Science.gov

Sample records for accurate initial conditions

  1. Initial conditions for accurate N-body simulations of massive neutrino cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zennaro, M.; Bel, J.; Villaescusa-Navarro, F.; Carbone, C.; Sefusatti, E.; Guzzo, L.

    2017-04-01

    The set-up of the initial conditions in cosmological N-body simulations is usually implemented by rescaling the desired low-redshift linear power spectrum to the required starting redshift consistently with the Newtonian evolution of the simulation. The implementation of this practical solution requires more care in the context of massive neutrino cosmologies, mainly because of the non-trivial scale-dependence of the linear growth that characterizes these models. In this work, we consider a simple two-fluid, Newtonian approximation for cold dark matter and massive neutrinos perturbations that can reproduce the cold matter linear evolution predicted by Boltzmann codes such as CAMB or CLASS with a 0.1 per cent accuracy or below for all redshift relevant to non-linear structure formation. We use this description, in the first place, to quantify the systematic errors induced by several approximations often assumed in numerical simulations, including the typical set-up of the initial conditions for massive neutrino cosmologies adopted in previous works. We then take advantage of the flexibility of this approach to rescale the late-time linear power spectra to the simulation initial redshift, in order to be as consistent as possible with the dynamics of the N-body code and the approximations it assumes. We implement our method in a public code (REPS rescaled power spectra for initial conditions with massive neutrinos https://github.com/matteozennaro/reps) providing the initial displacements and velocities for cold dark matter and neutrino particles that will allow accurate, i.e. 1 per cent level, numerical simulations for this cosmological scenario.

  2. Initial conditions and quantum cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartle, James B.

    1987-01-01

    A theory of initial conditions is necessary for a complete explanation of the presently observed large scale structural features of the universe, and a quantum theory of cosmology is probably needed for its formulation. The kinematics of quantum cosmology are reviewed, and some candidates for a law of initial conditions are discussed. The proposal that the quantum state of a closed universe is the natural analog of the ground state for closed cosmologies and is specified by a Euclidean sum over histories is sketched. When implemented in simple models, this proposal is consistent with the most important large-scale observations.

  3. REPS: REscaled Power Spectra for initial conditions with massive neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zennaro, Matteo; Bel, Julien; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Carbone, Carmelita; Sefusatti, Emiliano; Guzzo, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    REPS (REscaled Power Spectra) provides accurate, one-percent level, numerical simulations of the initial conditions for massive neutrino cosmologies, rescaling the late-time linear power spectra to the simulation initial redshift.

  4. Hydrodynamics from Landau initial conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Abhisek; Gerhard, Jochen; Torrieri, Giorgio; Read jr, Kenneth F.; Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2015-01-01

    We investigate ideal hydrodynamic evolution, with Landau initial conditions, both in a semi-analytical 1+1D approach and in a numerical code incorporating event-by-event variation with many events and transverse density inhomogeneities. The object of the calculation is to test how fast would a Landau initial condition transition to a commonly used boost-invariant expansion. We show that the transition to boost-invariant flow occurs too late for realistic setups, with corrections of O (20 - 30%) expected at freezeout for most scenarios. Moreover, the deviation from boost-invariance is correlated with both transverse flow and elliptic flow, with the more highly transversely flowing regions also showing the most violation of boost invariance. Therefore, if longitudinal flow is not fully developed at the early stages of heavy ion collisions, 2+1 dimensional hydrodynamics is inadequate to extract transport coefficients of the quark-gluon plasma. Based on [1, 2

  5. DICE: Disk Initial Conditions Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perret, Valentin

    2016-07-01

    DICE models initial conditions of idealized galaxies to study their secular evolution or their more complex interactions such as mergers or compact groups using N-Body/hydro codes. The code can set up a large number of components modeling distinct parts of the galaxy, and creates 3D distributions of particles using a N-try MCMC algorithm which does not require a prior knowledge of the distribution function. The gravitational potential is then computed on a multi-level Cartesian mesh by solving the Poisson equation in the Fourier space. Finally, the dynamical equilibrium of each component is computed by integrating the Jeans equations for each particles. Several galaxies can be generated in a row and be placed on Keplerian orbits to model interactions. DICE writes the initial conditions in the Gadget1 or Gadget2 (ascl:0003.001) format and is fully compatible with Ramses (ascl:1011.007).

  6. Initial conditions for cosmological perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Gupt, Brajesh

    2017-02-01

    Penrose proposed that the big bang singularity should be constrained by requiring that the Weyl curvature vanishes there. The idea behind this past hypothesis is attractive because it constrains the initial conditions for the universe in geometric terms and is not confined to a specific early universe paradigm. However, the precise statement of Penrose’s hypothesis is tied to classical space-times and furthermore restricts only the gravitational degrees of freedom. These are encapsulated only in the tensor modes of the commonly used cosmological perturbation theory. Drawing inspiration from the underlying idea, we propose a quantum generalization of Penrose’s hypothesis using the Planck regime in place of the big bang, and simultaneously incorporating tensor as well as scalar modes. Initial conditions selected by this generalization constrain the universe to be as homogeneous and isotropic in the Planck regime as permitted by the Heisenberg uncertainty relations.

  7. A Self-Instructional Device for Conditioning Accurate Prosody.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buiten, Roger; Lane, Harlan

    1965-01-01

    A self-instructional device for conditioning accurate prosody in second-language learning is described in this article. The Speech Auto-Instructional Device (SAID) is electro-mechanical and performs three functions: SAID (1) presents to the student tape-recorded pattern sentences that are considered standards in prosodic performance; (2) processes…

  8. Initial conditions and sampling for multifield inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Easther, Richard; Price, Layne C. E-mail: lpri691@aucklanduni.ac.nz

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the initial conditions problem for multifield inflation. In these scenarios the pre-inflationary dynamics can be chaotic, increasing the sensitivity of the onset of inflation to the initial data even in the homogeneous limit. To analyze physically equivalent scenarios we compare initial conditions at fixed energy. This ensures that each trajectory is counted once and only once, since the energy density decreases monotonically. We present a full analysis of hybrid inflation that reveals a greater degree of long range order in the set of ''successful'' initial conditions than was previously apparent. In addition, we explore the effective smoothing scale for the fractal set of successful initial conditions induced by the finite duration of the pre-inflationary phase. The role of the prior information used to specify the initial data is discussed in terms of Bayesian sampling.

  9. Initial conditions for imperfect dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ramazanov, Sabir

    2015-12-01

    We discuss initial conditions for the recently proposed Imperfect Dark Matter (Modified Dust). We show that they are adiabatic under fairly moderate assumptions about the cosmological evolution of the Universe at the relevant times.

  10. Dynamical initial conditions in quantum cosmology.

    PubMed

    Bojowald, M

    2001-09-17

    Loop quantum cosmology is shown to provide both the dynamical law and initial conditions for the wave function of a universe by one discrete evolution equation. Accompanied by the condition that semiclassical behavior is obtained at large volume, a unique wave function is predicted.

  11. Initial conditions for the Galileon dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germani, Cristiano

    2017-03-01

    Galileon models are among the most appealing candidates for Dark Energy. The reason is twofold: classically, they provide a tracking solution leading to an almost DeSitter space starting from very generic initial conditions in the deep radiation era. The second reason is the standard lore that Galileons are quantum mechanically stable. The latter property is certainly true in flat space-time, thanks to the non-renormalisation theorems of Galilean coupling constants. However, in a cosmological background, we show that quantum effects might dominate the classical trajectory. Assuming the radiation era to last at least up to the electroweak phase transition, the trajectory with initial conditions sitting on the tracker is ruled out. On the other hand, it is always possible to find a sub-space of initial conditions such that the dark energy solution approaches stably the tracker at late times. Fixing the value of initial conditions that best fit current data, and assuming that the Galileon effective theory is valid up to the beginning of the radiation epoch, we found that the reheating temperature of the universe cannot be larger than 108 GeV. Reversing the argument, if dark energy will turn out to be in form of Galileons, the bounds by EUCLID on the initial conditions for these models will also be a bound on the reheating temperature of our Universe.

  12. Ensemble decadal predictions from analysed initial conditions.

    PubMed

    Troccoli, Alberto; Palmer, T N

    2007-08-15

    Sensitivity experiments using a coupled model initialized from analysed atmospheric and oceanic observations are used to investigate the potential for interannual-to-decadal predictability. The potential for extending seasonal predictions to longer time scales is explored using the same coupled model configuration and initialization procedure as used for seasonal prediction. It is found that, despite model drift, climatic signals on interannual-to-decadal time scales appear to be detectable. Two climatic states have been chosen: one starting in 1965, i.e. ahead of a period of global cooling, and the other in 1994, ahead of a period of global warming. The impact of initial conditions and of the different levels of greenhouse gases are isolated in order to gain insights into the source of predictability.

  13. On the initial condition of inflationary fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Hongliang; Wang, Yi; Zhou, Siyi

    2016-04-21

    It is usually assumed that the inflationary fluctuations start from the Bunch-Davies (BD) vacuum and the iε prescription is used when interactions are calculated. We show that those assumptions can be verified explicitly by calculating the loop corrections to the inflationary two-point and three-point correlation functions. Those loop corrections can be resummed to exponential factors, which suppress non-BD coefficients and behave as the iε factor for the case of the BD initial condition. A new technique of loop chain diagram resummation is developed for this purpose. For the non-BD initial conditions which is setup at finite time and has not fully decayed, explicit correction to the two-point and three-point correlation functions are calculated. Especially, non-Gaussianity in the folded limit is regularized due to the interactions.

  14. Fluid flow in nanopores: Accurate boundary conditions for carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokhan, Vladimir P.; Nicholson, David; Quirke, Nicholas

    2002-11-01

    Steady-state Poiseuille flow of a simple fluid in carbon nanopores under a gravitylike force is simulated using a realistic empirical many-body potential model for carbon. Building on our previous study of slit carbon nanopores we show that fluid flow in a nanotube is also characterized by a large slip length. By analyzing temporal profiles of the velocity components of particles colliding with the wall we obtain values of the Maxwell coefficient defining the fraction of molecules thermalized by the wall and, for the first time, propose slip boundary conditions for smooth continuum surfaces such that they are equivalent in adsorption, diffusion, and fluid flow properties to fully dynamic atomistic models.

  15. Initial condition of stochastic self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jason K.; Sindi, Suzanne S.

    2016-02-01

    The formation of a stable protein aggregate is regarded as the rate limiting step in the establishment of prion diseases. In these systems, once aggregates reach a critical size the growth process accelerates and thus the waiting time until the appearance of the first critically sized aggregate is a key determinant of disease onset. In addition to prion diseases, aggregation and nucleation is a central step of many physical, chemical, and biological process. Previous studies have examined the first-arrival time at a critical nucleus size during homogeneous self-assembly under the assumption that at time t =0 the system was in the all-monomer state. However, in order to compare to in vivo biological experiments where protein constituents inherited by a newly born cell likely contain intermediate aggregates, other possibilities must be considered. We consider one such possibility by conditioning the unique ergodic size distribution on subcritical aggregate sizes; this least-informed distribution is then used as an initial condition. We make the claim that this initial condition carries fewer assumptions than an all-monomer one and verify that it can yield significantly different averaged waiting times relative to the all-monomer condition under various models of assembly.

