Science.gov

Sample records for accurate ground truth

  1. Benchmarking without ground truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, Simone

    2006-01-01

    Many evaluation techniques for content based image retrieval are based on the availability of a ground truth, that is on a "correct" categorization of images so that, say, if the query image is of category A, only the returned images in category A will be considered as "hits." Based on such a ground truth, standard information retrieval measures such as precision and recall and given and used to evaluate and compare retrieval algorithms. Coherently, the assemblers of benchmarking data bases go to a certain length to have their images categorized. The assumption of the existence of a ground truth is, in many respect, naive. It is well known that the categorization of the images depends on the a priori (from the point of view of such categorization) subdivision of the semantic field in which the images are placed (a trivial observation: a plant subdivision for a botanist is very different from that for a layperson). Even within a given semantic field, however, categorization by human subjects is subject to uncertainty, and it makes little statistical sense to consider the categorization given by one person as the unassailable ground truth. In this paper I propose two evaluation techniques that apply to the case in which the ground truth is subject to uncertainty. In this case, obviously, measures such as precision and recall as well will be subject to uncertainty. The paper will explore the relation between the uncertainty in the ground truth and that in the most commonly used evaluation measures, so that the measurements done on a given system can preserve statistical significance.

  2. Ground truth versus no ground truth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torbert, G. B.

    1970-01-01

    The area of study was the southeastern Arizona test site and three areas within the site were studied in detail: Safford, Point of Pines, and Fort Apache-White River. These areas have terrain contrast ranging from flat arid regions to high alpine mountains. Data were obtained from the Apollo 9 photographic missions, high altitude aerial photography, and simulated ERTS-A data from high altitude aircraft. Various monoscopic and steroscopic devices were used to analyze the features, and film density variations were studied. No ground-based data were permitted. Thematic maps were prepared for geology, geomorphology, vegetation, hydrology, and soils. Interpreted boundaries were delineated, with no collaborative data used in the interpretation. Ground-based data were gathered during the overflight of high altitude aerial photography. A further study was made using the ground truth, and the data gathered on the ground were compared with original mapping. 80% to 85% of the interpretations in the areas checked were correct. It was proved that it is possible to monitor gross features of the vigor of crop lands and vegetative cover, to type soils and classify geologic features, and to determine hydrologic conditions.

  3. Snowpack ground-truth manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, E. B.

    1983-01-01

    As remote sensing increasingly becomes more of an operational tool in the field of snow management and snow hydrology, there is need for some degree of standardization of ""snowpack ground truth'' techniques. This manual provides a first step in standardizing these procedures and was prepared to meet the needs of remote sensing researchers in planning missions requiring ground truth as well as those providing the ground truth. Focus is on ground truth for remote sensors primarily operating in the microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum; nevertheless, the manual should be of value to other types of sensor programs. This first edition of ground truth procedures must be updated as new or modified techniques are developed.

  4. Ground-truth measurement systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafin, R.; Seliga, T. A.; Lhermitte, R. M.; Nystuen, J. A.; Cherry, S.; Bringi, V. N.; Blackmer, R.; Heymsfield, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Ground-truth measurements of precipitation and related weather events are an essential component of any satellite system designed for monitoring rainfall from space. Such measurements are required for testing, evaluation, and operations; they provide detailed information on the actual weather events, which can then be compared with satellite observations intended to provide both quantitative and qualitative information about them. Also, very comprehensive ground-truth observations should lead to a better understanding of precipitation fields and their relationships to satellite data. This process serves two very important functions: (a) aiding in the development and interpretation of schemes of analyzing satellite data, and (b) providing a continuing method for verifying satellite measurements.

  5. Development of mine explosion ground truth smart sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Steven R.; Harben, Phillip E.; Jarpe, Steve; Harris, David B.

    2015-09-14

    Accurate seismo-acoustic source location is one of the fundamental aspects of nuclear explosion monitoring. Critical to improved location is the compilation of ground truth data sets for which origin time and location are accurately known. Substantial effort by the National Laboratories and other seismic monitoring groups have been undertaken to acquire and develop ground truth catalogs that form the basis of location efforts (e.g. Sweeney, 1998; Bergmann et al., 2009; Waldhauser and Richards, 2004). In particular, more GT1 (Ground Truth 1 km) events are required to improve three-dimensional velocity models that are currently under development. Mine seismicity can form the basis of accurate ground truth datasets. Although the location of mining explosions can often be accurately determined using array methods (e.g. Harris, 1991) and from overhead observations (e.g. MacCarthy et al., 2008), accurate origin time estimation can be difficult. Occasionally, mine operators will share shot time, location, explosion size and even shot configuration, but this is rarely done, especially in foreign countries. Additionally, shot times provided by mine operators are often inaccurate. An inexpensive, ground truth event detector that could be mailed to a contact, placed in close proximity (< 5 km) to mining regions or earthquake aftershock regions that automatically transmits back ground-truth parameters, would greatly aid in development of ground truth datasets that could be used to improve nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. We are developing an inexpensive, compact, lightweight smart sensor unit (or units) that could be used in the development of ground truth datasets for the purpose of improving nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. The units must be easy to deploy, be able to operate autonomously for a significant period of time (> 6 months) and inexpensive enough to be discarded after useful operations have expired (although this may not be part of our business

  6. Relating ground truth collection to model sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amar, Faouzi; Fung, Adrian K.; Karam, Mostafa A.; Mougin, Eric

    1993-01-01

    The importance of collecting high quality ground truth before a SAR mission over a forested area is two fold. First, the ground truth is used in the analysis and interpretation of the measured backscattering properties; second, it helps to justify the use of a scattering model to fit the measurements. Unfortunately, ground truth is often collected based on visual assessment of what is perceived to be important without regard to the mission itself. Sites are selected based on brief surveys of large areas, and the ground truth is collected by a process of selecting and grouping different scatterers. After the fact, it may turn out that some of the relevant parameters are missing. A three-layer canopy model based on the radiative transfer equations is used to determine, before hand, the relevant parameters to be collected. Detailed analysis of the contribution to scattering and attenuation of various forest components is carried out. The goal is to identify the forest parameters which most influence the backscattering as a function of frequency (P-, L-, and C-bands) and incident angle. The influence on backscattering and attenuation of branch diameters, lengths, angular distribution, and permittivity; trunk diameters, lengths, and permittivity; and needle sizes, their angular distribution, and permittivity are studied in order to maximize the efficiency of the ground truth collection efforts. Preliminary results indicate that while a scatterer may not contribute to the total backscattering, its contribution to attenuation may be significant depending on the frequency.

  7. NASA Ground-Truthing Capabilities Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Isaac; Seibert, Marc A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Research and Education Network (NREN) ground truthing is a method of verifying the scientific validity of satellite images and clarifying irregularities in the imagery. Ground-truthed imagery can be used to locate geological compositions of interest for a given area. On Mars, astronaut scientists could ground truth satellite imagery from the planet surface and then pinpoint optimum areas to explore. These astronauts would be able to ground truth imagery, get results back, and use the results during extravehicular activity without returning to Earth to process the data from the mission. NASA's first ground-truthing experiment, performed on June 25 in the Utah desert, demonstrated the ability to extend powerful computing resources to remote locations. Designed by Dr. Richard Beck of the Department of Geography at the University of Cincinnati, who is serving as the lead field scientist, and assisted by Dr. Robert Vincent of Bowling Green State University, the demonstration also involved researchers from the NASA Glenn Research Center and the NASA Ames Research Center, who worked with the university field scientists to design, perform, and analyze results of the experiment. As shown real-time Hyperion satellite imagery (data) is sent to a mass storage facility, while scientists at a remote (Utah) site upload ground spectra (data) to a second mass storage facility. The grid pulls data from both mass storage facilities and performs up to 64 simultaneous band ratio conversions on the data. Moments later, the results from the grid are accessed by local scientists and sent directly to the remote science team. The results are used by the remote science team to locate and explore new critical compositions of interest. The process can be repeated as required to continue to validate the data set or to converge on alternate geophysical areas of interest.

  8. Ground Truth Studies. Teacher Handbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Jesse; And Others

    Ground Truth Studies is an interdisciplinary activity-based program that draws on the broad range of sciences that make up the study of global change and the complementary technology of remote sensing. It integrates local environmental issues with global change topics, such as the greenhouse effect, loss of biological diversity, and ozone…

  9. Ground truth for oceanic rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorman, C. E.

    1981-01-01

    Communications systems operating at frequencies in excess of 10 GHz are degraded significantly by rainfall. To provide the information needed for design of these millimeter wave systems, rain attentuation models were developed and data bases of propagation related information were accumulated. These data bases were developed based on the signal level measurements of geostationary satellite beacons at selected frequencies. Groundbased radar reflection measurements were able to develop data bases for system design. The rain attenuation models allow accurate correlation between the rain rate and the attenuation.

  10. GEOS-3 phase B ground truth summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, C. L.; Goodman, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    Ground truth data collected during the experiment systems calibration and evaluation phase of the Geodynamics experimental Ocean Satellite (GEOS-3) experiment are summarized. Both National Weather Service analyses and aircraft sensor data are included. The data are structured to facilitate the use of the various data products in calibrating the GEOS-3 radar altimeter and in assessing the altimeter's sensitivity to geophysical phenomena. Brief statements are made concerning the quality and completeness of the included data.

  11. Ground truth and benchmarks for performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Ayako; Shneier, Michael; Hong, Tsai Hong; Chang, Tommy; Scrapper, Christopher; Cheok, Geraldine S.

    2003-09-01

    Progress in algorithm development and transfer of results to practical applications such as military robotics requires the setup of standard tasks, of standard qualitative and quantitative measurements for performance evaluation and validation. Although the evaluation and validation of algorithms have been discussed for over a decade, the research community still faces a lack of well-defined and standardized methodology. The range of fundamental problems include a lack of quantifiable measures of performance, a lack of data from state-of-the-art sensors in calibrated real-world environments, and a lack of facilities for conducting realistic experiments. In this research, we propose three methods for creating ground truth databases and benchmarks using multiple sensors. The databases and benchmarks will provide researchers with high quality data from suites of sensors operating in complex environments representing real problems of great relevance to the development of autonomous driving systems. At NIST, we have prototyped a High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) system with a suite of sensors including a Riegl ladar, GDRS ladar, stereo CCD, several color cameras, Global Position System (GPS), Inertial Navigation System (INS), pan/tilt encoders, and odometry . All sensors are calibrated with respect to each other in space and time. This allows a database of features and terrain elevation to be built. Ground truth for each sensor can then be extracted from the database. The main goal of this research is to provide ground truth databases for researchers and engineers to evaluate algorithms for effectiveness, efficiency, reliability, and robustness, thus advancing the development of algorithms.

  12. Ground Truth Sampling and LANDSAT Accuracy Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, J. W.; Gunther, F. J.; Campbell, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    It is noted that the key factor in any accuracy assessment of remote sensing data is the method used for determining the ground truth, independent of the remote sensing data itself. The sampling and accuracy procedures developed for nuclear power plant siting study are described. The purpose of the sampling procedure was to provide data for developing supervised classifications for two study sites and for assessing the accuracy of that and the other procedures used. The purpose of the accuracy assessment was to allow the comparison of the cost and accuracy of various classification procedures as applied to various data types.

  13. Evaluating segmentation error without ground truth.

    PubMed

    Kohlberger, Timo; Singh, Vivek; Alvino, Chris; Bahlmann, Claus; Grady, Leo

    2012-01-01

    The automatic delineation of the boundaries of organs and other anatomical structures is a key component of many medical image processing systems. In this paper we present a generic learning approach based on a novel space of segmentation features, which can be trained to predict the overlap error and Dice coefficient of an arbitrary organ segmentation without knowing the ground truth delineation. We show the regressor to be much stronger a predictor of these error metrics than the responses of probabilistic boosting classifiers trained on the segmentation boundary. The presented approach not only allows us to build reliable confidence measures and fidelity checks, but also to rank several segmentation hypotheses against each other during online usage of the segmentation algorithm in clinical practice. PMID:23285592

  14. Ground truth data requirements for altimeter performance verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    The amount and type of ground truth required for an altimeter experiment is a function of the uncertainty in the satellite orbit, the altimeter error budget and the type of operation being performed. Ground truth requirements will be discussed with reference to three areas of operation: the global mode, the high intensity mode and calibration.

  15. Ground Truth Accuracy Tests of GPS Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elosegui, P.; Oberlander, D. J.; Davis, J. L.; Baena, R.; Ekstrom, G.

    2005-12-01

    As the precision of GPS determinations of site position continues to improve the detection of smaller and faster geophysical signals becomes possible. However, lack of independent measurements of these signals often precludes an assessment of the accuracy of such GPS position determinations. This may be particularly true for high-rate GPS applications. We have built an apparatus to assess the accuracy of GPS position determinations for high-rate applications, in particular the application known as "GPS seismology." The apparatus consists of a bidirectional, single-axis positioning table coupled to a digitally controlled stepping motor. The motor, in turn, is connected to a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip that synchronously sequences through real historical earthquake profiles stored in Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory's (EPROM). A GPS antenna attached to this positioning table undergoes the simulated seismic motions of the Earth's surface while collecting high-rate GPS data. Analysis of the time-dependent position estimates can then be compared to the "ground truth," and the resultant GPS error spectrum can be measured. We have made extensive measurements with this system while inducing simulated seismic motions either in the horizontal plane or the vertical axis. A second stationary GPS antenna at a distance of several meters was simultaneously collecting high-rate (5 Hz) GPS data. We will present the calibration of this system, describe the GPS observations and data analysis, and assess the accuracy of GPS for high-rate geophysical applications and natural hazards mitigation.

  16. Ground truth observations for TRMM. [Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiele, Otto W.

    1989-01-01

    Plans to obtain ground truth data for the validation of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) are examined. The experimental rainfall measuring techniques considered for the program are discussed, including optical and Doppler rain gages, satellite beacon attenuation, underwater hydrophones, profilers, microwave attenuation, multiple frequency/polarization radar, and scanning and airborne Doppler radar. The TRMM validation program is considered, noting observations to compare averaged TRMM rainfall data with similar ground truth data and to compare the rainfall and height distribution data from TRMM with instantaneous ground truth data.

  17. Fish Farms at Sea: The Ground Truth from Google Earth

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Pablo; Piroddi, Chiara; Jacquet, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In the face of global overfishing of wild-caught seafood, ocean fish farming has augmented the supply of fresh fish to western markets and become one of the fastest growing global industries. Accurate reporting of quantities of wild-caught fish has been problematic and we questioned whether similar discrepancies in data exist in statistics for farmed fish production. In the Mediterranean Sea, ocean fish farming is prevalent and stationary cages can be seen off the coasts of 16 countries using satellite imagery available through Google Earth. Using this tool, we demonstrate here that a few trained scientists now have the capacity to ground truth farmed fish production data reported by the Mediterranean countries. With Google Earth, we could examine 91% of the Mediterranean coast and count 248 tuna cages (circular cages >40 m diameter) and 20,976 other fish cages within 10 km offshore, the majority of which were off Greece (49%) and Turkey (31%). Combining satellite imagery with assumptions about cage volume, fish density, harvest rates, and seasonal capacity, we make a conservative approximation of ocean-farmed finfish production for 16 Mediterranean countries. Our overall estimate of 225,736 t of farmed finfish (not including tuna) in the Mediterranean Sea in 2006 is only slightly more than the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization reports. The results demonstrate the reliability of recent FAO farmed fish production statistics for the Mediterranean as well as the promise of Google Earth to collect and ground truth data. PMID:22347383

  18. Fish farms at sea: the ground truth from Google Earth.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Pablo; Piroddi, Chiara; Jacquet, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In the face of global overfishing of wild-caught seafood, ocean fish farming has augmented the supply of fresh fish to western markets and become one of the fastest growing global industries. Accurate reporting of quantities of wild-caught fish has been problematic and we questioned whether similar discrepancies in data exist in statistics for farmed fish production. In the Mediterranean Sea, ocean fish farming is prevalent and stationary cages can be seen off the coasts of 16 countries using satellite imagery available through Google Earth. Using this tool, we demonstrate here that a few trained scientists now have the capacity to ground truth farmed fish production data reported by the Mediterranean countries. With Google Earth, we could examine 91% of the Mediterranean coast and count 248 tuna cages (circular cages >40 m diameter) and 20,976 other fish cages within 10 km offshore, the majority of which were off Greece (49%) and Turkey (31%). Combining satellite imagery with assumptions about cage volume, fish density, harvest rates, and seasonal capacity, we make a conservative approximation of ocean-farmed finfish production for 16 Mediterranean countries. Our overall estimate of 225,736 t of farmed finfish (not including tuna) in the Mediterranean Sea in 2006 is only slightly more than the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization reports. The results demonstrate the reliability of recent FAO farmed fish production statistics for the Mediterranean as well as the promise of Google Earth to collect and ground truth data.

  19. Remote and Ground Truth Spectral Measurement Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Kira Jorgensen; Hamada, Kris; Guyote, Michael; Okada, Jennifer; Barker, Edwin

    2007-01-01

    FORMOSAT III are a set of six research satellites from Taiwan that were launched in April 2006. The satellites are in 800 km, 71 degree inclination orbits and separated by 24 degrees in ascending node. Ground truth spectral measurements were taken of outer surface materials on FORMOSAT III. From those measurements, a computer model was built to predict the spectral reflectance, which included phase angle and orientation of the spacecraft relative to the observer. However, materials exposed to the space environment have exhibited spectral changes including a darkening and a reddening of the spectra. This reddening was seen as an increase in slope of the reflectance as the wavelength increases. Therefore, the model of pristine materials was augmented to include the space weathering effects. Remote data were collected on two of the six FORMOSAT satellites using the 1.6 meter telescope at AMOS (Air Force Maui Optical and Supercomputing) site with the Spica spectrometer. Due to the separation in ascending node, observations were made on whichever one of the six satellites was visible on that specific night. Three nights of data were collected using the red (6000 9500 angstroms) filter and two nights of data were collected using the blue (3200 -6600 angstroms) filter. A comparison of the data showed a good match to the pristine model for the blue filter region. The absorption feature near 5500 angstroms due to the copper colored Kapton multi-layer insulation (MLI) was very apparent in the remote samples and a good fit to the data was seen in both satellites observed. The features in the red filter regime agreed with the pristine model up through 7000 angstroms where the reddening begins and the slope of the remote sample increases. A comparison of the two satellites showed similar features in the red and blue filter regions, i.e. the satellites were aging at the same rate. A comparison of the pristine model to the first month of remote measurements showed the amount by

  20. Snowpack ground truth Donner Pass site, Soda Springs, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, E. B.

    1977-01-01

    Ground truth data taken near Soda Springs, California, on January 18, 1977, in support of the NASA Airborne Instrumentation Research Program are presented. Ground truth data taken in support of this mission were as follows: (1) snow depths were taken every 400 feet; (2) snow densities were taken every 1,200 feet; (3) two snowpits were dug, and limited density, vertical layer classifications, and soil observations were taken; and (4) temperatures of the upper 6 inches of the snowpack were taken at one location.

  1. Ground truth delineation for medical image segmentation based on Local Consistency and Distribution Map analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Irene; Sun, Xinyao; Alsufyani, Noura; Xiong, Zhihui; Major, Paul; Basu, Anup

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) systems are being increasingly deployed for medical applications in recent years with the goal to speed up tedious tasks and improve precision. Among others, segmentation is an important component in CAD systems as a preprocessing step to help recognize patterns in medical images. In order to assess the accuracy of a CAD segmentation algorithm, comparison with ground truth data is necessary. To-date, ground truth delineation relies mainly on contours that are either manually defined by clinical experts or automatically generated by software. In this paper, we propose a systematic ground truth delineation method based on a Local Consistency Set Analysis approach, which can be used to establish an accurate ground truth representation, or if ground truth is available, to assess the accuracy of a CAD generated segmentation algorithm. We validate our computational model using medical data. Experimental results demonstrate the robustness of our approach. In contrast to current methods, our model also provides consistency information at distributed boundary pixel level, and thus is invariant to global compensation error.

  2. Ground truth delineation for medical image segmentation based on Local Consistency and Distribution Map analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Irene; Sun, Xinyao; Alsufyani, Noura; Xiong, Zhihui; Major, Paul; Basu, Anup

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) systems are being increasingly deployed for medical applications in recent years with the goal to speed up tedious tasks and improve precision. Among others, segmentation is an important component in CAD systems as a preprocessing step to help recognize patterns in medical images. In order to assess the accuracy of a CAD segmentation algorithm, comparison with ground truth data is necessary. To-date, ground truth delineation relies mainly on contours that are either manually defined by clinical experts or automatically generated by software. In this paper, we propose a systematic ground truth delineation method based on a Local Consistency Set Analysis approach, which can be used to establish an accurate ground truth representation, or if ground truth is available, to assess the accuracy of a CAD generated segmentation algorithm. We validate our computational model using medical data. Experimental results demonstrate the robustness of our approach. In contrast to current methods, our model also provides consistency information at distributed boundary pixel level, and thus is invariant to global compensation error. PMID:26736941

  3. A Ground Truthing Method for AVIRIS Overflights Using Canopy Absorption Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamon, John A.; Serrano, Lydia; Roberts, Dar A.; Ustin, Susan L.

    1996-01-01

    Remote sensing for ecological field studies requires ground truthing for accurate interpretation of remote imagery. However, traditional vegetation sampling methods are time consuming and hard to relate to the scale of an AVIRIS scene. The large errors associated with manual field sampling, the contrasting formats of remote and ground data, and problems with coregistration of field sites with AVIRIS pixels can lead to difficulties in interpreting AVIRIS data. As part of a larger study of fire risk in the Santa Monica Mountains of southern California, we explored a ground-based optical method of sampling vegetation using spectrometers mounted both above and below vegetation canopies. The goal was to use optical methods to provide a rapid, consistent, and objective means of "ground truthing" that could be related both to AVIRIS imagery and to conventional ground sampling (e.g., plot harvests and pigment assays).

  4. Interactive removal and ground truth for difficult shadow scenes.

    PubMed

    Gong, Han; Cosker, Darren

    2016-09-01

    A user-centric method for fast, interactive, robust, and high-quality shadow removal is presented. Our algorithm can perform detection and removal in a range of difficult cases, such as highly textured and colored shadows. To perform detection, an on-the-fly learning approach is adopted guided by two rough user inputs for the pixels of the shadow and the lit area. After detection, shadow removal is performed by registering the penumbra to a normalized frame, which allows us efficient estimation of nonuniform shadow illumination changes, resulting in accurate and robust removal. Another major contribution of this work is the first validated and multiscene category ground truth for shadow removal algorithms. This data set containing 186 images eliminates inconsistencies between shadow and shadow-free images and provides a range of different shadow types such as soft, textured, colored, and broken shadow. Using this data, the most thorough comparison of state-of-the-art shadow removal methods to date is performed, showing our proposed algorithm to outperform the state of the art across several measures and shadow categories. To complement our data set, an online shadow removal benchmark website is also presented to encourage future open comparisons in this challenging field of research.

  5. Interactive removal and ground truth for difficult shadow scenes.

    PubMed

    Gong, Han; Cosker, Darren

    2016-09-01

    A user-centric method for fast, interactive, robust, and high-quality shadow removal is presented. Our algorithm can perform detection and removal in a range of difficult cases, such as highly textured and colored shadows. To perform detection, an on-the-fly learning approach is adopted guided by two rough user inputs for the pixels of the shadow and the lit area. After detection, shadow removal is performed by registering the penumbra to a normalized frame, which allows us efficient estimation of nonuniform shadow illumination changes, resulting in accurate and robust removal. Another major contribution of this work is the first validated and multiscene category ground truth for shadow removal algorithms. This data set containing 186 images eliminates inconsistencies between shadow and shadow-free images and provides a range of different shadow types such as soft, textured, colored, and broken shadow. Using this data, the most thorough comparison of state-of-the-art shadow removal methods to date is performed, showing our proposed algorithm to outperform the state of the art across several measures and shadow categories. To complement our data set, an online shadow removal benchmark website is also presented to encourage future open comparisons in this challenging field of research. PMID:27607503

  6. Interactive removal and ground truth for difficult shadow scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Han; Cosker, Darren

    2016-09-01

    A user-centric method for fast, interactive, robust and high-quality shadow removal is presented. Our algorithm can perform detection and removal in a range of difficult cases: such as highly textured and colored shadows. To perform detection an on-the-fly learning approach is adopted guided by two rough user inputs for the pixels of the shadow and the lit area. After detection, shadow removal is performed by registering the penumbra to a normalized frame which allows us efficient estimation of non-uniform shadow illumination changes, resulting in accurate and robust removal. Another major contribution of this work is the first validated and multi-scene category ground truth for shadow removal algorithms. This data set containing 186 images eliminates inconsistencies between shadow and shadow-free images and provides a range of different shadow types such as soft, textured, colored and broken shadow. Using this data, the most thorough comparison of state-of-the-art shadow removal methods to date is performed, showing our proposed new algorithm to outperform the state-of-the-art across several measures and shadow category. To complement our dataset, an online shadow removal benchmark website is also presented to encourage future open comparisons in this challenging field of research.

  7. Interactive degraded document enhancement and ground truth generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, G.; Agam, G.; Frieder, O.; Frieder, G.

    2008-01-01

    Degraded documents are frequently obtained in various situations. Examples of degraded document collections include historical document depositories, document obtained in legal and security investigations, and legal and medical archives. Degraded document images are hard to to read and are hard to analyze using computerized techniques. There is hence a need for systems that are capable of enhancing such images. We describe a language-independent semi-automated system for enhancing degraded document images that is capable of exploiting inter- and intra-document coherence. The system is capable of processing document images with high levels of degradations and can be used for ground truthing of degraded document images. Ground truthing of degraded document images is extremely important in several aspects: it enables quantitative performance measurements of enhancement systems and facilitates model estimation that can be used to improve performance. Performance evaluation is provided using the historical Frieder diaries collection.1

  8. Aeolian dunes as ground truth for atmospheric modeling on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayward, R.K.; Titus, T.N.; Michaels, T.I.; Fenton, L.K.; Colaprete, A.; Christensen, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    Martian aeolian dunes preserve a record of atmosphere/surface interaction on a variety of scales, serving as ground truth for both Global Climate Models (GCMs) and mesoscale climate models, such as the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS). We hypothesize that the location of dune fields, expressed globally by geographic distribution and locally by dune centroid azimuth (DCA), may record the long-term integration of atmospheric activity across a broad area, preserving GCM-scale atmospheric trends. In contrast, individual dune morphology, as expressed in slipface orientation (SF), may be more sensitive to localized variations in circulation, preserving topographically controlled mesoscale trends. We test this hypothesis by comparing the geographic distribution, DCA, and SF of dunes with output from the Ames Mars GCM and, at a local study site, with output from MRAMS. When compared to the GCM: 1) dunes generally lie adjacent to areas with strongest winds, 2) DCA agrees fairly well with GCM modeled wind directions in smooth-floored craters, and 3) SF does not agree well with GCM modeled wind directions. When compared to MRAMS modeled winds at our study site: 1) DCA generally coincides with the part of the crater where modeled mean winds are weak, and 2) SFs are consistent with some weak, topographically influenced modeled winds. We conclude that: 1) geographic distribution may be valuable as ground truth for GCMs, 2) DCA may be useful as ground truth for both GCM and mesoscale models, and 3) SF may be useful as ground truth for mesoscale models. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. The importance of ground truth data in remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    Surface observation data is discussed as an essential part of remote sensing research. One of the most important aspects of ground truth is the collection of measurements and observations about the type, size, condition and other physical or chemical properties of importance concerning the materials on the earth's surface that are being sensed remotely. The use of a variety of sensor systems in combination at different altitudes is emphasized.

  10. Comparison of algorithms for ultrasound image segmentation without ground truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikka, Karan; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2010-02-01

    Image segmentation is a pre-requisite to medical image analysis. A variety of segmentation algorithms have been proposed, and most are evaluated on a small dataset or based on classification of a single feature. The lack of a gold standard (ground truth) further adds to the discrepancy in these comparisons. This work proposes a new methodology for comparing image segmentation algorithms without ground truth by building a matrix called region-correlation matrix. Subsequently, suitable distance measures are proposed for quantitative assessment of similarity. The first measure takes into account the degree of region overlap or identical match. The second considers the degree of splitting or misclassification by using an appropriate penalty term. These measures are shown to satisfy the axioms of a quasi-metric. They are applied for a comparative analysis of synthetic segmentation maps to show their direct correlation with human intuition of similar segmentation. Since ultrasound images are difficult to segment and usually lack a ground truth, the measures are further used to compare the recently proposed spectral clustering algorithm (encoding spatial and edge information) with standard k-means over abdominal ultrasound images. Improving the parameterization and enlarging the feature space for k-means steadily increased segmentation quality to that of spectral clustering.

  11. AMS Ground Truth Measurements: Calibration and Test Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, P.

    2013-11-01

    Airborne gamma spectrometry is one of the primary techniques used to define the extent of ground contamination after a radiological incident. Its usefulness was demonstrated extensively during the response to the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident in March-May 2011. To map ground contamination a set of scintillation detectors is mounted on an airborne platform (airplane or helicopter) and flown over contaminated areas. The acquisition system collects spectral information together with the aircraft position and altitude every second. To provide useful information to decision makers, the count rate data expressed in counts per second (cps) needs to be converted to the terrestrial component of the exposure rate 1 m above ground, or surface activity of isotopes of concern. This is done using conversion coefficients derived from calibration flights. During a large scale radiological event, multiple flights may be necessary and may require use of assets from different agencies. However, as the production of a single, consistent map product depicting the ground contamination is the primary goal, it is critical to establish very early into the event a common calibration line. Such a line should be flown periodically in order to normalize data collected from different aerial acquisition systems and potentially flown at different flight altitudes and speeds. In order to verify and validate individual aerial systems, the calibration line needs to be characterized in terms of ground truth measurements. This is especially important if the contamination is due to short-lived radionuclides. The process of establishing such a line, as well as necessary ground truth measurements, is described in this document.

  12. Compositional Ground Truth of Diviner Lunar Radiometer Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhagen, B. T.; Thomas, I. R.; Bowles, N. E.; Allen, C. C.; Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Foote, E. J.; Paige, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    The Moon affords us a unique opportunity to "ground truth" thermal infrared (i.e. 3 to 25 micron) observations of an airless body. The Moon is the most accessable member of the most abundant class of solar system bodies, which includes Mercury, astroids, and icy satellites. The Apollo samples returned from the Moon are the only extraterrestrial samples with known spatial context. And the Diviner Lunar Radiometer (Diviner) is the first instrument to globally map the spectral thermal emission of an airless body. Here we compare Diviner observations of Apollo sites to compositional and spectral measurements of Apollo lunar soil samples in simulated lunar environment (SLE).

  13. Machine processing of ERTS and ground truth data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Peacock, K.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results achieved by ERTS-Atmospheric Experiment PR303, whose objective is to establish a radiometric calibration technique, are reported. This technique, which determines and removes solar and atmospheric parameters that degrade the radiometric fidelity of ERTS-1 data, transforms the ERTS-1 sensor radiance measurements to absolute target reflectance signatures. A radiant power measuring instrument and its use in determining atmospheric parameters needed for ground truth are discussed. The procedures used and results achieved in machine processing ERTS-1 computer -compatible tapes and atmospheric parameters to obtain target reflectance are reviewed.

  14. Generating high precision ionospheric ground-truth measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komjathy, Attila (Inventor); Sparks, Lawrence (Inventor); Mannucci, Anthony J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method, apparatus and article of manufacture provide ionospheric ground-truth measurements for use in a wide-area augmentation system (WAAS). Ionospheric pseudorange/code and carrier phase data as primary observables is received by a WAAS receiver. A polynomial fit is performed on the phase data that is examined to identify any cycle slips in the phase data. The phase data is then leveled. Satellite and receiver biases are obtained and applied to the leveled phase data to obtain unbiased phase-leveled ionospheric measurements that are used in a WAAS system. In addition, one of several measurements may be selected and data is output that provides information on the quality of the measurements that are used to determine corrective messages as part of the WAAS system.

  15. Towards Globally Consistent Scan Matchingwith Ground Truth Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailis, J.; Nüchter, A.

    2015-03-01

    The scan matching based simultaneous localization and mapping method with six dimensional poses is capable of creating a three dimensional point cloud map of the environment, as well as estimating the six dimensional path that the vehicle has travelled. The essence of it is the registering and matching of sequentially acquired 3D laser scans, while moving along a path, in a common coordinate frame in order to provide 6D pose estimations at the respective positions, as well as create a three dimensional map of the environment. An approach that could drastically improve the reliability of acquired data is to integrate available ground truth information. This paper is about implementing such functionality as a contribution to 6D SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping with 6 DoF) in the 3DTK - The 3D Toolkit software (Nüchter and Lingemann, 2011), as well as test the functionality of the implementation using real world datasets.

  16. Computed tomography as ground truth for stereo vision measurements of skin.

    PubMed

    Vanberlo, Amy M; Campbell, Aaron R; Ellis, Randy E

    2011-01-01

    Although dysesthesia is a common surgical complication, there is no accepted method for quantitatively tracking its progression. To address this, two types of computer vision technologies were tested in a total of four configurations. Surface regions on plastic models of limbs were delineated with colored tape, imaged, and compared with computed tomography scans. The most accurate system used visually projected texture captured by a binocular stereo camera, capable of measuring areas to within 3.4% of the ground-truth areas. This simple, inexpensive technology shows promise for postoperative monitoring of dysesthesia surrounding surgical scars.

  17. Truth.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jon

    2014-04-01

    What exactly do we mean by truth? Although the concept is nebulous across the array of theoretical perspectives in psychoanalysis, it is fundamental to all discourses. Is psychoanalysis in a position to offer a theory of truth despite the fact that at present it has no explicit, formal theory regarding the matter? A general metatheory is proposed here that allows for discrete categories and instantiations of truth as metacontextual appearance. In revisiting the ancient notion of aletheia as disclosedness or unconcealment, we may discover a distinct psychoanalytic contribution to truth conditioned on unconscious processes reappropriated from Heidegger's project of fundamental ontology. Construed as a dialectics of truth, this notion accords well with how psychoanalysts understand the dynamic unconscious and how it functions to both reveal and conceal. Given that clinical experience demonstrates the workings of dynamic unconscious activity, psychoanalytic theory may contribute a vocabulary relevant to philosophy by explicating the motives and mechanisms that create the appearances of contextual truth as such, phenomena whose causes have previously gone undescribed. PMID:24737203

  18. Truth.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jon

    2014-04-01

    What exactly do we mean by truth? Although the concept is nebulous across the array of theoretical perspectives in psychoanalysis, it is fundamental to all discourses. Is psychoanalysis in a position to offer a theory of truth despite the fact that at present it has no explicit, formal theory regarding the matter? A general metatheory is proposed here that allows for discrete categories and instantiations of truth as metacontextual appearance. In revisiting the ancient notion of aletheia as disclosedness or unconcealment, we may discover a distinct psychoanalytic contribution to truth conditioned on unconscious processes reappropriated from Heidegger's project of fundamental ontology. Construed as a dialectics of truth, this notion accords well with how psychoanalysts understand the dynamic unconscious and how it functions to both reveal and conceal. Given that clinical experience demonstrates the workings of dynamic unconscious activity, psychoanalytic theory may contribute a vocabulary relevant to philosophy by explicating the motives and mechanisms that create the appearances of contextual truth as such, phenomena whose causes have previously gone undescribed.

  19. Ground truth and mapping capability of urban areas in large scale using GE images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramzi, Ahmed I.

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring and mapping complex urban features (e.g. roads and buildings) from remotely sensed data multispectral and hyperspectral has gained enormous research interest. Accurate ground truth allows for high quality assessment of classified images and to verify the produced map. Ground truth can be acquired from: field using the handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) device and from Images with high resolution extracted from Google Earth in additional to field. Ground truth or training samples could be achieved from VHR satellite images such as QuickBird, Ikonos, Geoeye-1 and Wordview images. Archived images are costly for researchers in developing countries. Images from GE with high spatial resolution are free for public and can be used directly producing large scale maps, in producing LULC mapping and training samples. Google Earth (GE) provides free access to high resolution satellite imagery, but is the quality good enough to map urban areas. Costal of the Red sea, Marsa Alam could be mapped using GE images. The main objective of this research is exploring the accuracy assessment of producing large scale maps from free Google Earth imagery and to collect ground truth or training samples in limited geographical extend. This research will be performed on Marsa Alam city or located on the western shore of the Red Sea, Red sea Governorate, Egypt. Marsa Alam is located 274 km south of Hurghada. The proposed methodology involves image collection taken into consideration the resolution of collected photographs which depend on the height of view. After that, image rectification using suitable rectification methods with different number and distributions of GCPs and CPs. Database and Geographic information systems (GIS) layers were created by on-screen vectorization based on the requirement of large scale maps. Attribute data have been collected from the field. The obtained results show that the planmetric accuracy of the produced map from Google Earth Images met map

  20. Ground truth data generation for skull-face overlay.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, O; Cavalli, F; Campomanes-Álvarez, B R; Campomanes-Álvarez, C; Valsecchi, A; Huete, M I

    2015-05-01

    Objective and unbiased validation studies over a significant number of cases are required to get a more solid picture on craniofacial superimposition reliability. It will not be possible to compare the performance of existing and upcoming methods for craniofacial superimposition without a common forensic database available for the research community. Skull-face overlay is a key task within craniofacial superimposition that has a direct influence on the subsequent task devoted to evaluate the skull-face relationships. In this work, we present the procedure to create for the first time such a dataset. We have also created a database with 19 skull-face overlay cases for which we are trying to overcome legal issues that allow us to make it public. The quantitative analysis made in the segmentation and registration stages, together with the visual assessment of the 19 face-to-face overlays, allows us to conclude that the results can be considered as a gold standard. With such a ground truth dataset, a new horizon is opened for the development of new automatic methods whose performance could be now objectively measured and compared against previous and future proposals. Additionally, other uses are expected to be explored to better understand the visual evaluation process of craniofacial relationships in craniofacial identification. It could be very useful also as a starting point for further studies on the prediction of the resulting facial morphology after corrective or reconstructive interventionism in maxillofacial surgery.

  1. Government Applications Task Force ground truth study of WAG 4

    SciTech Connect

    Evers, T.K.; Smyre, J.L.; King, A.L.

    1997-06-01

    This report documents the Government Applications Task Force (GATF) Buried Waste Project. The project was initiated as a field investigation and verification of the 1994 Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program`s (SERDP) Buried Waste Identification Project results. The GATF project team included staff from three US Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratories [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC)] and from the National Exploitation Laboratory. Similar studies were conducted at each of the three DOE laboratories to demonstrate the effective use of remote sensing technologies. The three locations were selected to assess differences in buried waste signatures under various environmental conditions (i.e., climate, terrain, precipitation, geology, etc.). After a brief background discussion of the SERDP Project, this report documents the field investigation (ground truth) results from the 1994--1995 GATF Buried Waste Study at ORNL`s Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4. Figures for this report are located in Appendix A.

  2. Object Segmentation and Ground Truth in 3D Embryonic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Bhavna; Uriu, Koichiro; Valentin, Guillaume; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Oates, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    Many questions in developmental biology depend on measuring the position and movement of individual cells within developing embryos. Yet, tools that provide this data are often challenged by high cell density and their accuracy is difficult to measure. Here, we present a three-step procedure to address this problem. Step one is a novel segmentation algorithm based on image derivatives that, in combination with selective post-processing, reliably and automatically segments cell nuclei from images of densely packed tissue. Step two is a quantitative validation using synthetic images to ascertain the efficiency of the algorithm with respect to signal-to-noise ratio and object density. Finally, we propose an original method to generate reliable and experimentally faithful ground truth datasets: Sparse-dense dual-labeled embryo chimeras are used to unambiguously measure segmentation errors within experimental data. Together, the three steps outlined here establish a robust, iterative procedure to fine-tune image analysis algorithms and microscopy settings associated with embryonic 3D image data sets. PMID:27332860

  3. Ground truth data generation for skull-face overlay.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, O; Cavalli, F; Campomanes-Álvarez, B R; Campomanes-Álvarez, C; Valsecchi, A; Huete, M I

    2015-05-01

    Objective and unbiased validation studies over a significant number of cases are required to get a more solid picture on craniofacial superimposition reliability. It will not be possible to compare the performance of existing and upcoming methods for craniofacial superimposition without a common forensic database available for the research community. Skull-face overlay is a key task within craniofacial superimposition that has a direct influence on the subsequent task devoted to evaluate the skull-face relationships. In this work, we present the procedure to create for the first time such a dataset. We have also created a database with 19 skull-face overlay cases for which we are trying to overcome legal issues that allow us to make it public. The quantitative analysis made in the segmentation and registration stages, together with the visual assessment of the 19 face-to-face overlays, allows us to conclude that the results can be considered as a gold standard. With such a ground truth dataset, a new horizon is opened for the development of new automatic methods whose performance could be now objectively measured and compared against previous and future proposals. Additionally, other uses are expected to be explored to better understand the visual evaluation process of craniofacial relationships in craniofacial identification. It could be very useful also as a starting point for further studies on the prediction of the resulting facial morphology after corrective or reconstructive interventionism in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:25267257

  4. Object Segmentation and Ground Truth in 3D Embryonic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Bhavna; Uriu, Koichiro; Valentin, Guillaume; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Oates, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Many questions in developmental biology depend on measuring the position and movement of individual cells within developing embryos. Yet, tools that provide this data are often challenged by high cell density and their accuracy is difficult to measure. Here, we present a three-step procedure to address this problem. Step one is a novel segmentation algorithm based on image derivatives that, in combination with selective post-processing, reliably and automatically segments cell nuclei from images of densely packed tissue. Step two is a quantitative validation using synthetic images to ascertain the efficiency of the algorithm with respect to signal-to-noise ratio and object density. Finally, we propose an original method to generate reliable and experimentally faithful ground truth datasets: Sparse-dense dual-labeled embryo chimeras are used to unambiguously measure segmentation errors within experimental data. Together, the three steps outlined here establish a robust, iterative procedure to fine-tune image analysis algorithms and microscopy settings associated with embryonic 3D image data sets. PMID:27332860

  5. Improved ground truth geoid for the GEOS-3 calibration area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mourad, A. G.; Gopalapillai, S.; Kuhner, M.; Fubara, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to develop methods and procedures are reported for computing a detailed geoid to be used as geodetic ground truth for the calibration and verification of GEOS-3 altimeter data. The technique developed is based on rectifying the best available detailed geoid so that the rectified geoid will have correct scale, orientation, shape and position with respect to the geocenter. The approach involved the development of a mathematical model based on a second degree polynomial, in rectangular Cartesian coordinates, describing the geoid undulations at the control stations. A generalized least squares solution was obtained for the polynomial which describes the variation of the undulation differences between the control stations geoid and the gravimetric geoid. Three rectified geoid were determined. These geoids correspond to three sets of tracking station data: (1) WFC/C-band data; (2) GSFC/C-band data; and (3) OSU-275 data. The absolute accuracy of these rectified geoids is linearly correlated with the uncertainties of the tracking station coordinates and, to a certain extent, with those of the detailed geoid being rectified.

  6. Ground truth seismic events and location capability at Degelen mountain, Kazakhstan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trabant, C.; Thurber, C.; Leith, W.

    2002-01-01

    We utilized nuclear explosions from the Degelen Mountain sub-region of the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS), Kazakhstan, to assess seismic location capability directly. Excellent ground truth information for these events was either known or was estimated from maps of the Degelen Mountain adit complex. Origin times were refined for events for which absolute origin time information was unknown using catalog arrival times, our ground truth location estimates, and a time baseline provided by fixing known origin times during a joint hypocenter determination (JHD). Precise arrival time picks were determined using a waveform cross-correlation process applied to the available digital data. These data were used in a JHD analysis. We found that very accurate locations were possible when high precision, waveform cross-correlation arrival times were combined with JHD. Relocation with our full digital data set resulted in a mean mislocation of 2 km and a mean 95% confidence ellipse (CE) area of 6.6 km2 (90% CE: 5.1 km2), however, only 5 of the 18 computed error ellipses actually covered the associated ground truth location estimate. To test a more realistic nuclear test monitoring scenario, we applied our JHD analysis to a set of seven events (one fixed) using data only from seismic stations within 40?? epicentral distance. Relocation with these data resulted in a mean mislocation of 7.4 km, with four of the 95% error ellipses covering less than 570 km2 (90% CE: 438 km2), and the other two covering 1730 and 8869 km2 (90% CE: 1331 and 6822 km2). Location uncertainties calculated using JHD often underestimated the true error, but a circular region with a radius equal to the mislocation covered less than 1000 km2 for all events having more than three observations. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ground truth crop proportion summaries for US segments, 1976-1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, R. (Principal Investigator); Rice, D.; Wessling, T.

    1981-01-01

    The original ground truth data was collected, digitized, and registered to LANDSAT data for use in the LACIE and AgRISTARS projects. The numerous ground truth categories were consolidated into fewer classes of crops or crop conditions and counted occurrences of these classes for each segment. Tables are presented in which the individual entries are the percentage of total segment area assigned to a given class. The ground truth summaries were prepared from a 20% sample of the scene. An analysis indicates that this size of sample provides sufficient accuracy for use of the data in initial segment screening.

  8. Ground truth management system to support multispectral scanner /MSS/ digital analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coiner, J. C.; Ungar, S. G.

    1977-01-01

    A computerized geographic information system for management of ground truth has been designed and implemented to relate MSS classification results to in situ observations. The ground truth system transforms, generalizes and rectifies ground observations to conform to the pixel size and shape of high resolution MSS aircraft data. These observations can then be aggregated for comparison to lower resolution sensor data. Construction of a digital ground truth array allows direct pixel by pixel comparison between classification results of MSS data and ground truth. By making comparisons, analysts can identify spatial distribution of error within the MSS data as well as usual figures of merit for the classifications. Use of the ground truth system permits investigators to compare a variety of environmental or anthropogenic data, such as soil color or tillage patterns, with classification results and allows direct inclusion of such data into classification operations. To illustrate the system, examples from classification of simulated Thematic Mapper data for agricultural test sites in North Dakota and Kansas are provided.

  9. Estimation of the probability of error without ground truth and known a priori probabilities. [remote sensor performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havens, K. A.; Minster, T. C.; Thadani, S. G.

    1976-01-01

    The probability of error or, alternatively, the probability of correct classification (PCC) is an important criterion in analyzing the performance of a classifier. Labeled samples (those with ground truth) are usually employed to evaluate the performance of a classifier. Occasionally, the numbers of labeled samples are inadequate, or no labeled samples are available to evaluate a classifier's performance; for example, when crop signatures from one area from which ground truth is available are used to classify another area from which no ground truth is available. This paper reports the results of an experiment to estimate the probability of error using unlabeled test samples (i.e., without the aid of ground truth).

  10. Automated Analysis of Radar Imagery of Venus: Handling Lack of Ground Truth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burl, M.; Fayyad, U.; Perona, P.; Smyth, P.

    1994-01-01

    Lack of verifiable ground truth is a common problem in remote sensing image analysis. For example, consider the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image data of Venus obtained by the Magellan spacecraft. Planetary scientists are interested in automatically cataloging the locations of all the small volcanoes in this data set; however, the problem is very difficult and cannot be performed with perfect reliability even by human experts. Thus, training and evaluating the performance of an automatic algorithm on this data set must be handled carefully. We discuss the use of weighted free-response receiver-operating characteristics (wFROC) for evaluating detection performance when the ground truth is subjective.

  11. Ground truth methods for optical cross-section modeling of biological aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalter, J.; Thrush, E.; Santarpia, J.; Chaudhry, Z.; Gilberry, J.; Brown, D. M.; Brown, A.; Carter, C. C.

    2011-05-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems have demonstrated some capability to meet the needs of a fastresponse standoff biological detection method for simulants in open air conditions. These systems are designed to exploit various cloud signatures, such as differential elastic backscatter, fluorescence, and depolarization in order to detect biological warfare agents (BWAs). However, because the release of BWAs in open air is forbidden, methods must be developed to predict candidate system performance against real agents. In support of such efforts, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab (JHU/APL) has developed a modeling approach to predict the optical properties of agent materials from relatively simple, Biosafety Level 3-compatible bench top measurements. JHU/APL has fielded new ground truth instruments (in addition to standard particle sizers, such as the Aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) or GRIMM aerosol monitor (GRIMM)) to more thoroughly characterize the simulant aerosols released in recent field tests at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG). These instruments include the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), the Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVAPS), and the Aspect Aerosol Size and Shape Analyser (Aspect). The SMPS was employed as a means of measuring smallparticle concentrations for more accurate Mie scattering simulations; the UVAPS, which measures size-resolved fluorescence intensity, was employed as a path toward fluorescence cross section modeling; and the Aspect, which measures particle shape, was employed as a path towards depolarization modeling.

  12. Semi-automatic ground truth generation for license plate recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shen-Zheng; Zhao, San-Lung; Chen, Yi-Yuan; Lan, Kung-Ming

    2011-09-01

    License plate recognition (LPR) system is to help alert relevant personnel of any passing vehicle in the surveillance area. In order to test algorithms for license plate recognition, it is necessary to have input frames in which the ground truth is determined. The purpose of ground truth data is here to provide an absolute reference for performance evaluation or training purposes. However, annotating ground truth data for real-life inputs is very disturbing task because of timeconsuming manual. In this paper, we proposed a method of semi-automatic ground truth generation for license plate recognition in video sequences. The method started from region of interesting detection to rapidly extract characters lines followed by a license plate recognition system to verify the license plate regions and recognized the numbers. On the top of the LPR system, we incorporated a tracking-validation mechanism to detect the time interval of passing vehicles in input sequences. The tracking mechanism is initialized by a single license plate region in one frame. Moreover, in order to tolerate the variation of the license plate appearances in the input sequences, the validator would be updated by capturing positive and negatives samples during tracking. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve promising results.

  13. Detailed analysis of CAMS procedures for phase 3 using ground truth inventories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a study of Procedure 1 as used during LACIE Phase 3 are presented. The study was performed by comparing the Procedure 1 classification results with digitized ground-truth inventories. The proportion estimation accuracy, dot labeling accuracy, and clustering effectiveness are discussed.

  14. Application of remote sensing in agriculture and forestry and ground truth documentation in resource planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Varied small scale imagery was used for detecting and assessing damage by the southern pine beetle. The usefulness of ERTS scanner imagery for vegetation classification and pine beetle damage detection and assessment is evaluated. Ground truth acquisition for forest identification using multispectral aerial photographs is reviewed.

  15. Acquisition and analysis of coastal ground truth data for correlation with ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anikouchine, W. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Data obtained from cruises in Santa Monica Bay and Santa Barbara Channel appear to be consistent with conditions observed at each sample site. Further attempts to correlate ground truth data with MSS data will be deferred until CCT enchancement techniques are perfected.

  16. Soil moisture ground truth: Steamboat Springs, Colorado, site and Walden, Colorado, site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    Ground-truth data taken at Steamboat Springs and Walden, Colorado in support of the NASA missions in these areas during the period March 8, 1976 through March 11, 1976 was presented. This includes the following information: snow course data for Steamboat Springs and Walden, snow pit and snow quality data for Steamboat Springs, and soil moisture report.

  17. Skepticism, truth as coherence, and constructivist epistemology: grounds for resolving the discord between science and religion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staver, John R.

    2010-03-01

    Science and religion exhibit multiple relationships as ways of knowing. These connections have been characterized as cousinly, mutually respectful, non-overlapping, competitive, proximate-ultimate, dominant-subordinate, and opposing-conflicting. Some of these ties create stress, and tension between science and religion represents a significant chapter in humans' cultural heritage before and since the Enlightenment. Truth, knowledge, and their relation are central to science and religion as ways of knowing, as social institutions, and to their interaction. In religion, truth is revealed through God's word. In science, truth is sought after via empirical methods. Discord can be viewed as a competition for social legitimization between two social institutions whose goals are explaining the world and how it works. Under this view, the root of the discord is truth as correspondence. In this concept of truth, knowledge corresponds to the facts of reality, and conflict is inevitable for many because humans want to ask which one—science or religion—gets the facts correct. But, the root paradox, also known as the problem of the criterion, suggests that seeking to know nature as it is represents a fruitless endeavor. The discord can be set on new ground and resolved by taking a moderately skeptical line of thought, one which employs truth as coherence and a moderate form of constructivist epistemology. Quantum mechanics and evolution as scientific theories and scientific research on human consciousness and vision provide support for this line of argument. Within a constructivist perspective, scientists would relinquish only the pursuit of knowing reality as it is. Scientists would retain everything else. Believers who hold that religion explains reality would come to understand that God never revealed His truth of nature; rather, He revealed His truth in how we are to conduct our lives.

  18. The Truth, the Whole Truth, and Nothing but the Ground-Truth: Methods to Advance Environmental Justice and Researcher-Community Partnerships.

    PubMed

    Sadd, James; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Pastor, Manuel; Matsuoka, Martha; Prichard, Michele; Carter, Vanessa

    2014-06-01

    Environmental justice advocates often argue that environmental hazards and their health effects vary by neighborhood, income, and race. To assess these patterns and advance preventive policy, their colleagues in the research world often use complex and methodologically sophisticated statistical and geospatial techniques. One way to bridge the gap between the technical work and the expert knowledge of local residents is through community-based participatory research strategies. We document how an environmental justice screening method was coupled with "ground-truthing"-a project in which community members worked with researchers to collect data across six Los Angeles neighborhoods-which demonstrated the clustering of potentially hazardous facilities, high levels of air pollution, and elevated health risks. We discuss recommendations and implications for future research and collaborations between researchers and community-based organizations.

  19. Comparison of MTI Water Temperatures with Ground Truth Measurements at Crater Lake, OR

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzeja, R.J.

    2002-12-09

    Water surface temperatures calculated with the Los Alamos National Laboratory Robust algorithm were compared with ground truth water temperature measurements near the Oregon State University buoy in Crater Lake, OR. Bulk water measurements at the OSU buoy were corrected for the skin temperature depression and temperature gradient in the top 10 cm of the water to find the water surface temperature for 18 MTI images for June 2000 to Feb 2002. The MTI robust temperatures were found to be biased by 0.1C, with an RMS error of 1.9C compared with the ground truth water surface temperatures. When corrected for the errors in the buoy temperatures the RMS was reduced to 1.3C. This RMS difference is greater than the 1C found at the Pacific Island of Nauru because of the greater variability in the lake temperature and the atmosphere at Crater Lake and the much smaller target area used in the comparison.

  20. ERTS-1 DCS technical support provided by Wallops Station. [ground truth stations and DCP repair depot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R.

    1975-01-01

    Wallops Station accepted the tasks of providing ground truth to several ERTS investigators, operating a DCP repair depot, designing and building an airborne DCP Data Acquisition System, and providing aircraft underflight support for several other investigators. Additionally, the data bank is generally available for use by ERTS and other investigators that have a scientific interest in data pertaining to the Chesapeake Bay area. Working with DCS has provided a means of evaluating the system as a data collection device possibly applicable to ongoing Earth Resources Program activities in the Chesapeake Bay area as well as providing useful data and services to other ERTS investigators. The two areas of technical support provided by Wallops, ground truth stations and repair for DCPs, are briefly discussed.

