.pdf"><span>76 FR 11597 - <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-03-02</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 76 Wednesday, No. 41 March 2, 2011 Part III Federal Reserve System 12 CFR Part 226 <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 41 / Wednesday, March 2, 2011 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] FEDERAL...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900019364','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900019364"><span><span class="hlt">Accurate</span> quantum chemical calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently <span class="hlt">accurate</span> result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable <span class="hlt">grounds</span> for optimism about the general ability to perform <span class="hlt">accurate</span> calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-20/pdf/2011-18215.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-20/pdf/2011-18215.pdf"><span>76 FR 43111 - Regulation Z; <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-20</p> <p>...; <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Board). ACTION: Final rule... commentary to Regulation Z, which implements the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending Act (TILA). The commentary applies and.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Congress enacted the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending Act (TILA; 15 U.S.C. 1601 et...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-11-21/pdf/2012-27993.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-11-21/pdf/2012-27993.pdf"><span>77 FR 69736 - <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending (Regulation Z)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-11-21</p> <p>... CFR Part 226 RIN 7100-AD94 BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending... the agencies' regulations that implement the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending Act (TILA). Effective July 21, 2011, the... threshold in the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending Act (TILA) for exempt consumer credit transactions \\1\\ from $25,000 to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-12-16/pdf/2013-29844.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-12-16/pdf/2013-29844.pdf"><span>78 FR 76033 - <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending (Regulation Z)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-12-16</p> <p>... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending (Regulation Z) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection... Regulation Z, which implements the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending Act (TILA). The Bureau is required to calculate annually... Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act of 2009 (CARD Act), which amended the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending Act...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-12/pdf/2012-8534.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-12/pdf/2012-8534.pdf"><span>77 FR 21875 - <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending (Regulation Z)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-12</p> <p>...; ] BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 RIN 3170-AA21 <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending (Regulation Z... implements the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> In Lending Act, and the official interpretation to the regulation, which interprets the... Card Act) was signed into law on May 22, 2009.\\1\\ The Credit Card Act primarily amended the <span class="hlt">Truth</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-11-21/pdf/2012-27997.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-11-21/pdf/2012-27997.pdf"><span>77 FR 69738 - <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending (Regulation Z)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-11-21</p> <p>... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending (Regulation Z) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection...) is publishing a final rule amending the official interpretations for Regulation Z (<span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending.... Background The <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending Act (TILA; 15 U.S.C. 1601-1666j) requires creditors to disclose credit...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED479148.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED479148.pdf"><span>The <span class="hlt">Truth</span> and Harriet Martineau: Interpreting a Life.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Weiner, Gaby</p> <p></p> <p>This paper explores the difficulty of claims to <span class="hlt">truth</span> in the analysis of the life of the Victorian feminist, reformer, educationist, and celebrity, Harriet Martineau (1802-76). She was widely known as a <span class="hlt">truthful</span> person. For example, her contemporary, the poet Elizabeth Barrett Browning, wrote in 1845 that "her love of the <span class="hlt">truth</span> is proverbial…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol3-sec64-2401.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol3-sec64-2401.pdf"><span>47 CFR 64.2401 - <span class="hlt">Truth</span>-in-Billing Requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Truth</span>-in-Billing Requirements. 64.2401 Section... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS <span class="hlt">Truth</span>-in-Billing Requirements for Common Carriers § 64.2401 <span class="hlt">Truth</span>-in-Billing Requirements. (a) Bill organization. Telephone bills shall be...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920031324&hterms=truth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dtruth','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920031324&hterms=truth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dtruth"><span>Comparison of Surface Radiation Budget Satellite algorithms for downwelled shortwave irradiance with Wisconsin Fire/SRB surface-<span class="hlt">truth</span> data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Whitlock, C. H.; Staylor, W. F.; Darnell, W. L.; Chou, M. D.; Dedieu, G.; Deschamps, P. Y.; Ellis, J.; Gautier, C.; Frouin, R.; Rossow, W. B.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Surface radiation instruments were operated at various locations during the Wisconsin First ISSCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment (FIRE) and Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) experiment in October 1986. Satellite data were distributed to scientists who had previously developed satellite algorithms to estimate downwelled shortwave irradiance. Results of intercomparison of <span class="hlt">ground-truth</span> values with the satellite-derived estimates are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9923312','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9923312"><span><span class="hlt">Truth</span>, virtue and beauty: midwifery and philosophy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parker, J M; Gibbs, M</p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p>In this paper, we outline three moments in the history of Western philosophy--Classical Greek, Modernity, Postmodernity--and the ways in which issues of <span class="hlt">truth</span>, virtue and beauty have been understood within these philosophical formations. In particular, we investigate the ways in which notions of <span class="hlt">truth</span>, virtue and beauty influenced the orthodoxy of birthing practices at these different moments. Finally, we examine current, critical reflections on the role of the intellectual in postmodern society and use these reflections as a heuristic for understanding the role of the contemporary midwife. We suggest that midwifery must reconcile two divergent demands. The first is to mobilise the positive, instrumental benefits of Western medical science to improve mortality and morbidity outcomes. The second is to remain sensitive to the cultural and social meanings attached to traditional birthing practices and to understand the roles these play in the well-being of mother and child.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26615543','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26615543"><span>Culture, <span class="hlt">Truth</span>, and Science After Lacan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gillett, Grant</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Truth</span> and knowledge are conceptually related and there is a way of construing both that implies that they cannot be solely derived from a description that restricts itself to a set of scientific facts. In the first section of this essay, I analyse <span class="hlt">truth</span> as a relation between a praxis, ways of knowing, and the world. In the second section, I invoke the third thing-the objective reality on which we triangulate as knowing subjects for the purpose of complex scientific endeavours like medical science and clinical care. Such praxes develop robust methods of "keeping in touch" with disease and illness (like biomarkers). An analysis drawing on philosophical semantics motivates the needed (anti-scientistic) account of meaning and <span class="hlt">truth</span> (and therefore knowledge) and underpins the following argument: (i) the formulation and dissemination of knowledge rests on language; (ii) language is selective in what it represents in any given situation; (iii) the praxes of a given (sub)culture are based on this selectivity; but (iv) human health and illness involve whole human beings in a human life-world; therefore, (v) medical knowledge should reflectively transcend, where required, biomedical science towards a more inclusive view. Parts three and four argue that a post-structuralist (Lacanian) account of the human subject can avoid both scientism and idealism or unconstrained relativism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26301795','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26301795"><span>Knowledge does not protect against illusory <span class="hlt">truth</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fazio, Lisa K; Brashier, Nadia M; Payne, B Keith; Marsh, Elizabeth J</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>In daily life, we frequently encounter false claims in the form of consumer advertisements, political propaganda, and rumors. Repetition may be one way that insidious misconceptions, such as the belief that vitamin C prevents the common cold, enter our knowledge base. Research on the illusory <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect demonstrates that repeated statements are easier to process, and subsequently perceived to be more <span class="hlt">truthful</span>, than new statements. The prevailing assumption in the literature has been that knowledge constrains this effect (i.e., repeating the statement "The Atlantic Ocean is the largest ocean on Earth" will not make you believe it). We tested this assumption using both normed estimates of knowledge and individuals' demonstrated knowledge on a postexperimental knowledge check (Experiment 1). Contrary to prior suppositions, illusory <span class="hlt">truth</span> effects occurred even when participants knew better. Multinomial modeling demonstrated that participants sometimes rely on fluency even if knowledge is also available to them (Experiment 2). Thus, participants demonstrated knowledge neglect, or the failure to rely on stored knowledge, in the face of fluent processing experiences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3403913','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3403913"><span>Psychoanalysis and the hermeneutic turn: a critique of Narrative <span class="hlt">Truth</span> and Historical <span class="hlt">Truth</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sass, L A; Woolfolk, R L</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Through a discussion of Donald Spence's Narrative <span class="hlt">Truth</span> and Historical <span class="hlt">Truth</span>, a critical introduction to the hermeneutic or interpretive perspective is presented. Spence's book has generally been assumed to offer a hermeneutic reformulation of psychoanalysis. However, its presuppositions are incompatible with fundamental tenets of contemporary hermeneutic thought, as expressed in the philosophies of Heidegger, Gadamer, and the later Wittgenstein. Spence's basic assumptions are classically empiricist and positivistic. His vision of human experience is essentially associationistic and Humean; it treats experience as involving two processes, the passive reception of raw sense data and a subsequent projection of meaningful interpretation. Spence advocates the gathering of brute data while denying or downplaying the epistemological value of theorizing and of interpretive understandings. These assumptions are contrasted with those of the hemeneutic philosophers. Unlike these philosophers, Spence tends to dichotomize coherence and correspondence theories of <span class="hlt">truth</span>. As a result, he wavers between relativism (regarding therapeutic interpretations) and objectivism (regarding scientific knowledge).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol1-sec1-17.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol1-sec1-17.pdf"><span>47 CFR 1.17 - <span class="hlt">Truthful</span> and <span class="hlt">accurate</span> statements to the Commission.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... to expressions of interest) or any tariff proceeding, no person subject to this rule shall; (1) In any written or oral statement of fact, intentionally provide material factual information that is... statement that is made from being incorrect or misleading; and (2) In any written statement of fact,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol1-sec1-17.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol1-sec1-17.pdf"><span>47 CFR 1.17 - <span class="hlt">Truthful</span> and <span class="hlt">accurate</span> statements to the Commission.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... to expressions of interest) or any tariff proceeding, no person subject to this rule shall; (1) In any written or oral statement of fact, intentionally provide material factual information that is... statement that is made from being incorrect or misleading; and (2) In any written statement of fact,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol1-sec1-17.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol1-sec1-17.pdf"><span>47 CFR 1.17 - <span class="hlt">Truthful</span> and <span class="hlt">accurate</span> statements to the Commission.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... to expressions of interest) or any tariff proceeding, no person subject to this rule shall; (1) In any written or oral statement of fact, intentionally provide material factual information that is... statement that is made from being incorrect or misleading; and (2) In any written statement of fact,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol1-sec1-17.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol1-sec1-17.pdf"><span>47 CFR 1.17 - <span class="hlt">Truthful</span> and <span class="hlt">accurate</span> statements to the Commission.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... to expressions of interest) or any tariff proceeding, no person subject to this rule shall; (1) In any written or oral statement of fact, intentionally provide material factual information that is... statement that is made from being incorrect or misleading; and (2) In any written statement of fact,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol1-sec1-17.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol1-sec1-17.pdf"><span>47 CFR 1.17 - <span class="hlt">Truthful</span> and <span class="hlt">accurate</span> statements to the Commission.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... to expressions of interest) or any tariff proceeding, no person subject to this rule shall; (1) In any written or oral statement of fact, intentionally provide material factual information that is... statement that is made from being incorrect or misleading; and (2) In any written statement of fact,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/777755','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/777755"><span>MULTISPECTRAL THERMAL IMAGER SCIENCE, DATA PRODUCT AND <span class="hlt">GROUND</span> DATA PROCESSING OVERVIEW.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>J. SZYMANSKI; L. BALICK; ET AL</p> <p>2001-04-01</p> <p>The mission of the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite is to demonstrate the efficacy of highly <span class="hlt">accurate</span> multispectral imaging for passive characterization of urban and industrial areas, as well as sites of environmental interest. The satellite makes top-of-atmosphere radiance measurements that are subsequently processed into estimates of surface properties such as vegetation health, temperatures, material composition and others. The system also provides simultaneous data for atmospheric characterization at high spatial resolution. To utilize these data the MTI science program has several coordinated components, including modeling, comprehensive <span class="hlt">ground-truth</span> measurements, image acquisition planning, data processing and data analysis and interpretation . Algorithms have been developed to retrieve a multitude of physical quantities and these algorithms are integrated in a processing pipeline architecture that emphasizes automation, flexibility and programmability. This paper describes the MTI data products and <span class="hlt">ground</span> processing, as well as the ''how to'' aspects of starting a data center from scratch.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19111996','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19111996"><span>The vital role of transcendental <span class="hlt">truth</span> in science.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Charlton, Bruce G</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>I have come to believe that science depends for its long-term success on an explicit and pervasive pursuit of the ideal of transcendental <span class="hlt">truth</span>. 'Transcendental' implies that a value is ideal and ultimate - it is aimed-at but can only imperfectly be known, achieved or measured. So, transcendental <span class="hlt">truth</span> is located outside of science; beyond scientific methods, processes and peer consensus. Although the ultimate scientific authority of a transcendental value of <span class="hlt">truth</span> was a view held almost universally by the greatest scientists throughout recorded history, modern science has all-but banished references to <span class="hlt">truth</span> from professional scientific discourse - these being regarded as wishful, mystical and embarrassing at best, and hypocritical or manipulative at worst. With <span class="hlt">truth</span> excluded, the highest remaining evaluation mechanism is 'professional consensus' or peer review - beyond which there is no higher court of appeal. Yet in Human accomplishment, Murray argues that cultures which foster great achievement need transcendental values (<span class="hlt">truth</span>, beauty and virtue) to be a live presence in the culture; such that great artists and thinkers compete to come closer to the ideal. So a scientific system including <span class="hlt">truth</span> as a live presence apparently performs better than a system which excludes <span class="hlt">truth</span>. Transcendental <span class="hlt">truth</span> therefore seems to be real in the pragmatic sense that it makes a difference. To restore the primacy of <span class="hlt">truth</span> to science a necessary step would be to ensure that only <span class="hlt">truth</span>-seekers were recruited to the key scientific positions, and to exclude from leadership those who are untruthful or exhibit insufficient devotion to the pursuit of <span class="hlt">truth</span>. In sum, to remain anchored in its proper role, science should through '<span class="hlt">truth</span> talk' frequently be referencing normal professional practice to transcendental <span class="hlt">truth</span> values. Ultimately, science should be conducted at every level, from top to bottom, on the basis of what Bronowski termed the 'habit of <span class="hlt">truth</span>'. Such a situation currently</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25136477','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25136477"><span>Joint iris boundary detection and fit: a real-time method for <span class="hlt">accurate</span> pupil tracking.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barbosa, Marconi; James, Andrew C</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>A range of applications in visual science rely on <span class="hlt">accurate</span> tracking of the human pupil's movement and contraction in response to light. While the literature for independent contour detection and fitting of the iris-pupil boundary is vast, a joint approach, in which it is assumed that the pupil has a given geometric shape has been largely overlooked. We present here a global method for simultaneously finding and fitting of an elliptic or circular contour against a dark interior, which produces consistently <span class="hlt">accurate</span> results even under non-ideal recording conditions, such as reflections near and over the boundary, droopy eye lids, or the sudden formation of tears. The specific form of the proposed optimization problem allows us to write down closed analytic formulae for the gradient and the Hessian of the objective function. Moreover, both the objective function and its derivatives can be cast into vectorized form, making the proposed algorithm significantly faster than its closest relative in the literature. We compare methods in multiple ways, both analytically and numerically, using real iris images as well as idealizations of the iris for which the <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> boundary is precisely known. The method proposed here is illustrated under challenging recording conditions and it is shown to be robust.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4132980','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4132980"><span>Joint iris boundary detection and fit: a real-time method for <span class="hlt">accurate</span> pupil tracking</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Barbosa, Marconi; James, Andrew C.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A range of applications in visual science rely on <span class="hlt">accurate</span> tracking of the human pupil’s movement and contraction in response to light. While the literature for independent contour detection and fitting of the iris-pupil boundary is vast, a joint approach, in which it is assumed that the pupil has a given geometric shape has been largely overlooked. We present here a global method for simultaneously finding and fitting of an elliptic or circular contour against a dark interior, which produces consistently <span class="hlt">accurate</span> results even under non-ideal recording conditions, such as reflections near and over the boundary, droopy eye lids, or the sudden formation of tears. The specific form of the proposed optimization problem allows us to write down closed analytic formulae for the gradient and the Hessian of the objective function. Moreover, both the objective function and its derivatives can be cast into vectorized form, making the proposed algorithm significantly faster than its closest relative in the literature. We compare methods in multiple ways, both analytically and numerically, using real iris images as well as idealizations of the iris for which the <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> boundary is precisely known. The method proposed here is illustrated under challenging recording conditions and it is shown to be robust. PMID:25136477</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED183068.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED183068.pdf"><span>Searching for the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> about "<span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Testing" Legislation. A Background Report. Report No. 132.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brown, Rexford; McClung, Merle Steven</p> <p></p> <p>The background out of which "<span class="hlt">truth</span> in testing" legislation arose is reviewed in this report, which also describes existing state and federal testing legislation, details arguments raised in hearings on the legislation, analyzes the legal issues raised, and provides a framework for simplifying the arguments and gathering more information.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3739909','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3739909"><span>Validating the <span class="hlt">truth</span> of propositions: behavioral and ERP indicators of <span class="hlt">truth</span> evaluation processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Koranyi, Nicolas; Müller, Florian; Langner, Oliver; Rothermund, Klaus</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We investigated processes of <span class="hlt">truth</span> validation during reading. Participants responded to ‘true’ and ‘false’ probes after reading simple true or false sentences. Compatible sentence/probe combinations (true/‘true’, false/‘false’) facilitated responding compared with incompatible combinations (true/‘false’, false/‘true’), indicating <span class="hlt">truth</span> validation. Evidence for <span class="hlt">truth</span> validation was obtained after inducing an evaluative mindset but not after inducing a non-evaluative mindset, using additional intermixed tasks requiring true/false decisions or sentence comparisons, respectively. Event-related potentials revealed an increased late negativity (500–1000 ms after onset of the last word of sentences) for false compared with true sentences. Paralleling behavioral results, this electroencephalographic marker only obtained in the evaluative mindset condition. Further, mere semantic mismatches between subject and object of sentences led to an elevated N400 for both mindset conditions. Taken together, our findings suggest that <span class="hlt">truth</span> validation is a conditionally automatic process that is dependent on the current task demands and resulting mindset, whereas the processing of word meaning and semantic relations between words proceeds in an unconditionally automatic fashion. PMID:22461436</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22461436','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22461436"><span>Validating the <span class="hlt">truth</span> of propositions: behavioral and ERP indicators of <span class="hlt">truth</span> evaluation processes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wiswede, Daniel; Koranyi, Nicolas; Müller, Florian; Langner, Oliver; Rothermund, Klaus</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>We investigated processes of <span class="hlt">truth</span> validation during reading. Participants responded to 'true' and 'false' probes after reading simple true or false sentences. Compatible sentence/probe combinations (true/'true', false/'false') facilitated responding compared with incompatible combinations (true/'false', false/'true'), indicating <span class="hlt">truth</span> validation. Evidence for <span class="hlt">truth</span> validation was obtained after inducing an evaluative mindset but not after inducing a non-evaluative mindset, using additional intermixed tasks requiring true/false decisions or sentence comparisons, respectively. Event-related potentials revealed an increased late negativity (500-1000 ms after onset of the last word of sentences) for false compared with true sentences. Paralleling behavioral results, this electroencephalographic marker only obtained in the evaluative mindset condition. Further, mere semantic mismatches between subject and object of sentences led to an elevated N400 for both mindset conditions. Taken together, our findings suggest that <span class="hlt">truth</span> validation is a conditionally automatic process that is dependent on the current task demands and resulting mindset, whereas the processing of word meaning and semantic relations between words proceeds in an unconditionally automatic fashion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019740','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019740"><span><span class="hlt">Ground</span> characterization for JAPE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Attenborough, Keith; Taherzadeh, Shahram</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Above-<span class="hlt">ground</span> propagation modelling at the JAPE (Joint Acoustic Propagation Experiment) site requires a reasonably <span class="hlt">accurate</span> model for the acoustical properties of the <span class="hlt">ground</span>. Various models for the JAPE site are offered based on theoretical fits to short range data and to longer range data obtained with random noise and pure tones respectively from a loudspeaker under approximately quiescent isothermal conditions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&id=EJ891178','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&id=EJ891178"><span>Settling No Conflict in the Public Place: <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Education, and in Rancierean Scholarship</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bingham, Charles</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This essay offers an educational understanding of <span class="hlt">truth</span> deriving from the work of Jacques Ranciere. Unlike other educational accounts--the traditional, progressive, and critical accounts--of <span class="hlt">truth</span> that take education as a way of approaching pre-existing <span class="hlt">truths</span> (or lack of pre-existing <span class="hlt">truths</span>), this essay establishes an account of <span class="hlt">truth</span> that is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/magazine/issues/winter14/articles/winter14pg22-23.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/magazine/issues/winter14/articles/winter14pg22-23.html"><span>Women's Heart Disease: Join the Heart <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Community</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Join The Heart <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Community Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents National Symbol The centerpiece of The Heart <span class="hlt">Truth</span> ® is The Red Dress ® which was introduced ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/hearttruth/downloads/pdf/Factsheet_HeartDisease_2013_508.pdf','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/hearttruth/downloads/pdf/Factsheet_HeartDisease_2013_508.pdf"><span>Heart <span class="hlt">Truth</span> for Women: If You Have Heart Disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>THE FOR WO MEN <span class="hlt">TRUTH</span> THE HEART <span class="hlt">TRUTH</span> FoR WoMEN: iF You HAVE HEART DisEAsE If you have heart disease, or think you do, it’s vital to take action to protect your heart health. Fortunately, there’s a lot you can do. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title12-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title12-vol6-sec741-217.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title12-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title12-vol6-sec741-217.pdf"><span>12 CFR 741.217 - <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in savings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in savings. 741.217 Section 741.217 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR... Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.217 <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in savings. Any...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=3&id=EJ896917','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=3&id=EJ896917"><span>How Does Telling the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Help Educational Action Research?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Blair, Erik</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A number of key constructs underpin educational action research. This paper focuses on the concept of "<span class="hlt">truth</span>" and by doing so hopes to highlight some debate in this area. In reflecting upon what "<span class="hlt">truth</span>" might mean to those involved in action research, I shall critically evaluate Thorndike's "Law of Effect" and Bruner's "Three Forms of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=6&id=EJ775548','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=6&id=EJ775548"><span>Counseling without <span class="hlt">Truth</span>: Toward a Neopragmatic Foundation for Counseling Practice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hansen, James T.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The author presents an overview of contemporary developments in philosophy regarding the status of <span class="hlt">truth</span> and discusses the implications of these ideas for the practice of counseling. Counseling without <span class="hlt">truth</span> is presented as a desirable option when a neopragmatic frame of reference is adopted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED367022.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED367022.pdf"><span>Sojourner <span class="hlt">Truth</span> as an Essential Part of Rhetorical Theory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Romans, Bevin A.</p> <p></p> <p>To affirm Sojourner <span class="hlt">Truth</span> as a powerful rhetor who advanced the equality and empowerment of women, a study examined several of her speeches on women's suffrage. Although the value of using such role models as Sojourner <span class="hlt">Truth</span> has been demonstrated in various grade levels, and in the study of history and English, the approach is too seldom employed…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27474181','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27474181"><span>A choice-semantical approach to theoretical <span class="hlt">truth</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Andreas, Holger; Schiemer, Georg</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>A central topic in the logic of science concerns the proper semantic analysis of theoretical sentences, that is sentences containing theoretical terms. In this paper, we present a novel choice-semantical account of theoretical <span class="hlt">truth</span> based on the epsilon-term definition of theoretical terms. Specifically, we develop two ways of specifying the <span class="hlt">truth</span> conditions of theoretical statements in a choice functional semantics, each giving rise to a corresponding logic of such statements. In order to investigate the inferential strength of these logical systems, we provide a translation of each <span class="hlt">truth</span> definition into a modal definition of theoretical <span class="hlt">truth</span>. Based on this, we show that the stronger notion of choice-semantical <span class="hlt">truth</span> captures more adequately our informal semantic understanding of scientific statements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=postmodernism+AND+linguistics&pg=2&id=EJ600659','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=postmodernism+AND+linguistics&pg=2&id=EJ600659"><span>The Semantics of "<span class="hlt">Truth</span>": A Counter-argument to Some Postmodern Theories.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lawson, Kenneth H.