  16. Initial conditioning of the TFTR vacuum vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.; Blanchard, W.R.; Krawchuk, R.B.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Owens, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    We report on the initial conditioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) vacuum vessel prior to the initiation of first plasma discharges, and during subsequent operation with high power ohmically-heated plasmas. Following evacuation of the 86 m/sup 3/ vessel with the 10/sup 4/ 1/s high vacuum pumping system, the vessel was conditioned by a 15 A dc glow discharge in H/sub 2/ at a pressure of 5 mTorr. Rapid-pulse discharge cleaning was used subsequently to preferentially condition the graphite plasma limiters. The effectiveness of the discharge cleaning was monitored by measuring the exhaust rates of the primary discharge products (CO/C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, CH/sub 4/, and H/sub 2/O). After 175 hours of glow discharge treatment, the equivalent of 50 monolayers of C and O was removed from the vessel, and the partial pressures of impurity gases were reduced to the range of 10/sup -9/-10/sup -10/ Torr.

  17. Magnetized initial conditions for CMB anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2004-12-01

    This paper introduces a systematic treatment of the linear theory of scalar gravitational perturbations in the presence of a fully inhomogeneous magnetic field. The analysis is conducted both in the synchronous and in the conformally Newtonian gauges. The cosmological plasma is assumed to be composed of cold dark matter, baryons, photons, neutrinos. The problem of superhorizon initial conditions for the fluid variables of the various species and for the coupled system of Boltzmann-Einstein equations is discussed in the presence of an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The tight-coupling approximation for the Boltzmann hierarchy is extended to the case where gravitating magnetic fields are included.

  18. Initial condition from the shadowed Glauber model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sandeep; Singh, Sushant K.; Ghosh, Snigdha; Hasanujjaman, Md; Alam, Jane; Sarkar, Sourav

    2016-07-01

    The two component Monte-Carlo Glauber model predicts a knee-like structure in the centrality dependence of elliptic flow v2 in Uranium + Uranium collisions at √{sNN} = 193 GeV. It also produces a strong anti-correlation between v2 and dNch / dy in the case of top ZDC events. However, none of these features have been observed in data. We address these discrepancies by including the effect of nucleon shadowing to the two component Monte-Carlo Glauber model. Apart from addressing successfully the above issues, we find that the nucleon shadow suppresses the event by event fluctuation of various quantities, e.g. ε2 which is in accordance with expectation from the dynamical models of initial condition based on gluon saturation physics.

  19. MUSIC: MUlti-Scale Initial Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Oliver; Abel, Tom

    2013-11-01

    MUSIC generates multi-scale initial conditions with multiple levels of refinements for cosmological ‘zoom-in’ simulations. The code uses an adaptive convolution of Gaussian white noise with a real-space transfer function kernel together with an adaptive multi-grid Poisson solver to generate displacements and velocities following first- (1LPT) or second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT). MUSIC achieves rms relative errors of the order of 10-4 for displacements and velocities in the refinement region and thus improves in terms of errors by about two orders of magnitude over previous approaches. In addition, errors are localized at coarse-fine boundaries and do not suffer from Fourier space-induced interference ringing.

  20. Accurate label-free reaction kinetics determination using initial rate heat measurements

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Kourosh Honarmand; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Jacobs, Denise; Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate label-free methods or assays to obtain the initial reaction rates have significant importance in fundamental studies of enzymes and in application-oriented high throughput screening of enzyme activity. Here we introduce a label-free approach for obtaining initial rates of enzyme activity from heat measurements, which we name initial rate calorimetry (IrCal). This approach is based on our new finding that the data recorded by isothermal titration calorimetry for the early stages of a reaction, which have been widely ignored, are correlated to the initial rates. Application of the IrCal approach to various enzymes led to accurate enzyme kinetics parameters as compared to spectroscopic methods and enabled enzyme kinetic studies with natural substrate, e.g. proteases with protein substrates. Because heat is a label-free property of almost all reactions, the IrCal approach holds promise in fundamental studies of various enzymes and in use of calorimetry for high throughput screening of enzyme activity. PMID:26574737

  1. Geometric constraints in semiclassical initial value representation calculations in Cartesian coordinates: accurate reduction in zero-point energy.

    PubMed

    Issack, Bilkiss B; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2005-08-22

    An approach for the inclusion of geometric constraints in semiclassical initial value representation calculations is introduced. An important aspect of the approach is that Cartesian coordinates are used throughout. We devised an algorithm for the constrained sampling of initial conditions through the use of multivariate Gaussian distribution based on a projected Hessian. We also propose an approach for the constrained evaluation of the so-called Herman-Kluk prefactor in its exact log-derivative form. Sample calculations are performed for free and constrained rare-gas trimers. The results show that the proposed approach provides an accurate evaluation of the reduction in zero-point energy. Exact basis set calculations are used to assess the accuracy of the semiclassical results. Since Cartesian coordinates are used, the approach is general and applicable to a variety of molecular and atomic systems.

  2. Initial Conditions in the Averaging Cognitive Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noventa, S.; Massidda, D.; Vidotto, G.

    2010-01-01

    The initial state parameters s[subscript 0] and w[subscript 0] are intricate issues of the averaging cognitive models in Information Integration Theory. Usually they are defined as a measure of prior information (Anderson, 1981; 1982) but there are no general rules to deal with them. In fact, there is no agreement as to their treatment except in…

  3. Experiments on initial and boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moretti, G.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of three different models for the treatment of subsonic boundary conditions, applied to the problem of flow in a channel with a bump, are discussed. A preliminary discussion of the numerical treatment of the corners is presented.

  4. Spinodal backreaction during inflation and initial conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, Benoit J.; Sandora, McCullen E-mail: sandora@cp3.dias.sdu.dk

    2015-08-01

    We investigate how long wavelength inflationary fluctuations can cause the background field to deviate from classical dynamics. For generic potentials, we show that, in the Hartree approximation, the long wavelength dynamics can be encapsulated by a two-field model operating in an effective potential. The latter is given by a simple Gaussian integral transformation of the original inflationary potential. We use this new expression to study backreaction effects in quadratic, hilltop, flattened, and axion monodromy potentials. We find that the net result of the altered dynamics is to slightly modify the spectral tilt, drastically decrease the tensor-to-scalar ratio, and to effectively smooth over any features of the potential, with the size of these deviations set by the initial value of power in large scale modes and the shape of the potential during the entire evolution.

  5. Bi-fluorescence imaging for estimating accurately the nuclear condition of Rhizoctonia spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To simplify the determination of the nuclear condition of the pathogenic Rhizoctonia, which currently needs to be performed either using two fluorescent dyes, thus is more costly and time-consuming, or using only one fluorescent dye, and thus less accurate. Methods and Results: A red primary ...

  6. Temporal variability of the initial threshold for motion - initial bed conditions and morphological trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquis, G. A.; Roy, A. G.

    2012-12-01

    set with a bed activity survey. We surveyed the presence/absence of tags inserted every meter into the bed surface layer upstream of the cross sections where the bedload traps were installed. The initial threshold for motion at Béard Creek is strongly dependant on the initial bed conditions such as the bed roughness and the local bed slope but also on the morphological trajectory of the sections, i.e. the mean elevation changes and the area over which the bed sediments were mobilised. For example, if the bed was mobilised over an extensive area, the initial threshold for motion decreases, which is probably due to the low level of organisation of freshly mobilised particles. These results show that the study of the temporal variations of the initial threshold for motion allows us to link bedload processes to morphological changes but also stresses the importance of past and current bed conditions in determining future morphological changes. Using initial conditions and previous changes, it could be possible to estimate more accurate value of the local initial threshold for motion at a specific time for a reach and probably increase the performance of bedload transport predictions.

  7. Nonlinear Parabolic Equations Involving Measures as Initial Conditions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    CHART N N N Afl4Uf’t 1N II Il MRC Technical Summary Report # 2277 0 NONLINEAR PARABOLIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING MEASURES AS INITIAL CONDITIONS I Haim Brezis ...NONLINEAR PARABOLIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING MEASURES AS INITIAL CONDITIONS Haim Brezis and Avner Friedman Technical Summary Report #2277 September 1981...with NRC, and not with the authors of this report. * 𔃾s ’a * ’ 4| NONLINEAR PARABOLIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING MEASURES AS INITIAL CONDITIONS Haim Brezis

  8. Initial condition effect on pressure waves in an axisymmetric jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey H.; Raman, Ganesh

    1988-01-01

    A pair of microphones (separated axially by 5.08 cm and laterally by 1.3 cm) are placed on either side of the jet centerline to investigate coherent pressure fluctuations in an axisymmetric jet at Strouhal numbers less than unity. Auto-spectra, transfer-function, and coherence measurements are made for a tripped and untripped boundary layer initial condition. It was found that coherent acoustic pressure waves originating in the upstream plenum chamber propagate a greater distance downstream for the tripped initial condition than for the untripped initial condition. In addition, for the untripped initial condition the development of the coherent hydrodynamic pressure waves shifts downstream.

  9. Breaking Snake Camouflage: Humans Detect Snakes More Accurately than Other Animals under Less Discernible Visual Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; He, Hongshen

    2016-01-01

    Humans and non-human primates are extremely sensitive to snakes as exemplified by their ability to detect pictures of snakes more quickly than those of other animals. These findings are consistent with the Snake Detection Theory, which hypothesizes that as predators, snakes were a major source of evolutionary selection that favored expansion of the visual system of primates for rapid snake detection. Many snakes use camouflage to conceal themselves from both prey and their own predators, making it very challenging to detect them. If snakes have acted as a selective pressure on primate visual systems, they should be more easily detected than other animals under difficult visual conditions. Here we tested whether humans discerned images of snakes more accurately than those of non-threatening animals (e.g., birds, cats, or fish) under conditions of less perceptual information by presenting a series of degraded images with the Random Image Structure Evolution technique (interpolation of random noise). We find that participants recognize mosaic images of snakes, which were regarded as functionally equivalent to camouflage, more accurately than those of other animals under dissolved conditions. The present study supports the Snake Detection Theory by showing that humans have a visual system that accurately recognizes snakes under less discernible visual conditions.

  10. Breaking Snake Camouflage: Humans Detect Snakes More Accurately than Other Animals under Less Discernible Visual Conditions

    PubMed Central

    He, Hongshen

    2016-01-01

    Humans and non-human primates are extremely sensitive to snakes as exemplified by their ability to detect pictures of snakes more quickly than those of other animals. These findings are consistent with the Snake Detection Theory, which hypothesizes that as predators, snakes were a major source of evolutionary selection that favored expansion of the visual system of primates for rapid snake detection. Many snakes use camouflage to conceal themselves from both prey and their own predators, making it very challenging to detect them. If snakes have acted as a selective pressure on primate visual systems, they should be more easily detected than other animals under difficult visual conditions. Here we tested whether humans discerned images of snakes more accurately than those of non-threatening animals (e.g., birds, cats, or fish) under conditions of less perceptual information by presenting a series of degraded images with the Random Image Structure Evolution technique (interpolation of random noise). We find that participants recognize mosaic images of snakes, which were regarded as functionally equivalent to camouflage, more accurately than those of other animals under dissolved conditions. The present study supports the Snake Detection Theory by showing that humans have a visual system that accurately recognizes snakes under less discernible visual conditions. PMID:27783686

  11. Improving initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, Lehman H.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Ferrer, Douglas; Metchnik, Marc V.; Pinto, Philip A.