  1. Success Stories: Data Collection And Ground Truth For The Portuguese Case Study (Caia Irrigation District)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdigão, A.; Oliveira, P.; Chinita, A.; Chinita, S.; Maia, J.; Nunes, J.

    2006-08-01

    A Field Campaign has been carried on the Caia Irrigation District area pilot zone, in order to obtain ground truth for EO calibration and for an improved Irrigation Advisory System, owing to supply a more reliable and quick information to the water board district and to the farmer. These ground truth observations included weekly data on crop phenology and vegetation fraction for Maize, Sugar Beet and Tomato. The aim of the operation was to provide maps based on GIS technology of crop phenological parameters, based on methods (models and algorithms) in order to derive them from EO (for each pixel) and to obtain DEMETER products (which may involve spatial aggregation or separation). Irrigation Advisory Services using Earth Observation Technologies are important management tools, owing to improve monitoring and water management, supplying farmers with important information concerning water use in order to be in accordance with the eco-compatibility principles

  2. SuReSim: simulating localization microscopy experiments from ground truth models.

    PubMed

    Venkataramani, Varun; Herrmannsdörfer, Frank; Heilemann, Mike; Kuner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has become a widely used tool in many areas of research. However, designing and validating super-resolution experiments to address a research question in a technically feasible and scientifically rigorous manner remains a fundamental challenge. We developed SuReSim, a software tool that simulates localization data of arbitrary three-dimensional structures represented by ground truth models, allowing users to systematically explore how changing experimental parameters can affect potential imaging outcomes.

  3. VERIFICATION & VALIDATION OF A SEMANTIC IMAGE TAGGING FRAMEWORK VIA GENERATION OF GEOSPATIAL IMAGERY GROUND TRUTH

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, Shaun Scott; Ferrell, Regina Kay; Cheriyadat, Anil M; Vatsavai, Raju; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed; Dema, Mesfin A

    2011-01-01

    As a result of increasing geospatial image libraries, many algorithms are being developed to automatically extract and classify regions of interest from these images. However, limited work has been done to compare, validate and verify these algorithms due to the lack of datasets with high accuracy ground truth annotations. In this paper, we present an approach to generate a large number of synthetic images accompanied by perfect ground truth annotation via learning scene statistics from few training images through Maximum Entropy (ME) modeling. The ME model [1,2] embeds a Stochastic Context Free Grammar (SCFG) to model object attribute variations with Markov Random Fields (MRF) with the final goal of modeling contextual relations between objects. Using this model, 3D scenes are generated by configuring a 3D object model to obey the learned scene statistics. Finally, these plausible 3D scenes are captured by ray tracing software to produce synthetic images with the corresponding ground truth annotations that are useful for evaluating the performance of a variety of image analysis algorithms.

  4. Soil moisture ground truth, Lafayette, Indiana, site; St. Charles Missouri, site; Centralia, Missouri, site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, E. B.

    1975-01-01

    The soil moisture ground-truth measurements and ground-cover descriptions taken at three soil moisture survey sites located near Lafayette, Indiana; St. Charles, Missouri; and Centralia, Missouri are given. The data were taken on November 10, 1975, in connection with airborne remote sensing missions being flown by the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan under the auspices of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Emphasis was placed on the soil moisture in bare fields. Soil moisture was sampled in the top 0 to 1 in. and 0 to 6 in. by means of a soil sampling push tube. These samples were then placed in plastic bags and awaited gravimetric analysis.

  5. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground truth data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Anthony; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz; Norikane, L.; Way, Jobea

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Geographic Information System for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground truth data are presented. Topics covered include: scientific objectives; schedule; and Geographic Information System.

  6. Field Ground Truthing Data Collector - a Mobile Toolkit for Image Analysis and Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, X.

    2012-07-01

    Field Ground Truthing Data Collector is one of the four key components of the NASA funded ICCaRS project, being developed in Southeast Michigan. The ICCaRS ground truthing toolkit entertains comprehensive functions: 1) Field functions, including determining locations through GPS, gathering and geo-referencing visual data, laying out ground control points for AEROKAT flights, measuring the flight distance and height, and entering observations of land cover (and use) and health conditions of ecosystems and environments in the vicinity of the flight field; 2) Server synchronization functions, such as, downloading study-area maps, aerial photos and satellite images, uploading and synchronizing field-collected data with the distributed databases, calling the geospatial web services on the server side to conduct spatial querying, image analysis and processing, and receiving the processed results in field for near-real-time validation; and 3) Social network communication functions for direct technical assistance and pedagogical support, e.g., having video-conference calls in field with the supporting educators, scientists, and technologists, participating in Webinars, or engaging discussions with other-learning portals. This customized software package is being built on Apple iPhone/iPad and Google Maps/Earth. The technical infrastructures, data models, coupling methods between distributed geospatial data processing and field data collector tools, remote communication interfaces, coding schema, and functional flow charts will be illustrated and explained at the presentation. A pilot case study will be also demonstrated.

  7. TRMM ground truth in a monsoon environment - Darwin, Australia. [Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, T. D.; Holland, G. J.; Manton, M. J.; Simpson, J.

    1988-01-01

    A ground truth station for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is described. The station is situated in Darwin, Australia in a monsoon environment typical for Southeast Asia. The climatological features of the site, and the Darwin observational program are examined. The instruments and operations at the station are discussed, including a Doppler radar making full upper tropospheric soundings every 12 hrs and wind soundings every 6 hrs, and a mesoscale raingauge and surface observing network operating continuously through the summer monsoon seasons. The spatial and temporal characteristics of rainfall in the area and an outline of the research objectives of the program are presented.

  8. Snowpack ground truth: Radar test site, Steamboat Springs, Colorado, 8-16 April 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, S.; Jones, E. B.; Leaf, C. F.

    1976-01-01

    Ground-truth data taken at Steamboat Springs, Colorado is presented. Data taken during the period April 8, 1976 - April 16, 1976 included the following: (1) snow depths and densities at selected locations (using a Mount Rose snow tube); (2) snow pits for temperature, density, and liquid water determinations using the freezing calorimetry technique and vertical layer classification; (3) snow walls were also constructed of various cross sections and documented with respect to sizes and snow characteristics; (4) soil moisture at selected locations; and (5) appropriate air temperature and weather data.

  9. Ground Truth Studies - A hands-on environmental science program for students, grades K-12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzenberger, John; Chappell, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the background and the objectives of the Ground Truth Studies (GTSs), an activity-based teaching program which integrates local environmental studies with global change topics, utilizing remotely sensed earth imagery. Special attention is given to the five key concepts around which the GTS programs are organized, the pilot program, the initial pilot study evaluation, and the GTS Handbook. The GTS Handbook contains a primer on global change and remote sensing, aerial and satellite images, student activities, glossary, and an appendix of reference material. Also described is a K-12 teacher training model. International participation in the program is to be initiated during the 1992-1993 school year.

  10. First- and third-party ground truth for key frame extraction from consumer video clips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costello, Kathleen; Luo, Jiebo

    2007-02-01

    Extracting key frames (KF) from video is of great interest in many applications, such as video summary, video organization, video compression, and prints from video. KF extraction is not a new problem. However, current literature has been focused mainly on sports or news video. In the consumer video space, the biggest challenges for key frame selection from consumer videos are the unconstrained content and lack of any preimposed structure. In this study, we conduct ground truth collection of key frames from video clips taken by digital cameras (as opposed to camcorders) using both first- and third-party judges. The goals of this study are: (1) to create a reference database of video clips reasonably representative of the consumer video space; (2) to identify associated key frames by which automated algorithms can be compared and judged for effectiveness; and (3) to uncover the criteria used by both first- and thirdparty human judges so these criteria can influence algorithm design. The findings from these ground truths will be discussed.

  11. New Ground Truth Capability from InSAR Time Series Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, S; Vincent, P; Yang, D

    2005-07-13

    We demonstrate that next-generation interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) processing techniques applied to existing data provide rich InSAR ground truth content for exploitation in seismic source identification. InSAR time series analyses utilize tens of interferograms and can be implemented in different ways. In one such approach, conventional InSAR displacement maps are inverted in a final post-processing step. Alternatively, computationally intensive data reduction can be performed with specialized InSAR processing algorithms. The typical final result of these approaches is a synthesized set of cumulative displacement maps. Examples from our recent work demonstrate that these InSAR processing techniques can provide appealing new ground truth capabilities. We construct movies showing the areal and temporal evolution of deformation associated with previous nuclear tests. In other analyses, we extract time histories of centimeter-scale surface displacement associated with tunneling. The potential exists to identify millimeter per year surface movements when sufficient data exists for InSAR techniques to isolate and remove phase signatures associated with digital elevation model errors and the atmosphere.

  12. Phantom-based ground-truth generation for cerebral vessel segmentation and pulsatile deformation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schetelig, Daniel; Säring, Dennis; Illies, Till; Sedlacik, Jan; Kording, Fabian; Werner, René

    2016-03-01

    Hemodynamic and mechanical factors of the vascular system are assumed to play a major role in understanding, e.g., initiation, growth and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. Among those factors, cardiac cycle-related pulsatile motion and deformation of cerebral vessels currently attract much interest. However, imaging of those effects requires high spatial and temporal resolution and remains challenging { and similarly does the analysis of the acquired images: Flow velocity changes and contrast media inflow cause vessel intensity variations in related temporally resolved computed tomography and magnetic resonance angiography data over the cardiac cycle and impede application of intensity threshold-based segmentation and subsequent motion analysis. In this work, a flow phantom for generation of ground-truth images for evaluation of appropriate segmentation and motion analysis algorithms is developed. The acquired ground-truth data is used to illustrate the interplay between intensity fluctuations and (erroneous) motion quantification by standard threshold-based segmentation, and an adaptive threshold-based segmentation approach is proposed that alleviates respective issues. The results of the phantom study are further demonstrated to be transferable to patient data.

  13. Evaluation of Event-Based Algorithms for Optical Flow with Ground-Truth from Inertial Measurement Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Rueckauer, Bodo; Delbruck, Tobi

    2016-01-01

    In this study we compare nine optical flow algorithms that locally measure the flow normal to edges according to accuracy and computation cost. In contrast to conventional, frame-based motion flow algorithms, our open-source implementations compute optical flow based on address-events from a neuromorphic Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS). For this benchmarking we created a dataset of two synthesized and three real samples recorded from a 240 × 180 pixel Dynamic and Active-pixel Vision Sensor (DAVIS). This dataset contains events from the DVS as well as conventional frames to support testing state-of-the-art frame-based methods. We introduce a new source for the ground truth: In the special case that the perceived motion stems solely from a rotation of the vision sensor around its three camera axes, the true optical flow can be estimated using gyro data from the inertial measurement unit integrated with the DAVIS camera. This provides a ground-truth to which we can compare algorithms that measure optical flow by means of motion cues. An analysis of error sources led to the use of a refractory period, more accurate numerical derivatives and a Savitzky-Golay filter to achieve significant improvements in accuracy. Our pure Java implementations of two recently published algorithms reduce computational cost by up to 29% compared to the original implementations. Two of the algorithms introduced in this paper further speed up processing by a factor of 10 compared with the original implementations, at equal or better accuracy. On a desktop PC, they run in real-time on dense natural input recorded by a DAVIS camera. PMID:27199639

  14. Evaluation of Event-Based Algorithms for Optical Flow with Ground-Truth from Inertial Measurement Sensor.

    PubMed

    Rueckauer, Bodo; Delbruck, Tobi

    2016-01-01

    In this study we compare nine optical flow algorithms that locally measure the flow normal to edges according to accuracy and computation cost. In contrast to conventional, frame-based motion flow algorithms, our open-source implementations compute optical flow based on address-events from a neuromorphic Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS). For this benchmarking we created a dataset of two synthesized and three real samples recorded from a 240 × 180 pixel Dynamic and Active-pixel Vision Sensor (DAVIS). This dataset contains events from the DVS as well as conventional frames to support testing state-of-the-art frame-based methods. We introduce a new source for the ground truth: In the special case that the perceived motion stems solely from a rotation of the vision sensor around its three camera axes, the true optical flow can be estimated using gyro data from the inertial measurement unit integrated with the DAVIS camera. This provides a ground-truth to which we can compare algorithms that measure optical flow by means of motion cues. An analysis of error sources led to the use of a refractory period, more accurate numerical derivatives and a Savitzky-Golay filter to achieve significant improvements in accuracy. Our pure Java implementations of two recently published algorithms reduce computational cost by up to 29% compared to the original implementations. Two of the algorithms introduced in this paper further speed up processing by a factor of 10 compared with the original implementations, at equal or better accuracy. On a desktop PC, they run in real-time on dense natural input recorded by a DAVIS camera.

  15. Ground Truth Observations of the Interior of a Rockglacier as Validation for Geophysical Monitoring Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbich, C.; Roer, I.; Hauck, C.

    2007-12-01

    Monitoring the permafrost evolution in mountain regions is currently one of the important tasks in cryospheric studies as little data on past and present changes of the ground thermal regime and its material properties are available. In addition to recently established borehole temperature monitoring networks, techniques to determine and monitor the ground ice content have to be developed. A reliable quantification of ground ice is especially important for modelling the thermal evolution of frozen ground and for assessing the hazard potential due to thawing permafrost induced slope instability. Near surface geophysical methods are increasingly applied to detect and monitor ground ice occurrences in permafrost areas. Commonly, characteristic values of electrical resistivity and seismic velocity are used as indicators for the presence of frozen material. However, validation of the correct interpretation of the geophysical parameters can only be obtained through boreholes, and only regarding vertical temperature profiles. Ground truth of the internal structure and the ice content is usually not available. In this contribution we will present a unique data set from a recently excavated rockglacier near Zermatt/Valais in the Swiss Alps, where an approximately 5 m deep trench was cut across the rockglacier body for the construction of a ski track. Longitudinal electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and refraction seismic tomography profiles were conducted prior to the excavation, yielding data sets for cross validation of commonly applied geophysical interpretation approaches in the context of ground ice detection. A recently developed 4-phase model was applied to calculate ice-, air- and unfrozen water contents from the geophysical data sets, which were compared to the ground truth data from the excavated trench. The obtained data sets will be discussed in the context of currently established geophysical monitoring networks in permafrost areas. In addition to the

  16. Ground Truth Collection for Mining Explosions in Northern Fennoscandia and Northwestern Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D B; Ringdal, R; Kremenetskaya, E; Mykkeltveit, S; Rock, D W; Maercklin, N; Schweitzer, J; Hauk, T F; Lewis, J P

    2005-07-13

    We concluded comprehensive ground truth collection at the Khibiny, Olenegorsk, Kovdor, and Zapolyarnyi mines, and have basic information on 2,052 explosions. In the past two years we used this ground truth information to extract waveform data from the ARCES array and a number of regional stations (KEV, LVZ, APA) as well as from six stations that we deployed along two lines stretching between the Khibiny Massif mines and the region around the ARCES array. We calculated P/S ratios using the ARCES array data for many of these events comprising several source types (compact underground explosions, underground ripple-fired explosions, surface ripple-fired explosions). We found that the P/S ratios of small compact underground explosions in mines of the Khibiny Massif are systematically lower than the P/S ratios of large ripple-fired surface explosions. We had anticipated that smaller underground shots would appear more like single well-coupled explosions, thus having higher P/S ratios than large ripple-fired explosions. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that the compact underground explosions in these mines are designed to fracture and drop a large quantity of ore from the ceiling of a horizontal shaft. The potential energy released by the falling ore may express as shear wave energy, which may be considerably greater than the (P wave) energy released directly by the explosive. We concluded the deployment of the six stations along the Khibiny-ARCES lines this past summer; this year we are examining the data from these stations to see how P/S ratios vary with range from the source. We have an update on the P/S ratio analysis contrasting different source types, with the addition of an analysis of range dependence using data from the temporary stations. The portable stations were redeployed in the fall of 2004 to the Kiruna and Malmberget underground mines in northern Sweden. The stations deployed in Malmberget also record events from the surface mining

  17. A new device for acquiring ground truth on the absorption of light by turbid waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Srna, R.; Treasure, W.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A new device, called a Spectral Attenuation Board, has been designed and tested, which enables ERTS-1 sea truth collection teams to monitor the attenuation depths of three colors continuously, as the board is being towed behind a boat. The device consists of a 1.2 x 1.2 meter flat board held below the surface of the water at a fixed angle to the surface of the water. A camera mounted above the water takes photographs of the board. The resulting film image is analyzed by a micro-densitometer trace along the descending portion of the board. This yields information on the rate of attenuation of light penetrating the water column and the Secchi depth. Red and green stripes were painted on the white board to approximate band 4 and band 5 of the ERTS MSS so that information on the rate of light absorption by the water column of light in these regions of the visible spectrum could be concurrently measured. It was found that information from a red, green, and white stripe may serve to fingerprint the composition of the water mass. A number of these devices, when automated, could also be distributed over a large region to provide a cheap method of obtaining valuable satellite ground truth data at present time intervals.

  18. The ground truth analysis of rain gauge data for the TRMM project. [Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalewsky, Karen J.; Thiele, Otto

    1989-01-01

    As a part of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Missioin (TRMM) ground truth program to determine the diurnal variability of the area wide rain rates, the rain rate PDFs, and their effect on the area integral algorithm, rain rate data have been collected from a network of gages located in the area near the Cape Canaveral and Kennedy Space Center, in the period beginning in September 1987. In the preliminary statistical analysis, based on the rain rates derived from the eleven gages, the seasonal diurnal rainfall and network averaged rain rates are determined. The analysis was performed in two steps: determination of the hourly and daily rain accumulations and rain rates; and computation of the fraction of hourly and daily rain rates that exceed a particular threshold, and analysis of the hourly and daily rain rate PDFs for the network. The results indicate that there are diurnal and seasonal variations in the components which determine the network rain rate PDFs.

  19. Design of the primary pre-TRMM and TRMM ground truth site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garstang, Michael

    1988-01-01

    The primary objective of the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) were to: integrate the rain gage measurements with radar measurements of rainfall using the KSFC/Patrick digitized radar and associated rainfall network; delineate the major rain bearing systems over Florida using the Weather Service reported radar/rainfall distributions; combine the integrated measurements with the delineated rain bearing systems; use the results of the combined measurements and delineated rain bearing systems to represent patterns of rainfall which actually exist and contribute significantly to the rainfall to test sampling strategies and based on the results of these analyses decide upon the ground truth network; and complete the design begun in Phase 1 of a multi-scale (space and time) surface observing precipitation network centered upon KSFC. Work accomplished and in progress is discussed.

  20. Comparing Eyewitness-Derived Trajectories of Bright Meteors to Ground Truth Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, D. E.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Meteoroid Environment Office is a US government agency tasked with analyzing meteors of public interest. When queried about a meteor observed over the United States, the MEO must respond with a characterization of the trajectory, orbit, and size within a few hours. If the event is outside meteor network coverage and there is no imagery recorded by the public, a timely assessment can be difficult if not impossible. In this situation, visual reports made by eyewitnesses may be the only resource available. This has led to the development of a tool to quickly calculate crude meteor trajectories from eyewitness reports made to the American Meteor Society. A description of the tool, example case studies, and a comparison to ground truth data observed by the NASA All Sky Fireball Network are presented.

  1. Ground truth measurement for the analysis of airborne SAR data recorded over Oberpfaffenhofen, FRG, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayer, T.; Wieneke, F.; Winter, R.

    1990-01-01

    As a preliminary investigation to the joint multiparameter SIR-C/X-SAR shuttle experiment of NASA/JPL (USA), DLR (FRG), and PSN (Italy) which is scheduled for the year 1992 an airborne SAR campaign was conducted over Oberpfaffenhofen, FRG, in August 1989. Primarily this campaign was planned to test and verify equipment and algorithms developed at the DLR to calibrate multifrequency polarimetric SAR data. Oberpfaffenhofen is designated as one of the super test sites for the SIR-C/X-SAR experiment which will be imaged under all circumstances except severe mission errors. A super test site drives radar parameters and look directions and the recorded SAR data will be calibrated. In addition ancillary data will be available for the site. During the airborne STAR campaign conducted in the week of August 14th 1989 various sensor types were used to record remote sensing data over the calibration test site and its vicinity: the polarimetric DC-8 JPL-SAR (P-, L-, C-band), the DLR airborne SAR (C-, X-band), color infrared aerial photography (DLR), and the truck-mounted scatterometer (C- and X-band) of the Institute for Navigation, University of Stuttgart (INS). Because of this variety of different sensor types used and out of the fact that sufficiently large forested and agriculturally used areas were planned to be covered by these sensors, the interest of several German research groups involved in investigations concerning SAR land applications arose. The following groups carried out different ground-truth measurements: University of Bonn, Institute for plant cultivation (plant morphology and moisture content); University of Braunschweig, Institute for Geography (soil moisture and surface roughness); University of Freiburg, Institute for Geography (dielectric soil properties, landuse); and University of Munich, Institute for Geography (landuse inventory, plant, surface, and soil parameters). This paper presents the joint ground truth activities of the Institute for Geography

  2. Ground truth and detection threshold from WWII naval clean-up in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Tine B.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine; Voss, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The sea bed below the Danish territorial waters is still littered with unexploded mines and other ammunition from World War II. The mines were air dropped by the RAF and the positions of the mines are unknown. As the mines still pose a potential threat to fishery and other marine activities, the Admiral Danish Fleet under the Danish Navy searches for the mines and destroy them by detonation, where they are found. The largest mines destroyed in this manner in 2012 are equivalent to 800 kg TNT each. The Seismological Service at the National Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland is notified by the navy when ammunition in excess of 100 kg TNT is detonated. The notifications include information about position, detonation time and the estimated amount of explosives. The larger explosions are clearly registered not only on the Danish seismographs, but also on seismographs in the neighbouring countries. This includes the large seismograph arrays in Norway, Sweden, and Finland. Until recently the information from the Danish navy was only utilized to rid the Danish earthquake catalogue of explosions. But the high quality information provided by the navy enables us to use these ground truth events to assess the quality of our earthquake catalogue. The mines are scattered though out the Danish territorial waters, thus we can use the explosions to test the accuracy of the determined epicentres in all parts of the country. E.g. a detonation of 135 kg in Begstrup Vig in the central part of Denmark was located using Danish, Norwegian and Swedish stations with an accuracy of less than 2 km from ground truth. A systematic study of the explosions will sharpen our understanding of the seismicity in Denmark, and result in a more detailed understanding of the detection threshold. Furthermore the study will shed light on the sensitivity of the network to various seismograph outages.

  3. Towards a repository for standardized medical image and signal case data annotated with ground truth.

    PubMed

    Deserno, Thomas M; Welter, Petra; Horsch, Alexander

    2012-04-01

    Validation of medical signal and image processing systems requires quality-assured, representative and generally acknowledged databases accompanied by appropriate reference (ground truth) and clinical metadata, which are composed laboriously for each project and are not shared with the scientific community. In our vision, such data will be stored centrally in an open repository. We propose an architecture for a standardized case data and ground truth information repository supporting the evaluation and analysis of computer-aided diagnosis based on (a) the Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS) provided by the NASA Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (ISO 14721:2003), (b) the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) Element Set (ISO 15836:2009), (c) the Open Archive Initiative (OAI) Protocol for Metadata Harvesting, and (d) the Image Retrieval in Medical Applications (IRMA) framework. In our implementation, a portal bunches all of the functionalities that are needed for data submission and retrieval. The complete life cycle of the data (define, create, store, sustain, share, use, and improve) is managed. Sophisticated search tools make it easier to use the datasets, which may be merged from different providers. An integrated history record guarantees reproducibility. A standardized creation report is generated with a permanent digital object identifier. This creation report must be referenced by all of the data users. Peer-reviewed e-publishing of these reports will create a reputation for the data contributors and will form de-facto standards regarding image and signal datasets. Good practice guidelines for validation methodology complement the concept of the case repository. This procedure will increase the comparability of evaluation studies for medical signal and image processing methods and applications. PMID:22075810

  4. Searching for Organics During the Robotic Mars Analog Rio Tinto Drilling Experiment: Ground Truth and Contamination Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Stoker, C. R.; Marte Project Science Team

    2007-03-01

    The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE) performed a simulation of a Mars drilling experiment at the Rio Tinto (Spain). Ground-truth and contamination issues during the distribution of bulk organics and their CN isotopic composition in hematite and go

  5. MTI Ground Truth Collection Ivanpah Dry Lake Bed, California, May, July, and August 2002

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Hawley

    2002-10-01

    A multi-agency collaboration successfully completed a series of ground truth measurements at the Ivanpah Dry Lake bed during FY 2002. Four collection attempts were made: two in May, one in July, and one in August. The objective was to collect ground-based measurements and airborne data during Multispectral Thermal Imager satellite overpasses. The measurements were to aid in the calibration of the satellite data and in algorithm validation. The Remote Sensing Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Los Alamos National Laboratory; and the University of Arizona participated in the effort. Field instrumentation included a sun photometer on loan from the University of Arizona and the Remote Sensing Laboratory's radiosonde weather balloon, weather station, thermal infrared radiometers, and spectral radiometer. In addition, three reflectance panels were deployed; certain tests used water baths set at two different temperatures. Local weather data as well as sky photography were collected. May presented several excellent days; however, it was later learned that tasking for the satellite was not available. A combination of cloud cover, wind, and dusty conditions limited useful data collections to two days, August 28 and 29. Despite less-than- ideal weather conditions, the data for the Multispectral Thermal Imager calibration were obtained. A unique set of circumstances also allowed data collection during overpasses of the LANDSAT7 and ASTER satellites.

  6. Semi-automatic ground truth generation using unsupervised clustering and limited manual labeling: Application to handwritten character recognition

    PubMed Central

    Vajda, Szilárd; Rangoni, Yves; Cecotti, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    For training supervised classifiers to recognize different patterns, large data collections with accurate labels are necessary. In this paper, we propose a generic, semi-automatic labeling technique for large handwritten character collections. In order to speed up the creation of a large scale ground truth, the method combines unsupervised clustering and minimal expert knowledge. To exploit the potential discriminant complementarities across features, each character is projected into five different feature spaces. After clustering the images in each feature space, the human expert labels the cluster centers. Each data point inherits the label of its cluster’s center. A majority (or unanimity) vote decides the label of each character image. The amount of human involvement (labeling) is strictly controlled by the number of clusters – produced by the chosen clustering approach. To test the efficiency of the proposed approach, we have compared, and evaluated three state-of-the art clustering methods (k-means, self-organizing maps, and growing neural gas) on the MNIST digit data set, and a Lampung Indonesian character data set, respectively. Considering a k-nn classifier, we show that labeling manually only 1.3% (MNIST), and 3.2% (Lampung) of the training data, provides the same range of performance than a completely labeled data set would. PMID:25870463

  7. The ground-truth problem for satellite estimates of rain rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, Gerald R.; Valdes, Juan B.; Eunho, HA; Shen, Samuel S. P.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper a scheme is proposed to use a point raingage to compare contemporaneous measurements of rain rate from a single-field-of-view (FOV) estimate based on a satellite remote sensor such as a microwave radiometer. Even in the ideal case the measurements are different because one is at a point and the other is an area average over the field of view. Also the point gage will be located randomly inside the field of view on different overpasses. A space-time spectral formalism is combined with a simple stochastic rain field to find the mean-square deviations between the two systems. It is found that by combining about 60 visits of the satellite to the ground-truth site, the expected error can be reduced to about 10% of the standard deviation of the fluctuations of the systems alone. This seems to be a useful level of tolerance in terms of isolating and evaluating typical biases that might be contaminating retrieval algorithms.

  8. Ground truth measurements plan for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A.J.

    2000-01-03

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) have developed a diverse group of algorithms for processing and analyzing the data that will be collected by the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) after launch late in 1999. Each of these algorithms must be verified by comparison to independent surface and atmospheric measurements. SRTC has selected 13 sites in the continental U.S. for ground truth data collections. These sites include a high altitude cold water target (Crater Lake), cooling lakes and towers in the warm, humid southeastern US, Department of Energy (DOE) climate research sites, the NASA Stennis satellite Validation and Verification (V and V) target array, waste sites at the Savannah River Site, mining sites in the Four Corners area and dry lake beds in the southwestern US. SRTC has established mutually beneficial relationships with the organizations that manage these sites to make use of their operating and research data and to install additional instrumentation needed for MTI algorithm V and V.

  9. An Empirical Study of Atmospheric Correction Procedures for Regional Infrasound Amplitudes with Ground Truth.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    This study focusses on improving methods of accounting for atmospheric effects on infrasound amplitudes observed on arrays at regional distances in the southwestern United States. Recordings at ranges of 150 to nearly 300 km from a repeating ground truth source of small HE explosions are used. The explosions range in actual weight from approximately 2000-4000 lbs. and are detonated year-round which provides signals for a wide range of atmospheric conditions. Three methods of correcting the observed amplitudes for atmospheric effects are investigated with the data set. The first corrects amplitudes for upper stratospheric wind as developed by Mutschlecner and Whitaker (1999) and uses the average wind speed between 45-55 km altitudes in the direction of propagation to derive an empirical correction formula. This approach was developed using large chemical and nuclear explosions and is tested with the smaller explosions for which shorter wavelengths cause the energy to be scattered by the smaller scale structure of the atmosphere. The second approach isa semi-empirical method using ray tracing to determine wind speed at ray turning heights where the wind estimates replace the wind values in the existing formula. Finally, parabolic equation (PE) modeling is used to predict the amplitudes at the arrays at 1 Hz. The PE amplitudes are compared to the observed amplitudes with a narrow band filter centered at 1 Hz. An analysis is performed of the conditions under which the empirical and semi-empirical methods fail and full wave methods must be used.

  10. Comparisons of Ground Truth and Remote Spectral Measurements of the FORMOSAT and ANDE Spacecrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    JorgensenAbercromby, Kira; Hamada, Kris; Okada, Jennifer; Guyote, Michael; Barker, Edwin

    2006-01-01

    Determining the material type of objects in space is conducted using laboratory spectral reflectance measurements from common spacecraft materials and comparing the results to remote spectra. This past year, two different ground-truth studies commenced. The first, FORMOSAT III, is a Taiwanese set of six satellites to be launched in March 2006. The second is ANDE (Atmospheric Neutral Density Experiment), a Naval Research Laboratory set of two satellites set to launch from the Space Shuttle in November 2006. Laboratory spectra were obtained of the spacecraft and a model of the anticipated spectra response was created for each set of satellites. The model takes into account phase angle and orientation of the spacecraft relative to the observer. Once launched, the spacecraft are observed once a month to determine the space aging effects of materials as deduced from the remote spectra. Preliminary results will be shown of the FORMOSAT III comparison with laboratory data and remote data while results from only the laboratory data will be shown for the ANDE spacecraft.

  11. Comparing Eyewitness-Derived Trajectories of Bright Meteors to Ground Truth Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, D. E.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) is the only US government agency tasked with analyzing meteors of public interest. When queried about a meteor observed over the United States, the MEO must respond with a characterization of the trajectory, orbit, and size within a few hours. Using observations from meteor networks like the NASA All Sky Fireball Network or the Southern Ontario Meteor Network, such a characterization is often easy. If found, casual recordings from the public and stationary web cameras can be used to roughly analyze a meteor if the camera's location can be identified and its imagery calibrated. This technique was used with great success in the analysis of the Chelyabinsk meteorite fall. But if the event is outside meteor network coverage, if an insufficient number of videos are found, or if the imagery cannot be geolocated or calibrated, a timely assessment can be difficult if not impossible. In this situation, visual reports made by eyewitnesses may be the only resource available. This has led to the development of a tool to quickly calculate crude meteor trajectories from eyewitness reports made to the American Meteor Society. The output is illustrated in Figure 1. A description of the tool, example case studies, and a comparison to ground truth data observed by the NASA All Sky Fireball Network will be presented.

  12. Ground-truthing electrical resistivity methods in support of submarine groundwater discharge studies: Examples from Hawaii, Washington, and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Cordell; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Richardson, Christina M.; Smith, Christopher G.; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Ganguli, Priya M.

    2015-01-01

    Rigorous ground-truthing at each field site showed that multi-channel electrcial resistivity techniques can reproduce the scales and dynamics of a seepage field when such data are correctly collected, and when the model inversions are tuned to field site characteristics. Such information can provide a unique perspective on the scales and dynamics of exchange processes within a coastal aquifer—information essential to scientists and resource managers alike.

  13. Subsurface Organics in Aseptic Cores From the MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment: Ground truth and Contamination Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Stoker, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    The subsurface is the key environment for searching for life on planets lacking surface life. This includes the search for past/present life on Mars where possible subsurface life could exist [1]. The Mars-Analog-Rio-Tinto-Experiment (MARTE) performed a simulation of a Mars robotic drilling at the RT Borehole#7 Site ~6.07m, atop a massive-pyrite deposit from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. The RT site is considered an important analog of Sinus Meridiani on Mars, an ideal model analog for a subsurface Martian setting [2], and a relevant example of deep subsurface microbial community including aerobic and anaerobic chemoautotrophs [4-5]. Searching for microbes or bulk organics of biological origin in a subsurface sample from a planet is a key scientific objective of Robotic drilling missions. During the 2005 Field experiment 28 minicores were robotically handled and subsampled for life detection experiments under anti-contamination protocols. Ground truth included visual observation of cores and lab based Elemental and Isotope Ratios Mass Spectrometry analysis (EA-IRMS) of bulk organics in Hematite and Gohetite-rich gossanized tuffs, gossan and clay layers within 0-6m-depth. C-org and N-tot vary up to four orders of magnitude among the litter (~11Wt%, 0-1cm) and the mineralized (~3Wt%, 1-3cm) layers, and the first 6 m-depth (C-org=0.02-0.38Wt%). Overall, the distribution/ preservation of plant and soil-derived organics (d13C-org = 26 per mil to 24 per mil) is ten times higher (C-org=0.33Wt%) that in hematite-poor clays, or where rootlets are present, than in hematite- rich samples (C-org=<0.01Wt%). This is consistent with ATP assay (Lightning-MVP, Biocontrol) for total biomass in subsurface (Borehole#7 ~6.07m, ~avg. 153RLU) vs. surface soil samples (~1,500-81,449RLU) [5]. However, the in-situ ATP assay failed in detecting presence of roots during the in-situ life detection experiment. Furthermore, cm-sized roots were overlooked during remote observations. Finally, ATP

  14. A global ground truth view of the lunar air pressure tide L2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, Michael; Dobslaw, Henryk

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive model of the lunar air pressure tide L2 is developed on the basis of 2315 ground truth estimates from land barometers and moored buoys. Regional-scale features of the tide and its seasonal modulations are well resolved by the in situ scatter and gridded to a 2° mesh through multiquadric interpolation. The resulting climatologies serve as an independent standard to validate the lunar semidiurnal tidal signal that is present in ERA-Interim reanalysis products despite the absence of L2-related gravitational forcing mechanisms in the prescribed model physics. Inconsistencies between the reanalysis solution of the barometric lunar tide and its empirical account are generally small, yet when averaged over the period 1979-2010, ERA-Interim underestimates the 100 μbar open ocean tidal amplitude in the Tropics by up to 20 μbar and produces times of peak pressure that are too early by 10 lunar minutes. Large-amplitude features of the reanalysis tide off the coast of Alaska, the eastern U.S., and Great Britain are evidently spurious, introduced to the analysis system by assimilating marine pressure data at an invariant reference surface instead of properly accounting for vertical sensor movements associated with the M2 ocean tide. Additionally, a credible L2 signal is documented for the ERA-20C pilot reanalysis of the twentieth century. The fact that this model rests upon input data from mere surface observations provides an unambiguous indication that the lunar tidal oscillation in atmospheric analysis systems is closely tied to the assimilation of conventional pressure measurements from stations and marine objects.

  15. A systematic review of automated melanoma detection in dermatoscopic images and its ground truth data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Abder-Rahman A.; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2012-02-01

    Malignant melanoma is the third most frequent type of skin cancer and one of the most malignant tumors, accounting for 79% of skin cancer deaths. Melanoma is highly curable if diagnosed early and treated properly as survival rate varies between 15% and 65% from early to terminal stages, respectively. So far, melanoma diagnosis is depending subjectively on the dermatologist's expertise. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems based on epiluminescense light microscopy can provide an objective second opinion on pigmented skin lesions (PSL). This work systematically analyzes the evidence of the effectiveness of automated melanoma detection in images from a dermatoscopic device. Automated CAD applications were analyzed to estimate their diagnostic outcome. Searching online databases for publication dates between 1985 and 2011, a total of 182 studies on dermatoscopic CAD were found. With respect to the systematic selection criterions, 9 studies were included, published between 2002 and 2011. Those studies formed databases of 14,421 dermatoscopic images including both malignant "melanoma" and benign "nevus", with 8,110 images being available ranging in resolution from 150 x 150 to 1568 x 1045 pixels. Maximum and minimum of sensitivity and specificity are 100.0% and 80.0% as well as 98.14% and 61.6%, respectively. Area under the receiver operator characteristics (AUC) and pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostics odds ratio are respectively 0.87, 0.90, 0.81, and 15.89. So, although that automated melanoma detection showed good accuracy in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and AUC, but diagnostic performance in terms of DOR was found to be poor. This might be due to the lack of dermatoscopic image resources (ground truth) that are needed for comprehensive assessment of diagnostic performance. In future work, we aim at testing this hypothesis by joining dermatoscopic images into a unified database that serves as a standard reference for dermatology related research in

  16. Sunrise-driven movements of dust on the Moon: Apollo 12 Ground-truth measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Brian J.; Hollick, Monique

    2015-12-01

    The first sunrise after Apollo 12 astronauts left the Moon caused dust storms across the site where rocket exhausts had disrupted about 2000 kg of smooth fine dust. The next few sunrises started progressively weaker dust storms, and the Eastern horizon brightened, adding to direct sunlight for half an hour. These Ground truth measurements were made 100 cm above the surface by the 270 g Apollo 12 Dust Detector Experiment we invented in 1966. Dust deposited on the horizontal solar cell during two lunar days after the first sunrise was almost 30% of the total it then measured over 6 years. The vertical east-facing solar cell measured horizon brightening on 14 of the first 17 lunations, with none detected on the following 61 Lunar Days. Based on over 2 million such measurements we propose a new qualitative model of sunrise-driven transport of individual dust particles freed by Apollo 12 activities from strong particle-to-particle cohesive forces. Each sunrise caused sudden surface charging which, during the first few hours, freshly mobilised and lofted the dust remaining free, microscopically smoothing the disrupted local areas. Evidence of reliability of measurements includes consistency among all 6 sensors in measurements throughout an eclipse. We caution Google Lunar XPrize competitors and others planning missions to the Moon and large airless asteroids that, after a spacecraft lands, dust hazards may occur after each of the first few sunrises. Mechanical problems in its first such period stranded Chinese lunar rover Yutu in 2014, although we would not claim yet that the causes were dust. On the other hand, sunrise-driven microscopic smoothing of disturbed areas may offer regular natural mitigations of dust consequences of mining lunar resources and reduce fears that many expeditions might cause excessive fine dust globally around the Moon.

  17. Ground-truthing 6. 5-kHz side scan sonographs: What are we really imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.V.; Field, M.E.; Lee, H.; Edwards, B.E. ); Masson, D.G.; Kenyon, N. ); Kidd, R.B. )

    1991-04-10

    A 1,000-km{sup 2} area on the distal lobe of Monterey Fan shows a digitate pattern of juxtaposed high and low backscatter on GLORIA side scan sonographs. This area was investigated using stereo photography, high-resolution seismic profiles, and measurements of physical properties of cores to quantitatively evaluate the causes of backscatter from the 6.5-kHz side scan sonar. Stereo photography and bottom video were used to determine that the sediment-water interface typically has a bed roughness less than 10 cm over the entire ground truth area; consequently, bed roughness is not a significant contributor to the sonar backscatter. Vertical-incidence 3.5-kHz profiles reveal that high-backscatter areas allow less penetration and have slightly more relief than low-backscatter areas. Closely spaced measurements of {rho} wave velocity, density, and grain size made on transponder-navigated cores are used to investigate the geoacoustic properties of the sediment with the aid of a numerical model. The model results demonstrate that the sediment-water interface is, in most cases, acoustically transparent to the sonar energy and that most or all of the energy is refracted into the sediment to depths of at least a few meters rather than scattered from the surface. In this area, thick (up to 50 cm) sand deposits with thin interbeds of silty clay correlate with lower backscatter than do silty clay deposits with thin interbeds of sand. This suggests that volume inhomogeneities and complex constructive and destructive interferences caused by the subsurface volume inhomogeneities within the top few meters of the sediment ultimately modulate the intensity of backscatter. Although 6.5-kHz sonographs appear easy to interpret in a conventional and simplistic manner, caution should be used when interpreting lithofacies from backscatter intensities.

  18. Surface Properties and Characteristics of Mars Landing Sites from Remote Sensing Data and Ground Truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Haldemann, A. F.; Simpson, R. A.; Furgason, R. L.; Putzig, N. E.; Huertas, A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Heet, T.; Bell, J. F.; Mellon, M. T.; McEwen, A. S.

    2008-12-01

    Surface characteristics at the six sites where spacecraft have successfully landed on Mars can be related favorably to their signatures in remotely sensed data from orbit and from the Earth. Comparisons of the rock abundance, types and coverage of soils (and their physical properties), thermal inertia, albedo, and topographic slope all agree with orbital remote sensing estimates and show that the materials at the landing sites can be used as ground truth for the materials that make up most of the equatorial and mid- to moderately high-latitude regions of Mars. The six landing sites sample two of the three dominant global thermal inertia and albedo units that cover ~80% of the surface of Mars. The Viking, Spirit, Mars Pathfinder, and Phoenix landing sites are representative of the moderate to high thermal inertia and intermediate to high albedo unit that is dominated by crusty, cloddy, blocky or frozen soils (duricrust that may be layered) with various abundances of rocks and bright dust. The Opportunity landing site is representative of the moderate to high thermal inertia and low albedo surface unit that is relatively dust free and composed of dark eolian sand and/or increased abundance of rocks. Rock abundance derived from orbital thermal differencing techniques in the equatorial regions agrees with that determined from rock counts at the surface and varies from ~3-20% at the landing sites. The size-frequency distributions of rocks >1.5 m diameter fully resolvable in HiRISE images of the landing sites follow exponential models developed from lander measurements of smaller rocks and are continuous with these rock distributions indicating both are part of the same population. Interpretation of radar data confirms the presence of load bearing, relatively dense surfaces controlled by the soil type at the landing sites, regional rock populations from diffuse scattering similar to those observed directly at the sites, and root-mean-squared slopes that compare favorably

  19. Using Apollo Sites and Soils to Compositionally Ground Truth Diviner Lunar Radiometer Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Lucey, P. G.; Song, E.; Thomas, I R.; Bowles, N. E.; DonaldsonHanna, K. L.; Allen, C.; Foote, E. J.; Paige, D .A.

    2012-01-01

    Apollo landing sites and returned soils afford us a unique opportunity to "ground truth" Diviner Lunar Radiometer compositional observations, which are the first global, high resolution , thermal infrared measurements of an airless body. The Moon is the most accessible member of the most abundant class of solar system objects, which includes Mercury, asteroids, and icy satellites. And the Apollo samples returned from the Moon are the only extraterrestrial samples with known spatial context. Here we compare Diviner observations of Apollo landing sites and compositional and spectral laboratory measurements of returned Apollo soils. Diviner, onboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, has three spectral channels near 8 micron that were designed to characterize the mid-infrared emissivity maximum known as the Christiansen feature (CF), a well-studied indicator of silicate mineralogy. It has been observed that thermal infrared spectra measured in simulated lunar environment (SLE) are significantly altered from spectra measured under terrestrial or martian conditions, with enhanced CF contrast and shifted CF position relative to other spectral features. Therefore only thermal emission experiments conducted in SLE are directly comparable to Diviner data. With known compositions, Apollo landing sites and soils are important calibration points for the Diviner dataset, which includes all six Apollo sites at approximately 200 m spatial resolution. Differences in measured CFs caused by composition and space weathering are apparent in Diviner data. Analyses of Diviner observations and SLE measurements for a range of Apollo soils show good agreement, while comparisons to thermal reflectance measurements under ambient conditions do not agree well, which underscores the need for SLE measurements and validates our measurement technique. Diviner observations of Apollo landing sites are also correlated with geochemical measurements of Apollo soils from the Lunar Sample Compendium

  20. Developing Empirically-Based Ground Truth Criteria for Varying Geological Complexity using Regional Seismic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazier, R. A.; O'Donnell, J.; Boomer, K.; Nyblade, A.; Kokoska, J.; Liu, S.

    2011-12-01

    We have extended the approaches of Bondár et al. (2004), Bondár and McLaughlin (2009), and Boomer et al. (2010) by developing new empirically based ground truth (EBGT) local criteria for a variety of geologic settings for which data sets containing GT0 events (explosions and mine tremors) are available, local crustal structure is well known, and hand-picked arrival times have been obtained. Boomer et al. (2010) describes the development of local criteria for the simple structure of the Archean Kaapvaal Craton in southern Africa. Continuing the development of local criteria in regions of varying geologic complexity, we now have criteria for the Main Ethiopian Rift and for the Tibetan plateau. In the geologically complex region of the Main Ethiopian Rift, we use the 2003 Ethiopia-Afar Geoscientific Lithosphere Experiment (EAGLE; Maguire et al., 2003) data to obtain EBGT595% criteria. Four of the 25 large refraction line shots were used as reference events to develop the criteria; the remainder of the shots are used for verification. We require an event to be recorded on at least 8 stations within the Pg/Pn crossover distance and a network quality metric (Bondár and McLaughlin, 2009) less than 0.43 for an event to be classified as EBGT595%. Using these criteria to identify GT events within the Ethiopian Broadband Seismic Experiment, we have identified ten events to add to the NNSA knowledge database. There are also 196 potential events from the EAGLE dataset from which we expect to yield an additional 20 GT events. The crust and upper mantle structure of the Tibetan plateau is arguably more complicated than for the Kaapvaal Craton and yet less complicated than the Main Ethiopian Rift, and includes a number of prominent suture zones. Five of the 11 larger shots from the International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalaya (INDEPTH III) refraction line were used to develop the criteria. The remaining 6 shots are used to validate the criteria. The criteria for Tibet

  1. LRO Camera Imaging of the Moon: Apollo 17 and other Sites for Ground Truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Wiseman, S. M.; Robinson, M. S.; Lawrence, S.; Denevi, B. W.; Bell, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    One of the fundamental goals of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is the determination of mineralogic and compositional distributions and their relation to geologic features on the Moon’s surface. Through a combination of imaging with the LRO narrow-angle cameras and wide-angle camera (NAC, WAC), very fine-scale geologic features are resolved with better than meter-per-pixel resolution (NAC) and correlated to spectral variations mapped with the lower resolution, 7-band WAC (400-m/pix, ultraviolet bands centered at 321 and 360 nm; 100-m/pix, visible bands centered at 415, 566, 604, 643, and 689 nm). Keys to understanding spectral variations in terms of composition, and relationships between compositional variations and surface geology, are ground-truth sites where surface compositions and mineralogy, as well as geology and geologic history, are well known. The Apollo 17 site is especially useful because the site geology includes a range of features from high-Ti mare basalts to Serenitatis-Basin-related massifs containing basin impact-melt breccia and feldspathic highlands materials, and a regional black and orange pyroclastic deposit. Moreover, relative and absolute ages of these features are known. In addition to rock samples, astronauts collected well-documented soil samples at 22 different sample locations across this diverse area. Many of these sample sites can be located in the multispectral data using the co-registered NAC images. Digital elevation data are used to normalize illumination geometry and thus fully exploit the multispectral data and compare derived compositional parameters for different geologic units. Regolith characteristics that are known in detail from the Apollo 17 samples, such as maturity and petrography of mineral, glass, and lithic components, contribute to spectral variations and are considered in the assessment of spectral variability at the landing site. In this work, we focus on variations associated with the ilmenite content

  2. THE SEARCH FOR PSYCHIC TRUTHS.

    PubMed

    Busch, Fred

    2016-04-01

    Emphasizing psychic truths as the major domain of psychoanalysis, the author explores the complexity of defining such psychic truths. It is suggested that thinking of levels of psychic truths is the most useful approach. How to understand trauma and historical truth within this context is examined. The role of the analyst as aiding the search for psychic truths, rather than functioning as psychic "truth teller," is discussed within the context of paradigmatic changes in the psychoanalytic method that form an emerging common ground.

  3. Ground truthing for methane hotspots at Railroad Valley, NV - application to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detweiler, A. M.; Kelley, C. A.; Bebout, B.; McKay, C. P.; DeMarines, J.; Yates, E. L.; Iraci, L. T.

    2011-12-01

    .7%. Temperature and relative humidity sensors were placed in the playa at 5, 20, and 30 cm below the surface. Since the relative humidity neared 100% (down to 20 cm below the surface), high enough to support microbial life, the observed absence of methane production in the playa itself is likely due to the low POC content, compared to other methane-producing environments. The spatial distribution of methane in combination with the spectral reflectance at the RRV dry lakebed makes it a good Mars analog. The ground truthing and satellite calibration work accomplished at RRV is a good exercise in preparation to identifying the origins of methane observed in the atmosphere of Mars during the upcoming 2012 Mars Science Laboratory and 2016 ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter missions.

  4. A Ground Truth Database of Seismo-Acoustic Events in Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, Steven J.; Kværna, Tormod

    2013-04-01

    The international network of infrasound sensors records a continuous datastream containing signals from events of both known and unknown origin. For events of known origin, i.e. with the location and time well-determined, we are able to validate and improve upon our characterization of the wind and temperature structure of the atmosphere, since we can compare directly infrasonic observations with model predictions. For events of unknown origin, such as unannounced or accidental explosions or extreme natural phenomena, infrasound should ideally be exploited to locate the event(s) in time and space and to characterize the source(s). The ability to do this will clearly improve with an improved atmospheric specification and modeling capability. "Ground Truth", or GT, denotes events for which the origin time and source location are known. Calibration experiments (explosions of specified yield, time and location) have been performed in order to validate atmospheric specifications and propagation models and to investigate the detectability of infrasound over networks. However, such explosions are extremely expensive to execute and so can only sample the evolving atmosphere on a very limited number of occasions. Fortunately, many other types of explosions occur regularly. These include detonations of expired ordnance by militaries and routine quarry blasting. There are many such sources in northern Europe which generate infrasound signals detected at distances from many hundreds to several thousands of kilometers, but which also generate seismic signals which have been recorded by stations in Fennoscandia for over 25 years. The seismic signals generated by events at a given location, recorded on any given seismometer, are like a fingerprint for that source region and pattern recognition methods (e.g. waveform correlation and Empirical Matched Field Processing or EMFP) can attribute a signal to a particular source given sufficient calibration information. The seismic

  5. Unexploded ordnance detection experiments at extensive fully ground-truthed test sites at Yuma Proving Ground and Eglin AFB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuca, Clyde C.; Marinelli, Vincent R.; Ressler, Marc A.; Ton, Tuan T.

    1999-08-01

    The US Army Research Laboratory (ARL), under the sponsorship of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, is conducting experiments to establish and enhance the ability of low-frequency, ultra-wideband synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to detect and discriminate unexploded ordnance (UXO). Preliminary investigations using ARL's BoomSAR - a UWB radar mounted atop a mobile boom lift platform - concluded that the radar image texture and frequency-dependent scattering from mines and mine-like targets could be exploited in the development of automatic target detection algorithms. To support further investigations, ARL established extensive UXO test sites at the US Army Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, and Eglin AFB, Florida. The soils at both test sties have been characterized in terms of physical, chemical and electromagnetic properties. Precise location, depth, and orientation information was recorded for each of the approximately 500 inert ordnance test targets at each site. This information helps researchers to better understand the phenomenology associated with UXO target scattering and to more accurately evaluate and modify data processing programs. The ultimate goal is to develop innovative automatic target detection algorithms that provide a high probability of detection with an acceptable false-alarm rate under varying environmental conditions and operational scenarios. This paper present details on the design and characterization of the two test sites and some initial results from BoomSAR data collections.

  6. Groundwater storage change in the Ngadda Catchment of the Lake Chad Basin using GRACE and ground truth data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaskevych, A.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    The present study is to analyze groundwater storage variations in the Ngadda Catchment located in the southwestern edge of Lake Chad Basin using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data. We collected monthly total water storage data from GRACE and monthly soil moisture data from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) for the period of 2005 - 2009 with the spatial resolution of 1 and 0.25 degrees. We assumed surface water contributions to be negligible in the study area. The estimated groundwater storage changes were compared to the ground truth groundwater depth data collected in 2005 and 2009. The challenge of the present study is sparseness of the ground truth data in space and time. The study area is one of the data poor regions in the world due to the limited accessibility to the area. Different geostatistical techniques such as Kriging, Thiessen polygons, and Bayesian updating were applied to overcome such sparseness and modeling uncertainty under different scales and resolution. The study shows a significant increase of groundwater storage in the Ngadda catchment during the study period. Uncertainty is significant though depending on the size of the model and modeling technique. The study discusses advantages of using remote sensing data in data poor regions and how geostatistical techniques can be applied to deal with modeling uncertainty.

  7. A procedure used for a ground truth study of a land use map of North Alabama generated from LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, S. W., Jr.; Sharma, G. C.; Bagwell, C.

    1977-01-01

    A land use map of a five county area in North Alabama was generated from LANDSAT data using a supervised classification algorithm. There was good overall agreement between the land use designated and known conditions, but there were also obvious discrepancies. In ground checking the map, two types of errors were encountered - shift and misclassification - and a method was developed to eliminate or greatly reduce the errors. Randomly selected study areas containing 2,525 pixels were analyzed. Overall, 76.3 percent of the pixels were correctly classified. A contingency coefficient of correlation was calculated to be 0.7 which is significant at the alpha = 0.01 level. The land use maps generated by computers from LANDSAT data are useful for overall land use by regional agencies. However, care must be used when making detailed analysis of small areas. The procedure used for conducting the ground truth study together with data from representative study areas is presented.

  8. The GSFC Mark-2 three band hand-held radiometer. [thematic mapper for ground truth data collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Jones, W. H.; Kley, W. A.; Sundstrom, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    A self-contained, portable, hand-radiometer designed for field usage was constructed and tested. The device, consisting of a hand-held probe containing three sensors and a strap supported electronic module, weighs 4 1/2 kilograms. It is powered by flashlight and transistor radio batteries, utilizes two silicon and one lead sulfide detectors, has three liquid crystal displays, sample and hold radiometric sampling, and its spectral configuration corresponds to LANDSAT-D's thematic mapper bands. The device was designed to support thematic mapper ground-truth data collection efforts and to facilitate 'in situ' ground-based remote sensing studies of natural materials. Prototype instruments were extensively tested under laboratory and field conditions with excellent results.