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Postmodernists' denials of the existence of objective <span class="hlt">truth</span> are made without supporting evidence and fail to account for semantic structures and linguistic usage. Analysis of semantic structure reveals <span class="hlt">truth</span> embedded in language. <span class="hlt">Truth</span> and socially constructed meaning are interrelated. (SK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5036018','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5036018"><span>Why several <span class="hlt">truths</span> can be true</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Meland, Eivind; Brodersen, John</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we offer a perspective on complementarity, acknowledging that it is not possible for human perception and cognition to grasp reality with unambiguous concepts or theories. Therefore, multiple concepts and perspectives are valid when they are not exaggerated beyond reasonable limits and do not claim exclusive validity. We recommend a humble stance enabling respectful dialogue between different perspectives in medical science and practice. Key Points No single perspective in clinical or scientific medicine can exhaustively explain medical phenomena.Scientific attitude is characterised by a willingness to look for objections against what we prefer as <span class="hlt">truths</span>.Complementarity or unifying contradictions are concepts that allow for humility and pluralism in clinical and scientific medicine. PMID:27406215</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Air+AND+pollution&pg=2&id=EJ1025903','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Air+AND+pollution&pg=2&id=EJ1025903"><span>The <span class="hlt">Truth</span>, the Whole <span class="hlt">Truth</span>, and Nothing but the <span class="hlt">Ground-Truth</span>: Methods to Advance Environmental Justice and Researcher-Community Partnerships</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sadd, James; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Pastor, Manuel; Matsuoka, Martha; Prichard, Michele; Carter, Vanessa</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Environmental justice advocates often argue that environmental hazards and their health effects vary by neighborhood, income, and race. To assess these patterns and advance preventive policy, their colleagues in the research world often use complex and methodologically sophisticated statistical and geospatial techniques. One way to bridge the gap…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21970156','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21970156"><span><span class="hlt">Truth</span> in basic biomedical science will set future mankind free.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ling, Gilbert N</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>It is self-evident that continued wellbeing and prosperity of our species in time to come depends upon a steady supply of major scientific and technologic innovations. However, major scientific and technical innovations are rare. As a rule, they grow only in the exceptionally fertile minds of men and women, who have fully mastered the underlying basic sciences. To waken their interest in science at an early critical age and to nurture and enhance that interest afterward, good textbooks at all level of education that <span class="hlt">accurately</span> portray the relevant up-to-date knowledge are vital. As of now, the field of science that offers by far the greatest promise for the future of humanity is the science of life at the most basic cell and below-cell level. Unfortunately, it is precisely this crucial part of the (standardized) biological textbooks for all high schools and colleges in the US and abroad that have become, so to speak, fossilized. As a result, generation after generation of (educated) young men and women have been and are still being force-fed as established scientific <span class="hlt">truth</span> an obsolete membrane (pump) theory, which has been categorically disproved half a century ago (see Endnote 1.) To reveal this Trojan horse of a theory for what it really is demands the concerted efforts of many courageous individuals especially young biology teachers who take themselves and their career seriously. But even the most courageous and the most resourceful won't find the task easy. To begin with, they would find it hard to access the critical scientific knowledge, with which to convert the skeptic and to rally the friendly. For the wealth of mutually supportive evidence against the membrane (pump) theory are often hidden in inaccessible publications and/or in languages other than English. To overcome this seemingly trivial but in fact formidable obstacle and to reveal the beauty and coherence of the existing but untaught <span class="hlt">truth</span>, I put together in this small package a collection of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19710000048','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19710000048"><span><span class="hlt">Accurate</span> pointing of tungsten welding electrodes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ziegelmeier, P.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>Thoriated-tungsten is pointed <span class="hlt">accurately</span> and quickly by using sodium nitrite. Point produced is smooth and no effort is necessary to hold the tungsten rod concentric. The chemically produced point can be used several times longer than <span class="hlt">ground</span> points. This method reduces time and cost of preparing tungsten electrodes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27882654','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27882654"><span>Digital technologies as <span class="hlt">truth</span>-bearers in health care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bartlett, Ruth; Balmer, Andrew; Brannelly, Petula</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we explore the idea of digital technologies as <span class="hlt">truth</span>-bearers in health care and argue that devices like SenseCam, which facilitate reflection and memory recall, have a potentially vital role in healthcare situations when questions of veracity are at stake (e.g., when best interest decisions are being made). We discuss the role of digital technologies as <span class="hlt">truth</span>-bearers in the context of nursing people with dementia, as this is one area of health care in which the topic of <span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling has been hotly debated. People with dementia have been excluded from research studies and decisions that affect their lives because they are not regarded as <span class="hlt">truth</span>-bearers-that is, as being capable of giving <span class="hlt">truthful</span> accounts of their experiences. Also, considerable research has focused on the ethics of lying to and deceiving people with dementia. Given their increasing prominence in healthcare settings, there has been surprisingly little discussion of what role digital technologies might play in relation to these questions of <span class="hlt">truth</span> and deception. Drawing on theories from science and technology studies (STS), we explore their possible future role in some of the <span class="hlt">truth</span>-making processes of health care. In particular, we discuss the potential value of constraints on use of SenseCam to support the accounts of people with dementia as part of their care.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28088712','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28088712"><span>A referential theory of the repetition-induced <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Unkelbach, Christian; Rom, Sarah C</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>People are more likely to judge repeated statements as true compared to new statements, a phenomenon known as the illusory <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect. The currently dominant explanation is an increase in processing fluency caused by prior presentation. We present a new theory to explain this effect. We assume that people judge <span class="hlt">truth</span> based on coherent references for statements in memory. Due to prior presentation, repeated statements have more coherently linked references; thus, a repetition-induced <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect follows. Five experiments test this theory. Experiment 1-3 show that both the amount and the coherence of references for a repeated statement influence judged <span class="hlt">truth</span>. Experiment 4 shows that people also judge new statements more likely "true" when they share references with previously presented statements. Experiment 5 realizes theoretically predicted conditions under which repetition should not influence judged <span class="hlt">truth</span>. Based on these data, we discuss how the theory relates to other explanations of repetition-induced <span class="hlt">truth</span> and how it may integrate other <span class="hlt">truth</span>-related phenomena and belief biases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21986292','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21986292"><span>Probabilistic techniques for obtaining <span class="hlt">accurate</span> patient counts in Clinical Data Warehouses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Myers, Risa B; Herskovic, Jorge R</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Proposal and execution of clinical trials, computation of quality measures and discovery of correlation between medical phenomena are all applications where an <span class="hlt">accurate</span> count of patients is needed. However, existing sources of this type of patient information, including Clinical Data Warehouses (CDWs) may be incomplete or inaccurate. This research explores applying probabilistic techniques, supported by the MayBMS probabilistic database, to obtain <span class="hlt">accurate</span> patient counts from a Clinical Data Warehouse containing synthetic patient data. We present a synthetic Clinical Data Warehouse, and populate it with simulated data using a custom patient data generation engine. We then implement, evaluate and compare different techniques for obtaining patients counts. We model billing as a test for the presence of a condition. We compute billing's sensitivity and specificity both by conducting a "Simulated Expert Review" where a representative sample of records are reviewed and labeled by experts, and by obtaining the <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> for every record. We compute the posterior probability of a patient having a condition through a "Bayesian Chain", using Bayes' Theorem to calculate the probability of a patient having a condition after each visit. The second method is a "one-shot" approach that computes the probability of a patient having a condition based on whether the patient is ever billed for the condition. Our results demonstrate the utility of probabilistic approaches, which improve on the accuracy of raw counts. In particular, the simulated review paired with a single application of Bayes' Theorem produces the best results, with an average error rate of 2.1% compared to 43.7% for the straightforward billing counts. Overall, this research demonstrates that Bayesian probabilistic approaches improve patient counts on simulated patient populations. We believe that total patient counts based on billing data are one of the many possible applications of our Bayesian framework. Use of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=forensic+AND+psychology&pg=6&id=EJ659813','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=forensic+AND+psychology&pg=6&id=EJ659813"><span>Examining the Efficacy of <span class="hlt">Truth</span>/Lie Discussions in Predicting and Increasing the Veracity of Children's Reports.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>London, Kamala; Nunez, Narina</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Investigated whether 4- to 6-year-olds' ability to reason about <span class="hlt">truths</span> and lies influenced their <span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling behavior. Found that children's performance on <span class="hlt">truth</span>/lie questions did not predict their <span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling. Regardless of performance on <span class="hlt">truth</span>/lie questions, children receiving developmentally appropriate <span class="hlt">truth</span>/lie discussions gave more…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611643P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611643P"><span>The problems of rain gauge measurement undercatch: an inconvenient <span class="hlt">truth</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pollock, Michael; Quinn, Paul; Dutton, Mark; Wilkinson, Mark</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>There exists an extensive historical body of work documenting the difficulties in <span class="hlt">accurately</span> measuring precipitation, in particular, wind induced undercatching. The implications of this are discussed and addressed. Although the problem has been cited many times it has become 'an inconvenient <span class="hlt">truth</span>' to hydrologists that major inaccuracies in rainfall measurement exist. To date, no universally, all encompassing solution has been proposed to mitigate or quantify these inherent systematic biases, either in historic time series or real-time high resolution measurements used for forecasting. In the context of a changing climate the importance of <span class="hlt">accurately</span> measuring the precipitation events causing catastrophic flooding is rising to ever greater prominence (e.g. the UK floods of December 2013 and January 2014). Only by improving the ability to <span class="hlt">accurately</span> measure all types of precipitation in all environmental and atmospheric conditions, will it be possible to augment the efficiency of flood defences, improve the spatiotemporal accuracy of flood forecasting services, plan water resources and calibrate numerical weather prediction models more precisely. An experimental design is proposed and implemented to address this issue. Phase 1 of this project compared numerous rain gauges and in situ wind speed. Results from this work propose that the annual systematic undercatch can be in the order of 20 percent in the UK. During specific events (measured at high temporal resolution), this can rise to as high as 50 percent for single wind impacted events. Phase 2 of this experiment is now commencing and will compare all instruments against pit rain gauge measurements. This consists of pairing accepted meteorological standard techniques with new and innovative equipment in four experimental locations representative of 'typical' UK rainfall patterns: upland (both west and east coast) and lowland (both west and east coast). By carrying out high resolution testing at these locations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160013657','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160013657"><span>The Myth, the <span class="hlt">Truth</span>, the NASA IRB</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Covington, M. D.; Flores, M. P.; Neutzler, V. P.; Schlegel, T. T.; Platts, S. H.; Lioyd, C. W.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of the NASA Institutional Review Board (IRB) is to review research activities involving human subjects to ensure that ethical standards for the care and protection of human subjects have been met and research activities are in compliance with all pertinent federal, state and local regulations as well as NASA policies. NASA IRB's primary role is the protection of human subjects in research studies. Protection of human subjects is the shared responsibility of NASA, the IRB, and the scientific investigators. Science investigators who plan to conduct NASA-funded human research involving NASA investigators, facilities, or funds must submit and coordinate their research studies for review and approval by the NASA IRB prior to initiation. The IRB has the authority to approve, require changes in, or disapprove research involving human subjects. Better knowledge of the NASA IRB policies, procedures and guidelines should help facilitate research protocol applications and approvals. In this presentation, the myths and <span class="hlt">truths</span> of NASA IRB policies and procedures will be discussed. We will focus on the policies that guide a protocol through the NASA IRB and the procedures that principal investigators must take to obtain required IRB approvals for their research studies. In addition, tips to help ensure a more efficient IRB review will be provided. By understanding the requirements and processes, investigators will be able to more efficiently prepare their protocols and obtain the required NASA IRB approval in a timely manner.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26426453','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26426453"><span>MASCG: Multi-Atlas Segmentation Constrained Graph method for <span class="hlt">accurate</span> segmentation of hip CT images.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chu, Chengwen; Bai, Junjie; Wu, Xiaodong; Zheng, Guoyan</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This paper addresses the issue of fully automatic segmentation of a hip CT image with the goal to preserve the joint structure for clinical applications in hip disease diagnosis and treatment. For this purpose, we propose a Multi-Atlas Segmentation Constrained Graph (MASCG) method. The MASCG method uses multi-atlas based mesh fusion results to initialize a bone sheetness based multi-label graph cut for an <span class="hlt">accurate</span> hip CT segmentation which has the inherent advantage of automatic separation of the pelvic region from the bilateral proximal femoral regions. We then introduce a graph cut constrained graph search algorithm to further improve the segmentation accuracy around the bilateral hip joint regions. Taking manual segmentation as the <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span>, we evaluated the present approach on 30 hip CT images (60 hips) with a 15-fold cross validation. When the present approach was compared to manual segmentation, an average surface distance error of 0.30 mm, 0.29 mm, and 0.30 mm was found for the pelvis, the left proximal femur, and the right proximal femur, respectively. A further look at the bilateral hip joint regions demonstrated an average surface distance error of 0.16 mm, 0.21 mm and 0.20 mm for the acetabulum, the left femoral head, and the right femoral head, respectively.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19949495','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19949495"><span>Realism without <span class="hlt">truth</span>: a review of Giere's science without laws and scientific perspectivism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hackenberg, Timothy D</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>An increasingly popular view among philosophers of science is that of science as action-as the collective activity of scientists working in socially-coordinated communities. Scientists are seen not as dispassionate pursuers of <span class="hlt">Truth</span>, but as active participants in a social enterprise, and science is viewed on a continuum with other human activities. When taken to an extreme, the science-as-social-process view can be taken to imply that science is no different from any other human activity, and therefore can make no privileged claims about its knowledge of the world. Such extreme views are normally contrasted with equally extreme views of classical science, as uncovering Universal <span class="hlt">Truth</span>. In Science Without Laws and Scientific Perspectivism, Giere outlines an approach to understanding science that finds a middle <span class="hlt">ground</span> between these extremes. He acknowledges that science occurs in a social and historical context, and that scientific models are constructions designed and created to serve human ends. At the same time, however, scientific models correspond to parts of the world in ways that can legitimately be termed objective. Giere's position, perspectival realism, shares important common <span class="hlt">ground</span> with Skinner's writings on science, some of which are explored in this review. Perhaps most fundamentally, Giere shares with Skinner the view that science itself is amenable to scientific inquiry: scientific principles can and should be brought to bear on the process of science. The two approaches offer different but complementary perspectives on the nature of science, both of which are needed in a comprehensive understanding of science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25707774','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25707774"><span>The source of the <span class="hlt">truth</span> bias: Heuristic processing?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Street, Chris N H; Masip, Jaume</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>People believe others are telling the <span class="hlt">truth</span> more often than they actually are; this is called the <span class="hlt">truth</span> bias. Surprisingly, when a speaker is judged at multiple points across their statement the <span class="hlt">truth</span> bias declines. Previous claims argue this is evidence of a shift from (biased) heuristic processing to (reasoned) analytical processing. In four experiments we contrast the heuristic-analytic model (HAM) with alternative accounts. In Experiment 1, the decrease in <span class="hlt">truth</span> responding was not the result of speakers appearing more deceptive, but was instead attributable to the rater's processing style. Yet contrary to HAMs, across three experiments we found the decline in bias was not related to the amount of processing time available (Experiments 1-3) or the communication channel (Experiment 2). In Experiment 4 we found support for a new account: that the bias reflects whether raters perceive the statement to be internally consistent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=media+AND+ethics&pg=5&id=EJ550474','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=media+AND+ethics&pg=5&id=EJ550474"><span>The Value of Instruction for a Commitment to <span class="hlt">Truth</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bugeja, Michael J.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Describes the redesign of a media ethics course in which students analyze such topics as <span class="hlt">truth</span>, falsehood, manipulation, temptation, unfairness, and power. Notes that students keep an ethics journal in the course, and discusses sample journal topics. (PA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/776128','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/776128"><span>MTI SCIENCE, DATA PRODUCT AND <span class="hlt">GROUND</span> DATA PROCESSING OVERVIEW</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>J. SZYMANSKI; ET AL</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The mission of the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite is to demonstrate the efficacy of highly <span class="hlt">accurate</span> multispectral imaging for passive characterization of urban and industrial areas, as well as sites of environmental interest. The satellite makes top-of-atmosphere radiance measurements that are subsequently processed into estimates of surface properties such as vegetation health, temperatures, material composition and others. The MTI satellite also provides simultaneous data for atmospheric characterization at high spatial resolution. To utilize these data the MTI science program has several coordinated components, including modeling, comprehensive <span class="hlt">ground-truth</span> measurements, image acquisition planning, data processing and data interpretation and analysis. Algorithms have been developed to retrieve a multitude of physical quantities and these algorithms are integrated in a processing pipeline architecture that emphasizes automation, flexibility and programmability. In addition, the MTI science team has produced detailed site, system and atmospheric models to aid in system design and data analysis. This paper provides an overview of the MTI research objectives, data products and <span class="hlt">ground</span> data processing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970009636','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970009636"><span><span class="hlt">Accurate</span> Finite Difference Algorithms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goodrich, John W.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce <span class="hlt">accurate</span> results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910011517','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910011517"><span><span class="hlt">Accurate</span> monotone cubic interpolation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Huynh, Hung T.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Monotone piecewise cubic interpolants are simple and effective. They are generally third-order <span class="hlt">accurate</span>, except near strict local extrema where accuracy degenerates to second-order due to the monotonicity constraint. Algorithms for piecewise cubic interpolants, which preserve monotonicity as well as uniform third and fourth-order accuracy are presented. The gain of accuracy is obtained by relaxing the monotonicity constraint in a geometric framework in which the median function plays a crucial role.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marble&pg=5&id=EJ738970','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marble&pg=5&id=EJ738970"><span>Competence and Performance in Belief-Desire Reasoning across Two Cultures: The <span class="hlt">Truth</span>, the Whole <span class="hlt">Truth</span> and Nothing but the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> about False Belief?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yazdi, Amir Amin; German, Tim P.; Defeyter, Margaret Anne; Siegal, Michael</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>There is a change in false belief task performance across the 3-5 year age range, as confirmed in a recent meta-analysis [Wellman, H. M., Cross, D., & Watson, J. (2001). Meta-analysis of theory mind development: The <span class="hlt">truth</span> about false-belief. "Child Development," 72, 655-684]. This meta-analysis identified several performance factors influencing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930057681&hterms=contact+angle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcontact%2Bangle','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930057681&hterms=contact+angle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcontact%2Bangle"><span>On <span class="hlt">accurate</span> determination of contact angle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Concus, P.; Finn, R.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Methods are proposed that exploit a microgravity environment to obtain highly <span class="hlt">accurate</span> measurement of contact angle. These methods, which are based on our earlier mathematical results, do not require detailed measurement of a liquid free-surface, as they incorporate discontinuous or nearly-discontinuous behavior of the liquid bulk in certain container geometries. Physical testing is planned in the forthcoming IML-2 space flight and in related preparatory <span class="hlt">ground</span>-based experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28344767','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28344767"><span>Finding "<span class="hlt">truth</span>" across different data sources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rein, Alison; Simpson, Lisa A</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The proliferation of new technology platforms and tools is dramatically advancing our ability to capture, integrate and use clinical and other health related data for research and care. Another critical and increasingly common source of data comes directly from patients - often in the form of Patient Reported Outcomes (PRO). As more providers and payers recognize that patient experiences reflect a critical dimension of the value proposition, these data are informing broader strategies to achieve performance improvement and accountability in health systems. Combined with other traditional (e.g., claims) and more recent (e.g., Electronic Health Record) data assets, PROs can help to examine experiences and outcomes that convey a more complete picture of both individual and population health. One of the areas of research where this is most evident is cancer survivorship, including long-term adverse effects, as the population of survivors is increasing given advances in detection and treatment. Key questions remain as to how and under what conditions these new data resources can be used for research, and which are the best "sources of <span class="hlt">truth</span>" for specific types of information. A recent IJHPR validation study by Hamood et al. reflects important progress in this regard, and establishes the necessary groundwork for a larger planned study. There are some important limitations worth noting, such as a small sample size (which does not support adequate subgroup analysis); a relatively narrow focus on women with only early stage or regionally advanced breast cancer; and a limited focus on outcomes that are primarily clinical and relatively severe in nature (e.g., cardiovascular disease). Finally, as use of EHRs becomes ubiquitous, as patient perspectives and outcome measures are considered, and as more types of data are systematically collected via electronic systems, further comparison and validation of non-clinical data elements captured via such tools will become</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23908753','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23908753"><span>The challenge of <span class="hlt">truth</span> telling across cultures: a case study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zahedi, Farzaneh</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Accompanied with various opinions across cultures, <span class="hlt">truth</span> telling is a major debate in bioethics. Many studies have focused on attitudes toward <span class="hlt">truth</span> disclosure. We intend to review several relevant research studies, and discuss the issue through a clinical case consultation. It seems that while "the right to know" is emphasized in bioethics, in some cultural contexts, health professionals fear communicating bad news. The patients may not receive information directly, because it is believed that the <span class="hlt">truth</span> may make the patient feel hopeless and unable to cope with the problem. Nevertheless, some believe that sharing information may strengthen a trusting relationship between patients and medical professionals. Extensive efforts are in process in some societies to make patient rights to know the <span class="hlt">truth</span> as a natural part of medical practice. However, in some cases, the principles of respect for patient autonomy require us to accept patient's refusal to know the <span class="hlt">truth</span>, with the provision that he assigns someone to receive information and make medical decisions on his behalf. In conclusion, it is suggested that healthcare professionals should not act on a unique presumption in all cases and they should explore what the real interest of patient is, in order to respect individual autonomy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21559772','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21559772"><span>Must Kohn-Sham oscillator strengths be <span class="hlt">accurate</span> at threshold?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yang Zenghui; Burke, Kieron; Faassen, Meta van</p> <p>2009-09-21</p> <p>The exact <span class="hlt">ground</span>-state Kohn-Sham (KS) potential for the helium atom is known from <span class="hlt">accurate</span> wave function calculations of the <span class="hlt">ground</span>-state density. The threshold for photoabsorption from this potential matches the physical system exactly. By carefully studying its absorption spectrum, we show the answer to the title question is no. To address this problem in detail, we generate a highly <span class="hlt">accurate</span> simple fit of a two-electron spectrum near the threshold, and apply the method to both the experimental spectrum and that of the exact <span class="hlt">ground</span>-state Kohn-Sham potential.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5356393','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5356393"><span>Cervical lymphadenopathy: Unwinding the hidden <span class="hlt">truth</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ramadas, Athira Aruna; Jose, Renju; Varma, Beena; Chandy, Marina Lazar</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Lymphadenopathy is a common clinical finding in a patient seeking oral health care. It may be in a localized, limited, or generalized form. Malignancies, infections, autoimmune disorders, iatrogenic, and other miscellaneous conditions are considered as the causes for cervical lymphadenopathy. Unexplained cervical lymphadenopathy is a cause of concern for physician and patient because sometimes it could be the manifestation of an underlying malignancy. However, a methodological approach to lymphadenopathy can disclose the <span class="hlt">accurate</span> diagnosis causing minimal discomfort for the patient and in a short time. This paper reports the significance of cervical lymph node examination and ensuing investigations, which led to a diagnosis of non-Hodgkins lymphoma. PMID:28348622</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=326770&keyword=land%20and%20waste%20management&subject=land%20and%20waste%20management%20research&showcriteria=2&fed_org_id=111&datebeginpublishedpresented=03/10/2012&dateendpublishedpresented=03/10/2017&sortby=pubdateyear','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=326770&keyword=land%20and%20waste%20management&subject=land%20and%20waste%20management%20research&showcriteria=2&fed_org_id=111&datebeginpublishedpresented=03/10/2012&dateendpublishedpresented=03/10/2017&sortby=pubdateyear"><span>BIOACCESSIBILITY TESTS <span class="hlt">ACCURATELY</span> ESTIMATE ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more <span class="hlt">accurately</span> quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contaminated soils. Relative bioavailabilities were expressed by comparison with blood Pb concentrations in quail fed a Pb acetate reference diet. Diets containing soil from five Pb-contaminated Superfund sites had relative bioavailabilities from 33%-63%, with a mean of about 50%. Treatment of two of the soils with P significantly reduced the bioavailability of Pb. The bioaccessibility of the Pb in the test soils was then measured in six in vitro tests and regressed on bioavailability. They were: the “Relative Bioavailability Leaching Procedure” (RBALP) at pH 1.5, the same test conducted at pH 2.5, the “Ohio State University In vitro Gastrointestinal” method (OSU IVG), the “Urban Soil Bioaccessible Lead Test”, the modified “Physiologically Based Extraction Test” and the “Waterfowl Physiologically Based Extraction Test.” All regressions had positive slopes. Based on criteria of slope and coefficient of determination, the RBALP pH 2.5 and OSU IVG tests performed very well. Speciation by X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that, on average, most of the Pb in the sampled soils was sorbed to minerals (30%), bound to organic matter 24%, or present as Pb sulfate 18%. Ad</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9456E..0PJ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9456E..0PJ"><span>Bayesian <span class="hlt">truthing</span> as experimental verification of C4ISR sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Romanov, Volodymyr; Wang, Wenjian; Nielsen, Thomas; Kostrzewski, Andrew</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>In this paper, the general methodology for experimental verification/validation of C4ISR and other sensors' performance, is presented, based on Bayesian inference, in general, and binary sensors, in particular. This methodology, called Bayesian <span class="hlt">Truthing</span>, defines Performance Metrics for binary sensors in: physics, optics, electronics, medicine, law enforcement, C3ISR, QC, ATR (Automatic Target Recognition), terrorism related events, and many others. For Bayesian <span class="hlt">Truthing</span>, the sensing medium itself is not what is truly important; it is how the decision process is affected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3837..202H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3837..202H"><span><span class="hlt">Accurate</span> spectral color measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hiltunen, Jouni; Jaeaeskelaeinen, Timo; Parkkinen, Jussi P. S.