    2016-10-01

    In cosmological N-body simulations, the representation of dark matter as discrete `macroparticles' suppresses the growth of structure, such that simulations no longer reproduce linear theory on small scales near kNyquist. Marcos et al. demonstrate that this is due to sparse sampling of modes near kNyquist and that the often-assumed continuum growing modes are not proper growing modes of the particle system. We develop initial conditions (ICs) that respect the particle linear theory growing modes and then rescale the mode amplitudes to account for growth suppression. These ICs also allow us to take advantage of our very accurate N-body code ABACUS to implement second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) in configuration space. The combination of 2LPT and rescaling improves the accuracy of the late-time power spectra, halo mass functions, and halo clustering. In particular, we achieve 1 per cent accuracy in the power spectrum down to kNyquist, versus kNyquist/4 without rescaling or kNyquist/13 without 2LPT, relative to an oversampled reference simulation. We anticipate that our 2LPT will be useful for large simulations where fast Fourier transforms are expensive and that rescaling will be useful for suites of medium-resolution simulations used in cosmic emulators and galaxy survey mock catalogues. Code to generate ICs is available at https://github.com/lgarrison/zeldovich-PLT.

  12. ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF HOT JUPITERS: INSENSITIVITY TO INITIAL CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Beibei; Showman, Adam P.

    2013-06-10

    The ongoing characterization of hot Jupiters has motivated a variety of circulation models of their atmospheres. Such models must be integrated starting from an assumed initial state, which is typically taken to be a wind-free, rest state. Here, we investigate the sensitivity of hot-Jupiter atmospheric circulation to initial conditions with shallow-water models and full three-dimensional models. Those models are initialized with zonal jets, and we explore a variety of different initial jet profiles. We demonstrate that, in both classes of models, the final, equilibrated state is independent of initial condition-as long as frictional drag near the bottom of the domain and/or interaction with a specified planetary interior are included so that the atmosphere can adjust angular momentum over time relative to the interior. When such mechanisms are included, otherwise identical models initialized with vastly different initial conditions all converge to the same statistical steady state. In some cases, the models exhibit modest time variability; this variability results in random fluctuations about the statistical steady state, but we emphasize that, even in these cases, the statistical steady state itself does not depend on initial conditions. Although the outcome of hot-Jupiter circulation models depend on details of the radiative forcing and frictional drag, aspects of which remain uncertain, we conclude that the specification of initial conditions is not a source of uncertainty, at least over the parameter range explored in most current models.

  13. Sensitivity of Typhoon Track Predictions in a Regional Prediction System to Initial and Lateral Boundary Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    less forecast skill due to a coarser res- olution. Miguez- Macho and Paegle (2000) suggest that accurate initial and lateral boundary conditions for a...nondeveloping ver- sus developing systems. J. Atmos. Sci., 38, 1132–1151. Miguez- Macho , G., and J. Paegle, 2000: Sensitivity of a global forecast model

  14. Effects of initial and boundary conditions on thermal explosion development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novozhilov, Vasily

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates effects of non-uniform initial conditions, as well as oscillatory boundary conditions on critical conditions for thermal explosion. It is shown that natural convection plays significant role in case of initial non-uniformities in the temperature distribution. The role of convection is quantified considering critical Frank-Kamenetskii parameters at different Rayleigh numbers, relative to the same parameter at no-convection conditions. Preliminary results are presented for the effect of oscillatory boundary conditions. It is demonstrated that the system may develop thermal explosion if oscillations are imposed at the boundaries of otherwise thermally stable medium.

  15. Consistent Initial Conditions for the DNS of Compressible Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ristorcelli, J. R.; Blaisdell, G. A.

    1996-01-01

    Relationships between diverse thermodynamic quantities appropriate to weakly compressible turbulence are derived. It is shown that for turbulence of a finite turbulent Mach number there is a finite element of compressibility. A methodology for generating initial conditions for the fluctuating pressure, density and dilatational velocity is given which is consistent with finite Mach number effects. Use of these initial conditions gives rise to a smooth development of the flow, in contrast to cases in which these fields are specified arbitrarily or set to zero. Comparisons of the effect of different types of initial conditions are made using direct numerical simulation of decaying isotropic turbulence.

  16. Sensitivity of a Simulated Derecho Event to Model Initial Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei

    2014-05-01

    Since 2003, the MMM division at NCAR has been experimenting cloud-permitting scale weather forecasting using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Over the years, we've tested different model physics, and tried different initial and boundary conditions. Not surprisingly, we found that the model's forecasts are more sensitive to the initial conditions than model physics. In 2012 real-time experiment, WRF-DART (Data Assimilation Research Testbed) at 15 km was employed to produce initial conditions for twice-a-day forecast at 3 km. On June 29, this forecast system captured one of the most destructive derecho event on record. In this presentation, we will examine forecast sensitivity to different model initial conditions, and try to understand the important features that may contribute to the success of the forecast.

  17. Initial capacity conditioning on electrochemical nickel hydroxide electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritts, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    Conditioning is the initial cycling where cell capacity is usually unstable. The causes of the initial capacity build were examined. Gridless electrodes were fabricated to ensure mechanical homogeneity, so that a strain measured in one direction would be typical of a strain measured in the other directions. Plate hardness was also determined. These two parameters stabilize together.

  18. Time Accurate Unsteady Pressure Loads Simulated for the Space Launch System at a Wind Tunnel Condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Kleb, Bil; Streett, Craig L; Glass, Christopher E.; Schuster, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Using the Fully Unstructured Three-Dimensional (FUN3D) computational fluid dynamics code, an unsteady, time-accurate flow field about a Space Launch System configuration was simulated at a transonic wind tunnel condition (Mach = 0.9). Delayed detached eddy simulation combined with Reynolds Averaged Naiver-Stokes and a Spallart-Almaras turbulence model were employed for the simulation. Second order accurate time evolution scheme was used to simulate the flow field, with a minimum of 0.2 seconds of simulated time to as much as 1.4 seconds. Data was collected at 480 pressure taps at locations, 139 of which matched a 3% wind tunnel model, tested in the Transonic Dynamic Tunnel (TDT) facility at NASA Langley Research Center. Comparisons between computation and experiment showed agreement within 5% in terms of location for peak RMS levels, and 20% for frequency and magnitude of power spectral densities. Grid resolution and time step sensitivity studies were performed to identify methods for improved accuracy comparisons to wind tunnel data. With limited computational resources, accurate trends for reduced vibratory loads on the vehicle were observed. Exploratory methods such as determining minimized computed errors based on CFL number and sub-iterations, as well as evaluating frequency content of the unsteady pressures and evaluation of oscillatory shock structures were used in this study to enhance computational efficiency and solution accuracy. These techniques enabled development of a set of best practices, for the evaluation of future flight vehicle designs in terms of vibratory loads.

  19. Can phenological models predict tree phenology accurately under climate change conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuine, Isabelle; Bonhomme, Marc; Legave, Jean Michel; García de Cortázar-Atauri, Inaki; Charrier, Guillaume; Lacointe, André; Améglio, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    The onset of the growing season of trees has been globally earlier by 2.3 days/decade during the last 50 years because of global warming and this trend is predicted to continue according to climate forecast. The effect of temperature on plant phenology is however not linear because temperature has a dual effect on bud development. On one hand, low temperatures are necessary to break bud dormancy, and on the other hand higher temperatures are necessary to promote bud cells growth afterwards. Increasing phenological changes in temperate woody species have strong impacts on forest trees distribution and productivity, as well as crops cultivation areas. Accurate predictions of trees phenology are therefore a prerequisite to understand and foresee the impacts of climate change on forests and agrosystems. Different process-based models have been developed in the last two decades to predict the date of budburst or flowering of woody species. They are two main families: (1) one-phase models which consider only the ecodormancy phase and make the assumption that endodormancy is always broken before adequate climatic conditions for cell growth occur; and (2) two-phase models which consider both the endodormancy and ecodormancy phases and predict a date of dormancy break which varies from year to year. So far, one-phase models have been able to predict accurately tree bud break and flowering under historical climate. However, because they do not consider what happens prior to ecodormancy, and especially the possible negative effect of winter temperature warming on dormancy break, it seems unlikely that they can provide accurate predictions in future climate conditions. It is indeed well known that a lack of low temperature results in abnormal pattern of bud break and development in temperate fruit trees. An accurate modelling of the dormancy break date has thus become a major issue in phenology modelling. Two-phases phenological models predict that global warming should delay

  20. Fractionation and reconstitution of factors required for accurate transcription of mammalian ribosomal RNA genes: identification of a species-dependent initiation factor.

    PubMed Central

    Mishima, Y; Financsek, I; Kominami, R; Muramatsu, M

    1982-01-01

    Mouse and human cell extracts (S100) can support an accurate and efficient transcription initiation on homologous ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) templates. The cell extracts were fractionated with the aid of a phosphocellulose column into four fractions (termed A, B, C and D), including one containing a major part of the RNA polymerase I activity. Various reconstitution experiments indicate that fraction D is an absolute requirement for the correct and efficient transcription initiation by RNA polymerase I on both mouse and human genes. Fraction B effectively suppresses random initiation on these templates. Fraction A appears to further enhance the transcription which takes place with fractions C and D. Although fractions A, B and C are interchangeable between mouse and human extracts, fraction D is not; i.e. initiation of transcription required the presence of a homologous fraction D for both templates. The factor(s) in fraction D, however, is not literally species-specific, since mouse D fraction is capable of supporting accurate transcription initiation on a rat rDNA template in the presence of all the other fractions from human cell extract under the conditions where human D fraction is unable to support it. We conclude from these experiments that a species-dependent factor in fraction D plays an important role in the initiation of rDNA transcription in each animal species. Images PMID:7177852

  1. Analysis of the effect of initial conditions on the initial development of a turbulent jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Soong KI; Chung, Myung Kyoon; Cho, Ji Ryong

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the initial condition at the jet exit on the downstream evolution, particularly within the potential core length, were numerically investigated as well as with available experimental data. In order to select the most dependable computational model for the present numerical experiment, a comparative study has been performed with different turbulence models at k-epsilon level, and it was found that the k-epsilon-gammma model yields superior prediction accuracy over other conventional models. The calculated results show that the potential core length and the spreading rate the initial mixing layer are dependent on the initial length scale as well as the turbulent kinetic energy at the jet exit. Such effect of the initial length scale increases with higher initial turbulence level. An empirical parameter has been devised to collapse the calculated data of the potential core length and the spreading rate with various initial conditions onto a single curve.

  2. Possibilistic-clustering-based MR brain image segmentation with accurate initialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Qingmin; Deng, Yingying; Dou, Weibei; Ruan, Su; Bloyet, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic resonance image analysis by computer is useful to aid diagnosis of malady. We present in this paper a automatic segmentation method for principal brain tissues. It is based on the possibilistic clustering approach, which is an improved fuzzy c-means clustering method. In order to improve the efficiency of clustering process, the initial value problem is discussed and solved by combining with a histogram analysis method. Our method can automatically determine number of classes to cluster and the initial values for each class. It has been tested on a set of forty MR brain images with or without the presence of tumor. The experimental results showed that it is simple, rapid and robust to segment the principal brain tissues.

  3. Accurate and Fast Convergent Initial-Value Belief Propagation for Stereo Matching

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yiguang

    2015-01-01

    The belief propagation (BP) algorithm has some limitations, including ambiguous edges and textureless regions, and slow convergence speed. To address these problems, we present a novel algorithm that intrinsically improves both the accuracy and the convergence speed of BP. First, traditional BP generally consumes time due to numerous iterations. To reduce the number of iterations, inspired by the crucial importance of the initial value in nonlinear problems, a novel initial-value belief propagation (IVBP) algorithm is presented, which can greatly improve both convergence speed and accuracy. Second, .the majority of the existing research on BP concentrates on the smoothness term or other energy terms, neglecting the significance of the data term. In this study, a self-adapting dissimilarity data term (SDDT) is presented to improve the accuracy of the data term, which incorporates an additional gradient-based measure into the traditional data term, with the weight determined by the robust measure-based control function. Finally, this study explores the effective combination of local methods and global methods. The experimental results have demonstrated that our method performs well compared with the state-of-the-art BP and simultaneously holds better edge-preserving smoothing effects with fast convergence speed in the Middlebury and new 2014 Middlebury datasets. PMID:26349063

  4. Necessary conditions for accurate computations of three-body partial decay widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, E.; Jensen, A. S.; Fedorov, D. V.