  9. Generating regional infrasound celerity-range models using ground-truth information and the implications for event location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nippress, Alexandra; Green, David N.; Marcillo, Omar E.; Arrowsmith, Stephen J.

    2014-05-01

    Celerity-range models, where celerity is defined as the epicentral distance divided by the total traveltime (similar to the definition of group velocity for dispersed seismic surface waves), can be used for the association of infrasound automatic detections, for event location and for the validation of acoustic propagation simulations. Signals recorded from ground truth events are used to establish celerity-range models, but data coverage is uneven in both space and time. To achieve a high density of regional recordings we use data from USArray seismic stations recording air-to-ground coupled waves from explosions during the summers of 2004-2008 at the Utah Training and Test Range, in the western United States, together with data from five microbarograph arrays at regional distances (<1000 km). We have developed a consistent methodology for analysing the infrasound and seismic data, including choosing filter characteristics from a limited group of two-octave wide filter bands and picking the maximum peak-to-peak arrival. We clearly observe tropospheric, thermospheric and stratospheric arrivals, in agreement with regional ray tracing models. Due to data availability and the dependence of infrasound propagation on the season, we develop three regional celerity-range models for the U.S. summer, with a total of 2211 data picks. The new models suggest event locations using the Geiger method could be improved in terms of both accuracy (up to 80 per cent closer to ground truth) and precision (error ellipse area reduced by >90 per cent) when compared to those estimated using the global International Data Center model, particularly for events where stations detect arrivals at ranges <350 km. Whilst adding data-based prior information into the Bayesian Infrasound Source Localization (BISL) method is also shown to increase precision, to increase accuracy, the parameter space must be expanded to include station-specific celerity distributions.

  10. Estimation of snowpack matching ground-truth data and MODIS satellite-based observations by using regression kriging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan Collados-Lara, Antonio; Pardo-Iguzquiza, Eulogio; Pulido-Velazquez, David

    2016-04-01

    The estimation of Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) is essential for an appropriate assessment of the available water resources in Alpine catchment. The hydrologic regime in these areas is dominated by the storage of water in the snowpack, which is discharged to rivers throughout the melt season. An accurate estimation of the resources will be necessary for an appropriate analysis of the system operation alternatives using basin scale management models. In order to obtain an appropriate estimation of the SWE we need to know the spatial distribution snowpack and snow density within the Snow Cover Area (SCA). Data for these snow variables can be extracted from in-situ point measurements and air-borne/space-borne remote sensing observations. Different interpolation and simulation techniques have been employed for the estimation of the cited variables. In this paper we propose to estimate snowpack from a reduced number of ground-truth data (1 or 2 campaigns per year with 23 observation point from 2000-2014) and MODIS satellite-based observations in the Sierra Nevada Mountain (Southern Spain). Regression based methodologies has been used to study snowpack distribution using different kind of explicative variables: geographic, topographic, climatic. 40 explicative variables were considered: the longitude, latitude, altitude, slope, eastness, northness, radiation, maximum upwind slope and some mathematical transformation of each of them [Ln(v), (v)^-1; (v)^2; (v)^0.5). Eight different structure of regression models have been tested (combining 1, 2, 3 or 4 explicative variables). Y=B0+B1Xi (1); Y=B0+B1XiXj (2); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2Xj (3); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2XjXl (4); Y=B0+B1XiXk+B2XjXl (5); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2Xj+B3Xl (6); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2Xj+B3XlXk (7); Y=B0+B1Xi+B2Xj+B3Xl+B4Xk (8). Where: Y is the snow depth; (Xi, Xj, Xl, Xk) are the prediction variables (any of the 40 variables); (B0, B1, B2, B3) are the coefficients to be estimated. The ground data are employed to calibrate the multiple regressions. In

  11. Procedures for gathering ground truth information for a supervised approach to a computer-implemented land cover classification of LANDSAT-acquired multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, A. T.

    1978-01-01

    Procedures for gathering ground truth information for a supervised approach to a computer-implemented land cover classification of LANDSAT acquired multispectral scanner data are provided in a step by step manner. Criteria for determining size, number, uniformity, and predominant land cover of training sample sites are established. Suggestions are made for the organization and orientation of field team personnel, the procedures used in the field, and the format of the forms to be used. Estimates are made of the probable expenditures in time and costs. Examples of ground truth forms and definitions and criteria of major land cover categories are provided in appendixes.

  12. Acquisition and analysis of coastal ground-truth data for correlation with ERTS-1 imagery. [surface radiance data for Santa Monica Bay and Santa Barbara Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anikouchine, W. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Radiance profiles drawn along cruise tracks have been examined for use in correlating digital radiance levels with ground truth data. Preliminary examination results are encouraging. Adding weighted levels from the 4 MSS bands appears to enhance specular surface reflections while rendering sensor noise white. Comparing each band signature to the added specular signature ought to enhance non-specular effects caused by ocean turbidity. Preliminary examination of radiance profiles and ground truth turbidity measurements revealed substantial correlation.

  13. SAGE ground truth plan: Correlative measurements for the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) on the AEM-B satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B. (Editor); Cunnold, D. M.; Grams, G. W.; Laver, J.; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Murcray, D. G.; Pepin, T. J.; Perry, T. W.; Planet, W. G.

    1979-01-01

    The ground truth plan is outlined for correlative measurements to validate the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) sensor data. SAGE will fly aboard the Applications Explorer Mission-B satellite scheduled for launch in early 1979 and measure stratospheric vertical profiles of aerosol, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and molecular extinction between 79 N and 79 S. latitude. The plan gives details of the location and times for the simultaneous satellite/correlative measurements for the nominal launch time, the rationale and choice of the correlative sensors, their characteristics and expected accuracies, and the conversion of their data to extinction profiles. In addition, an overview of the SAGE expected instrument performance and data inversion results are presented. Various atmospheric models representative of stratospheric aerosols and ozone are used in the SAGE and correlative sensor analyses.

  14. Accuracies of facial soft tissue depth means for estimating ground truth skin surfaces in forensic craniofacial identification.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Carl N

    2015-07-01

    Facial soft tissue thickness means have long been used as a proxy to estimate the soft tissue envelope, over the skull, in craniofacial identification. However, estimation errors of these statistics are not well understood, making casework selection of the best performing estimation models impossible and overarching method accuracies controversial. To redress this situation, residuals between predicted and ground truth values were calculated in two experiments: (1) for 27 suites of means drawn from 10 recently published studies, all examining the same 10 landmarks (N ≥ 3051), and tested against six independent raw datasets of contemporary living adults (N = 797); and (2) pairwise tests of the above six, and five other, raw datasets (N = 1063). In total, 380 out-of-sample tests of 416 arithmetic means were conducted across 11 independent samples. Experiment 1 produced an overarching mean absolute percentage error (MAE) of 29% and a standard error of the estimate (S(est)) of 2.7 mm. Experiment 2 yielded MAE of 32% and S(est) of 2.8 mm. In any instance, MAE was always ≥20% of the ground truth value. The overarching 95% limits of the error, for contemporary samples, was large (11.4 mm). CT-derived means from South Korean males and Black South African females routinely performed well across the test samples and produced the smallest errors of any tests (but did so for Black American male reference samples). Sample-specific statistics thereby performed poorly despite discipline esteem. These results—and the practice of publishing means without prior model validation—demand major reforms in the field. PMID:25394746

  15. Accuracies of facial soft tissue depth means for estimating ground truth skin surfaces in forensic craniofacial identification.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Carl N

    2015-07-01

    Facial soft tissue thickness means have long been used as a proxy to estimate the soft tissue envelope, over the skull, in craniofacial identification. However, estimation errors of these statistics are not well understood, making casework selection of the best performing estimation models impossible and overarching method accuracies controversial. To redress this situation, residuals between predicted and ground truth values were calculated in two experiments: (1) for 27 suites of means drawn from 10 recently published studies, all examining the same 10 landmarks (N ≥ 3051), and tested against six independent raw datasets of contemporary living adults (N = 797); and (2) pairwise tests of the above six, and five other, raw datasets (N = 1063). In total, 380 out-of-sample tests of 416 arithmetic means were conducted across 11 independent samples. Experiment 1 produced an overarching mean absolute percentage error (MAE) of 29% and a standard error of the estimate (S(est)) of 2.7 mm. Experiment 2 yielded MAE of 32% and S(est) of 2.8 mm. In any instance, MAE was always ≥20% of the ground truth value. The overarching 95% limits of the error, for contemporary samples, was large (11.4 mm). CT-derived means from South Korean males and Black South African females routinely performed well across the test samples and produced the smallest errors of any tests (but did so for Black American male reference samples). Sample-specific statistics thereby performed poorly despite discipline esteem. These results—and the practice of publishing means without prior model validation—demand major reforms in the field.

  16. Truth Troubles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullis Owen, Jillian A.; McRae, Chris; Adams, Tony E.; Vitale, Alisha

    2009-01-01

    "truth" is an issue of public discussion, research, and everyday performance. Processes of navigating truth, however, are obscure and often unknown. In this project, the authors highlight truth(s) of written life texts. They conceive of truth as "a" rather than "the" "rhetorical device" to use for evaluating personal research and believe that…

  17. Methods for improving accuracy and extending results beyond periods covered by traditional ground-truth in remote sensing classification of a complex landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful development of approaches to quantify impacts of diverse landuse and associated agricultural management practices on ecosystem services is frequently limited by lack of historical and contemporary landuse data. We hypothesized that recent ground truth data could be used to extrapolate pre...

  18. Gulf stream ground truth project - Results of the NRL airborne sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, C. R.; Chen, D. T.; Hammond, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Results of an airborne study of the waves in the Gulf Stream are presented. These results show that the active microwave sensors (high-flight radar and wind-wave radar) provide consistent and accurate estimates of significant wave height and surface wind speed, respectively. The correlation between the wave height measurements of the high-flight radar and a laser profilometer is excellent.

  19. Skylab program earth resources experiment package: Ground truth data for test sites (SL-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Field measurements were performed at selected ground sites in order to provide comparative calibration measurements of sensors for the Earth Resources Experiment Package. Specifically, the solar radiation (400 to 1300 namometers) and thermal radiation (8-14 micrometers) were measured. Sites employed for the thermal measurements consisted of warm and cold water lakes. The thermal brightness temperature of the lake water, the temperature and humidity profile above the lake, and near surface meteorology (wind speed, pressure, etc.) were measured near the time of overpass. Sites employed for the solar radiation measurements were two desert type sites. Ground measurements consisted of: (1) direct solar radiation - optical depth; (2) diffuse solar radiation; (3) total solar radiation, (4) target directional (normal) reflectance; (5) target hemispherical reflectance; and (6) near surface meteorology.

  20. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground truth data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Anthony; Way, Jo Bea; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz

    1992-01-01

    We seek to combine high-resolution remotely sensed data with models and ground truth measurements, in the context of a Geographical Information System, integrated with specialized image processing software. We will use this integrated system to analyze the data from two Case Studies, one at a bore Al forest site, the other a tropical forest site. We will assess the information content of the different components of the data, determine the optimum data combinations to study biogeophysical changes in the forest, assess the best way to visualize the results, and validate the models for the forest response to different radar wavelengths/polarizations. During the 1990's, unprecedented amounts of high-resolution images from space of the Earth's surface will become available to the applications scientist from the LANDSAT/TM series, European and Japanese ERS-1 satellites, RADARSAT and SIR-C missions. When the Earth Observation Systems (EOS) program is operational, the amount of data available for a particular site can only increase. The interdisciplinary scientist, seeking to use data from various sensors to study his site of interest, may be faced with massive difficulties in manipulating such large data sets, assessing their information content, determining the optimum combinations of data to study a particular parameter, visualizing his results and validating his model of the surface. The techniques to deal with these problems are also needed to support the analysis of data from NASA's current program of Multi-sensor Airborne Campaigns, which will also generate large volumes of data. In the Case Studies outlined in this proposal, we will have somewhat unique data sets. For the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (Case I) calibrated DC-8 SAR data and extensive ground truth measurement are already at our disposal. The data set shows documented evidence to temporal change. The Belize Forest Experiment (Case II) will produce calibrated DC-8 SAR and AVIRIS data, together with

  1. Science results from a Mars drilling simulation (Río Tinto, Spain) and ground truth for remote science observations.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    Science results from a field-simulated lander payload and post-mission laboratory investigations provided "ground truth" to interpret remote science observations made as part of the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling mission simulation. The experiment was successful in detecting evidence for life, habitability, and preservation potential of organics in a relevant astrobiological analogue of Mars. SCIENCE RESULTS: Borehole 7 was drilled near the Río Tinto headwaters at Peña de Hierro (Spain) in the upper oxidized remnant of an acid rock drainage system. Analysis of 29 cores (215 cm of core was recovered from 606 cm penetrated depth) revealed a matrix of goethite- (42-94%) and hematite-rich (47-87%) rocks with pockets of phyllosilicates (47-74%) and fine- to coarse-grained loose material. Post-mission X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the range of hematite:goethite mixtures that were visually recognizable (approximately 1:1, approximately 1:2, and approximately 1:3 mixtures displayed a yellowish-red color whereas 3:1 mixtures displayed a dark reddish-brown color). Organic carbon was poorly preserved in hematite/goethite-rich materials (C(org) <0.05 wt %) beneath the biologically active organic-rich soil horizon (C(org) approximately 3-11 wt %) in contrast to the phyllosilicate-rich zones (C(org) approximately 0.23 wt %). GROUND TRUTH VS. REMOTE SCIENCE ANALYSIS: Laboratory-based analytical results were compared to the analyses obtained by a Remote Science Team (RST) using a blind protocol. Ferric iron phases, lithostratigraphy, and inferred geologic history were correctly identified by the RST with the exception of phyllosilicate-rich materials that were misinterpreted as weathered igneous rock. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) luminometry, a tool available to the RST, revealed ATP amounts above background noise, i.e., 278-876 Relative Luminosity Units (RLUs) in only 6 cores, whereas organic carbon was detected in all

  2. Science results from a Mars drilling simulation (Río Tinto, Spain) and ground truth for remote science observations.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    Science results from a field-simulated lander payload and post-mission laboratory investigations provided "ground truth" to interpret remote science observations made as part of the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling mission simulation. The experiment was successful in detecting evidence for life, habitability, and preservation potential of organics in a relevant astrobiological analogue of Mars. SCIENCE RESULTS: Borehole 7 was drilled near the Río Tinto headwaters at Peña de Hierro (Spain) in the upper oxidized remnant of an acid rock drainage system. Analysis of 29 cores (215 cm of core was recovered from 606 cm penetrated depth) revealed a matrix of goethite- (42-94%) and hematite-rich (47-87%) rocks with pockets of phyllosilicates (47-74%) and fine- to coarse-grained loose material. Post-mission X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the range of hematite:goethite mixtures that were visually recognizable (approximately 1:1, approximately 1:2, and approximately 1:3 mixtures displayed a yellowish-red color whereas 3:1 mixtures displayed a dark reddish-brown color). Organic carbon was poorly preserved in hematite/goethite-rich materials (C(org) <0.05 wt %) beneath the biologically active organic-rich soil horizon (C(org) approximately 3-11 wt %) in contrast to the phyllosilicate-rich zones (C(org) approximately 0.23 wt %). GROUND TRUTH VS. REMOTE SCIENCE ANALYSIS: Laboratory-based analytical results were compared to the analyses obtained by a Remote Science Team (RST) using a blind protocol. Ferric iron phases, lithostratigraphy, and inferred geologic history were correctly identified by the RST with the exception of phyllosilicate-rich materials that were misinterpreted as weathered igneous rock. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) luminometry, a tool available to the RST, revealed ATP amounts above background noise, i.e., 278-876 Relative Luminosity Units (RLUs) in only 6 cores, whereas organic carbon was detected in all

  3. Science Results from a Mars Drilling Simulation (Río Tinto, Spain) and Ground Truth for Remote Science Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Stoker, Carol R.

    2008-10-01

    Science results from a field-simulated lander payload and post-mission laboratory investigations provided "ground truth" to interpret remote science observations made as part of the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling mission simulation. The experiment was successful in detecting evidence for life, habitability, and preservation potential of organics in a relevant astrobiological analogue of Mars. Science results. Borehole 7 was drilled near the Río Tinto headwaters at Peña de Hierro (Spain) in the upper oxidized remnant of an acid rock drainage system. Analysis of 29 cores (215 cm of core was recovered from 606 cm penetrated depth) revealed a matrix of goethite- (42-94%) and hematite-rich (47-87%) rocks with pockets of phyllosilicates (47-74%) and fine- to coarse-grained loose material. Post-mission X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the range of hematite:goethite mixtures that were visually recognizable (˜1:1, ˜1:2, and ˜1:3 mixtures displayed a yellowish-red color whereas 3:1 mixtures displayed a dark reddish-brown color). Organic carbon was poorly preserved in hematite/goethite-rich materials (Corg <0.05 wt %) beneath the biologically active organic-rich soil horizon (Corg ˜3-11 wt %) in contrast to the phyllosilicate-rich zones (Corg ˜0.23 wt %). Ground truth vs. remote science analysis. Laboratory-based analytical results were compared to the analyses obtained by a Remote Science Team (RST) using a blind protocol. Ferric iron phases, lithostratigraphy, and inferred geologic history were correctly identified by the RST with the exception of phyllosilicate-rich materials that were misinterpreted as weathered igneous rock. Adenosine 5‧-triphosphate (ATP) luminometry, a tool available to the RST, revealed ATP amounts above background noise, i.e., 278-876 Relative Luminosity Units (RLUs) in only 6 cores, whereas organic carbon was detected in all cores. Our manned vs. remote observations based on automated

  4. Ground Truthing Orbital Clay Mineral Observations with the APXS Onboard Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, C.; Gellert, R.; VanBommel, S.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. S.; Yen, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been exploring approximately 22 km diameter Endeavour crater since 2011. Its rim segments predate the Hesperian-age Burns formation and expose Noachian-age material, which is associated with orbital Fe3+-Mg-rich clay mineral observations [1,2]. Moving to an orders of magnitude smaller instrumental field of view on the ground, the clay minerals were challenging to pinpoint on the basis of geochemical data because they appear to be the result of near-isochemical weathering of the local bedrock [3,4]. However, the APXS revealed a more complex mineral story as fracture fills and so-called red zones appear to contain more Al-rich clay minerals [5,6], which had not been observed from orbit. These observations are important to constrain clay mineral formation processes. More detail will be added as Opportunity is heading into her 10th extended mission, during which she will investigate Noachian bedrock that predates Endeavour crater, study sedimentary rocks inside Endeavour crater, and explore a fluid-carved gully. ESA's ExoMars rover will land on Noachian-age Oxia Planum where abundant Fe3+-Mg-rich clay minerals have been observed from orbit, but the story will undoubtedly become more complex once seen from the ground.

  5. Comparison of land surface temperatures derived from satellite observations with ground truth during FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugita, M.; Brutsaert, W.

    1993-01-01

    Surface temperatures of the FIFE (First ISLSCP Field Experiment) experimental area derived from thermal infrared radiances recorded from different satellite platforms at different scales were compared with reference observations by means of infrared thermometers at ground stations distributed over the area. FIFE was conducted during late spring, summer and fall over an area of 15 km by 15 km in a hilly tall-grass prairie region in northeastern Kansas. The data available for this purpose were produced by AVHRR and TOVS instruments aboard NOAA-9 and NOAA-10, the TM instrument aboard Landsat-5, and VISSR instrument aboard GOES-7. The scales covered by these instruments span a wide range, namely between hundreds of meters (Landsat TM) and hundreds of kilometers (TOVS). The data are analyzed both with and without the application of an atmospheric correction.

  6. Ground-Truthing Seismic Refraction Tomography for Sinkhole Detection in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, D. R.; Hudyma, N.; Quigley, T. P.; Samakur, C.

    2007-12-01

    In order to provide effective return of storm water runoff to the subsurface aquifer, the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) constructs detention basins adjacent to its transportation facilities. These basins serve as a collection point for runoff within a local drainage area, and the overburden soil above the aquifer provides a natural filter for contaminants in the surface runoff water. However, the geologic setting for many of these basins in Florida is karst, limestone bedrock at shallow depth, and the concentration of water flow in these basins leads to frequent development of sinkholes. These sinkholes are an environmental hazard, as they provide a direct, open conduit for contaminant-laden runoff water to return to the aquifer rather than percolate through the overburden soil. Consequently, FDOT is keenly interested in all aspects of sinkholes, including factors leading to formation, methods of early detection, and effective methods for rapid repair. Recently, FDOT has engaged in a research effort to evaluate the capabilities of a wide range of geophysical investigation tools with regard to detection of sinkhole-prone areas within sites being considered for construction of detention ponds. The geophysical techniques evaluated have included ground penetrating radar (GPR), multi- electrode electrical resistivity (MER), seismic MASW, and seismic refraction tomography. In addition to geophysical testing at the research sites, extensive traditional geotechnical site characterization has been conducted, including boring and sampling of soil and rock, standard penetration tests (SPT), and cone penetration tests (CPT). The proposed paper will evaluate the capabilities of seismic refraction tomography. Comparisons between refraction tomograms and borehole logs, SPT soundings, and CPT soundings suggest that the refraction method can map the laterally-variable top of bedrock surface typical of karst terrane. During a recent ground proving exercise at the

  7. THE SEARCH FOR PSYCHIC TRUTHS.

    PubMed

    Busch, Fred

    2016-04-01

    Emphasizing psychic truths as the major domain of psychoanalysis, the author explores the complexity of defining such psychic truths. It is suggested that thinking of levels of psychic truths is the most useful approach. How to understand trauma and historical truth within this context is examined. The role of the analyst as aiding the search for psychic truths, rather than functioning as psychic "truth teller," is discussed within the context of paradigmatic changes in the psychoanalytic method that form an emerging common ground. PMID:27112742

  8. A 3-D view of field-scale fault-zone cementation from geologically ground-truthed electrical resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, H.; Spinelli, G. A.; Mozley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Fault-zones are an important control on fluid flow, affecting groundwater supply, hydrocarbon/contaminant migration, and waste/carbon storage. However, current models of fault seal are inadequate, primarily focusing on juxtaposition and entrainment effects, despite the recognition that fault-zone cementation is common and can dramatically reduce permeability. We map the 3D cementation patterns of the variably cemented Loma Blanca fault from the land surface to ~40 m depth, using electrical resistivity and induced polarization (IP). The carbonate-cemented fault zone is a region of anomalously low normalized chargeability, relative to the surrounding host material. Zones of low-normalized chargeability immediately under the exposed cement provide the first ground-truth that a cemented fault yields an observable IP anomaly. Low-normalized chargeability extends down from the surface exposure, surrounded by zones of high-normalized chargeability, at an orientation consistent with normal faults in the region; this likely indicates cementation of the fault zone at depth, which could be confirmed by drilling and coring. Our observations are consistent with: 1) the expectation that carbonate cement in a sandstone should lower normalized chargeability by reducing pore-surface area and bridging gaps in the pore space, and 2) laboratory experiments confirming that calcite precipitation within a column of glass beads decreases polarization magnitude. The ability to characterize spatial variations in the degree of fault-zone cementation with resistivity and IP has exciting implications for improving predictive models of the hydrogeologic impacts of cementation within faults.

  9. Determining olivine composition of basaltic dunes in Gale Crater, Mars, from orbit: Awaiting ground truth from Curiosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Melissa D.; Christensen, Philip R.

    2013-07-01

    successful landing of the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover in Gale Crater, Mars, presents a rare opportunity for validation of a spectral index developed for determining olivine chemistry from orbital midinfrared remote-sensing data. Here, a spectral index is developed using laboratory emissivity data of 13 synthetic Mg-Fe olivines. Utilizing this spectral index, a prediction of olivine composition (~Fo55 ± 5) is made from orbital data for a NE-SW trending dune field near the Curiosity rover. This dune field will be crossed during the mission as the rover travels toward a ~5 km-high sediment stack (Mount Sharp) that contains orbitally detected clays and sulfates. Curiosity can use its instrument suite (ChemMin, Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer, ChemCam) when it reaches the dunes to verify or refute the olivine-chemistry prediction presented here. The ability to validate the developed spectral index using the rover's ground-truth instruments will strengthen olivine-chemistry mapping across the Martian surface using this spectral index.

  10. Optimal spatial sampling techniques for ground truth data in microwave remote sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, R. G. S.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1977-01-01

    The paper examines optimal sampling techniques for obtaining accurate spatial averages of soil moisture, at various depths and for cell sizes in the range 2.5-40 acres, with a minimum number of samples. Both simple random sampling and stratified sampling procedures are used to reach a set of recommended sample sizes for each depth and for each cell size. Major conclusions from statistical sampling test results are that (1) the number of samples required decreases with increasing depth; (2) when the total number of samples cannot be prespecified or the moisture in only one single layer is of interest, then a simple random sample procedure should be used which is based on the observed mean and SD for data from a single field; (3) when the total number of samples can be prespecified and the objective is to measure the soil moisture profile with depth, then stratified random sampling based on optimal allocation should be used; and (4) decreasing the sensor resolution cell size leads to fairly large decreases in samples sizes with stratified sampling procedures, whereas only a moderate decrease is obtained in simple random sampling procedures.

  11. Objective evaluation of reconstruction methods for quantitative SPECT imaging in the absence of ground truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Song, Na; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C.

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is emerging as an important tool in clinical studies and biomedical research. There is thus a need for optimization and evaluation of systems and algorithms that are being developed for quantitative SPECT imaging. An appropriate objective method to evaluate these systems is by comparing their performance in the end task that is required in quantitative SPECT imaging, such as estimating the mean activity concentration in a volume of interest (VOI) in a patient image. This objective evaluation can be performed if the true value of the estimated parameter is known, i.e. we have a gold standard. However, very rarely is this gold standard known in human studies. Thus, no-gold-standard techniques to optimize and evaluate systems and algorithms in the absence of gold standard are required. In this work, we developed a no-gold-standard technique to objectively evaluate reconstruction methods used in quantitative SPECT when the parameter to be estimated is the mean activity concentration in a VOI. We studied the performance of the technique with realistic simulated image data generated from an object database consisting of five phantom anatomies with all possible combinations of five sets of organ uptakes, where each anatomy consisted of eight different organ VOIs. Results indicate that the method pro- vided accurate ranking of the reconstruction methods. We also demonstrated the application of consistency checks to test the no-gold-standard output.

  12. Improvements on GPS Location Cluster Analysis for the Prediction of Large Carnivore Feeding Activities: Ground-Truth Detection Probability and Inclusion of Activity Sensor Measures.

    PubMed

    Blecha, Kevin A; Alldredge, Mat W

    2015-01-01

    Animal space use studies using GPS collar technology are increasingly incorporating behavior based analysis of spatio-temporal data in order to expand inferences of resource use. GPS location cluster analysis is one such technique applied to large carnivores to identify the timing and location of feeding events. For logistical and financial reasons, researchers often implement predictive models for identifying these events. We present two separate improvements for predictive models that future practitioners can implement. Thus far, feeding prediction models have incorporated a small range of covariates, usually limited to spatio-temporal characteristics of the GPS data. Using GPS collared cougar (Puma concolor) we include activity sensor data as an additional covariate to increase prediction performance of feeding presence/absence. Integral to the predictive modeling of feeding events is a ground-truthing component, in which GPS location clusters are visited by human observers to confirm the presence or absence of feeding remains. Failing to account for sources of ground-truthing false-absences can bias the number of predicted feeding events to be low. Thus we account for some ground-truthing error sources directly in the model with covariates and when applying model predictions. Accounting for these errors resulted in a 10% increase in the number of clusters predicted to be feeding events. Using a double-observer design, we show that the ground-truthing false-absence rate is relatively low (4%) using a search delay of 2-60 days. Overall, we provide two separate improvements to the GPS cluster analysis techniques that can be expanded upon and implemented in future studies interested in identifying feeding behaviors of large carnivores.

  13. Improvements on GPS Location Cluster Analysis for the Prediction of Large Carnivore Feeding Activities: Ground-Truth Detection Probability and Inclusion of Activity Sensor Measures

    PubMed Central

    Blecha, Kevin A.; Alldredge, Mat W.

    2015-01-01

    Animal space use studies using GPS collar technology are increasingly incorporating behavior based analysis of spatio-temporal data in order to expand inferences of resource use. GPS location cluster analysis is one such technique applied to large carnivores to identify the timing and location of feeding events. For logistical and financial reasons, researchers often implement predictive models for identifying these events. We present two separate improvements for predictive models that future practitioners can implement. Thus far, feeding prediction models have incorporated a small range of covariates, usually limited to spatio-temporal characteristics of the GPS data. Using GPS collared cougar (Puma concolor) we include activity sensor data as an additional covariate to increase prediction performance of feeding presence/absence. Integral to the predictive modeling of feeding events is a ground-truthing component, in which GPS location clusters are visited by human observers to confirm the presence or absence of feeding remains. Failing to account for sources of ground-truthing false-absences can bias the number of predicted feeding events to be low. Thus we account for some ground-truthing error sources directly in the model with covariates and when applying model predictions. Accounting for these errors resulted in a 10% increase in the number of clusters predicted to be feeding events. Using a double-observer design, we show that the ground-truthing false-absence rate is relatively low (4%) using a search delay of 2–60 days. Overall, we provide two separate improvements to the GPS cluster analysis techniques that can be expanded upon and implemented in future studies interested in identifying feeding behaviors of large carnivores. PMID:26398546

  14. Remote Sensing across the Globe: Best Practices in Bringing Together Satellite Imagery, Telecommunications and Ground-Truth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, R.; Walker, C. E.; Martin, C.; Dorame, B.; Ochoa, H.; Orellana, D.; Isbell, D. M.; Pompea, S. M.

    2006-12-01

    A special student-to-student videoconference was held mid-May 2006 between students in Tucson, Arizona and La Serena, Chile, the headquarters for the north and south offices of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). Fifty participants at each location reported on a remote-sensing activity conducted by hundreds of students during February, March and April, 2006. The students became acquainted with the geography and geology of their area using Landsat satellite remote sensing imaging. The Tucson students then analyzed images of La Serena and students from Chile analyzed images of Tucson. Since top-down satellite views may not provide complete information, students from one country emailed students from the other country and requested them to be human "rovers," taking local pictures of areas under question to establish ground-truth. Student reaction to the project was unequivocally positive. "The remote sensing project was one of the most fun things in my junior year. I learned how to use a map of La Serena, Chile. I learned about the electromagnetic spectrum, used to form false color images. It was incredible for us Latino students to use our Spanish language to e-mail students in Chile", said Bisbail Dorame, student coordinator for the project at Howenstine High School in Tucson. The success of this cross-cultural program has motivated NOAO outreach staff to broaden the project to schools in other countries, coordinated by students as their service-learning project. To facilitate this effort, a special, yet generic, worksheet is being developed. The worksheet can be by teachers to include local landmarks and geographical features. Once completed and tested, the worksheet will be placed on the NOAO website, along with Landsat7 satellite images for different areas around the world. In 2007, the program will be expanded to examine the surface of Mars using Google Mars and NASA images. NOAO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in

  15. Ground Truth, Magnitude Calibration and Regional Phase Propagation and Detection in the Middle East and Horn of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Nyblade, A; Brazier, R; Adams, A; Park, Y; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2007-07-08

    In this project, we are exploiting several seismic data sets to improve U.S. operational capabilities to monitor for low yield nuclear tests across the Middle East (including the Iranian Plateau, Zagros Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Turkish Plateau, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift) and the Horn of Africa (including the northern part of the East African Rift, Afar Depression, southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden). The data sets are being used to perform three related tasks. (1) We are determining moment tensors, moment magnitudes and source depths for regional events in the magnitude 3.0 to 6.0 range. (2) These events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds, especially from events in Iran recorded at stations across the Arabian Peninsula. (3) We are collecting location ground truth at GT5 (local) and GT20 (regional) levels for seismic events with M > 2.5, including source geometry information and source depths. Towards meeting these objectives, seismograms from earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains recorded at regional distances have been inverted for moment tensors, which have then been used to create synthetic seismograms to determine the source depths of the earthquakes via waveform matching. The source depths have been confirmed by modeling teleseismic depth phases recorded on GSN and IMS stations. Early studies of the distribution of seismicity in the Zagros region found evidence for earthquakes in the upper mantle. But subsequent relocations of teleseismic earthquakes suggest that source depths are generally much shallower, lying mainly within the upper crust. All of the regional events studied so far nucleated within the upper crust, and most of the events have thrust mechanisms. The source mechanisms for these events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds for broadband seismic stations in the Arabian Peninsula, including IMS

  16. Validation of the Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Variability: Can Manual Segmentations Be Trusted as Ground Truth?

    PubMed

    Meiburger, Kristen M; Molinari, Filippo; Wong, Justin; Aguilar, Luis; Gallo, Diego; Steinman, David A; Morbiducci, Umberto

    2016-07-01

    difference in both the no variability and large variability cases. Moreover, the error range between the reader and automatic IMTV values was approximately 0.15 mm, which is on the same order of small IMTV values, indicating that manual and automatic IMTV readings should be not used interchangeably in clinical practice. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that expert manual tracings should not be considered reliable in IMTV measurement and, therefore, should not be trusted as ground truth. On the other hand, our automated algorithm was found to be more reliable, indicating how automated techniques could therefore foster analysis of the carotid artery intima-media thickness irregularity.

  17. GROUND TRUTH, MAGNITUDE CALIBRATION AND REGIONAL PHASE PROPAGATION AND DETECTION IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND HORN OF AFRICA

    SciTech Connect

    Nyblade, A; Adams, A; Brazier, R; Park, Y; Rodgers, A

    2006-07-10

    In this project, we are exploiting unique and open source seismic data sets to improve seismic monitoring across the Middle East (including the Iranian Plateau, Zagros Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Turkish Plateau, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift) and the Horn of Africa (including the northern part of the East African Rift, Afar Depression, southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden). The data sets are being used to perform three related tasks. (1) We are determining moment tensors, moment magnitudes and source depths for regional events in the magnitude 3.0 to 6.0 range. (2) These events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds, especially from events in Iran recorded at stations across the Arabian Peninsula. (3) We are collecting location ground truth at GT5 (local) and GT20 (regional) levels for seismic events with M > 2.5, including source geometry information and source depths. In the first phase of this project, seismograms from earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains recorded at regional distances have been inverted for moment tensors, and source depths for the earthquakes have been determined via waveform matching. Early studies of the distribution of seismicity in the Zagros region found evidence for earthquakes in the upper mantle. But subsequent relocations of teleseismic earthquakes suggest that source depths are generally much shallower, lying mainly within the upper crust. Nine events with magnitudes between 5 and 6 have been studied so far. Source depths for six of the events are within the upper crust, and three are located within the lower crust. The uncertainty in the source depths of the lower crustal events allows for the possibility that some of them may have even nucleated within the upper mantle. Eight events have thrust mechanisms and one has a strike-slip mechanism. We also report estimates of three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Arabian

  18. Validation of the Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Variability: Can Manual Segmentations Be Trusted as Ground Truth?

    PubMed

    Meiburger, Kristen M; Molinari, Filippo; Wong, Justin; Aguilar, Luis; Gallo, Diego; Steinman, David A; Morbiducci, Umberto

    2016-07-01

    difference in both the no variability and large variability cases. Moreover, the error range between the reader and automatic IMTV values was approximately 0.15 mm, which is on the same order of small IMTV values, indicating that manual and automatic IMTV readings should be not used interchangeably in clinical practice. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that expert manual tracings should not be considered reliable in IMTV measurement and, therefore, should not be trusted as ground truth. On the other hand, our automated algorithm was found to be more reliable, indicating how automated techniques could therefore foster analysis of the carotid artery intima-media thickness irregularity. PMID:27072077

  19. Ground-Truthing Moderate Resolution Satellite Imagery with Near-Surface Canopy Images in Hawai'i's Tropical Cloud Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergstrom, R.; Miura, T.; Lepczyk, C.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Nullet, M. A.; Nagai, S.

    2012-12-01

    Phenological studies are gaining importance globally as the onset of climate change is impacting the timing of green up and senescence in forest canopies and agricultural regions. Many studies use and analyze land surface phenology (LSP) derived from satellite vegetation index time series (VI's) such as those from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to monitor changes in phenological events. Seasonality is expected in deciduous temperate forests, while tropical regions are predicted to show more static reflectance readings given their stable and steady state. Due to persistent cloud cover and atmospheric interference in tropical regions, satellite VI time series are often subject to uncertainties and thus require near surface vegetation monitoring systems for ground-truthing. This study has been designed to assess the precision of MODIS phenological signatures using above-canopy, down-looking digital cameras installed on flux towers on the Island of Hawai'i. The cameras are part of the expanding Phenological Eyes Network (PEN) which has been implementing a global network of above-canopy, hemispherical digital cameras for forest and agricultural phenological monitoring. Cameras have been installed at two locations in Hawaii - one on a flux tower in close proximity to the Thurston Lave Tube (HVT) in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park and the other on a weather station in a section of the Hawaiian Tropical Experimental Forest in Laupaphoehoe (LEF). HVT consists primarily of a single canopy species, ohi'a lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha), with an understory of hapu'u ferns (Cibotium spp), while LEF is similarly comprised with an additional dominant species, Koa (Acacia Koa), included in the canopy structure. Given these species' characteristics, HVT is expected to show little seasonality, while LEF has the potential to deviate slightly during periods following dry and wet seasons. MODIS VI time series data are being analyzed and will be compared to images

  20. Using radar ground-truth to validate and improve the location accuracy of a lightning direction-finding network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is described in which isolated radar echoes associated with clusters of lightning strikes are used to validate and improve the location accuracy of a lightning-direction-finding network. Using this technique, site errors of a magnetic direction-finding network for locating lightning strikes to ground were accurately determined. The technique offers advantages over existing techniques in that large sample sizes are readily attainable over a broad area on a regular basis; the technique can also provide additional constraints to redundant data methods such as that described by Orville (1987). Since most lightning strike networks have either partial or full weather radar coverage, the technique is practical for all but a few users.

  1. Methods for improving accuracy and extending results beyond periods covered by traditional ground-truth in remote sensing classification of a complex landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Warrant, George W.; Whittaker, Gerald W.; Banowetz, Gary M.; Griffith, Stephen M.; Barnhart, Bradley L.

    2015-06-01

    Successful development of approaches to quantify impacts of diverse landuse and associated agricultural management practices on ecosystem services is frequently limited by lack of historical and contemporary landuse data. We hypothesized that ground truth data from one year could be used to extrapolate previous or future landuse in a complex landscape where cropping systems do not generally change greatly from year to year because the majority of crops are established perennials or the same annual crops grown on the same fields over multiple years. Prior to testing this hypothesis, it was first necessary to classify 57 major landuses in the Willamette Valley of western Oregon from 2005 to 2011 using normal same year ground-truth, elaborating on previously published work and traditional sources such as Cropland Data Layers (CDL) to more fully include minor crops grown in the region. Available remote sensing data included Landsat, MODIS 16-day composites, and National Aerial Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery, all of which were resampled to a common 30 m resolution. The frequent presence of clouds and Landsat7 scan line gaps forced us to conduct of series of separate classifications in each year, which were then merged by choosing whichever classification used the highest number of cloud- and gap-free bands at any given pixel. Procedures adopted to improve accuracy beyond that achieved by maximum likelihood pixel classification included majority-rule reclassification of pixels within 91,442 Common Land Unit (CLU) polygons, smoothing and aggregation of areas outside the CLU polygons, and majority-rule reclassification over time of forest and urban development areas. Final classifications in all seven years separated annually disturbed agriculture, established perennial crops, forest, and urban development from each other at 90 to 95% overall 4-class validation accuracy. In the most successful use of subsequent year ground-truth data to classify prior year landuse, an

  2. The variance needed to accurately describe jump height from vertical ground reaction force data.

    PubMed

    Richter, Chris; McGuinness, Kevin; O'Connor, Noel E; Moran, Kieran

    2014-12-01

    In functional principal component analysis (fPCA) a threshold is chosen to define the number of retained principal components, which corresponds to the amount of preserved information. A variety of thresholds have been used in previous studies and the chosen threshold is often not evaluated. The aim of this study is to identify the optimal threshold that preserves the information needed to describe a jump height accurately utilizing vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) curves. To find an optimal threshold, a neural network was used to predict jump height from vGRF curve measures generated using different fPCA thresholds. The findings indicate that a threshold from 99% to 99.9% (6-11 principal components) is optimal for describing jump height, as these thresholds generated significantly lower jump height prediction errors than other thresholds.

  3. Accurate nonrelativistic ground-state energies of 3d transition metal atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Scemama, A.; Applencourt, T.; Giner, E.; Caffarel, M.

    2014-12-28

    We present accurate nonrelativistic ground-state energies of the transition metal atoms of the 3d series calculated with Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo (FN-DMC). Selected multi-determinantal expansions obtained with the CIPSI (Configuration Interaction using a Perturbative Selection made Iteratively) method and including the most prominent determinants of the full configuration interaction expansion are used as trial wavefunctions. Using a maximum of a few tens of thousands determinants, fixed-node errors on total DMC energies are found to be greatly reduced for some atoms with respect to those obtained with Hartree-Fock nodes. To the best of our knowledge, the FN-DMC/(CIPSI nodes) ground-state energies presented here are the lowest variational total energies reported so far. They differ from the recently recommended non-variational values of McCarthy and Thakkar [J. Chem. Phys. 136, 054107 (2012)] only by a few percents of the correlation energy. Thanks to the variational property of FN-DMC total energies, our results provide exact lower bounds for the absolute value of all-electron correlation energies, |E{sub c}|.

  4. UAS-Borne Photogrammetry for Surface Topographic Characterization: A Ground-Truth Baseline for Future Change Detection and Refinement of Scaled Remotely-Sensed Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppersmith, R.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Sussman, A. J.; Vigil, S.; Dzur, R.; Norskog, K.; Kelley, R.; Miller, L.

    2015-12-01

    While long-term objectives of monitoring and verification regimes include remote characterization and discrimination of surficial geologic and topographic features at sites of interest, ground truth data is required to advance development of remote sensing techniques. Increasingly, it is desirable for these ground-based or ground-proximal characterization methodologies to be as nimble, efficient, non-invasive, and non-destructive as their higher-altitude airborne counterparts while ideally providing superior resolution. For this study, the area of interest is an alluvial site at the Nevada National Security Site intended for use in the Source Physics Experiment's (Snelson et al., 2013) second phase. Ground-truth surface topographic characterization was performed using a DJI Inspire 1 unmanned aerial system (UAS), at very low altitude (< 5-30m AGL). 2D photographs captured by the standard UAS camera payload were imported into Agisoft Photoscan to create three-dimensional point clouds. Within the area of interest, careful installation of surveyed ground control fiducial markers supplied necessary targets for field collection, and information for model georectification. The resulting model includes a Digital Elevation Model derived from 2D imagery. It is anticipated that this flexible and versatile characterization process will provide point cloud data resolution equivalent to a purely ground-based LiDAR scanning deployment (e.g., 1-2cm horizontal and vertical resolution; e.g., Sussman et al., 2012; Schultz-Fellenz et al., 2013). In addition to drastically increasing time efficiency in the field, the UAS method also allows for more complete coverage of the study area when compared to ground-based LiDAR. Comparison and integration of these data with conventionally-acquired airborne LiDAR data from a higher-altitude (~ 450m) platform will aid significantly in the refinement of technologies and detection capabilities of remote optical systems to identify and detect

  5. Accurate intermolecular ground state potential of the Ne-N2 van der Waals complex.

    PubMed

    Munteanu, Cristian R; López Cacheiro, Javier; Fernández, Berta

    2004-05-15

    Ab initio ground state potential energy surfaces are obtained from interaction energies calculated with the coupled cluster singles and doubles model including connected triples corrections [CCSD(T)] and the aug-cc-pVXZ (X=5,Q,T,D) basis sets augmented with two different sets of midbond functions (denoted 33221 and 33211). The aug-cc-pV5Z-33221 surface is characterized by a T-shaped 49.5 cm(-1) minimum at Re=3.38 Angstroms and a linear saddle point at 3.95 Angstroms with De=36.6 cm(-1). These results agree well with the values provided by the accurate semiempirical potentials available. The rovibronic spectroscopic properties are determined and compared to the available experimental data and previous theoretical results. We study the basis set convergence of the intermolecular potentials and the rotational frequencies. The aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets provide reasonable binding parameters, but seem not to be converged enough for the evaluation of the microwave spectra. The aug-cc-pVQZ basis sets considerably improve the triple zeta results. The differences between the results obtained with the aug-cc-pVTZ-33221 basis set surface and those with the aug-cc-pVQZ-33221 are smaller than those of the corresponding bases with the set of 33211 midbond functions. The aug-cc-pVQZ surfaces are close to the aug-cc-pV5Z, that are expected to be close to convergence. With our best surfaces the errors in the frequencies with respect to the accurate experimental results go down to 0.6%.

  6. Derivation from the Landsat 7 NDVI and ground truth validation of LAI and interception storage capacity for wetland ecosystems in Biebrza Valley, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suliga, Joanna; Chormański, Jarosław; Szporak-Wasilewska, Sylwia; Kleniewska, Małgorzata; Berezowski, Tomasz; van Griensven, Ann; Verbeiren, Boud

    2015-10-01

    Wetlands are very valuable areas because they provide a wide range of ecosystems services therefore modeling of wetland areas is very relevant, however, the most widely used hydrological models were developed in the 90s and usually are not adjusted to simulate wetland conditions. In case of wetlands including interception storage into the model's calculation is even more challenging, because literature data hardly exists. This study includes the computation of interception storage capacity based on Landsat 7 image and ground truthing measurements conducted in the Biebrza Valley, Poland. The method was based on collecting and weighing dry, wet and fully saturated samples of sedges. During the experiments measurements of fresh/dry biomass and leaf area index (LAI) were performed. The research was repeated three times during the same season (May, June and July 2013) to observe temporal variability of parameters. Ground truthing measurements were used for the validating estimation of parameters derived from images acquired in a similar period as the measurements campaigns. The use of remote sensing has as major advantage of being able to obtain an area covering spatially and temporally distributed estimate of the interception storage capacity. Results from this study proved that interception capacity of wetlands vegetation is changing considerably during the vegetation season (temporal variability) and reaches its maximum value when plants are fully developed. Different areas depending on existing plants species are characterized with different values of interception capacity (spatial variability). This research frames within the INTREV and HiWET projects, funded respectively by National Science Centre (NCN) in Poland and BELSPO STEREO III.

  7. Using ground-based geophysics to rapidly and accurately map sub-surface acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Vanessa; Triantafilis, John; Johnston, Scott; Nhan, Terence; Page, Donald; Wege, Richard; Hirst, Phillip; Slavich, Peter

    2013-04-01

    sulfuric and sulfidic layers (oxidised and reduced ASS), acidic shallow groundwater, and features of the infilled palaeovalley (Triantafilis et al. 2012). Accurate soil maps with high spatial resolution are required to develop appropriate management strategies for ASS and other soil types associated with low-lying coastal floodplains. The classes identified in this study form sensible soil management zones across the study area related to defined geomorphic units. EM data can then be used to build below-ground 3D models to inform practical targeted management strategies on coastal floodplains to improve land and water quality outcomes. References Triantafilis J, Wong V, Santos FAM, Page D, Wege R (2012) Modeling the electrical conductivity of hydrogeological strata using joint-inversion of loop-loop electromagnetic data. Geophysics 77(4): WB99-WB107

  8. Accurate intermolecular ground state potential of the Ar-N2 van der Waals complex.

    PubMed

    Munteanu, Cristian R; Cacheiro, Javier López; Fernández, Berta

    2004-12-01

    After carrying out a systematic basis set convergence study, we evaluate several ground state potential energy surfaces of the Ar-N(2) van der Waals complex at the coupled cluster singles and doubles model including connected triples corrections. We use the aug-cc-pVXZ (X=5,Q,D) and the daug-cc-pVQZ basis sets augmented with a set of 3s3p2d1f1g (denoted 33211) and 3s3p2d2f1g (denoted 33221) midbond functions, respectively. aug-cc-pVTZ-33211 results were available in the literature. The aug-cc-pV5Z-33211 (daug-cc-pVQZ-33221) surface is characterized by a T-shaped minimum at R(e)=3.709 (3.701) A and of 99.01 (102.50) cm(-1), and a linear saddle point at 4.260 (4.257) A and D(e)=75.28 (79.73) cm(-1). These results are compared with the values provided by the semiempirical potentials available, and those of previous theoretical studies. The basis set convergence of the intermolecular potentials is also analyzed. From the potentials the rovibronic spectroscopic properties are determined. We study the basis set convergence of the rotational frequencies. The binding parameters that characterized the aug-cc-pVTZ-33211 surface are reasonable, but the surface is not good enough to evaluate the microwave spectra. The aug-cc-pVQZ-33211 basis set results considerably improve the triple zeta and are close to the aug-cc-pV5Z-33211. Considering the small differences between the quadruple and the quintuple zeta surfaces, the latter results can be expected to be close to convergence. At this level the differences with respect to the accurate experimental frequencies are in the order of 0.7%. In the case of the daug-cc-pVXZ-33211,33221 (X=5,Q,T,D) series, the convergence of the interaction energies with respect to basis set improvement is not so smooth. The errors in the frequencies obtained with the daug-cc-pVQZ-33221 basis set with respect to experiment are in the order of 0.4%.

  9. Cosmological ``Truths''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bothun, Greg

    2011-10-01

    Ever since Aristotle placed us, with certainty, in the Center of the Cosmos, Cosmological models have more or less operated from a position of known truths for some time. As early as 1963, for instance, it was ``known'' that the Universe had to be 15-17 billion years old due to the suspected ages of globular clusters. For many years, attempts to determine the expansion age of the Universe (the inverse of the Hubble constant) were done against this preconceived and biased notion. Not surprisingly when more precise observations indicated a Hubble expansion age of 11-13 billion years, stellar models suddenly changed to produce a new age for globular cluster stars, consistent with 11-13 billion years. Then in 1980, to solve a variety of standard big bang problems, inflation was introduced in a fairly ad hoc manner. Inflation makes the simple prediction that the net curvature of spacetime is zero (i.e. spacetime is flat). The consequence of introducing inflation is now the necessary existence of a dark matter dominated Universe since the known baryonic material could comprise no more than 1% of the necessary energy density to make spacetime flat. As a result of this new cosmological ``truth'' a significant world wide effort was launched to detect the dark matter (which obviously also has particle physics implications). To date, no such cosmological component has been detected. Moreover, all available dynamical inferences of the mass density of the Universe showed in to be about 20% of that required for closure. This again was inconsistent with the truth that the real density of the Universe was the closure density (e.g. Omega = 1), that the observations were biased, and that 99% of the mass density had to be in the form of dark matter. That is, we know the universe is two component -- baryons and dark matter. Another prevailing cosmological truth during this time was that all the baryonic matter was known to be in galaxies that populated our galaxy catalogs. Subsequent

  10. Field size, length, and width distributions based on LACIE ground truth data. [large area crop inventory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, D. E.; Badhwar, G.

    1980-01-01

    The development of agricultural remote sensing systems requires knowledge of agricultural field size distributions so that the sensors, sampling frames, image interpretation schemes, registration systems, and classification systems can be properly designed. Malila et al. (1976) studied the field size distribution for wheat and all other crops in two Kansas LACIE (Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment) intensive test sites using ground observations of the crops and measurements of their field areas based on current year rectified aerial photomaps. The field area and size distributions reported in the present investigation are derived from a representative subset of a stratified random sample of LACIE sample segments. In contrast to previous work, the obtained results indicate that most field-size distributions are not log-normally distributed. The most common field size observed in this study was 10 acres for most crops studied.

  11. When the lie is the truth: grounded theory analysis of an online support group for factitious disorder.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Aideen; Kirakowski, Jurek

    2014-08-15

    Factitious disorder (FD) is poorly understood because of the elusiveness of sufferers. What is known is based on speculation from observational case studies and this is evident by the manifold diagnostic and treatment issues associated with FD. This study sought to fill the gap in the literature and overcome the elusiveness of FD sufferers by analysing their text communications in two online communities. One hundred twenty four posts by 57 members amounting to approximately 38,000 words were analysed using grounded theory. The analysis showed that contrary to current theories of FD, motivation is conscious and not unconscious, members did experience symptoms associated with the disorder, and they were also upset by their behaviour and wanted to recover but were deterred by fear. Furthermore, using the excessive appetitive model by Orford (2001) it is hypothesised that the characteristics of FD described by the members were congruent with those associated with addiction. PMID:24745468

  12. Evaluation of gravimetric ground truth soil moisture data collected for the agricultural soil moisture experiment, 1978 Colby, Kansas, aircraft mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arya, L. M.; Phinney, D. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Soil moisture data acquired to support the development of algorithms for estimating surface soil moisture from remotely sensed backscattering of microwaves from ground surfaces are presented. Aspects of field uniformity and variability of gravimetric soil moisture measurements are discussed. Moisture distribution patterns are illustrated by frequency distributions and contour plots. Standard deviations and coefficients of variation relative to degree of wetness and agronomic features of the fields are examined. Influence of sampling depth on observed moisture content an variability are indicated. For the various sets of measurements, soil moisture values that appear as outliers are flagged. The distribution and legal descriptions of the test fields are included along with examinations of soil types, agronomic features, and sampling plan. Bulk density data for experimental fields are appended, should analyses involving volumetric moisture content be of interest to the users of data in this report.

  13. Gebiss: an ImageJ plugin for the specification of ground truth and the performance evaluation of 3D segmentation algorithms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Image segmentation is a crucial step in quantitative microscopy that helps to define regions of tissues, cells or subcellular compartments. Depending on the degree of user interactions, segmentation methods can be divided into manual, automated or semi-automated approaches. 3D image stacks usually require automated methods due to their large number of optical sections. However, certain applications benefit from manual or semi-automated approaches. Scenarios include the quantification of 3D images with poor signal-to-noise ratios or the generation of so-called ground truth segmentations that are used to evaluate the accuracy of automated segmentation methods. Results We have developed Gebiss; an ImageJ plugin for the interactive segmentation, visualisation and quantification of 3D microscopic image stacks. We integrated a variety of existing plugins for threshold-based segmentation and volume visualisation. Conclusions We demonstrate the application of Gebiss to the segmentation of nuclei in live Drosophila embryos and the quantification of neurodegeneration in Drosophila larval brains. Gebiss was developed as a cross-platform ImageJ plugin and is freely available on the web at http://imaging.bii.a-star.edu.sg/projects/gebiss/. PMID:21668958

  14. Comparing different methods for assessing ground truth of rover data analysis for the 2005 season of the Life in the Atacama Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, G. W.; Peate, I. Ukstins; Nakamoto, J.; Pudenz, E.; Glasgow, J.; Bretthauer, J.; Cabrol, N.; Wettergreen, D.; Grin, E.; Coppin, P.; Dohm, J. M.; Piatek, J. L.; Warren-Rhodes, K.; Hock, A. N.; Weinstein, S.; Fisher, G.; Diaz, G. Chong; Cockell, C.; Marinangeli, L.; Minkley, N.; Moersch, J.; Ori, G. G.; Smith, T.; Stubb, K.; Wagner, M.; Waggoner, A. S.