</p> <p>1999-08-01</p> <p>Surface color measurement is of importance in a very wide range of industrial applications including paint, paper, printing, photography, textiles, plastics and so on. For a demanding color measurements spectral approach is often needed. One can measure a color spectrum with a spectrophotometer using calibrated standard samples as a reference. Because it is impossible to define absolute color values of a sample, we always work with approximations. The human eye can perceive color difference as small as 0.5 CIELAB units and thus distinguish millions of colors. This 0.5 unit difference should be a goal for the precise color measurements. This limit is not a problem if we only want to measure the color difference of two samples, but if we want to know in a same time exact color coordinate values accuracy problems arise. The values of two instruments can be astonishingly different. The accuracy of the instrument used in color measurement may depend on various errors such as photometric non-linearity, wavelength error, integrating sphere dark level error, integrating sphere error in both specular included and specular excluded modes. Thus the correction formulas should be used to get more <span class="hlt">accurate</span> results. Another question is how many channels i.e. wavelengths we are using to measure a spectrum. It is obvious that the sampling interval should be short to get more precise results. Furthermore, the result we get is always compromise of measuring time, conditions and cost. Sometimes we have to use portable syste or the shape and the size of samples makes it impossible to use sensitive equipment. In this study a small set of calibrated color tiles measured with the Perkin Elmer Lamda 18 and the Minolta CM-2002 spectrophotometers are compared. In the paper we explain the typical error sources of spectral color measurements, and show which are the accuracy demands a good colorimeter should have.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17366313','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17366313"><span>The sad <span class="hlt">truth</span> about depressive realism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Allan, Lorraine G; Siegel, Shepard; Hannah, Samuel</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>In one form of a contingency judgement task individuals must judge the relationship between an action and an outcome. There are reports that depressed individuals are more <span class="hlt">accurate</span> than are non-depressed individuals in this task. In particular, nondepressed individuals are influenced by manipulations that affect the salience of the outcome, especially outcome probability. They overestimate a contingency if the probability of an outcome is high--the "outcome-density effect". In contrast, depressed individuals display little or no outcome-density effect. This apparent knack for depressives not to be misled by outcome density in their contingency judgements has been termed "depressive realism", and the absence of an outcome-density effect has led to the characterization of depressives as "sadder but wiser". We present a critical summary of the depressive realism literature and provide a novel interpretation of the phenomenon. We suggest that depressive realism may be understood from a psychophysical analysis of contingency judgements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=298401','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=298401"><span><span class="hlt">Ground</span>-based thermal and multispectral imaging of limited irrigation crops</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Ground</span>-based methods of remote sensing can be used as <span class="hlt">ground-truth</span> for satellite-based remote sensing, and in some cases may be a more affordable means of obtaining such data. Plant canopy temperature has been used to indicate and quantify plant water stress. A field research study was conducted in ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=294275','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=294275"><span><span class="hlt">Ground</span>-Based Remote Sensing of Water-Stressed Crops: Thermal and Multispectral Imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Ground</span>-based methods of remote sensing can be used as <span class="hlt">ground-truthing</span> for satellite-based remote sensing, and in some cases may be a more affordable means of obtaining such data. Plant canopy temperature has been used to indicate and quantify plant water stress. A field research study was conducted ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27352417','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27352417"><span>The <span class="hlt">Truth</span> about <span class="hlt">Truth</span>-Telling in American Medicine: A Brief History.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sisk, Bryan; Frankel, Richard; Kodish, Eric; Harry Isaacson, J</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Transparency has become an ethical cornerstone of American medicine. Today, patients have the right to know their health information, and physicians are obliged to provide it. It is expected that patients will be informed of their medical condition regardless of the severity or prognosis. This ethos of transparency is ingrained in modern trainees from the first day of medical school onward. However, for most of American history, the intentional withholding of information was the accepted norm in medical practice. It was not until 1979 that a majority of physicians reported disclosing cancer diagnoses to their patients. To appreciate the current state of the physician-patient relationship, it is important to understand how physician-patient communication has developed over time and the forces that led to these changes. In this article, we trace the ethics and associated practices of <span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling during the past two centuries, and outline the many pressures that influenced physician behavior during that time period. We conclude that the history of disclosure is not yet finished, as physicians still struggle to find the best way to share difficult information without causing undue harm to their patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4991917','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4991917"><span>The <span class="hlt">Truth</span> about <span class="hlt">Truth</span>-Telling in American Medicine: A Brief History</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sisk, Bryan; Frankel, Richard; Kodish, Eric; Harry Isaacson, J</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Transparency has become an ethical cornerstone of American medicine. Today, patients have the right to know their health information, and physicians are obliged to provide it. It is expected that patients will be informed of their medical condition regardless of the severity or prognosis. This ethos of transparency is ingrained in modern trainees from the first day of medical school onward. However, for most of American history, the intentional withholding of information was the accepted norm in medical practice. It was not until 1979 that a majority of physicians reported disclosing cancer diagnoses to their patients. To appreciate the current state of the physician-patient relationship, it is important to understand how physician-patient communication has developed over time and the forces that led to these changes. In this article, we trace the ethics and associated practices of <span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling during the past two centuries, and outline the many pressures that influenced physician behavior during that time period. We conclude that the history of disclosure is not yet finished, as physicians still struggle to find the best way to share difficult information without causing undue harm to their patients. PMID:27352417</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/magazine/issues/winter09/articles/winter09pg23.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/magazine/issues/winter09/articles/winter09pg23.html"><span>Heart Health: Learn the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> About Your Heart</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Learn the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> About Your Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... turn Javascript on. Photo: iStock February is American Heart Month. Now is the time to make sure ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-24/pdf/2010-20664.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-24/pdf/2010-20664.pdf"><span>75 FR 58489 - Regulation Z; <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-09-24</p> <p>... create information overload for many consumers and hinder their ability to determine which party should... continue to comply with 12 CFR 226.39 until the mandatory compliance date. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending Act (TILA), 15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq., seeks...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=5&id=EJ1039477','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=5&id=EJ1039477"><span>Irony, Deception, and Subjective <span class="hlt">Truth</span>: Principles for Existential Teaching</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Saeverot, Herner</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This paper takes the position that the aim of existential teaching, i.e., teaching where existential questions are addressed, consists in educating the students in light of subjective <span class="hlt">truth</span>, where the students are "educated" to exist on their own, i.e., independent of the teacher. The question is whether it is possible to educate in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=4&id=ED533176','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=4&id=ED533176"><span>The Hard <span class="hlt">Truth</span>: Problems and Issues in Urban School Reform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yisrael, Sean</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>"The Hard <span class="hlt">Truth</span>" is a book written for principals and school administrators who want to implement effective change. The topics of the book candidly discuss the problems, people, and issues that get in the way of true school reform; and what building level principals can personally do attain the best possible outcomes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=3&id=EJ1053628','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=3&id=EJ1053628"><span><span class="hlt">Truth</span>, Transparency and Trust: Treasured Values in Higher Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gross, Karen</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The words "<span class="hlt">truth</span>," "transparency," and "trust" recently have taken on renewed importance in higher education. The reporting and handling of sexual assaults, athletic cheating scandals, Muslim student deaths, the intrusion into the admissions process by college/university presidents forcing acceptance of new students…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=2&id=EJ932661','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=2&id=EJ932661"><span>Ernst von Glasersfeld's Radical Constructivism and <span class="hlt">Truth</span> as Disclosure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Joldersma, Clarence W.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In this essay Clarence Joldersma explores radical constructivism through the work of its most well-known advocate, Ernst von Glasersfeld, who combines a sophisticated philosophical discussion of knowledge and <span class="hlt">truth</span> with educational practices. Joldersma uses Joseph Rouse's work in philosophy of science to criticize the antirealism inherent in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sociology+AND+sport&id=EJ800354','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sociology+AND+sport&id=EJ800354"><span>Kinesiology's "Inconvenient <span class="hlt">Truth</span>" and the Physical Cultural Studies Imperative</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Andrews, David L.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This article explicates the "inconvenient <span class="hlt">truth</span>" that is at the core of the crisis currently facing the field of kinesiology. Namely, the instantiation of an epistemological hierarchy that privileges positivist over postpositivist, quantitative over qualitative, and predictive over interpretive ways of knowing. The discussion outlines…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Davis%2c+D+R&pg=2&id=ED491849','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Davis%2c+D+R&pg=2&id=ED491849"><span>Literacy Teacher Preparation: Ten <span class="hlt">Truths</span> Teacher Educators Need to Know</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Davis Lenski, Susan, Ed.; Grisham, Dana L., Ed.; Wold, Linda S., Ed.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The quality of teacher preparation is frequently under public scrutiny. In this collection, experts in literacy teacher preparation offer ten <span class="hlt">truths</span>--based on evidence, not ideology-- that support the ongoing positive efforts of teacher educators. In this book, the reader will find: A review of the existing knowledge base; Evidence of the improved…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=onion&pg=5&id=EJ343602','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=onion&pg=5&id=EJ343602"><span>The <span class="hlt">Truth</span> of the Thing: Nonfiction in "Moby Dick"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hilbert, Betsy</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Looks at Melville's narrative construction of "onion-like...layers of <span class="hlt">truth</span>" that combine romance and textbook, presents critics' discussion and scholars' treatment of the cetological information present in the text, offers an explanation for the lack of recognition due to the nonfictional parts of "Moby Dick." (JK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=arthritis&pg=7&id=EJ243138','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=arthritis&pg=7&id=EJ243138"><span>To Tell the <span class="hlt">Truth</span>: A Classroom Gaming Procedure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hisgen, Jon W.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Gaming activities increase a student's motivation to learn cognitive material, develop a student's sensitivity to the way media works, and improve the student's decision making skills. The game presented is based on the television program "To Tell the <span class="hlt">Truth</span>," and centers on questions concerning arthritis. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Empiricism&pg=3&id=EJ836388','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Empiricism&pg=3&id=EJ836388"><span>Critical Thinking about <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Teaching: The Epistemic Ethos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Vandenberg, Donald</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This paper discusses the most persistent controversial issue that occurred in Western educational philosophy ever since Socrates questioned the Sophists: the role of <span class="hlt">truth</span> in teaching. Ways of teaching these kinds of controversy issues are briefly considered to isolate their epistemic characteristics, which will enable the interpretation of Plato…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=realism&pg=7&id=EJ685908','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=realism&pg=7&id=EJ685908"><span>Knowing <span class="hlt">Truth</span>: Peirce's Epistemology in an Educational Context</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McCarthy, Christine L.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>In this paper I examine Peirce's epistemological and ontological theories and indicate their relevance to educational practice. I argue that Peirce's conception of Firsts, Seconds and Thirds entails a fundamental ontological realism. I further argue that Peirce does have a theory of <span class="hlt">truth</span>, that it is a particular non-traditional "correspondence"…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=principles+AND+quantum+AND+mechanics&pg=7&id=ED457018','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=principles+AND+quantum+AND+mechanics&pg=7&id=ED457018"><span>Quest for <span class="hlt">Truth</span>: Scientific Progress and Religious Beliefs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Singham, Mano</p> <p></p> <p>This book attempts to create a model of the nature of knowledge and its evolution. Scholarly research has been used for this purpose. Chapters include: (1) "The Nature of Knowledge"; (2) "The Nature of Scientific Progress"; (3) "<span class="hlt">Truth</span> and Falsifiability"; (4) "The Problem with Experimental Observations"; (5) "Scientific Reductionism"; (6) "An…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=DST&pg=6&id=EJ331940','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=DST&pg=6&id=EJ331940"><span>Development of the Concept of <span class="hlt">Truth</span>-Functional Negation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kim, Kyung J.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>In Experiment 1; English-speaking preschool children were given sentence verification task to study development of concept of <span class="hlt">truth</span>-functional negation. Expereiment 2 was a cross-linguistic replication with Korean-speaking preschool children. Despite same cross-linguistic differences in negation system, Korean-speaking children showed essentially…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-24/pdf/2010-20663.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-24/pdf/2010-20663.pdf"><span>75 FR 58469 - Regulation Z; <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-09-24</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Part II Federal Reserve System 12 CFR Part 226 Regulation Z; <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending; Proposed Rules, Interim Rule, Final Rules #0;#0...-shopping behaviors, including first-time mortgage shoppers, prime and subprime borrowers, and consumers...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-24/pdf/2010-20667.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-24/pdf/2010-20667.pdf"><span>75 FR 58539 - Regulation Z; <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-09-24</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 185 / Friday, September 24, 2010 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 226 Regulation Z; <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25922026','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25922026"><span><span class="hlt">Grounded</span> theory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harris, Tina</p> <p>2015-04-29</p> <p><span class="hlt">Grounded</span> theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of <span class="hlt">grounded</span> theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify <span class="hlt">grounded</span> theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if <span class="hlt">grounded</span> theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any <span class="hlt">grounded</span> theory research they read.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=6&id=EJ761190','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=6&id=EJ761190"><span>Issues Related to Spirituality and the Search for <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Sectarian Institutions of Higher Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Poe, Harry Lee</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The foundational spiritual <span class="hlt">truths</span> of sectarian institutions, often criticized by the secular academy, may provide a basis for a vigorous search for <span class="hlt">truth</span> in the transition from modern to postmodern society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11894677','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11894677"><span>Getting the <span class="hlt">truth</span> into workplace surveys.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morrel-Samuels, Palmer</p> <p>2002-02-01</p> <p>There's no doubt that companies can benefit from workplace surveys and questionnaires. Good surveys <span class="hlt">accurately</span> home in on the problems the company wants information about. They are designed so that as many people as possible actually respond. And good survey design ensures that the spectrum of responses is unbiased. In this article, the author, a former research scientist at the University of Michigan and currently the president of a survey design firm, explores some glaring failures of survey design and provides 16 guidelines to improve workplace assessment tools. Applied judiciously, these rules will not only make a tangible difference in the quality and usefulness of the data obtained but will also produce an increased response rate. The guidelines--and the problems they address--fall into five areas: content, format, language, measurement, and administration. Here are a few examples: Survey questions should require people to assess observable behavior rather than make inferences; each section should contain a similar number of items and each item should have a similar number of words; words with strong associations to gender, race, or ethnicity should be avoided; the wording in one-third of the questions should be changed so that the desirable answer is a negative one; and response scales should provide a "don't know" or "not applicable" option. Following the guidelines in this article will help you get unbiased, representative, and useful information from your workplace survey.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ766601.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ766601.pdf"><span>The Problem of <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Educational Research: The Case of the Rigoberta Menchu "Controversy"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Clark, John A.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In our descriptions of things, we normally think that <span class="hlt">truth</span> plays an important part; we value true statements over false ones and we prefer people to be <span class="hlt">truthful</span> rather than deceitful. If these two facets of <span class="hlt">truth</span> are important in our everyday lives, they assume even more significance in educational research because of the commitment researchers…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=2&id=EJ810694','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=2&id=EJ810694"><span>Does <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Exist? Insights from Applied Linguistics for the Rationalism/Postmodern Debate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ross, David A.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The question of whether or not <span class="hlt">truth</span> exists is at the center of the rationalism versus postmodern debate. Noting the difficulty of defining <span class="hlt">truth</span>, the author uses the principles of linguistics to show that semantic skewing has resulted in the concept of <span class="hlt">truth</span> being encoded as a noun, while it is really an attribute (true). The introduction of a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-12-30/pdf/2013-31225.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-12-30/pdf/2013-31225.pdf"><span>78 FR 79286 - <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending (Regulation Z): Adjustment to Asset-Size Exemption Threshold</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-12-30</p> <p>... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending (Regulation Z): Adjustment to Asset-Size Exemption Threshold... (<span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending) to reflect a change in the asset size threshold for certain creditors to qualify for... requirements, Savings associations, <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in lending. Authority and Issuance For the reasons set forth in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&id=EJ1084044','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&id=EJ1084044"><span>Teaching the <span class="hlt">Truth</span>: Social Justice and Social Class in Graduate School</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>English, Leona M.; Roy, Carole</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Nowadays, anyone who wishes to combat lies and ignorance and to write the <span class="hlt">truth</span> must overcome at least five difficulties. In the same way that writing the <span class="hlt">truth</span> entails five difficulties, teaching the <span class="hlt">truth</span> or teaching social justice in graduate education entails more than five difficulties. Some of these difficulties are inimical to the act of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title12-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title12-vol4-sec303-248.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title12-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title12-vol4-sec303-248.pdf"><span>12 CFR 303.248 - <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending Act-Relief from reimbursement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending Act-Relief from reimbursement... PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.248 <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending Act—Relief from reimbursement. (a) Scope. This section applies to requests for relief from reimbursement pursuant to the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-31/pdf/2013-13023.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-31/pdf/2013-13023.pdf"><span>78 FR 32547 - Loan Originator Compensation Requirements Under the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending Act (Regulation Z...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-05-31</p> <p>... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 RIN 3170-AA37 Loan Originator Compensation Requirements Under the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in... Compensation Requirements under the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Lending Act (Regulation Z) Final Rule, issued on January 20, 2013...\\ One of these final rules was the Loan Originator Compensation Requirements Under the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-20/pdf/2011-18165.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-20/pdf/2011-18165.pdf"><span>76 FR 43196 - Implementation of the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Caller ID Act</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-20</p> <p>...In this Report and Order (Order), the Commission adopts rules to implement the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Caller ID Act of 2009 (<span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Caller ID Act, or Act). The <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Caller ID Act, and the Commission's implementing rules, prohibit any person or entity from knowingly altering or manipulating caller identification information with the intent to defraud, cause harm, or wrongfully obtain anything of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22334087','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22334087"><span>SU-E-J-208: Fast and <span class="hlt">Accurate</span> Auto-Segmentation of Abdominal Organs at Risk for Online Adaptive Radiotherapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gupta, V; Wang, Y; Romero, A; Heijmen, B; Hoogeman, M; Myronenko, A; Jordan, P</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Purpose: Various studies have demonstrated that online adaptive radiotherapy by real-time re-optimization of the treatment plan can improve organs-at-risk (OARs) sparing in the abdominal region. Its clinical implementation, however, requires fast and <span class="hlt">accurate</span> auto-segmentation of OARs in CT scans acquired just before each treatment fraction. Autosegmentation is particularly challenging in the abdominal region due to the frequently observed large deformations. We present a clinical validation of a new auto-segmentation method that uses fully automated non-rigid registration for propagating abdominal OAR contours from planning to daily treatment CT scans. Methods: OARs were manually contoured by an expert panel to obtain <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> contours for repeat CT scans (3 per patient) of 10 patients. For the non-rigid alignment, we used a new non-rigid registration method that estimates the deformation field by optimizing local normalized correlation coefficient with smoothness regularization. This field was used to propagate planning contours to repeat CTs. To quantify the performance of the auto-segmentation, we compared the propagated and <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> contours using two widely used metrics- Dice coefficient (Dc) and Hausdorff distance (Hd). The proposed method was benchmarked against translation and rigid alignment based auto-segmentation. Results: For all organs, the auto-segmentation performed better than the baseline (translation) with an average processing time of 15 s per fraction CT. The overall improvements ranged from 2% (heart) to 32% (pancreas) in Dc, and 27% (heart) to 62% (spinal cord) in Hd. For liver, kidneys, gall bladder, stomach, spinal cord and heart, Dc above 0.85 was achieved. Duodenum and pancreas were the most challenging organs with both showing relatively larger spreads and medians of 0.79 and 2.1 mm for Dc and Hd, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the achieved accuracy and computational time we conclude that the investigated auto</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4859097','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4859097"><span>The unexpected <span class="hlt">truth</span> about dates and hypoglycemia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yasawy, Mohammed I.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: Dates are a concentrated source of essential nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and carbohydrates (CHOs), which are necessary for the maintenance of optimum health. Most of the CHOs in dates come from sugars including glucose and fructose. Dates are commonly consumed in Saudi Arabia, particularly at the time of breaking the fast to provide instant energy and maintain blood sugar level. However, dates may cause hypoglycemia in a rare condition named as heredity fructose intolerance (HFI), and a few families have been to see us with a history of that nature. This is to report the preliminary results of an on-going study of a group of patients who get symptoms of hypoglycemia following the ingestion of dates and have suffered for years without an <span class="hlt">accurate</span> diagnosis. Methodology: This report is based on three patients, from the same family, living in a date growing region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The patients had been to several medical centers without getting any definite answers or diagnosis until they were referred to the Gastroenterology Clinic of King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, KSA. The data were obtained by careful history and laboratory investigations, and a final diagnosis of HFI made on fructose intolerance test (FIT). Results: The patients reported that they had avoided eating dates because of various symptoms, such as bloating, nausea, and even hypoglycemia when larger amounts were consumed. Their other symptoms included sleepiness, sweating, and shivering. After full examinations and necessary laboratory tests based on the above symptoms, FIT was performed and the patients were diagnosed with HFI. They were referred to a dietitian who advised a fructose-free diet. They felt well and were free of symptoms. Conclusion: HFI may remain undiagnosed until adulthood and may lead to disastrous complications and even death. The diagnosis can only be suspected after a careful dietary history is taken supported by FIT. This can</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMIN33D..02W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMIN33D..02W"><span><span class="hlt">Accurate</span> Biomass Estimation via Bayesian Adaptive Sampling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wheeler, K.; Knuth, K.; Castle, P.