    2008-09-01

    The partial width for decay of a resonance into three fragments is largely determined at distances where the energy is smaller than the effective potential producing the corresponding wave function. At short distances the many-body properties are accounted for by preformation or spectroscopic factors. We use the adiabatic expansion method combined with the WKB approximation to obtain the indispensable cluster model wave functions at intermediate and larger distances. We test the concept by deriving conditions for the minimal basis expressed in terms of partial waves and radial nodes. We compare results for different effective interactions and methods. Agreement is found with experimental values for a sufficiently large basis. We illustrate the ideas with realistic examples from α emission of C12 and two-proton emission of Ne17. Basis requirements for accurate momentum distributions are briefly discussed.

  5. Successional stage of biological soil crusts: an accurate indicator of ecohydrological condition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, Jayne; Wilcox, Bradford P.; Van Scoyoc, Matthew V.; Phillips, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are a key component of many dryland ecosystems. Following disturbance, biological soil crusts will recover in stages. Recently, a simple classification of these stages has been developed, largely on the basis of external features of the crusts, which reflects their level of development (LOD). The classification system has six LOD classes, from low (1) to high (6). To determine whether the LOD of a crust is related to its ecohydrological function, we used rainfall simulation to evaluate differences in infiltration, runoff, and erosion among crusts in the various LODs, across a range of soil depths and with different wetting pre-treatments. We found large differences between the lowest and highest LODs, with runoff and erosion being greatest from the lowest LOD. Under dry antecedent conditions, about 50% of the water applied ran off the lowest LOD plots, whereas less than 10% ran off the plots of the two highest LODs. Similarly, sediment loss was 400 g m-2 from the lowest LOD and almost zero from the higher LODs. We scaled up the results from these simulations using the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model. Modelling results indicate that erosion increases dramatically as slope length and gradient increase, especially beyond the threshold values of 10 m for slope length and 10% for slope gradient. Our findings confirm that the LOD classification is a quick, easy, nondestructive, and accurate index of hydrological condition and should be incorporated in field and modelling assessments of ecosystem health.

  6. Definition of boundary and initial conditions in the analysis of saturated ground-water flow systems; an introduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franke, O.L.; Reilly, T.E.; Bennett, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    Accurate definition of boundary and initial conditions is an essential part of conceptualizing and modeling ground-water flow systems. This report explains the properties of the seven most common boundary conditions encountered in ground-water systems and discusses major aspects of their application. It also discusses the significance and specification of initial conditions and evaluates some common errors in applying this concept to ground-water system models. (USGS)

  7. Generalized CMB initial conditions with pre-equality magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannini, Massimo; Kunze, Kerstin E.

    2008-06-15

    The most general initial conditions of cosmic microwave background anisotropies, compatible with the presence of pre-equality magnetic fields, are derived. When the plasma is composed of photons, baryons, electrons, cold dark matter particles and neutrinos, the initial data of the truncated Einstein-Boltzmann hierarchy contemplate one magnetized adiabatic mode and four (magnetized) nonadiabatic modes. After obtaining the analytical form of the various solutions, the Einstein-Boltzmann hierarchy is numerically integrated for the corresponding sets of initial data. The TT, TE and EE angular power spectra are illustrated and discussed for the magnetized generalization of the cold dark matter-radiation mode, of the baryon-radiation mode and of the nonadiabatic mode of the neutrino sector. Mixtures of initial conditions are examined by requiring that the magnetized adiabatic mode dominates over the remaining nonadiabatic contributions. In the latter case, possible degeneracies between complementary sets of initial data might be avoided through the combined analysis of the TT, TE and EE angular power spectra at high multipoles (i.e. l>1000)

  8. Time-Accurate Unsteady Pressure Loads Simulated for the Space Launch System at Wind Tunnel Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Kleb, William L.; Glass, Christopher E.; Streett, Craig L.; Schuster, David M.

    2015-01-01

    A transonic flow field about a Space Launch System (SLS) configuration was simulated with the Fully Unstructured Three-Dimensional (FUN3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code at wind tunnel conditions. Unsteady, time-accurate computations were performed using second-order Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) for up to 1.5 physical seconds. The surface pressure time history was collected at 619 locations, 169 of which matched locations on a 2.5 percent wind tunnel model that was tested in the 11 ft. x 11 ft. test section of the NASA Ames Research Center's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. Comparisons between computation and experiment showed that the peak surface pressure RMS level occurs behind the forward attach hardware, and good agreement for frequency and power was obtained in this region. Computational domain, grid resolution, and time step sensitivity studies were performed. These included an investigation of pseudo-time sub-iteration convergence. Using these sensitivity studies and experimental data comparisons, a set of best practices to date have been established for FUN3D simulations for SLS launch vehicle analysis. To the author's knowledge, this is the first time DDES has been used in a systematic approach and establish simulation time needed, to analyze unsteady pressure loads on a space launch vehicle such as the NASA SLS.

  9. Numerical parameter constraints for accurate PIC-DSMC simulation of breakdown from arc initiation to stable arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Christopher; Hopkins, Matthew; Moore, Stan; Boerner, Jeremiah; Cartwright, Keith

    2015-09-01

    Simulation of breakdown is important for understanding and designing a variety of applications such as mitigating undesirable discharge events. Such simulations need to be accurate through early time arc initiation to late time stable arc behavior. Here we examine constraints on the timestep and mesh size required for arc simulations using the particle-in-cell (PIC) method with direct simulation Monte Carlo (DMSC) collisions. Accurate simulation of electron avalanche across a fixed voltage drop and constant neutral density (reduced field of 1000 Td) was found to require a timestep ~ 1/100 of the mean time between collisions and a mesh size ~ 1/25 the mean free path. These constraints are much smaller than the typical PIC-DSMC requirements for timestep and mesh size. Both constraints are related to the fact that charged particles are accelerated by the external field. Thus gradients in the electron energy distribution function can exist at scales smaller than the mean free path and these must be resolved by the mesh size for accurate collision rates. Additionally, the timestep must be small enough that the particle energy change due to the fields be small in order to capture gradients in the cross sections versus energy. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Initial Conditions and Modeling for Shock Driven Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinstein, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    We focus on the simulation of shock-driven material mixing driven by flow instabilities and initial conditions. Beyond complex multi-scale resolution of shocks and variable density turbulence, me must address the equally difficult problem of predicting flow transition promoted by energy deposited at the material interfacial layer during the shock interface interactions. Transition involves unsteady large-scale coherent-structure dynamics which can be captured by LES, but not by URANS based on equilibrium turbulence assumptions and single-point-closure modeling. Such URANS is frequently preferred on the engineering end of computation capabilities for full-scale configurations - and with reduced 1D/2D dimensionality being also a common aspect. With suitable initialization around each transition - e.g., reshock, URANS can be used to simulate the subsequent near-equilibrium weakly turbulent flow. We demonstrate 3D state-of-the-art URANS performance in one such flow regime. We simulate the CEA planar shock-tube experiments by Poggi et al. (1998) with an ILES strategy. Laboratory turbulence and mixing data are used to benchmark ILES. In turn, the ILES generated data is used to initialize and as reference to assess state-of-the-art 3D URANS. We find that by prescribing physics-based 3D initial conditions and allowing for 3D flow convection with just enough resolution, the additionally computed dissipation in 3D URANS effectively blends with the modeled dissipation to yield significantly improved statistical predictions.

  11. Accurate First-Principles Spectra Predictions for Planetological and Astrophysical Applications at Various T-Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, M.; Nikitin, A. V.; Tyuterev, V.

    2014-06-01

    Knowledge of near infrared intensities of rovibrational transitions of polyatomic molecules is essential for the modeling of various planetary atmospheres, brown dwarfs and for other astrophysical applications 1,2,3. For example, to analyze exoplanets, atmospheric models have been developed, thus making the need to provide accurate spectroscopic data. Consequently, the spectral characterization of such planetary objects relies on the necessity of having adequate and reliable molecular data in extreme conditions (temperature, optical path length, pressure). On the other hand, in the modeling of astrophysical opacities, millions of lines are generally involved and the line-by-line extraction is clearly not feasible in laboratory measurements. It is thus suggested that this large amount of data could be interpreted only by reliable theoretical predictions. There exists essentially two theoretical approaches for the computation and prediction of spectra. The first one is based on empirically-fitted effective spectroscopic models. Another way for computing energies, line positions and intensities is based on global variational calculations using ab initio surfaces. They do not yet reach the spectroscopic accuracy stricto sensu but implicitly account for all intramolecular interactions including resonance couplings in a wide spectral range. The final aim of this work is to provide reliable predictions which could be quantitatively accurate with respect to the precision of available observations and as complete as possible. All this thus requires extensive first-principles quantum mechanical calculations essentially based on three necessary ingredients which are (i) accurate intramolecular potential energy surface and dipole moment surface components well-defined in a large range of vibrational displacements and (ii) efficient computational methods combined with suitable choices of coordinates to account for molecular symmetry properties and to achieve a good numerical

  12. On the Initial Conditions of the Nice Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batygin, Konstantin; Brown, M. E.

    2009-09-01

    In the recent years, the "Nice” model of solar system formation has attained an unprecedented level of success in reproducing much of the observed orbital architecture of the Kuiper belt, while evolving the planets to their current locations from a more compact configuration (Tsiaganis et al 2005; Levison et al 2007). Within the context of this model, the formation of the classical Kuiper Belt requires a phase during which the ice giants have a high eccentricity. An outstanding question of this model is the initial condition from which the Solar System started out. Recent work (Morbidelli et al 2007) has shown that multi-resonant initial conditions can serve as good candidates, as they naturally prevent vigorous type-II migration. We performed a large number of self-consisted numerical N-body simulations with an eye towards identification of multi-resonant initial conditions which result in an eccentric phase of the ice giants. The results should prove useful in further development of a comprehensive model for solar system formation.

  13. Can Impacts of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptation Strategies Be Accurately Quantified if Crop Models Are Annually Re-Initialized?

    PubMed

    Basso, Bruno; Hyndman, David W; Kendall, Anthony D; Grace, Peter R; Robertson, G Philip

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of climate change impacts on global food production are generally based on statistical or process-based models. Process-based models can provide robust predictions of agricultural yield responses to changing climate and management. However, applications of these models often suffer from bias due to the common practice of re-initializing soil conditions to the same state for each year of the forecast period. If simulations neglect to include year-to-year changes in initial soil conditions and water content related to agronomic management, adaptation and mitigation strategies designed to maintain stable yields under climate change cannot be properly evaluated. We apply a process-based crop system model that avoids re-initialization bias to demonstrate the importance of simulating both year-to-year and cumulative changes in pre-season soil carbon, nutrient, and water availability. Results are contrasted with simulations using annual re-initialization, and differences are striking. We then demonstrate the potential for the most likely adaptation strategy to offset climate change impacts on yields using continuous simulations through the end of the 21st century. Simulations that annually re-initialize pre-season soil carbon and water contents introduce an inappropriate yield bias that obscures the potential for agricultural management to ameliorate the deleterious effects of rising temperatures and greater rainfall variability.

  14. Can Impacts of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptation Strategies Be Accurately Quantified if Crop Models Are Annually Re-Initialized?