    2007-12-01

    The scientific success of a remote exploration rover mission depends on the right combination of technology, teamwork and scientific insight. In order to quantitatively evaluate the success of a rover field trial, it is necessary to assess the accuracy of scientific interpretations made during the field test. This work compares three structured approaches to assessing the ground truth of scientific findings from a science team conducting a remote investigation of a locale using an autonomous rover. For the first approach, independent assessment, the daily science summaries were analyzed and reduced to a series of 1082 factual statements, which were treated as hypotheses. An independent scientist traveled to the field area to assess these hypotheses. For the second approach, guided self-study, the mission scientists themselves traveled to the field area and evaluated their own scientific interpretations. The third approach, discrepancy investigation, searched for the root causes of differences between the scientific interpretations made in the control room and those made in the field. The independent investigation provided sensitive, quantitative data, but suffered from the lack of context and continuity developed in the mission control room. The guided evaluation benefited from the context of the mission, but lacked clarity and consistency. The discrepancy investigation provided insight into the root causes behind the discrepancies, but was expensive and time consuming. The independent investigation method yielded particularly compelling results, but each method offers advantages and a comprehensive rover field trial assessment should include a combination of all three.

  15. Remote and in situ detection of environmental and biological signatures: ground-truthing hyperspectral imaging for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C.; Brown, Adrian J.; Walter, Malcolm R.

    2004-11-01

    Proposed geochemical histories for the evolution of Mars offer the possibility that the planet may have experienced conditions remarkably similar to those faced by life on Earth during Archean and Proterozoic eons. For almost two billion years microbial mat communities dominated by photosynthetic cyanobacteria were the dominant life forms on Earth. Descendents of these complex communities and the fossil remnants of their ancestors can be found today in Northwestern Australia. These sites offer a unique testing ground for developing integrated remote and in situ methods for identifying sites of geobiological interest during exploration of Mars, the Jovian or Saturnian satellites, or neighboring extra-solar planetary systems. We are currently performing remote and in situ analyses of spectral and image data from the Trendall locality of NW Australia, an area rich in geobiological targets including hydrothermally altered basalts, fossil stromatolites and pillow basalts. We discuss the early results of employing cluster analysis, Bayesian probabilistic estimators, and complexity analysis techniques to analyze remote and in situ photographic and spectral data. The techniques presented offer a systematic methodology for both the remote selection of landing sites most likely to contain targets of geobiological interest and the in situ identification of aqueous or biologically altered samples.

  16. Discovering the truth beyond the truth.

    PubMed

    Becker, Gerhild; Jors, Karin; Block, Susan

    2015-03-01

    The question "What is truth?" is one of the oldest questions in philosophy. Truth within the field of medicine has gained relevance because of its fundamental relationship to the principle of patient autonomy. To fully participate in their medical care, patients must be told the truth-even in the most difficult of situations. Palliative care emphasizes patient autonomy and a patient-centered approach, and it is precisely among patients with chronic, life-threatening, or terminal illnesses that truth plays a particularly crucial role. For these patients, finding out the truth about their disease forces them to confront existential fears. As physicians, we must understand that truth, similar to the complexity of pain, is multidimensional. In this article, we discuss the truth from three linguistic perspectives: the Latin veritas, the Greek aletheia, and the Hebrew emeth. Veritas conveys an understanding of truth focused on facts and reality. Aletheia reveals truth as a process, and emeth shows that truth is experienced in truthful encounters with others. In everyday clinical practice, truth is typically equated with the facts. However, this limited understanding of the truth does not account for the uniqueness of each patient. Although two patients may receive the same diagnosis (or facts), each will be affected by this truth in a very individual way. To help patients apprehend the truth, physicians are called to engage in a delicate back-and-forth of multiple difficult conversations in which each patient is accepted as a unique individual.

  17. The Sampled Red List Index for Plants, phase II: ground-truthing specimen-based conservation assessments

    PubMed Central

    Brummitt, Neil; Bachman, Steven P.; Aletrari, Elina; Chadburn, Helen; Griffiths-Lee, Janine; Lutz, Maiko; Moat, Justin; Rivers, Malin C.; Syfert, Mindy M.; Nic Lughadha, Eimear M.

    2015-01-01

    The IUCN Sampled Red List Index (SRLI) is a policy response by biodiversity scientists to the need to estimate trends in extinction risk of the world's diminishing biological diversity. Assessments of plant species for the SRLI project rely predominantly on herbarium specimen data from natural history collections, in the overwhelming absence of accurate population data or detailed distribution maps for the vast majority of plant species. This creates difficulties in re-assessing these species so as to measure genuine changes in conservation status, which must be observed under the same Red List criteria in order to be distinguished from an increase in the knowledge available for that species, and thus re-calculate the SRLI. However, the same specimen data identify precise localities where threatened species have previously been collected and can be used to model species ranges and to target fieldwork in order to test specimen-based range estimates and collect population data for SRLI plant species. Here, we outline a strategy for prioritizing fieldwork efforts in order to apply a wider range of IUCN Red List criteria to assessments of plant species, or any taxa with detailed locality or natural history specimen data, to produce a more robust estimation of the SRLI. PMID:25561676

  18. The sampled Red List Index for plants, phase II: ground-truthing specimen-based conservation assessments.

    PubMed

    Brummitt, Neil; Bachman, Steven P; Aletrari, Elina; Chadburn, Helen; Griffiths-Lee, Janine; Lutz, Maiko; Moat, Justin; Rivers, Malin C; Syfert, Mindy M; Nic Lughadha, Eimear M

    2015-02-19

    The IUCN Sampled Red List Index (SRLI) is a policy response by biodiversity scientists to the need to estimate trends in extinction risk of the world's diminishing biological diversity. Assessments of plant species for the SRLI project rely predominantly on herbarium specimen data from natural history collections, in the overwhelming absence of accurate population data or detailed distribution maps for the vast majority of plant species. This creates difficulties in re-assessing these species so as to measure genuine changes in conservation status, which must be observed under the same Red List criteria in order to be distinguished from an increase in the knowledge available for that species, and thus re-calculate the SRLI. However, the same specimen data identify precise localities where threatened species have previously been collected and can be used to model species ranges and to target fieldwork in order to test specimen-based range estimates and collect population data for SRLI plant species. Here, we outline a strategy for prioritizing fieldwork efforts in order to apply a wider range of IUCN Red List criteria to assessments of plant species, or any taxa with detailed locality or natural history specimen data, to produce a more robust estimation of the SRLI.

  19. IMPROVED GROUND TRUTH IN SOUTHERN ASIA USING IN-COUNTRY DATA, ANALYST WAVEFORM REVIEW, AND ADVANCED ALGORITHMS

    SciTech Connect

    Engdahl, Eric, R.; Bergman, Eric, A.; Myers, Stephen, C.; Ryall, Floriana

    2009-06-19

    respective errors. This is a significant advance, as outliers and future events with apparently anomalous depths can be readily identified and, if necessary, further investigated. The patterns of reliable focal depth distributions have been interpreted in the context of Middle Eastern active tectonics. Most earthquakes in the Iranian continental lithosphere occur in the upper crust, less than about 25-30 km in depth, with the crustal shortening produced by continental collision apparently accommodated entirely by thickening and distributed deformation rather than by subduction of crust into the mantle. However, intermediate-depth earthquakes associated with subducted slab do occur across the central Caspian Sea and beneath the Makran coast. A multiple-event relocation technique, specialized to use different kinds of near-source data, is used to calibrate the locations of 24 clusters containing 901 events drawn from the seismicity catalog. The absolute locations of these clusters are fixed either by comparing the pattern of relocated earthquakes with mapped fault geometry, by using one or more cluster events that have been accurately located independently by a local seismic network or aftershock deployment, by using InSAR data to determine the rupture zone of shallow earthquakes, or by some combination of these near-source data. This technique removes most of the systematic bias in single-event locations done with regional and teleseismic data, resulting in 624 calibrated events with location uncertainties of 5 km or better at the 90% confidence level (GT590). For 21 clusters (847 events) that are calibrated in both location and origin time we calculate empirical travel times, relative to a standard 1-D travel time model (ak135), and investigate event to station travel-time anomalies as functions of epicentral distance and azimuth. Substantial travel-time anomalies are seen in the Iran region which make accurate locations impossible unless observing stations are at very short

  20. Ground-Truth On The CSUEB Campus: Results From Integrating Geophysical, Geological And Geospatial Methods And Fault Trench Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abimbola, A.; Strayer, L. M.; McEvilly, A.

    2015-12-01

    A major (>M6) earthquake on the Hayward fault would be catastrophic, resulting in wide-ranging structural damage and potential loss of life. California State University, East Bay (CSUEB), in Hayward lies within the Hayward fault zone and is home to student residents. The campus is bound to the west by the Hayward and on the east by Chabot (CF) fault and is pervasively cut by anastomosing secondary splay faults. In June 2015 three exploratory trenches were opened on CSUEB campus to evaluate faulting within the proposed construction area of new student housing. Previous work by Dibblee found minor faulting in this area that we consider to be splays of the CF. We took the opportunity to conduct an active seismic survey, coincident with two of these three trenches. The purpose of our survey was to compare the results of these two methods, to further assess seismic hazard on campus, and to contribute to the ongoing effort to create a 3D model of the campus area. P-waves were generated by plate and 3.5kg sledgehammer, recorded on a 48-channel single component array for P-wave tomography and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). Line 1 was 141m long with 3m receiver spacing and 9m shot spacing, and Line 2 was 188m long with 4m receivers spacing and 12m spacing. Initial P-wave tomography models show two velocity structures. To a depth of 25m, velocities ranged from 750-3000 m/s. At depths below 25m, we recorded P-wave velocities up to 6500 m/s, flanked by lower velocities, suggesting a bedrock unit bound by tectonically sheared material. Trench results indicate that faults and shears are indeed present in the top 2m. Additional near-surface seismic surveys are planned for the fall of 2015 to extend the trace of these faults, as they appear to cut across the entire campus. Furthermore, additional analysis of current and future seismic surveys will provide data on strong ground motion and offer insight into seismic hazards on the CSUEB campus. These new data will be

  1. Archaeological Evidence for Abrupt Cimate Change: Results from Satellite Imagery Analysis and Subsequent Ground-Truthing in the El-Manzalah Region, Northeast Egyptian Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parcak, S. H.

    2003-12-01

    The abrupt global climate changes recorded at 8.2, 5.2 and 4.2 ka BP caused a wide range of transformations within ancient societies, including the focus of this study: ancient Egypt . In the case of the climatic changes that occurred at 4.2 ka BP, scholars have debated hotly the events surrounding the "collapse" of the Old Kingdom. Despite such studies into the Old Kingdom's "collapse", there have been insufficient regional settlement pattern studies in Egypt to augment hypotheses concerning the mechanisms behind the cultural transformations that occurred at the end of the Old Kingdom. Utilizing a combination of satellite imagery analysis and subsequent ground-truthing techniques over a broad region in the East Delta, this study aims to reconstruct pharaonic settlement distributions in relation to the changing northeast delta topography, river courses, marshlands, and coastline. Although geo-political and religious factors played varying roles in settlement patterns, this study overlies the economic and environmental components behind the settlement of individual sites and areas. For instance, prior to the formation of the Manzala lagoon, beginning in the 4th century AD, the Mendesian branch of the Nile flowed past Mendes and its satellite, maritime port at Tell Tebilla: As early as the Old Kingdom, Tell Tebilla provided an ideal location for the formation of a town, being well-located to exploit both riverine and maritime transportation routes through trade, and regional floral and faunal resources from hunting, fishing, cultivation and animal husbandry. Key factors such as long-term fluctuations in precipitation, flood levels, and river courses, can affect dramatically the fortunes of individual settlements, areas, and regions, resulting in the decline and abandonment of some sites and the foundation and flourishing of other sites, especially within marginal regions. The Egyptian delta represents an ideal region for studying the impacts of climatic changes

  2. Wi-GIM system: a new wireless sensor network (WSN) for accurate ground instability monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucchi, Lorenzo; Trippi, Federico; Schina, Rosa; Fornaciai, Alessandro; Gigli, Giovanni; Nannipieri, Luca; Favalli, Massimiliano; Marturia Alavedra, Jordi; Intrieri, Emanuele; Agostini, Andrea; Carnevale, Ennio; Bertolini, Giovanni; Pizziolo, Marco; Casagli, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Landslides are among the most serious and common geologic hazards around the world. Their impact on human life is expected to increase in the next future as a consequence of human-induced climate change as well as the population growth in proximity of unstable slopes. Therefore, developing better performing technologies for monitoring landslides and providing local authorities with new instruments able to help them in the decision making process, is becoming more and more important. The recent progresses in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) allow us to extend the use of wireless technologies in landslide monitoring. In particular, the developments in electronics components have permitted to lower the price of the sensors and, at the same time, to actuate more efficient wireless communications. In this work we present a new wireless sensor network (WSN) system, designed and developed for landslide monitoring in the framework of EU Wireless Sensor Network for Ground Instability Monitoring - Wi-GIM project (LIFE12 ENV/IT/001033). We show the preliminary performance of the Wi-GIM system after the first period of monitoring on the active Roncovetro Landslide and on a large subsiding area in the neighbourhood of Sallent village. The Roncovetro landslide is located in the province of Reggio Emilia (Italy) and moved an inferred volume of about 3 million cubic meters. Sallent village is located at the centre of the Catalan evaporitic basin in Spain. The Wi-GIM WSN monitoring system consists of three levels: 1) Master/Gateway level coordinates the WSN and performs data aggregation and local storage; 2) Master/Server level takes care of acquiring and storing data on a remote server; 3) Nodes level that is based on a mesh of peripheral nodes, each consisting in a sensor board equipped with sensors and wireless module. The nodes are located in the landslide ground perimeter and are able to create an ad-hoc WSN. The location of each sensor on the ground is

  3. Accurate ab initio calculations which demonstrate a 3 Pi u ground state for Al2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.; Walch, Stephen P.

    1986-01-01

    The spectroscopic parameters and separations between the three low-lying X 3 Pi u, A 3 Sigma g -, and a 1 Sigma g + states of Al2 are studied as a function of both the one-particle and n-particle basis set. Approximate correlation treatments are calibrated against full Cl calculations correlating the six valence electrons in a double-zeta plus two d-function basis set. Since the CASSCF/MRCI 3 Pi u to 3 Sigma g - separation is in excellent agreement wtih the FCI value, the MRCI calculations were carried out in an extended (20s13p6d4f)/(6s5p3d2f) gaussian basis. Including a small correction for relativistic effects, the best estimate is that 3 Sigma g - state lies 174/cm above the 3 Pi u ground state. The 1 Sigma g + state lies at least 2000/cm higher in energy. At the CPF level, inclusion of 2s and 2p correlation has little effect on D sub e, reduces T sub e by only 26/cm, and shortens the bond lengths by about 0.02 a sub o. Further strong support for a 3 Pi u ground state comes from the experimental absorption spectra, since both observed transitions can be convincingly assigned as 3 Pi u yields 3 Pi g. The (2) 3 Pi g state is observed to be sensitive to the level of correlation treatment, and to have its minimum shifted to shorter rho values, such that the strongest experimental absorption peak probably corresponds to the 0 yields 2 transition.

  4. A persistent scatterer interpolation for retrieving accurate ground deformation over InSAR-decorrelated agricultural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jingyi; Zebker, Howard A.; Knight, Rosemary

    2015-11-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is a radar remote sensing technique for measuring surface deformation to millimeter-level accuracy at meter-scale resolution. Obtaining accurate deformation measurements in agricultural regions is difficult because the signal is often decorrelated due to vegetation growth. We present here a new algorithm for retrieving InSAR deformation measurements over areas with severe vegetation decorrelation using adaptive phase interpolation between persistent scatterer (PS) pixels, those points at which surface scattering properties do not change much over time and thus decorrelation artifacts are minimal. We apply this algorithm to L-band ALOS interferograms acquired over the San Luis Valley, Colorado, and the Tulare Basin, California. In both areas, the pumping of groundwater for irrigation results in deformation of the land that can be detected using InSAR. We show that the PS-based algorithm can significantly reduce the artifacts due to vegetation decorrelation while preserving the deformation signature.

  5. Real-time Accurate Surface Reconstruction Pipeline for Vision Guided Planetary Exploration Using Unmanned Ground and Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almeida, Eduardo DeBrito

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses work completed over the summer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology. A system is presented to guide ground or aerial unmanned robots using computer vision. The system performs accurate camera calibration, camera pose refinement and surface extraction from images collected by a camera mounted on the vehicle. The application motivating the research is planetary exploration and the vehicles are typically rovers or unmanned aerial vehicles. The information extracted from imagery is used primarily for navigation, as robot location is the same as the camera location and the surfaces represent the terrain that rovers traverse. The processed information must be very accurate and acquired very fast in order to be useful in practice. The main challenge being addressed by this project is to achieve high estimation accuracy and high computation speed simultaneously, a difficult task due to many technical reasons.

  6. Communication: An accurate global potential energy surface for the ground electronic state of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, Richard E-mail: hguo@unm.edu; Lolur, Phalgun; Li, Anyang; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua E-mail: hguo@unm.edu

    2013-11-28

    We report a new full-dimensional and global potential energy surface (PES) for the O + O{sub 2} → O{sub 3} ozone forming reaction based on explicitly correlated multireference configuration interaction (MRCI-F12) data. It extends our previous [R. Dawes, P. Lolur, J. Ma, and H. Guo, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 081102 (2011)] dynamically weighted multistate MRCI calculations of the asymptotic region which showed the widely found submerged reef along the minimum energy path to be the spurious result of an avoided crossing with an excited state. A spin-orbit correction was added and the PES tends asymptotically to the recently developed long-range electrostatic model of Lepers et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 137, 234305 (2012)]. This PES features: (1) excellent equilibrium structural parameters, (2) good agreement with experimental vibrational levels, (3) accurate dissociation energy, and (4) most-notably, a transition region without a spurious reef. The new PES is expected to allow insight into the still unresolved issues surrounding the kinetics, dynamics, and isotope signature of ozone.

  7. Accurate Determination of Rotational Energy Levels in the Ground State of ^{12}CH_4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, M.; Iwakuni, K.; Okubo, S.; Sasada, H.

    2013-06-01

    We have measured absolute frequencies of saturated absorption of 183 allowed and 21 forbidden transitions in the νb{3} band of ^{12}CH_4 using an optical comb-referenced difference-frequency-generation spectrometer from 86.8 to 93.1 THz (from 2890 to 3100 wn). The pump and signal sources are a 1.06-μ m Nd:YAG laser and a 1.5-μ m extended-cavity laser diode. An enhanced-cavity absorption cell increases the optical electric field and enhances the sensitivity. The typical uncertainty is 3 kHz for the allowed transitions and 12 kHz for the forbidden transitions. Twenty combination differences are precisely determined, and the scalar rotational and centrifugal distortion constants of the ground state are thereby yielded as r@ = l@ r@ = l B_{{s}} (157 122 614.2 ± 1.5) kHz, D_{{s}} (3 328.545 ± 0.031) kHz, H_{{s}} (190.90 ± 0.26) Hz, and L_{{s}} (-13.16 ± 0.76) mHz. Here, B_{{s}} is the rotational constant and D_{{s}}, H_{{s}} and L_{{s}} are the scalar quartic, sextic, octic distortion constants. The relative uncertainties are considerably smaller than those obtained from global analysis of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. S. Okubo, H. Nakayama, K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba and H. Sasada, Opt. Express 19, 23878 (2011). M. Abe, K. Iwakuni, S. Okubo, and H. Sasada, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published). S. Albert, S. Bauerecker, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, J. -P. Champion, M. Loëte, A. Nikitin, and M. Quack, Chem. Phys. 356, 131 (2009).

  8. Application of ground-truth for classification and quantification of bird movements on migratory bird habitat initiative sites in southwest Louisiana: final report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrow, Wylie C.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Randall, Lori A.; Pitre, John; Dudley, Kyle J.

    2013-01-01

    This project was initiated to assess migrating and wintering bird use of lands enrolled in the Natural Resources Conservation Service’s (NRCS) Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI). The MBHI program was developed in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, with the goal of improving/creating habitat for waterbirds affected by the spill. In collaboration with the University of Delaware (UDEL), we used weather surveillance radar data (Sieges 2014), portable marine radar data, thermal infrared images, and visual observations to assess bird use of MBHI easements. Migrating and wintering birds routinely make synchronous flights near dusk (e.g., departure during migration, feeding flights during winter). Weather radars readily detect birds at the onset of these flights and have proven to be useful remote sensing tools for assessing bird-habitat relations during migration and determining the response of wintering waterfowl to wetland restoration (e.g., Wetlands Reserve Program lands). However, ground-truthing is required to identify radar echoes to species or species group. We designed a field study to ground-truth a larger-scale, weather radar assessment of bird use of MBHI sites in southwest Louisiana. We examined seasonal bird use of MBHI fields in fall, winter, and spring of 2011-2012. To assess diurnal use, we conducted total area surveys of MBHI sites in the afternoon, collecting data on bird species composition, abundance, behavior, and habitat use. In the evenings, we quantified bird activity at the MBHI easements and described flight behavior (i.e., birds landing in, departing from, circling, or flying over the MBHI tract). Our field sampling captured the onset of evening flights and spanned the period of collection of the weather radar data analyzed. Pre- and post-dusk surveys were conducted using a portable radar system and a thermal infrared camera. Landbirds, shorebirds, and wading birds were commonly found on MBHI fields during diurnal

  9. Application of ground-truth for classification and quantification of bird movements on migratory bird habitat initiative sites in southwest Louisiana: final report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrow, Wylie C.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Randall, Lori A.; Pitre, John; Dudley, Kyle J.

    2013-01-01

    This project was initiated to assess migrating and wintering bird use of lands enrolled in the Natural Resources Conservation Service’s (NRCS) Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI). The MBHI program was developed in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, with the goal of improving/creating habitat for waterbirds affected by the spill. In collaboration with the University of Delaware (UDEL), we used weather surveillance radar data (Sieges 2014), portable marine radar data, thermal infrared images, and visual observations to assess bird use of MBHI easements. Migrating and wintering birds routinely make synchronous flights near dusk (e.g., departure during migration, feeding flights during winter). Weather radars readily detect birds at the onset of these flights and have proven to be useful remote sensing tools for assessing bird-habitat relations during migration and determining the response of wintering waterfowl to wetland restoration (e.g., Wetlands Reserve Program lands). However, ground-truthing is required to identify radar echoes to species or species group. We designed a field study to ground-truth a larger-scale, weather radar assessment of bird use of MBHI sites in southwest Louisiana. We examined seasonal bird use of MBHI fields in fall, winter, and spring of 2011-2012. To assess diurnal use, we conducted total area surveys of MBHI sites in the afternoon, collecting data on bird species composition, abundance, behavior, and habitat use. In the evenings, we quantified bird activity at the MBHI easements and described flight behavior (i.e., birds landing in, departing from, circling, or flying over the MBHI tract). Our field sampling captured the onset of evening flights and spanned the period of collection of the weather radar data analyzed. Pre- and post-dusk surveys were conducted using a portable radar system and a thermal infrared camera. Landbirds, shorebirds, and wading birds were commonly found on MBHI fields during diurnal

  10. Archaeogeophysical data acquisition and analysis at Tel Burna, Israel: a valuable opportunity for ongoing ground-truth investigation and collaboration (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincus, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    , acquired in a zigzag east-west direction, proceeding south. The area extended from the present excavation border to the north and east. The following paper will discuss the method of data acquisition, post-processing, and analysis of the results. The final conclusions of the survey show a continuation of several key walls to the east, a valuable sub-surface tracing of the limestone bedrock, and the limit to which the archaeological material is present spatially in Area B to the north. These results play a major role in determining where to focus excavation efforts in the 2014 excavation season. This unique collaboration with the archaeological team and ongoing opportunity for archaeological ground-truthing will be documented and published as the site develops. As there is a limited presence of such data within the corpus of published archaeogeophysical research, we look forward to further investigations at the site in the coming years.

  11. Accurate Potential Energy Curves for the Ground Electronic States of NeH^{+} and ArH^{+}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coxon, John A.; Hajigeorgiou, Photos G.

    2013-06-01

    All available microwave and infrared spectroscopic line positions for the ground electronic states of the molecular cations NeH^{+} and ArH^{+} were employed in a direct potential fitting procedure to determine compact analytical potential curves and radial functions describing breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. For NeH^{+}, 17 adjustable parameters were required to represent a total of 183 line positions for 4 isotopologues, whereas for ArH^{+}, 23 adjustable parameters were required to represent 440 line positions for 6 isotopologues. The MLR3 potential energy functional form was employed, taking full account of the proper 1/r{^4} limiting long-range dependence of the ion-atom dispersion energy interactions. Accurate vibrational energies, rotational constants and centrifugal distortion constants have been calculated for both diatomic cations.

  12. To Tell the Truth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arent, Ruth P.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses what teachers should do when older elementary students lie. Guidelines for handling the situation are presented along with suggestions for making children feel good about telling the truth. Three activities for encouraging truthfulness in the classroom are suggested. (SM)

  13. "Telling" Truths: Wounded Truths and the Activity of Truth Telling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Valerie

    2004-01-01

    It appears that being young and queer seems to be all about woundedness: it means experiencing suffering, including the risk of suicide, increased drug use, homelessness and violence. Yet how are these wounded truths told, and further, why is it that people in education seem to tell them "unproblematically"? This paper considers these questions by…

  14. Truth and Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvernbekk, Tone

    2007-01-01

    In this article I discuss some problems concerning the truth value of narratives; more specifically as this problematic is played out in empirical, narrative research. My point of departure is Jane O'Dea's critique of Denis Phillips' views of the topic. While Phillips thinks that truth (in the correspondence sense) definitely should be a concern…

  15. Teaching and Truthfulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Some tendencies in modern education--the stress on "performativity", for instance, and "celebration of difference"--threaten the value traditionally placed on truthful teaching. In this paper, truthfulness is mainly understood, following Bernard Williams, as a disposition to "Accuracy" and "Sincerity"--hence as a virtue. It is to be distinguished…

  16. Truth in Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Norman

    In this position paper the author examines truth in government. Examination of recent political events, especially in areas of foreign policy, reveals that the government has assumed the right to decide what truths are to be told and when they are to be told. To return to the principles developed by the members of the Constitutional Convention of…

  17. The Miserable Truth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Mina

    1998-01-01

    Presents Mina Shaughnessy's 1976 speech, given at a time when great financial crisis threatened to result in the wholesale disestablishment of basic writing programs. Notes grave perils, and outlines some of the truths uncovered through the experience of Open Admissions in higher education, truths that are indestructible despite retrenchments and…

  18. Truth and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dasenbrock, Reed Way

    1995-01-01

    Examines literary theory's displacing of "method" in the New Historicist criticism. Argues that Stephen Greenblatt and Lee Paterson imply that no objective historical truth is possible and as a result do not give methodology its due weight in their criticism. Questions the theory of "truth" advanced in this vein of literary criticism. (TB)

  19. Truth in Testing Legislation and Private Property Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Daniel J.

    1981-01-01

    Truth in testing laws are subject to challenge on the grounds that they invade federally protected rights and interests of the test-makers through the due process clauses of the Constitution and federal copyright protections. (Author/MLF)

  20. Evaluation of the Performance Characteristics of CGLSS II and U.S. NLDN Using Ground-Truth Dalta from Launch Complex 398, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mata, C. T.; Mata, A. G.; Rakov, V. A.; Nag, A.; Saul, J.

    2012-01-01

    A new comprehensive lightning instrumentation system has been designed for Launch Complex 39B (LC39B) at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. This new instrumentation system includes seven synchronized high-speed video cameras, current sensors installed on the nine downconductors of the new lightning protection system (LPS) for LC39B; four dH/dt, 3-axis measurement stations; and five dE/dt stations composed of two antennas each. The LPS received 8 direct lightning strikes (a total of 19 strokes) from March 31 through December 31 2011. The measured peak currents and locations are compared to those reported by the Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS II) and the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). Results of comparison are presented and analyzed in this paper.

  1. The Use of Uas for Assessing Agricultural Systems in AN Wetland in Tanzania in the - and Wet-Season for Sustainable Agriculture and Providing Ground Truth for Terra-Sar X Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thamm, H.-P.; Menz, G.; Becker, M.; Kuria, D. N.; Misana, S.; Kohn, D.

    2013-08-01

    The paper describes the assessment of the vegetation and the land use systems of the Malinda Wetland in the Usambara Mountains in Tanzania with the parachute UAS (unmanned aerial system) SUSI 62. The area of investigation was around 8 km2. In two campaigns, one in the wet season and one in the dry season, approximately 2600 aerial photos of the wetland were taken using the parachute UAS SUSI 62; of these images, ortho-photos with a spatial resolution of 20 cm x 20 cm, were computed with an advanced block bundle approach. The block bundles were geo-referenced using control points taken with differential GPS. As well a digital surface model (DSM) of the wetland was created out of the UAS photos. Using the ortho-photos it is possible to assess the different land use systems; the differences in the phenology of the vegetation between wet and dry season can be investigated. In addition, the regionalisation of bio mass samples on smaller test plots was possible. The ortho-photos and the DSM derived from the UAS proved to be a valuable ground truth for the interpretation of Terra-SAR X images. The campaigns demonstrated that SUSI 62 was a suitable, robust tool to obtain the valuable information under harsh conditions.

  2. A new accurate ground-state potential energy surface of ethylene and predictions for rotational and vibrational energy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delahaye, Thibault; Nikitin, Andrei; Rey, Michaël; Szalay, Péter G.; Tyuterev, Vladimir G.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we report a new ground state potential energy surface for ethylene (ethene) C2H4 obtained from extended ab initio calculations. The coupled-cluster approach with the perturbative inclusion of the connected triple excitations CCSD(T) and correlation consistent polarized valence basis set cc-pVQZ was employed for computations of electronic ground state energies. The fit of the surface included 82 542 nuclear configurations using sixth order expansion in curvilinear symmetry-adapted coordinates involving 2236 parameters. A good convergence for variationally computed vibrational levels of the C2H4 molecule was obtained with a RMS(Obs.-Calc.) deviation of 2.7 cm-1 for fundamental bands centers and 5.9 cm-1 for vibrational bands up to 7800 cm-1. Large scale vibrational and rotational calculations for 12C2H4, 13C2H4, and 12C2D4 isotopologues were performed using this new surface. Energy levels for J = 20 up to 6000 cm-1 are in a good agreement with observations. This represents a considerable improvement with respect to available global predictions of vibrational levels of 13C2H4 and 12C2D4 and rovibrational levels of 12C2H4.

  3. Linking Samples to Orbital Imagery: Cataloging the Spectral Signatures of the Transantarctic Mountains for Future Compositional Studies and Remote Ground Truthing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Morin, P. J.; Roth, G.; Grunow, A.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past five years, remote spectral investigations of ice-free Antarctic geology have become possible through improvements to atmospheric correction techniques and detailed laboratory- and field-based spectral validation. These investigations have provided new insight into the primary (inherent lithologic variability) and secondary (chemical weathering and surface alteration processes) geologic processes that have occurred across the Antarctic continent. While largely limited to familiar areas that have been thoroughly investigated in the field, such ground validation is possible through analyzing well-documented samples returned by previous investigators. This work also provides the first critical steps towards examining the nature of atmospheric contributions to orbital data across the Antarctic continent and developing a means of effectively removing their contributions. In close collaboration with the Polar Geospatial Center (PGC) and the Polar Rock Repository (PRR), we have begun collecting and archiving visible and near-infrared (0.35 - 2.50 microns) hyperspectral data of samples currently archived at the PRR. These samples include a range of clasts and sediments that span the full diversity of Antarctic geology. As they are collected, these data are shared and archived at both the PGC and PRR, and will soon be incorporated into the PRR digital data archive that accompanies all lithologic samples. We will report on the progress of this investigation, including preliminary associations between the laboratory-derived spectra and high-resolution (meter-scale) orbital data from the PGC. These investigations suggest that first-order atmospheric removal and compositional investigations can be performed remotely for areas where samples have been collected and analyzed. Future work will continue to expand the geographic range of analyzed samples, particularly along the Antarctic coast.

  4. A new accurate ground-state potential energy surface of ethylene and predictions for rotational and vibrational energy levels

    SciTech Connect

    Delahaye, Thibault Rey, Michaël Tyuterev, Vladimir G.; Nikitin, Andrei; Szalay, Péter G.

    2014-09-14

    In this paper we report a new ground state potential energy surface for ethylene (ethene) C{sub 2}H{sub 4} obtained from extended ab initio calculations. The coupled-cluster approach with the perturbative inclusion of the connected triple excitations CCSD(T) and correlation consistent polarized valence basis set cc-pVQZ was employed for computations of electronic ground state energies. The fit of the surface included 82 542 nuclear configurations using sixth order expansion in curvilinear symmetry-adapted coordinates involving 2236 parameters. A good convergence for variationally computed vibrational levels of the C{sub 2}H{sub 4} molecule was obtained with a RMS(Obs.–Calc.) deviation of 2.7 cm{sup −1} for fundamental bands centers and 5.9 cm{sup −1} for vibrational bands up to 7800 cm{sup −1}. Large scale vibrational and rotational calculations for {sup 12}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, {sup 13}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and {sup 12}C{sub 2}D{sub 4} isotopologues were performed using this new surface. Energy levels for J = 20 up to 6000 cm{sup −1} are in a good agreement with observations. This represents a considerable improvement with respect to available global predictions of vibrational levels of {sup 13}C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and {sup 12}C{sub 2}D{sub 4} and rovibrational levels of {sup 12}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}.

  5. Moball-Buoy Network: A Near-Real-Time Ground-Truth Distributed Monitoring System to Map Ice, Weather, Chemical Species, and Radiations, in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoodi, F.; Shahabi, C.; Burdick, J.; Rais-Zadeh, M.; Menemenlis, D.

    2014-12-01

    The work had been funded by NASA HQ's office of Cryospheric Sciences Program. Recent observations of the Arctic have shown that sea ice has diminished drastically, consequently impacting the environment in the Arctic and beyond. Certain factors such as atmospheric anomalies, wind forces, temperature increase, and change in the distribution of cold and warm waters contribute to the sea ice reduction. However current measurement capabilities lack the accuracy, temporal sampling, and spatial coverage required to effectively quantify each contributing factor and to identify other missing factors. Addressing the need for new measurement capabilities for the new Arctic regime, we propose a game-changing in-situ Arctic-wide Distributed Mobile Monitoring system called Moball-buoy Network. Moball-buoy Network consists of a number of wind-propelled self-powered inflatable spheres referred to as Moball-buoys. The Moball-buoys are self-powered. They use their novel mechanical control and energy harvesting system to use the abundance of wind in the Arctic for their controlled mobility and energy harvesting. They are equipped with an array of low-power low-mass sensors and micro devices able to measure a wide range of environmental factors such as the ice conditions, chemical species wind vector patterns, cloud coverage, air temperature and pressure, electromagnetic fields, surface and subsurface water conditions, short- and long-wave radiations, bathymetry, and anthropogenic factors such as pollutions. The stop-and-go motion capability, using their novel mechanics, and the heads up cooperation control strategy at the core of the proposed distributed system enable the sensor network to be reconfigured dynamically according to the priority of the parameters to be monitored. The large number of Moball-buoys with their ground-based, sea-based, satellite and peer-to-peer communication capabilities would constitute a wireless mesh network that provides an interface for a global

  6. Accurate determination of the fine-structure intervals in the 3P ground states of C-13 and C-12 by far-infrared laser magnetic resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooksy, A. L.; Saykally, R. J.; Brown, J. M.; Evenson, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    Accurate values are presented for the fine-structure intervals in the 3P ground state of neutral atomic C-12 and C-13 as obtained from laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The rigorous analysis of C-13 hyperfine structure, the measurement of resonant fields for C-12 transitions at several additional far-infrared laser frequencies, and the increased precision of the C-12 measurements, permit significant improvement in the evaluation of these energies relative to earlier work. These results will expedite the direct and precise measurement of these transitions in interstellar sources and should assist in the determination of the interstellar C-12/C-13 abundance ratio.

  7. Impact melt-bearing breccias of the Mistastin Lake impact structure: A unique planetary analogue for ground-truthing proximal ejecta emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, M. M.; Osinski, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    in matrix content, melt-fragment concentration, and contact relationships with adjacent impactites. Initial findings suggest differing origins for impact melt-bearing breccias from a single impact event. Three examples are highlighted: 1) Impact melt-bearing breccias, on an inner terrace, formed in boundary zones where hot impact melt flowed over cooler, ballistically emplaced polymict impact breccias. 2) Locally, a dyke of impact melt-bearing breccia suggests that this unit originated as hot lithic flow that moved laterally along the ground and then intruded as a fracture fill into target rocks. 3) A m-scale lens of melt-bearing breccia within the middle of a thick, 80m impact melt rock unit situated on an inner terrace, suggests that this lens may have originated from the crater floor and been incorporated into the melt pond during emplacement (i.e. movement of the melt from the crater floor to terrace shelf). In summary, the Mistastin Lake impact structure displays a multiple layered ejecta sequence that is consistent with, and requires, a multi-stage ejecta emplacement model as proposed by [1]. References: [1] Osinski et al. (2011) EPSL (310:167-181. [2] Melosh (1989) Oxford Univ. 245 pp. [3] French B. M. (1998) LPI Contribution 954,120pp. [4] Mader et al. (2011) 42nd LPSC, No.1608. [5] Mader et al. (2013) 43rd LPSC, No. 2517.

  8. Accurate high level ab initio-based global potential energy surface and dynamics calculations for ground state of CH2(+).

    PubMed

    Li, Y Q; Zhang, P Y; Han, K L

    2015-03-28

    A global many-body expansion potential energy surface is reported for the electronic ground state of CH2 (+) by fitting high level ab initio energies calculated at the multireference configuration interaction level with the aug-cc-pV6Z basis set. The topographical features of the new global potential energy surface are examined in detail and found to be in good agreement with those calculated directly from the raw ab initio energies, as well as previous calculations available in the literature. In turn, in order to validate the potential energy surface, a test theoretical study of the reaction CH(+)(X(1)Σ(+))+H((2)S)→C(+)((2)P)+H2(X(1)Σg (+)) has been carried out with the method of time dependent wavepacket on the title potential energy surface. The total integral cross sections and the rate coefficients have been calculated; the results determined that the new potential energy surface can both be recommended for dynamics studies of any type and as building blocks for constructing the potential energy surfaces of larger C(+)/H containing systems.

  9. A persistent scatterer method for retrieving accurate InSAR ground deformation map over vegetation-decorrelated areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Zebker, H. A.; Knight, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    InSAR is commonly used to measure surface deformation between different radar passes at cm-scale accuracy and m-scale resolution. However, InSAR measurements are often decorrelated due to vegetation growth, which greatly limits high quality InSAR data coverage. Here we present an algorithm for retrieving InSAR deformation measurements over areas with significant vegetation decorrelation through the use of adaptive interpolation between persistent scatterer (PS) pixels, those points at which surface scattering properties do not change much over time and thus decorrelation artifacts are minimal. The interpolation filter restores phase continuity in space and greatly reduces errors in phase unwrapping. We apply this algorithm to process L-band ALOS interferograms acquired over the San Luis Valley, Colorado and the Tulare Basin, California. In both areas, groundwater extraction for irrigation results in land deformation that can be detected using InSAR. We show that the PS-based algorithm reduces the artifacts from vegetation decorrelation while preserving the deformation signature. The spatial sampling resolution achieved over agricultural fields is on the order of hundreds of meters, usually sufficient for groundwater studies. The improved InSAR data allow us further to reconstruct the SBAS ground deformation time series and transform the measured deformation to head levels using the skeletal storage coefficient and time delay constant inferred from a joint InSAR-well data analysis. The resulting InSAR-head and well-head measurements in the San Luis valley show good agreement with primary confined aquifer pumping activities. This case study demonstrates that high quality InSAR deformation data can be obtained over vegetation-decorrrelated region if processed correctly.

  10. Music, Emotions, and Truth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packalen, Elina

    2008-01-01

    In this article Elina Packalen considers the notion of truth in connection with music. Her starting-point is the question of how music can be expressive of emotions; therefore she first summarizes some recent philosophical ideas of this issue. These ideas naturally raise the question of whether describing music in emotive terms has an epistemic…

  11. Two Truths in My Pocket

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruby, Lois

    2008-01-01

    After having seen Jody Picoult's "Plain Truth," which is on the paperback best-seller list from "New York Times Book Review," and an ad for a novel called "A Version of the Truth," in this article the author talks about truth and how it is being told by some writers from a different point of view. It seems that truth is everywhere, and also…

  12. Ground truth applications to orbit refinements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    A weighted least-squares recursive estimator program is reported for simulating spacecraft orbital position by analyzing earth and sun sensor data. The program uses constant time adjustment for a set of ephemeris data to eliminate intrack error and to improve attitude determination accuracy.

  13. AVE/VAS experiment: Ground truth network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoggins, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    The visible/infrared spin scan radiometer (VISSR) atmospheric sounder (VAS) rawinsonde field program is discussed. Specific items covered include: planning, personnel requirements and training, operational requirement and procedures, sounding times and dates, methods of data processing, data inventory, and status of data processing.

  14. Remote and Ground Truth Spectral Measurement Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abercromby, K.; Hamada, K.; Guyote, M.; Okada, J.; Barker, E.

    FORMOSAT III are a set of six research satellites from Taiwan that were launched in April 2006. The satellites are in 800 km, 71 degree inclination orbits and separated by 24 degrees in ascending node. Laboratory spectral measurements were taken of outer surface materials on FORMOSAT III. From those measurements, a computer model was built to predict the spectral reflectance accounting for both solar phase angle and orientation of the spacecraft relative to the observer. However, materials exposed to the space environment have exhibited spectral changes including a darkening and a "reddening" of the spectra. This "reddening" is characterized by an increase in slope of the reflectance as the wavelength increases. Therefore, the model of pre-flight materials was augmented to include the presumed causative agent: space weathering effects. Remote data were collected on two of the six FORMOSAT satellites using the 1.6 meter telescope at the AMOS (Air Force Maui Optical and Supercomputing) site with the Spica spectrometer. Due to the separation in ascending node, observations were acquired of whichever one of the six satellites was visible on that specific night. Three nights of data were collected using the red (6000 - 9500 angstroms) filter and five nights of data were collected using the blue (3200 -6600 angstroms) filter. A comparison of the data showed a good match to the pre-flight models for the blue filter region. The absorption feature near 5500 angstroms due to the copper colored Kapton multi-layer insulation (MLI) was very apparent in the remote samples and a good fit to the data was seen in all satellites observed. The features in the red filter regime agreed with the pre-flight model up through 7000 angstroms where the reddening begins and the slope of the remote sample increases. A comparison of the satellites showed similar features in the red and blue filter regions, i.e. the satellite surfaces were aging at the same rate. A comparison of the pre-flight model to the first month of remote measurements showed the amount by which the satellite had reddened. The second month of data observed a satellite at a higher altitude and was therefore, not compared to the first month. A third month of data was collected but of satellites at the lower altitude regime and can only be compared to the first month. One cause of the reddening that was ruled out in early papers was a possible calibration issue.

  15. On authenticity: the question of truth in construction and autobiography.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sara

    2011-12-01

    Freud was occupied with the question of truth and its verification throughout his work. He looked to archaeology for an evidence model to support his ideas on reconstruction. He also referred to literature regarding truth in reconstruction, where he saw shifts between historical fact and invention, and detected such swings in his own case histories. In his late work Freud pondered over the impossibility of truth in reconstruction by juxtaposing truth with 'probability'. Developments on the role of fantasy and myth in reconstruction and contemporary debates over objectivity have increasingly highlighted the question of 'truth' in psychoanalysis. I will argue that 'authenticity' is a helpful concept in furthering the discussion over truth in reconstruction. Authenticity denotes that which is genuine, trustworthy and emotionally accurate in a reconstruction, as observed within the immediacy of the analyst/patient interaction. As authenticity signifies genuineness in a contemporary context its origins are verifiable through the analyst's own observations of the analytic process itself. Therefore, authenticity is about the likelihood and approximation of historical truth rather than its certainty. In that respect it links with Freud's musings over 'probability'. Developments on writing 'truths' in autobiography mirror those in reconstruction, and lend corroborative support from another source.

  16. WHEN IS TRUTH RELEVANT?

    PubMed

    Allison, Elizabeth; Fonagy, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The authors argue that the experience of knowing and having the truth about oneself known in the context of therapy is not an end in itself; rather, it is important because the trust engendered by this experience (epistemic trust or trust in new knowledge) opens one up to learning about one's social world and finding better ways to live in it. The authors consider the consequences of a lack of epistemic trust in terms of psychopathology. PMID:27112740

  17. WHEN IS TRUTH RELEVANT?

    PubMed

    Allison, Elizabeth; Fonagy, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The authors argue that the experience of knowing and having the truth about oneself known in the context of therapy is not an end in itself; rather, it is important because the trust engendered by this experience (epistemic trust or trust in new knowledge) opens one up to learning about one's social world and finding better ways to live in it. The authors consider the consequences of a lack of epistemic trust in terms of psychopathology.

  18. The truth about the truth: a meta-analytic review of the truth effect.

    PubMed

    Dechêne, Alice; Stahl, Christoph; Hansen, Jochim; Wänke, Michaela

    2010-05-01

    Repetition has been shown to increase subjective truth ratings of trivia statements. This truth effect can be measured in two ways: (a) as the increase in subjective truth from the first to the second encounter (within-items criterion) and (b) as the difference in truth ratings between repeated and other new statements (between-items criterion). Qualitative differences are assumed between the processes underlying both criteria. A meta-analysis of the truth effect was conducted that compared the two criteria. In all, 51 studies of the repetition-induced truth effect were included in the analysis. Results indicate that the between-items effect is larger than the within-items effect. Moderator analyses reveal that several moderators affect both effects differentially. This lends support to the notion that different psychological comparison processes may underlie the two effects. The results are discussed within the processing fluency account of the truth effect.

  19. Lying relies on the truth.

    PubMed

    Debey, Evelyne; De Houwer, Jan; Verschuere, Bruno

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive models of deception focus on the conflict-inducing nature of the truth activation during lying. Here we tested the counterintuitive hypothesis that the truth can also serve a functional role in the act of lying. More specifically, we examined whether the construction of a lie can involve a two-step process, where the first step entails activating the truth, based upon which a lie response can be formulated in a second step. To investigate this hypothesis, we tried to capture the covert truth activation in a reaction-time based deception paradigm. Together with each question, we presented either the truth or lie response as distractors. If lying depends on the covert activation of the truth, deceptive responses would thus be facilitated by truth distractors relative to lie distractors. Our results indeed revealed such a "covert congruency" effect, both in errors and reaction times (Experiment 1). Moreover, stimulating participants to use the distractor information by increasing the proportion of truth distractor trials enlarged the "covert congruency" effects, and as such confirmed that the effects operate at a covert response level (Experiment 2). Our findings lend support to the idea that lying relies on a first step of truth telling, and call for a shift in theoretical thinking that highlights both the functional and interfering properties of the truth activation in the lying process.

  20. Fiction Is Truth, and Sometimes Truth Is Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Carol Lakey

    2008-01-01

    The art of fiction tells truth because it is the truth of life that goes into making good fiction: love, hate, fear, courage, delight, sorrow, betrayal, loyalty, confusion, choice, circumstance, luck, injustice. These essential qualities, says the author, are also the qualities of sound theology, with a sense of time and place; and raising…

  1. Some properties of negative cloud-to-ground flashes from observations of a local thunderstorm based on accurate-stroke-count studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Baoyou; Ma, Ming; Xu, Weiwei; Ma, Dong

    2015-12-01

    Properties of negative cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes, in terms of number of strokes per flash, inter-stroke intervals and the relative intensity of subsequent and first strokes, were presented by accurate-stroke-count studies based on all 1085 negative flashes from a local thunderstorm. The percentage of single-stroke flashes and stroke multiplicity evolved significantly during the whole life cycle of the study thunderstorm. The occurrence probability of negative CG flashes decreased exponentially with the increasing number of strokes per flash. About 30.5% of negative CG flashes contained only one stroke and number of strokes per flash averaged 3.3. In a subset of 753 negative multiple-stroke flashes, about 41.4% contained at least one subsequent stroke stronger than the corresponding first stroke. Subsequent strokes tended to decrease in strength with their orders and the ratio of subsequent to first stroke peaks presented a geometric mean value of 0.52. Interestingly, negative CG flashes of higher multiplicity tended to have stronger initial strokes. 2525 inter-stroke intervals showed a more or less log-normal distribution and gave a geometric mean value of 62 ms. For CG flashes of particular multiplicity geometric mean inter-stroke intervals tended to decrease with the increasing number of strokes per flash, while those intervals associated with higher order strokes tended to be larger than those associated with low order strokes.

  2. Accurate intermolecular ground-state potential-energy surfaces of the HCCH-He, Ne, and Ar van der Waals complexes.

    PubMed

    Munteanu, Cristian Robert; Fernández, Berta

    2005-07-01

    Accurate ground-state intermolecular potential-energy surfaces are obtained for the HCCH-He, Ne, and Ar van der Waals complexes. The interaction energies are calculated at the coupled cluster singles and doubles including connected triple excitations level and fitted to analytic functions. For the three complexes we start with systematic basis set studies carried out at several intermolecular geometries, and using augmented correlation consistent polarized valence basis sets x-aug-cc-pVXZ (x=-,d; X=D,T,Q,5), also extended with a set of 3s3p2d1f1g midbond functions. The aug-cc-pVQZ-33211 surfaces of HCCH-He, Ne, and Ar complexes are characterized by absolute minima of -24.22, -50.20, and -122.17 cm(-1) at distances R between the rare-gas atom and the HCCH centers of mass of 4.35, 3.95, and 3.99 A, respectively; and at angles between the vector R and the HCCH main symmetry axis of 0 degrees , 43.3 degrees , and 60.6 degrees . The results are compared and considerably improve those previously available.

  3. The hard truth

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, C.S.

    1994-12-31

    In the Bayesian methodology, the posterior probability combines uncertainty about prior knowledge, and available data about alternative models of reality. The posterior quantifies the degree of certainty one has in inferring the truth in terms of those models. We propose a method to determine the reliability of a specific feature of a Bayesian solution. Our approach is based on an analogy between the negative logarithm of the posterior and a physical potential. This analogy leads to the interpretation of gradient of this potential as a force that acts on the model. As model parameters are perturbed from their maximum a posteriori (MAP) values, the strength of the restoring force that drives them back to the MAP solution is directly related to the reliability of those parameter estimates. The correlations between the uncertainties of parameter estimates can be elucidated.

  4. THE QUEST FOR TRUTH AS THE FOUNDATION OF PSYCHOANALYTIC PRACTICE: A TRADITIONAL FREUDIAN-KLEINIAN PERSPECTIVE.

    PubMed

    Blass, Rachel B

    2016-04-01

    In responding to the question of whether truth in psychoanalysis is relevant today, the author presents what she refers to as a traditional Freudian-Kleinian perspective. According to this perspective, truth is not only relevant, but rather the quest for it is the alpha and omega of psychoanalytic practice. The author reviews Freud's approach to truth and then discusses Klein's essential contribution to its understanding, grounding, and enrichment, highlighting Klein's thinking about phantasy and the life and death instincts. Finally, the author contends with the opposing view that the quest for truth is no longer relevant to contemporary analytic practice. PMID:27112741

  5. THE QUEST FOR TRUTH AS THE FOUNDATION OF PSYCHOANALYTIC PRACTICE: A TRADITIONAL FREUDIAN-KLEINIAN PERSPECTIVE.

    PubMed

    Blass, Rachel B

    2016-04-01

    In responding to the question of whether truth in psychoanalysis is relevant today, the author presents what she refers to as a traditional Freudian-Kleinian perspective. According to this perspective, truth is not only relevant, but rather the quest for it is the alpha and omega of psychoanalytic practice. The author reviews Freud's approach to truth and then discusses Klein's essential contribution to its understanding, grounding, and enrichment, highlighting Klein's thinking about phantasy and the life and death instincts. Finally, the author contends with the opposing view that the quest for truth is no longer relevant to contemporary analytic practice.

  6. Groundtruth approach to accurate quantitation of fluorescence microarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Mascio-Kegelmeyer, L; Tomascik-Cheeseman, L; Burnett, M S; van Hummelen, P; Wyrobek, A J

    2000-12-01

    To more accurately measure fluorescent signals from microarrays, we calibrated our acquisition and analysis systems by using groundtruth samples comprised of known quantities of red and green gene-specific DNA probes hybridized to cDNA targets. We imaged the slides with a full-field, white light CCD imager and analyzed them with our custom analysis software. Here we compare, for multiple genes, results obtained with and without preprocessing (alignment, color crosstalk compensation, dark field subtraction, and integration time). We also evaluate the accuracy of various image processing and analysis techniques (background subtraction, segmentation, quantitation and normalization). This methodology calibrates and validates our system for accurate quantitative measurement of microarrays. Specifically, we show that preprocessing the images produces results significantly closer to the known ground-truth for these samples.

  7. The Truth and Bias Model of Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Tessa V.; Kenny, David A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new model for the general study of how the truth and biases affect human judgment. In the truth and bias model, judgments about the world are pulled by 2 primary forces, the truth force and the bias force, and these 2 forces are interrelated. The truth and bias model differentiates force and value, where the force is the strength of…

  8. Truth therapy/lie therapy.

    PubMed

    Langs, R

    In this paper an attempt is made to conceptualize a basic dimension of various psychotherapeutic treatment modalities, especially psychoanalysis and psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy. The central variable under consideration is the extent to which each endeavors to approach the truth within both patient and therapist as it exists dynamically in terms of their spiraling unconscious communicative interaction. That treatment modality which takes into account every possible dimension of such truths is termed truth therapy. Treatment modalities that make no attempt to arrive at these truths or that deliberately or inadvertently falsify their nature are termed lie or barrier therapies. Extensive consideration is given to truth therapy and the truth system on which it is based. The basis for the need for lie therapies is explored, and lie systems, which may arise from either patient or therapist, or both, are identified. A classification of common types of lie patients and lie therapists (and their main techniques) is offered. The implications of this delineation for our understanding of the dynamic therapies are discussed, and a number of new clinical issues arising from this perspective are addressed.

  9. Small and efficient basis sets for the evaluation of accurate interaction energies: aromatic molecule-argon ground-state intermolecular potentials and rovibrational states.