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Typical estimates of standing wood derived from remote sensing sources take advantage of aggregate measurements of canopy heights (e.g. LIDAR) and canopy diameters (segmentation of IKONOS imagery) to obtain a wood volume estimate by assuming homogeneous species and a fixed function that returns volume. The validation of such techniques use manually measured diameter at breast height records (DBH). Our goal is to improve the accuracy and applicability of biomass estimation methods to heterogeneous forests and transitional areas. We are developing estimates with quantifiable uncertainty using a new form of estimation function, active sampling, and volumetric reconstruction image rendering for species specific mass <span class="hlt">truth</span>. Initially we are developing a Bayesian adaptive sampling method for BRDF associated with the MISR Rahman model with respect to categorical biomes. This involves characterizing the probability distributions of the 3 free parameters of the Rahman model for the 6 categories of biomes used by MISR. Subsequently, these distributions can be used to determine the optimal sampling methodology to distinguish biomes during acquisition. We have a remotely controlled semi-autonomous helicopter that has stereo imaging, lidar, differential GPS, and spectrometers covering wavelengths from visible to NIR. We intend to automatically vary the way points of the flight path via the Bayesian adaptive sampling method. The second critical part of this work is in automating the validation of biomass estimates via using machine vision techniques. This involves taking 2-D pictures of trees of known species, and then via Bayesian techniques, reconstructing 3-D models of the trees to estimate the distribution moments associated with wood volume. Similar techniques have been developed by the medical imaging community. This then provides probability distributions conditional upon species. The final part of this work is in relating the BRDF actively sampled measurements to species</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6634M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6634M"><span><span class="hlt">Ground</span> Control Point - Wireless System Network for UAV-based environmental monitoring applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mejia-Aguilar, Abraham</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have seen widespread civil applications including usage for survey and monitoring services in areas such as agriculture, construction and civil engineering, private surveillance and reconnaissance services and cultural heritage management. Most aerial monitoring services require the integration of information acquired during the flight (such as imagery) with <span class="hlt">ground</span>-based information (such as GPS information or others) for improved <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> validation. For example, to obtain an <span class="hlt">accurate</span> 3D and Digital Elevation Model based on aerial imagery, it is necessary to include <span class="hlt">ground</span>-based information of coordinate points, which are normally acquired with surveying methods based on Global Position Systems (GPS). However, GPS surveys are very time consuming and especially for longer time series of monitoring data repeated GPS surveys are necessary. In order to improve speed of data collection and integration, this work presents an autonomous system based on Waspmote technologies build on single nodes interlinked in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) star-topology for <span class="hlt">ground</span> based information collection and later integration with surveying data obtained by UAV. Nodes are designed to be visible from the air, to resist extreme weather conditions with low-power consumption. Besides, nodes are equipped with GPS as well as Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), accelerometer, temperature and soil moisture sensors and thus provide significant advantages in a broad range of applications for environmental monitoring. For our purpose, the WSN transmits the environmental data with 3G/GPRS to a database on a regular time basis. This project provides a detailed case study and implementation of a <span class="hlt">Ground</span> Control Point System Network for UAV-based vegetation monitoring of dry mountain grassland in the Matsch valley, Italy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930028147&hterms=Shakers&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DShakers','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930028147&hterms=Shakers&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DShakers"><span><span class="hlt">Grounding</span> of space structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bosela, P. A.; Fertis, D. G.; Shaker, F. J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Space structures, such as the Space Station solar arrays, must be extremely light-weight, flexible structures. <span class="hlt">Accurate</span> prediction of the natural frequencies and mode shapes is essential for determining the structural adequacy of components, and designing a controls system. The tension pre-load in the 'blanket' of photovoltaic solar collectors, and the free/free boundary conditions of a structure in space, causes serious reservations on the use of standard finite element techniques of solution. In particular, a phenomenon known as '<span class="hlt">grounding</span>', or false stiffening, of the stiffness matrix occurs during rigid body rotation. This paper examines the <span class="hlt">grounding</span> phenomenon in detail. Numerous stiffness matrices developed by others are examined for rigid body rotation capability, and found lacking. A force imbalance inherent in the formulations examined is the likely cause of the <span class="hlt">grounding</span> problem, suggesting the need for a directed force formulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20878877','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20878877"><span>Promising to tell the <span class="hlt">truth</span> makes 8- to 16-year-olds more honest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Evans, Angela D; Lee, Kang</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Techniques commonly used to increase <span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling in most North American jurisdiction courts include requiring witnesses to discuss the morality of <span class="hlt">truth</span>- and lie-telling and to promise to tell the <span class="hlt">truth</span> prior to testifying. While promising to tell the <span class="hlt">truth</span> successfully decreases younger children's lie-telling, the influence of discussing the morality of honesty and promising to tell the <span class="hlt">truth</span> on adolescents' statements has remained unexamined. In Experiment 1, 108 youngsters, aged 8-16 years, were left alone in the room and asked not to peek at the answers to a test. The majority of participants peeked at the test answers and then lied about their transgression. More importantly, participants were eight times more likely to change their response from a lie to the <span class="hlt">truth</span> after promising to tell the <span class="hlt">truth</span>. Experiment 2 confirmed that the results of Experiment 1 were not solely due to repeated questioning or the moral discussion of <span class="hlt">truth</span>- and lie-telling. These results suggest that, while promising to tell the <span class="hlt">truth</span> influences the <span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling behaviors of adolescents, a moral discussion of <span class="hlt">truth</span> and lies does not. Legal implications are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADP023091','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADP023091"><span>Tracker Analysis and <span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Tool Description for the Proceedings of the 2002 <span class="hlt">Ground</span> Target Modeling and Validation Conference</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-08-01</p> <p>Mark A. Chamblis.. Judson R. Griffin III, Daniel Konkle. Paul D. Lavallee, Dr. Jay Lightfoot Dynetics . Inc. Huntsville, AL 35814 USA ABSTRACT The...displays contact information for Dynetics , Inc, and gives acknowledgement to AMCOM (Aviation and Missile Command) for their sponsorship of the...create avi movies, and adding a tool to remove bad frames from a sequence. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This paper was based on work that Dynetics performed for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJTP...56..372N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJTP...56..372N"><span>Measurement Theory Based on the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Values Violates Local Realism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nagata, Koji</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>We investigate the violation factor of the Bell-Mermin inequality. Until now, we use an assumption that the results of measurement are ±1. In this case, the maximum violation factor is 2( n-1)/2. The quantum predictions by n-partite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state violate the Bell-Mermin inequality by an amount that grows exponentially with n. Recently, a new measurement theory based on the <span class="hlt">truth</span> values is proposed (Nagata and Nakamura, Int. J. Theor. Phys. 55:3616, 2016). The values of measurement outcome are either +1 or 0. Here we use the new measurement theory. We consider multipartite GHZ state. It turns out that the Bell-Mermin inequality is violated by the amount of 2( n-1)/2. The measurement theory based on the <span class="hlt">truth</span> values provides the maximum violation of the Bell-Mermin inequality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA456341','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA456341"><span>Formation of <span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Databases and Related Studies and Regional Seismic Monitoring Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>Outpost, Alaska, USA Bolivia Charters Towers, Australia Davao, Philippines Bolivia Mount Kent, East Falkland Island Erkin-Sai, Kyrgyzstan...Anza, Calif. Domenigoni Valley Reservoir, California, USA Bolivia Dobmska, Czech Republic Mount Kent, East Falkland Island M S 2 ENH E r n...Moravsky Beroun, Czech Republic Mahe Island, SeycheUm Mount W i l q California, USA Nilore, Pakistan NaM, Peru Norilsk, Russia Obninsk, Russia</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017LPICo1989.8148S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017LPICo1989.8148S"><span>A <span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truth</span>-Based Approach to Future Solar System Origins Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stroud, R. M.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>To expand our understanding of how the solar system, and thus humanity itself, came into being, we must push forward the state-of-the-art in planetary materials analysis capabilities over the next three decades.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4811005M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4811005M"><span><span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> of (sub-)micrometre cometary dust - Results of MIDAS onboard Rosetta</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mannel, Thurid; Bentley, Mark; Schmied, Roland; Torkar, Klaus; Jeszenszky, Harald; Romsted, Jens; Levasseur-Regourd, A.; Weber, Iris; Jessberger, Elmar K.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Köberl, Christian; Havnes, Ove</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The investigation of comet 67P by Rosetta has allowed the comprehensive characterisation of pristine cometary dust particles ejected from the nucleus. Flying alongside the comet at distances as small as a few kilometres, and with a relative velocity of only centimetres per second, the Rosetta payload sampled almost unaltered dust. A key instrument to study this dust was MIDAS (the Micro-Imaging Dust Analysis System), a dedicated atomic force microscope that scanned the surfaces of hundreds of (sub-)micrometre sized particles in 3D with resolutions down to nanometres. This offers the unique opportunity to explore the morphology of smallest cometary dust and expand our current knowledge about cometary material.Here we give an overview of dust collected and analysed by MIDAS and highlight its most important features. These include the ubiquitous agglomerate nature of the dust, which is found at all size scales from the largest (>10 µm) through to the smallest (<1 µm) dust particles. The sub-units show characteristic sizes and shapes that are compared with model predictions for interstellar dust.Our findings constrain key parameters of the evolution of the early Solar System. We will discuss which dust growth model is favoured by the observed morphology and how the results restrict cometary formation. Finally, dust particles detected by MIDAS resemble primitive interplanetary dust which is a strong argument for a common cometary origin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..39.3304K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..39.3304K"><span>Field experiment provides <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> for surface nuclear magnetic resonance measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Knight, Rosemary; Grunewald, Elliot; Irons, Trevor; Dlubac, Katherine; Song, Yiqiao; Bachman, Henry N.; Grau, Ben; Walsh, Dave; Abraham, Jared D.; Cannia, Jim</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The need for sustainable management of fresh water resources is one of the great challenges of the 21st century. Since most of the planet's liquid fresh water exists as groundwater, it is essential to develop non-invasive geophysical techniques to characterize groundwater aquifers. A field experiment was conducted in the High Plains Aquifer, central United States, to explore the mechanisms governing the non-invasive Surface NMR (SNMR) technology. We acquired both SNMR data and logging NMR data at a field site, along with lithology information from drill cuttings. This allowed us to directly compare the NMR relaxation parameter measured during logging, T2, to the relaxation parameter T2* measured using the SNMR method. The latter can be affected by inhomogeneity in the magnetic field, thus obscuring the link between the NMR relaxation parameter and the hydraulic conductivity of the geologic material. When the logging T2 data were transformed to pseudo- T2* data, by accounting for inhomogeneity in the magnetic field and instrument dead time, we found good agreement with T2* obtained from the SNMR measurement. These results, combined with the additional information about lithology at the site, allowed us to delineate the physical mechanisms governing the SNMR measurement. Such understanding is a critical step in developing SNMR as a reliable geophysical method for the assessment of groundwater resources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170001747','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170001747"><span><span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Mineralogy vs. Orbital Observations at the Bagnold Dune Field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Achilles, C. N.; Downs, R. T.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; Morris, R. V.; Treiman, A. H.; Morrison, S. M.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Bristow, T. F.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, is analyzing rock and sediments in Gale crater to provide in situ sedimentological, geochemical, and mineralogical assessments of the crater's geologic history. Curiosity's recent traverse through an active, basaltic eolian deposit, informally named the Bagnold Dunes, provided the opportunity for a multi-instrument investigation of the dune field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950009770','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950009770"><span>Chryse Planitia as a Mars Pathfinder landing site: The imperative of building on previous <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Crumpler, Larry S.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Based on consideration of the geological characteristics of Chryse Planitia, the requirements for Mars Pathfinder landing sites, the nature of the mission, the scale of the observations to be made, and the need to build outward from previous experience, a new mission to Chryse Planitia offers several advantages that are difficult to ignore as well as offering a low-gamble/high-return mission scenario. Considering the need to ensure a successful mission, and to ensure the continued health of planetary exploration, the reasons for a new mission to Chryse Planitia are compelling. Results of 1:500,000 mapping, operational benefits of Chryse Planitia, science benefits of Chryse Planitia, and conclusions and site recommendations are discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860007392&hterms=truth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dtruth','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860007392&hterms=truth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dtruth"><span>Requirements for sea surface temperature <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> in the Indonesian region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Penrose, J.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The comparatively low density of ship and XBT observations in large areas of the Southern Hemisphere and the tropics limits the extent to which satellite SST estimates can be validated on a global basis. These limitations are discussed, and some recommendations for correction are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850008942&hterms=truth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dtruth','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850008942&hterms=truth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dtruth"><span><span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> for SIR-B images obtained by SIR system 8 impulse radar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ulriksen, P.; Ottersten, H.; Borg, C. G.; Axelsson, S.; Ekengren, B.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Verification of suspected penetration by means of three dimensional information on the features in the SIR-B images will be investigated. The Great Alvar is a well documented area, especially in geology and ecology, and should provide a good opportunity to evaluate the data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=212384','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=212384"><span>Airborne multispectral remote sensing with <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> for areawide pest management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Scientists and engineers in areawide pest management programs have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with global positioning systems, geographic information system...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880040590&hterms=truth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dtruth','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880040590&hterms=truth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dtruth"><span>Techniques of <span class="hlt">ground-truth</span> measurements of desert-scrub structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ottermann, J.; Deering, D.; Eck, T.; Ringrose, S.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Inversion of remote sensing data taken over a desert scrub surface in Texas with a multidirectionally viewing field radiometer, PARABOLA, yields the value of 0.12 for the protrusion parameter, s, (the projection on a vertical plane of plants per unit area) if isotropy (Lambert law) is assumed for the underlying soil. However, a significantly higher value of s, in the range 0.15 to 0.20, can be inferred if the soil is assumed anisotropic. It is concluded that in remote sensing of sparse vegetation, it is important to know the reflectance characteristics of the underlying soil. Other techniques that can be used to infer desert scrub vegetation structure include various photographic techniques, and measurements of reflected radiance from zenith for a range of solar elevation angles on a clear day.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760009508','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760009508"><span><span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> report 1975 Phoenix microwave experiment. [Joint Soil Moisture Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blanchard, B. J.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Direct measurements of soil moisture obtained in conjunction with aircraft data flights near Phoenix, Arizona in March, 1975 are summarized. The data were collected for the Joint Soil Moisture Experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830017021&hterms=truth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dtruth','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830017021&hterms=truth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dtruth"><span>Precipitation measurements for earth-space communications: Accuracy requirements and <span class="hlt">ground-truth</span> techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ippolito, L. J.; Kaul, R.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Rainfall which is regarded as one of the more important observations for the measurements of this most variable parameter was made continuously, across large areas and over the sea. Ships could not provide the needed resolution nor could available radars provide the needed breadth of coverage. Microwave observations from the Nimbus-5 satellite offered some hope. Another possibility was suggested by the results of many comparisons between rainfall and the clouds seen in satellite pictures. Sequences of pictures from the first geostationary satellites were employed and a general correspondence between rain and the convective clouds visible in satellite pictures was found. It was demonstrated that the agreement was best for growing clouds. The development methods to infer GATE rainfall from geostationary satellite images are examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910021263','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910021263"><span>Design of the primary and secondary Pre-TRMM and TRMM <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> sites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Garstang, Michael; Austin, Geoffrey; Cosgrove, Claire</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Results generated over six months are covered in five manuscripts: (1) estimates of rain volume over the Peninsula of Florida during the summer season based upon the Manually Digitized Radar data; (2) the diurnal characteristics of rainfall over Florida and over the near shore waters; (3) convective rainfall as measured over the east coast of central Florida; (4) the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall over Florida; and (5) comparisons between the land based radar and an optical raingage onboard an anchored buoy 50 km offshore.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760012446','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760012446"><span>Soils maps supplement to soil moisture <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span>, Lafayette, Indiana, site St. Charles, Missouri, site</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jones, E. B.; Olt, S. E.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>A compilation of soils information obtained as the result of a library search of data on the Lafayette, Indiana, site and St. Charles, Missouri, site is presented. Soils data for the Lafayette, Indiana, site are shown in Plates 1 and 2; and soils data for the St. Charles, Missouri, site are shown in Plates 3 and 4.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64359&keyword=sensor+AND+natural&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78770758&CFTOKEN=17336127','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64359&keyword=sensor+AND+natural&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78770758&CFTOKEN=17336127"><span>AN ASSESSMENT OF <span class="hlt">GROUND</span> <span class="hlt">TRUTH</span> VARIABILITY USING A "VIRTUAL FIELD REFERENCE DATABASE"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><br><br>A "Virtual Field Reference Database (VFRDB)" was developed from field measurment data that included location and time, physical attributes, flora inventory, and digital imagery (camera) documentation foy 1,01I sites in the Neuse River basin, North Carolina. The sampling f...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1611B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1611B"><span><span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truth</span> and Application for the Anisotropic Receiver Functions Technique - Test site KTB: the installation campaign</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bianchi, Irene; Anselmi, Mario; Apoloner, Maria-Theresia; Qorbani, Ehsan; Gribovszki, Katalin; Bokelmann, Götz</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The project at hand is a field test around the KTB (Kontinentale Tiefbohrung) site in the Oberpfalz, Southeastern Germany, at the northwestern edge of the Bohemian Massif. The region has been extensively studied through the analysis of several seismic reflection lines deployed around the drilling site. The deep borehole had been placed into gneiss rocks of the Zone Erbendorf-Vohenstrauss. Drilling activity lasted since 1987 to 1994, and it descends down to a depth of 9101 meters. In our experiment, we aim to recover structural information as well as anisotropy of the upper crust using the receiver function technique. This retrieved information will form the base for a comparison between the resulting anisotropy amount and orientation with information of rock samples from up to 9 km depth, and with earlier high-frequency seismic experiments around the drill site. For that purpose, we installed 9 seismic stations, and recorded seismicity continuously for two years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032693','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032693"><span>Field experiment provides <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> for surface nuclear magnetic resonance measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Knight, R.; Grunewald, E.; Irons, T.; Dlubac, K.; Song, Y.; Bachman, H.N.; Grau, B.; Walsh, D.; Abraham, J.D.; Cannia, J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The need for sustainable management of fresh water resources is one of the great challenges of the 21st century. Since most of the planet's liquid fresh water exists as groundwater, it is essential to develop non-invasive geophysical techniques to characterize groundwater aquifers. A field experiment was conducted in the High Plains Aquifer, central United States, to explore the mechanisms governing the non-invasive Surface NMR (SNMR) technology. We acquired both SNMR data and logging NMR data at a field site, along with lithology information from drill cuttings. This allowed us to directly compare the NMR relaxation parameter measured during logging, T 2, to the relaxation parameter T 2 * measured using the SNMR method. The latter can be affected by inhomogeneity in the magnetic field, thus obscuring the link between the NMR relaxation parameter and the hydraulic conductivity of the geologic material. When the logging T 2 data were transformed to pseudo-T 2 * data, by accounting for inhomogeneity in the magnetic field and instrument dead time, we found good agreement with T 2 * obtained from the SNMR measurement. These results, combined with the additional information about lithology at the site, allowed us to delineate the physical mechanisms governing the SNMR measurement. Such understanding is a critical step in developing SNMR as a reliable geophysical method for the assessment of groundwater resources. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8658E..18A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8658E..18A"><span>WFST-based <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> alignment for difficult historical documents with text modification and layout variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Al Azawi, Mayce; Liwicki, Marcus; Breuel, Thomas M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This work proposes several approaches that can be used for generating correspondences between real scanned books and their transcriptions which might have different modifications and layout variations, also taking OCR errors into account. Our approaches for the alignment between the manuscript and the transcription are based on weighted finite state transducers (WFST). In particular, we propose adapted WFSTs to represent the transcription to be aligned with the OCR lattices. The character-level alignment has edit rules to allow edit operations (insertion, deletion, substitution). Those edit operations allow the transcription model to deal with OCR segmentation and recognition errors, and also with the task of aligning with different text editions. We implemented an alignment model with a hyphenation model, so it can adapt the non-hyphenated transcription. Our models also work with Fraktur ligatures, which are typically found in historical Fraktur documents. We evaluated our approach on Fraktur documents from Wanderungen durch die Mark Brandenburg" volumes (1862-1889) and observed the performance of those models under OCR errors. We compare the performance of our model for three different scenarios: having no information about the correspondence at the word (i), line (ii), sentence (iii) or page (iv) level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA563743','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA563743"><span>Assessing the Impact of Information Channels on the Understanding of <span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truth</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Ghost 1-6 Scout 2 Scout 2 Section Ghost 2-6 Engineers Engineer Company Commander Blacksmith 6 101 Scenario 2, Operations Order Unit: 3d...Scout 2 Scout 2 Section Ghost 2-6 Engineers Engineer Company Commander Blacksmith 6 105 APPENDIX H. SHIFT CHANGEOVER BRIEFS</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=294392&keyword=library+AND+information+AND+science&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90746031&CFTOKEN=34416627','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=294392&keyword=library+AND+information+AND+science&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90746031&CFTOKEN=34416627"><span><span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truthing</span> the 'Conventional Wisdom' of Lead Corrosion Control Using Mineralogical Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>For drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) with lead-bearing plumbing materials some form of corrosion control is typically necessary, with the goal of mitigating lead release by forming adherent, stable corrosion scales composed of low-solubility mineral phases. Conventional...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=294391&keyword=library+AND+information+AND+science&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90746031&CFTOKEN=34416627','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=294391&keyword=library+AND+information+AND+science&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90746031&CFTOKEN=34416627"><span><span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truthing</span> the ‘Conventional Wisdom’ of Lead Corrosion Control Using Mineralogical Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>For drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) with lead-bearing plumbing materials some form of corrosion control is typically necessary, with the goal of mitigating lead release by forming adherent, stable corrosion scales composed of low-solubility mineral phases. Conventional...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED260912.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED260912.pdf"><span>Man and the Biosphere: <span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truthing</span> Coral Reefs for the St. John Island Biosphere Reserve.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brody, Michael J.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>Research on the coral species composition of St. John's reefs in the Virgin Islands was conducted through the School for Field Studies (SFS) Coral Reef Ecology course (winter 1984). A cooperative study program based on the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization's (Unesco) program, Man and the Biosphere, was undertaken by…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940010708','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940010708"><span><span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> spectrometry and imagery of eruption clouds to maximize utility of satellite imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rose, William I.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Field experiments with thermal imaging infrared radiometers were performed and a laboratory system was designed for controlled study of simulated ash clouds. Using AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) thermal infrared bands 4 and 5, a radiative transfer method was developed to retrieve particle sizes, optical depth and particle mass involcanic clouds. A model was developed for measuring the same parameters using TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer), and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer). Related publications are attached.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=computer+AND+network+AND+design&pg=3&id=ED548206','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=computer+AND+network+AND+design&pg=3&id=ED548206"><span>Inter-Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks: From the <span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truth</span> to Algorithm Design and Testbed Architecture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Giordano, Eugenio</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Many of the devices we interact with on a daily basis are currently equipped with wireless connectivity. Soon this will be extended to the vehicles we drive/ride every day. Wirelessly connected vehicles will form a new kind of network that will enable a wide set of innovative applications ranging from enhanced safety to entertainment. To…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=quantum+AND+consciousness&id=EJ873782','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=quantum+AND+consciousness&id=EJ873782"><span>Skepticism, <span class="hlt">Truth</span> as Coherence, and Constructivist Epistemology: <span class="hlt">Grounds</span> for Resolving the Discord between Science and Religion?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Staver, John R.