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Bruno; Hyndman, David W.; Kendall, Anthony D.; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of climate change impacts on global food production are generally based on statistical or process-based models. Process-based models can provide robust predictions of agricultural yield responses to changing climate and management. However, applications of these models often suffer from bias due to the common practice of re-initializing soil conditions to the same state for each year of the forecast period. If simulations neglect to include year-to-year changes in initial soil conditions and water content related to agronomic management, adaptation and mitigation strategies designed to maintain stable yields under climate change cannot be properly evaluated. We apply a process-based crop system model that avoids re-initialization bias to demonstrate the importance of simulating both year-to-year and cumulative changes in pre-season soil carbon, nutrient, and water availability. Results are contrasted with simulations using annual re-initialization, and differences are striking. We then demonstrate the potential for the most likely adaptation strategy to offset climate change impacts on yields using continuous simulations through the end of the 21st century. Simulations that annually re-initialize pre-season soil carbon and water contents introduce an inappropriate yield bias that obscures the potential for agricultural management to ameliorate the deleterious effects of rising temperatures and greater rainfall variability. PMID:26043188

  15. The NIF Shear Experiment: Emergent Coherent Structures and Initial Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flippo, K. A.; Doss, F. W.; Merritt, E. C.; di Stefano, C. A.; Devolder, B. G.; Kurien, S.; Kot, L.; Loomis, E. N.; Murphy, T. J.; Perry, T. S.; Kline, J. L.; Huntington, C. M.; Nagel, S. R.; MacLaren, S. A.; Schmidt, D. W.

    2016-10-01

    The NIF Shear experiments are designed to stress turbulence models at high Atwood numbers, high convective Mach number, and in a highly compressible regime. The NIF laser system is used to drive two hohlraums on either end of the experiment, which convert the laser drive into a bath of soft x-rays, 250eV in temperature. The counter-propagating shocks and flow, pressure balance the shear layer, such that it can grow due to the KH instability in the center of the experiment for 20 ns. These experiments are the first High Energy Density (HED) hydro-instability studies to show emergent coherent Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) structures arising from random broadband seeds, and the first to control the phenomenological evolution of the tracer layer by controlling the initial surface roughness conditions. The change in initial conditions forces the system evolution on a different path that does not appear to reach a universal nor self-similar state by the end of the experiment. The experiment was modeled using the multi-physics hydrodynamic code RAGE with the BHR turbulence model. The initial scale-length of the model is modified to match the data. When the model is turned off, the pure hydrodynamics do not capture the behavior of the mixing layer and cannot match the data.

  16. Definition of boundary and initial conditions in the analysis of saturated ground-water flow systems - An introduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franke, O. Lehn; Reilly, Thomas E.; Bennett, Gordon D.

    1987-01-01

    Accurate definition of boundary and initial conditions is an essential part of conceptualizing and modeling ground-water flow systems. This report describes the properties of the seven most common boundary conditions encountered in ground-water systems and discusses major aspects of their application. It also discusses the significance and specification of initial conditions and evaluates some common errors in applying this concept to ground-water-system models. An appendix is included that discusses what the solution of a differential equation represents and how the solution relates to the boundary conditions defining the specific problem. This report considers only boundary conditions that apply to saturated ground-water systems.

  17. Can the Baryon Asymmetry Arise From Initial Conditions?

    SciTech Connect

    Krnjaic, Gordan

    2016-06-16

    In this letter, we quantify the challenge of explaining the baryon asymmetry using initial conditions in a universe that undergoes inflation. Contrary to lore, we find that such an explanation is possible if net $B-L$ number is stored in a light bosonic field with hyper-Planckian initial displacement and a delicately chosen field velocity prior to inflation. However, such a construction may require extremely tuned coupling constants to ensure that this asymmetry is viably communicated to the Standard Model after reheating; the large field displacement required to overcome inflationary dilution must not induce masses for Standard Model particles or generate dangerous washout processes. While these features are inelegant, this counterexample nonetheless shows that there is no theorem against such an explanation. We also comment on potential observables in the double $\\beta$-decay spectrum and on model variations that may allow for more natural realizations.

  18. Fast and accurate techniques of treating the radiative transfer problem under cloudy conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremenko, Dmitry; Doicu, Adrian; Trautmann, Thomas; Loyola, Diego

    As a massive amount of spectral information is expected from the new generation of European atmospheric sensors Sentinel 5 Precursor, Sentinel 4 and Sentinel 5, a fast processing of the data in the UV-VIS spectral domain, is required. Trace gas retrievals from nadir sounding instruments are hindered by the presence of clouds. Our research is focused on the developing of a robust and accurate algorithm for treating clouds in the radiative transfer models (RTM). For this reason we have implemented an acceleration technique based on dimensionality reduction algorithms. We obtained the speed improvement of about 8 times. For operational reasons clouds can be considered as an optically homogeneous layer. In the independent pixel approximation, radiative transfer computations involving cloudy scenes require two separate calls to the RTM, one call for a clear sky scenario, the other for an atmosphere containing clouds. We present two novel methods for RTM performance enhancement with particular application to trace gas retrievals under cloudy conditions. Both methods are based on reusing results from clear-sky RTM calculations to speed up corresponding calculations for the cloud-filled scenario. Also, for satellite instruments with a high spatial resolution, it is important to account for the sub-pixel cloud inhomogeneities, or at least, to assess their effect on the radiances at the top of the atmosphere, and in particular, on the retrieval results. This assessment is probabilistic since the detailed structure of the clouds is unknown and only a small number of statistical properties are given. In this regard, we have designed a stochastic model for the solar radiation problem and a molecular atmosphere with its underlying surface. The model allows the computation of the mean radiance at the top of the atmosphere as it is intended to be used for trace gas retrievals. The efficiency of the stochastic model is lower, because we have to solve a two-dimensional problem

  19. Bootstrapping from inflationary magnetogenesis to CMB initial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2013-10-01

    The temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background are analyzed under the hypothesis that the same inflationary seed accounting for protogalactic magnetism also affects the Einstein-Boltzmann hierarchy whose initial conditions are assigned for typical correlation scales larger than the Hubble radius after matter-radiation equality but before decoupling. Since the primordial gauge spectrum depends on a combination of pivotal parameters of the concordance model, the angular power spectra of the temperature and of the polarization are computed, for the first time, in the presence of a putative large-scale magnetic field of inflationary origin and without supplementary hypotheses.

  20. Sensitivity of a Wave Structure to Initial Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, Walter M. B.; Duval, Walter M. B. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Microgravity experiments aimed at quantifying effects of gentler via controlled sinusoidal forcing transmitted on the interface between two miscible liquids have shown the evolution of a quasi -stationary four-mode wave structure oriented vertically. The sensitivity of the wave structure to phase angle variation is investigated computationally. We show that a slight variation of the phase angle is sufficient to cause a bifurcation to a two-mode structure. The dependence of phase angle on wave structure is attributed to sensitivity on initial conditions due to the strong nonlinearity of the coupled field equations for the parametric space of interest.

  1. Kinetics of diffusion-controlled annihilation with sparse initial conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Ben-Naim, Eli; Krapivsky, Paul

    2016-12-16

    Here, we study diffusion-controlled single-species annihilation with sparse initial conditions. In this random process, particles undergo Brownian motion, and when two particles meet, both disappear. We also focus on sparse initial conditions where particles occupy a subspace of dimension δ that is embedded in a larger space of dimension d. Furthermore, we find that the co-dimension Δ = d - δ governs the behavior. All particles disappear when the co-dimension is sufficiently small, Δ ≤ 2; otherwise, a finite fraction of particles indefinitely survive. We establish the asymptotic behavior of the probability S(t) that a test particle survives until time t. When the subspace is a line, δ = 1, we find inverse logarithmic decay,more » $$S\\sim {(\\mathrm{ln}t)}^{-1}$$, in three dimensions, and a modified power-law decay, $$S\\sim (\\mathrm{ln}t){t}^{-1/2}$$, in two dimensions. In general, the survival probability decays algebraically when Δ < 2, and there is an inverse logarithmic decay at the critical co-dimension Δ = 2.« less

  2. Kinetics of diffusion-controlled annihilation with sparse initial conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Naim, Eli; Krapivsky, Paul

    2016-12-16

    Here, we study diffusion-controlled single-species annihilation with sparse initial conditions. In this random process, particles undergo Brownian motion, and when two particles meet, both disappear. We also focus on sparse initial conditions where particles occupy a subspace of dimension δ that is embedded in a larger space of dimension d. Furthermore, we find that the co-dimension Δ = d - δ governs the behavior. All particles disappear when the co-dimension is sufficiently small, Δ ≤ 2; otherwise, a finite fraction of particles indefinitely survive. We establish the asymptotic behavior of the probability S(t) that a test particle survives until time t. When the subspace is a line, δ = 1, we find inverse logarithmic decay, $S\\sim {(\\mathrm{ln}t)}^{-1}$, in three dimensions, and a modified power-law decay, $S\\sim (\\mathrm{ln}t){t}^{-1/2}$, in two dimensions. In general, the survival probability decays algebraically when Δ < 2, and there is an inverse logarithmic decay at the critical co-dimension Δ = 2.

  3. Automatic pose initialization for accurate 2D/3D registration applied to abdominal aortic aneurysm endovascular repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Shun; Lucas, Joseph; Liao, Rui

    2012-02-01

    Minimally invasive abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) stenting can be greatly facilitated by overlaying the preoperative 3-D model of the abdominal aorta onto the intra-operative 2-D X-ray images. Accurate 2-D/3-D registration in 3-D space makes the 2-D/3-D overlay robust to the change of C-Arm angulations. By far, the 2-D/3-D registration methods based on simulated X-ray projection images using multiple image planes have been shown to be able to provide satisfactory 3-D registration accuracy. However, one drawback of the intensity-based 2-D/3-D registration methods is that the similarity measure is usually highly non-convex and hence the optimizer can easily be trapped into local minima. User interaction therefore is often needed in the initialization of the position of the 3-D model in order to get a successful 2-D/3-D registration. In this paper, a novel 3-D pose initialization technique is proposed, as an extension of our previously proposed bi-plane 2-D/3-D registration method for AAA intervention [4]. The proposed method detects vessel bifurcation points and spine centerline in both 2-D and 3-D images, and utilizes landmark information to bring the 3-D volume into a 15mm capture range. The proposed landmark detection method was validated on real dataset, and is shown to be able to provide a good initialization for 2-D/3-D registration in [4], thus making the workflow fully automatic.

  4. Initial conditions for anisotropic extended-type inflationary universes

    SciTech Connect

    del Campo, S. )

    1992-05-15

    Recently, extended-type inflationary universe models have been proposed as an appealing approach for solving most of the cosmological puzzles'' that, in contrast with previous models, do not require a fine-tuning'' for the microphysical parameters present in the effective potential. These scenarios rest on a Brans-Dicke-type theory, where a nonminimal coupling of the form {ital f}({ital cphi}){ital R} is assumed, and it may or may not include a potential for the Brans-Dicke field. In its classical description, different extended inflationary universe scenarios are described, where anisotropy is taken into account. By using the Hartle-Hawking and the Vilenkin boundary conditions for the wave function of the Universe, the probability distributions for the initial states of these extended models in the case of a small anisotropy are determined and discussed.