    PubMed

    Cybulski, Hubert; Baranowska-Łączkowska, Angelika; Henriksen, Christian; Fernández, Berta

    2014-11-01

    By evaluating a representative set of CCSD(T) ground state interaction energies for van der Waals dimers formed by aromatic molecules and the argon atom, we test the performance of the polarized basis sets of Sadlej et al. (J. Comput. Chem. 2005, 26, 145; Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 1988, 53, 1995) and the augmented polarization-consistent bases of Jensen (J. Chem. Phys. 2002, 117, 9234) in providing accurate intermolecular potentials for the benzene-, naphthalene-, and anthracene-argon complexes. The basis sets are extended by addition of midbond functions. As reference we consider CCSD(T) results obtained with Dunning's bases. For the benzene complex a systematic basis set study resulted in the selection of the (Z)Pol-33211 and the aug-pc-1-33321 bases to obtain the intermolecular potential energy surface. The interaction energy values and the shape of the CCSD(T)/(Z)Pol-33211 calculated potential are very close to the best available CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ-33211 potential with the former basis set being considerably smaller. The corresponding differences for the CCSD(T)/aug-pc-1-33321 potential are larger. In the case of the naphthalene-argon complex, following a similar study, we selected the (Z)Pol-3322 and aug-pc-1-333221 bases. The potentials show four symmetric absolute minima with energies of -483.2 cm(-1) for the (Z)Pol-3322 and -486.7 cm(-1) for the aug-pc-1-333221 basis set. To further check the performance of the selected basis sets, we evaluate intermolecular bound states of the complexes. The differences between calculated vibrational levels using the CCSD(T)/(Z)Pol-33211 and CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ-33211 benzene-argon potentials are small and for the lowest energy levels do not exceed 0.70 cm(-1). Such differences are substantially larger for the CCSD(T)/aug-pc-1-33321 calculated potential. For naphthalene-argon, bound state calculations demonstrate that the (Z)Pol-3322 and aug-pc-1-333221 potentials are of similar quality. The results show that these

  10. Ground water use inventory in Minnesota using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beissel, D. R.; Kerber, A.

    1981-01-01

    An irrigation ground water use inventory in Sherburne County, Minnesota, was attempted by indirectly locating irrigation wells by determining the location of irrigated lands. Digital classification of LANDSAT MSS imagery was employed using the IDIMS at Goddard Space Flight Center. Single-date classification proved moderately successful after accurate ground truth data were obtained. A combination of supervised and unsupervised classification was used. Multitemporal analysis using August 10 and May 21, 1978 imagery was also attempted. This unsupervised classification proved most successful in identifying crops and irrigated fields.

  11. The Medawar Lecture 2004 The truth about science

    PubMed Central

    Lipton, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The attitudes of scientists towards the philosophy of science is mixed and includes considerable indifference and some hostility. This may be due in part to unrealistic expectation and to misunderstanding. Philosophy is unlikely directly to improve scientific practices, but scientists may find the attempt to explain how science works and what it achieves of considerable interest nevertheless. The present state of the philosophy of science is illustrated by recent work on the ‘truth hypothesis’, according to which, science is generating increasingly accurate representations of a mind-independent and largely unobservable world. According to Karl Popper, although truth is the aim of science, it is impossible to justify the truth hypothesis. According to Thomas Kuhn, the truth hypothesis is false, because scientists can only describe a world that is partially constituted by their own theories and hence not mind-independent. The failure of past scientific theories has been used to argue against the truth hypothesis; the success of the best current theories has been used to argue for it. Neither argument is sound. PMID:16147521

  12. Medical science, culture, and truth

    PubMed Central

    Gillett, Grant

    2006-01-01

    There is a fairly closed circle between culture, language, meaning, and truth such that the world of a given culture is a world understood in terms of the meanings produced in that culture. Medicine is, in fact, a subculture of a powerful type and has its own language and understanding of the range of illnesses that affect human beings. So how does medicine get at the truth of people and their ills in such a way as to escape its own limited constructions? There is a way out of the closed circle implicit in the idea of a praxis and the engagement with reality that is central to it and the further possibility introduced by Jacques Lacan that signification is never comprehensive in relation to the subject's encounter with the real. I will explore both of these so as to develop a conception of truth that is apt for the knowledge that arises in the clinic. PMID:17178003

  13. This is My Truth, Tell Me Yours: Some Aspects of Action Research Quality in the Light of Truth Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkinen, Hannu L. T.; Kakkori, Leena; Huttunen, Rauno

    2001-01-01

    Introduces various aspects of truth theories in the context of action research, focusing on truth as correspondence, truth as successful practice, and truth as coherence and paradigmatic truth. The paper describes how action research uncovers the truth, discusses pen discourse as a validity criterion (the truth as consensus), and looks at the…

  14. PSYCHOANALYSIS AND THE PROBLEM OF TRUTH.

    PubMed

    Levine, Howard B

    2016-04-01

    After briefly reviewing Freud's search for "the truth" in psychoanalytic treatments, the author discusses Bion's views on truth and its prominence in his thinking. The author then addresses various definitions of truth, drawing particularly on recent comments by Ogden (2015). Considerations of the relationship between truth and philosophy, and of that between truth and the arts, follow; the author then returns to a focus on psychoanalytic truth as emergent. Our view of the latter has been strongly influenced, he notes, by changing views of therapeutic action and the goals of psychoanalysis. PMID:27112744

  15. PSYCHOANALYSIS AND THE PROBLEM OF TRUTH.

    PubMed

    Levine, Howard B

    2016-04-01

    After briefly reviewing Freud's search for "the truth" in psychoanalytic treatments, the author discusses Bion's views on truth and its prominence in his thinking. The author then addresses various definitions of truth, drawing particularly on recent comments by Ogden (2015). Considerations of the relationship between truth and philosophy, and of that between truth and the arts, follow; the author then returns to a focus on psychoanalytic truth as emergent. Our view of the latter has been strongly influenced, he notes, by changing views of therapeutic action and the goals of psychoanalysis.

  16. Time and truth in plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazelton, Lyman R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Some of the logical components of a rule based planning and scheduling system are described. The researcher points out a deficiency in the conventional truth maintenance approach to this class of problems and suggests a new mechanism which overcomes the problem. This extension of the idea of justification truth maintenance may seem at first to be a small philosophical step. However, it embodies a process of basic human reasoning which is so common and automatic as to escape conscious detection without careful introspection. It is vital to any successful implementation of a rule based planning reasoner.

  17. The Seasat surface truth experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shemdin, O. H.

    1976-01-01

    A surface truth program for Seasat A is formulated in two phases: pre- and post-launch. The pre-launch phase (which includes the Marineland experiments, the JONSWAP-75 experiment, the West Coast experiment, and the altimeter experiment) is designed to provide data from aircraft over instrumented ocean sites during desirable geophysical events. The objective is to gather sufficient data for the development of algorithms which transfer space data into geophysical variables useful for applications. In the post-launch phase, the surface truth program is designed to verify and improve the algorithms developed in the pre-launch phase and also to evaluate the performance of spaceborne sensors.

  18. Truth and Truthfulness in the Sociology of Educational Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael; Muller, Johan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to reflect on and explore questions of truth and objectivity in the sociology of educational knowledge. It begins by reviewing the problems raised by the social constructivist approaches to knowledge associated with the "new sociology of education" of the I970s. It suggests that they have significant parallels with the…

  19. Cost reduction and minimization of land based on an accurate determination of fault current distribution in shield wires and grounding systems

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, W.K. ); Dawalibi, F. )

    1993-01-01

    Careful analysis of Fault Current Distribution in neutral metallic paths, Power System Protection requirements and Ground Potential Rise (GPR) evaluations were carried out at FPL's Lauderdale Power Plant and associated switchyard. These studies resulted in substantial cost savings and land utilization minimization for the power system expansions at Lauderdale Plant by confirming that the in-situ expansion and reconfiguration aimed at constructing two electrically independent substations sharing the same site and grounding system is a sound economical alternative to the construction of a new substation and associated significant site preparation and construction costs. This paper describes the methodology used to conduct this study.

  20. Myth or Truth: Independence Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Traci

    Most Americans think of the Fourth of July as Independence Day, but is it really the day the U.S. declared and celebrated independence? By exploring myths and truths surrounding Independence Day, this lesson asks students to think critically about commonly believed stories regarding the beginning of the Revolutionary War and the Independence Day…

  1. Reversing the Truth Effect: Learning the Interpretation of Processing Fluency in Judgments of Truth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unkelbach, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Repeated statements receive higher truth ratings than new statements. Given that repetition leads to greater experienced processing fluency, the author proposes that fluency is used in truth judgments according to its ecological validity. Thus, the truth effect occurs because people learn that fluency and truth tend to be positively correlated.…

  2. "Truth" and "Reconciliation" as Social Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Countries throughout the world are trying to move toward a more democratic future through truth and reconciliation processes, under the assumption that truth causes reconciliation and that reconciliation contributes to democratization. But are "truth" and "reconciliation" concepts that can be measured rigorously and reliably? I present evidence in…

  3. 75 FR 44093 - Truth in Lending

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... June 29, 2010, (75 FR 37526) ] (FR Doc. 2010-14717) amending Regulation Z, which implements the Truth...'s amendatory instructions. This document corrects that error. 0 In final rule, FR Doc. 2010-14717, published on June 29, 2010, (75 FR 37526) make the following corrections: PART 226--TRUTH IN...

  4. 75 FR 78636 - Truth in Lending

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... CFR Part 226 RIN 7100-AD59 Truth in Lending AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System... Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) amends the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) by... 1100E amends Section 104(3) of the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) by establishing a new threshold...

  5. 75 FR 47173 - Truth in Savings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 707 RIN 3133-AD72 Truth in Savings AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA... rule amending part 707, which implements the Truth in Savings Act, and the official staff... . Include ``[Your name] Comments on Interim Final Rule (Truth in Savings)'' in the e-mail subject line....

  6. 75 FR 66553 - Truth in Lending

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... System 12 CFR Part 226 Truth in Lending; Interim Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 208... Regulation Z; Docket No. R-1394 RIN AD-7100-56 Truth in Lending AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal... for public comment an interim final rule amending Regulation Z (Truth in Lending). The interim...

  7. 76 FR 18354 - Truth in Lending

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... CFR Part 226 RIN No. 7100-AD59 Truth in Lending AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve... Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) amends the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) by increasing the threshold.... 1100E, 124 Stat. 1376 (2010). Section 1100E amends Section 104(3) of the Truth in Lending Act (TILA)...

  8. Against Relativism: Restoring Truth in Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couture, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    Argues against the relativist arguments of Jasper Neel and Herrnstein Smith which assert that truth and writing are incompatible. Offers an introduction to their major arguments, and critiques the positions they share. Reveals that their vision of writing and truth is bolstered by three questionable premises about the nature of truth in human…

  9. Truth and the Capability of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchliffe, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines learning as a capability, taking as its starting point the work of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. The paper is concerned to highlight the relation between learning and truth, and it does so by examining the idea of a genealogy of truth and also Donald Davidson's coherence theory. Thus the notion of truth is understood to be…

  10. Accurate evaluations of the field shift and lowest-order QED correction for the ground 1{sup 1}S−states of some light two-electron ions

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, Alexei M.; Wardlaw, David M.

    2014-09-14

    Mass-dependent and field shift components of the isotopic shift are determined to high accuracy for the ground 1{sup 1}S−states of some light two-electron Li{sup +}, Be{sup 2+}, B{sup 3+}, and C{sup 4+} ions. To determine the field components of these isotopic shifts we apply the Racah-Rosental-Breit formula. We also determine the lowest order QED corrections to the isotopic shifts for each of these two-electron ions.

  11. Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitbart, Mya

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, marine virology has progressed from a curiosity to an intensely studied topic of critical importance to oceanography. At concentrations of approximately 10 million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing their bacterial hosts, marine phages control bacterial abundance, affect community composition, and impact global biogeochemical cycles. In addition, phages influence their hosts through selection for resistance, horizontal gene transfer, and manipulation of bacterial metabolism. Recent work has also demonstrated that marine phages are extremely diverse and can carry a variety of auxiliary metabolic genes encoding critical ecological functions. This review is structured as a scientific "truth or dare," revealing several well-established "truths" about marine viruses and presenting a few "dares" for the research community to undertake in future studies.

  12. Who's afraid of the truth?

    PubMed Central

    Healton, C

    2001-01-01

    The November 1998 Master Settlement Agreement between tobacco manufacturers and state attorneys general significantly restricted the marketing of tobacco products, made possible markedly expanded tobacco control programs in the states, and provided for the creation of a new foundation whose primary purpose is to combat tobacco use in the United States. This commentary describes the American Legacy Foundation, with particular emphasis on one of its efforts--the "truth" Campaign, a countermarketing effort to reduce smoking among youths. The "truth" Campaign has been well received by the public and is expected to be [corrected] effective in reducing smoking among youths. The only negative reaction to the campaign has been, predictably, from the tobacco industry. PMID:11291363

  13. The Inconvenient Truth. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Athanasiou, T.

    2007-01-15

    Essay-type of publication on what should happen next after Al Gore's presentations on the Inconvenient Truth about the impacts of climate change. The essay states in the first lines: 'We've seen the movie, so we know the first part - we're in trouble deep. And it's time, past time, for at least some of us to go beyond warning to planning, to start talking seriously about a global crash program to stabilize the climate.

  14. Full-dimensional quantum calculations of ground-state tunneling splitting of malonaldehyde using an accurate ab initio potential energy surface.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yimin; Braams, Bastiaan J; Bowman, Joel M; Carter, Stuart; Tew, David P

    2008-06-14

    Quantum calculations of the ground vibrational state tunneling splitting of H-atom and D-atom transfer in malonaldehyde are performed on a full-dimensional ab initio potential energy surface (PES). The PES is a fit to 11 147 near basis-set-limit frozen-core CCSD(T) electronic energies. This surface properly describes the invariance of the potential with respect to all permutations of identical atoms. The saddle-point barrier for the H-atom transfer on the PES is 4.1 kcalmol, in excellent agreement with the reported ab initio value. Model one-dimensional and "exact" full-dimensional calculations of the splitting for H- and D-atom transfer are done using this PES. The tunneling splittings in full dimensionality are calculated using the unbiased "fixed-node" diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method in Cartesian and saddle-point normal coordinates. The ground-state tunneling splitting is found to be 21.6 cm(-1) in Cartesian coordinates and 22.6 cm(-1) in normal coordinates, with an uncertainty of 2-3 cm(-1). This splitting is also calculated based on a model which makes use of the exact single-well zero-point energy (ZPE) obtained with the MULTIMODE code and DMC ZPE and this calculation gives a tunneling splitting of 21-22 cm(-1). The corresponding computed splittings for the D-atom transfer are 3.0, 3.1, and 2-3 cm(-1). These calculated tunneling splittings agree with each other to within less than the standard uncertainties obtained with the DMC method used, which are between 2 and 3 cm(-1), and agree well with the experimental values of 21.6 and 2.9 cm(-1) for the H and D transfer, respectively.

  15. Telling Lies: The Irrepressible Truth?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Emma J.; Bott, Lewis A.; Patrick, John; Lewis, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Telling a lie takes longer than telling the truth but precisely why remains uncertain. We investigated two processes suggested to increase response times, namely the decision to lie and the construction of a lie response. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were directed or chose whether to lie or tell the truth. A colored square was presented and participants had to name either the true color of the square or lie about it by claiming it was a different color. In both experiments we found that there was a greater difference between lying and telling the truth when participants were directed to lie compared to when they chose to lie. In Experiments 3 and 4, we compared response times when participants had only one possible lie option to a choice of two or three possible options. There was a greater lying latency effect when questions involved more than one possible lie response. Experiment 5 examined response choice mechanisms through the manipulation of lie plausibility. Overall, results demonstrate several distinct mechanisms that contribute to additional processing requirements when individuals tell a lie. PMID:23573277

  16. Evaluation of the Performance Characteristics of the CGLSS and NLDN Systems Based on Two Years of Ground-Truth Data from Launch Complex 39B, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mata, Carlos T.; Hill, Jonathan D.; Mata, Angel G.; Cummins, Kenneth L.

    2014-01-01

    From May 2011 through July 2013, the lightning instrumentation at Launch Complex 39B (LC39B) at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, has obtained high-speed video records and field change waveforms (dE/dt and three-axis dH/dt) for 54 negative polarity return strokes whose strike termination locations and times are known with accuracy of the order of 10 m or less and 1 µs, respectively. A total of 18 strokes terminated directly to the LC39B lighting protection system (LPS), which contains three 181 m towers in a triangular configuration, an overhead catenary wire system on insulating masts, and nine down conductors. An additional 9 strokes terminated on the 106 m lightning protection mast of Launch Complex 39A (LC39A), which is located about 2.7 km southeast of LC39B. The remaining 27 return strokes struck either on the ground or attached to low-elevation grounded objects within about 500 m of the LC39B LPS. Leader/return stroke sequences were imaged at 3200 frames/sec by a network of six Phantom V310 high-speed video cameras. Each of the three towers on LC39B had two high-speed cameras installed at the 147 m level with overlapping fields of view of the center of the pad. The locations of the strike points of 54 return strokes have been compared to time-correlated reports of the Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) and the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), and the results of this comparison will be presented and discussed.

  17. Accurate high level ab initio-based global potential energy surface and dynamics calculations for ground state of CH{sub 2}{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y. Q.; Zhang, P. Y.; Han, K. L.

    2015-03-28

    A global many-body expansion potential energy surface is reported for the electronic ground state of CH{sub 2}{sup +} by fitting high level ab initio energies calculated at the multireference configuration interaction level with the aug-cc-pV6Z basis set. The topographical features of the new global potential energy surface are examined in detail and found to be in good agreement with those calculated directly from the raw ab initio energies, as well as previous calculations available in the literature. In turn, in order to validate the potential energy surface, a test theoretical study of the reaction CH{sup +}(X{sup 1}Σ{sup +})+H({sup 2}S)→C{sup +}({sup 2}P)+H{sub 2}(X{sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +}) has been carried out with the method of time dependent wavepacket on the title potential energy surface. The total integral cross sections and the rate coefficients have been calculated; the results determined that the new potential energy surface can both be recommended for dynamics studies of any type and as building blocks for constructing the potential energy surfaces of larger C{sup +}/H containing systems.

  18. Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio- Studies (TRUTHS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fox, N.; Aiken, J.; Barnett, J.J.; Briottet, X.; Carvell, R.; Frohlich, C.; Groom, S.B.; Hagolle, O.; Haigh, J.D.; Kieffer, H.H.; Lean, J.; Pollock, D.B.; Quinn, T.; Sandford, M.C.W.; Schaepman, M.; Shine, K.P.; Schmutz, W.K.; Teillet, P.M.; Thome, K.J.; Verstraete, M.M.; Zalewski, E.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio- Studies (TRUTHS) mission offers a novel approach to the provision of key scientific data with unprecedented radiometric accuracy for Earth Observation (EO) and solar studies, which will also establish well-calibrated reference targets/standards to support other EO missions. This paper will present the TRUTHS mission and its objectives. TRUTHS will be the first satellite mission to calibrate its instrumentation directly to SI in orbit, overcoming the usual uncertainties associated with drifts of sensor gain and spectral shape by using an electrical rather than an optical standard as the basis of its calibration. The range of instruments flown as part of the payload will also provide accurate input data to improve atmospheric radiative transfer codes by anchoring boundary conditions, through simultaneous measurements of aerosols, particulates and radiances at various heights. Therefore, TRUTHS will significantly improve the performance and accuracy of Earth observation missions with broad global or operational aims, as well as more dedicated missions. The provision of reference standards will also improve synergy between missions by reducing errors due to different calibration biases and offer cost reductions for future missions by reducing the demands for on-board calibration systems. Such improvements are important for the future success of strategies such as Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) and the implementation and monitoring of international treaties such as the Kyoto Protocol. TRUTHS will achieve these aims by measuring the geophysical variables of solar and lunar irradiance, together with both polarised and un-polarised spectral radiance of the Moon, and the Earth and its atmosphere.

  19. Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial - and Helio- Studies (TRUTHS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fox, N.; Aiken, J.; Barnett, J.J.; Briottet, X.; Carvell, R.; Frohlich, C.; Groom, S.B.; Hagolle, O.; Haigh, J.D.; Kieffer, H.H.; Lean, J.; Pollock, D.B.; Quinn, T.; Sandford, M.C.W.; Schaepman, M.; Shine, K.P.; Schmutz, W.K.; Teillet, P.M.; Thome, K.J.; Verstraete, M.M.; Zalewski, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio- Studies (TRUTHS) mission offers a novel approach to the provision of key scientific data with unprecedented radiometric accuracy for Earth Observation (EO) and solar studies, which will also establish well-calibrated reference targets/standards to support other EO missions. This paper presents the TRUTHS mission and its objectives. TRUTHS will be the first satellite mission to calibrate its EO instrumentation directly to SI in orbit, overcoming the usual uncertainties associated with drifts of sensor gain and spectral shape by using an electrical rather than an optical standard as the basis of its calibration. The range of instruments flown as part of the payload will also provide accurate input data to improve atmospheric radiative transfer codes by anchoring boundary conditions, through simultaneous measurements of aerosols, particulates and radiances at various heights. Therefore, TRUTHS will significantly improve the performance and accuracy of EO missions with broad global or operational aims, as well as more dedicated missions. The provision of reference standards will also improve synergy between missions by reducing errors due to different calibration biases and offer cost reductions for future missions by reducing the demands for on-board calibration systems. Such improvements are important for the future success of strategies such as Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) and the implementation and monitoring of international treaties such as the Kyoto Protocol. TRUTHS will achieve these aims by measuring the geophysical variables of solar and lunar irradiance, together with both polarised and unpolarised spectral radiance of the Moon, Earth and its atmosphere. Published by Elsevier Ltd of behalf of COSPAR.

  20. Traceable radiometry underpinning terrestrial- and helio-studies (TRUTHS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, N.; Aiken, J.; Barnett, J. J.; Briottet, X.; Carvell, R.; Frohlich, C.; Groom, S. B.; Hagolle, O.; Haigh, J. D.; Kieffer, H. H.; Lean, J.; Pollock, D. B.; Quinn, T.; Sandford, M. C. W.; Schaepman, M.; Shine, K. P.; Schmutz, W. K.; Teillet, P. M.; Thome, K. J.; Verstraete, M. M.; Zalewski, E.

    2003-12-01

    The Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio- Studies (TRUTHS) mission offers a novel approach to the provision of key scientific data with unprecedented radiometric accuracy for Earth Observation (EO) and solar studies, which will also establish well-calibrated reference targets/standards to support other EO missions. This paper presents the TRUTHS mission and its objectives. TRUTHS will be the first satellite mission to calibrate its EO instrumentation directly to Sl in orbit, overcoming the usual uncertainties associated with drifts of sensor gain and spectral shape by using an electrical rather than an optical standard as the basis of its calibration. The range of instruments flown as part of the payload will also provide accurate input data to improve atmospheric radiative transfer codes by anchoring boundary conditions, through simultaneous measurements of aerosols, particulates and radiances at various heights. Therefore, TRUTHS will significantly improve the performance and accuracy of EO missions with broad global or operational aims, as well as more dedicated missions. The provision of reference standards will also improve synergy between missions by reducing errors due to different calibration biases and offer cost reductions for future missions by reducing the demands for on-board calibration systems. Such improvements are important for the future success of strategies such as Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) and the implementation and monitoring of international treaties such as the Kyoto Protocol. TRUTHS will achieve these aims by measuring the geophysical variables of solar and lunar irradiance, together with both polarised and unpolarised spectral radiance of the Moon, Earth and its atmosphere. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  1. Lie, truth, lie: the role of task switching in a deception context.

    PubMed

    Debey, Evelyne; Liefooghe, Baptist; De Houwer, Jan; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-05-01

    A cornerstone of the task switching literature is the finding that task performance is typically slower and more error-prone when the task switches than when it repeats. So far, deception research has largely ignored that such cognitive switch costs should also emerge when switching between truth telling and lying, and may affect the cognitive cost of lying as reflected in higher prefrontal brain activity and slower and less accurate responding compared to truth telling. To get a grasp on the relative size of the switch costs associated with lying and truth telling, the current study had participants perform a reaction time-based deception task, in which they alternated between lying and telling the truth to yes/no questions that were related to activities performed in the lab (Experiment 1) or neutral autobiographical facts (Experiment 2). In both experiments, the error and reaction time switch costs were found to be equally large for switching from truth telling to lying and from lying to truth telling. This symmetry in switch costs can be explained from the hypothesis that lying requires a first step of truth telling, and demonstrates that task switching does not contribute to the cognitive cost of lying when the repetition/switch ratio is balanced. Theoretical and methodological implications are considered. PMID:24923778

  2. Lie, truth, lie: the role of task switching in a deception context.

    PubMed

    Debey, Evelyne; Liefooghe, Baptist; De Houwer, Jan; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-05-01

    A cornerstone of the task switching literature is the finding that task performance is typically slower and more error-prone when the task switches than when it repeats. So far, deception research has largely ignored that such cognitive switch costs should also emerge when switching between truth telling and lying, and may affect the cognitive cost of lying as reflected in higher prefrontal brain activity and slower and less accurate responding compared to truth telling. To get a grasp on the relative size of the switch costs associated with lying and truth telling, the current study had participants perform a reaction time-based deception task, in which they alternated between lying and telling the truth to yes/no questions that were related to activities performed in the lab (Experiment 1) or neutral autobiographical facts (Experiment 2). In both experiments, the error and reaction time switch costs were found to be equally large for switching from truth telling to lying and from lying to truth telling. This symmetry in switch costs can be explained from the hypothesis that lying requires a first step of truth telling, and demonstrates that task switching does not contribute to the cognitive cost of lying when the repetition/switch ratio is balanced. Theoretical and methodological implications are considered.

  3. Broad-spectrum monitoring strategies for predicting occult precipitation contribution to water balance in a coastal watershed in California: Ground-truthing, areal monitoring and isotopic analysis of fog in the San Francisco Bay region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koohafkan, M.; Thompson, S. E.; Leonardson, R.; Dufour, A.

    2013-12-01

    We showcase a fog monitoring study designed to quantitatively estimate the contribution of summer fog events to the water balance of a coastal watershed managed by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission. Two decades of research now clearly show that fog and occult precipitation can be major contributors to the water balance of watersheds worldwide. Monitoring, understanding and predicting occult precipitation is therefore as hydrologically compelling as forecasting precipitation or evaporation, particularly in the face of climate variability. We combine ground-based monitoring and collection strategies with remote sensing technologies, time-lapse imagery, and isotope analysis to trace the ';signature' of fog in physical and ecological processes. Spatial coverage and duration of fog events in the watershed is monitored using time-lapse cameras and leaf wetness sensors strategically positioned to provide estimates of the fog bank extent and cloud base elevation, and this fine-scale data is used to estimate transpiration suppression by fog and is examined in the context of regional climate through the use of satellite imagery. Soil moisture sensors, throughfall collectors and advective fog collectors deployed throughout the watershed provide quantitative estimates of fog drip contribution to soil moisture and plants. Fog incidence records and streamflow monitoring provide daily estimates of fog contribution to streamflow. Isotope analysis of soil water, fog drip, stream water and vegetation samples are used to probe for evidence of direct root and leaf uptake of fog drip by plants. Using this diversity of fog monitoring methods, we develop an empirical framework for the inclusion of fog processes in water balance models.

  4. Effects of temporal variability in ground data collection on classification accuracy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoch, G.A.; Cully, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    This research tested whether the timing of ground data collection can significantly impact the accuracy of land cover classification. Ft. Riley Military Reservation, Kansas, USA was used to test this hypothesis. The U.S. Army's Land Condition Trend Analysis (LCTA) data annually collected at military bases was used to ground truth disturbance patterns. Ground data collected over an entire growing season and data collected one year after the imagery had a kappa statistic of 0.33. When using ground data from only within two weeks of image acquisition the kappa statistic improved to 0.55. Potential sources of this discrepancy are identified. These data demonstrate that there can be significant amounts of land cover change within a narrow time window on military reservations. To accurately conduct land cover classification at military reservations, ground data need to be collected in as narrow a window of time as possible and be closely synchronized with the date of the satellite imagery.

  5. Does the Truth Matter in Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Is science in the truth business, discovering ever more about an independent and largely unobservable world? Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn, two of the most important figures in science studies in the 20th century, gave accounts of science that are in some tension with the truth view. Their central claims about science are considered here, along with…

  6. Students' Conceptions of Knowledge, Information, and Truth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Patricia A.; Winters, Fielding I.; Loughlin, Sandra M.; Grossnickle, Emily M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, everyday conceptions of knowledge, information, and truth were investigated as 161 US undergraduates completed three online tasks that investigated understandings of these foundational constructs. For the first task, respondents graphically represented the interrelations of knowledge, information, and truth; the second task required…

  7. Ethics and Truth in Archival Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesar, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The complexities of the ethics and truth in archival research are often unrecognised or invisible in educational research. This paper complicates the process of collecting data in the archives, as it problematises notions of ethics and truth in the archives. The archival research took place in the former Czechoslovakia and its turbulent political…

  8. 75 FR 46837 - Truth in Lending

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... Improvement Act of 1994, Public Law 103-325, 108 Stat. 2160 (60 FR 15463). These amendments, contained in Sec... / Wednesday, August 4, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 226 Truth in... requirements of Regulation Z (Truth in Lending). The Board is required to adjust annually the dollar...

  9. 76 FR 35723 - Truth in Lending

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Development and Regulatory Improvement Act of 1994, Public Law 103-325, 108 Stat. 2160 (60 FR 15463). These... CFR Part 226 Truth in Lending AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final... that interprets the requirements of Regulation Z (Truth in Lending). The Board is required to...

  10. The Philosophical Problem of Truth in Librarianship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labaree, Robert V.; Scimeca, Ross

    2008-01-01

    The authors develop a framework for addressing the question of truth in librarianship and in doing so attempt to move considerations of truth closer to the core of philosophical debates within the profession. After establishing ways in which philosophy contributes to social scientific inquiry in library science, the authors examine concepts of…

  11. ON LANGUAGE AND TRUTH IN PSYCHOANALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2016-04-01

    The author's focus in this paper is on the role that language plays in bringing to life the truth of the patient's lived experience in the analytic session. He discusses particular forms of discourse that enable the patient to experience with the analyst the truth that the patient had previously been unable to experience, much less put into words, on his own. The three forms of discourse that the author explores-direct discourse, tangential discourse, and discourse of non sequiturs-do not simply serve as ways of communicating the truth; they are integral aspects of the truth of what is happening at any given moment of a session. The truth that is experienced and expressed in the analytic discourse lies at least as much in the breaks (the disjunctions) in that discourse as in its manifest narrative. PMID:27112745

  12. ON LANGUAGE AND TRUTH IN PSYCHOANALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2016-04-01

    The author's focus in this paper is on the role that language plays in bringing to life the truth of the patient's lived experience in the analytic session. He discusses particular forms of discourse that enable the patient to experience with the analyst the truth that the patient had previously been unable to experience, much less put into words, on his own. The three forms of discourse that the author explores-direct discourse, tangential discourse, and discourse of non sequiturs-do not simply serve as ways of communicating the truth; they are integral aspects of the truth of what is happening at any given moment of a session. The truth that is experienced and expressed in the analytic discourse lies at least as much in the breaks (the disjunctions) in that discourse as in its manifest narrative.

  13. [Medicine and truth: between science and narrative].

    PubMed

    Materia, Enrico; Baglio, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    To which idea of truth may medicine refer? Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is rooted in the scientific truth. To explain the meaning and to trace the evolution of scientific truth, this article outlines the history of the Scientific Revolution and of the parable of Modernity, up to the arrival of pragmatism and hermeneutics. Here, the concept of truth becomes somehow discomfiting and the momentum leans towards the integration of different points of view. The fuzzy set theory for the definition of disease, as well as the shift from disease to syndrome (which has operational relevance for geriatrics), seems to refer to a more complex perspective on knowledge, albeit one that is less defined as compared to the nosology in use. Supporters of narrative medicine seek the truth in the interpretation of the patients' stories, and take advantage of the medical humanities to find the truth in words, feelings and contact with the patients. Hence, it is possible to mention the parresia, which is the frank communication espoused by stoicism and epicureanism, a technical and ethical quality which allows one to care in the proper way, a true discourse for one's own moral stance. Meanwhile, EBM and narrative medicine are converging towards a point at which medicine is considered a practical knowledge. It is the perspective of complexity that as a zeitgeist explains these multiple instances and proposes multiplicity and uncertainty as key referents for the truth and the practice of medicine.

  14. Automatic and Accurate Shadow Detection Using Near-Infrared Information.

    PubMed

    Rüfenacht, Dominic; Fredembach, Clément; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2014-08-01

    We present a method to automatically detect shadows in a fast and accurate manner by taking advantage of the inherent sensitivity of digital camera sensors to the near-infrared (NIR) part of the spectrum. Dark objects, which confound many shadow detection algorithms, often have much higher reflectance in the NIR. We can thus build an accurate shadow candidate map based on image pixels that are dark both in the visible and NIR representations. We further refine the shadow map by incorporating ratios of the visible to the NIR image, based on the observation that commonly encountered light sources have very distinct spectra in the NIR band. The results are validated on a new database, which contains visible/NIR images for a large variety of real-world shadow creating illuminant conditions, as well as manually labeled shadow ground truth. Both quantitative and qualitative evaluations show that our method outperforms current state-of-the-art shadow detection algorithms in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

  15. Science, Religion, and the Quest for Knowledge and Truth: An Islamic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guessoum, Nidhal

    2010-01-01

    This article consists of two parts. The first one is to a large extent a commentary on John R. Staver's "Skepticism, truth as coherence, and constructivist epistemology: grounds for resolving the discord between science and religion?" The second part is a related overview of Islam's philosophy of knowledge and, to a certain degree, science. In…

  16. MER vistas: ground-truth for Earth-based radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldemann, Albert F.; Larsen, Kristopher W.; Jurgens, Raymond F.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Slade, Martin A.

    2004-01-01

    Earth-based delay-Doppler radar observations of Mars with four receiving stations were carried out during the Mars oppositions of 2001 and 2003 in support of Mars Exploration Rover landing site selection. This interferometric planetary radar technique has demonstrated radar mapping of Mars with a 5 km spatial resolution.

  17. Soil-moisture ground truth, Hand County, South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    Soil types were determined from the Soil Survey of Hand County, South Dakota. The soil types encountered on the soil moisture lines are summarized. The actual soil moisture data are presented. The data have been divided by range, township and section. The soil moisture data obtained in fields of winter wheat and spring wheat are briefly summarized.

  18. The Ground Truth of Crustal Anisotropy from Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, I.; Apoloner, M. T.; Qorbani, E.; Lloyd, S. M.; Gribovski, K.; Gerner, A.; Arneitz, P.; Jordakiev, P.; Bokelmann, G.

    2014-12-01

    As one of the rare observational tools for studying deformation and stress within the Earth, seismic anisotropy has been one of the focuses of geophysical studies over the last decade. Recently, in order to unravel the anisotropic properties of the crust, the teleseismic receiver functions (RFs) methodology has been largely applied. Effects of anisotropy on the RFs dataset were illustrated in more than one theoretical study, showing the strong backazimuthal dependence of RFs on the 3D characteristics of the traversed media. The use of teleseismic RFs has the advantage of not being affected by heterogeneous depth distribution of local earthquakes, since teleseismic rays sample the entire crust beneath the stations. The application of this technique anyway, needs to be critically assessed using a suitable field test. To test this technique, we need a crustal block where the underground structure is reasonably well-known, e.g., where there is extensive knowledge from local seismic experiments and drilling. Therefore a field test around the KTB (Kontinental Tiefbohrung) site in the Oberpfalz in Southeastern Germany, has been carried out to test the technique, and to compare with previous results from deep drilling, and high-frequency seismic experiments around the drill site. The investigated region has been studied extensively by local geophysical experiments. The deep borehole was placed into gneiss rocks of the Zone Erbendorf-Vohenstrauss. Drilling activity lasted from 1987 to 1994, and descended down to a depth of 9101 meters, sampling an alternating sequence of paragneiss and amphibolite, with metamorphism of upper amphibolite facies conditions, and ductile deformation produced a strong foliation of the rocks. The application of the RFs reveals strong seismic anisotropy in the upper crust related to the so-called Erbendorf body.

  19. Radar scattering functions using Itokawa as ground truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, M.; Bramson, A.; Magri, C.

    2014-07-01

    Determining shape models from radar and lightcurve data is an inverse problem that involves computing the expected radar image that would result from a given shape and viewing geometry. The original work of Hudson [1] used models of radar scattering derived from observations of the terrestrial planets. Hudson verified his results using a laboratory simulation of delay-Doppler imaging. Here we compare radar data to synthetic data using the Hayabusa-derived shape model of Itokawa [2] to model Arecibo and Goldstone radar images [3,4]. The synthetic images match the observations well (see figure), but sometimes have bright pixels on the leading edge (top) of the data that are not seen in the synthetic images. We model the scattering dependence on incidence angle as a function tabulated every 0.1 degrees of incidence angle. The resulting fit is a good match to a cos^n θ distribution, but with a strong spike near (but not exactly at) zero incidence. We are studying the details of the low-angle scattering.

  20. Twentieth Century Ground-Truthing of Lake Malawi Climate Proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, E. T.

    2005-12-01

    Information on the climate history of the Lake Malawi basin has been derived from a number of proxy indicators. For example, enhanced accumulation of biogenic silica and of volcanic ash-derived material (rich in incompatible elements such as Nb), has been interpreted as an indicator of increased northerly winds. Over the past 25 kyr, such conditions appear to have been occurred during "cold" episodes of the Late Glacial as well as the Little Ice Age. At these times, it has been hypothesized that northerly winds resulting from southward ITCZ excursions led to increased wind-driven upwelling and enhanced delivery of volcanically-derived material to the lake from the Rungwe Volcanic field, the site of the only active volcanism in the basin. To evaluate the relationship of these proxies to historic changes in the lake basin we initiated a higher resolution (2.5-mm sampling intervals yielding ~1.5-year resolution) study of Malawi sediments deposited since the late Nineteenth Century. The observed range in Nb:Ti is small compared to that of the LIA or the Late Glacial. Since 1950 CE Nb:Ti appears unrelated to mean wind direction (based on NCEP reanalysis), but shows a significant inverse relationship with rainfall (NCEP) within the basin. There appears to be a relatively constant flux of weathered volcanic ash to the lakefloor that becomes diluted by river-borne terrigenous aluminosilicates during wetter periods. In addition, these sediments show a significant increase in increased deforestation and tillage during the British Colonial Period. Such agricultural practices would have mobilized less-altered material (with higher Na:Ti than surface soils) from deeper within soil sequences, which would subsequently have been eroded and brought into the lake.

  1. LRO Diviner Soil Composition Measurements - Lunar Sample Ground Truth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Paige, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter [1,2] includes three thermal infrared channels spanning the wavelength ranges 7.55-8.05 microns 8.10-8.40 microns, and 8.38-8.68 microns. These "8 micron" bands were specifically selected to measure the "Christiansen feature". The wavelength location of this feature, referred to herein as CF, is particularly sensitive to silicate minerals including plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine the major crystalline components of lunar rocks and soil. The general trend is that lower CF values are correlated with higher silica content and higher CF values are correlated with lower silica content. In a companion abstract, Greenhagen et al. [3] discuss the details of lunar mineral identification using Diviner data.

  2. Community detection in networks: Structural communities versus ground truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hric, Darko; Darst, Richard K.; Fortunato, Santo

    2014-12-01

    Algorithms to find communities in networks rely just on structural information and search for cohesive subsets of nodes. On the other hand, most scholars implicitly or explicitly assume that structural communities represent groups of nodes with similar (nontopological) properties or functions. This hypothesis could not be verified, so far, because of the lack of network datasets with information on the classification of the nodes. We show that traditional community detection methods fail to find the metadata groups in many large networks. Our results show that there is a marked separation between structural communities and metadata groups, in line with recent findings. That means that either our current modeling of community structure has to be substantially modified, or that metadata groups may not be recoverable from topology alone.

  3. Remote and Ground Truth Spectral Measurement Comparisons of FORMOSAT III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Kira Jorgensen; Hamada, Kris; Guyote, Michael; Okada, Jennifer; Barker, Edwin

    2007-01-01

    FORMOSAT III are a set of six research satellites from Taiwan that were launched in April 2006. The satellites are in 800 km, 71 degree inclination orbits and separated by 24 degrees in ascending node. Laboratory spectral measurements were taken of outer surface materials on FORMOSAT III. From those measurements, a computer model was built to predict the spectral reflectance accounting for both solar phase angle and orientation of the spacecraft relative to the observer. However, materials exposed to the space environment have exhibited spectral changes including a darkening and a "reddening" of the spectra. This "reddening" is characterized by an increase in slope of the reflectance as the wavelength increases. Therefore, the model of pre-flight materials was augmented to include the presumed causative agent: space weathering effects. Remote data were collected on two of the six FORMOSAT satellites using the 1.6 meter telescope at the AMOS (Air Force Maui Optical and Supercomputing) site with the Spica spectrometer. Due to the separation in ascending node, observations were acquired of whichever one of the six satellites was visible on that specific night. Three nights of data were collected using the red (6000 - 9500 angstroms) filter and five nights of data were collected using the blue (3200 - 6600 angstroms) filter. A comparison of the data showed a good match to the pre-flight models for the blue filter region. The absorption feature near 5500 angstroms due to the copper colored Kapton multi-layer insulation (MLI) was very apparent in the remote samples and a good fit to the data was seen in all satellites observed. The features in the red filter regime agreed with the pre-flight model up through 7000 angstroms where the reddening begins and the slope of the remote sample increases. A comparison of the satellites showed similar features in the red and blue filter regions, i.e. the satellite surfaces were aging at the same rate. A comparison of the pre-flight model to the first month of remote measurements showed the amount by which the satellite had reddened. The second month of data observed a satellite at a higher altitude and was therefore, not compared to the first month. A third month of data was collected but of satellites at the lower altitude regime and can only be compared to the first month. One cause of the reddening that was ruled out in early papers was a possible calibration issue.

  4. Soil-moisture ground truth, Hand County, South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    Soil samples were taken in the field and carefully preserved in taped metal containers for later laboratory gravimetric analysis to determine soil-moisture content. The typical sampling pattern used in this mission is illustrated, and the soil types encountered on the soil-moisture lines are summarized. The actual soil-moisture data were tabulated by range, township and section. Soil-moisture data obtained in fields of winter wheat and spring wheat are briefly summarized.

  5. Eruption rates in explosive eruptions: Ground truth and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnus; Durig, Tobias; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Larsen, Gudrún; Óladóttir, Bergrún A.; Högnadóttir, Thórdís; Oddsson, Björn; Björnsson, Halldór; Gudmundsdóttir, Esther R.

    2015-04-01

    Estimations of eruption rates in explosive eruptions are difficult and error margins are invariably high. In small to moderate sized eruptions effects of wind on plume height can be large and in larger eruptions observations are often difficult due to masking of source by low cloud, pyroclastic density currents and monitoring system saturation. Several medium-sized explosive eruptions in recent years have been an important in sparking off intense research on e.g. atmosphere-plume interaction and associated effects of wind on plume height. Other methods that do not rely on plume height are e.g. infrared satellite monitoring of atmospheric loading of fine tephra, infrasound, analysis of video recordings from vents, and it has been suggested that co-eruptive tilt-meter deformation data can predict eruption intensity. The eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 and Grímsvötn in 2011 provided a wealth of data that potentially can be of use in developing constraints of eruption rates in explosive eruptions. A key parameter in all such comparisons between models and data is as detailed knowledge as possible on tephra fallout. For both Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn intensive field efforts took place to map out the deposits during and immediately after the eruptions. The resulting maps cover both individual phases as well as total fallout. Comparison of these data with plume-based and other models of mass discharge rates is presently work in progress. A desirable future aim is near real time estimates of mass eruption rates based several of the parameters mentioned above. This type of work is currently ongoing within the framework of the EU-funded supersite project FUTUREVOLC.

  6. Truth from language and truth from fit: the impact of linguistic concreteness and level of construal on subjective truth.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jochim; Wänke, Michaela

    2010-11-01

    In four experiments, the impact of concreteness of language on judgments of truth was examined. In Experiments 1 and 2, it was found that statements of the very same content were judged as more probably true when they were written in concrete language than when they were written in abstract language. Findings of Experiment 2 also showed that this linguistic concreteness effect on judgments of truth could most likely be attributed to greater perceived vividness of concrete compared to abstract statements. Two further experiments demonstrated an additional fit effect: The truth advantage of concrete statements occurred especially when participants were primed with a concrete (vs. abstract) mind-set (Experiment 3) or when the statements were presented in a spatially proximal (vs. distant) location (Experiment 4). Implications for communication strategies are discussed. PMID:20947772

  7. Formalism and the notion of truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Joseph M.

    The most widely acknowledged conceptions of truth take some kind of relation to be at truth's core. This dissertation attempts to establish that an adequate conception of this relation begins with an investigation of the entanglement of the formal and the material as set forth in the model theoretical development of set theoretical mathematics. Truth concerns first and most crucially a certain commerce across the border between the formal and the material, between the ideal and the real. The entanglement of the formal and the material must be thought in itself, apart from or prior to any assimilation into philosophical schemas committed to larger metaphysical claims. This is accomplished in model theory. The twentieth century witnessed two attempts at bringing model theoretical mathematics to bear on accounting philosophically for the concept of truth: that of Alfred Tarski, and that of Alain Badiou. In order to investigate the relevance of model theory to the task of working out a philosophical conception of truth, this dissertation investigates, through comparative work, these two thinkers. It is necessary to see where their projects converge in important ways, as well as where their projects diverge in equally important ways. What brings their work into close proximity is their shared conviction that truth must be thought in light of model theory. Nonetheless, the two do not agree about exactly how model theory sheds light on truth. Comparative study thus reveals both a shared site for thinking and a struggle over the significance of that site. Agreement between Tarski and Badiou concerns the excess of the purely formal over itself, marked by the generation of an undecidable statement within formal systems of a certain level of complexity. Both thinkers determine that this formal excess touches on the material, and both further determine that the consequent entanglement of the formal and the material provides the basic frame for any philosophical consideration

  8. D-BRAIN: Anatomically Accurate Simulated Diffusion MRI Brain Data.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Daniele; Jeurissen, Ben; Aelterman, Jan; Roine, Timo; Sijbers, Jan; Pizurica, Aleksandra; Leemans, Alexander; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion Weighted (DW) MRI allows for the non-invasive study of water diffusion inside living tissues. As such, it is useful for the investigation of human brain white matter (WM) connectivity in vivo through fiber tractography (FT) algorithms. Many DW-MRI tailored restoration techniques and FT algorithms have been developed. However, it is not clear how accurately these methods reproduce the WM bundle characteristics in real-world conditions, such as in the presence of noise, partial volume effect, and a limited spatial and angular resolution. The difficulty lies in the lack of a realistic brain phantom on the one hand, and a sufficiently accurate way of modeling the acquisition-related degradation on the other. This paper proposes a software phantom that approximates a human brain to a high degree of realism and that can incorporate complex brain-like structural features. We refer to it as a Diffusion BRAIN (D-BRAIN) phantom. Also, we propose an accurate model of a (DW) MRI acquisition protocol to allow for validation of methods in realistic conditions with data imperfections. The phantom model simulates anatomical and diffusion properties for multiple brain tissue components, and can serve as a ground-truth to evaluate FT algorithms, among others. The simulation of the acquisition process allows one to include noise, partial volume effects, and limited spatial and angular resolution in the images. In this way, the effect of image artifacts on, for instance, fiber tractography can be investigated with great detail. The proposed framework enables reliable and quantitative evaluation of DW-MR image processing and FT algorithms at the level of large-scale WM structures. The effect of noise levels and other data characteristics on cortico-cortical connectivity and tractography-based grey matter parcellation can be investigated as well. PMID:26930054

  9. [The problem of truth in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    López-Ibor Aliño, J J

    2000-01-01

    Psychiatry has forgotten too early about the problem of truth (Zutt). In the first treatises on delusions, these are described as pathological errors, as mistakes in the ability to judge reality. For French psychiatry, delusions are false ideas of pathological origin, resistant to logical argumentation that alter the ability to judge reality, a concept still present in DSM-IV, in which it is defined as wrong beliefs that normality imply a wrong interpretation of perceptions of experiences. As a consequence, delusions are classified according to its contents. German psychiatry however seeks for the structures underlying to all delusions, some authors have even defended the notion of a single psychosis. The Heidelberg School, so well analyzed by Laín, developed a psychopathology which dismantled the notion of delusion then accepted (falseness is a relative and accessory notion and the lack of information plays an important role, as well as cultural and religious factors). K. Schneider describes the two forms of delusion: delusional perception and delusional occurrence. Both concepts have been criticized, therefore it is necessary to consider truth as a process and not as a state and to take into account the contributions of the philosophy of science and psychoanalysis. The concept of truth of Aristotle (the adaptation of the logos to the thing) is the one that has prevailed along history. But, for Heidegger the truth as aletheia (the process of revealing) is deeper and allows, applied to psychopathology, the connection of truth, liberty and relationship between human beings. As a consequence, the error of delusion, its lack of liberty, is also a lack of communication. The process of getting closer to truth is marked by an ethical attitude of tolerance. PMID:11205045

  10. Gabor feature-based registration: accurate alignment without fiducial markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, Nestor A.; Parra, Carlos A.

    2007-03-01

    Accurate registration of diagnosis and treatment images is a critical factor for the success of radiotherapy. This study presents a feature-based image registration algorithm that uses a branch- and-bound method to search the space of possible transformations, as well as a Hausdorff distance metric to evaluate their quality. This distance is computed in the space of responses to a circular Gabor filter, in which, for each point of interest in both reference and subject images, a vector of complex responses to different Gabor kernels is computed. Each kernel is generated using different frequencies and variances of the Gabor function, which determines correspondent regions in the images to be registered, by virtue of its rotation invariance characteristics. Responses to circular Gabor filters have also been reported in literature as a successful tool for image classification; and in this particular application we utilize them for patient positioning in cranial radiotherapy. For test purposes, we use 2D portal images acquired with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Our method presents EPID-EPID registrations errors under 0.2 mm for translations and 0.05 deg for rotations (subpixel accuracy). We are using fiducial marker registration as the ground truth for comparisons. Registration times average 2.70 seconds based on 1400 feature points using a 1.4 GHz processor.

  11. The truth and bias model of judgment.

    PubMed

    West, Tessa V; Kenny, David A

    2011-04-01

    We present a new model for the general study of how the truth and biases affect human judgment. In the truth and bias model, judgments about the world are pulled by 2 primary forces, the truth force and the bias force, and these 2 forces are interrelated. The truth and bias model differentiates force and value, where the force is the strength of the attraction and the value is the location toward which the judgment is attracted. The model also makes a formal theoretical distinction between bias and moderator variables. Two major classes of biases are discussed: biases that are measured with variables (e.g., assumed similarity) and directional bias, which refers to the extent to which judgments are pulled toward 1 end of the judgment continuum. Moderator variables are conceptualized as variables that affect the accuracy and bias forces but that do not affect judgments directly. We illustrate the model with 4 examples. We discuss the theoretical, empirical, methodological, measurement, and design implications of the model. PMID:21480740

  12. Complexity and Truth in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of complexity theory on the way in which we see propositions corresponding to the reality that they describe, and our concept of truth in that context. A contingently associated idea is the atomistic expectation that we can reduce language to primitive units of meaning, and tie those in with agreed units of…

  13. The truth and bias model of judgment.

    PubMed

    West, Tessa V; Kenny, David A

    2011-04-01

    We present a new model for the general study of how the truth and biases affect human judgment. In the truth and bias model, judgments about the world are pulled by 2 primary forces, the truth force and the bias force, and these 2 forces are interrelated. The truth and bias model differentiates force and value, where the force is the strength of the attraction and the value is the location toward which the judgment is attracted. The model also makes a formal theoretical distinction between bias and moderator variables. Two major classes of biases are discussed: biases that are measured with variables (e.g., assumed similarity) and directional bias, which refers to the extent to which judgments are pulled toward 1 end of the judgment continuum. Moderator variables are conceptualized as variables that affect the accuracy and bias forces but that do not affect judgments directly. We illustrate the model with 4 examples. We discuss the theoretical, empirical, methodological, measurement, and design implications of the model.

  14. In Search of Truth, on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2004-01-01

    Is it true? There's no more important question to ask when online. Truth telling has never been a requirement to provide information online. Standards for accuracy, to a large extent, don't exist. As a general rule, the "real time" communication that takes place in instant messaging sessions and chat rooms is the most unreliable. One level up in…

  15. Lost Academic Souls and the Truth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birenbaum, William M.

    The connection between knowing the truth and some version of how men should live has always guided those who would lead the university. Walls around a campus or geographic isolation cannot prevent social pressures from affecting the institution. Colleges and universities have always been politicalized. The danger lies not in that fact but in the…

  16. Five Half-Truths about Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englehart, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' classroom management practices are rooted in assumptions based on their experiences and perceptions. At times, these assumptions are only partially informed, and serve to limit action and perceived responsibility. In this article, five common "half-truths" that guide classroom management are discussed. For each, the basic premise is…

  17. Myth and Truth: The First Thanksgiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Traci

    Behind every myth are many possible truths allowing us to discover who we were as peoples and who we are today. By exploring myths surrounding the Wampanoag, the pilgrims, and the "First Thanksgiving," this lesson asks students to think critically about commonly believed myths regarding the Wampanoag Indians in colonial America. During three…

  18. 75 FR 7925 - Truth in Lending

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... CFR Part 226 Truth in Lending AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final... commentary to the regulation published on January 29, 2009 (January 2009 Regulation Z Rule). See 72 FR 5244... published on January 29, 2009, at 74 FR 5244, is withdrawn as of February 22, 2010. FOR FURTHER...

  19. Heart Truth for African American Women

    MedlinePlus

    THE HEART TRUTH ® FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: AN ACTION PLAN When you hear the term “heart disease,” what’s your first reaction? Like many women, you may ... in four women dies of heart disease. For African American women, the risk of heart disease is especially ...

  20. 75 FR 80675 - Truth in Lending

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... October 28, 2010 (75 FR 66554) (Docket No. R- 1394), amending Regulation Z (Truth in Lending) to implement... interim final rule published in the ] Federal Register of October 28, 2010 (75 FR 66554) (Docket No. R..., (75 FR 66554) make the following corrections: 1. On page 66555, in the first column, line 24,...

  1. Truthful Auction for CPU Time Slots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Li, Minming

    We consider the task of designing a truthful auction mechanism for CPU time scheduling problem. There are m commodities (time slots) T = {t 1, t 2, ...,t m } for n buyers I = {1,2,...,n}. Each buyer requires a number of time slots s i for its task. The valuation function of buyer i for a bundle of time slots T i is v i (T i ) = w i (m - t), where t is the last time slot in T i and |T i | = s i . The utility u i of buyer i is v i (T i ) - p(T i ). It is well-known that Vickrey-Clarke-Groves (VCG) mechanism gives the incentive to bid truthfully. Although optimal social welfare is computationally feasible in CPU time scheduling problem, VCG mechanism may produce low revenue. We design an auction which also maintains the incentives for bidders to bid truthfully. In addition, we perform simulations and observe that our truthful mechanism produces more revenue than VCG on average.

  2. Truth-telling in clinical practice.

    PubMed Central

    Hébert, P. C.