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Science and religion exhibit multiple relationships as ways of knowing. These connections have been characterized as cousinly, mutually respectful, non-overlapping, competitive, proximate-ultimate, dominant-subordinate, and opposing-conflicting. Some of these ties create stress, and tension between science and religion represents a significant…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750021458','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750021458"><span><span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> data for test sites (SL-3). [solar radiation and thermal radiation brightness temperature measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Field measurements performed simultaneously with Skylab overpasses in order to provide comparative calibration and performance evaluation measurements for the EREP sensors are presented. The solar radiation region from 400 to 1300 nanometers and the thermal radiation region from 8 to 14 micrometer region were investigated. The measurements of direct solar radiation were analyzed for atmospheric optical depth; the total and reflected solar radiation were analyzed for target reflectivity. These analyses were used in conjunction with a radiative transfer computer program in order to calculate the amount and spectral distribution of solar radiation at the apertures of the EREP sensors. The instrumentation and techniques employed, calibrations and analyses performed, and results obtained are discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750021459','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750021459"><span><span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> data for test sites (SL-4). [thermal radiation brightness temperature and solar radiation measurments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Field measurements performed simultaneous with Skylab overpass in order to provide comparative calibration and performance evaluation measurements for the EREP sensors are presented. Wavelength region covered include: solar radiation (400 to 1300 nanometer), and thermal radiation (8 to 14 micrometer). Measurements consisted of general conditions and near surface meteorology, atmospheric temperature and humidity vs altitude, the thermal brightness temperature, total and diffuse solar radiation, direct solar radiation (subsequently analyzed for optical depth/transmittance), and target reflectivity/radiance. The particular instruments used are discussed along with analyses performed. Detailed instrument operation, calibrations, techniques, and errors are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15005407','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15005407"><span>Grid-Search Location Methods for <span class="hlt">Ground-Truth</span> Collection from Local and Regional Seismic Networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schultz, C A; Rodi, W; Myers, S C</p> <p>2003-07-24</p> <p>The objective of this project is to develop improved seismic event location techniques that can be used to generate more and better quality reference events using data from local and regional seismic networks. Their approach is to extend existing methods of multiple-event location with more general models of the errors affecting seismic arrival time data, including picking errors and errors in model-based travel-times (path corrections). Toward this end, they are integrating a grid-search based algorithm for multiple-event location (GMEL) with a new parameterization of travel-time corrections and new kriging method for estimating the correction parameters from observed travel-time residuals. Like several other multiple-event location algorithms, GMEL currently assumes event-independent path corrections and is thus restricted to small event clusters. The new parameterization assumes that travel-time corrections are a function of both the event and station location, and builds in source-receiver reciprocity and correlation between the corrections from proximate paths as constraints. The new kriging method simultaneously interpolates travel-time residuals from multiple stations and events to estimate the correction parameters as functions of position. They are currently developing the algorithmic extensions to GMEL needed to combine the new parameterization and kriging method with the simultaneous location of events. The result will be a multiple-event location method which is applicable to non-clustered, spatially well-distributed events. They are applying the existing components of the new multiple-event location method to a data set of regional and local arrival times from Nevada Test Site (NTS) explosions with known origin parameters. Preliminary results show the feasibility and potential benefits of combining the location and kriging techniques. They also show some preliminary work on generalizing of the error model used in GMEL with the use of mixture-of-Gaussians probability distributions fit to observed travel-time residuals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510959P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510959P"><span>Experimental impact cratering provides <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> data for understanding planetary-scale collision processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poelchau, Michael H.; Deutsch, Alex; Kenkmann, Thomas</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Impact cratering is generally accepted as one of the primary processes that shape planetary surfaces in the solar system. While post-impact analysis of craters by remote sensing or field work gives many insights into this process, impact cratering experiments have several advantages for impact research: 1) excavation and ejection processes can be directly observed, 2) physical parameters of the experiment are defined and can be varied, and 3) cratered target material can be analyzed post-impact in an unaltered, uneroded state. The main goal of the MEMIN project is to comprehensively quantify impact processes by conducting a stringently controlled experimental impact cratering campaign on the meso-scale with a multidisciplinary analytical approach. As a unique feature we use two-stage light gas guns capable of producing impact craters in the decimeter size-range in solid rocks that, in turn, allow detailed spatial analysis of petrophysical, structural, and geochemical changes in target rocks and ejecta. In total, we have carried out 24 experiments at the facilities of the Fraunhofer EMI, Freiburg - Germany. Steel, aluminum, and iron meteorite projectiles ranging in diameter from 2.5 to 12 mm were accelerated to velocities ranging from 2.5 to 7.8 km/s. Targets were solid rocks, namely sandstone, quartzite and tuff that were either dry or saturated with water. In the experimental setup, high speed framing cameras monitored the impact process, ultrasound sensors were attached to the target to record the passage of the shock wave, and special particle catchers were positioned opposite of the target surface to capture the ejected target and projectile material. In addition to the cratering experiments, planar shock recovery experiments were performed on the target material, and numerical models of the cratering process were developed. The experiments resulted in craters with diameters up to 40 cm, which is unique in laboratory cratering research. Target porosity exponentially reduces crater volumes and cratering efficiency relative to non-porous rocks, and also yields less steep ejecta angles. Microstructural analysis of the subsurface shows a zone of pervasive grain crushing and pore space reduction. This is in good agreement with new mesoscale numerical models, which are able to quantify localized shock pressure behavior in the target's pore space. Planar shock recovery experiments confirm these local pressure excursions, based on microanalysis of shock metamorphic features in quartz. Saturation of porous target rocks with water counteracts many of the effects of porosity. Post-impact analysis of projectile remnants shows that during mixing of projectile and target melts, the Fe of the projectile is preferentially partitioned into target melt to a greater degree than Ni and Co. We plan to continue evaluating the experimental results in combination with numerical models. These models help to quantify and evaluate cratering processes, while experimental data serve as benchmarks to validate the improved numerical models, thus helping to "bridge the gap" between experiments and nature. The results confirm and expand current crater scaling laws, and make an application to craters on planetary surfaces possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMNH31D..04K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMNH31D..04K"><span>Eltanin: <span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truth</span> for Kilometer-Sized Deep-Ocean Impacts (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kyte, F. T.; Gersonde, R.; Kuhn, G.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Deposits of the late Pliocene (2.5 Ma) Eltanin impact are unique in the known geological record. The only known example of a km-sized asteroid to impact a deep-ocean (5 km) basin, is the most meterorite-rich locality known on Earth. This was discovered as an Ir anomaly in sediments from three cores collected in the SE Pacific in 1965 by the USNS Eltanin. Subsequently, two expeditions of the R/V Polarstern in 1995 and 2001 have conducted geological and geophysical investigations in the impact region. An area of ~80,000 km2 has been mapped in some detail, and deposits from the impact are found in 23 cores spanning a region extending 660 (E-W) by 250 km (N-S). We find a central region 50 to 100 km across, near the Freeden Seamounts (57.3S, 90.5W), where sediments as old as Eocene have been ripped up (perhaps to basement) and redeposited by the impact into a chaotic mix of pebble to boulder-sized fragments. This is overlain by a fining upward sequence of sediments with laminations and some cross-bedding consistent with deposition in a high-energy flow regime. Near the top of this impact deposit, sub mm- to cm-sized meteoritic ejecta is mixed into the disturbed sediment. This ejecta is composed of 90% shock-melted asteroid and 10% unmelted meteorite fragments from the lo-metal mesosiderite asteroid. The amount of meteoritic ejecta in 13 cores from the central region record deposition of 3 to 50 kg of asteroid material per square meter. Km-sized impacts are fairly common on geological timescales, occurring a few times per m.y., so one or two other similar-sized, and several smaller projectiles likely hit the Pacific basin since the Late Pliocene. Undoubtedly, this is not the only such impact collected in deep-sea cores; it is unique only in that it has been recognized. Eltanin thus serves as type section for identifying ocean-impact deposits at other localities. Projectiles of this size cannot penetrate to the ocean floor and indeed there is no chemical evidence in the ejecta of mixing between asteroidal and terrestrial silicates. However, severe disturbance of of seafloor sediments over a wide region attest to the energy of this event. We have found no evidence of a physical “crater,” but it is conceivable that the water cavity formed by the impact extended to the bottom and could have even briefly exposed large areas of the seafloor. If deep-ocean impacts represent a significant hazard due to climate change or wave propagation, Eltanin could be a good test case if it’s effects can just be discerned outside the immediate impact region. The late Pliocene was a time of rapid climate change, but we have been unsuccessful at detecting Eltanin ejecta in high-resolution cores from the S. Atlantic. Unfortunately, the poor time-resolution in the Polarstern piston cores is insufficient to tie the impact to the O-isotope-based climate record. Perhaps the best chance would be to search for tsunami deposits. Models projecting the propagation of Eltanin-sized impact waves would be useful in evaluating the effects of this impact across the Pacific and other ocean basins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=220563','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=220563"><span>Airborne multi-spectral remote sensing with <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> for areawide pest management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Scientists and researchers have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology are...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=classification+AND+algorithm&pg=2&id=ED554172','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=classification+AND+algorithm&pg=2&id=ED554172"><span>Liberal or Conservative: Evaluation and Classification with Distribution as <span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">Truth</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zhou, Daniel Xiaodan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The ability to classify the political leaning of a large number of articles and items is valuable to both academic research and practical applications. The challenge, though, is not only about developing innovative classification algorithms, which constitutes a "classifier" theme in this thesis, but also about how to define the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ASAJ..117R2408H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ASAJ..117R2408H"><span><span class="hlt">Ground-truthing</span> evoked potential measurements against behavioral conditioning in the goldfish, Carassius auratus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hill, Randy J.; Mann, David A.</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) have become commonly used to measure hearing thresholds in fish. However, it is uncertain how well AEP thresholds match behavioral hearing thresholds and what effect variability in electrode placement has on AEPs. In the first experiment, the effect of electrode placement on AEPs was determined by simultaneously recording AEPs from four locations on each of 12 goldfish, Carassius auratus. In the second experiment, the hearing sensitivity of 12 goldfish was measured using both classical conditioning and AEP's in the same setup. For behavioral conditioning, the fish were trained to reduce their respiration rate in response to a 5 s sound presentation paired with a brief shock. A modified staircase method was used in which 20 reversals were completed for each frequency, and threshold levels were determined by averaging the last 12 reversals. Once the behavioral audiogram was completed, the AEP measurements were made without moving the fish. The recording electrode was located subdermally over the medulla, and was inserted prior to classical conditioning to minimize handling of animal. The same sound stimuli (pulsed tones) were presented and the resultant evoked potentials were recorded for 1000-6000 averages. AEP input-output functions were then compared to the behavioral audiogram to compare techniques for estimating behavioral thresholds from AEP data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA487579','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA487579"><span>Crustal Structure of the Iran Region from In-Country and <span class="hlt">Ground-Truth</span> Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-09-30</p> <p>region. Recent studies report crustal thickness in the Arabian shield ranging from 32-37 km, thickening to 43-45 km in the foredeep basin of the Zagros ...the foredeep, folding and faulting in the Zagros Mountains is exposed at the surface and surface elevation steadily increases. However, crustal...thickness remains relatively constant from the foredeep to the main Zagros thrust fault (Paul et al., 2006). From the main Zagros thrust to -50-90 km</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/840064','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/840064"><span>Grid-Search Location Methods for <span class="hlt">Ground-Truth</span> Collection From Local and Regional Seismic Networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>William Rodi; Craig A. Schultz; Gardar Johannesson; Stephen C. Myers</p> <p>2005-05-13</p> <p>This project investigated new techniques for improving seismic event locations derived from regional and local networks. The technqiues include a new approach to empirical travel-time calibration that simultaneously fits data from multiple stations and events, using a generalization of the kriging method, and predicts travel-time corrections for arbitrary event-station paths. We combined this calibration approach with grid-search event location to produce a prototype new multiple-event location method that allows the use of spatially well-distributed events and takes into account correlations between the travel-time corrections from proximate event-station paths. Preliminary tests with a high quality data set from Nevada Test Site explosions indicated that our new calibration/location method offers improvement over the conventional multiple-event location methods now in common use, and is applicable to more general event-station geometries than the conventional methods. The tests were limited, however, and further research is needed to fully evaluate, and improve, the approach. Our project also demonstrated the importance of using a realistic model for observational errors in an event location procedure. We took the initial steps in developing a new error model based on mixture-of-Gaussians probability distributions, which possess the properties necessary to characterize the complex arrival time error processes that can occur when picking low signal-to-noise arrivals. We investigated various inference methods for fitting these distributions to observed travel-time residuals, including a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique for computing Bayesian estimates of the distribution parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED553420.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED553420.pdf"><span>The Simple <span class="hlt">Truth</span> about the Gender Pay Gap</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>American Association of University Women, 2014</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>It's been said that men are paid more than women are paid over their lifetimes. But what does that mean? Are women paid less because they choose lower-paying jobs? Is it because more women work part time than men do? Or is it because women tend to be the primary caregivers for their children? AAUW's "The Simple <span class="hlt">Truth</span> about the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24124694','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24124694"><span>Concern for <span class="hlt">truth</span>: driving defensively when confronting a zombie epidemic.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Howland, Robert H</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>The newly approved drug Diclegis(®), indicated for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with pregnancy, has a very interesting background story going back more than 50 years, in which science, celebrity individuals, the media, and the courts crossed paths. The story illustrates how concepts of <span class="hlt">truth</span>, evidence, objectivity, and disinterested inquiry can become distorted in various ways, and this is especially relevant and prevalent in today's media environment of cable television, talk radio, and especially the Internet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18439970','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18439970"><span><span class="hlt">Truth</span>, proof and evidence: homeopathy and the medical paradigm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Swayne, Jeremy</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>The study and practice of medicine, in its most personal and intimate functions, its most sophisticated scientific and technological manifestations, and its philosophical and ethical ramifications, are central to our understanding of the human condition. Homeopathic medicine: its insights, the questions that it begs, and the scientific and philosophical challenges it presents, has a significant contribution to make to this process. To be actively and seriously engaged with homeopathy is an adventurous undertaking. It is to be engaged in exploring both human nature and the nature of the world we inhabit. And in that process we are also engaged in the pursuit of <span class="hlt">truth</span> and the exploration of reality. This paper deals first with the layout of the playing field on which homeopathy has to compete to be taken seriously. It then discusses three concepts: reality, <span class="hlt">truth</span> and knowledge, which are objectives for which we strive and principles that guide us in that striving. In the third part it introduces the concept of 'personal knowledge' as an essential ingredient of scientific discovery and the pursuit of <span class="hlt">truth</span>. And finally it proposes that the homeopathic community in general, and the Faculty of Homeopathy in particular, must expand its vision with a definition of a new paradigm, the new model of healthcare and medical science to which the vision aspires.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9639E..1CG','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9639E..1CG"><span>The Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial and Helio Studies (<span class="hlt">TRUTHS</span>) mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Green, Paul D.; Fox, Nigel P.; Lobb, Daniel; Friend, Jonathan</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">TRUTHS</span> (Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio-Studies) is a proposed small satellite mission to enable a space-based climate observing system capable of delivering data of the quality needed to provide the information needed by policy makers to make robust mitigation and adaptation decisions. This is achieved by embedding trust and confidence in the data and derived information (tied to international standards) from both its own measurements and by upgrading the performance and interoperability of other EO platforms, such as the Sentinels by in-flight reference calibration. <span class="hlt">TRUTHS</span> would provide measurements of incoming (total and spectrally resolved) and global reflected spectrally and spatially (50 m) solar radiation at the 0.3% uncertainty level. These fundamental climate data products can be convolved into the building blocks for many ECVs and EO applications as envisaged by the 2015 ESA science strategy; in a cost effective manner. We describe the scientific drivers for the <span class="hlt">TRUTHS</span> mission and how the requirements for the climate benchmarking and cross-calibration reference sensor are both complementary and simply implemented, with a small additional complexity on top of heritage calibration schemes. The calibration scheme components and the route to SI-traceable Earth-reflected solar spectral radiance and solar spectral irradiance are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15310429','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15310429"><span>Negative capability and <span class="hlt">truth</span> in Borges's 'Emma Zunz'.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Priel, Beatriz</p> <p>2004-08-01</p> <p>The author's main contention is that Borges's short story 'Emma Zunz' not only includes psychoanalytic themes, but also succeeds in effecting, through the fictional text's form, a reading akin to a psychoanalytic approach to the vicissitudes of <span class="hlt">truth</span> and meaning. This is an approach named by Bion, after Keats, 'negative capability'; for example, an openness, not to the (impossible) knowledge of <span class="hlt">truth</span>, but to its effects. The effect of reading Borges's story is analyzed as conveyed through three main narrative strategies: (a) the minute description of Emma's falsities and her fabrication of lies, as processes through which the awareness of internal reality is thoroughly transformed; (b) the subversion of the detective narrative genre making obsolete its conventions; (c) the introduction of a narrator who paradoxically knows and doesn't know crucial aspects of Emma's internal and external reality, who is both close to and distant from the reader, and who never decides among the diverse alternatives he proposes. These narrative strategies transform the story into a perplexing playground for the reader's expectations. Borges's peculiar way of narrating the story of 'Emma Zunz' powerfully appeals to the reader's capability not to search for the <span class="hlt">truth</span>, but to allow herself to be affected by it; not to decipher, but to follow the patient's discourse or the story in the written text.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27570197','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27570197"><span><span class="hlt">Accurate</span> determination of surface reference data in digital photographs in ice-free surfaces of Maritime Antarctica.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pina, Pedro; Vieira, Gonçalo; Bandeira, Lourenço; Mora, Carla</p> <p>2016-12-15</p> <p>The ice-free areas of Maritime Antarctica show complex mosaics of surface covers, with wide patches of diverse bare soils and rock, together with various vegetation communities dominated by lichens and mosses. The microscale variability is difficult to characterize and quantify, but is essential for <span class="hlt">ground-truthing</span> and for defining classifiers for large areas using, for example high resolution satellite imagery, or even ultra-high resolution unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery. The main objective of this paper is to verify the ability and robustness of an automated approach to discriminate the variety of surface types in digital photographs acquired at <span class="hlt">ground</span> level in ice-free regions of Maritime Antarctica. The proposed method is based on an object-based classification procedure built in two main steps: first, on the automated delineation of homogeneous regions (the objects) of the images through the watershed transform with adequate filtering to avoid an over-segmentation, and second, on labelling each identified object with a supervised decision classifier trained with samples of representative objects of ice-free surface types (bare rock, bare soil, moss and lichen formations). The method is evaluated with images acquired in summer campaigns in Fildes and Barton peninsulas (King George Island, South Shetlands). The best performances for the datasets of the two peninsulas are achieved with a SVM classifier with overall accuracies of about 92% and kappa values around 0.89. The excellent performances allow validating the adequacy of the approach for obtaining <span class="hlt">accurate</span> surface reference data at the complete pixel scale (sub-metric) of current very high resolution (VHR) satellite images, instead of a common single point sampling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......245M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......245M"><span>Quantifying reinforced concrete bridge deck deterioration using <span class="hlt">ground</span> penetrating radar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martino, Nicole Marie</p> <p></p> <p>Bridge decks are deteriorating at an alarming rate due to corrosion of the reinforcing steel, requiring billions of dollars to repair and replace them. Furthermore, the techniques used to assess the decks don't provide enough quantitative information. In recent years, <span class="hlt">ground</span> penetrating radar (GPR) has been used to quantify deterioration by comparing the rebar reflection amplitudes to technologies serving as <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span>, because there is not an available amplitude threshold to distinguish healthy from corroded areas using only GPR. The goal of this research is to understand the relationship between GPR and deck deterioration, and develop a model to determine deterioration quantities with GPR alone. The beginning of this research determines that not only is the relationship between GPR and rebar corrosion stronger than the relationship between GPR and delaminations, but that the two are exceptionally correlated (90.2% and 86.6%). Next, multiple bridge decks were assessed with GPR and half-cell potential (HCP). Statistical parameters like the mean and skewness were computed for the GPR amplitudes of each deck, and coupled with actual corrosion quantities based on the HCP measurements to form a future bridge deck model that can be used to assess any deck with GPR alone. Finally, in order to understand exactly which component of rebar corrosion (rust, cracking or chloride) attenuates the GPR data, computational modeling was carried out to isolate each variable. The results indicate that chloride is the major contributor to the rebar reflection attenuation, and that computational modeling can be used to <span class="hlt">accurately</span> simulate GPR attenuation due to chloride.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11708459','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11708459"><span>Selecting MODFLOW cell sizes for <span class="hlt">accurate</span> flow fields.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haitjema, H; Kelson, V; de Lange, W</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Contaminant transport models often use a velocity field derived from a MODFLOW flow field. Consequently, the accuracy of MODFLOW in representing a <span class="hlt">ground</span> water flow field determines in part the accuracy of the transport predictions, particularly when advective transport is dominant. We compared MODFLOW <span class="hlt">ground</span> water flow rates and MODPATH particle traces (advective transport) for a variety of conceptual models and different grid spacings to exact or approximate analytic solutions. All of our numerical experiments concerned flow in a single confined or semiconfined aquifer. While MODFLOW appeared robust in terms of both local and global water balance, we found that <span class="hlt">ground</span> water flow rates, particle traces, and associated <span class="hlt">ground</span> water travel times are <span class="hlt">accurate</span> only when sufficiently small cells are used. For instance, a minimum of four or five cells are required to <span class="hlt">accurately</span> model total <span class="hlt">ground</span> water inflow in tributaries or other narrow surface water bodies that end inside the model domain. Also, about 50 cells are needed to represent zones of differing transmissivities or an incorrect flow field and (locally) inaccurate <span class="hlt">ground</span> water travel times may result. Finally, to adequately represent leakage through aquitards or through the bottom of surface water bodies it was found that the maximum allowable cell dimensions should not exceed a characteristic leakage length lambda, which is defined as the square root of the aquifer transmissivity times the resistance of the aquitard or stream bottom. In some cases a cell size of one-tenth of lambda is necessary to obtain <span class="hlt">accurate</span> results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3150602','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3150602"><span>Robust Statistical Label Fusion through Consensus Level, Labeler Accuracy and <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Estimation (COLLATE)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Asman, Andrew J.; Landman, Bennett A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Segmentation and delineation of structures of interest in medical images is paramount to quantifying and characterizing structural, morphological, and functional correlations with clinically relevant conditions. The established gold standard for performing segmentation has been manual voxel-by-voxel labeling by a neuroanatomist expert. This process can be extremely time consuming, resource intensive and fraught with high inter-observer variability. Hence, studies involving characterizations of novel structures or appearances have been limited in scope (numbers of subjects), scale (extent of regions assessed), and statistical power. Statistical methods to fuse data sets from several different sources (e.g., multiple human observers) have been proposed to simultaneously estimate both rater performance and the <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> labels. However, with empirical datasets, statistical fusion has been observed to result in visually inconsistent findings. So, despite the ease and elegance of a statistical approach, single observers and/or direct voting are often used in practice. Hence, rater performance is not systematically quantified and exploited during label estimation. To date, statistical fusion methods have relied on characterizations of rater performance that do not intrinsically include spatially varying models of rater performance. Herein, we present a novel, robust statistical label fusion algorithm to estimate and account for spatially varying performance. This algorithm, COnsensus Level, Labeler Accuracy and <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Estimation (COLLATE), is based on the simple idea that some regions of an image are difficult to label (e.g., confusion regions: boundaries or low contrast areas) while other regions are intrinsically obvious (e.g., consensus regions: centers of large regions or high contrast edges). Unlike its predecessors, COLLATE estimates the consensus level of each voxel and estimates differing models of observer behavior in each region. We show that COLLATE provides</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23444787','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23444787"><span><span class="hlt">Truth</span>, healing, and systems change: the Maine Wabanaki-state child welfare <span class="hlt">truth</span> and reconciliation commission process.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Attean, Esther Altvater; Burns, Penthea; Proulx, Martha; Bissonette-Lewey, Jamie; Williams, Jill; Deserly, Kathy</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Maine state child welfare staff understand the Indian Child Welfare Act requirements, yet their knowledge of Wabanaki history is limited because it has excluded the voices of the Wabanaki people. A group of Native people and state representatives are creating a <span class="hlt">truth</span> and reconciliation commission process in Maine, designed to reckon with this history as a way of improving the child welfare system and promoting healing for Wabanaki children and families.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title16-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title16-vol1-sec14-16.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title16-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title16-vol1-sec14-16.pdf"><span>16 CFR 14.16 - Interpretation of <span class="hlt">Truth</span>-in-Lending Orders consistent with amendments to the <span class="hlt">Truth</span>-in-Lending Act...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretation of <span class="hlt">Truth</span>-in-Lending Orders consistent with amendments to the <span class="hlt">Truth</span>-in-Lending Act and Regulation Z. 14.16 Section 14.16 Commercial... INTERPRETATIONS, GENERAL POLICY STATEMENTS, AND ENFORCEMENT POLICY STATEMENTS § 14.16 Interpretation of...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=charles+AND+sanders+AND+peirce&pg=3&id=ED120830','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=charles+AND+sanders+AND+peirce&pg=3&id=ED120830"><span>A Description of What Charles Sanders Peirce Meant by <span class="hlt">Truth</span> and an Application of His Doctrine of <span class="hlt">Truth</span> to Rhetorical Theory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Timmis, John H., III</p> <p></p> <p>This paper investigated the doctrine of <span class="hlt">truth</span> of the pragmatic philosopher C.S. Peirce. The ontological and epistemological bases of the doctrine are described, and the status of <span class="hlt">truth</span>, reality, investigation, and belief are drawn from these bases. The results indicate that Peirce's doctrine could be productively related to rhetorical theory,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22212038','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22212038"><span>A 'quantum' of <span class="hlt">truth</span> in a field of lies: the investigation of emotional <span class="hlt">truth</span> in a child analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Molinari, Elena</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Following Bion's ideas of analytical research the author intends to consider the need to pursue emotional <span class="hlt">truth</span> between patient and psychotherapist in order to produce a psychological development. It is shown through the analysis of a child how emotional falsification can distort first of all the definition of the child identity. Successively the attention is focused on how lies, as an unconscious element that twist the research of the <span class="hlt">truth</span>, obstruct the development of thoughts able to transform emotions.Using a quantisation physical model of space, the author hypothesises that the transformation of β elements in α elements is always in an unstable equilibrium. The distortion of emotional <span class="hlt">truth</span> co-produced by lies affects the oscillation β↔α at a primitive level of transformation, changing the "physical" state of the analytical field from conductor to insulator. The most important consequence of the particular point of view suggested by the quantistic model is that in the third analytical space the same definition of α elements or β elements depends on the analyst's point of view. This change of perspective can vitalise the analytical thinking of patient and analyst during an impasse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SedG..345..154K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SedG..345..154K"><span>Study of Upper Albian rudist buildups in the Edwards Formation using <span class="hlt">ground</span>-based hyperspectral imaging and terrestrial laser scanning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krupnik, Diana; Khan, Shuhab; Okyay, Unal; Hartzell, Preston; Zhou, Hua-Wei</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ground</span>-based hyperspectral imaging is used for development of digital outcrop models which can facilitate detailed qualitative and quantitative sedimentological analysis and augment the study of depositional environment, diagenetic processes, and hydrocarbon reservoir characterization in areas which are physically inaccessible. For this investigation, <span class="hlt">ground</span>-based hyperspectral imaging is combined with terrestrial laser scanning to produce mineralogical maps of Late Albian rudist buildups of the Edwards formation in the Lake Georgetown Spillway in Williamson County, Texas. The Edwards Formation consists of shallow water deposits of reef and associated interreef facies. It is an aquifer in western Texas and was investigated as a hydrocarbon play in south Texas. Hyperspectral data were registered to a geometrically <span class="hlt">accurate</span> laser point cloud-generated mesh with sub-pixel accuracy and were used to map compositional variation by distinguishing spectral properties unique to each material. More calcitic flat-topped toucasid-rich bioherm facies were distinguished from overlying porous sucrosic dolostones, and peloid wackestones and packstones of back-reef facies. <span class="hlt">Ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> was established by petrographic study of samples from this area. This research integrates high-resolution datasets to analyze geometrical and compositional properties of this carbonate formation at a finer scale than traditional methods have achieved and to model the geometry and composition of rudist buildups.