  5. Longitudinal hydrodynamics from event-by-event Landau initial conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Abhisek; Gerhard, Jochen; Torrieri, Giorgio; Read, Kenneth; Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2015-02-02

    Here we investigate three-dimensional ideal hydrodynamic evolution, with Landau initial conditions, incorporating event-by-event variation with many events and transverse density inhomogeneities. We show that the transition to boost-invariant flow occurs too late for realistic setups, with corrections of θ (20%-30%) expected at freeze-out for most scenarios. Moreover, the deviation from boost invariance is correlated with both transverse flow and elliptic flow, with the more highly transversely flowing regions also showing the most violation of boost invariance. Therefore, if longitudinal flow is not fully developed at the early stages of heavy ion collisions, hydrodynamics where boost invariance holds at midrapidity is inadequate to extract transport coefficients of the quark-gluon plasma. We conclude by arguing that developing experimental probes of boost invariance is necessary, and suggest some promising directions in this regard.

  6. Longitudinal hydrodynamics from event-by-event Landau initial conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Sen, Abhisek; Gerhard, Jochen; Torrieri, Giorgio; ...

    2015-02-02

    Here we investigate three-dimensional ideal hydrodynamic evolution, with Landau initial conditions, incorporating event-by-event variation with many events and transverse density inhomogeneities. We show that the transition to boost-invariant flow occurs too late for realistic setups, with corrections of θ (20%-30%) expected at freeze-out for most scenarios. Moreover, the deviation from boost invariance is correlated with both transverse flow and elliptic flow, with the more highly transversely flowing regions also showing the most violation of boost invariance. Therefore, if longitudinal flow is not fully developed at the early stages of heavy ion collisions, hydrodynamics where boost invariance holds at midrapidity ismore » inadequate to extract transport coefficients of the quark-gluon plasma. We conclude by arguing that developing experimental probes of boost invariance is necessary, and suggest some promising directions in this regard.« less

  7. Spectator field dynamics in de Sitter and curvaton initial conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Enqvist, Kari; Lerner, Rose N.; Taanila, Olli; Tranberg, Anders E-mail: rose.lerner@helsinki.fi E-mail: antranbe@nbi.dk

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the stochastic behaviour of long wavelength modes of light spectator scalar fields during inflation. When starting from a classical field value, the probability distribution for the spectator both spreads out and moves towards an equilibrium distribution. We study the timescales for a mixed quadratic and quartic potential. The timescale of equilibration depends on the parameters of the model, and can be surprisingly large, more than thousands of e-folds for the majority of light spectators. These results imply that the initial conditions for spectator fields are not automatically erased during inflation. These general results can be used to determine the probability of the value of the zero-mode inside a Universe-sized patch, which is relevant for observations. As an example, we apply the results to the curvaton model to calculate the probability distribution of the curvature perturbation and discuss 'typical' Universes.

  8. Predictability in France : atmospheric forcing or land surface initial conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singla, S.; Martin, E.; Céron, J.-P.; Regimbeau, F.

    2010-09-01

    A first study of a hydrological forecasting suite has already been done at seasonal time scales over France (Céron and al., 2010) in a context of adaptation for water resources management. The results showed the feasibility of hydrological seasonal forecasts by forcing the hydrometeorological model Safran-Isba-Modcou (SIM) with seasonal atmospheric forecasts from the DEMETER project. Scores were better for hydrological variables than for atmospheric variables for four river catchments for the spring season. The purpose of the present study is to quantify the sources of predictability of the hydrometeorological system. Two experiences were conducted in order to address this issue. The first experience consisted in testing the impact of the land surface initial conditions. We used realistic land surface initial state produced by the operational SIM model for the specific year and 9 random years of Safran atmospheric analyses (temperature and precipitation) from 1971 to 2001, in a consistent way with the previous study (Céron et al, 2010). The other atmospheric parameters (wind, specific humidity, long wave and short wave radiation and cloudiness) come from the SAFRAN climatology over the same period. The second experience was designed to evaluate the impact of the atmospheric forcing with 9 random years, chosen for the land surface initial state. The atmospheric forcing (temperature and precipitation) comes from the Safran analysis system for the corresponding year. Some results of this study will be presented on soil wetness index (SWI) forecasts and river flows forecasts for all stations in France. We will compare deterministic and probabilistic scores of the two experiences with those of the hydrological forecasting suite built with the seasonal forecasts from the DEMETER project. Perspectives for the downscaling of seasonal forecasts will be discussed in a last part. Céron J-P, Tanguy G, Franchistéguy L, Martin E, Regimbeau F and Vidal J-P, 2010. Hydrological

  9. Formation of Molecular Clouds and Initial Conditions of Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi

    2013-07-01

    Using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, including the effects of radiative cool- ing/heating, chemical reactions, self-gravity and thermal conduction, we investigate the formation of molecular clouds in the multi-phase interstellar medium. We consider the formation of molecular clouds due to accretion of HI clouds as suggested by recent observations. Our simulations show that the initial HI medium is piled up behind the shock waves induced by accretion flows. Since the accreting medium is highly inhomogeneous as a consequence of thermal instability, a newly formed molecular cloud becomes very turbulent owing to the development of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. The kinetic energy of the turbulence dominates the thermal, magnetic, and gravitational energies. However, the kinetic energy measured using CO-fraction-weighted density is comparable to the other energies, once the CO molecules are sufficiently formed as a result of UV shielding. This suggests that the true kinetic energy of turbulence in molecular clouds as a whole can be much larger than the kinetic energy of turbulence estimated by using line widths of molecular emission. We find that dense clumps in the molecular cloud show the following evolution: the typical plasma beta of the clumps is roughly constant; the size-ělocity dispersion relation follows Larson's law, irrespective of the density; and the clumps evolve into magnetically supercritical cores by clump-clump collisions. These statistical properties would represent the initial conditions of star formation.

  10. Initiation of premature senescence by Bcl-2 in hypoxic condition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Desheng; Li, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Senescence, a state of cell cycle arrest, has been regarded as an intrinsic barrier to malignance. Although being repressed in most immortal tumors, the genetic program of senescence can be reactivated by critical regulators, including the apoptosis regulator Bcl-2. We showed here that hypoxic condition resulted in an irreversible senescence-like phenotype with increased expression of Bcl-2 in mouse melanoma B16 cells. In CoCl2-simulating hypoxic condition, characteristic morphological alterations and increased activity of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) can be detected with high level of Bcl-2, which was confirmed by western blot and co-staining of SA-β-gal and Bcl-2 by immunocytochemistry. Accordingly, Bcl-2 silence by specific siRNA ahead of hypoxia treatment interrupted the senescent development. Moreover Bcl-2 overexpression led to early onset of senescence. We propose that Bcl-2 is required to initiate and maintain the senescent phenotype. In addition, p53 and p16 were not involved in hypoxia-induced senescence according to the expression levels during senescent process. These results suggest that when encountering harmful stress (hypoxia), melanoma cells overexpress Bcl-2 and turn to senescence, a permanent cell-cycle arrest, for prolonged survival.

  11. Can a Global Model Accurately Simulate Land-Atmosphere Interactions under Climate Change Conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, C., VI; Wang, K.

    2015-12-01

    Surface air temperature (Ta) is largely determined by surface net radiation (Rn) and its partitioning into latent (LE) and sensible heat fluxes (H). Existing model evaluations of the absolute values of these fluxes are less helpful because the evaluation results are a blending of inconsistent spatial scales, inaccurate model forcing data and inaccurate parameterizations. This study further evaluates the relationship of LE and H with Rn and environmental parameters, including Ta, relative humidity (RH) and wind speed (WS), using ERA-interim reanalysis data at a grid of 0.125°×0.125° with measurements at AmeriFlux sites from 1998 to 2012. The results demonstrate that ERA-Interim can reproduce the absolute values of environmental parameters, radiation and turbulent fluxes rather accurately. The model performs well in simulating the correlation of LE and H to Rn, except for the notable correlation overestimation of H against Rn over high-density vegetation (e.g., deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF), grassland (GRA) and cropland (CRO)). The sensitivity of LE to Rn in the model is similar to the observations, but that of H to Rn is overestimated by 24.2%. In regions with high-density vegetation, the correlation coefficient between H and Ta is overestimated by more than 0.2, whereas that between H and WS is underestimated by more than 0.43. The sensitivity of H to Ta is overestimated by 0.72 Wm-2 °C-1, whereas that of H to WS in the model is underestimated by 16.15 Wm-2/(ms-1) over all of the sites. Considering both LE and H, the model cannot accurately capture the response of the evaporative fraction (EF=LE/(LE+H)) to Rn and the environmental parameters.

  12. Identification and Evaluation of Reference Genes for Accurate Transcription Normalization in Safflower under Different Experimental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dandan; Hu, Bo; Wang, Qing; Liu, Hongchang; Pan, Feng; Wu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) has received a significant amount of attention as a medicinal plant and oilseed crop. Gene expression studies provide a theoretical molecular biology foundation for improving new traits and developing new cultivars. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) has become a crucial approach for gene expression analysis. In addition, appropriate reference genes (RGs) are essential for accurate and rapid relative quantification analysis of gene expression. In this study, fifteen candidate RGs involved in multiple metabolic pathways of plants were finally selected and validated under different experimental treatments, at different seed development stages and in different cultivars and tissues for real-time PCR experiments. These genes were ABCS, 60SRPL10, RANBP1, UBCL, MFC, UBCE2, EIF5A, COA, EF1-β, EF1, GAPDH, ATPS, MBF1, GTPB and GST. The suitability evaluation was executed by the geNorm and NormFinder programs. Overall, EF1, UBCE2, EIF5A, ATPS and 60SRPL10 were the most stable genes, and MBF1, as well as MFC, were the most unstable genes by geNorm and NormFinder software in all experimental samples. To verify the validation of RGs selected by the two programs, the expression analysis of 7 CtFAD2 genes in safflower seeds at different developmental stages under cold stress was executed using different RGs in RT-qPCR experiments for normalization. The results showed similar expression patterns when the most stable RGs selected by geNorm or NormFinder software were used. However, the differences were detected using the most unstable reference genes. The most stable combination of genes selected in this study will help to achieve more accurate and reliable results in a wide variety of samples in safflower. PMID:26457898

  13. Multi-Scale Initial Conditions For Cosmological Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Oliver; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /ZAH, Heidelberg /HITS, Heidelberg

    2011-11-04

    We discuss a new algorithm to generate multi-scale initial conditions with multiple levels of refinements for cosmological 'zoom-in' simulations. The method uses an adaptive convolution of Gaussian white noise with a real-space transfer function kernel together with an adaptive multi-grid Poisson solver to generate displacements and velocities following first- (1LPT) or second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT). The new algorithm achieves rms relative errors of the order of 10{sup -4} for displacements and velocities in the refinement region and thus improves in terms of errors by about two orders of magnitude over previous approaches. In addition, errors are localized at coarse-fine boundaries and do not suffer from Fourier-space-induced interference ringing. An optional hybrid multi-grid and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based scheme is introduced which has identical Fourier-space behaviour as traditional approaches. Using a suite of re-simulations of a galaxy cluster halo our real-space-based approach is found to reproduce correlation functions, density profiles, key halo properties and subhalo abundances with per cent level accuracy. Finally, we generalize our approach for two-component baryon and dark-matter simulations and demonstrate that the power spectrum evolution is in excellent agreement with linear perturbation theory. For initial baryon density fields, it is suggested to use the local Lagrangian approximation in order to generate a density field for mesh-based codes that is consistent with the Lagrangian perturbation theory instead of the current practice of using the Eulerian linearly scaled densities.