    1994-01-01

    Disclosure by doctors to patients has changed during the past 30 years in the direction of honesty, but deception and nondisclosure are still common. Clear ethical and legal precedents and guidelines regarding truth-telling exist. Physicians should not protect patients from potentially upsetting information; they will be held responsible should patients be injured due to failure to disclose. PMID:7888823

  3. Truth and Evidence in Validity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borsboom, Denny; Markus, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    According to Kane (this issue), "the validity of a proposed interpretation or use depends on how well the evidence supports" the claims being made. Because truth and evidence are distinct, this means that the validity of a test score interpretation could be high even though the interpretation is false. As an illustration, we discuss the case of…

  4. Factors that facilitate and undermine children's beliefs about truth telling.

    PubMed

    Wagland, Paul; Bussey, Kay

    2005-12-01

    This study examined the extent to which children believe that truth telling is compromised by negative outcome expectancies. It also investigated the efficacy of two types of appeals, externally and internally directed, for encouraging truth telling. Seventy-two children from three age groups (5, 7, and 10 years of age) participated in a vignette study designed to examine these issues. Results showed that children believed that truth telling about an adult's transgression would be more likely if negative outcomes were not expected than if they were expected. Further, children believed that either externally or internally focused encouragement would facilitate truth telling when negative outcomes were expected for truth telling. Beliefs about the propensity for truth telling were associated more with positive evaluations of truth telling than with negative evaluations of lying. These results have important implications for court cases in which children testify about an adult who has sworn them to secrecy and they are afraid to speak the truth.

  5. A Navajo High School and the Truth of Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunsmore, Roger

    1991-01-01

    A non-Indian teacher at a Navajo Reservation high school relates his experiences using American Indian literature to convey to students some of the unspoken truths of American Indian history; and muses on the nature of truth and the etymological origins of the word "truth" in the word "tree." (SV)

  6. 78 FR 76033 - Truth in Lending (Regulation Z)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 Truth in Lending (Regulation Z) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection... Regulation Z, which implements the Truth in Lending Act (TILA). The Bureau is required to calculate annually... Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act of 2009 (CARD Act), which amended the Truth in Lending Act...

  7. 47 CFR 64.2401 - Truth-in-Billing Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Truth-in-Billing Requirements. 64.2401 Section... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Truth-in-Billing Requirements for Common Carriers § 64.2401 Truth-in-Billing Requirements. (a) Bill organization. Telephone bills shall be...

  8. 47 CFR 64.2401 - Truth-in-Billing Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truth-in-Billing Requirements. 64.2401 Section... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Truth-in-Billing Requirements for Common Carriers § 64.2401 Truth-in-Billing Requirements. (a) Bill organization. Telephone bills shall be...

  9. The Truth and Harriet Martineau: Interpreting a Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Gaby

    This paper explores the difficulty of claims to truth in the analysis of the life of the Victorian feminist, reformer, educationist, and celebrity, Harriet Martineau (1802-76). She was widely known as a truthful person. For example, her contemporary, the poet Elizabeth Barrett Browning, wrote in 1845 that "her love of the truth is proverbial among…

  10. Accurate quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.

  11. Comparison of Surface Radiation Budget Satellite algorithms for downwelled shortwave irradiance with Wisconsin Fire/SRB surface-truth data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Staylor, W. F.; Darnell, W. L.; Chou, M. D.; Dedieu, G.; Deschamps, P. Y.; Ellis, J.; Gautier, C.; Frouin, R.; Rossow, W. B.

    1990-01-01

    Surface radiation instruments were operated at various locations during the Wisconsin First ISSCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment (FIRE) and Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) experiment in October 1986. Satellite data were distributed to scientists who had previously developed satellite algorithms to estimate downwelled shortwave irradiance. Results of intercomparison of ground-truth values with the satellite-derived estimates are described.

  12. A scoring, truthing, and registration toolkit for evaluation of target detection and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, John; Ralph, Scott K.; Stevens, Mark R.; Kenyon, Sam; Anderson, David M.; Snorrason, Magnus S.; Gwilt, David

    2004-09-01

    A major challenge for ATR evaluation is developing an accurate image truth that can be compared to an ATR algorithm's decisions to assess performance. While many standard truthing methods and scoring metrics exist for stationary targets in still imagery, techniques for dealing with motion imagery and moving targets are not as prevalent. This is partially because the moving imagery / moving targets scenario introduces the data association problem of assigning targets to tracks. This problem complicates the truthing and scoring task in two ways. First, video datasets typically contain far more imagery that must be truthed than static collections. Specifying the types and locations of the targets present for a large number of images is tedious, time consuming and error prone. Second, scoring ATR performance is ambiguous when assessing performance over a collection of video sequences. For example, if a target is tracked and successfully identified for 90% of a single video sequence, is the identification rate 90%, or is the single sequence evaluated in its entirety and the vehicle identification simply recorded as correct? In the former case, a bias will be introduced for easily identified targets that show up frequently in a sequence. In the latter case, the bias is avoided but system accuracy could be overstated. In this paper, we present a complete truthing system we call the Scoring, Truthing, And Registration Toolkit (START). The first component is registration, which involves aligning the images of the same scene to a common reference frame. Once that reference frame has been determined, the second component, truthing, is used to specify target identity, posi-tion, orientation, and other scene characteristics. The final component, scoring, is used to assess the performance of a given algorithm as compared to the specified truth. In motion imagery, both stationary and moving targets can be de-tected and tracked over portions of a motion imagery clip. We present an

  13. [Truth telling of Alzheimer's disease diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Fuentes R, Paola; Prato, Juan Andrés

    2012-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease is becoming an increasingly common problem due to population aging. Most of the research on truth telling in relation to diagnosis has been done in oncology. However, although growing, there has a lack of interest about attitudes held among physicians towards disclosing the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Physicians, family caregivers and patients have different views about it. The reasons most often given for communicating the diagnosis are the right to know, relief of anxiety to know the cause of memory problems, early access to treatment and ability to plan ahead. On the contrary, the reasons for concealing the diagnosis are based on the right not to know, the anxiety associated to knowing the diagnosis and the absence of curative therapies for the disease. The aim of this paper is to report the current state of literature on diagnostic truth telling in dementia, review the ethical principles involved, and finally give a strategy to address the issue.

  14. Virtue and truth in clinical science.

    PubMed

    Gillett, G

    1995-06-01

    Since the time of Hippocrates, medical science sought to develop a practice based on "knowledge rather than opinion". However, in the light of recent alternative approaches to healing and a philosophy of science that, through thinkers like Kuhn, Rorty, and Foucault, is critical of claims to objective truth, we must reappraise the way in which medical interventions can be based on proven pathophysiological knowledge rather than opinion. Developing insights in Foucault, Lacan, and Wittgenstein, this essay argues for a recovery of the Aristotelian idea of a techne, where there is a dynamic interplay between praxis and conceptualization. The result is a post-Kuhnian epistemology for medical science that recognizes the evaluative dimension of knowledge, but that also looks to a Platonic conception of the good as the ultimate constraint on human thought, thus avoiding the radically self-contained accounts of truth found in some post-modern thinkers.

  15. Truth, virtue and beauty: midwifery and philosophy.

    PubMed

    Parker, J M; Gibbs, M

    1998-09-01

    In this paper, we outline three moments in the history of Western philosophy--Classical Greek, Modernity, Postmodernity--and the ways in which issues of truth, virtue and beauty have been understood within these philosophical formations. In particular, we investigate the ways in which notions of truth, virtue and beauty influenced the orthodoxy of birthing practices at these different moments. Finally, we examine current, critical reflections on the role of the intellectual in postmodern society and use these reflections as a heuristic for understanding the role of the contemporary midwife. We suggest that midwifery must reconcile two divergent demands. The first is to mobilise the positive, instrumental benefits of Western medical science to improve mortality and morbidity outcomes. The second is to remain sensitive to the cultural and social meanings attached to traditional birthing practices and to understand the roles these play in the well-being of mother and child.

  16. Telling the truth and medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Gillon, R

    1985-11-30

    Gillon discusses the conflicting moral implications of the principles of respect for autonomy and of beneficence and non-maleficence when telling patients the truth about their illnesses and treatments. The case for nondisclosure is usually based on three major arguments: that doctors' Hippocratic obligations to benefit and not harm their patients take precedence over not deceiving them; that the range of possible conditions and prognoses makes it difficult for physicians to know the full truth or for patients to comprehend it; and that patients do not wish to be told dire news. Gillon rejects each of these arguments, contending that avoiding deceit is a basic moral norm that can be defended from utilitarian as well as deontological points of view. With regard to the argument concerning patient attitudes, he recommends that pilot studies be done, asking patients what their preferences are at the time they register with a doctor or hospital.

  17. Knowledge does not protect against illusory truth.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Lisa K; Brashier, Nadia M; Payne, B Keith; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2015-10-01

    In daily life, we frequently encounter false claims in the form of consumer advertisements, political propaganda, and rumors. Repetition may be one way that insidious misconceptions, such as the belief that vitamin C prevents the common cold, enter our knowledge base. Research on the illusory truth effect demonstrates that repeated statements are easier to process, and subsequently perceived to be more truthful, than new statements. The prevailing assumption in the literature has been that knowledge constrains this effect (i.e., repeating the statement "The Atlantic Ocean is the largest ocean on Earth" will not make you believe it). We tested this assumption using both normed estimates of knowledge and individuals' demonstrated knowledge on a postexperimental knowledge check (Experiment 1). Contrary to prior suppositions, illusory truth effects occurred even when participants knew better. Multinomial modeling demonstrated that participants sometimes rely on fluency even if knowledge is also available to them (Experiment 2). Thus, participants demonstrated knowledge neglect, or the failure to rely on stored knowledge, in the face of fluent processing experiences. PMID:26301795

  18. Culture, Truth, and Science After Lacan.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Grant

    2015-12-01

    Truth and knowledge are conceptually related and there is a way of construing both that implies that they cannot be solely derived from a description that restricts itself to a set of scientific facts. In the first section of this essay, I analyse truth as a relation between a praxis, ways of knowing, and the world. In the second section, I invoke the third thing-the objective reality on which we triangulate as knowing subjects for the purpose of complex scientific endeavours like medical science and clinical care. Such praxes develop robust methods of "keeping in touch" with disease and illness (like biomarkers). An analysis drawing on philosophical semantics motivates the needed (anti-scientistic) account of meaning and truth (and therefore knowledge) and underpins the following argument: (i) the formulation and dissemination of knowledge rests on language; (ii) language is selective in what it represents in any given situation; (iii) the praxes of a given (sub)culture are based on this selectivity; but (iv) human health and illness involve whole human beings in a human life-world; therefore, (v) medical knowledge should reflectively transcend, where required, biomedical science towards a more inclusive view. Parts three and four argue that a post-structuralist (Lacanian) account of the human subject can avoid both scientism and idealism or unconstrained relativism.

  19. Spinoza's error: memory for truth and falsity.

    PubMed

    Nadarevic, Lena; Erdfelder, Edgar

    2013-02-01

    Two theoretical frameworks have been proposed to account for the representation of truth and falsity in human memory: the Cartesian model and the Spinozan model. Both models presume that during information processing a mental representation of the information is stored along with a tag indicating its truth value. However, the two models disagree on the nature of these tags. According to the Cartesian model, true information receives a "true" tag and false information receives a "false" tag. In contrast, the Spinozan model claims that only false information receives a "false" tag, whereas untagged information is automatically accepted as true. To test the Cartesian and Spinozan models, we conducted two source memory experiments in which participants studied true and false trivia statements from three different sources differing in credibility (i.e., presenting 100% true, 50% true and 50% false, or 100% false statements). In Experiment 1, half of the participants were informed about the source credibility prior to the study phase. As compared to a control group, this precue group showed improved source memory for both true and false statements, but not for statements with an uncertain validity status. Moreover, memory did not differ for truth and falsity in the precue group. As Experiment 2 revealed, this finding is replicated even when using a 1-week rather than a 20-min retention interval between study and test phases. The results of both experiments clearly contradict the Spinozan model but can be explained in terms of the Cartesian model.

  20. Knowledge does not protect against illusory truth.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Lisa K; Brashier, Nadia M; Payne, B Keith; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2015-10-01

    In daily life, we frequently encounter false claims in the form of consumer advertisements, political propaganda, and rumors. Repetition may be one way that insidious misconceptions, such as the belief that vitamin C prevents the common cold, enter our knowledge base. Research on the illusory truth effect demonstrates that repeated statements are easier to process, and subsequently perceived to be more truthful, than new statements. The prevailing assumption in the literature has been that knowledge constrains this effect (i.e., repeating the statement "The Atlantic Ocean is the largest ocean on Earth" will not make you believe it). We tested this assumption using both normed estimates of knowledge and individuals' demonstrated knowledge on a postexperimental knowledge check (Experiment 1). Contrary to prior suppositions, illusory truth effects occurred even when participants knew better. Multinomial modeling demonstrated that participants sometimes rely on fluency even if knowledge is also available to them (Experiment 2). Thus, participants demonstrated knowledge neglect, or the failure to rely on stored knowledge, in the face of fluent processing experiences.

  1. Culture, Truth, and Science After Lacan.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Grant

    2015-12-01

    Truth and knowledge are conceptually related and there is a way of construing both that implies that they cannot be solely derived from a description that restricts itself to a set of scientific facts. In the first section of this essay, I analyse truth as a relation between a praxis, ways of knowing, and the world. In the second section, I invoke the third thing-the objective reality on which we triangulate as knowing subjects for the purpose of complex scientific endeavours like medical science and clinical care. Such praxes develop robust methods of "keeping in touch" with disease and illness (like biomarkers). An analysis drawing on philosophical semantics motivates the needed (anti-scientistic) account of meaning and truth (and therefore knowledge) and underpins the following argument: (i) the formulation and dissemination of knowledge rests on language; (ii) language is selective in what it represents in any given situation; (iii) the praxes of a given (sub)culture are based on this selectivity; but (iv) human health and illness involve whole human beings in a human life-world; therefore, (v) medical knowledge should reflectively transcend, where required, biomedical science towards a more inclusive view. Parts three and four argue that a post-structuralist (Lacanian) account of the human subject can avoid both scientism and idealism or unconstrained relativism. PMID:26615543

  2. Accurate Optical Reference Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, N.

    2006-08-01

    Current and near future all-sky astrometric catalogs on the ICRF are reviewed with the emphasis on reference star data at optical wavelengths for user applications. The standard error of a Hipparcos Catalogue star position is now about 15 mas per coordinate. For the Tycho-2 data it is typically 20 to 100 mas, depending on magnitude. The USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC) observing program was completed in 2004 and reductions toward the final UCAC3 release are in progress. This all-sky reference catalogue will have positional errors of 15 to 70 mas for stars in the 10 to 16 mag range, with a high degree of completeness. Proper motions for the about 60 million UCAC stars will be derived by combining UCAC astrometry with available early epoch data, including yet unpublished scans of the complete set of AGK2, Hamburg Zone astrograph and USNO Black Birch programs. Accurate positional and proper motion data are combined in the Naval Observatory Merged Astrometric Dataset (NOMAD) which includes Hipparcos, Tycho-2, UCAC2, USNO-B1, NPM+SPM plate scan data for astrometry, and is supplemented by multi-band optical photometry as well as 2MASS near infrared photometry. The Milli-Arcsecond Pathfinder Survey (MAPS) mission is currently being planned at USNO. This is a micro-satellite to obtain 1 mas positions, parallaxes, and 1 mas/yr proper motions for all bright stars down to about 15th magnitude. This program will be supplemented by a ground-based program to reach 18th magnitude on the 5 mas level.

  3. MULTISPECTRAL THERMAL IMAGER SCIENCE, DATA PRODUCT AND GROUND DATA PROCESSING OVERVIEW.

    SciTech Connect

    J. SZYMANSKI; L. BALICK; ET AL

    2001-04-01

    The mission of the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite is to demonstrate the efficacy of highly accurate multispectral imaging for passive characterization of urban and industrial areas, as well as sites of environmental interest. The satellite makes top-of-atmosphere radiance measurements that are subsequently processed into estimates of surface properties such as vegetation health, temperatures, material composition and others. The system also provides simultaneous data for atmospheric characterization at high spatial resolution. To utilize these data the MTI science program has several coordinated components, including modeling, comprehensive ground-truth measurements, image acquisition planning, data processing and data analysis and interpretation . Algorithms have been developed to retrieve a multitude of physical quantities and these algorithms are integrated in a processing pipeline architecture that emphasizes automation, flexibility and programmability. This paper describes the MTI data products and ground processing, as well as the ''how to'' aspects of starting a data center from scratch.

  4. Validating the truth of propositions: behavioral and ERP indicators of truth evaluation processes

    PubMed Central

    Koranyi, Nicolas; Müller, Florian; Langner, Oliver; Rothermund, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    We investigated processes of truth validation during reading. Participants responded to ‘true’ and ‘false’ probes after reading simple true or false sentences. Compatible sentence/probe combinations (true/‘true’, false/‘false’) facilitated responding compared with incompatible combinations (true/‘false’, false/‘true’), indicating truth validation. Evidence for truth validation was obtained after inducing an evaluative mindset but not after inducing a non-evaluative mindset, using additional intermixed tasks requiring true/false decisions or sentence comparisons, respectively. Event-related potentials revealed an increased late negativity (500–1000 ms after onset of the last word of sentences) for false compared with true sentences. Paralleling behavioral results, this electroencephalographic marker only obtained in the evaluative mindset condition. Further, mere semantic mismatches between subject and object of sentences led to an elevated N400 for both mindset conditions. Taken together, our findings suggest that truth validation is a conditionally automatic process that is dependent on the current task demands and resulting mindset, whereas the processing of word meaning and semantic relations between words proceeds in an unconditionally automatic fashion. PMID:22461436

  5. Validating the truth of propositions: behavioral and ERP indicators of truth evaluation processes.

    PubMed

    Wiswede, Daniel; Koranyi, Nicolas; Müller, Florian; Langner, Oliver; Rothermund, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    We investigated processes of truth validation during reading. Participants responded to 'true' and 'false' probes after reading simple true or false sentences. Compatible sentence/probe combinations (true/'true', false/'false') facilitated responding compared with incompatible combinations (true/'false', false/'true'), indicating truth validation. Evidence for truth validation was obtained after inducing an evaluative mindset but not after inducing a non-evaluative mindset, using additional intermixed tasks requiring true/false decisions or sentence comparisons, respectively. Event-related potentials revealed an increased late negativity (500-1000 ms after onset of the last word of sentences) for false compared with true sentences. Paralleling behavioral results, this electroencephalographic marker only obtained in the evaluative mindset condition. Further, mere semantic mismatches between subject and object of sentences led to an elevated N400 for both mindset conditions. Taken together, our findings suggest that truth validation is a conditionally automatic process that is dependent on the current task demands and resulting mindset, whereas the processing of word meaning and semantic relations between words proceeds in an unconditionally automatic fashion.

  6. Curvelet-based sampling for accurate and efficient multimodal image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safran, M. N.; Freiman, M.; Werman, M.; Joskowicz, L.

    2009-02-01

    We present a new non-uniform adaptive sampling method for the estimation of mutual information in multi-modal image registration. The method uses the Fast Discrete Curvelet Transform to identify regions along anatomical curves on which the mutual information is computed. Its main advantages of over other non-uniform sampling schemes are that it captures the most informative regions, that it is invariant to feature shapes, orientations, and sizes, that it is efficient, and that it yields accurate results. Extensive evaluation on 20 validated clinical brain CT images to Proton Density (PD) and T1 and T2-weighted MRI images from the public RIRE database show the effectiveness of our method. Rigid registration accuracy measured at 10 clinical targets and compared to ground truth measurements yield a mean target registration error of 0.68mm(std=0.4mm) for CT-PD and 0.82mm(std=0.43mm) for CT-T2. This is 0.3mm (1mm) more accurate in the average (worst) case than five existing sampling methods. Our method has the lowest registration errors recorded to date for the registration of CT-PD and CT-T2 images in the RIRE website when compared to methods that were tested on at least three patient datasets.

  7. Accurate segmentation framework for the left ventricle wall from cardiac cine MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliman, H.; Khalifa, F.; Elnakib, A.; Soliman, A.; Beache, G. M.; Gimel'farb, G.; Emam, A.; Elmaghraby, A.; El-Baz, A.

    2013-10-01

    We propose a novel, fast, robust, bi-directional coupled parametric deformable model to segment the left ventricle (LV) wall borders using first- and second-order visual appearance features. These features are embedded in a new stochastic external force that preserves the topology of LV wall to track the evolution of the parametric deformable models control points. To accurately estimate the marginal density of each deformable model control point, the empirical marginal grey level distributions (first-order appearance) inside and outside the boundary of the deformable model are modeled with adaptive linear combinations of discrete Gaussians (LCDG). The second order visual appearance of the LV wall is accurately modeled with a new rotationally invariant second-order Markov-Gibbs random field (MGRF). We tested the proposed segmentation approach on 15 data sets in 6 infarction patients using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the average distance (AD) between the ground truth and automated segmentation contours. Our approach achieves a mean DSC value of 0.926±0.022 and AD value of 2.16±0.60 compared to two other level set methods that achieve 0.904±0.033 and 0.885±0.02 for DSC; and 2.86±1.35 and 5.72±4.70 for AD, respectively.

  8. Joint iris boundary detection and fit: a real-time method for accurate pupil tracking.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Marconi; James, Andrew C

    2014-08-01

    A range of applications in visual science rely on accurate tracking of the human pupil's movement and contraction in response to light. While the literature for independent contour detection and fitting of the iris-pupil boundary is vast, a joint approach, in which it is assumed that the pupil has a given geometric shape has been largely overlooked. We present here a global method for simultaneously finding and fitting of an elliptic or circular contour against a dark interior, which produces consistently accurate results even under non-ideal recording conditions, such as reflections near and over the boundary, droopy eye lids, or the sudden formation of tears. The specific form of the proposed optimization problem allows us to write down closed analytic formulae for the gradient and the Hessian of the objective function. Moreover, both the objective function and its derivatives can be cast into vectorized form, making the proposed algorithm significantly faster than its closest relative in the literature. We compare methods in multiple ways, both analytically and numerically, using real iris images as well as idealizations of the iris for which the ground truth boundary is precisely known. The method proposed here is illustrated under challenging recording conditions and it is shown to be robust. PMID:25136477

  9. Fast, accurate, and robust automatic marker detection for motion correction based on oblique kV or MV projection image pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Slagmolen, Pieter; Hermans, Jeroen; Maes, Frederik; Budiharto, Tom; Haustermans, Karin; Heuvel, Frank van den

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: A robust and accurate method that allows the automatic detection of fiducial markers in MV and kV projection image pairs is proposed. The method allows to automatically correct for inter or intrafraction motion. Methods: Intratreatment MV projection images are acquired during each of five treatment beams of prostate cancer patients with four implanted fiducial markers. The projection images are first preprocessed using a series of marker enhancing filters. 2D candidate marker locations are generated for each of the filtered projection images and 3D candidate marker locations are reconstructed by pairing candidates in subsequent projection images. The correct marker positions are retrieved in 3D by the minimization of a cost function that combines 2D image intensity and 3D geometric or shape information for the entire marker configuration simultaneously. This optimization problem is solved using dynamic programming such that the globally optimal configuration for all markers is always found. Translational interfraction and intrafraction prostate motion and the required patient repositioning is assessed from the position of the centroid of the detected markers in different MV image pairs. The method was validated on a phantom using CT as ground-truth and on clinical data sets of 16 patients using manual marker annotations as ground-truth. Results: The entire setup was confirmed to be accurate to around 1 mm by the phantom measurements. The reproducibility of the manual marker selection was less than 3.5 pixels in the MV images. In patient images, markers were correctly identified in at least 99% of the cases for anterior projection images and 96% of the cases for oblique projection images. The average marker detection accuracy was 1.4{+-}1.8 pixels in the projection images. The centroid of all four reconstructed marker positions in 3D was positioned within 2 mm of the ground-truth position in 99.73% of all cases. Detecting four markers in a pair of MV images

  10. Settling No Conflict in the Public Place: Truth in Education, and in Rancierean Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This essay offers an educational understanding of truth deriving from the work of Jacques Ranciere. Unlike other educational accounts--the traditional, progressive, and critical accounts--of truth that take education as a way of approaching pre-existing truths (or lack of pre-existing truths), this essay establishes an account of truth that is…

  11. Ground characterization for JAPE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attenborough, Keith; Taherzadeh, Shahram

    1993-01-01

    Above-ground propagation modelling at the JAPE (Joint Acoustic Propagation Experiment) site requires a reasonably accurate model for the acoustical properties of the ground. Various models for the JAPE site are offered based on theoretical fits to short range data and to longer range data obtained with random noise and pure tones respectively from a loudspeaker under approximately quiescent isothermal conditions.

  12. Counseling without Truth: Toward a Neopragmatic Foundation for Counseling Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, James T.

    2007-01-01

    The author presents an overview of contemporary developments in philosophy regarding the status of truth and discusses the implications of these ideas for the practice of counseling. Counseling without truth is presented as a desirable option when a neopragmatic frame of reference is adopted.

  13. 12 CFR 741.217 - Truth in savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Truth in savings. 741.217 Section 741.217 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR... Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.217 Truth in savings. Any...

  14. Accuracy in Detecting Truths and Lies: Documenting the "Veracity Effect."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy R.; Park, Hee Sun; McCornack, Steven A.

    1999-01-01

    Conducts four studies on detecting truth and lies. Suggest that the single best predictor of detection accuracy may be the veracity of message being judged. Finds that truths are judged with substantially greater accuracy than lies. Findings suggest that there is a need for reassessment of many commonly held conclusions about deceptive…

  15. 12 CFR 741.217 - Truth in savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Truth in savings. 741.217 Section 741.217 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR... Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.217 Truth in savings. Any...

  16. 76 FR 43111 - Regulation Z; Truth in Lending

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... related to mortgage loan originator compensation (the September 2010 final rule). See 75 FR 58509, Sept...; Truth in Lending AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Board). ACTION: Final rule... commentary to Regulation Z, which implements the Truth in Lending Act (TILA). The commentary applies...

  17. 77 FR 69738 - Truth in Lending (Regulation Z)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... Regulation Z on December 22, 2011, and the Bureau's Regulation Z is located at 12 CFR part 1026. 76 FR 79768... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 Truth in Lending (Regulation Z) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection...) is publishing a final rule amending the official interpretations for Regulation Z (Truth in...

  18. How Does Telling the Truth Help Educational Action Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A number of key constructs underpin educational action research. This paper focuses on the concept of "truth" and by doing so hopes to highlight some debate in this area. In reflecting upon what "truth" might mean to those involved in action research, I shall critically evaluate Thorndike's "Law of Effect" and Bruner's "Three Forms of…

  19. A choice-semantical approach to theoretical truth.

    PubMed

    Andreas, Holger; Schiemer, Georg

    2016-08-01

    A central topic in the logic of science concerns the proper semantic analysis of theoretical sentences, that is sentences containing theoretical terms. In this paper, we present a novel choice-semantical account of theoretical truth based on the epsilon-term definition of theoretical terms. Specifically, we develop two ways of specifying the truth conditions of theoretical statements in a choice functional semantics, each giving rise to a corresponding logic of such statements. In order to investigate the inferential strength of these logical systems, we provide a translation of each truth definition into a modal definition of theoretical truth. Based on this, we show that the stronger notion of choice-semantical truth captures more adequately our informal semantic understanding of scientific statements.

  20. A choice-semantical approach to theoretical truth.

    PubMed

    Andreas, Holger; Schiemer, Georg

    2016-08-01

    A central topic in the logic of science concerns the proper semantic analysis of theoretical sentences, that is sentences containing theoretical terms. In this paper, we present a novel choice-semantical account of theoretical truth based on the epsilon-term definition of theoretical terms. Specifically, we develop two ways of specifying the truth conditions of theoretical statements in a choice functional semantics, each giving rise to a corresponding logic of such statements. In order to investigate the inferential strength of these logical systems, we provide a translation of each truth definition into a modal definition of theoretical truth. Based on this, we show that the stronger notion of choice-semantical truth captures more adequately our informal semantic understanding of scientific statements. PMID:27474181

  1. Why several truths can be true

    PubMed Central

    Meland, Eivind; Brodersen, John

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we offer a perspective on complementarity, acknowledging that it is not possible for human perception and cognition to grasp reality with unambiguous concepts or theories. Therefore, multiple concepts and perspectives are valid when they are not exaggerated beyond reasonable limits and do not claim exclusive validity. We recommend a humble stance enabling respectful dialogue between different perspectives in medical science and practice. Key Points No single perspective in clinical or scientific medicine can exhaustively explain medical phenomena.Scientific attitude is characterised by a willingness to look for objections against what we prefer as truths.Complementarity or unifying contradictions are concepts that allow for humility and pluralism in clinical and scientific medicine. PMID:27406215

  2. Why several truths can be true.

    PubMed

    Meland, Eivind; Brodersen, John

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we offer a perspective on complementarity, acknowledging that it is not possible for human perception and cognition to grasp reality with unambiguous concepts or theories. Therefore, multiple concepts and perspectives are valid when they are not exaggerated beyond reasonable limits and do not claim exclusive validity. We recommend a humble stance enabling respectful dialogue between different perspectives in medical science and practice. KEY POINTS No single perspective in clinical or scientific medicine can exhaustively explain medical phenomena. Scientific attitude is characterised by a willingness to look for objections against what we prefer as truths. Complementarity or unifying contradictions are concepts that allow for humility and pluralism in clinical and scientific medicine. PMID:27406215

  3. The Truth, the Whole Truth, and Nothing but the Ground-Truth: Methods to Advance Environmental Justice and Researcher-Community Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadd, James; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Pastor, Manuel; Matsuoka, Martha; Prichard, Michele; Carter, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Environmental justice advocates often argue that environmental hazards and their health effects vary by neighborhood, income, and race. To assess these patterns and advance preventive policy, their colleagues in the research world often use complex and methodologically sophisticated statistical and geospatial techniques. One way to bridge the gap…

  4. Truth in basic biomedical science will set future mankind free.

    PubMed

    Ling, Gilbert N

    2011-01-01

    It is self-evident that continued wellbeing and prosperity of our species in time to come depends upon a steady supply of major scientific and technologic innovations. However, major scientific and technical innovations are rare. As a rule, they grow only in the exceptionally fertile minds of men and women, who have fully mastered the underlying basic sciences. To waken their interest in science at an early critical age and to nurture and enhance that interest afterward, good textbooks at all level of education that accurately portray the relevant up-to-date knowledge are vital. As of now, the field of science that offers by far the greatest promise for the future of humanity is the science of life at the most basic cell and below-cell level. Unfortunately, it is precisely this crucial part of the (standardized) biological textbooks for all high schools and colleges in the US and abroad that have become, so to speak, fossilized. As a result, generation after generation of (educated) young men and women have been and are still being force-fed as established scientific truth an obsolete membrane (pump) theory, which has been categorically disproved half a century ago (see Endnote 1.) To reveal this Trojan horse of a theory for what it really is demands the concerted efforts of many courageous individuals especially young biology teachers who take themselves and their career seriously. But even the most courageous and the most resourceful won't find the task easy. To begin with, they would find it hard to access the critical scientific knowledge, with which to convert the skeptic and to rally the friendly. For the wealth of mutually supportive evidence against the membrane (pump) theory are often hidden in inaccessible publications and/or in languages other than English. To overcome this seemingly trivial but in fact formidable obstacle and to reveal the beauty and coherence of the existing but untaught truth, I put together in this small package a collection of the

  5. Truth in basic biomedical science will set future mankind free.

    PubMed

    Ling, Gilbert N

    2011-01-01

    It is self-evident that continued wellbeing and prosperity of our species in time to come depends upon a steady supply of major scientific and technologic innovations. However, major scientific and technical innovations are rare. As a rule, they grow only in the exceptionally fertile minds of men and women, who have fully mastered the underlying basic sciences. To waken their interest in science at an early critical age and to nurture and enhance that interest afterward, good textbooks at all level of education that accurately portray the relevant up-to-date knowledge are vital. As of now, the field of science that offers by far the greatest promise for the future of humanity is the science of life at the most basic cell and below-cell level. Unfortunately, it is precisely this crucial part of the (standardized) biological textbooks for all high schools and colleges in the US and abroad that have become, so to speak, fossilized. As a result, generation after generation of (educated) young men and women have been and are still being force-fed as established scientific truth an obsolete membrane (pump) theory, which has been categorically disproved half a century ago (see Endnote 1.) To reveal this Trojan horse of a theory for what it really is demands the concerted efforts of many courageous individuals especially young biology teachers who take themselves and their career seriously. But even the most courageous and the most resourceful won't find the task easy. To begin with, they would find it hard to access the critical scientific knowledge, with which to convert the skeptic and to rally the friendly. For the wealth of mutually supportive evidence against the membrane (pump) theory are often hidden in inaccessible publications and/or in languages other than English. To overcome this seemingly trivial but in fact formidable obstacle and to reveal the beauty and coherence of the existing but untaught truth, I put together in this small package a collection of the

  6. Accurate pointing of tungsten welding electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegelmeier, P.

    1971-01-01

    Thoriated-tungsten is pointed accurately and quickly by using sodium nitrite. Point produced is smooth and no effort is necessary to hold the tungsten rod concentric. The chemically produced point can be used several times longer than ground points. This method reduces time and cost of preparing tungsten electrodes.

  7. Examining the Efficacy of Truth/Lie Discussions in Predicting and Increasing the Veracity of Children's Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Kamala; Nunez, Narina

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether 4- to 6-year-olds' ability to reason about truths and lies influenced their truth-telling behavior. Found that children's performance on truth/lie questions did not predict their truth-telling. Regardless of performance on truth/lie questions, children receiving developmentally appropriate truth/lie discussions gave more…

  8. Parameter Estimation of Ion Current Formulations Requires Hybrid Optimization Approach to Be Both Accurate and Reliable

    PubMed Central

    Loewe, Axel; Wilhelms, Mathias; Schmid, Jochen; Krause, Mathias J.; Fischer, Fathima; Thomas, Dierk; Scholz, Eberhard P.; Dössel, Olaf; Seemann, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Computational models of cardiac electrophysiology provided insights into arrhythmogenesis and paved the way toward tailored therapies in the last years. To fully leverage in silico models in future research, these models need to be adapted to reflect pathologies, genetic alterations, or pharmacological effects, however. A common approach is to leave the structure of established models unaltered and estimate the values of a set of parameters. Today’s high-throughput patch clamp data acquisition methods require robust, unsupervised algorithms that estimate parameters both accurately and reliably. In this work, two classes of optimization approaches are evaluated: gradient-based trust-region-reflective and derivative-free particle swarm algorithms. Using synthetic input data and different ion current formulations from the Courtemanche et al. electrophysiological model of human atrial myocytes, we show that neither of the two schemes alone succeeds to meet all requirements. Sequential combination of the two algorithms did improve the performance to some extent but not satisfactorily. Thus, we propose a novel hybrid approach coupling the two algorithms in each iteration. This hybrid approach yielded very accurate estimates with minimal dependency on the initial guess using synthetic input data for which a ground truth parameter set exists. When applied to measured data, the hybrid approach yielded the best fit, again with minimal variation. Using the proposed algorithm, a single run is sufficient to estimate the parameters. The degree of superiority over the other investigated algorithms in terms of accuracy and robustness depended on the type of current. In contrast to the non-hybrid approaches, the proposed method proved to be optimal for data of arbitrary signal to noise ratio. The hybrid algorithm proposed in this work provides an important tool to integrate experimental data into computational models both accurately and robustly allowing to assess the often non

  9. Probabilistic techniques for obtaining accurate patient counts in Clinical Data Warehouses.

    PubMed

    Myers, Risa B; Herskovic, Jorge R

    2011-12-01

    Proposal and execution of clinical trials, computation of quality measures and discovery of correlation between medical phenomena are all applications where an accurate count of patients is needed. However, existing sources of this type of patient information, including Clinical Data Warehouses (CDWs) may be incomplete or inaccurate. This research explores applying probabilistic techniques, supported by the MayBMS probabilistic database, to obtain accurate patient counts from a Clinical Data Warehouse containing synthetic patient data. We present a synthetic Clinical Data Warehouse, and populate it with simulated data using a custom patient data generation engine. We then implement, evaluate and compare different techniques for obtaining patients counts. We model billing as a test for the presence of a condition. We compute billing's sensitivity and specificity both by conducting a "Simulated Expert Review" where a representative sample of records are reviewed and labeled by experts, and by obtaining the ground truth for every record. We compute the posterior probability of a patient having a condition through a "Bayesian Chain", using Bayes' Theorem to calculate the probability of a patient having a condition after each visit. The second method is a "one-shot" approach that computes the probability of a patient having a condition based on whether the patient is ever billed for the condition. Our results demonstrate the utility of probabilistic approaches, which improve on the accuracy of raw counts. In particular, the simulated review paired with a single application of Bayes' Theorem produces the best results, with an average error rate of 2.1% compared to 43.7% for the straightforward billing counts. Overall, this research demonstrates that Bayesian probabilistic approaches improve patient counts on simulated patient populations. We believe that total patient counts based on billing data are one of the many possible applications of our Bayesian framework. Use of

  10. The problems of rain gauge measurement undercatch: an inconvenient truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Michael; Quinn, Paul; Dutton, Mark; Wilkinson, Mark

    2014-05-01

    There exists an extensive historical body of work documenting the difficulties in accurately measuring precipitation, in particular, wind induced undercatching. The implications of this are discussed and addressed. Although the problem has been cited many times it has become 'an inconvenient truth' to hydrologists that major inaccuracies in rainfall measurement exist. To date, no universally, all encompassing solution has been proposed to mitigate or quantify these inherent systematic biases, either in historic time series or real-time high resolution measurements used for forecasting. In the context of a changing climate the importance of accurately measuring the precipitation events causing catastrophic flooding is rising to ever greater prominence (e.g. the UK floods of December 2013 and January 2014). Only by improving the ability to accurately measure all types of precipitation in all environmental and atmospheric conditions, will it be possible to augment the efficiency of flood defences, improve the spatiotemporal accuracy of flood forecasting services, plan water resources and calibrate numerical weather prediction models more precisely. An experimental design is proposed and implemented to address this issue. Phase 1 of this project compared numerous rain gauges and in situ wind speed. Results from this work propose that the annual systematic undercatch can be in the order of 20 percent in the UK. During specific events (measured at high temporal resolution), this can rise to as high as 50 percent for single wind impacted events. Phase 2 of this experiment is now commencing and will compare all instruments against pit rain gauge measurements. This consists of pairing accepted meteorological standard techniques with new and innovative equipment in four experimental locations representative of 'typical' UK rainfall patterns: upland (both west and east coast) and lowland (both west and east coast). By carrying out high resolution testing at these locations

  11. Vital truths about managing your costs.

    PubMed

    Ames, B C; Hlavacek, J D

    1990-01-01

    Four truths apply to every business situation: 1. It is essential to be a lower cost supplier. 2. To stay competitive, inflation-adjusted costs of producing and supplying products and services must trend downward. 3. The true cost and profit pictures for each product/market segment must always be known, and traditional accounting practices must not obscure them. 4. A business must concentrate as much on cash flow and balance-sheet strengths as it does on profits. In order to ascertain exactly what your costs are, you must carefully isolate and assign various costs to specific products, accounts, or markets. Managers often do this badly, working on the basis of "average" costs. This ignores important differences among products and the fact that different products, different markets, and different customers incur different overhead costs. Most manufacturing companies' most important expense categories are R&D, sales, and general and administrative costs, but surprisingly, they generally don't get the attention they should. Neither do two crucial ratios-gross margin and the percent of assets employed per dollar of sales. Gross margins should usually not be less than 40%, and for most manufacturing companies, assets should not be over 60% of annual sales. Wrong deviation from these ratios will undermine profit targets. Once your costs are known and clearly assigned to product lines, markets, and key customers, they should be widely shared in the organization so that everyone will feel committed to cost management and know when deviations occur. PMID:10103812

  12. Vital truths about managing your costs.

    PubMed

    Ames, B C; Hlavacek, J D

    1990-01-01

    Four truths apply to every business situation: 1. It is essential to be a lower cost supplier. 2. To stay competitive, inflation-adjusted costs of producing and supplying products and services must trend downward. 3. The true cost and profit pictures for each product/market segment must always be known, and traditional accounting practices must not obscure them. 4. A business must concentrate as much on cash flow and balance-sheet strengths as it does on profits. In order to ascertain exactly what your costs are, you must carefully isolate and assign various costs to specific products, accounts, or markets. Managers often do this badly, working on the basis of "average" costs. This ignores important differences among products and the fact that different products, different markets, and different customers incur different overhead costs. Most manufacturing companies' most important expense categories are R&D, sales, and general and administrative costs, but surprisingly, they generally don't get the attention they should. Neither do two crucial ratios-gross margin and the percent of assets employed per dollar of sales. Gross margins should usually not be less than 40%, and for most manufacturing companies, assets should not be over 60% of annual sales. Wrong deviation from these ratios will undermine profit targets. Once your costs are known and clearly assigned to product lines, markets, and key customers, they should be widely shared in the organization so that everyone will feel committed to cost management and know when deviations occur.

  13. The source of the truth bias: Heuristic processing?

    PubMed

    Street, Chris N H; Masip, Jaume

    2015-06-01

    People believe others are telling the truth more often than they actually are; this is called the truth bias. Surprisingly, when a speaker is judged at multiple points across their statement the truth bias declines. Previous claims argue this is evidence of a shift from (biased) heuristic processing to (reasoned) analytical processing. In four experiments we contrast the heuristic-analytic model (HAM) with alternative accounts. In Experiment 1, the decrease in truth responding was not the result of speakers appearing more deceptive, but was instead attributable to the rater's processing style. Yet contrary to HAMs, across three experiments we found the decline in bias was not related to the amount of processing time available (Experiments 1-3) or the communication channel (Experiment 2). In Experiment 4 we found support for a new account: that the bias reflects whether raters perceive the statement to be internally consistent.

  14. The source of the truth bias: Heuristic processing?

    PubMed

    Street, Chris N H; Masip, Jaume

    2015-06-01

    People believe others are telling the truth more often than they actually are; this is called the truth bias. Surprisingly, when a speaker is judged at multiple points across their statement the truth bias declines. Previous claims argue this is evidence of a shift from (biased) heuristic processing to (reasoned) analytical processing. In four experiments we contrast the heuristic-analytic model (HAM) with alternative accounts. In Experiment 1, the decrease in truth responding was not the result of speakers appearing more deceptive, but was instead attributable to the rater's processing style. Yet contrary to HAMs, across three experiments we found the decline in bias was not related to the amount of processing time available (Experiments 1-3) or the communication channel (Experiment 2). In Experiment 4 we found support for a new account: that the bias reflects whether raters perceive the statement to be internally consistent. PMID:25707774

  15. MASCG: Multi-Atlas Segmentation Constrained Graph method for accurate segmentation of hip CT images.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chengwen; Bai, Junjie; Wu, Xiaodong; Zheng, Guoyan

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the issue of fully automatic segmentation of a hip CT image with the goal to preserve the joint structure for clinical applications in hip disease diagnosis and treatment. For this purpose, we propose a Multi-Atlas Segmentation Constrained Graph (MASCG) method. The MASCG method uses multi-atlas based mesh fusion results to initialize a bone sheetness based multi-label graph cut for an accurate hip CT segmentation which has the inherent advantage of automatic separation of the pelvic region from the bilateral proximal femoral regions. We then introduce a graph cut constrained graph search algorithm to further improve the segmentation accuracy around the bilateral hip joint regions. Taking manual segmentation as the ground truth, we evaluated the present approach on 30 hip CT images (60 hips) with a 15-fold cross validation. When the present approach was compared to manual segmentation, an average surface distance error of 0.30 mm, 0.29 mm, and 0.30 mm was found for the pelvis, the left proximal femur, and the right proximal femur, respectively. A further look at the bilateral hip joint regions demonstrated an average surface distance error of 0.16 mm, 0.21 mm and 0.20 mm for the acetabulum, the left femoral head, and the right femoral head, respectively.

  16. Fast and accurate border detection in dermoscopy images using statistical region merging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celebi, M. Emre; Kingravi, Hassan A.; Iyatomi, Hitoshi; Lee, JeongKyu; Aslandogan, Y. Alp; Van Stoecker, William; Moss, Randy; Malters, Joseph M.; Marghoob, Ashfaq A.

    2007-03-01

    As a result of advances in skin imaging technology and the development of suitable image processing techniques during the last decade, there has been a significant increase of interest in the computer-aided diagnosis of melanoma. Automated border detection is one of the most important steps in this procedure, since the accuracy of the subsequent steps crucially depends on it. In this paper, a fast and unsupervised approach to border detection in dermoscopy images of pigmented skin lesions based on the Statistical Region Merging algorithm is presented. The method is tested on a set of 90 dermoscopy images. The border detection error is quantified by a metric in which a set of dermatologist-determined borders is used as the ground-truth. The proposed method is compared to six state-of-the-art automated methods (optimized histogram thresholding, orientation-sensitive fuzzy c-means, gradient vector flow snakes, dermatologist-like tumor extraction algorithm, meanshift clustering, and the modified JSEG method) and borders determined by a second dermatologist. The results demonstrate that the presented method achieves both fast and accurate border detection in dermoscopy images.

  17. Realism without truth: a review of Giere's science without laws and scientific perspectivism.

    PubMed

    Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2009-05-01

    An increasingly popular view among philosophers of science is that of science as action-as the collective activity of scientists working in socially-coordinated communities. Scientists are seen not as dispassionate pursuers of Truth, but as active participants in a social enterprise, and science is viewed on a continuum with other human activities. When taken to an extreme, the science-as-social-process view can be taken to imply that science is no different from any other human activity, and therefore can make no privileged claims about its knowledge of the world. Such extreme views are normally contrasted with equally extreme views of classical science, as uncovering Universal Truth. In Science Without Laws and Scientific Perspectivism, Giere outlines an approach to understanding science that finds a middle ground between these extremes. He acknowledges that science occurs in a social and historical context, and that scientific models are constructions designed and created to serve human ends. At the same time, however, scientific models correspond to parts of the world in ways that can legitimately be termed objective. Giere's position, perspectival realism, shares important common ground with Skinner's writings on science, some of which are explored in this review. Perhaps most fundamentally, Giere shares with Skinner the view that science itself is amenable to scientific inquiry: scientific principles can and should be brought to bear on the process of science. The two approaches offer different but complementary perspectives on the nature of science, both of which are needed in a comprehensive understanding of science.

  18. Measurement Theory in Deutsch's Algorithm Based on the Truth Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Koji; Nakamura, Tadao

    2016-08-01

    We propose a new measurement theory, in qubits handling, based on the truth values, i.e., the truth T (1) for true and the falsity F (0) for false. The results of measurement are either 0 or 1. To implement Deutsch's algorithm, we need both observability and controllability of a quantum state. The new measurement theory can satisfy these two. Especially, we systematically describe our assertion based on more mathematical analysis using raw data in a thoughtful experiment.

  19. Accurate monotone cubic interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1991-01-01

    Monotone piecewise cubic interpolants are simple and effective. They are generally third-order accurate, except near strict local extrema where accuracy degenerates to second-order due to the monotonicity constraint. Algorithms for piecewise cubic interpolants, which preserve monotonicity as well as uniform third and fourth-order accuracy are presented. The gain of accuracy is obtained by relaxing the monotonicity constraint in a geometric framework in which the median function plays a crucial role.

  20. Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.

  1. MTI SCIENCE, DATA PRODUCT AND GROUND DATA PROCESSING OVERVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    J. SZYMANSKI; ET AL

    2001-01-01

    The mission of the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite is to demonstrate the efficacy of highly accurate multispectral imaging for passive characterization of urban and industrial areas, as well as sites of environmental interest. The satellite makes top-of-atmosphere radiance measurements that are subsequently processed into estimates of surface properties such as vegetation health, temperatures, material composition and others. The MTI satellite also provides simultaneous data for atmospheric characterization at high spatial resolution. To utilize these data the MTI science program has several coordinated components, including modeling, comprehensive ground-truth measurements, image acquisition planning, data processing and data interpretation and analysis. Algorithms have been developed to retrieve a multitude of physical quantities and these algorithms are integrated in a processing pipeline architecture that emphasizes automation, flexibility and programmability. In addition, the MTI science team has produced detailed site, system and atmospheric models to aid in system design and data analysis. This paper provides an overview of the MTI research objectives, data products and ground data processing.

  2. Competence and Performance in Belief-Desire Reasoning across Two Cultures: The Truth, the Whole Truth and Nothing but the Truth about False Belief?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazdi, Amir Amin; German, Tim P.; Defeyter, Margaret Anne; Siegal, Michael

    2006-01-01

    There is a change in false belief task performance across the 3-5 year age range, as confirmed in a recent meta-analysis [Wellman, H. M., Cross, D., & Watson, J. (2001). Meta-analysis of theory mind development: The truth about false-belief. "Child Development," 72, 655-684]. This meta-analysis identified several performance factors influencing…

  3. A robust and accurate center-frequency estimation (RACE) algorithm for improving motion estimation performance of SinMod on tagged cardiac MR images without known tagging parameters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Wang, Jie; Xu, Xiangyang; Song, Enmin; Wang, Qian; Jin, Renchao; Hung, Chih-Cheng; Fei, Baowei

    2014-11-01

    A robust and accurate center-frequency (CF) estimation (RACE) algorithm for improving the performance of the local sine-wave modeling (SinMod) method, which is a good motion estimation method for tagged cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) images, is proposed in this study. The RACE algorithm can automatically, effectively and efficiently produce a very appropriate CF estimate for the SinMod method, under the circumstance that the specified tagging parameters are unknown, on account of the following two key techniques: (1) the well-known mean-shift algorithm, which can provide accurate and rapid CF estimation; and (2) an original two-direction-combination strategy, which can further enhance the accuracy and robustness of CF estimation. Some other available CF estimation algorithms are brought out for comparison. Several validation approaches that can work on the real data without ground truths are specially designed. Experimental results on human body in vivo cardiac data demonstrate the significance of accurate CF estimation for SinMod, and validate the effectiveness of RACE in facilitating the motion estimation performance of SinMod.

  4. Bayesian truthing as experimental verification of C4ISR sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Romanov, Volodymyr; Wang, Wenjian; Nielsen, Thomas; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the general methodology for experimental verification/validation of C4ISR and other sensors' performance, is presented, based on Bayesian inference, in general, and binary sensors, in particular. This methodology, called Bayesian Truthing, defines Performance Metrics for binary sensors in: physics, optics, electronics, medicine, law enforcement, C3ISR, QC, ATR (Automatic Target Recognition), terrorism related events, and many others. For Bayesian Truthing, the sensing medium itself is not what is truly important; it is how the decision process is affected.

  5. Fibroadenoma in the male breast: Truth or Myth?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Puneet; Kohli, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Truth or myth is seldom encountered in the practice of surgery, especially in cases of breast diseases. Yet, even after thousands of years of treating breast disease by surgeons/healers, fibroadenoma in the male breast seems to be a myth, due to the absence of fibro-glandular tissue. We wish to break this myth by our own experience as well as other studies by others all over the world, and unveil the truth that fibroadenoma in the male breast is a definitive entity and has a prevalence among the vast spectrum of breast diseases. PMID:27528814

  6. Fibroadenoma in the male breast: Truth or Myth?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Puneet; Kohli, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Truth or myth is seldom encountered in the practice of surgery, especially in cases of breast diseases. Yet, even after thousands of years of treating breast disease by surgeons/healers, fibroadenoma in the male breast seems to be a myth, due to the absence of fibro-glandular tissue. We wish to break this myth by our own experience as well as other studies by others all over the world, and unveil the truth that fibroadenoma in the male breast is a definitive entity and has a prevalence among the vast spectrum of breast diseases.

  7. Must Kohn-Sham oscillator strengths be accurate at threshold?

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Zenghui; Burke, Kieron; Faassen, Meta van

    2009-09-21

    The exact ground-state Kohn-Sham (KS) potential for the helium atom is known from accurate wave function calculations of the ground-state density. The threshold for photoabsorption from this potential matches the physical system exactly. By carefully studying its absorption spectrum, we show the answer to the title question is no. To address this problem in detail, we generate a highly accurate simple fit of a two-electron spectrum near the threshold, and apply the method to both the experimental spectrum and that of the exact ground-state Kohn-Sham potential.

  8. Remotely Sensed Ground Control Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, P.

    2016-06-01

    Accurate ground control is required to georeferenced airborne and spaceborne images. The production of ortho-photogrammetric data requires ground control that is traditionally provided as Ground Control Points (GCPs) by GNSS measurements in the field. However, it can be difficult to acquire accurate ground control points due to required turn-around time, high costs or impossible access. CompassData, Inc. a specialist in ground control, has expanded its service to deliver Remotely Sensed Ground Control Points (RSGCPs®). TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X are two satellites with such high accuracy of their orbital positions and SAR data that RSGCPs® can be produced to a sub-meter quality depending on certain parameters and circumstances. The technology and required parameters are discussed in this paper as well as the resulting accuracies.

  9. The Truth about Truth-Telling in American Medicine: A Brief History.

    PubMed

    Sisk, Bryan; Frankel, Richard; Kodish, Eric; Harry Isaacson, J

    2016-01-01

    Transparency has become an ethical cornerstone of American medicine. Today, patients have the right to know their health information, and physicians are obliged to provide it. It is expected that patients will be informed of their medical condition regardless of the severity or prognosis. This ethos of transparency is ingrained in modern trainees from the first day of medical school onward. However, for most of American history, the intentional withholding of information was the accepted norm in medical practice. It was not until 1979 that a majority of physicians reported disclosing cancer diagnoses to their patients. To appreciate the current state of the physician-patient relationship, it is important to understand how physician-patient communication has developed over time and the forces that led to these changes. In this article, we trace the ethics and associated practices of truth-telling during the past two centuries, and outline the many pressures that influenced physician behavior during that time period. We conclude that the history of disclosure is not yet finished, as physicians still struggle to find the best way to share difficult information without causing undue harm to their patients. PMID:27352417

  10. The Truth about Truth-Telling in American Medicine: A Brief History

    PubMed Central

    Sisk, Bryan; Frankel, Richard; Kodish, Eric; Harry Isaacson, J

    2016-01-01

    Transparency has become an ethical cornerstone of American medicine. Today, patients have the right to know their health information, and physicians are obliged to provide it. It is expected that patients will be informed of their medical condition regardless of the severity or prognosis. This ethos of transparency is ingrained in modern trainees from the first day of medical school onward. However, for most of American history, the intentional withholding of information was the accepted norm in medical practice. It was not until 1979 that a majority of physicians reported disclosing cancer diagnoses to their patients. To appreciate the current state of the physician-patient relationship, it is important to understand how physician-patient communication has developed over time and the forces that led to these changes. In this article, we trace the ethics and associated practices of truth-telling during the past two centuries, and outline the many pressures that influenced physician behavior during that time period. We conclude that the history of disclosure is not yet finished, as physicians still struggle to find the best way to share difficult information without causing undue harm to their patients. PMID:27352417

  11. The Truth about Truth-Telling in American Medicine: A Brief History.

    PubMed

    Sisk, Bryan; Frankel, Richard; Kodish, Eric; Harry Isaacson, J

    2016-01-01

    Transparency has become an ethical cornerstone of American medicine. Today, patients have the right to know their health information, and physicians are obliged to provide it. It is expected that patients will be informed of their medical condition regardless of the severity or prognosis. This ethos of transparency is ingrained in modern trainees from the first day of medical school onward. However, for most of American history, the intentional withholding of information was the accepted norm in medical practice. It was not until 1979 that a majority of physicians reported disclosing cancer diagnoses to their patients. To appreciate the current state of the physician-patient relationship, it is important to understand how physician-patient communication has developed over time and the forces that led to these changes. In this article, we trace the ethics and associated practices of truth-telling during the past two centuries, and outline the many pressures that influenced physician behavior during that time period. We conclude that the history of disclosure is not yet finished, as physicians still struggle to find the best way to share difficult information without causing undue harm to their patients.