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14620232','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14620232"><span>Sex and personality traits influence the difference between time taken to tell the <span class="hlt">truth</span> or lie.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Farrow, Tom F D; Reilly, Rebecca; Rahman, Towhida A; Herford, Amy E; Woodruff, Peter W R; Spence, Sean A</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p>A necessary component of lying is the withholding of a <span class="hlt">truthful</span> response. Hence, lying may be conceptualised as involving the inhibition of an initial, automatic response (the <span class="hlt">truth</span>) while an alternative response (the lie) is generated. We investigated response times to visually and auditorially presented questions probing recent episodic memory, when subjects answered questions <span class="hlt">truthfully</span> or with lies. We also investigated whether the absolute response times or difference between time taken to tell the <span class="hlt">truth</span> or lie was affected by participants' sex or correlated with personality scores on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Short Scale. 61 subjects answered the same 36 questions five times. The first time involved answering all questions <span class="hlt">truthfully</span>, which allowed post hoc analysis of whether subjects had been consistent in their lying and <span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling on the following four occasions. These latter four occasions involved answering all questions (one each with '<span class="hlt">truth</span>' or 'lie') for both types of presentation. Regardless of type of presentation or subjects' sex, subjects took approximately 200 msec. longer to lie than to tell the <span class="hlt">truth</span> in response to each question (p<.001). There were significant correlations between <span class="hlt">truthful</span> response times to auditorially presented questions and Eysenck 'Neuroticism' scores. There was also a significant correlation for women between mean individual lie-minus-<span class="hlt">truth</span> time to auditorially presented questions and Eysenck 'Lie' scores. These preliminary data suggest that response time is systematically longer when telling a lie and that personality variables may play a part in this process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27315354','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27315354"><span>Design and Feasibility Testing of the <span class="hlt">truth</span> FinishIt Tobacco Countermarketing Brand Equity Scale.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Evans, W Douglas; Rath, Jessica; Pitzer, Lindsay; Hair, Elizabeth C; Snider, Jeremy; Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The original <span class="hlt">truth</span> campaign was a branded, national smoking prevention mass media effort focused on at-risk youth ages 12-17. Today the <span class="hlt">truth</span> brand focuses on the goal of finishing tobacco (<span class="hlt">truth</span> FinishIt). There have been significant changes in the tobacco control landscape, leading FinishIt to focus on 15- to 21-year-olds. The present article reports on formative research and media monitoring data collected to pilot test a new <span class="hlt">truth</span> FinishIt brand equity scale. The goals of this study were to (a) content analyze <span class="hlt">truth</span> FinishIt mass media ads, (b) assess <span class="hlt">truth</span>'s social media and followers' perceptions of <span class="hlt">truth</span>'s digital brand identity, and (c) develop and feasibility test a new version of the <span class="hlt">truth</span> FinishIt brand equity scale using data from an existing <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Initiative media monitoring study. Through factor analysis, we identified a brand equity scale, as in previous research, consisting of 4 main constructs: brand loyalty, leadership/satisfaction, personality, and awareness. Targeted <span class="hlt">truth</span> attitudes and beliefs about social perceptions, acceptability, and industry-related beliefs were regressed on the higher order factor and each of the 4 individual brand equity factors. Ordinary least squares regression models generally showed associations in the expected directions (positive for anti-tobacco and negative for pro-tobacco) between targeted attitudes/beliefs and <span class="hlt">truth</span> FinishIt brand equity. This study succeeded in developing and validating a new <span class="hlt">truth</span> FinishIt brand equity scale. The scale may be a valuable metric for future campaign evaluation. Future studies should examine the effects of <span class="hlt">truth</span> FinishIt brand equity on tobacco use behavioral outcomes over time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020015803&hterms=Schrodinger&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DSchrodinger','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020015803&hterms=Schrodinger&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DSchrodinger"><span><span class="hlt">Accurate</span> Evaluation of Quantum Integrals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Galant, D. C.; Goorvitch, D.; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Combining an appropriate finite difference method with Richardson's extrapolation results in a simple, highly <span class="hlt">accurate</span> numerical method for solving a Schrodinger's equation. Important results are that error estimates are provided, and that one can extrapolate expectation values rather than the wavefunctions to obtain highly <span class="hlt">accurate</span> expectation values. We discuss the eigenvalues, the error growth in repeated Richardson's extrapolation, and show that the expectation values calculated on a crude mesh can be extrapolated to obtain expectation values of high accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24370608','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24370608"><span>Initial judgment task and delay of the final validity-rating task moderate the <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nadarevic, Lena; Erdfelder, Edgar</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Repeatedly seen or heard statements are typically judged to be more valid than statements one has never encountered before. This phenomenon has been referred to as the <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect. We conducted two experiments to assess the plasticity of the <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect under different contextual conditions. Surprisingly, we did not find a <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect in the typical judgment design when using a ten minutes interval between statement repetitions. However, we replicated the <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect when changing the judgment task at initial statement exposure or when using an interval of one week rather than ten minutes. Because none of the current <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect theories can fully account for these context effects, we conclude that the cognitive processes underlying <span class="hlt">truth</span> judgments are more complex than has hitherto been assumed. To close the theoretical gap, we propose a revised fluency attribution hypothesis as a possible explanation of our findings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26765947','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26765947"><span>On Known Unknowns: Fluency and the Neural Mechanisms of Illusory <span class="hlt">Truth</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Wei-Chun; Brashier, Nadia M; Wing, Erik A; Marsh, Elizabeth J; Cabeza, Roberto</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The "illusory <span class="hlt">truth</span>" effect refers to the phenomenon whereby repetition of a statement increases its likelihood of being judged true. This phenomenon has important implications for how we come to believe oft-repeated information that may be misleading or unknown. Behavioral evidence indicates that fluency, the subjective ease experienced while processing information, underlies this effect. This suggests that illusory <span class="hlt">truth</span> should be mediated by brain regions previously linked to fluency, such as the perirhinal cortex (PRC). To investigate this possibility, we scanned participants with fMRI while they rated the <span class="hlt">truth</span> of unknown statements, half of which were presented earlier (i.e., repeated). The only brain region that showed an interaction between repetition and ratings of perceived <span class="hlt">truth</span> was PRC, where activity increased with <span class="hlt">truth</span> ratings for repeated, but not for new, statements. This finding supports the hypothesis that illusory <span class="hlt">truth</span> is mediated by a fluency mechanism and further strengthens the link between PRC and fluency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22397086','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22397086"><span><span class="hlt">Truth</span> and opinion in climate change discourse: the Gore-Hansen disagreement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Russill, Chris</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>In this paper, I discuss the "inconvenient <span class="hlt">truth</span>" strategy of Al Gore. I argue that Gore's notion of <span class="hlt">truth</span> upholds a conception of science and policy that narrows our understanding of climate change discourse. In one notable exchange, Gore and NASA scientist, James Hansen, disagreed about whether scientific statements based on Hansen's computer simulations were <span class="hlt">truth</span> or opinion. This exchange is featured in An Inconvenient <span class="hlt">Truth</span>, yet the disagreement is edited from the film and presented simply as an instance of Hansen speaking "inconvenient <span class="hlt">truth</span>". In this article, I compare the filmic representation of Hansen's testimony with the congressional record. I place their exchange in a broader historical perspective on climate change disputation in order to discuss the implications of Gore's perspective on <span class="hlt">truth</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..APRL12002W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..APRL12002W"><span>Physics in US High Schools: <span class="hlt">Truths</span> and Untruths</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>White, Susan</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Georg Christoph Lichtenberg once noted that ``[t]he most dangerous untruths are <span class="hlt">truths</span> moderately distorted.'' In this talk, I will look at <span class="hlt">truths</span> -- and attempt to dispel untruths -- regarding physics in US high schools. Using data from our quadrennial Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers, I'll address questions such as: *Does every student in the US have access to physics in high school? *Does every student take physics in high school? *Does taking physics in high school impact future career paths? *How well do students in different states do with respect to high school physics and preparation for STEM careers? *Do high school physics teachers have physics training? *How well are females and minorities represented in high school physics? *Did every student earning a bachelor's degree in physics from a US institution take physics in high school? I will also consider the impact of high school physics on future academic pursuits in STEM fields using the Science and Engineering Readiness Index (SERI) developed by Paul Cottle and me. SERI provides a way to examine progress in K-12 physical science education on a state-by-state basis. By the way, Lichtenberg was the first person to hold a professorship dedicated to experimental physics in Germany and was one of the first scientists to introduce experiments with apparatus in his lectures. Today he is remembered for his investigations in electricity, for discovering branching discharge patterns on dielectrics now called Lichtenberg figures. As every physicist does, he wanted to get at the <span class="hlt">truth</span> and avoid distortions. This talk does just that.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT.........6B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT.........6B"><span>Determining <span class="hlt">accurate</span> distances to nearby galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bonanos, Alceste Zoe</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>Determining <span class="hlt">accurate</span> distances to nearby or distant galaxies is a very simple conceptually, yet complicated in practice, task. Presently, distances to nearby galaxies are only known to an accuracy of 10-15%. The current anchor galaxy of the extragalactic distance scale is the Large Magellanic Cloud, which has large (10-15%) systematic uncertainties associated with it, because of its morphology, its non-uniform reddening and the unknown metallicity dependence of the Cepheid period-luminosity relation. This work aims to determine <span class="hlt">accurate</span> distances to some nearby galaxies, and subsequently help reduce the error in the extragalactic distance scale and the Hubble constant H 0 . In particular, this work presents the first distance determination of the DIRECT Project to M33 with detached eclipsing binaries. DIRECT aims to obtain a new anchor galaxy for the extragalactic distance scale by measuring direct, <span class="hlt">accurate</span> (to 5%) distances to two Local Group galaxies, M31 and M33, with detached eclipsing binaries. It involves a massive variability survey of these galaxies and subsequent photometric and spectroscopic follow-up of the detached binaries discovered. In this work, I also present a catalog of variable stars discovered in one of the DIRECT fields, M31Y, which includes 41 eclipsing binaries. Additionally, we derive the distance to the Draco Dwarf Spheroidal galaxy, with ~100 RR Lyrae found in our first CCD variability study of this galaxy. A "hybrid" method of discovering Cepheids with <span class="hlt">ground</span>-based telescopes is described next. It involves applying the image subtraction technique on the images obtained from <span class="hlt">ground</span>-based telescopes and then following them up with the Hubble Space Telescope to derive Cepheid period-luminosity distances. By re-analyzing ESO Very Large Telescope data on M83 (NGC 5236), we demonstrate that this method is much more powerful for detecting variability, especially in crowded fields. I finally present photometry for the Wolf-Rayet binary WR 20a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9074E..0MJ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9074E..0MJ"><span>Bayesian <span class="hlt">truthing</span> and experimental validation in homeland security and defense</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Wang, Wenjian; Kostrzewski, Andrew; Pradhan, Ranjit</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>In this paper we discuss relations between Bayesian <span class="hlt">Truthing</span> (experimental validation), Bayesian statistics, and Binary Sensing in the context of selected Homeland Security and Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (ISR) optical and nonoptical application scenarios. The basic Figure of Merit (FoM) is Positive Predictive Value (PPV), as well as false positives and false negatives. By using these simple binary statistics, we can analyze, classify, and evaluate a broad variety of events including: ISR; natural disasters; QC; and terrorism-related, GIS-related, law enforcement-related, and other C3I events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA347899','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA347899"><span>China QIUSHI SEEKING <span class="hlt">TRUTH</span> no 4, 16 August 1988</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-11-02</p> <p>JPRS-CAR-88-059 26 SEPTEMBER 1988 294005 JPRS Repor China QIUSHI [SEEKING <span class="hlt">TRUTH</span>] No 4, 16 August 1988 1®80701 m lyric QüALö? öWfiQffli 1...Qichen 6929 0366 3819] [Text] For a long time we have been living in a world which was beset with confrontations, and where the arms race and regional...weapons covered in the pact account for a very small part of their nuclear weaponry, but it is the first step forward they made in the age- long</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930006101','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930006101"><span>A beginner's guide to belief revision and <span class="hlt">truth</span> maintenance systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mason, Cindy L.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This brief note is intended to familiarize the non-TMS audience with some of the basic ideas surrounding classic TMS's (<span class="hlt">truth</span> maintenance systems), namely the justification-based TMS and the assumption-based TMS. Topics of further interest include the relation between non-monotonic logics and TMS's, efficiency and search issues, complexity concerns, as well as the variety of TMS systems that have surfaced in the past decade or so. These include probabilistic-based TMS systems, fuzzy TMS systems, tri-valued belief systems, and so on.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25597071','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25597071"><span>[The duty to tell the <span class="hlt">truth</span> with regard to a person with Alzheimer's disease].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Neyen, Octavie; Cornet, Marielle; Zeringer, Marie; Neyen, Constance</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In the framework of a project relating to ethical questioning, pupils in their penultimate year at Mabillon des Ardennes high school gathered testimonies which revealed that the <span class="hlt">truth</span> is sometimes hidden from people with Alzheimer's disease. Why is this right to the <span class="hlt">truth</span> not always respected? In what circumstances does it happen? What are the reasons? What are the potential consequences? Reflection is required around the question of the respect of the right to the <span class="hlt">truth</span> for people with cognitive disorders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26978686','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26978686"><span>An Uninformative <span class="hlt">Truth</span>: The Logic of Amarin's Off-Label Promotion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hey, Spencer Phillips; Kesselheim, Aaron S</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Spencer Phillips Hey and Aaron Kesselheim propose that informativeness-asserting scientific facts-rather than <span class="hlt">truthfulness</span> ought to be the standard for regulating commercial speech about pharmaceuticals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22471387','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22471387"><span>Does the <span class="hlt">truth</span> come out in the writing? Scan as a lie detection tool.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nahari, Galit; Vrij, Aldert; Fisher, Ronald P</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>We tested the accuracy of Scientific Content Analysis (SCAN), a verbal lie detection tool that is used world-wide by federal law enforcement and military agencies. Sixty-one participants were requested to write down the <span class="hlt">truth</span>, an outright lie or a concealment lie about activities they had just completed. The statements were coded with SCAN and with another verbal lie detection tool, Reality Monitoring (RM). RM discriminated significantly between <span class="hlt">truth</span> tellers and outright liars and between <span class="hlt">truth</span> tellers and concealment liars, whereas SCAN did not discriminate between <span class="hlt">truth</span> tellers and either kind of liar. Implications of the findings for the suitability of SCAN as a lie detection tool are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19706778','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19706778"><span>Gendered war and gendered peace: <span class="hlt">truth</span> commissions and postconflict gender violence: lessons from South Africa.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Borer, Tristan Anne</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>That war is profoundly gendered has long been recognized by feminist international relations scholars. What is less recognized is that the postwar period is equally gendered. Currently undertheorized is how <span class="hlt">truth</span>-seeking exercises in the aftermath of conflict should respond to this fact. What happens to women victims of war violence? The difficulties of foregrounding gendered wartime violence in <span class="hlt">truth</span> telling are illustrated by the South African <span class="hlt">Truth</span> and Reconciliation Commission. The article explores some consequences of the failure to uncover gendered <span class="hlt">truth</span>, including its impact on the government's reparations policy, and continued "peacetime" violence perpetrated against women in South Africa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9029978','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9029978"><span>Lie as narrative <span class="hlt">truth</span> in abused adopted adolescents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wilkinson, S; Hough, G</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Two case examples of abused adopted adolescents are discussed to highlight tension within the treatment relationship when the therapist is expected to accept without question a clearly unbelievable story. These examples illustrate how the lies of such youths can function as narrative <span class="hlt">truth</span>. The unbelievable tales that emerge in the therapeutic work effectively alter the adolescents' perceptions about the perplexing loss of continuity, both internal and external, that occurred when they were removed from their homes. Characters in the stories represent fragmented self- and object-representations as victim, abuser, rescuer, and passive onlooker. Counterparts to the patient as victim, abuser, rescuer, and passive onlooker can be recognized in the therapist's subjective responses. If the therapist can use countertransference to inform an understanding of the treatment process, an appreciation emerges that the <span class="hlt">truth</span> of the lie is in its impact. Decisions about how to intervene can then be crafted. The second separation-individuation intrinsic to adolescent development is understood to provide a ripe opportunity for this working-through process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20091357','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20091357"><span>'Diverse epistemologies', <span class="hlt">truth</span> and archaeology: in defence of realism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Horsthemke, Kai</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>In a recent journal article, as well as in a recent book chapter, in which she critiques my position on 'indigenous knowledge', Lesley Green of the Department of Social Anthropology at the University of Cape Town argues that 'diverse epistemologies ought to be evaluated not on their capacity to express a strict realism but on their ability to advance understanding'. In order to examine the implications of Green's arguments, and of Nelson Goodman and Catherine Elgin's work in this regard, I apply them to a well-known controversy between Native American (or First Nations) creationism and archaeology. I argue that issues in social justice should be distinguished from issues in epistemology. Moreover, in tightening in this paper the link between knowledge and <span class="hlt">truth</span>, I attempt to defend science as a 'privileged way of seeing the world'. The analysis of <span class="hlt">truth</span>, and of related concepts like reality and 'the way the world is', will assume a central role here. I contend that, ultimately, the only coherent and consistent position is a realist view of the pertinent issues and ideas.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25000518','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25000518"><span><span class="hlt">Accurate</span> equilibrium structures for piperidine and cyclohexane.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Demaison, Jean; Craig, Norman C; Groner, Peter; Écija, Patricia; Cocinero, Emilio J; Lesarri, Alberto; Rudolph, Heinz Dieter</p> <p>2015-03-05</p> <p>Extended and improved microwave (MW) measurements are reported for the isotopologues of piperidine. New <span class="hlt">ground</span> state (GS) rotational constants are fitted to MW transitions with quartic centrifugal distortion constants taken from ab initio calculations. Predicate values for the geometric parameters of piperidine and cyclohexane are found from a high level of ab initio theory including adjustments for basis set dependence and for correlation of the core electrons. Equilibrium rotational constants are obtained from GS rotational constants corrected for vibration-rotation interactions and electronic contributions. Equilibrium structures for piperidine and cyclohexane are fitted by the mixed estimation method. In this method, structural parameters are fitted concurrently to predicate parameters (with appropriate uncertainties) and moments of inertia (with uncertainties). The new structures are regarded as being <span class="hlt">accurate</span> to 0.001 Å and 0.2°. Comparisons are made between bond parameters in equatorial piperidine and cyclohexane. Another interesting result of this study is that a structure determination is an effective way to check the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">ground</span> state experimental rotational constants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730019633','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730019633"><span>DCP-collected absolute target reflectance signatures assist <span class="hlt">accurate</span> interpretation of ERTS-1 imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Weber, F. P.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Data collection platforms (DCP's) are being used at a Black Hills, South Dakota, test site (MMC 226A) to record radiometric measurements needed to determine solar and atmospheric parameters that affect ERTS-1 multispectral scanner radiance measurements. A total of 72 channels of analog data transmitted from an unattended <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> site via three DCP's at least six times a day. The system has operated with only minor problems since September, sending forth daily measurements of biophysical responses and atmospheric conditions. Comparisons of scene radiance data calculated from ERTS images with that measured on the <span class="hlt">ground</span> show the image-measured values to be 35 percent higher for the green channel and 20 percent higher for the red channel for the same scene targets. Radiance values for channels 6 and 7 are nearly the same from the <span class="hlt">ground</span> data and from the imagery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22382025','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22382025"><span><span class="hlt">Accurate</span> shear measurement with faint sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jun; Foucaud, Sebastien; Luo, Wentao E-mail: walt@shao.ac.cn</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>For cosmic shear to become an <span class="hlt">accurate</span> cosmological probe, systematic errors in the shear measurement method must be unambiguously identified and corrected for. Previous work of this series has demonstrated that cosmic shears can be measured <span class="hlt">accurately</span> in Fourier space in the presence of background noise and finite pixel size, without assumptions on the morphologies of galaxy and PSF. The remaining major source of error is source Poisson noise, due to the finiteness of source photon number. This problem is particularly important for faint galaxies in space-based weak lensing measurements, and for <span class="hlt">ground</span>-based images of short exposure times. In this work, we propose a simple and rigorous way of removing the shear bias from the source Poisson noise. Our noise treatment can be generalized for images made of multiple exposures through MultiDrizzle. This is demonstrated with the SDSS and COSMOS/ACS data. With a large ensemble of mock galaxy images of unrestricted morphologies, we show that our shear measurement method can achieve sub-percent level accuracy even for images of signal-to-noise ratio less than 5 in general, making it the most promising technique for cosmic shear measurement in the ongoing and upcoming large scale galaxy surveys.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15509333','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15509333"><span>The seventh servant: the implications of a <span class="hlt">truth</span> drive in Bion's theory of 'O'.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grotstein, James S</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p>Drawing upon Bion's published works on the subjects of <span class="hlt">truth</span>, dreaming, alpha-function and transformations in 'O', the author independently postulates that there exists a '<span class="hlt">truth</span> instinctual drive' that subserves a <span class="hlt">truth</span> principle, the latter of which is associated with the reality principle. Further, he suggests, following Bion's postulation, that 'alpha-function' and dreaming/phantasying constitute unconscious thinking processes and that they mediate the activity of this '<span class="hlt">truth</span> drive' (quest, pulsion), which the author hypothesizes constitutes another aspect of a larger entity that also includes the epistemophilic component drive. It purportedly seeks and transmits as well as includes what Bion (1965, pp. 147-9) calls 'O', the 'Absolute <span class="hlt">Truth</span>, Ultimate Reality, O' (also associated with infinity, noumena or things-in-themselves, and 'godhead') (1970, p. 26). It is further hypothesized that the <span class="hlt">truth</span> drive functions in collaboration with an 'unconscious consciousness' that is associated with the faculty of 'attention', which is also known as 'intuition'. It is responsive to internal psychical reality and constitutes Bion's 'seventh servant'. O, the ultimate landscape of psychoanalysis, has many dimensions, but the one that seems to interest Bion is that of the emotional experience of the analysand's and the analyst's 'evolving O' respectively (1970, p. 52) during the analytic session. The author thus hypothesizes that a sense of <span class="hlt">truth</span> presents itself to the subject as a quest for <span class="hlt">truth</span> which has the quality and force of an instinctual drive and constitutes the counterpart to the epistemophilic drive. This '<span class="hlt">truth</span> quest' or 'drive' is hypothesized to be the source of the generation of the emotional <span class="hlt">truth</span> of one's ongoing experiences, both conscious and unconscious. It is proposed that emotions are beacons of <span class="hlt">truth</span> in regard to the acceptance of reality. The concepts of an emotional <span class="hlt">truth</span> drive and a <span class="hlt">truth</span> principle would help us understand why analysands are able to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2014/5083/pdf/sir20145083.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2014/5083/pdf/sir20145083.pdf"><span>Monitoring recharge in areas of seasonally frozen <span class="hlt">ground</span> in the Columbia Plateau and Snake River Plain, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Mastin, Mark; Josberger, Edward</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Seasonally frozen <span class="hlt">ground</span> occurs over approximately one‑third of the contiguous United States, causing increased winter runoff. Frozen <span class="hlt">ground</span> generally rejects potential groundwater recharge. Nearly all recharge from precipitation in semi-arid regions such as the Columbia Plateau and the Snake River Plain in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, occurs between October and March, when precipitation is most abundant and seasonally frozen <span class="hlt">ground</span> is commonplace. The temporal and spatial distribution of frozen <span class="hlt">ground</span> is expected to change as the climate warms. It is difficult to predict the distribution of frozen <span class="hlt">ground</span>, however, because of the complex ways <span class="hlt">ground</span> freezes and the way that snow cover thermally insulates soil, by keeping it frozen longer than it would be if it was not snow covered or, more commonly, keeping the soil thawed during freezing weather. A combination of satellite remote sensing and <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> measurements was used with some success to investigate seasonally frozen <span class="hlt">ground</span> at local to regional scales. The frozen-<span class="hlt">ground</span>/snow-cover algorithm from the National Snow and Ice Data Center, combined with the 21-year record of passive microwave observations from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager onboard a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellite, provided a unique time series of frozen <span class="hlt">ground</span>. Periodically repeating this methodology and analyzing for trends can be a means to monitor possible regional changes to frozen <span class="hlt">ground</span> that could occur with a warming climate. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System watershed model constructed for the upper Crab Creek Basin in the Columbia Plateau and Reynolds Creek basin on the eastern side of the Snake River Plain simulated recharge and frozen <span class="hlt">ground</span> for several future climate scenarios. Frozen <span class="hlt">ground</span> was simulated with the Continuous Frozen <span class="hlt">Ground</span> Index, which is influenced by air temperature and snow cover. Model simulation results showed a decreased occurrence of frozen <span class="hlt">ground</span> that coincided with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA505754','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA505754"><span>A Formal Experiment to Assess Pedestrian Detection and Tracking Technology for Unmanned <span class="hlt">Ground</span> Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>accuracy of <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span>. Choreography of human paths relative to the suburban track was carefully administered to ensure that under varying...capability. Moving humans provided the realism that was lacking in previous studies. The choreography of those humans ensured that each of the relevant</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920018780&hterms=Trump&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DTrump','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920018780&hterms=Trump&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DTrump"><span>AIRSAR observations of the Gulf Stream with interpretation from sea <span class="hlt">truth</span> and modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Valenzuela, G. R.; Chubb, S. R.; Marmorino, G. O.; Trump, C. L.; Lee, J. S.; Cooper, A. L.; Askari, F.; Keller, W. C.; Kaiser, J. A. C.; Mied, R. P.