  14. The accurate measurement of fear memory in Pavlovian conditioning: Resolving the baseline issue.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Nathan S; Cushman, Jesse D; Fanselow, Michael S

    2010-07-15

    Fear conditioning has become an indispensable behavioral task in an increasingly vast array of research disciplines. Yet one unresolved issue is how conditional fear to an explicit cue interacts with and is potentially confounded by fear prior to tone presentation, referred to as baseline fear. After tone-shock pairings, we experimentally manipulated baseline fear by presenting unpaired shocks in the testing chamber and then analyzed the accuracy of common methods for reporting tone fear. Our findings indicate that baseline fear and tone fear tend to interact, where freezing to the tone increases as baseline fear increases. However, the form of interaction is not linear across all conditions and none of the commonly used reporting methods were consistently able to eliminate the confounding effects of baseline fear. We propose a methodological solution in which baseline fear is reduced to very low levels by first extinguishing fear to the training context and then pre-exposing to the testing context.

  15. A novel, integrated PET-guided MRS technique resulting in more accurate initial diagnosis of high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ellen S; Satter, Martin; Reed, Marilyn; Fadell, Ronald; Kardan, Arash

    2016-06-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal malignant glioma in adults. Currently, the modality of choice for diagnosing brain tumor is high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast, which provides anatomic detail and localization. Studies have demonstrated, however, that MRI may have limited utility in delineating the full tumor extent precisely. Studies suggest that MR spectroscopy (MRS) can also be used to distinguish high-grade from low-grade gliomas. However, due to operator dependent variables and the heterogeneous nature of gliomas, the potential for error in diagnostic accuracy with MRS is a concern. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with (11)C-methionine (MET) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has been shown to add additional information with respect to tumor grade, extent, and prognosis based on the premise of biochemical changes preceding anatomic changes. Combined PET/MRS is a technique that integrates information from PET in guiding the location for the most accurate metabolic characterization of a lesion via MRS. We describe a case of glioblastoma multiforme in which MRS was initially non-diagnostic for malignancy, but when MRS was repeated with PET guidance, demonstrated elevated choline/N-acetylaspartate (Cho/NAA) ratio in the right parietal mass consistent with a high-grade malignancy. Stereotactic biopsy, followed by PET image-guided resection, confirmed the diagnosis of grade IV GBM. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an integrated PET/MRS technique for the voxel placement of MRS. Our findings suggest that integrated PET/MRS may potentially improve diagnostic accuracy in high-grade gliomas.

  16. Structural adjustment for accurate conditioning in large-scale subsurface systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmasebi, Pejman

    2017-03-01

    Most of the current subsurface simulation approaches consider a priority list for honoring the well and any other auxiliary data, and eventually adopt a middle ground between the quality of the model and conditioning it to hard data. However, as the number of datasets increases, such methods often produce undesirable features in the subsurface model. Due to their high flexibility, subsurface modeling based on training images (TIs) is becoming popular. Providing comprehensive TIs remains, however, an outstanding problem. In addition, identifying a pattern similar to those in the TI that honors the well and other conditioning data is often difficult. Moreover, the current subsurface modeling approaches do not account for small perturbations that may occur in a subsurface system. Such perturbations are active in most of the depositional systems. In this paper, a new methodology is presented that is based on an irregular gridding scheme that accounts for incomplete TIs and minor offsets. Use of the methodology enables one to use a small or incomplete TI and adaptively change the patterns in the simulation grid in order to simultaneously honor the well data and take into account the effect of the local offsets. Furthermore, the proposed method was used on various complex process-based models and their structures are deformed for matching with the conditioning point data. The accuracy and robustness of the proposed algorithm are successfully demonstrated by applying it to models of several complex examples.

  17. Is the Filinov integral conditioning technique useful in semiclassical initial value representation methods?

    SciTech Connect

    Spanner, Michael; Batista, Victor S.; Brumer, Paul

    2005-02-22

    The utility of the Filinov integral conditioning technique, as implemented in semiclassical initial value representation (SC-IVR) methods, is analyzed for a number of regular and chaotic systems. For nonchaotic systems of low dimensionality, the Filinov technique is found to be quite ineffective at accelerating convergence of semiclassical calculations since, contrary to the conventional wisdom, the semiclassical integrands usually do not exhibit significant phase oscillations in regions of large integrand amplitude. In the case of chaotic dynamics, it is found that the regular component is accurately represented by the SC-IVR, even when using the Filinov integral conditioning technique, but that quantum manifestations of chaotic behavior was easily overdamped by the filtering technique. Finally, it is shown that the level of approximation introduced by the Filinov filter is, in general, comparable to the simpler ad hoc truncation procedure introduced by Kay [J. Chem. Phys. 101, 2250 (1994)].

  18. Experimental study of infrared filaments under different initial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirell, Daniel Joseph

    field that gives birth to multiphoton and avalanche ionization), (b) conical emission/supercontinuum generation, and (c) emitted THz radiation. The aim of all of this research is to gain a better understanding of filamentation so that we may learn how to control them for the applications of: (a) laser-induced lightning, (b) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, (c) LIDAR, (d) medical imaging and many more. In this dissertation we will focus on an experimental study of filamentation in air produced by 780 nm radiation, pulsewidths of 200 fs, and energies pulse of 9 mJ/pulse. We have used an aerodynamic window + vacuum system to study the difference between focusing filament forming pulses down initially in vacuum conditions to that where it is allowed to focus in atmosphere. Described herein is a new way to use an off-the-shelf, inexpensive and robust 1064 nm mirror to observe the beam profile and its evolution in the filament as well as the filaments spectral properties. In addition, experiments to test for the plasma have been conducted. The results of these experiments indicate filament sizes of 200mum, in contrast to the commonly reported value of 100pm. Filaments of this size exist over a length of approximately a meter which is 8 times longer than the associated Rayleigh range for such a spot size with a clear enhancement in filament persistence with the use of the aerodynamic window. In addition the appearance of newly generated "bluer" frequencies that is present under atmospheric focusing is ail but eliminated through an initial focusing of the beam in vacuum conditions. Plasma densities of 1016 e -/cm3 were measured using plasma interferometry.

  19. On initial conditions for the hot big bang

    SciTech Connect

    Bezrukov, F.; Gorbunov, D.; Shaposhnikov, M. E-mail: gorby@ms2.inr.ac.ru

    2009-06-01

    We analyse the process of reheating the Universe in the electroweak theory where the Higgs field plays a role of the inflaton. We estimate the maximal temperature of the Universe and fix the initial conditions for radiation-dominated phase of the Universe expansion in the framework of the Standard Model (SM) and of the νMSM—the minimal extension of the SM by three right-handed singlet fermions. We show that the inflationary epoch is followed by a matter dominated stage related to the Higgs field oscillations. We investigate the energy transfer from Higgs-inflaton to the SM particles and show that the radiation dominated phase of the Universe expansion starts at temperature T{sub r} ≅ (3−15) × 10{sup 13} GeV, where the upper bound depends on the Higgs boson mass. We estimate the production rate of singlet fermions at preheating and find that their concentrations at T{sub r} are negligibly small. This suggests that the sterile neutrino Dark Matter (DM) production and baryogenesis in the νMSM with Higgs-driven inflation are low energy phenomena, having nothing to do with inflation. We study then a modification of the νMSM, adding to its Lagrangian higher dimensional operators suppressed by the Planck scale. The role of these operators in Higgs-driven inflation is clarified. We find that these operators do not contribute to the production of Warm Dark Matter (WDM) and to baryogenesis. We also demonstrate that the sterile neutrino with mass exceeding 100 keV (a Cold Dark Matter (CDM) candidate) can be created during the reheating stage of the Universe in necessary amounts. We argue that the mass of DM sterile neutrino should not exceed few MeV in order not to overclose the Universe.

  20. Conditions for accurate Karl Fischer coulometry using diaphragm-free cells.

    PubMed

    Nordmark, U; Cedergren, A

    2000-01-01

    Factors influencing the extent of formation of oxidizable reduction products in coulometric cells used for Karl Fischer (KF) determination of water were investigated. For methanolic KF reagents buffered with imidazole (Im) or diethanolamine (DEA) (separately or in combination), three parameters were found to be of outmost importance: the cathodic current density, the pH, and the concentration of protonated base (ImH+ or DEAH+). For reagents buffered with only Im, the relative formation of oxidizable reduction products varied in the range 2-40%; i.e., 51-70 micrograms of water was found for a 50 micrograms water sample, depending on the above-mentioned parameters. The lowest values were observed for reagents having a pH around 10 in combination with cathodic current densities in the range 2000-5000 mA cm-2. For all the Imbuffered reagents investigated, the addition of modifiers such as chloroform, hexanol, and carbon tetrachloride was found to decrease the formation of oxidizable reduction products significantly. For example, a reagent buffered at pH 10 containing 1 M hexanol gave less than 0.3% formation in the current density interval from 200 to 4000 mA cm-2. The best reagents based on the above-mentioned modifiers were tested in the continuous coulometric mode with errors typically in the interval 0-0.5% using optimum conditions. One prerequisite for obtaining such small errors with diaphragm-free continuous coulometry is to use a cathode area no larger than 0.002 cm2. For some of the reagents based on both Im and DEA, the formation of oxidizable reduction products was close to zero at certain current densities, although the analytical performance was not as good as for the reagents buffered solely by Im due to longer conditioning and titration times.

  1. On the accurate long-time solution of the wave equation in exterior domains: Asymptotic expansions and corrected boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagstrom, Thomas; Hariharan, S. I.; Maccamy, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    We consider the solution of scattering problems for the wave equation using approximate boundary conditions at artificial boundaries. These conditions are explicitly viewed as approximations to an exact boundary condition satisfied by the solution on the unbounded domain. We study the short and long term behavior of the error. It is provided that, in two space dimensions, no local in time, constant coefficient boundary operator can lead to accurate results uniformly in time for the class of problems we consider. A variable coefficient operator is developed which attains better accuracy (uniformly in time) than is possible with constant coefficient approximations. The theory is illustrated by numerical examples. We also analyze the proposed boundary conditions using energy methods, leading to asymptotically correct error bounds.

  2. Accurately measuring sea level change from space: an ESA Climate Change Initiative for MSL closure budget studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeais, JeanFrancois; Cazenave, Anny; Ablain, Michael; Larnicol, Gilles; Benveniste, Jerome; Johannessen, Johnny; Timms, Gary; Andersen, Ole; Cipollini, Paolo; Roca, Monica; Rudenko, Sergei; Fernandes, Joana; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Quartly, Graham; Fenoglio-Marc, Luciana; Meyssignac, Benoit; Scharffenberg, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change and variability. Sea level integrates the ocean warming, mountain glaciers and ice sheet melting. Understanding the sea level variability and changes implies an accurate monitoring of the sea level variable at climate scales, in addition to understanding the ocean variability and the exchanges between ocean, land, cryosphere, and atmosphere. That is why Sea Level is one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV) selected in the frame of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program. It aims at providing long-term monitoring of the sea level ECV with regular updates, as required for climate studies. The program is now in its second phase of 3 year (following phase I during 2011-2013). The objectives are firstly to involve the climate research community, to refine their needs and collect their feedbacks on product quality. And secondly to develop, test and select the best algorithms and standards to generate an updated climate time series and to produce and validate the Sea Level ECV product. This will better answer the climate user needs by improving the quality of the Sea Level products and maintain a sustain service for an up-to-date production. This has led to the production of the Sea Level ECV which has benefited from yearly extensions and now covers the period 1993-2014. We will firstly present the main achievements of the ESA CCI Sea Level Project. On the one hand, the major steps required to produce the 22 years climate time series are briefly described: collect and refine the user requirements, development of adapted algorithms for climate applications and specification of the production system. On the other hand, the product characteristics are described as well as the results from product validation, performed by several groups of the ocean and climate modeling community. At last, new altimeter standards have been developed and the best one have been recently selected in order to produce a full

  3. Accurately measuring sea level change from space: an ESA climate change initiative for MSL closure budget studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeais, JeanFrancois; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2016-07-01

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change and variability. Sea level integrates the ocean warming, mountain glaciers and ice sheet melting. Understanding the sea level variability and changes implies an accurate monitoring of the sea level variable at climate scales, in addition to understanding the ocean variability and the exchanges between ocean, land, cryosphere, and atmosphere. That is why Sea Level is one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV) selected in the frame of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program. It aims at providing long-term monitoring of the sea level ECV with regular updates, as required for climate studies. The program is now in its second phase of 3 year (following phase I during 2011-2013). The objectives are firstly to involve the climate research community, to refine their needs and collect their feedbacks on product quality. And secondly to develop, test and select the best algorithms and standards to generate an updated climate time series and to produce and validate the Sea Level ECV product. This will better answer the climate user needs by improving the quality of the Sea Level products and maintain a sustain service for an up-to-date production. This has led to the production of a first version of the Sea Level ECV which has benefited from yearly extensions and now covers the period 1993-2014. Within phase II, new altimeter standards have been developed and tested in order to reprocess the dataset with the best standards for climate studies. The reprocessed ECV will be released in summer 2016. We will present the main achievements of the ESA CCI Sea Level Project. On the one hand, the major steps required to produce the 22 years climate time series are briefly described: collect and refine the user requirements, development of adapted algorithms for climate applications and specification of the production system. On the other hand, the product characteristics are described as well as the results from product

  4. Generation of Accurate Lateral Boundary Conditions for a Surface-Water Groundwater Interaction Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khambhammettu, P.; Tsou, M.; Panday, S. M.; Kool, J.; Wei, X.