  12. Quest for Truth: Scientific Progress and Religious Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singham, Mano

    This book attempts to create a model of the nature of knowledge and its evolution. Scholarly research has been used for this purpose. Chapters include: (1) "The Nature of Knowledge"; (2) "The Nature of Scientific Progress"; (3) "Truth and Falsifiability"; (4) "The Problem with Experimental Observations"; (5) "Scientific Reductionism"; (6) "An…

  13. Truth, Transparency and Trust: Treasured Values in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The words "truth," "transparency," and "trust" recently have taken on renewed importance in higher education. The reporting and handling of sexual assaults, athletic cheating scandals, Muslim student deaths, the intrusion into the admissions process by college/university presidents forcing acceptance of new students…

  14. What conception of moral truth works in bioethics?

    PubMed

    Momeyer, Richard W

    2002-08-01

    For the most part, philosophers have regarded moral truth as propositional and as what follows from the application of moral theory to particular problematic cases. Here I maintain that this is not a useful way of conceiving moral truth in bioethics. Rather, we are better off conceiving of moral truth as what emerges from a process of inquiry conducted in a certain manner. There are four elements to this process: (1) careful exploration of the embedded norms of medical practice, research, and delivery; (2) recognition of the irreducible plurality of ultimate moral values within and between these practices; (3) the cultivation and exercise of moral imagination; and (4) the attainment, however temporarily, of wide reflective equilibrium. This process, I argue, is reflected in the way bioethics is most fruitfully practiced, and it is further to be recommended by being true to the character of moral conscientiousness generally. This analysis suggests that moral truth is "unstable," but that this is not a bad thing. Further, the implication is drawn that moral theory would be better informed if formulated on the basis of paying more attention to lived moral practices.

  15. Ethics in electrophysiology: can you handle the truth?

    PubMed

    Beauregard, Lou-Anne M

    2011-05-01

    A case is presented examining the need to disclose the truth in cases where there is a question of device and personnel performance. This case examines the responsibilities of physicians to their patients and the community at large to disclose factual accounts of events, even in the case of medical error and potential liability.

  16. 78 FR 18795 - Truth in Lending (Regulation Z)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act of 2009 (Credit Card Act) was signed into law on May 22, 2009. Public Law 111-24, 123 Stat. 1734 (2009). The Credit Card Act primarily amended the Truth in Lending Act... 75 FR 7658, 7819 (Feb. 22, 2010) (January 2010 Final Rule). Section 226.52(a) limits the total...

  17. The Truth of the Thing: Nonfiction in "Moby Dick"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbert, Betsy

    1986-01-01

    Looks at Melville's narrative construction of "onion-like...layers of truth" that combine romance and textbook, presents critics' discussion and scholars' treatment of the cetological information present in the text, offers an explanation for the lack of recognition due to the nonfictional parts of "Moby Dick." (JK)

  18. 75 FR 58489 - Regulation Z; Truth in Lending

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... create information overload for many consumers and hinder their ability to determine which party should... continue to comply with 12 CFR 226.39 until the mandatory compliance date. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The Truth in Lending Act (TILA), 15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq., seeks...

  19. Sojourner Truth--A Woman of Strength and Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Adelaide

    Based upon research conducted during the past decade that identifies speech features of form, topic, content, and use of language as male- or female-associated, this paper examines the rhetoric of Sojourner Truth in reference to these features. It classifies her directness, originality, and action as male-associated and her modesty, emotionalism,…

  20. Heart Health: Learn the Truth About Your Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Learn the Truth About Your Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... turn Javascript on. Photo: iStock February is American Heart Month. Now is the time to make sure ...

  1. Stereotype Measurement and the "Kernel of Truth" Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Randall A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a stereotype measurement suitable for classroom demonstration. Illustrates C. McCauley and C. L. Stitt's diagnostic ratio measure and examines the validity of the "kernel of truth" hypothesis. Uses this as a starting point for class discussion. Reports results and gives suggestions for discussion of related concepts. (Author/NL)

  2. Irony, Deception, and Subjective Truth: Principles for Existential Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeverot, Herner

    2013-01-01

    This paper takes the position that the aim of existential teaching, i.e., teaching where existential questions are addressed, consists in educating the students in light of subjective truth, where the students are "educated" to exist on their own, i.e., independent of the teacher. The question is whether it is possible to educate in…

  3. Literacy Teacher Preparation: Ten Truths Teacher Educators Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis Lenski, Susan, Ed.; Grisham, Dana L., Ed.; Wold, Linda S., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The quality of teacher preparation is frequently under public scrutiny. In this collection, experts in literacy teacher preparation offer ten truths--based on evidence, not ideology-- that support the ongoing positive efforts of teacher educators. In this book, the reader will find: A review of the existing knowledge base; Evidence of the improved…

  4. Taking decisions seriously: young children's understanding of conventional truth.

    PubMed

    Kalish, C; Weissman, M; Bernstein, D

    2000-01-01

    Research suggests that young children may see a direct and one-way connection between facts about the world and epistemic mental states (e.g., belief). Conventions represent instances of active constructions of the mind that change facts about the world. As such, a mature understanding of convention would seem to present a strong challenge to children's simplified notions of epistemic relations. Three experiments assessed young children's abilities to track behavioral, representational, and truth aspects of conventions. In Experiment 1, 3- and 4-year-old children (N = 30) recognized that conventional stipulations would change people's behaviors. However, participants generally failed to understand how stipulations might affect representations. In Experiment 2, 3-, 5-, and 7-year-old children (N = 53) were asked to reason about the truth values of statements about pretenses and conventions. The two younger groups of children often confused the two types of states, whereas older children consistently judged that conventions, but not pretenses, changed reality. In Experiment 3, the same 3- and 5-year-olds (N = 42) participated in tasks assessing their understanding of representational diversity (e.g., false belief). In general, children's performance on false-belief and "false-convention" tasks did not differ, which suggests that conventions were understood as involving truth claims (as akin to beliefs about physical reality). Children's difficulties with the idea of conventional truth seems consistent with current accounts of developing theories of mind.

  5. Ernst von Glasersfeld's Radical Constructivism and Truth as Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joldersma, Clarence W.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Clarence Joldersma explores radical constructivism through the work of its most well-known advocate, Ernst von Glasersfeld, who combines a sophisticated philosophical discussion of knowledge and truth with educational practices. Joldersma uses Joseph Rouse's work in philosophy of science to criticize the antirealism inherent in…

  6. The Hard Truth: Problems and Issues in Urban School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yisrael, Sean

    2012-01-01

    "The Hard Truth" is a book written for principals and school administrators who want to implement effective change. The topics of the book candidly discuss the problems, people, and issues that get in the way of true school reform; and what building level principals can personally do attain the best possible outcomes.

  7. 77 FR 69736 - Truth in Lending (Regulation Z)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    .... 1376 (2010). \\3\\ 76 FR 18354 (Apr. 4, 2011). Title X of the Dodd-Frank Act transferred rulemaking... Regulation Z continues to apply to those entities.\\5\\ \\4\\ 76 FR 79768 (Dec. 22, 2011). \\5\\ Section 1029(a) of... CFR Part 226 RIN 7100-AD94 BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 Truth in...

  8. 78 FR 70194 - Truth in Lending (Regulation Z)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ...). \\3\\ 76 FR 18354 (Apr. 4, 2011). Title X of the Dodd-Frank Act transferred rulemaking authority for a... Regulation Z continues to apply to those entities.\\5\\ \\4\\ 76 FR 79768 (Dec. 22, 2011). \\5\\ Section 1029(a) of... CFR Part 226 BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 Truth in Lending (Regulation...

  9. Critical Thinking about Truth in Teaching: The Epistemic Ethos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenberg, Donald

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the most persistent controversial issue that occurred in Western educational philosophy ever since Socrates questioned the Sophists: the role of truth in teaching. Ways of teaching these kinds of controversy issues are briefly considered to isolate their epistemic characteristics, which will enable the interpretation of Plato…

  10. Knowing Truth: Peirce's Epistemology in an Educational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Christine L.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I examine Peirce's epistemological and ontological theories and indicate their relevance to educational practice. I argue that Peirce's conception of Firsts, Seconds and Thirds entails a fundamental ontological realism. I further argue that Peirce does have a theory of truth, that it is a particular non-traditional "correspondence"…

  11. Kinesiology's "Inconvenient Truth" and the Physical Cultural Studies Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This article explicates the "inconvenient truth" that is at the core of the crisis currently facing the field of kinesiology. Namely, the instantiation of an epistemological hierarchy that privileges positivist over postpositivist, quantitative over qualitative, and predictive over interpretive ways of knowing. The discussion outlines the…

  12. Accessing Imagined Communities and Reinscribing Regimes of Truth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Sherrie; Motha, Suhanthie; Price, Jeremy N.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we explore the complex and nebulous terrain between two theoretical concepts, imagined communities (Norton, 2000, 2001), that is, individuals' imagined affiliations with certain groups, and regimes of truth (Foucault, 1980), dominant images inscribed and reinscribed into individual consciousness until they become normative. Using…

  13. Issues Related to Spirituality and the Search for Truth in Sectarian Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poe, Harry Lee

    2005-01-01

    The foundational spiritual truths of sectarian institutions, often criticized by the secular academy, may provide a basis for a vigorous search for truth in the transition from modern to postmodern society.

  14. Ground-Based Remote Sensing of Water-Stressed Crops: Thermal and Multispectral Imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ground-based methods of remote sensing can be used as ground-truthing for satellite-based remote sensing, and in some cases may be a more affordable means of obtaining such data. Plant canopy temperature has been used to indicate and quantify plant water stress. A field research study was conducted ...

  15. Ground-based thermal and multispectral imaging of limited irrigation crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ground-based methods of remote sensing can be used as ground-truth for satellite-based remote sensing, and in some cases may be a more affordable means of obtaining such data. Plant canopy temperature has been used to indicate and quantify plant water stress. A field research study was conducted in ...

  16. REALISM WITHOUT TRUTH: A REVIEW OF GIERE'S SCIENCE WITHOUT LAWS AND SCIENTIFIC PERSPECTIVISM

    PubMed Central

    Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2009-01-01

    An increasingly popular view among philosophers of science is that of science as action—as the collective activity of scientists working in socially-coordinated communities. Scientists are seen not as dispassionate pursuers of Truth, but as active participants in a social enterprise, and science is viewed on a continuum with other human activities. When taken to an extreme, the science-as-social-process view can be taken to imply that science is no different from any other human activity, and therefore can make no privileged claims about its knowledge of the world. Such extreme views are normally contrasted with equally extreme views of classical science, as uncovering Universal Truth. In Science Without Laws and Scientific Perspectivism, Giere outlines an approach to understanding science that finds a middle ground between these extremes. He acknowledges that science occurs in a social and historical context, and that scientific models are constructions designed and created to serve human ends. At the same time, however, scientific models correspond to parts of the world in ways that can legitimately be termed objective. Giere's position, perspectival realism, shares important common ground with Skinner's writings on science, some of which are explored in this review. Perhaps most fundamentally, Giere shares with Skinner the view that science itself is amenable to scientific inquiry: scientific principles can and should be brought to bear on the process of science. The two approaches offer different but complementary perspectives on the nature of science, both of which are needed in a comprehensive understanding of science. PMID:19949495

  17. Concurrent partnerships and HIV: an inconvenient truth

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The strength of the evidence linking concurrency to HIV epidemic severity in southern and eastern Africa led the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and the Southern African Development Community in 2006 to conclude that high rates of concurrent sexual partnerships, combined with low rates of male circumcision and infrequent condom use, are major drivers of the AIDS epidemic in southern Africa. In a recent article in the Journal of the International AIDS Society, Larry Sawers and Eileen Stillwaggon attempt to challenge the evidence for the importance of concurrency and call for an end to research on the topic. However, their "systematic review of the evidence" is not an accurate summary of the research on concurrent partnerships and HIV, and it contains factual errors concerning the measurement and mathematical modelling of concurrency. Practical prevention-oriented research on concurrency is only just beginning. Most interventions to raise awareness about the risks of concurrency are less than two years old; few evaluations and no randomized-controlled trials of these programmes have been conducted. Determining whether these interventions can help people better assess their own risks and take steps to reduce them remains an important task for research. This kind of research is indeed the only way to obtain conclusive evidence on the role of concurrency, the programmes needed for effective prevention, the willingness of people to change behaviour, and the obstacles to change. PMID:21406080

  18. Grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  19. Does Truth Exist? Insights from Applied Linguistics for the Rationalism/Postmodern Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, David A.

    2008-01-01

    The question of whether or not truth exists is at the center of the rationalism versus postmodern debate. Noting the difficulty of defining truth, the author uses the principles of linguistics to show that semantic skewing has resulted in the concept of truth being encoded as a noun, while it is really an attribute (true). The introduction of a…

  20. Teaching the Truth: Social Justice and Social Class in Graduate School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Leona M.; Roy, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, anyone who wishes to combat lies and ignorance and to write the truth must overcome at least five difficulties. In the same way that writing the truth entails five difficulties, teaching the truth or teaching social justice in graduate education entails more than five difficulties. Some of these difficulties are inimical to the act of…

  1. The Problem of Truth in Educational Research: The Case of the Rigoberta Menchu "Controversy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John A.

    2007-01-01

    In our descriptions of things, we normally think that truth plays an important part; we value true statements over false ones and we prefer people to be truthful rather than deceitful. If these two facets of truth are important in our everyday lives, they assume even more significance in educational research because of the commitment researchers…

  2. SU-E-J-208: Fast and Accurate Auto-Segmentation of Abdominal Organs at Risk for Online Adaptive Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, V; Wang, Y; Romero, A; Heijmen, B; Hoogeman, M; Myronenko, A; Jordan, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Various studies have demonstrated that online adaptive radiotherapy by real-time re-optimization of the treatment plan can improve organs-at-risk (OARs) sparing in the abdominal region. Its clinical implementation, however, requires fast and accurate auto-segmentation of OARs in CT scans acquired just before each treatment fraction. Autosegmentation is particularly challenging in the abdominal region due to the frequently observed large deformations. We present a clinical validation of a new auto-segmentation method that uses fully automated non-rigid registration for propagating abdominal OAR contours from planning to daily treatment CT scans. Methods: OARs were manually contoured by an expert panel to obtain ground truth contours for repeat CT scans (3 per patient) of 10 patients. For the non-rigid alignment, we used a new non-rigid registration method that estimates the deformation field by optimizing local normalized correlation coefficient with smoothness regularization. This field was used to propagate planning contours to repeat CTs. To quantify the performance of the auto-segmentation, we compared the propagated and ground truth contours using two widely used metrics- Dice coefficient (Dc) and Hausdorff distance (Hd). The proposed method was benchmarked against translation and rigid alignment based auto-segmentation. Results: For all organs, the auto-segmentation performed better than the baseline (translation) with an average processing time of 15 s per fraction CT. The overall improvements ranged from 2% (heart) to 32% (pancreas) in Dc, and 27% (heart) to 62% (spinal cord) in Hd. For liver, kidneys, gall bladder, stomach, spinal cord and heart, Dc above 0.85 was achieved. Duodenum and pancreas were the most challenging organs with both showing relatively larger spreads and medians of 0.79 and 2.1 mm for Dc and Hd, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the achieved accuracy and computational time we conclude that the investigated auto

  3. Micromagnetometer calibration for accurate orientation estimation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2015-02-01

    Micromagnetometers, together with inertial sensors, are widely used for attitude estimation for a wide variety of applications. However, appropriate sensor calibration, which is essential to the accuracy of attitude reconstruction, must be performed in advance. Thus far, many different magnetometer calibration methods have been proposed to compensate for errors such as scale, offset, and nonorthogonality. They have also been used for obviate magnetic errors due to soft and hard iron. However, in order to combine the magnetometer with inertial sensor for attitude reconstruction, alignment difference between the magnetometer and the axes of the inertial sensor must be determined as well. This paper proposes a practical means of sensor error correction by simultaneous consideration of sensor errors, magnetic errors, and alignment difference. We take the summation of the offset and hard iron error as the combined bias and then amalgamate the alignment difference and all the other errors as a transformation matrix. A two-step approach is presented to determine the combined bias and transformation matrix separately. In the first step, the combined bias is determined by finding an optimal ellipsoid that can best fit the sensor readings. In the second step, the intrinsic relationships of the raw sensor readings are explored to estimate the transformation matrix as a homogeneous linear least-squares problem. Singular value decomposition is then applied to estimate both the transformation matrix and magnetic vector. The proposed method is then applied to calibrate our sensor node. Although there is no ground truth for the combined bias and transformation matrix for our node, the consistency of calibration results among different trials and less than 3(°) root mean square error for orientation estimation have been achieved, which illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed sensor calibration method for practical applications. PMID:25265625

  4. Grounded cognition.

    PubMed

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  5. InSAR Detection of Ground Deformation in Megalopolises of Pearl River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qing

    Megalopolises in the Pearl River Delta, including Guangzhou and Hong Kong, have experienced various degree of ground subsidence. The causes can be divided into two categories: natural subsidence and the human-induced subsidence. Monitoring the ground subsidence can not only help people to find out the distributions in both spatial and temporal fields, but also guide people to minimize the hazard ahead. Thus, it is significant to monitor the ground subsidence accurately, timely and frequently. This dissertation research uses the Environmental Satellite Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ENVISAT ASAR) data received at the Chinese University of Hong Kong Satellite Remote Sensing Receiving Station and SAR Interferometry (InSAR) technology as a powerful tool for large-scale ground deformation monitoring in Guangzhou and Hong Kong areas. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) method is used to detect ground deformation in the urban area of Guangzhou city. A ground deformation rate map with scattered distribution of point targets shows the maximum subsidence (rise) rate as high as -26 to -20 mma-1 (16-21 mma-1 ), implying that the study area is an active zone for ground deformation. Based on the point target map, a contour ground deformation rate map is generated. All the six ground collapse accidents that occurred in 2007-2008 fall within the subsidence zones, qualitatively validating the IPTA results. Ground subsidence and geological conditions on Datansha Island are examined. The results indicate that the local geological conditions and underground engineering projects are responsible for ground subsidence and ground collapse accidents occurred there. To interpret the distribution of active ground subsidence zones, a local geological map is used as a reference for generating a series of thematic maps. The results show that geological faults, rock distribution, over-development, and underground engineering projects may be four factors leading to the distribution of

  6. [The search for historical truth: psychotherapeutic work with Bosnian refugees].

    PubMed

    Laub, D; Weine, S M

    1994-12-01

    The trauma haunting refugees from ex-Yugoslavia is inextricably bound up with complex processes of historical change. In order to be able to understand and treat their severe psychic problems, psychotherapists have to go in search of the historical truth, which is frequently masked by myths and obsolete notions. Only when a psychotherapist who has received the relevant interdisciplinary schooling acknowledges the existence of completely new historical experiences can s/he provide effective support for Bosnian Muslims fleeing "ethnic cleansing" and attempting to achieve self-healing, learning and growth after such an extreme form of collective and individual destruction. In this way the psychotherapist becomes an initiated listener and a unique witness of a form of historical truth that for the traumatized patients themselves is at first entirely or largely beyond recall and comprehension.

  7. Ground Control Point - Wireless System Network for UAV-based environmental monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia-Aguilar, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have seen widespread civil applications including usage for survey and monitoring services in areas such as agriculture, construction and civil engineering, private surveillance and reconnaissance services and cultural heritage management. Most aerial monitoring services require the integration of information acquired during the flight (such as imagery) with ground-based information (such as GPS information or others) for improved ground truth validation. For example, to obtain an accurate 3D and Digital Elevation Model based on aerial imagery, it is necessary to include ground-based information of coordinate points, which are normally acquired with surveying methods based on Global Position Systems (GPS). However, GPS surveys are very time consuming and especially for longer time series of monitoring data repeated GPS surveys are necessary. In order to improve speed of data collection and integration, this work presents an autonomous system based on Waspmote technologies build on single nodes interlinked in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) star-topology for ground based information collection and later integration with surveying data obtained by UAV. Nodes are designed to be visible from the air, to resist extreme weather conditions with low-power consumption. Besides, nodes are equipped with GPS as well as Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), accelerometer, temperature and soil moisture sensors and thus provide significant advantages in a broad range of applications for environmental monitoring. For our purpose, the WSN transmits the environmental data with 3G/GPRS to a database on a regular time basis. This project provides a detailed case study and implementation of a Ground Control Point System Network for UAV-based vegetation monitoring of dry mountain grassland in the Matsch valley, Italy.

  8. Concern for truth: driving defensively when confronting a zombie epidemic.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2013-11-01

    The newly approved drug Diclegis(®), indicated for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with pregnancy, has a very interesting background story going back more than 50 years, in which science, celebrity individuals, the media, and the courts crossed paths. The story illustrates how concepts of truth, evidence, objectivity, and disinterested inquiry can become distorted in various ways, and this is especially relevant and prevalent in today's media environment of cable television, talk radio, and especially the Internet.

  9. The Simple Truth about the Gender Pay Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Women, 2014

    2014-01-01

    It's been said that men are paid more than women are paid over their lifetimes. But what does that mean? Are women paid less because they choose lower-paying jobs? Is it because more women work part time than men do? Or is it because women tend to be the primary caregivers for their children? AAUW's "The Simple Truth about the…

  10. Concern for truth: driving defensively when confronting a zombie epidemic.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2013-11-01

    The newly approved drug Diclegis(®), indicated for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with pregnancy, has a very interesting background story going back more than 50 years, in which science, celebrity individuals, the media, and the courts crossed paths. The story illustrates how concepts of truth, evidence, objectivity, and disinterested inquiry can become distorted in various ways, and this is especially relevant and prevalent in today's media environment of cable television, talk radio, and especially the Internet. PMID:24124694

  11. Saving Tibet? An inquiry into modernity, lies, truths, and beliefs.

    PubMed

    Adams, Vincanne

    2005-01-01

    Social theorists have explored the ways in which quantification serves as an instrument of governance in the modern state, whether tied to concerns of population size and quality or to problems of social behavior. Biopolitics are as visible in the modern socialist states as they are in free-market democratic states, and they are perhaps nowhere more visible today than in the new global standards of "evidence-based medicine," wherein it is assumed that only quantifiable evidence can serve to establish policy, procedure, and outcome. When it comes to creating ways to "civilize" and organize their target citizenry through health development, Socialist China as relied on such technologies as much as have health development funding agencies from donor countries. In this article, I look at quantitative methods in relation to assumptions that morality can be severed from truth and that numbers are potentially morally neutral. This idea is tied not only to forms of modern subjectivity but also to the distinct ways in which certain linguistic and theoretical practices relate to provisional notions of "lying," "truth-telling," and ways of "believing." An exploration of the effects of attempts to quantify maternal behavior, morbidity, and morality in rural Tibet highlights the problem of morality within an environment in which numbers are never free-standing but, rather, are always presumed to carry moral messages, and in which domains that cannot be quantified serve as a primary basis for knowing truth. Through an exploration of rural Tibetan encounters with health development programs for safe motherhood, I provide a critique of quantification and return to questions about "belief" as a rubric that interrupts modern dichotomies of lies versus truths.

  12. ANTARES explosion as recorded by the US-ARRAY: an unprecedented ground-truth infrasound event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergoz, Julien; Millet, Christophe; Le Pichon, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    The 28th October 2014 in Wallops Flight Facility, orbital's Antares launch vehicle failed and heavily exploded onto the launch pad area. At that time, the US transportable array of more than 200 operating stations (all equipped with microbarometers), was located on the east coast of the US and surrounded the accident. A large amount and variety of infrasound phases were observed at some stations, highlighting interesting propagation effects. The variety of recorded signals on such a dense network is unprecedented and offers the opportunity to better understand some propagation features, such as (1) the frequency content changes of stratospheric phases; (2) the dispersion of tropospheric phases propagating over thousands of kilometers within a stable and thin waveguide at fast phase speeds (350m/s) with low attenuation; (3) the non-linear effects associated with slow thermospheric phases (180m/s), especially in terms of shape, amplitude and duration. These 3 points will be addressed, and pieces of interpretations will be given thanks to the different propagation techniques: full waveform modelling (Normal Modes, finite element method), parabolic equation and ray tracing technique. Location issues of such an acoustic event based on tens of infrasound arrival times only will also be shown and discussed.

  13. Precipitation measurements for earth-space communications: Accuracy requirements and ground-truth techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ippolito, L. J.; Kaul, R.

    1981-01-01

    Rainfall which is regarded as one of the more important observations for the measurements of this most variable parameter was made continuously, across large areas and over the sea. Ships could not provide the needed resolution nor could available radars provide the needed breadth of coverage. Microwave observations from the Nimbus-5 satellite offered some hope. Another possibility was suggested by the results of many comparisons between rainfall and the clouds seen in satellite pictures. Sequences of pictures from the first geostationary satellites were employed and a general correspondence between rain and the convective clouds visible in satellite pictures was found. It was demonstrated that the agreement was best for growing clouds. The development methods to infer GATE rainfall from geostationary satellite images are examined.

  14. Ground truth for SIR-B images obtained by SIR system 8 impulse radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulriksen, P.; Ottersten, H.; Borg, C. G.; Axelsson, S.; Ekengren, B.

    1984-01-01

    Verification of suspected penetration by means of three dimensional information on the features in the SIR-B images will be investigated. The Great Alvar is a well documented area, especially in geology and ecology, and should provide a good opportunity to evaluate the data.

  15. Techniques of ground-truth measurements of desert-scrub structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottermann, J.; Deering, D.; Eck, T.; Ringrose, S.

    1987-01-01

    Inversion of remote sensing data taken over a desert scrub surface in Texas with a multidirectionally viewing field radiometer, PARABOLA, yields the value of 0.12 for the protrusion parameter, s, (the projection on a vertical plane of plants per unit area) if isotropy (Lambert law) is assumed for the underlying soil. However, a significantly higher value of s, in the range 0.15 to 0.20, can be inferred if the soil is assumed anisotropic. It is concluded that in remote sensing of sparse vegetation, it is important to know the reflectance characteristics of the underlying soil. Other techniques that can be used to infer desert scrub vegetation structure include various photographic techniques, and measurements of reflected radiance from zenith for a range of solar elevation angles on a clear day.

  16. Skepticism, Truth as Coherence, and Constructivist Epistemology: Grounds for Resolving the Discord between Science and Religion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staver, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Science and religion exhibit multiple relationships as ways of knowing. These connections have been characterized as cousinly, mutually respectful, non-overlapping, competitive, proximate-ultimate, dominant-subordinate, and opposing-conflicting. Some of these ties create stress, and tension between science and religion represents a significant…

  17. WFST-based ground truth alignment for difficult historical documents with text modification and layout variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Azawi, Mayce; Liwicki, Marcus; Breuel, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes several approaches that can be used for generating correspondences between real scanned books and their transcriptions which might have different modifications and layout variations, also taking OCR errors into account. Our approaches for the alignment between the manuscript and the transcription are based on weighted finite state transducers (WFST). In particular, we propose adapted WFSTs to represent the transcription to be aligned with the OCR lattices. The character-level alignment has edit rules to allow edit operations (insertion, deletion, substitution). Those edit operations allow the transcription model to deal with OCR segmentation and recognition errors, and also with the task of aligning with different text editions. We implemented an alignment model with a hyphenation model, so it can adapt the non-hyphenated transcription. Our models also work with Fraktur ligatures, which are typically found in historical Fraktur documents. We evaluated our approach on Fraktur documents from Wanderungen durch die Mark Brandenburg" volumes (1862-1889) and observed the performance of those models under OCR errors. We compare the performance of our model for three different scenarios: having no information about the correspondence at the word (i), line (ii), sentence (iii) or page (iv) level.

  18. Airborne multi-spectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and researchers have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology are...

  19. Airborne multispectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and engineers in areawide pest management programs have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with global positioning systems, geographic information system...

  20. Grid-Search Location Methods for Ground-Truth Collection from Local and Regional Seismic Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, C A; Rodi, W; Myers, S C

    2003-07-24

    The objective of this project is to develop improved seismic event location techniques that can be used to generate more and better quality reference events using data from local and regional seismic networks. Their approach is to extend existing methods of multiple-event location with more general models of the errors affecting seismic arrival time data, including picking errors and errors in model-based travel-times (path corrections). Toward this end, they are integrating a grid-search based algorithm for multiple-event location (GMEL) with a new parameterization of travel-time corrections and new kriging method for estimating the correction parameters from observed travel-time residuals. Like several other multiple-event location algorithms, GMEL currently assumes event-independent path corrections and is thus restricted to small event clusters. The new parameterization assumes that travel-time corrections are a function of both the event and station location, and builds in source-receiver reciprocity and correlation between the corrections from proximate paths as constraints. The new kriging method simultaneously interpolates travel-time residuals from multiple stations and events to estimate the correction parameters as functions of position. They are currently developing the algorithmic extensions to GMEL needed to combine the new parameterization and kriging method with the simultaneous location of events. The result will be a multiple-event location method which is applicable to non-clustered, spatially well-distributed events. They are applying the existing components of the new multiple-event location method to a data set of regional and local arrival times from Nevada Test Site (NTS) explosions with known origin parameters. Preliminary results show the feasibility and potential benefits of combining the location and kriging techniques. They also show some preliminary work on generalizing of the error model used in GMEL with the use of mixture-of-Gaussians probability distributions fit to observed travel-time residuals.

  1. Grid-Search Location Methods for Ground-Truth Collection From Local and Regional Seismic Networks

    SciTech Connect

    William Rodi; Craig A. Schultz; Gardar Johannesson; Stephen C. Myers

    2005-05-13

    This project investigated new techniques for improving seismic event locations derived from regional and local networks. The technqiues include a new approach to empirical travel-time calibration that simultaneously fits data from multiple stations and events, using a generalization of the kriging method, and predicts travel-time corrections for arbitrary event-station paths. We combined this calibration approach with grid-search event location to produce a prototype new multiple-event location method that allows the use of spatially well-distributed events and takes into account correlations between the travel-time corrections from proximate event-station paths. Preliminary tests with a high quality data set from Nevada Test Site explosions indicated that our new calibration/location method offers improvement over the conventional multiple-event location methods now in common use, and is applicable to more general event-station geometries than the conventional methods. The tests were limited, however, and further research is needed to fully evaluate, and improve, the approach. Our project also demonstrated the importance of using a realistic model for observational errors in an event location procedure. We took the initial steps in developing a new error model based on mixture-of-Gaussians probability distributions, which possess the properties necessary to characterize the complex arrival time error processes that can occur when picking low signal-to-noise arrivals. We investigated various inference methods for fitting these distributions to observed travel-time residuals, including a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique for computing Bayesian estimates of the distribution parameters.

  2. Man and the Biosphere: Ground Truthing Coral Reefs for the St. John Island Biosphere Reserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Michael J.; And Others

    Research on the coral species composition of St. John's reefs in the Virgin Islands was conducted through the School for Field Studies (SFS) Coral Reef Ecology course (winter 1984). A cooperative study program based on the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization's (Unesco) program, Man and the Biosphere, was undertaken by…

  3. Field experiment provides ground truth for surface nuclear magnetic resonance measurement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knight, R.; Grunewald, E.; Irons, T.; Dlubac, K.; Song, Y.; Bachman, H.N.; Grau, B.; Walsh, D.; Abraham, J.D.; Cannia, J.

    2012-01-01

    The need for sustainable management of fresh water resources is one of the great challenges of the 21st century. Since most of the planet's liquid fresh water exists as groundwater, it is essential to develop non-invasive geophysical techniques to characterize groundwater aquifers. A field experiment was conducted in the High Plains Aquifer, central United States, to explore the mechanisms governing the non-invasive Surface NMR (SNMR) technology. We acquired both SNMR data and logging NMR data at a field site, along with lithology information from drill cuttings. This allowed us to directly compare the NMR relaxation parameter measured during logging, T 2, to the relaxation parameter T 2 * measured using the SNMR method. The latter can be affected by inhomogeneity in the magnetic field, thus obscuring the link between the NMR relaxation parameter and the hydraulic conductivity of the geologic material. When the logging T 2 data were transformed to pseudo-T 2 * data, by accounting for inhomogeneity in the magnetic field and instrument dead time, we found good agreement with T 2 * obtained from the SNMR measurement. These results, combined with the additional information about lithology at the site, allowed us to delineate the physical mechanisms governing the SNMR measurement. Such understanding is a critical step in developing SNMR as a reliable geophysical method for the assessment of groundwater resources. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Eltanin: Ground Truth for Kilometer-Sized Deep-Ocean Impacts (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyte, F. T.; Gersonde, R.; Kuhn, G.

    2009-12-01

    Deposits of the late Pliocene (2.5 Ma) Eltanin impact are unique in the known geological record. The only known example of a km-sized asteroid to impact a deep-ocean (5 km) basin, is the most meterorite-rich locality known on Earth. This was discovered as an Ir anomaly in sediments from three cores collected in the SE Pacific in 1965 by the USNS Eltanin. Subsequently, two expeditions of the R/V Polarstern in 1995 and 2001 have conducted geological and geophysical investigations in the impact region. An area of ~80,000 km2 has been mapped in some detail, and deposits from the impact are found in 23 cores spanning a region extending 660 (E-W) by 250 km (N-S). We find a central region 50 to 100 km across, near the Freeden Seamounts (57.3S, 90.5W), where sediments as old as Eocene have been ripped up (perhaps to basement) and redeposited by the impact into a chaotic mix of pebble to boulder-sized fragments. This is overlain by a fining upward sequence of sediments with laminations and some cross-bedding consistent with deposition in a high-energy flow regime. Near the top of this impact deposit, sub mm- to cm-sized meteoritic ejecta is mixed into the disturbed sediment. This ejecta is composed of 90% shock-melted asteroid and 10% unmelted meteorite fragments from the lo-metal mesosiderite asteroid. The amount of meteoritic ejecta in 13 cores from the central region record deposition of 3 to 50 kg of asteroid material per square meter. Km-sized impacts are fairly common on geological timescales, occurring a few times per m.y., so one or two other similar-sized, and several smaller projectiles likely hit the Pacific basin since the Late Pliocene. Undoubtedly, this is not the only such impact collected in deep-sea cores; it is unique only in that it has been recognized. Eltanin thus serves as type section for identifying ocean-impact deposits at other localities. Projectiles of this size cannot penetrate to the ocean floor and indeed there is no chemical evidence in the ejecta of mixing between asteroidal and terrestrial silicates. However, severe disturbance of of seafloor sediments over a wide region attest to the energy of this event. We have found no evidence of a physical “crater,” but it is conceivable that the water cavity formed by the impact extended to the bottom and could have even briefly exposed large areas of the seafloor. If deep-ocean impacts represent a significant hazard due to climate change or wave propagation, Eltanin could be a good test case if it’s effects can just be discerned outside the immediate impact region. The late Pliocene was a time of rapid climate change, but we have been unsuccessful at detecting Eltanin ejecta in high-resolution cores from the S. Atlantic. Unfortunately, the poor time-resolution in the Polarstern piston cores is insufficient to tie the impact to the O-isotope-based climate record. Perhaps the best chance would be to search for tsunami deposits. Models projecting the propagation of Eltanin-sized impact waves would be useful in evaluating the effects of this impact across the Pacific and other ocean basins.

  5. Liberal or Conservative: Evaluation and Classification with Distribution as Ground Truth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Daniel Xiaodan

    2013-01-01

    The ability to classify the political leaning of a large number of articles and items is valuable to both academic research and practical applications. The challenge, though, is not only about developing innovative classification algorithms, which constitutes a "classifier" theme in this thesis, but also about how to define the…

  6. Ground truth of (sub-)micrometre cometary dust – Results of MIDAS onboard Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannel, Thurid; Bentley, Mark; Schmied, Roland; Torkar, Klaus; Jeszenszky, Harald; Romsted, Jens; Levasseur-Regourd, A.; Weber, Iris; Jessberger, Elmar K.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Köberl, Christian; Havnes, Ove

    2016-10-01

    The investigation of comet 67P by Rosetta has allowed the comprehensive characterisation of pristine cometary dust particles ejected from the nucleus. Flying alongside the comet at distances as small as a few kilometres, and with a relative velocity of only centimetres per second, the Rosetta payload sampled almost unaltered dust. A key instrument to study this dust was MIDAS (the Micro-Imaging Dust Analysis System), a dedicated atomic force microscope that scanned the surfaces of hundreds of (sub-)micrometre sized particles in 3D with resolutions down to nanometres. This offers the unique opportunity to explore the morphology of smallest cometary dust and expand our current knowledge about cometary material.Here we give an overview of dust collected and analysed by MIDAS and highlight its most important features. These include the ubiquitous agglomerate nature of the dust, which is found at all size scales from the largest (>10 µm) through to the smallest (<1 µm) dust particles. The sub-units show characteristic sizes and shapes that are compared with model predictions for interstellar dust.Our findings constrain key parameters of the evolution of the early Solar System. We will discuss which dust growth model is favoured by the observed morphology and how the results restrict cometary formation. Finally, dust particles detected by MIDAS resemble primitive interplanetary dust which is a strong argument for a common cometary origin.

  7. Design of the primary and secondary Pre-TRMM and TRMM ground truth sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garstang, Michael; Austin, Geoffrey; Cosgrove, Claire

    1991-01-01

    Results generated over six months are covered in five manuscripts: (1) estimates of rain volume over the Peninsula of Florida during the summer season based upon the Manually Digitized Radar data; (2) the diurnal characteristics of rainfall over Florida and over the near shore waters; (3) convective rainfall as measured over the east coast of central Florida; (4) the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall over Florida; and (5) comparisons between the land based radar and an optical raingage onboard an anchored buoy 50 km offshore.

  8. Ground truth spectrometry and imagery of eruption clouds to maximize utility of satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, William I.

    1993-01-01

    Field experiments with thermal imaging infrared radiometers were performed and a laboratory system was designed for controlled study of simulated ash clouds. Using AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) thermal infrared bands 4 and 5, a radiative transfer method was developed to retrieve particle sizes, optical depth and particle mass involcanic clouds. A model was developed for measuring the same parameters using TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer), and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer). Related publications are attached.

  9. Inter-Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks: From the Ground Truth to Algorithm Design and Testbed Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Many of the devices we interact with on a daily basis are currently equipped with wireless connectivity. Soon this will be extended to the vehicles we drive/ride every day. Wirelessly connected vehicles will form a new kind of network that will enable a wide set of innovative applications ranging from enhanced safety to entertainment. To…

  10. Ground truth data for test sites (SL-4). [thermal radiation brightness temperature and solar radiation measurments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Field measurements performed simultaneous with Skylab overpass in order to provide comparative calibration and performance evaluation measurements for the EREP sensors are presented. Wavelength region covered include: solar radiation (400 to 1300 nanometer), and thermal radiation (8 to 14 micrometer). Measurements consisted of general conditions and near surface meteorology, atmospheric temperature and humidity vs altitude, the thermal brightness temperature, total and diffuse solar radiation, direct solar radiation (subsequently analyzed for optical depth/transmittance), and target reflectivity/radiance. The particular instruments used are discussed along with analyses performed. Detailed instrument operation, calibrations, techniques, and errors are given.

  11. Ground truth report 1975 Phoenix microwave experiment. [Joint Soil Moisture Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    Direct measurements of soil moisture obtained in conjunction with aircraft data flights near Phoenix, Arizona in March, 1975 are summarized. The data were collected for the Joint Soil Moisture Experiment.

  12. Chryse Planitia as a Mars Pathfinder landing site: The imperative of building on previous ground truth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, Larry S.

    1994-01-01

    Based on consideration of the geological characteristics of Chryse Planitia, the requirements for Mars Pathfinder landing sites, the nature of the mission, the scale of the observations to be made, and the need to build outward from previous experience, a new mission to Chryse Planitia offers several advantages that are difficult to ignore as well as offering a low-gamble/high-return mission scenario. Considering the need to ensure a successful mission, and to ensure the continued health of planetary exploration, the reasons for a new mission to Chryse Planitia are compelling. Results of 1:500,000 mapping, operational benefits of Chryse Planitia, science benefits of Chryse Planitia, and conclusions and site recommendations are discussed.

  13. Ground truth data for test sites (SL-3). [solar radiation and thermal radiation brightness temperature measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Field measurements performed simultaneously with Skylab overpasses in order to provide comparative calibration and performance evaluation measurements for the EREP sensors are presented. The solar radiation region from 400 to 1300 nanometers and the thermal radiation region from 8 to 14 micrometer region were investigated. The measurements of direct solar radiation were analyzed for atmospheric optical depth; the total and reflected solar radiation were analyzed for target reflectivity. These analyses were used in conjunction with a radiative transfer computer program in order to calculate the amount and spectral distribution of solar radiation at the apertures of the EREP sensors. The instrumentation and techniques employed, calibrations and analyses performed, and results obtained are discussed.

  14. AN ASSESSMENT OF GROUND TRUTH VARIABILITY USING A "VIRTUAL FIELD REFERENCE DATABASE"

    EPA Science Inventory



    A "Virtual Field Reference Database (VFRDB)" was developed from field measurment data that included location and time, physical attributes, flora inventory, and digital imagery (camera) documentation foy 1,01I sites in the Neuse River basin, North Carolina. The sampling f...

  15. Experimental impact cratering provides ground truth data for understanding planetary-scale collision processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poelchau, Michael H.; Deutsch, Alex; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Impact cratering is generally accepted as one of the primary processes that shape planetary surfaces in the solar system. While post-impact analysis of craters by remote sensing or field work gives many insights into this process, impact cratering experiments have several advantages for impact research: 1) excavation and ejection processes can be directly observed, 2) physical parameters of the experiment are defined and can be varied, and 3) cratered target material can be analyzed post-impact in an unaltered, uneroded state. The main goal of the MEMIN project is to comprehensively quantify impact processes by conducting a stringently controlled experimental impact cratering campaign on the meso-scale with a multidisciplinary analytical approach. As a unique feature we use two-stage light gas guns capable of producing impact craters in the decimeter size-range in solid rocks that, in turn, allow detailed spatial analysis of petrophysical, structural, and geochemical changes in target rocks and ejecta. In total, we have carried out 24 experiments at the facilities of the Fraunhofer EMI, Freiburg - Germany. Steel, aluminum, and iron meteorite projectiles ranging in diameter from 2.5 to 12 mm were accelerated to velocities ranging from 2.5 to 7.8 km/s. Targets were solid rocks, namely sandstone, quartzite and tuff that were either dry or saturated with water. In the experimental setup, high speed framing cameras monitored the impact process, ultrasound sensors were attached to the target to record the passage of the shock wave, and special particle catchers were positioned opposite of the target surface to capture the ejected target and projectile material. In addition to the cratering experiments, planar shock recovery experiments were performed on the target material, and numerical models of the cratering process were developed. The experiments resulted in craters with diameters up to 40 cm, which is unique in laboratory cratering research. Target porosity exponentially reduces crater volumes and cratering efficiency relative to non-porous rocks, and also yields less steep ejecta angles. Microstructural analysis of the subsurface shows a zone of pervasive grain crushing and pore space reduction. This is in good agreement with new mesoscale numerical models, which are able to quantify localized shock pressure behavior in the target's pore space. Planar shock recovery experiments confirm these local pressure excursions, based on microanalysis of shock metamorphic features in quartz. Saturation of porous target rocks with water counteracts many of the effects of porosity. Post-impact analysis of projectile remnants shows that during mixing of projectile and target melts, the Fe of the projectile is preferentially partitioned into target melt to a greater degree than Ni and Co. We plan to continue evaluating the experimental results in combination with numerical models. These models help to quantify and evaluate cratering processes, while experimental data serve as benchmarks to validate the improved numerical models, thus helping to "bridge the gap" between experiments and nature. The results confirm and expand current crater scaling laws, and make an application to craters on planetary surfaces possible.

  16. Ground Truthing the ‘Conventional Wisdom’ of Lead Corrosion Control Using Mineralogical Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    For drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) with lead-bearing plumbing materials some form of corrosion control is typically necessary, with the goal of mitigating lead release by forming adherent, stable corrosion scales composed of low-solubility mineral phases. Conventional...

  17. Ground Truthing the 'Conventional Wisdom' of Lead Corrosion Control Using Mineralogical Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    For drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) with lead-bearing plumbing materials some form of corrosion control is typically necessary, with the goal of mitigating lead release by forming adherent, stable corrosion scales composed of low-solubility mineral phases. Conventional...

  18. Soils maps supplement to soil moisture ground truth, Lafayette, Indiana, site St. Charles, Missouri, site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, E. B.; Olt, S. E.

    1975-01-01

    A compilation of soils information obtained as the result of a library search of data on the Lafayette, Indiana, site and St. Charles, Missouri, site is presented. Soils data for the Lafayette, Indiana, site are shown in Plates 1 and 2; and soils data for the St. Charles, Missouri, site are shown in Plates 3 and 4.

  19. Ground-truthing evoked potential measurements against behavioral conditioning in the goldfish, Carassius auratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Randy J.; Mann, David A.

    2005-04-01

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) have become commonly used to measure hearing thresholds in fish. However, it is uncertain how well AEP thresholds match behavioral hearing thresholds and what effect variability in electrode placement has on AEPs. In the first experiment, the effect of electrode placement on AEPs was determined by simultaneously recording AEPs from four locations on each of 12 goldfish, Carassius auratus. In the second experiment, the hearing sensitivity of 12 goldfish was measured using both classical conditioning and AEP's in the same setup. For behavioral conditioning, the fish were trained to reduce their respiration rate in response to a 5 s sound presentation paired with a brief shock. A modified staircase method was used in which 20 reversals were completed for each frequency, and threshold levels were determined by averaging the last 12 reversals. Once the behavioral audiogram was completed, the AEP measurements were made without moving the fish. The recording electrode was located subdermally over the medulla, and was inserted prior to classical conditioning to minimize handling of animal. The same sound stimuli (pulsed tones) were presented and the resultant evoked potentials were recorded for 1000-6000 averages. AEP input-output functions were then compared to the behavioral audiogram to compare techniques for estimating behavioral thresholds from AEP data.

  20. Requirements for sea surface temperature ground truth in the Indonesian region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penrose, J.

    1985-01-01

    The comparatively low density of ship and XBT observations in large areas of the Southern Hemisphere and the tropics limits the extent to which satellite SST estimates can be validated on a global basis. These limitations are discussed, and some recommendations for correction are given.

  1. The Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial and Helio Studies (TRUTHS) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Paul D.; Fox, Nigel P.; Lobb, Daniel; Friend, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    TRUTHS (Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio-Studies) is a proposed small satellite mission to enable a space-based climate observing system capable of delivering data of the quality needed to provide the information needed by policy makers to make robust mitigation and adaptation decisions. This is achieved by embedding trust and confidence in the data and derived information (tied to international standards) from both its own measurements and by upgrading the performance and interoperability of other EO platforms, such as the Sentinels by in-flight reference calibration. TRUTHS would provide measurements of incoming (total and spectrally resolved) and global reflected spectrally and spatially (50 m) solar radiation at the 0.3% uncertainty level. These fundamental climate data products can be convolved into the building blocks for many ECVs and EO applications as envisaged by the 2015 ESA science strategy; in a cost effective manner. We describe the scientific drivers for the TRUTHS mission and how the requirements for the climate benchmarking and cross-calibration reference sensor are both complementary and simply implemented, with a small additional complexity on top of heritage calibration schemes. The calibration scheme components and the route to SI-traceable Earth-reflected solar spectral radiance and solar spectral irradiance are described.

  2. Paradoxical Truths and Persistent Myths: Reframing the Team Competence Conversation.

    PubMed

    Lingard, Lorelei

    2016-01-01

    Medicine has conventionally had an individualist orientation to competence. Individual competence is conceptualized as a stable possession that, once acquired, holds across contexts. Individual competence is necessary; however, it is insufficient for quality health care. We also need to attend to collective competence in order to grapple with paradoxical truths about teamwork, such as: competent individuals can form incompetent teams. Collective competence is conceptualized as a distributed capacity of a system, an evolving, relational phenomenon that emerges from the resources and constraints of particular contexts. This article outlines a set of paradoxical truths about teamwork in health care and uses the concept of collective competence to explain how they can hold true. It then considers a set of persistent myths about teamwork which have their roots in an individualist orientation, exploring how they hold us back from meaningful change in how we educate for, and practice as, health care teams. Finally, the article briefly considers the implications of these truths and myths for educational issues such as interprofessional education and competency-based health professional education. PMID:27584064

  3. Grounding of space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosela, P. A.; Fertis, D. G.; Shaker, F. J.

    1992-01-01

    Space structures, such as the Space Station solar arrays, must be extremely light-weight, flexible structures. Accurate prediction of the natural frequencies and mode shapes is essential for determining the structural adequacy of components, and designing a controls system. The tension pre-load in the 'blanket' of photovoltaic solar collectors, and the free/free boundary conditions of a structure in space, causes serious reservations on the use of standard finite element techniques of solution. In particular, a phenomenon known as 'grounding', or false stiffening, of the stiffness matrix occurs during rigid body rotation. This paper examines the grounding phenomenon in detail. Numerous stiffness matrices developed by others are examined for rigid body rotation capability, and found lacking. A force imbalance inherent in the formulations examined is the likely cause of the grounding problem, suggesting the need for a directed force formulation.

  4. 16 CFR 14.16 - Interpretation of Truth-in-Lending Orders consistent with amendments to the Truth-in-Lending Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretation of Truth-in-Lending Orders consistent with amendments to the Truth-in-Lending Act and Regulation Z. 14.16 Section 14.16 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ADMINISTRATIVE INTERPRETATIONS, GENERAL POLICY STATEMENTS,...

  5. A Description of What Charles Sanders Peirce Meant by Truth and an Application of His Doctrine of Truth to Rhetorical Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmis, John H., III

    This paper investigated the doctrine of truth of the pragmatic philosopher C.S. Peirce. The ontological and epistemological bases of the doctrine are described, and the status of truth, reality, investigation, and belief are drawn from these bases. The results indicate that Peirce's doctrine could be productively related to rhetorical theory,…

  6. Sex and personality traits influence the difference between time taken to tell the truth or lie.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Tom F D; Reilly, Rebecca; Rahman, Towhida A; Herford, Amy E; Woodruff, Peter W R; Spence, Sean A

    2003-10-01

    A necessary component of lying is the withholding of a truthful response. Hence, lying may be conceptualised as involving the inhibition of an initial, automatic response (the truth) while an alternative response (the lie) is generated. We investigated response times to visually and auditorially presented questions probing recent episodic memory, when subjects answered questions truthfully or with lies. We also investigated whether the absolute response times or difference between time taken to tell the truth or lie was affected by participants' sex or correlated with personality scores on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Short Scale. 61 subjects answered the same 36 questions five times. The first time involved answering all questions truthfully, which allowed post hoc analysis of whether subjects had been consistent in their lying and truth-telling on the following four occasions. These latter four occasions involved answering all questions (one each with 'truth' or 'lie') for both types of presentation. Regardless of type of presentation or subjects' sex, subjects took approximately 200 msec. longer to lie than to tell the truth in response to each question (p<.001). There were significant correlations between truthful response times to auditorially presented questions and Eysenck 'Neuroticism' scores. There was also a significant correlation for women between mean individual lie-minus-truth time to auditorially presented questions and Eysenck 'Lie' scores. These preliminary data suggest that response time is systematically longer when telling a lie and that personality variables may play a part in this process.

  7. Design and Feasibility Testing of the truth FinishIt Tobacco Countermarketing Brand Equity Scale.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas; Rath, Jessica; Pitzer, Lindsay; Hair, Elizabeth C; Snider, Jeremy; Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna

    2016-07-01

    The original truth campaign was a branded, national smoking prevention mass media effort focused on at-risk youth ages 12-17. Today the truth brand focuses on the goal of finishing tobacco (truth FinishIt). There have been significant changes in the tobacco control landscape, leading FinishIt to focus on 15- to 21-year-olds. The present article reports on formative research and media monitoring data collected to pilot test a new truth FinishIt brand equity scale. The goals of this study were to (a) content analyze truth FinishIt mass media ads, (b) assess truth's social media and followers' perceptions of truth's digital brand identity, and (c) develop and feasibility test a new version of the truth FinishIt brand equity scale using data from an existing Truth Initiative media monitoring study. Through factor analysis, we identified a brand equity scale, as in previous research, consisting of 4 main constructs: brand loyalty, leadership/satisfaction, personality, and awareness. Targeted truth attitudes and beliefs about social perceptions, acceptability, and industry-related beliefs were regressed on the higher order factor and each of the 4 individual brand equity factors. Ordinary least squares regression models generally showed associations in the expected directions (positive for anti-tobacco and negative for pro-tobacco) between targeted attitudes/beliefs and truth FinishIt brand equity. This study succeeded in developing and validating a new truth FinishIt brand equity scale. The scale may be a valuable metric for future campaign evaluation. Future studies should examine the effects of truth FinishIt brand equity on tobacco use behavioral outcomes over time. PMID:27315354

  8. Design and Feasibility Testing of the truth FinishIt Tobacco Countermarketing Brand Equity Scale.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas; Rath, Jessica; Pitzer, Lindsay; Hair, Elizabeth C; Snider, Jeremy; Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna

    2016-07-01

    The original truth campaign was a branded, national smoking prevention mass media effort focused on at-risk youth ages 12-17. Today the truth brand focuses on the goal of finishing tobacco (truth FinishIt). There have been significant changes in the tobacco control landscape, leading FinishIt to focus on 15- to 21-year-olds. The present article reports on formative research and media monitoring data collected to pilot test a new truth FinishIt brand equity scale. The goals of this study were to (a) content analyze truth FinishIt mass media ads, (b) assess truth's social media and followers' perceptions of truth's digital brand identity, and (c) develop and feasibility test a new version of the truth FinishIt brand equity scale using data from an existing Truth Initiative media monitoring study. Through factor analysis, we identified a brand equity scale, as in previous research, consisting of 4 main constructs: brand loyalty, leadership/satisfaction, personality, and awareness. Targeted truth attitudes and beliefs about social perceptions, acceptability, and industry-related beliefs were regressed on the higher order factor and each of the 4 individual brand equity factors. Ordinary least squares regression models generally showed associations in the expected directions (positive for anti-tobacco and negative for pro-tobacco) between targeted attitudes/beliefs and truth FinishIt brand equity. This study succeeded in developing and validating a new truth FinishIt brand equity scale. The scale may be a valuable metric for future campaign evaluation. Future studies should examine the effects of truth FinishIt brand equity on tobacco use behavioral outcomes over time.