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>On 20 Jul., JPL/DC-8 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) participated in the 17-21 Jul. 1990 NRL Gulf Stream (GS) experiment in preparation for SIR-C missions in 1993, 1994, and 1996 for calibration purposes and to check modes and techniques for operation at our experimental site off the east coast of the US. During this experiment, coordinated and near simultaneous measurements were performed from ship (R/V Cape Henlopen) and other aircraft (NADC/P-3 and NRL/P-3) to address scientific questions relating to the origin of 'slick-like' features observed by Scully-Power, the refraction and modulation of waves by variable currents, the effect of current and thermal fronts on radar imagery signatures and the modification of Kelvin ship wakes by fronts. The JPL/DC-8 and NADC/P-3 SAR's are fully polarimetric systems. Their composite frequency range varies between P- and X-band. We describe in detail the Airborne SAR (AIRSAR) participation in the Jul. 1990 GS experiment and present preliminary results of the ongoing analysis and interpretation of the radar imagery in the context of <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span>, other remote measurements, and modeling efforts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26579047','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26579047"><span>When deception becomes easy: the effects of task switching and goal neglect on the <span class="hlt">truth</span> proportion effect.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Van Bockstaele, Bram; Wilhelm, Christine; Meijer, Ewout; Debey, Evelyne; Verschuere, Bruno</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Lying is typically more cognitively demanding than <span class="hlt">truth</span> telling. Yet, recent cognitive models of lying propose that lying can be just as easy as <span class="hlt">truth</span> telling, depending on contextual factors. In line with this idea, research has shown that the cognitive cost of deception decreases when people frequently respond deceptively, while it increases when people rarely respond deceptively (i.e., the <span class="hlt">truth</span> proportion effect). In the present study, we investigated two possible underlying mechanisms of the <span class="hlt">truth</span> proportion effect. In Experiment 1 (N = 121), we controlled for the impact of switch costs by keeping the number of switches between deceptive and <span class="hlt">truthful</span> responses constant. We found that people who often responded deceptively made fewer errors when responding deceptively than people who only occasionally responded deceptively, replicating the <span class="hlt">truth</span> proportion effect. Thus, while the <span class="hlt">truth</span> proportion effect in earlier studies may be partially driven by the cost of switching between <span class="hlt">truthful</span> and deceptive responses, we still found evidence for the <span class="hlt">truth</span> proportion effect while controlling for switch costs. In Experiment 2 (N = 68), we assessed whether the <span class="hlt">truth</span> proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect. According to this view, the <span class="hlt">truth</span> proportion effect should be reduced if participants are cued to maintain the task goals, while it should be larger when participants are allowed to neglect the task goals. In line with this hypothesis, we found a smaller <span class="hlt">truth</span> proportion effect when participants were cued with the task goals compared to when they were not cued. This study shows that the <span class="hlt">truth</span> proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect, implying that frequent deceptive responding strengthens the goal of responding deceptively. Our findings imply that the accuracy of lie detection tests could be increased by using a majority of <span class="hlt">truth</span>-items (i.e., induce the <span class="hlt">truth</span> proportion effect), and that the <span class="hlt">truth</span> proportion effect should be maximized by (1) increasing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Butterfly&pg=5&id=ED523508','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Butterfly&pg=5&id=ED523508"><span>Trust in Education: <span class="hlt">Truths</span> and Values. Discourse, Power, Resistance. Volume 8</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Satterthwaite, Jerome, Ed.; Piper, Heather, Ed.; Sikes, Pat, Ed.; Webster, Simon, Ed.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We need to trust people and institutions, values and <span class="hlt">truths</span>. But where should we turn to find which are trustworthy? Does trusting make us vulnerable to abuse? Is it safe for learners - the children, young people and adults in the world of contemporary education - to trust their teachers to care, and to tell them the <span class="hlt">truth</span>? and can teachers trust…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol4-sec330-33.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol4-sec330-33.pdf"><span>14 CFR 330.33 - Must carriers certify the <span class="hlt">truth</span> and accuracy of data they submit?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Must carriers certify the <span class="hlt">truth</span> and accuracy of data they submit? 330.33 Section 330.33 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... CARRIERS Application Procedures § 330.33 Must carriers certify the <span class="hlt">truth</span> and accuracy of data they...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28229731','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28229731"><span>Helping medical students to acquire a deeper understanding of <span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hurst, Samia A; Baroffio, Anne; Ummel, Marinette; Layat Burn, Carine</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Problem <span class="hlt">Truth</span>-telling is an important component of respect for patients' self-determination, but in the context of breaking bad news, it is also a distressing and difficult task. Intervention We investigated the long-term influence of a simulated patient-based teaching intervention, integrating learning objectives in communication skills and ethics into students' attitudes and concerns regarding <span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling. We followed two cohorts of medical students from the preclinical third year to their clinical rotations (fifth year). Open-ended responses were analysed to explore medical students' reported difficulties in breaking bad news. Context This intervention was implemented during the last preclinical year of a problem-based medical curriculum, in collaboration between the doctor-patient communication and ethics programs. Outcome Over time, concerns such as empathy and <span class="hlt">truthfulness</span> shifted from a personal to a relational focus. Whereas '<span class="hlt">truthfulness</span>' was a concern for the content of the message, '<span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling' included concerns on how information was communicated and how realistically it was received. <span class="hlt">Truth</span>-telling required empathy, adaptation to the patient, and appropriate management of emotions, both for the patient's welfare and for a realistic understanding of the situation. Lessons learned Our study confirms that an intervention confronting students with a realistic situation succeeds in making them more aware of the real issues of <span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling. Medical students deepened their reflection over time, acquiring a deeper understanding of the relational dimension of values such as <span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling, and honing their view of empathy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1114635.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1114635.pdf"><span>Critical Inquiry as Virtuous <span class="hlt">Truth</span>-Telling: Implications of Phronesis and Parrhesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pickup, Austin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This article examines critical inquiry and <span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling from the perspective of two complementary theoretical frameworks. First, Aristotelian phronesis, or practical wisdom, offers a framework for <span class="hlt">truth</span> that is oriented toward ethical deliberation while recognizing the contingency of practical application. Second, Foucauldian parrhesia calls for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=6&id=EJ877727','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=truth&pg=6&id=EJ877727"><span>Lying and <span class="hlt">Truth</span>-Telling in Children: From Concept to Action</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Xu, Fen; Bao, Xuehua; Fu, Genyue; Talwar, Victoria; Lee, Kang</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Although there has been extensive research on children's moral knowledge about lying and <span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling and their actual lie- or <span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling behaviors, research to examine the relation between these two is extremely rare. This study examined one hundred and twenty 7-, 9-, and 11-year-olds' moral understanding of lies and their actual lying…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Grimaldi&pg=2&id=EJ188517','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Grimaldi&pg=2&id=EJ188517"><span>Rhetoric and <span class="hlt">Truth</span>: A Note on Aristotle, Rhetoric 1355a 21-24</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Grimaldi, William M. A.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>A passage from Aristotle is discussed and interpreted. Rhetoric represents <span class="hlt">truth</span> and justice in any situation for the auditor through the use of language. The usefulness of rhetoric lies in its ability to assure an adequate and competent articulation of <span class="hlt">truth</span> and justice. (JF)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=lying&pg=7&id=EJ756143','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=lying&pg=7&id=EJ756143"><span>Cross-Cultural Differences in Children's Choices, Categorizations, and Evaluations of <span class="hlt">Truths</span> and Lies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fu, Genyue; Xu, Fen; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Leyman, Gail; Lee, Kang</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in children's moral understanding of individual- or collective-oriented lies and <span class="hlt">truths</span>. Seven-, 9-, and 11-year-old Canadian and Chinese children were read stories about story characters facing moral dilemmas about whether to lie or tell the <span class="hlt">truth</span> to help a group but harm an…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016pmqm.book....1K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016pmqm.book....1K"><span>On the Notion of <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Quantum Mechanics: a Category-Theoretic Standpoint</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karakostas, Vassilios; Zafiris, Elias</p> <p></p> <p>The category-theoretic representation of quantum event structures provides a canonical setting for confronting the fundamental problem of <span class="hlt">truth</span> valuation in quantum mechanics as exemplified, in particular, by Kochen-Specker's theorem. In the present study, this is realized on the basis of the existence of a categorical adjunction between the category of sheaves of variable local Boolean frames, constituting a topos, and the category of quantum event algebras. We show explicitly that the latter category is equipped with an object of <span class="hlt">truth</span> values, or classifying object, which constitutes the appropriate tool for assigning <span class="hlt">truth</span> values to propositions describing the behavior of quantum systems. Effectively, this category-theoretic representation scheme circumvents consistently the semantic ambiguity with respect to <span class="hlt">truth</span> valuation that is inherent in conventional quantum mechanics by inducing an objective contextual account of <span class="hlt">truth</span> in the quantum domain of discourse. The philosophical implications of the resulting account are analyzed. We argue that it subscribes neither to a pragmatic instrumental nor to a relative notion of <span class="hlt">truth</span>. Such an account essentially denies that there can be a universal context of reference or an Archimedean standpoint from which to evaluate logically the totality of facts of nature. In this light, the transcendence condition of the usual conception of correspondence <span class="hlt">truth</span> is superseded by a reflective-like transcendental reasoning of the proposed account of <span class="hlt">truth</span> that is suitable to the quantum domain of discourse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ross&pg=7&id=EJ859132','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ross&pg=7&id=EJ859132"><span>Children's and Adults' Conceptualization and Evaluation of Lying and <span class="hlt">Truth</span>-Telling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Xu, Fen; Luo, Yang C.; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The present study examined children's and adults' categorization and moral judgment of <span class="hlt">truthful</span> and untruthful statements. 7-, 9- and 11-year-old Chinese children and college students read stories in which story characters made <span class="hlt">truthful</span> or untruthful statements and were asked to classify and evaluate the statements. The statements varied in terms…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=spiritual&pg=5&id=EJ861421','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=spiritual&pg=5&id=EJ861421"><span>Science, Spirituality and <span class="hlt">Truth</span>: Acknowledging Difference for Spiritual Dialogue and Human Well-Being</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Watson, Jacqueline</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This article seeks to explain why spiritual education must be clear about the nature of spiritual knowledge and <span class="hlt">truth</span> and how it differs from the knowledge and <span class="hlt">truth</span> generated by science. The author argues this is important in order that spirituality and science are equally valued, and in order that spiritual pedagogy appropriately reflects the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=democracy+AND+requirements&pg=5&id=EJ556883','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=democracy+AND+requirements&pg=5&id=EJ556883"><span>School Communication to Outside Publics: <span class="hlt">Truthfulness</span> Must Be the Bottom Line.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Martinson, David L.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Traditional ethics holds that one isn't obligated to tell everything one knows at all times. Ethicist Sissela Bok distinguishes the ethical requirement to communicate <span class="hlt">truthfully</span> from a demand to communicate the <span class="hlt">truth</span>. When communicating to a particular public, school administrators have an ethical obligation to provide substantially complete and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1487631','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1487631"><span>Medical ethics and <span class="hlt">truth</span> telling in the case of androgen insensitivity syndrome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Natarajan, A</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Should a physician always tell the <span class="hlt">truth</span> to a patient? Is biomedical ethics too "politically correct" in certain situations? The second-place winner in the 1995 Logie Medical Ethics Essay Contest discusses whether telling the <span class="hlt">truth</span> is the proper course for a physician dealing with certain patients. Images p569-a PMID:8630847</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol4-sec73-1015.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol4-sec73-1015.pdf"><span>47 CFR 73.1015 - <span class="hlt">Truthful</span> written statements and responses to Commission inquiries and correspondence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... Allotments, require from any person filing an expression of interest, written statements of fact relevant to... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Truthful</span> written statements and responses to... Stations § 73.1015 <span class="hlt">Truthful</span> written statements and responses to Commission inquiries and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol4-sec73-1015.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol4-sec73-1015.pdf"><span>47 CFR 73.1015 - <span class="hlt">Truthful</span> written statements and responses to Commission inquiries and correspondence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... Allotments, require from any person filing an expression of interest, written statements of fact relevant to... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Truthful</span> written statements and responses to... Stations § 73.1015 <span class="hlt">Truthful</span> written statements and responses to Commission inquiries and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol4-sec73-1015.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol4-sec73-1015.pdf"><span>47 CFR 73.1015 - <span class="hlt">Truthful</span> written statements and responses to Commission inquiries and correspondence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... Allotments, require from any person filing an expression of interest, written statements of fact relevant to... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Truthful</span> written statements and responses to... Stations § 73.1015 <span class="hlt">Truthful</span> written statements and responses to Commission inquiries and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol4-sec73-1015.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol4-sec73-1015.pdf"><span>47 CFR 73.1015 - <span class="hlt">Truthful</span> written statements and responses to Commission inquiries and correspondence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... Allotments, require from any person filing an expression of interest, written statements of fact relevant to... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Truthful</span> written statements and responses to... Stations § 73.1015 <span class="hlt">Truthful</span> written statements and responses to Commission inquiries and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol4-sec73-1015.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol4-sec73-1015.pdf"><span>47 CFR 73.1015 - <span class="hlt">Truthful</span> written statements and responses to Commission inquiries and correspondence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... Allotments, require from any person filing an expression of interest, written statements of fact relevant to... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Truthful</span> written statements and responses to... Stations § 73.1015 <span class="hlt">Truthful</span> written statements and responses to Commission inquiries and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=human+AND+activity+AND+outer+AND+space&id=ED251996','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=human+AND+activity+AND+outer+AND+space&id=ED251996"><span><span class="hlt">Truth</span>: Humanities Unit (Middle and Secondary Grade Levels). Programs for Gifted Students.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Abbott, Barbara; Kolman, Peter</p> <p></p> <p>One in a series of instructional units designed for gifted students, this booklet describes a humanities unit for students in middle and secondary grades. The specific focus of the unit is on <span class="hlt">truth</span> as it is perceived and expressed in philosophy, literature, art, music, drama, and the social sciences. The study of <span class="hlt">truth</span> and its surrounding concepts…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=influence+AND+promotion+AND+health+AND+media&pg=6&id=EJ622313','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=influence+AND+promotion+AND+health+AND+media&pg=6&id=EJ622313"><span>Influence of a Counteradvertising Media Campaign on Initiation of Smoking: The Florida "<span class="hlt">Truth</span>" Campaign.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sly, David F.; Hopkins, Richard S.; Trapido, Edward; Ray, Sarah</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Assessed the short-term effects of a television counteradvertising media campaign, the Florida "<span class="hlt">truth</span>" campaign, on rates of adolescents' smoking initiation. Followup surveys of adolescents interviewed during the first 6 months of the advertising campaign indicated that exposure to the "<span class="hlt">truth</span>" campaign lowered the risk of youth…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=currents+AND+Foucault&id=EJ1125014','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=currents+AND+Foucault&id=EJ1125014"><span>Missing the "Savoir" for the "Connaissance": Disciplinary and Content Area Literacy as Regimes of <span class="hlt">Truth</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dunkerly-Bean, Judith; Bean, Thomas William</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This conceptual review addresses the bifurcation of content area and disciplinary literacy by examining each as regimes of <span class="hlt">truth</span>. We look specifically at the ways in which both approaches comprise, in Foucault's terms, "regimes of <span class="hlt">truth</span>" within their respective epistemological domains. Following a brief history of adolescent literacy,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-12-26/pdf/2013-30681.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-12-26/pdf/2013-30681.pdf"><span>78 FR 78299 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; <span class="hlt">Truth</span> or Consequences, NM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-12-26</p> <p>...This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> or Consequences VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range Tactical Air Navigation Aid (VORTAC), <span class="hlt">Truth</span> or Consequences, NM, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) aircraft under control of Albuquerque Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC). The FAA is proposing this action to enhance the safety and management of aircraft......</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840002576','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840002576"><span>Evaluation of LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS <span class="hlt">ground</span> geometry performance without <span class="hlt">ground</span> control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>LANDSAT thematic mapper P-data of Washington, D.C., Harrisburg, PA, and Salton Sea, CA were analyzed to determine magnitudes and causes of error in the geometric conformity of the data to known earth-surface geometry. Several tests of data geometry were performed. Intra-band and inter-band correlation and registration were investigated, exclusive of map-based <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span>. Specifically, the magnitudes and statistical trends of pixel offsets between a single band's mirror scans (due to processing procedures) were computed, and the inter-band integrity of registration was analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22140184','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22140184"><span>Balancing <span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling in the preservation of hope: a relational ethics approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pergert, Pernilla; Lützén, Kim</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Truth</span>-telling in healthcare practice can be regarded as a universal communicative virtue; however, there are different views on what consequence it has for giving or diminishing hope. The aim of this article is to explore the relationship between the concepts of <span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling and hope from a relational ethics approach in the context of healthcare practice. Healthcare staff protect themselves and others to preserve hope in the care of seriously sick patients and in end-of-life care. This is done by balancing <span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling guided by different conditions such as the cultural norms of patients, family and staff. Our main conclusion is that the balancing of <span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling needs to be decided in a mutual understanding in the caring relationship, but hope must always be inspired. Instead of focusing on autonomy as the only guiding principle, we would like to propose that relational ethics can serve as a meaningful perspective in balancing <span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27641279','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27641279"><span>Experience of Events of <span class="hlt">Truth</span> in Hermeneutic Conversation With Text: Ethics and Ontology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Foss, Berit; Nåden, Dagfinn; Eriksson, Katie</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The purpose of this article is to explore what the experience of events of <span class="hlt">truth</span> can entail in hermeneutic dialogue with text as well as the significance this can have for hermeneutic methodology in caring science. Experience of events of <span class="hlt">truth</span> is discussed based on Hans-Georg Gadamer's ontological perspective and on Emmanuel Levinas's ethical perspective. A veritable experience of an event of <span class="hlt">truth</span> is a testimony to the responsibility we take for the Other and to our humanity. Experience of events of <span class="hlt">truth</span> requires that there is a connection of esteem between ethics and ontology in the reader's understanding of what Hans-Georg Gadamer calls the subject matter (Sache). The experience of events of <span class="hlt">truth</span> has methodological significance for caring science in that it can contribute to the disclosure of ontological evidence and inform caregiving and caring science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3914010','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3914010"><span>Facing the <span class="hlt">Truth</span> about Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Park, Kinam</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Nanotechnology in drug delivery has been manifested into nanoparticles that can have unique properties both in vitro and in vivo, especially in targeted drug delivery to tumors. Numerous nanoparticle formulations have been designed and tested to great effect in small animal models, but the translation of the small animal results to clinical success has been limited. Successful translation requires revisiting the meaning of nanotechnology in drug delivery, understanding the limitations of nanoparticles, identifying the misconceptions pervasive in the field, and facing inconvenient <span class="hlt">truths</span>. Nanoparticle approaches can have real impact in improving drug delivery by focusing on the problems at hand, such as enhancing their drug loading capacity, affinity to target cells, and spatiotemporal control of drug release. PMID:24490875</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18578313','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18578313"><span>[Knowledge and <span class="hlt">truths</span> about nursing: discourse of new students].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ojeda, Beatriz Sebben; Eidt, Olga Rosaria; Canabarro, Simone; Corbellini, Valéria Lamb; Creutzberg, Marion</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>It is a study with a qualitative approach that proposes to analyze <span class="hlt">truths</span> regimes that pass by and along Nursing as a profession, as manifested by students entering in the Graduate Course 2004/2, 2005/1 and 2005/2. The Discourse Analysis has been used as a methodological option for analyzing the data, under Michel Foucault's approaches. Three great themes have come out of such context of analysis and discussion: the traversing of gender knowledges in Nursing practice; Nursing as a knowledge made hierarchical; making as a might in Nursing's academic and professional day-by-day. Social conceptions became self evident, going through invisible knowledges that legitimate health and nursing practices, making them unquestionable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22325197','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22325197"><span>SU-E-J-23: An <span class="hlt">Accurate</span> Algorithm to Match Imperfectly Matched Images for Lung Tumor Detection Without Markers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rozario, T; Bereg, S; Chiu, T; Liu, H; Kearney, V; Jiang, L; Mao, W</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Purpose: In order to locate lung tumors on projection images without internal markers, digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) is created and compared with projection images. Since lung tumors always move and their locations change on projection images while they are static on DRRs, a special DRR (background DRR) is generated based on modified anatomy from which lung tumors are removed. In addition, global discrepancies exist between DRRs and projections due to their different image originations, scattering, and noises. This adversely affects comparison accuracy. A simple but efficient comparison algorithm is reported. Methods: This method divides global images into a matrix of small tiles and similarities will be evaluated by calculating normalized cross correlation (NCC) between corresponding tiles on projections and DRRs. The tile configuration (tile locations) will be automatically optimized to keep the tumor within a single tile which has bad matching with the corresponding DRR tile. A pixel based linear transformation will be determined by linear interpolations of tile transformation results obtained during tile matching. The DRR will be transformed to the projection image level and subtracted from it. The resulting subtracted image now contains only the tumor. A DRR of the tumor is registered to the subtracted image to locate the tumor. Results: This method has been successfully applied to kV fluoro images (about 1000 images) acquired on a Vero (Brainlab) for dynamic tumor tracking on phantom studies. Radiation opaque markers are implanted and used as <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> for tumor positions. Although, other organs and bony structures introduce strong signals superimposed on tumors at some angles, this method <span class="hlt">accurately</span> locates tumors on every projection over 12 gantry angles. The maximum error is less than 2.6 mm while the total average error is 1.0 mm. Conclusion: This algorithm is capable of detecting tumor without markers despite strong background signals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/magazine/issues/winter12/articles/winter12pg22.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/magazine/issues/winter12/articles/winter12pg22.html"><span>The Heart <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Campaign Inspires Women’s Heart Health Action | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Feature: February Is Women’s Heart Month The Heart <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Campaign Inspires Women’s Heart Health Action Past Issues / ... of Contents On February 9, 2011, The Heart <span class="hlt">Truth</span> unveiled its annual Red Dress Collection 2011 Fashion ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H21E1112H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H21E1112H"><span>Atmosphere-<span class="hlt">Truth</span> Z-R Rainfall Estimates: A Fresh Approach to an Old Problem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Henz, J. F.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Common modeling practice for basin calibration uses rainfall fields developed by the statistical use of surface rain gauge observed data or the direct application of NEXRAD National Weather Service WSR-88D Doppler radar Storm Total Rainfall or 1-hr rainfall estimations. Each of these approaches has significant limitations. Rain gages often lack sufficient spatial coverage to measure true storm intensity or the distribution of rainfall in a basin. The NWS WSR-88D Doppler radar algorithms are constantly being improved but still fail to deliver consistent rainfall estimates. Significant problems are caused by an under-estimation of warm coalescence rains and an over-estimation of rainfall in both dry environments and storms with hail contamination. Finally, storm updraft areas are frequently counted as raining portions of the storm producing immediate errors. The statistical techniques often under-estimate rainfall when the heavy rain core of the storm misses the rain gauges or if high winds cause an under-catchment of rainfall. Gauge-adjusted rainfall estimates are also dependant on the core of the storm being observed by a gauge. Statistical approaches often under-estimate rainfall producing insufficient runoff to drive the observed flooding runoffs. The Atmosphere-<span class="hlt">Truth</span> ZR (ATZR) technique uses an atmosphere-<span class="hlt">truthed</span> algorithm to produce highly <span class="hlt">accurate</span> estimates of surface rainfall from Doppler radar data. This approach relies on using a cloud physics approach to determine the atmosphere’s ability to produce 15-min to hourly rain rates. The atmsopheric rainfall is utilizes surface, boundary layer and cloud layer observations of temperature and moisture from conventional National Weather Service observations. The depth of the thunderstorm updraft region that exceeds 0C is used with the precipitable water index and updraft speeds to provide estimates of 15-min to hourly rainfall rates from radar reflectivity areas in the storm greather than 50 dBZ. Rainfall rates</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/unnumbered/70045274/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/unnumbered/70045274/report.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Ground</span> Water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>,</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Some water underlies the Earth's surface almost everywhere, beneath hills, mountains,plains, and deserts. It's not always accessible, or fresh enough for use without treatment, and it's sometimes difficult to locate or to measure and descri be. This water may occur close to the land surface, as in a marsh, or it may lie many hundreds of feet below the surface, as in some arid areas of the West. Water at very shallow depths might be just a few hours old ; at moderate depth, it may be 100 years old; and at great depth or after having flowed long distances from places of entry, water may be several thousands of years old . Water under the Earth's surface is called <span class="hlt">ground</span> water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740020296','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740020296"><span>On numerically <span class="hlt">accurate</span> finite element</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nagtegaal, J. C.; Parks, D. M.; Rice, J. R.