  9. NNLOPS accurate associated HW production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astill, William; Bizon, Wojciech; Re, Emanuele; Zanderighi, Giulia

    2016-06-01

    We present a next-to-next-to-leading order accurate description of associated HW production consistently matched to a parton shower. The method is based on reweighting events obtained with the HW plus one jet NLO accurate calculation implemented in POWHEG, extended with the MiNLO procedure, to reproduce NNLO accurate Born distributions. Since the Born kinematics is more complex than the cases treated before, we use a parametrization of the Collins-Soper angles to reduce the number of variables required for the reweighting. We present phenomenological results at 13 TeV, with cuts suggested by the Higgs Cross section Working Group.

  10. Truth and opinion in climate change discourse: the Gore-Hansen disagreement.

    PubMed

    Russill, Chris

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, I discuss the "inconvenient truth" strategy of Al Gore. I argue that Gore's notion of truth upholds a conception of science and policy that narrows our understanding of climate change discourse. In one notable exchange, Gore and NASA scientist, James Hansen, disagreed about whether scientific statements based on Hansen's computer simulations were truth or opinion. This exchange is featured in An Inconvenient Truth, yet the disagreement is edited from the film and presented simply as an instance of Hansen speaking "inconvenient truth". In this article, I compare the filmic representation of Hansen's testimony with the congressional record. I place their exchange in a broader historical perspective on climate change disputation in order to discuss the implications of Gore's perspective on truth.

  11. Initial judgment task and delay of the final validity-rating task moderate the truth effect.

    PubMed

    Nadarevic, Lena; Erdfelder, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Repeatedly seen or heard statements are typically judged to be more valid than statements one has never encountered before. This phenomenon has been referred to as the truth effect. We conducted two experiments to assess the plasticity of the truth effect under different contextual conditions. Surprisingly, we did not find a truth effect in the typical judgment design when using a ten minutes interval between statement repetitions. However, we replicated the truth effect when changing the judgment task at initial statement exposure or when using an interval of one week rather than ten minutes. Because none of the current truth effect theories can fully account for these context effects, we conclude that the cognitive processes underlying truth judgments are more complex than has hitherto been assumed. To close the theoretical gap, we propose a revised fluency attribution hypothesis as a possible explanation of our findings.

  12. On Known Unknowns: Fluency and the Neural Mechanisms of Illusory Truth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Chun; Brashier, Nadia M; Wing, Erik A; Marsh, Elizabeth J; Cabeza, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    The "illusory truth" effect refers to the phenomenon whereby repetition of a statement increases its likelihood of being judged true. This phenomenon has important implications for how we come to believe oft-repeated information that may be misleading or unknown. Behavioral evidence indicates that fluency, the subjective ease experienced while processing information, underlies this effect. This suggests that illusory truth should be mediated by brain regions previously linked to fluency, such as the perirhinal cortex (PRC). To investigate this possibility, we scanned participants with fMRI while they rated the truth of unknown statements, half of which were presented earlier (i.e., repeated). The only brain region that showed an interaction between repetition and ratings of perceived truth was PRC, where activity increased with truth ratings for repeated, but not for new, statements. This finding supports the hypothesis that illusory truth is mediated by a fluency mechanism and further strengthens the link between PRC and fluency.

  13. Physics in US High Schools: Truths and Untruths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Susan

    2012-03-01

    Georg Christoph Lichtenberg once noted that ``[t]he most dangerous untruths are truths moderately distorted.'' In this talk, I will look at truths -- and attempt to dispel untruths -- regarding physics in US high schools. Using data from our quadrennial Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers, I'll address questions such as: *Does every student in the US have access to physics in high school? *Does every student take physics in high school? *Does taking physics in high school impact future career paths? *How well do students in different states do with respect to high school physics and preparation for STEM careers? *Do high school physics teachers have physics training? *How well are females and minorities represented in high school physics? *Did every student earning a bachelor's degree in physics from a US institution take physics in high school? I will also consider the impact of high school physics on future academic pursuits in STEM fields using the Science and Engineering Readiness Index (SERI) developed by Paul Cottle and me. SERI provides a way to examine progress in K-12 physical science education on a state-by-state basis. By the way, Lichtenberg was the first person to hold a professorship dedicated to experimental physics in Germany and was one of the first scientists to introduce experiments with apparatus in his lectures. Today he is remembered for his investigations in electricity, for discovering branching discharge patterns on dielectrics now called Lichtenberg figures. As every physicist does, he wanted to get at the truth and avoid distortions. This talk does just that.

  14. The moment of truth for WIMP dark matter.

    PubMed

    Bertone, Gianfranco

    2010-11-18

    We know that dark matter constitutes 85 per cent of all the matter in the Universe, but we do not know of what it is made. Amongst the many dark matter candidates proposed, WIMPs (weakly interacting massive particles) occupy a special place, because they arise naturally from new theories that seek to extend the standard model of particle physics. With the advent of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and a new generation of astroparticle experiments, the moment of truth has come for WIMPs: either we will discover them in the next five to ten years, or we will witness their inevitable decline. PMID:21085174

  15. Bayesian truthing and experimental validation in homeland security and defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Wang, Wenjian; Kostrzewski, Andrew; Pradhan, Ranjit

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we discuss relations between Bayesian Truthing (experimental validation), Bayesian statistics, and Binary Sensing in the context of selected Homeland Security and Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (ISR) optical and nonoptical application scenarios. The basic Figure of Merit (FoM) is Positive Predictive Value (PPV), as well as false positives and false negatives. By using these simple binary statistics, we can analyze, classify, and evaluate a broad variety of events including: ISR; natural disasters; QC; and terrorism-related, GIS-related, law enforcement-related, and other C3I events.

  16. A beginner's guide to belief revision and truth maintenance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Cindy L.

    1992-01-01

    This brief note is intended to familiarize the non-TMS audience with some of the basic ideas surrounding classic TMS's (truth maintenance systems), namely the justification-based TMS and the assumption-based TMS. Topics of further interest include the relation between non-monotonic logics and TMS's, efficiency and search issues, complexity concerns, as well as the variety of TMS systems that have surfaced in the past decade or so. These include probabilistic-based TMS systems, fuzzy TMS systems, tri-valued belief systems, and so on.

  17. [Truth at the bedside in a historical overview].

    PubMed

    von Engelhardt, D

    1996-04-01

    To tell the truth and withhold information were old topics in the history of medicine, whereas the term 'informed consent' appeared first in 1957. The historical development manifests different standpoints and central dimensions in the perspective of medicine as well as of theology, philosophy, arts, jurisprudence and psychology and with regard to diagnosis, etiology, prognosis and therapy. Physicians and patients are parts of their society and culture and are therefore depending on the dominant types of communication and concepts of health, disease and death.

  18. [The duty to tell the truth with regard to a person with Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Neyen, Octavie; Cornet, Marielle; Zeringer, Marie; Neyen, Constance

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of a project relating to ethical questioning, pupils in their penultimate year at Mabillon des Ardennes high school gathered testimonies which revealed that the truth is sometimes hidden from people with Alzheimer's disease. Why is this right to the truth not always respected? In what circumstances does it happen? What are the reasons? What are the potential consequences? Reflection is required around the question of the respect of the right to the truth for people with cognitive disorders.

  19. An Uninformative Truth: The Logic of Amarin's Off-Label Promotion.

    PubMed

    Hey, Spencer Phillips; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-03-01

    Spencer Phillips Hey and Aaron Kesselheim propose that informativeness-asserting scientific facts-rather than truthfulness ought to be the standard for regulating commercial speech about pharmaceuticals.

  20. Gendered war and gendered peace: truth commissions and postconflict gender violence: lessons from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Borer, Tristan Anne

    2009-10-01

    That war is profoundly gendered has long been recognized by feminist international relations scholars. What is less recognized is that the postwar period is equally gendered. Currently undertheorized is how truth-seeking exercises in the aftermath of conflict should respond to this fact. What happens to women victims of war violence? The difficulties of foregrounding gendered wartime violence in truth telling are illustrated by the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission. The article explores some consequences of the failure to uncover gendered truth, including its impact on the government's reparations policy, and continued "peacetime" violence perpetrated against women in South Africa. PMID:19706778

  1. Does the truth come out in the writing? Scan as a lie detection tool.

    PubMed

    Nahari, Galit; Vrij, Aldert; Fisher, Ronald P

    2012-02-01

    We tested the accuracy of Scientific Content Analysis (SCAN), a verbal lie detection tool that is used world-wide by federal law enforcement and military agencies. Sixty-one participants were requested to write down the truth, an outright lie or a concealment lie about activities they had just completed. The statements were coded with SCAN and with another verbal lie detection tool, Reality Monitoring (RM). RM discriminated significantly between truth tellers and outright liars and between truth tellers and concealment liars, whereas SCAN did not discriminate between truth tellers and either kind of liar. Implications of the findings for the suitability of SCAN as a lie detection tool are discussed.

  2. 'Diverse epistemologies', truth and archaeology: in defence of realism.

    PubMed

    Horsthemke, Kai

    2011-06-01

    In a recent journal article, as well as in a recent book chapter, in which she critiques my position on 'indigenous knowledge', Lesley Green of the Department of Social Anthropology at the University of Cape Town argues that 'diverse epistemologies ought to be evaluated not on their capacity to express a strict realism but on their ability to advance understanding'. In order to examine the implications of Green's arguments, and of Nelson Goodman and Catherine Elgin's work in this regard, I apply them to a well-known controversy between Native American (or First Nations) creationism and archaeology. I argue that issues in social justice should be distinguished from issues in epistemology. Moreover, in tightening in this paper the link between knowledge and truth, I attempt to defend science as a 'privileged way of seeing the world'. The analysis of truth, and of related concepts like reality and 'the way the world is', will assume a central role here. I contend that, ultimately, the only coherent and consistent position is a realist view of the pertinent issues and ideas. PMID:20091357

  3. 'Diverse epistemologies', truth and archaeology: in defence of realism.

    PubMed

    Horsthemke, Kai

    2011-06-01

    In a recent journal article, as well as in a recent book chapter, in which she critiques my position on 'indigenous knowledge', Lesley Green of the Department of Social Anthropology at the University of Cape Town argues that 'diverse epistemologies ought to be evaluated not on their capacity to express a strict realism but on their ability to advance understanding'. In order to examine the implications of Green's arguments, and of Nelson Goodman and Catherine Elgin's work in this regard, I apply them to a well-known controversy between Native American (or First Nations) creationism and archaeology. I argue that issues in social justice should be distinguished from issues in epistemology. Moreover, in tightening in this paper the link between knowledge and truth, I attempt to defend science as a 'privileged way of seeing the world'. The analysis of truth, and of related concepts like reality and 'the way the world is', will assume a central role here. I contend that, ultimately, the only coherent and consistent position is a realist view of the pertinent issues and ideas.

  4. The seventh servant: the implications of a truth drive in Bion's theory of 'O'.

    PubMed

    Grotstein, James S

    2004-10-01

    Drawing upon Bion's published works on the subjects of truth, dreaming, alpha-function and transformations in 'O', the author independently postulates that there exists a 'truth instinctual drive' that subserves a truth principle, the latter of which is associated with the reality principle. Further, he suggests, following Bion's postulation, that 'alpha-function' and dreaming/phantasying constitute unconscious thinking processes and that they mediate the activity of this 'truth drive' (quest, pulsion), which the author hypothesizes constitutes another aspect of a larger entity that also includes the epistemophilic component drive. It purportedly seeks and transmits as well as includes what Bion (1965, pp. 147-9) calls 'O', the 'Absolute Truth, Ultimate Reality, O' (also associated with infinity, noumena or things-in-themselves, and 'godhead') (1970, p. 26). It is further hypothesized that the truth drive functions in collaboration with an 'unconscious consciousness' that is associated with the faculty of 'attention', which is also known as 'intuition'. It is responsive to internal psychical reality and constitutes Bion's 'seventh servant'. O, the ultimate landscape of psychoanalysis, has many dimensions, but the one that seems to interest Bion is that of the emotional experience of the analysand's and the analyst's 'evolving O' respectively (1970, p. 52) during the analytic session. The author thus hypothesizes that a sense of truth presents itself to the subject as a quest for truth which has the quality and force of an instinctual drive and constitutes the counterpart to the epistemophilic drive. This 'truth quest' or 'drive' is hypothesized to be the source of the generation of the emotional truth of one's ongoing experiences, both conscious and unconscious. It is proposed that emotions are beacons of truth in regard to the acceptance of reality. The concepts of an emotional truth drive and a truth principle would help us understand why analysands are able to

  5. Accurate shear measurement with faint sources

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun; Foucaud, Sebastien; Luo, Wentao E-mail: walt@shao.ac.cn

    2015-01-01

    For cosmic shear to become an accurate cosmological probe, systematic errors in the shear measurement method must be unambiguously identified and corrected for. Previous work of this series has demonstrated that cosmic shears can be measured accurately in Fourier space in the presence of background noise and finite pixel size, without assumptions on the morphologies of galaxy and PSF. The remaining major source of error is source Poisson noise, due to the finiteness of source photon number. This problem is particularly important for faint galaxies in space-based weak lensing measurements, and for ground-based images of short exposure times. In this work, we propose a simple and rigorous way of removing the shear bias from the source Poisson noise. Our noise treatment can be generalized for images made of multiple exposures through MultiDrizzle. This is demonstrated with the SDSS and COSMOS/ACS data. With a large ensemble of mock galaxy images of unrestricted morphologies, we show that our shear measurement method can achieve sub-percent level accuracy even for images of signal-to-noise ratio less than 5 in general, making it the most promising technique for cosmic shear measurement in the ongoing and upcoming large scale galaxy surveys.

  6. DCP-collected absolute target reflectance signatures assist accurate interpretation of ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, F. P.

    1973-01-01

    Data collection platforms (DCP's) are being used at a Black Hills, South Dakota, test site (MMC 226A) to record radiometric measurements needed to determine solar and atmospheric parameters that affect ERTS-1 multispectral scanner radiance measurements. A total of 72 channels of analog data transmitted from an unattended ground truth site via three DCP's at least six times a day. The system has operated with only minor problems since September, sending forth daily measurements of biophysical responses and atmospheric conditions. Comparisons of scene radiance data calculated from ERTS images with that measured on the ground show the image-measured values to be 35 percent higher for the green channel and 20 percent higher for the red channel for the same scene targets. Radiance values for channels 6 and 7 are nearly the same from the ground data and from the imagery.

  7. AIRSAR observations of the Gulf Stream with interpretation from sea truth and modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valenzuela, G. R.; Chubb, S. R.; Marmorino, G. O.; Trump, C. L.; Lee, J. S.; Cooper, A. L.; Askari, F.; Keller, W. C.; Kaiser, J. A. C.; Mied, R. P.

    1991-01-01

    On 20 Jul., JPL/DC-8 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) participated in the 17-21 Jul. 1990 NRL Gulf Stream (GS) experiment in preparation for SIR-C missions in 1993, 1994, and 1996 for calibration purposes and to check modes and techniques for operation at our experimental site off the east coast of the US. During this experiment, coordinated and near simultaneous measurements were performed from ship (R/V Cape Henlopen) and other aircraft (NADC/P-3 and NRL/P-3) to address scientific questions relating to the origin of 'slick-like' features observed by Scully-Power, the refraction and modulation of waves by variable currents, the effect of current and thermal fronts on radar imagery signatures and the modification of Kelvin ship wakes by fronts. The JPL/DC-8 and NADC/P-3 SAR's are fully polarimetric systems. Their composite frequency range varies between P- and X-band. We describe in detail the Airborne SAR (AIRSAR) participation in the Jul. 1990 GS experiment and present preliminary results of the ongoing analysis and interpretation of the radar imagery in the context of ground truth, other remote measurements, and modeling efforts.

  8. When deception becomes easy: the effects of task switching and goal neglect on the truth proportion effect

    PubMed Central

    Van Bockstaele, Bram; Wilhelm, Christine; Meijer, Ewout; Debey, Evelyne; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Lying is typically more cognitively demanding than truth telling. Yet, recent cognitive models of lying propose that lying can be just as easy as truth telling, depending on contextual factors. In line with this idea, research has shown that the cognitive cost of deception decreases when people frequently respond deceptively, while it increases when people rarely respond deceptively (i.e., the truth proportion effect). In the present study, we investigated two possible underlying mechanisms of the truth proportion effect. In Experiment 1 (N = 121), we controlled for the impact of switch costs by keeping the number of switches between deceptive and truthful responses constant. We found that people who often responded deceptively made fewer errors when responding deceptively than people who only occasionally responded deceptively, replicating the truth proportion effect. Thus, while the truth proportion effect in earlier studies may be partially driven by the cost of switching between truthful and deceptive responses, we still found evidence for the truth proportion effect while controlling for switch costs. In Experiment 2 (N = 68), we assessed whether the truth proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect. According to this view, the truth proportion effect should be reduced if participants are cued to maintain the task goals, while it should be larger when participants are allowed to neglect the task goals. In line with this hypothesis, we found a smaller truth proportion effect when participants were cued with the task goals compared to when they were not cued. This study shows that the truth proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect, implying that frequent deceptive responding strengthens the goal of responding deceptively. Our findings imply that the accuracy of lie detection tests could be increased by using a majority of truth-items (i.e., induce the truth proportion effect), and that the truth proportion effect should be maximized by (1) increasing

  9. When deception becomes easy: the effects of task switching and goal neglect on the truth proportion effect.

    PubMed

    Van Bockstaele, Bram; Wilhelm, Christine; Meijer, Ewout; Debey, Evelyne; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Lying is typically more cognitively demanding than truth telling. Yet, recent cognitive models of lying propose that lying can be just as easy as truth telling, depending on contextual factors. In line with this idea, research has shown that the cognitive cost of deception decreases when people frequently respond deceptively, while it increases when people rarely respond deceptively (i.e., the truth proportion effect). In the present study, we investigated two possible underlying mechanisms of the truth proportion effect. In Experiment 1 (N = 121), we controlled for the impact of switch costs by keeping the number of switches between deceptive and truthful responses constant. We found that people who often responded deceptively made fewer errors when responding deceptively than people who only occasionally responded deceptively, replicating the truth proportion effect. Thus, while the truth proportion effect in earlier studies may be partially driven by the cost of switching between truthful and deceptive responses, we still found evidence for the truth proportion effect while controlling for switch costs. In Experiment 2 (N = 68), we assessed whether the truth proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect. According to this view, the truth proportion effect should be reduced if participants are cued to maintain the task goals, while it should be larger when participants are allowed to neglect the task goals. In line with this hypothesis, we found a smaller truth proportion effect when participants were cued with the task goals compared to when they were not cued. This study shows that the truth proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect, implying that frequent deceptive responding strengthens the goal of responding deceptively. Our findings imply that the accuracy of lie detection tests could be increased by using a majority of truth-items (i.e., induce the truth proportion effect), and that the truth proportion effect should be maximized by (1) increasing

  10. When deception becomes easy: the effects of task switching and goal neglect on the truth proportion effect.

    PubMed

    Van Bockstaele, Bram; Wilhelm, Christine; Meijer, Ewout; Debey, Evelyne; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Lying is typically more cognitively demanding than truth telling. Yet, recent cognitive models of lying propose that lying can be just as easy as truth telling, depending on contextual factors. In line with this idea, research has shown that the cognitive cost of deception decreases when people frequently respond deceptively, while it increases when people rarely respond deceptively (i.e., the truth proportion effect). In the present study, we investigated two possible underlying mechanisms of the truth proportion effect. In Experiment 1 (N = 121), we controlled for the impact of switch costs by keeping the number of switches between deceptive and truthful responses constant. We found that people who often responded deceptively made fewer errors when responding deceptively than people who only occasionally responded deceptively, replicating the truth proportion effect. Thus, while the truth proportion effect in earlier studies may be partially driven by the cost of switching between truthful and deceptive responses, we still found evidence for the truth proportion effect while controlling for switch costs. In Experiment 2 (N = 68), we assessed whether the truth proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect. According to this view, the truth proportion effect should be reduced if participants are cued to maintain the task goals, while it should be larger when participants are allowed to neglect the task goals. In line with this hypothesis, we found a smaller truth proportion effect when participants were cued with the task goals compared to when they were not cued. This study shows that the truth proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect, implying that frequent deceptive responding strengthens the goal of responding deceptively. Our findings imply that the accuracy of lie detection tests could be increased by using a majority of truth-items (i.e., induce the truth proportion effect), and that the truth proportion effect should be maximized by (1) increasing

  11. Hirsch Index and Truth Survival in Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Poynard, Thierry; Thabut, Dominique; Munteanu, Mona; Ratziu, Vlad; Benhamou, Yves; Deckmyn, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Background Factors associated with the survival of truth of clinical conclusions in the medical literature are unknown. We hypothesized that publications with a first author having a higher Hirsch' index value (h-I), which quantifies and predicts an individual's scientific research output, should have a longer half-life. Methods and Results 474 original articles concerning cirrhosis or hepatitis published from 1945 to 1999 were selected. The survivals of the main conclusions were updated in 2009. The truth survival was assessed by time-dependent methods (Kaplan Meier method and Cox). A conclusion was considered to be true, obsolete or false when three or more observers out of the six stated it to be so. 284 out of 474 conclusions (60%) were still considered true, 90 (19%) were considered obsolete and 100 (21%) false. The median of the h-I was = 24 (range 1–85). Authors with true conclusions had significantly higher h-I (median = 28) than those with obsolete (h-I = 19; P = 0.002) or false conclusions (h-I = 19; P = 0.01). The factors associated (P<0.0001) with h-I were: scientific life (h-I = 33 for>30 years vs. 16 for<30 years), -methodological quality score (h-I = 36 for high vs. 20 for low scores), and -positive predictive value combining power, ratio of true to not-true relationships and bias (h-I = 33 for high vs. 20 for low values). In multivariate analysis, the risk ratio of h-I was 1.003 (95%CI, 0.994–1.011), and was not significant (P = 0.56). In a subgroup restricted to 111 articles with a negative conclusion, we observed a significant independent prognostic value of h-I (risk ratio = 1.033; 95%CI, 1.008–1.059; P = 0.009). Using an extrapolation of h-I at the time of article publication there was a significant and independent prognostic value of baseline h-I (risk ratio = 0.027; P = 0.0001). Conclusions The present study failed to clearly demonstrate that the h-index of authors was a prognostic

  12. Truth: Humanities Unit (Middle and Secondary Grade Levels). Programs for Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Barbara; Kolman, Peter

    One in a series of instructional units designed for gifted students, this booklet describes a humanities unit for students in middle and secondary grades. The specific focus of the unit is on truth as it is perceived and expressed in philosophy, literature, art, music, drama, and the social sciences. The study of truth and its surrounding concepts…

  13. Influence of a Counteradvertising Media Campaign on Initiation of Smoking: The Florida "Truth" Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sly, David F.; Hopkins, Richard S.; Trapido, Edward; Ray, Sarah

    2001-01-01

    Assessed the short-term effects of a television counteradvertising media campaign, the Florida "truth" campaign, on rates of adolescents' smoking initiation. Followup surveys of adolescents interviewed during the first 6 months of the advertising campaign indicated that exposure to the "truth" campaign lowered the risk of youth smoking initiation.…

  14. Cross-Cultural Differences in Children's Choices, Categorizations, and Evaluations of Truths and Lies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Genyue; Xu, Fen; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Leyman, Gail; Lee, Kang

    2007-01-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in children's moral understanding of individual- or collective-oriented lies and truths. Seven-, 9-, and 11-year-old Canadian and Chinese children were read stories about story characters facing moral dilemmas about whether to lie or tell the truth to help a group but harm an…

  15. Knowledge, Narrative and National Reconciliation: Storied Reflections on the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie; Unterhalter, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the educational work that narrative does. Against the context of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission that examined the crimes of apartheid, it discusses the narrative implications of South African poet Antjie Krog's multi-layered text of Truth Commission testimony, and autobiographical and philosophical…

  16. Judging Transitional Justice: A New Criterion for Evaluating Truth Revelation Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski, Marek M.; Nalepa, Monika

    2006-01-01

    Truth revelation procedures are evaluated according to various normative criteria. The authors find the concepts of false conviction and false acquittal more adequate for such evaluation than the conformity with the rule of law and apply a useful classification of truth revelation procedures into incentive-based (ITRs) and evidence-based ones…

  17. Critical Inquiry as Virtuous Truth-Telling: Implications of Phronesis and Parrhesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickup, Austin

    2016-01-01

    This article examines critical inquiry and truth-telling from the perspective of two complementary theoretical frameworks. First, Aristotelian phronesis, or practical wisdom, offers a framework for truth that is oriented toward ethical deliberation while recognizing the contingency of practical application. Second, Foucauldian parrhesia calls for…

  18. Children's and Adults' Conceptualization and Evaluation of Lying and Truth-Telling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Fen; Luo, Yang C.; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined children's and adults' categorization and moral judgment of truthful and untruthful statements. 7-, 9- and 11-year-old Chinese children and college students read stories in which story characters made truthful or untruthful statements and were asked to classify and evaluate the statements. The statements varied in terms…

  19. Cross-Cultural Differences in Children’s Choices, Categorizations, and Evaluations of Truths and Lies

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Genyue; Xu, Fen; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Heyman, Gail; Lee, Kang

    2008-01-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in children’s moral understanding of individual- or collective-oriented lies and truths. Seven-, 9-, and 11-year-old Canadian and Chinese children were read stories about story characters facing moral dilemmas about whether to lie or tell the truth to help a group but harm an individual or vice versa. Participants chose to lie or to tell the truth as if they were the character (Experiments 1 and 2) and categorized and evaluated the story characters’ truthful and untruthful statements (Experiments 3 and 4). Most children in both cultures labeled lies as lies and truths as truths. The major cultural differences lay in choices and moral evaluations. Chinese children chose lying to help a collective but harm an individual, and they rated it less negatively than lying with opposite consequences. Chinese children rated truth telling to help an individual but harm a group less positively than the alternative. Canadian children did the opposite. These findings suggest that cross-cultural differences in emphasis on groups versus individuals affect children’s choices and moral judgments about truth and deception. PMID:17352539

  20. Trust in Education: Truths and Values. Discourse, Power, Resistance. Volume 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterthwaite, Jerome, Ed.; Piper, Heather, Ed.; Sikes, Pat, Ed.; Webster, Simon, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    We need to trust people and institutions, values and truths. But where should we turn to find which are trustworthy? Does trusting make us vulnerable to abuse? Is it safe for learners - the children, young people and adults in the world of contemporary education - to trust their teachers to care, and to tell them the truth? and can teachers trust…

  1. Children's Categorization and Evaluation of Different Types of Lies and Truths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussey, Kay

    1999-01-01

    Investigated 4-, 8-, and 11-year-olds' ability to categorize intentionally false and true statements as lies and truths. Found that older children were more likely to categorize false statements as lies and true statements as truths than were 4-year-olds. Antisocial lies were rated as most serious, and "white lies" as least serious. Anticipated…

  2. 14 CFR 330.33 - Must carriers certify the truth and accuracy of data they submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Must carriers certify the truth and accuracy of data they submit? 330.33 Section 330.33 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... CARRIERS Application Procedures § 330.33 Must carriers certify the truth and accuracy of data they...

  3. 12 CFR 303.248 - Truth in Lending Act-Relief from reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Act (15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.) and Regulation Z (12 CFR part 226). Related delegations of authority are... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Truth in Lending Act-Relief from reimbursement... PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.248 Truth in Lending Act—Relief from reimbursement....

  4. 78 FR 79286 - Truth in Lending (Regulation Z): Adjustment to Asset-Size Exemption Threshold

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... establish. In the 2013 Escrows Final Rule, 78 FR 4726 (January 22, 2013), the Bureau established such an... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 Truth in Lending (Regulation Z): Adjustment to Asset-Size Exemption Threshold... (Truth in Lending) to reflect a change in the asset size threshold for certain creditors to qualify...

  5. 12 CFR 303.248 - Truth in Lending Act-Relief from reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Act (15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.) and Regulation Z (12 CFR part 226). Related delegations of authority are... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Truth in Lending Act-Relief from reimbursement... PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.248 Truth in Lending Act—Relief from reimbursement....

  6. 14 CFR 330.33 - Must carriers certify the truth and accuracy of data they submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Must carriers certify the truth and accuracy of data they submit? 330.33 Section 330.33 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... CARRIERS Application Procedures § 330.33 Must carriers certify the truth and accuracy of data they...

  7. Lying and Truth-Telling in Children: From Concept to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Fen; Bao, Xuehua; Fu, Genyue; Talwar, Victoria; Lee, Kang

    2010-01-01

    Although there has been extensive research on children's moral knowledge about lying and truth-telling and their actual lie- or truth-telling behaviors, research to examine the relation between these two is extremely rare. This study examined one hundred and twenty 7-, 9-, and 11-year-olds' moral understanding of lies and their actual lying…

  8. Overcoming Relativism and Absolutism: Dewey's Ideals of Truth and Meaning in Philosophy for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleazby, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Different notions of truth imply and encourage different ideals of thinking, knowledge, meaning, and learning. Thus, these concepts have fundamental importance for educational theory and practice. In this paper, I intend to draw out and clarify the notions of truth, knowledge and meaning that are implied by P4C's pedagogical ideals. There is some…

  9. Science, Spirituality and Truth: Acknowledging Difference for Spiritual Dialogue and Human Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to explain why spiritual education must be clear about the nature of spiritual knowledge and truth and how it differs from the knowledge and truth generated by science. The author argues this is important in order that spirituality and science are equally valued, and in order that spiritual pedagogy appropriately reflects the…

  10. On the Notion of Truth in Quantum Mechanics: a Category-Theoretic Standpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakostas, Vassilios; Zafiris, Elias

    The category-theoretic representation of quantum event structures provides a canonical setting for confronting the fundamental problem of truth valuation in quantum mechanics as exemplified, in particular, by Kochen-Specker's theorem. In the present study, this is realized on the basis of the existence of a categorical adjunction between the category of sheaves of variable local Boolean frames, constituting a topos, and the category of quantum event algebras. We show explicitly that the latter category is equipped with an object of truth values, or classifying object, which constitutes the appropriate tool for assigning truth values to propositions describing the behavior of quantum systems. Effectively, this category-theoretic representation scheme circumvents consistently the semantic ambiguity with respect to truth valuation that is inherent in conventional quantum mechanics by inducing an objective contextual account of truth in the quantum domain of discourse. The philosophical implications of the resulting account are analyzed. We argue that it subscribes neither to a pragmatic instrumental nor to a relative notion of truth. Such an account essentially denies that there can be a universal context of reference or an Archimedean standpoint from which to evaluate logically the totality of facts of nature. In this light, the transcendence condition of the usual conception of correspondence truth is superseded by a reflective-like transcendental reasoning of the proposed account of truth that is suitable to the quantum domain of discourse.

  11. Grounding the Argument-Based Framework for Validating Score Interpretations and Uses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oller, John W., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Kane's argument-based framework is summarized and examined. He implicitly appeals to the backgrounded concepts of fairness and justice. From there it is a short distance to grounding the whole system in the mundane notion of truth. In fact, valid argument systems must depend on representations that are "true" by virtue of agreement with purported…

  12. Ground Facility for Vicarious Calibration of Skyborne Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruegge, Carol; Jackson, Shannon; Helmlinger, Mark

    2008-01-01

    An automated ground facility, for vicarious radiometric calibration of airborne and spaceborne sensors of visible and infrared light has been established. In the term "vicarious calibration," "vicarious" is used in the sense of "in place of another," signifying "in place of laboratory calibration." Vicarious calibration involves the use of ground truth in the form of measurements by ground-viewing radiometers, a Sun-viewing photometer, and meteorological instruments positioned in a ground target area. The instrumentation at the facility includes a light-emitting-diode spectrometer (LSpec), which consists of eight tripod-mounted, ground-viewing radiometer units containing LEDs biased to operate as photodetectors (instead of light emitters) at their respective wavelengths. The LSpec provides an essentially continuous stream of measurements at eight discrete wavelengths. These are merged with spectral surface-reflectance measurements made on occasional site visits to obtain temporally continuous coverage with high spectral resolution.

  13. Monitoring recharge in areas of seasonally frozen ground in the Columbia Plateau and Snake River Plain, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Mark; Josberger, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Seasonally frozen ground occurs over approximately one‑third of the contiguous United States, causing increased winter runoff. Frozen ground generally rejects potential groundwater recharge. Nearly all recharge from precipitation in semi-arid regions such as the Columbia Plateau and the Snake River Plain in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, occurs between October and March, when precipitation is most abundant and seasonally frozen ground is commonplace. The temporal and spatial distribution of frozen ground is expected to change as the climate warms. It is difficult to predict the distribution of frozen ground, however, because of the complex ways ground freezes and the way that snow cover thermally insulates soil, by keeping it frozen longer than it would be if it was not snow covered or, more commonly, keeping the soil thawed during freezing weather. A combination of satellite remote sensing and ground truth measurements was used with some success to investigate seasonally frozen ground at local to regional scales. The frozen-ground/snow-cover algorithm from the National Snow and Ice Data Center, combined with the 21-year record of passive microwave observations from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager onboard a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellite, provided a unique time series of frozen ground. Periodically repeating this methodology and analyzing for trends can be a means to monitor possible regional changes to frozen ground that could occur with a warming climate. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System watershed model constructed for the upper Crab Creek Basin in the Columbia Plateau and Reynolds Creek basin on the eastern side of the Snake River Plain simulated recharge and frozen ground for several future climate scenarios. Frozen ground was simulated with the Continuous Frozen Ground Index, which is influenced by air temperature and snow cover. Model simulation results showed a decreased occurrence of frozen ground that coincided with

  14. Experience of Events of Truth in Hermeneutic Conversation With Text: Ethics and Ontology.

    PubMed

    Foss, Berit; Nåden, Dagfinn; Eriksson, Katie

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore what the experience of events of truth can entail in hermeneutic dialogue with text as well as the significance this can have for hermeneutic methodology in caring science. Experience of events of truth is discussed based on Hans-Georg Gadamer's ontological perspective and on Emmanuel Levinas's ethical perspective. A veritable experience of an event of truth is a testimony to the responsibility we take for the Other and to our humanity. Experience of events of truth requires that there is a connection of esteem between ethics and ontology in the reader's understanding of what Hans-Georg Gadamer calls the subject matter (Sache). The experience of events of truth has methodological significance for caring science in that it can contribute to the disclosure of ontological evidence and inform caregiving and caring science.

  15. Experience of Events of Truth in Hermeneutic Conversation With Text: Ethics and Ontology.

    PubMed

    Foss, Berit; Nåden, Dagfinn; Eriksson, Katie

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore what the experience of events of truth can entail in hermeneutic dialogue with text as well as the significance this can have for hermeneutic methodology in caring science. Experience of events of truth is discussed based on Hans-Georg Gadamer's ontological perspective and on Emmanuel Levinas's ethical perspective. A veritable experience of an event of truth is a testimony to the responsibility we take for the Other and to our humanity. Experience of events of truth requires that there is a connection of esteem between ethics and ontology in the reader's understanding of what Hans-Georg Gadamer calls the subject matter (Sache). The experience of events of truth has methodological significance for caring science in that it can contribute to the disclosure of ontological evidence and inform caregiving and caring science. PMID:27641279

  16. [The truth and present uncertainty about mad cow disease].

    PubMed

    Suárez Fernández, G

    2001-01-01

    A historical review is made about Spongiform Encephalopathies which affect both animals and man. This is the base for an epidemiological and predictive analysis of these type of diseases, especially Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) as a present health problem. The scientific certainties or truths, such as the prion theory (PrPc-PrPsc), the low natural infectivity of these group of diseases, the high dose of prions necessary to produce the experimental disease, the species barrier or specificity, the individual susceptibility due to genetic traits, and the low transmission efficiency by the oral route, compared to the parenteral route, agree with the epidemiological observations of human cases of the variant of the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), which is 0.1 cases per million inhabitants and year. The present and future prediction of BSE should not be alarmist, taking into account the certainties that we know. PMID:11455757

  17. [The truth and present uncertainty about mad cow disease].

    PubMed

    Suárez Fernández, G

    2001-01-01

    A historical review is made about Spongiform Encephalopathies which affect both animals and man. This is the base for an epidemiological and predictive analysis of these type of diseases, especially Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) as a present health problem. The scientific certainties or truths, such as the prion theory (PrPc-PrPsc), the low natural infectivity of these group of diseases, the high dose of prions necessary to produce the experimental disease, the species barrier or specificity, the individual susceptibility due to genetic traits, and the low transmission efficiency by the oral route, compared to the parenteral route, agree with the epidemiological observations of human cases of the variant of the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), which is 0.1 cases per million inhabitants and year. The present and future prediction of BSE should not be alarmist, taking into account the certainties that we know.

  18. Facing the Truth about Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kinam

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology in drug delivery has been manifested into nanoparticles that can have unique properties both in vitro and in vivo, especially in targeted drug delivery to tumors. Numerous nanoparticle formulations have been designed and tested to great effect in small animal models, but the translation of the small animal results to clinical success has been limited. Successful translation requires revisiting the meaning of nanotechnology in drug delivery, understanding the limitations of nanoparticles, identifying the misconceptions pervasive in the field, and facing inconvenient truths. Nanoparticle approaches can have real impact in improving drug delivery by focusing on the problems at hand, such as enhancing their drug loading capacity, affinity to target cells, and spatiotemporal control of drug release. PMID:24490875

  19. Facing the truth about nanotechnology in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Park, Kinam

    2013-09-24

    Nanotechnology in drug delivery has been manifested into nanoparticles that can have unique properties both in vitro and in vivo, especially in targeted drug delivery to tumors. Numerous nanoparticle formulations have been designed and tested to great effect in small animal models, but the translation of the small animal results to clinical success has been limited. Successful translation requires revisiting the meaning of nanotechnology in drug delivery, understanding the limitations of nanoparticles, identifying the misconceptions pervasive in the field, and facing inconvenient truths. Nanoparticle approaches can have real impact in improving drug delivery by focusing on the problems at hand, such as enhancing their drug loading capacity, affinity to target cells, and spatiotemporal control of drug release. PMID:24490875

  20. Profitable capitation requires accurate costing.

    PubMed

    West, D A; Hicks, L L; Balas, E A; West, T D

    1996-01-01

    In the name of costing accuracy, nurses are asked to track inventory use on per treatment basis when more significant costs, such as general overhead and nursing salaries, are usually allocated to patients or treatments on an average cost basis. Accurate treatment costing and financial viability require analysis of all resources actually consumed in treatment delivery, including nursing services and inventory. More precise costing information enables more profitable decisions as is demonstrated by comparing the ratio-of-cost-to-treatment method (aggregate costing) with alternative activity-based costing methods (ABC). Nurses must participate in this costing process to assure that capitation bids are based upon accurate costs rather than simple averages. PMID:8788799

  1. The Heart Truth Campaign Inspires Women’s Heart Health Action | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feature: February Is Women’s Heart Month The Heart Truth Campaign Inspires Women’s Heart Health Action Past Issues / ... of Contents On February 9, 2011, The Heart Truth unveiled its annual Red Dress Collection 2011 Fashion ...

  2. SU-E-J-23: An Accurate Algorithm to Match Imperfectly Matched Images for Lung Tumor Detection Without Markers

    SciTech Connect

    Rozario, T; Bereg, S; Chiu, T; Liu, H; Kearney, V; Jiang, L; Mao, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In order to locate lung tumors on projection images without internal markers, digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) is created and compared with projection images. Since lung tumors always move and their locations change on projection images while they are static on DRRs, a special DRR (background DRR) is generated based on modified anatomy from which lung tumors are removed. In addition, global discrepancies exist between DRRs and projections due to their different image originations, scattering, and noises. This adversely affects comparison accuracy. A simple but efficient comparison algorithm is reported. Methods: This method divides global images into a matrix of small tiles and similarities will be evaluated by calculating normalized cross correlation (NCC) between corresponding tiles on projections and DRRs. The tile configuration (tile locations) will be automatically optimized to keep the tumor within a single tile which has bad matching with the corresponding DRR tile. A pixel based linear transformation will be determined by linear interpolations of tile transformation results obtained during tile matching. The DRR will be transformed to the projection image level and subtracted from it. The resulting subtracted image now contains only the tumor. A DRR of the tumor is registered to the subtracted image to locate the tumor. Results: This method has been successfully applied to kV fluoro images (about 1000 images) acquired on a Vero (Brainlab) for dynamic tumor tracking on phantom studies. Radiation opaque markers are implanted and used as ground truth for tumor positions. Although, other organs and bony structures introduce strong signals superimposed on tumors at some angles, this method accurately locates tumors on every projection over 12 gantry angles. The maximum error is less than 2.6 mm while the total average error is 1.0 mm. Conclusion: This algorithm is capable of detecting tumor without markers despite strong background signals.

  3. Atmosphere-Truth Z-R Rainfall Estimates: A Fresh Approach to an Old Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henz, J. F.

    2010-12-01

    Common modeling practice for basin calibration uses rainfall fields developed by the statistical use of surface rain gauge observed data or the direct application of NEXRAD National Weather Service WSR-88D Doppler radar Storm Total Rainfall or 1-hr rainfall estimations. Each of these approaches has significant limitations. Rain gages often lack sufficient spatial coverage to measure true storm intensity or the distribution of rainfall in a basin. The NWS WSR-88D Doppler radar algorithms are constantly being improved but still fail to deliver consistent rainfall estimates. Significant problems are caused by an under-estimation of warm coalescence rains and an over-estimation of rainfall in both dry environments and storms with hail contamination. Finally, storm updraft areas are frequently counted as raining portions of the storm producing immediate errors. The statistical techniques often under-estimate rainfall when the heavy rain core of the storm misses the rain gauges or if high winds cause an under-catchment of rainfall. Gauge-adjusted rainfall estimates are also dependant on the core of the storm being observed by a gauge. Statistical approaches often under-estimate rainfall producing insufficient runoff to drive the observed flooding runoffs. The Atmosphere-Truth ZR (ATZR) technique uses an atmosphere-truthed algorithm to produce highly accurate estimates of surface rainfall from Doppler radar data. This approach relies on using a cloud physics approach to determine the atmosphere’s ability to produce 15-min to hourly rain rates. The atmsopheric rainfall is utilizes surface, boundary layer and cloud layer observations of temperature and moisture from conventional National Weather Service observations. The depth of the thunderstorm updraft region that exceeds 0C is used with the precipitable water index and updraft speeds to provide estimates of 15-min to hourly rainfall rates from radar reflectivity areas in the storm greather than 50 dBZ. Rainfall rates

  4. To tell the truth, the whole truth, may do patients harm: the problem of the nocebo effect for informed consent.

    PubMed

    Wells, Rebecca Erwin; Kaptchuk, Ted J

    2012-01-01

    The principle of informed consent obligates physicians to explain possible side effects when prescribing medications. This disclosure may itself induce adverse effects through expectancy mechanisms known as nocebo effects, contradicting the principle of nonmaleficence. Rigorous research suggests that providing patients with a detailed enumeration of every possible adverse event-especially subjective self-appraised symptoms-can actually increase side effects. Describing one version of what might happen (clinical "facts") may actually create outcomes that are different from what would have happened without this information (another version of "facts"). This essay argues that the perceived tension between balancing informed consent with nonmaleficence might be resolved by recognizing that adverse effects have no clear black or white "truth." This essay suggests a pragmatic approach for providers to minimize nocebo responses while still maintaining patient autonomy through "contextualized informed consent," which takes into account possible side effects, the patient being treated, and the particular diagnosis involved.

  5. 77 FR 54844 - High-Cost Mortgage and Homeownership Counseling Amendments to the Truth in Lending Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z) and Homeownership Counseling Amendments to the Real Estate... requesting comment on, among other things, proposed changes to Regulation Z (Truth in Lending) to implement amendments to the Truth in Lending Act made by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection...

  6. Accurate documentation and wound measurement.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Sylvie

    This article, part 4 in a series on wound management, addresses the sometimes routine yet crucial task of documentation. Clear and accurate records of a wound enable its progress to be determined so the appropriate treatment can be applied. Thorough records mean any practitioner picking up a patient's notes will know when the wound was last checked, how it looked and what dressing and/or treatment was applied, ensuring continuity of care. Documenting every assessment also has legal implications, demonstrating due consideration and care of the patient and the rationale for any treatment carried out. Part 5 in the series discusses wound dressing characteristics and selection.

  7. An accurate algorithm to match imperfectly matched images for lung tumor detection without markers.

    PubMed

    Rozario, Timothy; Bereg, Sergey; Yan, Yulong; Chiu, Tsuicheng; Liu, Honghuan; Kearney, Vasant; Jiang, Lan; Mao, Weihua

    2015-05-08

    implanted and used as ground truth for tumor positions. Although other organs and bony structures introduced strong signals superimposed on tumors at some angles, this method accurately located tumors on every projection over 12 gantry angles. The maximum error was less than 2.2 mm, while the total average error was less than 0.9mm. This algorithm was capable of detecting tumors without markers, despite strong background signals.

  8. Accurate Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddalena, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    The NRAO Green Bank Telescope routinely observes at wavelengths from 3 mm to 1 m. As with all mm-wave telescopes, observing conditions depend upon the variable atmospheric water content. The site provides over 100 days/yr when opacities are low enough for good observing at 3 mm, but winds on the open-air structure reduce the time suitable for 3-mm observing where pointing is critical. Thus, to maximum productivity the observing wavelength needs to match weather conditions. For 6 years the telescope has used a dynamic scheduling system (recently upgraded; www.gb.nrao.edu/DSS) that requires accurate multi-day forecasts for winds and opacities. Since opacity forecasts are not provided by the National Weather Services (NWS), I have developed an automated system that takes available forecasts, derives forecasted opacities, and deploys the results on the web in user-friendly graphical overviews (www.gb.nrao.edu/ rmaddale/Weather). The system relies on the "North American Mesoscale" models, which are updated by the NWS every 6 hrs, have a 12 km horizontal resolution, 1 hr temporal resolution, run to 84 hrs, and have 60 vertical layers that extend to 20 km. Each forecast consists of a time series of ground conditions, cloud coverage, etc, and, most importantly, temperature, pressure, humidity as a function of height. I use the Liebe's MWP model (Radio Science, 20, 1069, 1985) to determine the absorption in each layer for each hour for 30 observing wavelengths. Radiative transfer provides, for each hour and wavelength, the total opacity and the radio brightness of the atmosphere, which contributes substantially at some wavelengths to Tsys and the observational noise. Comparisons of measured and forecasted Tsys at 22.2 and 44 GHz imply that the forecasted opacities are good to about 0.01 Nepers, which is sufficient for forecasting and accurate calibration. Reliability is high out to 2 days and degrades slowly for longer-range forecasts.

  9. Radiometrically accurate thermal imaging in the Landsat program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lansing, Jack C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Methods of calibrating Landsat TM thermal IR data have been developed so that the residual error is reduced to 0.9 K (1 standard deviation). Methods for verifying the radiometric performance of TM on orbit and ground calibration methods are discussed. The preliminary design of the enhanced TM for Landsat-6 is considered. A technique for accurately reducing raw data from the Landsat-5 thermal band is described in detail.

  10. The living experience of difficulty telling the truth: a parse method study.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the living experience of difficulty telling the truth. Parse's research method was used to answer the question: What is the structure of the living experience of difficulty telling the truth? The participants were 9 nurses and 1 physician. The central finding of the study is the structure: difficulty telling the truth is uncomfortable dialogues with knowing silences arise with anguishing deliberations anticipating potential adversity, while contemplating intentional withholding gives rise to calm acquiescence. The findings are discussed in relation to the humanbecoming school of thought and extant literature.

  11. Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1986-01-01

    Some water underlies the Earth's surface almost everywhere, beneath hills, mountains,plains, and deserts. It's not always accessible, or fresh enough for use without treatment, and it's sometimes difficult to locate or to measure and descri be. This water may occur close to the land surface, as in a marsh, or it may lie many hundreds of feet below the surface, as in some arid areas of the West. Water at very shallow depths might be just a few hours old ; at moderate depth, it may be 100 years old; and at great depth or after having flowed long distances from places of entry, water may be several thousands of years old . Water under the Earth's surface is called ground water.

  12. SPLASH: Accurate OH maser positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Andrew; Gomez, Jose F.; Jones, Paul; Cunningham, Maria; Green, James; Dawson, Joanne; Ellingsen, Simon; Breen, Shari; Imai, Hiroshi; Lowe, Vicki; Jones, Courtney

    2013-10-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) 18 cm lines are powerful and versatile probes of diffuse molecular gas, that may trace a largely unstudied component of the Galactic ISM. SPLASH (the Southern Parkes Large Area Survey in Hydroxyl) is a large, unbiased and fully-sampled survey of OH emission, absorption and masers in the Galactic Plane that will achieve sensitivities an order of magnitude better than previous work. In this proposal, we request ATCA time to follow up OH maser candidates. This will give us accurate (~10") positions of the masers, which can be compared to other maser positions from HOPS, MMB and MALT-45 and will provide full polarisation measurements towards a sample of OH masers that have not been observed in MAGMO.

  13. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, Cameron J.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Stapleton, Andrew J.; Shapter, Joseph G.; Gibson, Christopher T.

    2016-03-01

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

  14. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Stapleton, Andrew J; Shapter, Joseph G; Gibson, Christopher T

    2016-03-29

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

  15. Accurately characterized optical tissue phantoms: how, why and when?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Veilleux, Isra"l.; Noiseux, Isabelle; Mermut, Ozzy

    2011-03-01

    Optical tissue phantoms are very important tools for the development of biomedical imaging applications. Optical phantoms are often used as ground truth against which instruments results can be compared. It is therefore important that the optical properties of reference phantoms be measured in a manner that is traceable to the international system of units. SI traceability insures long term consistency of results and will therefore improve the effectiveness of diffuse optics research effort more effective by reducing unwanted variability in the data produced and shared by the community. The ultimate benefit of rigorous SI traceability is the reduction of variability in the data produced by novel diagnostic devices, which will in turn increase the statistical power of clinical trials aiming at validating their clinical usefulness. SI traceability, and therefore uncertainty analysis, is also relevant to traceability aspects mandated by FDA regulations. SI traceability is achieved through a thorough analysis of the measurement principle and its potential error sources. The uncertainty analysis should be ultimately validated by inter-laboratory comparison until a consensus is attained on the best practices for measuring the optical properties of tissue phantoms.

  16. Ground test of large flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Ben K.

    1987-01-01

    Many future mission models require large space (LSS) which have accurate surfaces and/or the capability of being accurately aligned. If ground test approaches which will provide adequate confidence of the structrual performance to the program managers are not developed, many viable structural concepts may never be utilized. The size and flexibility of many of the structural concepts will preclude the use of the current ground test methods because of the adverse effects of the terrestrial environment. The challenge is to develop new test approaches which will provide confidence in the capability of LSS to meet performance requirements prior to flight. The activities on ground testing of LSS are described. Since some of the proposed structural systems cannot be tested in entirety, a coordinated ground test analytical model program is required to predict structural performance in space. Several concepts of ground testing under development are addressed.

  17. Accurate adiabatic correction in the hydrogen molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek

    2014-12-01

    A new formalism for the accurate treatment of adiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule is presented, in which the electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis functions. Systematic increase in the size of the basis set permits estimation of the accuracy. Numerical results for the adiabatic correction to the Born-Oppenheimer interaction energy reveal a relative precision of 10-12 at an arbitrary internuclear distance. Such calculations have been performed for 88 internuclear distances in the range of 0 < R ⩽ 12 bohrs to construct the adiabatic correction potential and to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Finally, the adiabatic correction to the dissociation energies of all rovibrational levels in H2, HD, HT, D2, DT, and T2 has been determined. For the ground state of H2 the estimated precision is 3 × 10-7 cm-1, which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of the best previous result. The achieved accuracy removes the adiabatic contribution from the overall error budget of the present day theoretical predictions for the rovibrational levels.

  18. Accurate adiabatic correction in the hydrogen molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek

    2014-12-14

    A new formalism for the accurate treatment of adiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule is presented, in which the electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis functions. Systematic increase in the size of the basis set permits estimation of the accuracy. Numerical results for the adiabatic correction to the Born-Oppenheimer interaction energy reveal a relative precision of 10{sup −12} at an arbitrary internuclear distance. Such calculations have been performed for 88 internuclear distances in the range of 0 < R ⩽ 12 bohrs to construct the adiabatic correction potential and to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Finally, the adiabatic correction to the dissociation energies of all rovibrational levels in H{sub 2}, HD, HT, D{sub 2}, DT, and T{sub 2} has been determined. For the ground state of H{sub 2} the estimated precision is 3 × 10{sup −7} cm{sup −1}, which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of the best previous result. The achieved accuracy removes the adiabatic contribution from the overall error budget of the present day theoretical predictions for the rovibrational levels.

  19. Accurate adiabatic correction in the hydrogen molecule.

    PubMed

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek

    2014-12-14

    A new formalism for the accurate treatment of adiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule is presented, in which the electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis functions. Systematic increase in the size of the basis set permits estimation of the accuracy. Numerical results for the adiabatic correction to the Born-Oppenheimer interaction energy reveal a relative precision of 10(-12) at an arbitrary internuclear distance. Such calculations have been performed for 88 internuclear distances in the range of 0 < R ⩽ 12 bohrs to construct the adiabatic correction potential and to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Finally, the adiabatic correction to the dissociation energies of all rovibrational levels in H2, HD, HT, D2, DT, and T2 has been determined. For the ground state of H2 the estimated precision is 3 × 10(-7) cm(-1), which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of the best previous result. The achieved accuracy removes the adiabatic contribution from the overall error budget of the present day theoretical predictions for the rovibrational levels. PMID:25494728

  20. Direct Speaker Gaze Promotes Trust in Truth-Ambiguous Statements.

    PubMed

    Kreysa, Helene; Kessler, Luise; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2016-01-01

    A speaker's gaze behaviour can provide perceivers with a multitude of cues which are relevant for communication, thus constituting an important non-verbal interaction channel. The present study investigated whether direct eye gaze of a speaker affects the likelihood of listeners believing truth-ambiguous statements. Participants were presented with videos in which a speaker produced such statements with either direct or averted gaze. The statements were selected through a rating study to ensure that participants were unlikely to know a-priori whether they were true or not (e.g., "sniffer dogs cannot smell the difference between identical twins"). Participants indicated in a forced-choice task whether or not they believed each statement. We found that participants were more likely to believe statements by a speaker looking at them directly, compared to a speaker with averted gaze. Moreover, when participants disagreed with a statement, they were slower to do so when the statement was uttered with direct (compared to averted) gaze, suggesting that the process of rejecting a statement as untrue may be inhibited when that statement is accompanied by direct gaze. PMID:27643789