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>A general criterion for testing a mesh with topologically similar repeat units is given, and the analysis shows that only a few conventional element types and arrangements are, or can be made suitable for computations in the fully plastic range. Further, a new variational principle, which can easily and simply be incorporated into an existing finite element program, is presented. This allows <span class="hlt">accurate</span> computations to be made even for element designs that would not normally be suitable. Numerical results are given for three plane strain problems, namely pure bending of a beam, a thick-walled tube under pressure, and a deep double edge cracked tensile specimen. The effects of various element designs and of the new variational procedure are illustrated. Elastic-plastic computation at finite strain are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25520465','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25520465"><span>The living experience of difficulty telling the <span class="hlt">truth</span>: a parse method study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baumann, Steven L</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate the living experience of difficulty telling the <span class="hlt">truth</span>. Parse's research method was used to answer the question: What is the structure of the living experience of difficulty telling the <span class="hlt">truth</span>? The participants were 9 nurses and 1 physician. The central finding of the study is the structure: difficulty telling the <span class="hlt">truth</span> is uncomfortable dialogues with knowing silences arise with anguishing deliberations anticipating potential adversity, while contemplating intentional withholding gives rise to calm acquiescence. The findings are discussed in relation to the humanbecoming school of thought and extant literature.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7906E..0KB','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7906E..0KB"><span><span class="hlt">Accurately</span> characterized optical tissue phantoms: how, why and when?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Veilleux, Isra"l.; Noiseux, Isabelle; Mermut, Ozzy</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Optical tissue phantoms are very important tools for the development of biomedical imaging applications. Optical phantoms are often used as <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> against which instruments results can be compared. It is therefore important that the optical properties of reference phantoms be measured in a manner that is traceable to the international system of units. SI traceability insures long term consistency of results and will therefore improve the effectiveness of diffuse optics research effort more effective by reducing unwanted variability in the data produced and shared by the community. The ultimate benefit of rigorous SI traceability is the reduction of variability in the data produced by novel diagnostic devices, which will in turn increase the statistical power of clinical trials aiming at validating their clinical usefulness. SI traceability, and therefore uncertainty analysis, is also relevant to traceability aspects mandated by FDA regulations. SI traceability is achieved through a thorough analysis of the measurement principle and its potential error sources. The uncertainty analysis should be ultimately validated by inter-laboratory comparison until a consensus is attained on the best practices for measuring the optical properties of tissue phantoms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820018469&hterms=Zoning&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DZoning','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820018469&hterms=Zoning&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DZoning"><span><span class="hlt">Ground</span> based silicon zoning program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kern, E. L.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The preparation of building flight hardware and carrying out experiments in space was investigated. The <span class="hlt">ground</span> based investigation phase A/B of the experimental float zoning of silicon is outlined. The overall program goals, leading to recommending experiments to be done in phase C/D are spelled out. Thermophysical properties which must be <span class="hlt">accurately</span> known to compare thermophysical models to experimental zoning of silicon are listed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7866375','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7866375"><span>Logic, <span class="hlt">truth</span> and language in concepts of pain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Merskey, H</p> <p>1994-12-01</p> <p>Logic and language influence our ideas about the <span class="hlt">truth</span> of pain, and can alter our understanding of it. Physicians should not tell their patients that there is nothing wrong with them if all their test results are negative, as this denies their patients' experiences of pain. Popular methods of conceptualizing pain may be erroneous. Diagrams of pain or disability are misleading and unhelpful--it is not usually possible to distinguish their components in practice. Giving patients a high or low score for pain behaviour, depression or for health locus of control can influence our views on aetiology in a seriously misleading way. Anyway, aetiological attributions are not always possible from analyses of the experience of pain. The problems of logic and language inherent in assigning pain to emotional causes, in using behavioural approaches, and in defining idiopathic pain and somatization are discussed. The IASP definition of pain is important and useful, provided that it is used appropriately. The recommended version is now 'an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage.'</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5028022','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5028022"><span>Direct Speaker Gaze Promotes Trust in <span class="hlt">Truth</span>-Ambiguous Statements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kessler, Luise; Schweinberger, Stefan R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A speaker’s gaze behaviour can provide perceivers with a multitude of cues which are relevant for communication, thus constituting an important non-verbal interaction channel. The present study investigated whether direct eye gaze of a speaker affects the likelihood of listeners believing <span class="hlt">truth</span>-ambiguous statements. Participants were presented with videos in which a speaker produced such statements with either direct or averted gaze. The statements were selected through a rating study to ensure that participants were unlikely to know a-priori whether they were true or not (e.g., “sniffer dogs cannot smell the difference between identical twins”). Participants indicated in a forced-choice task whether or not they believed each statement. We found that participants were more likely to believe statements by a speaker looking at them directly, compared to a speaker with averted gaze. Moreover, when participants disagreed with a statement, they were slower to do so when the statement was uttered with direct (compared to averted) gaze, suggesting that the process of rejecting a statement as untrue may be inhibited when that statement is accompanied by direct gaze. PMID:27643789</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CSSE....5...55G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CSSE....5...55G"><span>Science, religion, and the quest for knowledge and <span class="hlt">truth</span>: an Islamic perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guessoum, Nidhal</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>This article consists of two parts. The first one is to a large extent a commentary on John R. Staver's "Skepticism, <span class="hlt">truth</span> as coherence, and constructivist epistemology: <span class="hlt">grounds</span> for resolving the discord between science and religion?" The second part is a related overview of Islam's philosophy of knowledge and, to a certain degree, science. In responding to Staver's thesis, I rely strongly on my scientific education and habit of mind; I also partly found my views on my Islamic background, though I enlarge my scope to consider western philosophical perspectives as well. I differ with Staver in his definition of the nature, scope, and goals of religion (concisely, "explaining the world and how it works"), and I think this is the crux of the matter in attempting to resolve the perceived "discord" between science and religion. The heart of the problem is in the definition of the domains of action of science and religion, and I address this issue at some length, both generically and using Islamic principles, which are found to be very widely applicable. The concept of "reality," so important to Staver's thesis, is also critically reviewed. The philosophy of knowledge (and of science) in Islam is briefly reviewed in the aim of showing the great potential for harmony between the two "institutions" (religion and science), on the basis of the following philosophy: science describes nature, whereas religion gives us not only a philosophy of existence but also an interpretative cloak for the discoveries of science and for the meaning of the cosmos and nature. I conclude by insisting that though science and religion can be considered as two worldviews that propose to describe "reality" and to explain our existence and that of the world; they may come to compete for humans' minds and appear to enter into a conflicting position, but only if and when we confuse their domains and modes of action. [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.][InlineMediaObject not available: see</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28288382','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28288382"><span>The informative value of type of repetition: Perceptual and conceptual fluency influences on judgments of <span class="hlt">truth</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Silva, Rita R; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Reber, Rolf</p> <p>2017-03-10</p> <p>We contrast the effects of conceptual and perceptual fluency resulting from repetition in the <span class="hlt">truth</span> effect. In Experiment 1, participants judged either verbatim or paraphrased repetitions, which reduce perceptual similarity to original statements. Judgments were made either immediately after the first exposure to the statements or after one week. Illusions of <span class="hlt">truth</span> emerged for both types of repetition, with delay reducing both effects. In Experiment 2, participants judged verbatim and paraphrased repetitions with either the same or a contradictory meaning of original statements. In immediate judgments, illusions of <span class="hlt">truth</span> emerged for repetitions with the same meaning and illusions of falseness for contradictory repetitions. In the delayed session, the illusion of falseness disappeared for contradictory statements. Results are discussed in terms of the contributions of recollection of stimulus details and of perceptual and conceptual fluency to illusions of <span class="hlt">truth</span> at different time intervals and judgmental context conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20470861','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20470861"><span>Attempting to hide our real thoughts: electrophysiological evidence from <span class="hlt">truthful</span> and deceptive responses during evaluation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dong, Guangheng; Wu, Haiyan</p> <p>2010-07-19</p> <p>This study seeks to investigate neural activity during a deceptive evaluation process. Attractive and unattractive facial photos were presented to participants who were then asked to evaluate and respond to these photos according to different cues (<span class="hlt">truthfulness</span> or deceptiveness). Behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) activities were recorded while participants offered their <span class="hlt">truthful</span> or deceptive responses based on their evaluations. Consistent with previous results on the old/new paradigm, deceptive responses required greater cognitive endeavor, as indicated by a larger later positive component (LPC). Meanwhile, deceptive responses on attractive items were more easily offered than deceptive replies on unattractive items, as indicated by smaller LPCs. <span class="hlt">Truthfulness</span> towards attractive items was more easily conveyed than <span class="hlt">truthfulness</span> towards unattractive items, as indicated by the smaller contingent negative variation (CNV). The potential reasons for these results are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15360035','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15360035"><span>Learning from <span class="hlt">truth</span>: youth participation in field marketing techniques to counter tobacco advertising.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eisenberg, Merrill; Ringwalt, Chris; Driscoll, David; Vallee, Manuel; Gullette, Gregory</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>In 2000, the American Legacy Foundation (Legacy) launched <span class="hlt">truth</span>, a national, multi-medium tobacco control social marketing campaign targeting youth age 12-17. This paper provides a brief description of one aspect of that campaign, the <span class="hlt">truth</span> tour, and compares and contrasts the <span class="hlt">truth</span> tour with commercial field marketing approaches used by the tobacco industry. The methods used for the tour's process evaluation are also described, and two important lessons learned about using field marketing techniques and using youth to implement field marketing techniques in social marketing campaigns are discussed. Social marketing campaigns that target youth may want to launch field marketing activities. The <span class="hlt">truth</span> tour experience can inform the development of those efforts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gestalt+AND+therapy&pg=6&id=EJ308084','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gestalt+AND+therapy&pg=6&id=EJ308084"><span>Values in Fritz Perls's Gestalt Therapy: On the Dangers of Half-<span class="hlt">Truths</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cadwallader, Eva H.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Examines some of the values in Perls's theory of psychotherapy, which his Gestalt Prayer epitomizes. Argues that at least five of the major value claims presupposed by his psychotherapeutic theory and practice are in fact dangerous half-<span class="hlt">truths</span>. (JAC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4873098','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4873098"><span>The influence on perceptions of <span class="hlt">truthfulness</span> of the emotional expressions shown when talking about failure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>David, Shlomo; Hareli, Shlomo; Hess, Ursula</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The study aimed to assess whether showing emotion in an organizational inquiry into failure affects perceptions of <span class="hlt">truthfulness</span> as a function of the match between the explanation of what caused the failure and the emotion expressed. Two web-based studies were conducted. Participants with work experience saw videos of an inquiry and rated the protagonist’s <span class="hlt">truthfulness</span>. In both studies protagonists who expressed an emotion (anger or shame) were rated as less <span class="hlt">truthful</span> than protagonists who expressed no emotion, regardless of what the failure was attributed to. In order to not confound effects of emotions with occupational stereotype effects only male protagonists were shown. Showing emotions when questioned is normal. Managers have to be aware of a tendency to count this against the employee. This is the only research focusing on the effects of showing emotions on perceptions of <span class="hlt">truthfulness</span> in an organizational context. PMID:27247646</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22707921','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22707921"><span><span class="hlt">Accurate</span> ab Initio Spin Densities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boguslawski, Katharina; Marti, Konrad H; Legeza, Ors; Reiher, Markus</p> <p>2012-06-12</p> <p>We present an approach for the calculation of spin density distributions for molecules that require very large active spaces for a qualitatively correct description of their electronic structure. Our approach is based on the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm to calculate the spin density matrix elements as a basic quantity for the spatially resolved spin density distribution. The spin density matrix elements are directly determined from the second-quantized elementary operators optimized by the DMRG algorithm. As an analytic convergence criterion for the spin density distribution, we employ our recently developed sampling-reconstruction scheme [J. Chem. Phys.2011, 134, 224101] to build an <span class="hlt">accurate</span> complete-active-space configuration-interaction (CASCI) wave function from the optimized matrix product states. The spin density matrix elements can then also be determined as an expectation value employing the reconstructed wave function expansion. Furthermore, the explicit reconstruction of a CASCI-type wave function provides insight into chemically interesting features of the molecule under study such as the distribution of α and β electrons in terms of Slater determinants, CI coefficients, and natural orbitals. The methodology is applied to an iron nitrosyl complex which we have identified as a challenging system for standard approaches [J. Chem. Theory Comput.2011, 7, 2740].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790043367&hterms=truth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dtruth','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790043367&hterms=truth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dtruth"><span>The comparison between the synthetic aperture radar imageries and the surface <span class="hlt">truth</span> of ocean waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hsiao, S. V.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Ocean waves measured offshore of Marineland, Florida, by the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) are compared with the surface <span class="hlt">truth</span> data. The Fourier transform of SAR imageries are taken and the corrections of the wave directions and wave lengths due to the relative velocities between SAR and waves are considered. Favorable comparisons are obtained for the peak frequencies, wave directions, and directional distributions. However, the one-dimensional SAR spectra are quite different from the surface <span class="hlt">truth</span> wave height spectra.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJMPC..2650080S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJMPC..2650080S"><span>A novel rumor diffusion model considering the effect of <span class="hlt">truth</span> in online social media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Ling; Liu, Yun; Zeng, Qing-An; Xiong, Fei</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In this paper, we propose a model to investigate how <span class="hlt">truth</span> affects rumor diffusion in online social media. Our model reveals a relation between rumor and <span class="hlt">truth</span> — namely, when a rumor is diffusing, the <span class="hlt">truth</span> about the rumor also diffuses with it. Two patterns of the agents used to identify rumor, self-identification and passive learning are taken into account. Combining theoretical proof and simulation analysis, we find that the threshold value of rumor diffusion is negatively correlated to the connectivity between nodes in the network and the probability β of agents knowing <span class="hlt">truth</span>. Increasing β can reduce the maximum density of the rumor spreaders and slow down the generation speed of new rumor spreaders. On the other hand, we conclude that the best rumor diffusion strategy must balance the probability of forwarding rumor and the probability of agents losing interest in the rumor. High spread rate λ of rumor would lead to a surge in <span class="hlt">truth</span> dissemination which will greatly limit the diffusion of rumor. Furthermore, in the case of unknown λ, increasing β can effectively reduce the maximum proportion of agents who do not know the <span class="hlt">truth</span>, but cannot narrow the rumor diffusion range in a certain interval of β.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22580084','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22580084"><span>The contribution of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to the preparation for deception and <span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ito, Ayahito; Abe, Nobuhito; Fujii, Toshikatsu; Hayashi, Akiko; Ueno, Aya; Mugikura, Shunji; Takahashi, Shoki; Mori, Etsuro</p> <p>2012-06-29</p> <p>Recent neuroimaging evidence suggests that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is associated with creating deceptive responses. However, the neural basis of the preparatory processes that create deception has yet to be explored. Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the preparation for a certain task activates brain areas relevant to the execution of that task, leading to the question of whether dorsolateral prefrontal activity is observed during the preparation for deception. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine whether dorsolateral prefrontal activity, which increases during the execution of deception compared with the execution of <span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling, also increases during the preparation for deception compared with the preparation for <span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling. Our data show that the execution of deception was associated with increased activity in several brain regions, including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, compared with <span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling, confirming the contribution of this region to the production of deceptive responses. The results also reveal that the preparations for both deception and <span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling were associated with increased activity in certain brain regions, including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest that the preparations for <span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling and deception make similar demands on the brain and that the dorsolateral prefrontal activity identified in the preparation phase is associated with general preparatory processes, regardless of whether one is telling a lie or the <span class="hlt">truth</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19221997','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19221997"><span>[<span class="hlt">Truth</span> telling and advance care planning at the end of life].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Wen-Yu; Yang, Chia-Ling</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>One of the core values in terminal care the respect of patient 'autonomy'. This essay begins with a discussion of medical ethics principles and the Natural Death Act in Taiwan and then summarizes two medical ethical dilemmas, <span class="hlt">truth</span> telling and advance care planning (ACP), faced in the development of hospice and palliative care in Taiwan. The terminal <span class="hlt">truth</span> telling process incorporates the four basic principles of Assessment and preparation, Communication with family, <span class="hlt">Truth</span>-telling process, and Support and follow up (the so-called "ACTs"). Many experts suggest practicing ACP by abiding by the following five steps: (1) presenting and illustrating topics; (2) facilitating a structured discussion; (3) completing documents with advanced directives (ADs); (4) reviewing and updating ADs; and (5) applying ADs in clinical circumstances. Finally, the myths and challenges in <span class="hlt">truth</span> telling and ADs include the influence of healthcare system procedures and priorities, inadequate communication skills, and the psychological barriers of medical staffs. Good communication skills are critical to <span class="hlt">truth</span> telling and ACP. Significant discussion about ACP should help engender mutual trust between patients and the medical staffs who take the time to establish such relationships. Promoting patient autonomy by providing the opportunity of a good death is an important goal of <span class="hlt">truth</span> telling and ACP in which patients have opportunities to choose their terminal treatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25214460','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25214460"><span>If I imagine it, then it happened: the Implicit <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Value of imaginary representations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shidlovski, Daniella; Schul, Yaacov; Mayo, Ruth</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Imagination sometimes leads people to behave, feel, and think as though imagined events were real even when they know they were not. In this paper, we suggest that some understanding of these phenomena can be achieved by differentiating between Implicit <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Value (ITV), a spontaneous <span class="hlt">truth</span> evaluation, and Explicit <span class="hlt">Truth</span> Value (ETV), a self-reported <span class="hlt">truth</span> judgment. In three experiments, we measure ITV using the autobiographical Implicit Association Test (Sartori, Agosta, Zogmaister, Ferrara, & Castiello, 2008), which has been used to assess which of two autobiographical events is true. Our findings demonstrate that imagining an event, like experiencing an event, increases its ITV, even when people explicitly acknowledge the imagined event as false (Experiments 1a and 1b). Furthermore, we show that imagined representations generated from a first-person perspective have higher ITV than imagined representations generated from a third-person perspective (Experiment 2). Our findings suggest that implicit and explicit measures of <span class="hlt">truth</span> differ in their sensitivity to properties underlying <span class="hlt">truth</span> judgment. We discuss the contribution of characterizing events according to both ITV and ETV to the understanding of various psychological phenomena, such as lying and self-deception.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25447716','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25447716"><span>The effects of punishment and appeals for honesty on children's <span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling behavior.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Talwar, Victoria; Arruda, Cindy; Yachison, Sarah</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>This study examined the effectiveness of two types of verbal appeals (external and internal motivators) and expected punishment in 372 children's (4- to 8-year-olds) <span class="hlt">truth</span>-telling behavior about a transgression. External appeals to tell the <span class="hlt">truth</span> emphasized social approval by stating that the experimenter would be happy if the children told the <span class="hlt">truth</span>. Internal appeals to tell the <span class="hlt">truth</span> emphasized internal standards of behavior by stating that the children would be happy with themselves if they told the <span class="hlt">truth</span>. Results indicate that with age children are more likely to lie and maintain their lie during follow-up questioning. Overall, children in the External Appeal conditions told the <span class="hlt">truth</span> significantly more compared with children in the No Appeal conditions. Children who heard internal appeals with no expected punishment were significantly less likely to lie compared with children who heard internal appeals when there was expected punishment. The results have important implications regarding the impact of socialization on children's honesty and promoting children's veracity in applied situations where children's honesty is critical.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7240704','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7240704"><span><span class="hlt">Ground</span> water contamination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>This book covers: <span class="hlt">Ground</span> water contamination and basic concepts of water law; Federal law governing water contamination and remediation; <span class="hlt">Ground</span> water flow and contaminant migration; <span class="hlt">Ground</span> water cleanup under CERCLA; Technical methods of remediation and prevention of contamination; Liability for <span class="hlt">ground</span> water contamination; State constraints on contamination of <span class="hlt">ground</span> water; Water quantity versus water quality; Prevention of use of contaminated <span class="hlt">ground</span> water as an alternative to remediation; Economic considerations in liability for <span class="hlt">ground</span> water contamination; and Contamination, extraction, and injection issues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/965711','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/965711"><span>Enhanced Site Characterization of the 618-4 Burial <span class="hlt">Ground</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Murray, Christopher J.; Last, George V.; Chien, Yi-Ju</p> <p>2001-09-25</p> <p>This report describes the results obtained from deployment of the Enhanced Site Characterization System (ESCS) at the Hanford Site's 618-4 Burial <span class="hlt">Ground</span>. The objective of this deployment was to use advanced geostatistical methods to integrate and interpret geophysical and <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> data, to map the physical types of waste materials present in unexcavated portions of the burial <span class="hlt">ground</span>. One issue of particularly interest was the number of drums (containing depleted uranium metal shavings or uranium-oxide powder) remaining in the burial <span class="hlt">ground</span> and still requiring removal.Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (ART), a neural network classification method, was used to cluster the study area into 3 classes based on their geophysical signatures. Multivariate statistical analyses and discriminant function analysis (DFA) indicated that the drum area as well as a second area (the SW anomaly) had similar geophysical signatures that were different from the rest of the burial <span class="hlt">ground</span>. Further analysis of the drum area suggested that as many as 770 drums to 850 drums may remain in that area. Similarities between the geophysical signatures of the drum area and the SW anomaly suggested that excavation of the SW anomaly area also proceed with caution.Deployment of the ESCS technology was successful in integrating multiple geophysical variables and grouping these observations into clusters that are relevant for planning further excavation of the buried <span class="hlt">ground</span>. However, the success of the technology could not be fully evaluated because reliable <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> data were not available to enable calibration of the different geophysical signatures against actual waste types.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRG..121..879A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRG..121..879A"><span>In situ characterization of forest litter using <span class="hlt">ground</span>-penetrating radar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>André, Frédéric; Jonard, François; Jonard, Mathieu; Lambot, Sébastien</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Decomposing litter accumulated on the soil surface in forests plays a major role in several ecosystem processes; its detailed characterization is therefore essential for thorough understanding of ecosystem functioning. In addition, litter is known to affect remote sensing radar data over forested areas and their proper processing requires <span class="hlt">accurate</span> quantification of litter scattering properties. In the present study, ultrawideband (0.8-2.2 GHz) <span class="hlt">ground</span>-penetrating radar (GPR) data were collected in situ for a wide range of litter types to investigate the potential of the technique to reconstruct litter horizons in undisturbed natural conditions. Radar data were processed resorting to full-wave inversion. Good agreement was generally found between estimated and measured litter layer thicknesses, with root-mean-square error values around 1 cm for recently fallen litter (OL layer) and around 2 cm for fragmented litter in partial decomposition (OF layer) and total litter (OL + OF). Nevertheless, significant correlations between estimated and measured thicknesses were found for total litter only. Inaccuracies in the reconstruction of the individual litter horizons were mainly attributed to weak dielectric contrasts amongst litter layers, with absolute differences in relative dielectric permittivity values often lower than 2 between humus horizons, and to uncertainties in the <span class="hlt">ground</span> <span class="hlt">truth</span> values. Radar signal inversions also provided reliable estimates of litter electromagnetic properties, with average relative dielectric permittivity values around 2.9 and 6.3 for OL and OF litters, respectively. These results are encouraging for the use of GPR for noninvasive characterization and mapping of forest litter. Perspectives for the application of the technique in biogeosciences are discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.</small> </div> </center> <div id="footer-wrapper"> <div class="footer-content"> <div id="footerOSTI" class=""> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-push-4 footer-content-center"><small><a href="http://www.science.gov/disclaimer.html">Privacy and Security</a></small> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-pull-4 footer-content-left"> <img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/DOE_SC31.png" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" usemap="#doe" height="31" width="177"><map style="display:none;" name="doe" id="doe"><area shape="rect" coords="1,3,107,30" href="http://www.energy.gov" alt="U.S. Deparment of Energy"><area shape="rect" coords="114,3,165,30" href="http://www.science.energy.gov" alt="Office of Science"></map> <a ref="http://www.osti.gov" style="margin-left: 15px;"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/ostigov53.png" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" height="31" width="53"></a> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center footer-content-right"> <a href="http://www.science.gov"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/scigov77.png" alt="science.gov" height="31" width="98"></a> <a href="http://worldwidescience.org"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/wws82.png" alt="WorldWideScience.org" height="31" width="90"></a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <p><br></p> </div><!-- container --> <script type="text/javascript"><!-- // var lastDiv = ""; function showDiv(divName) { // hide last div if (lastDiv) { document.getElementById(lastDiv).className = "hiddenDiv"; } //if value of the box is not nothing and an object with that name exists, then change the class if (divName && document.getElementById(divName)) { document.getElementById(divName).className = "visibleDiv"; lastDiv = divName; } } //--> </script> <script> /** * Function that tracks a click on an outbound link in Google Analytics. * This function takes a valid URL string as an argument, and uses that URL string * as the event label. */ var trackOutboundLink = function(url,collectionCode) { try { h = window.open(url); setTimeout(function() { ga('send', 'event', 'topic-page-click-through', collectionCode, url); }, 1000); } catch(err){} }; </script> <!-- Google Analytics --> <script> (function(i,s,o,g,r,a,m){i['GoogleAnalyticsObject']=r;i[r]=i[r]||function(){ (i[r].q=i[r].q||[]).push(arguments)},i[r].l=1*new Date();a=s.createElement(o), m=s.getElementsByTagName(o)[0];a.async=1;a.src=g;m.parentNode.insertBefore(a,m) })(window,document,'script','//www.google-analytics.com/analytics.js','ga'); ga('create', 'UA-1122789-34', 'auto'); ga('send', 'pageview'); </script> <!-- End Google Analytics --> <script> showDiv('page_1') </script> </body> </html>