    2010-12-01

    The 106 mile long Peace River in Florida flows south from Lakeland to Charlotte Harbor and has a drainage basin of approximately 2,350 square miles. A long-term decline in stream flows and groundwater potentiometric levels has been observed in the region. Long-term trends in rainfall, along with effects of land use changes on runoff, surface-water storage, recharge and evapotranspiration patterns, and increased groundwater and surface-water withdrawals have contributed to this decline. The South West Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) has funded the development of the Peace River Integrated Model (PRIM) to assess the effects of land use, water use, and climatic changes on stream flows and to evaluate the effectiveness of various management alternatives for restoring stream flows. The PRIM was developed using MODHMS, a fully integrated surface-water groundwater flow and transport simulator developed by HydroGeoLogic, Inc. The development of the lateral boundary conditions (groundwater inflow and outflow) for the PRIM in both historical and predictive contexts is discussed in this presentation. Monthly-varying specified heads were used to define the lateral boundary conditions for the PRIM. These head values were derived from the coarser Southern District Groundwater Model (SDM). However, there were discrepancies between the simulated SDM heads and measured heads: the likely causes being spatial (use of a coarser grid) and temporal (monthly average pumping rates and recharge rates) approximations in the regional SDM. Finer re-calibration of the SDM was not feasible, therefore, an innovative approach was adopted to remove the discrepancies. In this approach, point discrepancies/residuals between the observed and simulated heads were kriged with an appropriate variogram to generate a residual surface. This surface was then added to the simulated head surface of the SDM to generate a corrected head surface. This approach preserves the trends associated with

  5. Mineralogical compositions of aquifer matrix as necessary initial conditions in reactive contaminant transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chen; Burden, David S.

    2001-10-01

    Mineralogical compositions and their spatial distributions are important initial conditions for reactive transport modeling. However, popular Kd-based "reactive" transport models only require contaminant concentrations in the pore fluids as initial conditions, and minerals implicitly represent infinite sources and sinks in these models. That situation results in a general neglect of mineralogical characterization in site investigations. This study uses a coupled multi-component reactive mass transport model to predict the natural attenuation of a ground water plume at a uranium mill tailings site in western USA. Numerous ground water geochemistry data are available at this site, but mineralogical data are sketchy. Even given the well-defined pore fluid chemistry, variations of secondary mineral species and mineral abundances in the aquifer resulted in significantly different modeling outcomes. Results show that the amount of calcite in the aquifer determines the distances of plume migration. The possible presence of jurbanite, an aluminum sulfate phase, can store acidity temporarily but cause more severe contamination on a later date. The surfaces of iron oxyhydroxides can store significant amounts of sulfate and protons and serve as a second source for prolonged contamination. These simulations under field conditions illustrate that mineralogical compositions are an essential requirement for accurate prediction of contaminant fate and transport.

  6. Mineralogical compositions of aquifer matrix as necessary initial conditions in reactive contaminant transport models.

    PubMed

    Zhu, C; Burden, D S

    2001-10-01

    Mineralogical compositions and their spatial distributions are important initial conditions for reactive transport modeling. However, popular Kd-based "reactive" transport models only require contaminant concentrations in the pore fluids as initial conditions, and minerals implicitly represent infinite sources and sinks in these models. That situation results in a general neglect of mineralogical characterization in site investigations. This study uses a coupled multi-component reactive mass transport model to predict the natural attenuation of a ground water plume at a uranium mill tailings site in western USA. Numerous ground water geochemistry data are available at this site, but mineralogical data are sketchy. Even given the well-defined pore fluid chemistry, variations of secondary mineral species and mineral abundances in the aquifer resulted in significantly different modeling outcomes. Results show that the amount of calcite in the aquifer determines the distances of plume migration. The possible presence of jurbanite, an aluminum sulfate phase, can store acidity temporarily but cause more severe contamination on a later date. The surfaces of iron oxyhydroxides can store significant amounts of sulfate and protons and serve as a second source for prolonged contamination. These simulations under field conditions illustrate that mineralogical compositions are an essential requirement for accurate prediction of contaminant fate and transport.

  7. Symbolic computation of analytic approximate solutions for nonlinear differential equations with initial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yezhi; Liu, Yinping; Li, Zhibin

    2012-01-01

    The Adomian decomposition method (ADM) is one of the most effective methods for constructing analytic approximate solutions of nonlinear differential equations. In this paper, based on the new definition of the Adomian polynomials, and the two-step Adomian decomposition method (TSADM) combined with the Padé technique, a new algorithm is proposed to construct accurate analytic approximations of nonlinear differential equations with initial conditions. Furthermore, a MAPLE package is developed, which is user-friendly and efficient. One only needs to input a system, initial conditions and several necessary parameters, then our package will automatically deliver analytic approximate solutions within a few seconds. Several different types of examples are given to illustrate the validity of the package. Our program provides a helpful and easy-to-use tool in science and engineering to deal with initial value problems. Program summaryProgram title: NAPA Catalogue identifier: AEJZ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEJZ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4060 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 113 498 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MAPLE R13 Computer: PC Operating system: Windows XP/7 RAM: 2 Gbytes Classification: 4.3 Nature of problem: Solve nonlinear differential equations with initial conditions. Solution method: Adomian decomposition method and Padé technique. Running time: Seconds at most in routine uses of the program. Special tasks may take up to some minutes.

  8. Threshold conditions for laser-initiated plasma shutters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czuchlewski, S. J.; Figueira, J. F.

    1981-03-01

    The characteristics of laser-initiated plasma shutters used for retropulse isolation in high-power CO2 laser-fusion systems are discussed. Initiation of the plasma breakdown is shown to depend on the fluence that is incident on the edge of the iris which is employed in these shutters. A relatively simple model for the ignition process has been verified for a range of pulse durations (0.7-60 ns) and iris diameters (100-800 microns). This model provides practical design criteria for sizing plasma isolators for a variety of applications.

  9. Initial conditions in AA and pA collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappi, Tuomas

    2017-03-01

    A full understanding of the spacetime evolution of the QCD matter created in a heavy ion collision requires understanding the properties of the initial stages. In the weak coupling picture these are dominated by classical gluon fields, whose properties can also be studied via the scattering of dilute probes off a high energy hadron or nucleus. A particular challenge is understanding small systems, where LHC data is also showing signs of collective behavior. We discuss some recent results of on the initial matter production and thermalization in heavy ion collisions, in particular in the gluon saturation framework.

  10. Experiments using new initial soil moisture conditions and soil map in the Eta model over La Plata Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Moira E.; Tomasella, Javier; Rodriguez, Daniel A.; Chou, Sin Chan

    2013-08-01

    An effort towards a more accurate representation of soil moisture and its impact on the modeling of weather systems is presented. Sensitivity tests of precipitation to soil type and soil moisture changes are carried out using the atmospheric Eta model for the numerical simulation of the development of a mesoscale convective system over northern Argentina. Modified initial soil moisture conditions were obtained from a hydrological balance model developed and running operationally at INPE. A new soil map was elaborated using the available soil profile information from Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentina and depicts 18 different soil types. Results indicate that more accurate initial soil moisture conditions and incorporating a new soil map with hydraulic parameters, more representative of South American soils, improve daily total precipitation forecasts both in quantitative and spatial representations.

  11. Regimes of chemical reaction waves initiated by nonuniform initial conditions for detailed chemical reaction models.

    PubMed

    Liberman, M A; Kiverin, A D; Ivanov, M F

    2012-05-01

    Regimes of chemical reaction wave propagation initiated by initial temperature nonuniformity in gaseous mixtures, whose chemistry is governed by chain-branching kinetics, are studied using a multispecies transport model and a detailed chemical model. Possible regimes of reaction wave propagation are identified for stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen and hydrogen-air mixtures in a wide range of initial pressures and temperature levels, depending on the initial non-uniformity steepness. The limits of the regimes of reaction wave propagation depend upon the values of the spontaneous wave speed and the characteristic velocities of the problem. It is shown that one-step kinetics cannot reproduce either quantitative neither qualitative features of the ignition process in real gaseous mixtures because the difference between the induction time and the time when the exothermic reaction begins significantly affects the ignition, evolution, and coupling of the spontaneous reaction wave and the pressure wave, especially at lower temperatures. We show that all the regimes initiated by the temperature gradient occur for much shallower temperature gradients than predicted by a one-step model. The difference is very large for lower initial pressures and for slowly reacting mixtures. In this way the paper provides an answer to questions, important in practice, about the ignition energy, its distribution, and the scale of the initial nonuniformity required for ignition in one or another regime of combustion wave propagation.

  12. Regimes of chemical reaction waves initiated by nonuniform initial conditions for detailed chemical reaction models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberman, M. A.; Kiverin, A. D.; Ivanov, M. F.

    2012-05-01

    Regimes of chemical reaction wave propagation initiated by initial temperature nonuniformity in gaseous mixtures, whose chemistry is governed by chain-branching kinetics, are studied using a multispecies transport model and a detailed chemical model. Possible regimes of reaction wave propagation are identified for stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen and hydrogen-air mixtures in a wide range of initial pressures and temperature levels, depending on the initial non-uniformity steepness. The limits of the regimes of reaction wave propagation depend upon the values of the spontaneous wave speed and the characteristic velocities of the problem. It is shown that one-step kinetics cannot reproduce either quantitative neither qualitative features of the ignition process in real gaseous mixtures because the difference between the induction time and the time when the exothermic reaction begins significantly affects the ignition, evolution, and coupling of the spontaneous reaction wave and the pressure wave, especially at lower temperatures. We show that all the regimes initiated by the temperature gradient occur for much shallower temperature gradients than predicted by a one-step model. The difference is very large for lower initial pressures and for slowly reacting mixtures. In this way the paper provides an answer to questions, important in practice, about the ignition energy, its distribution, and the scale of the initial nonuniformity required for ignition in one or another regime of combustion wave propagation.

  13. Numerical Black Hole Interiors and String Cosmology Initial Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, R.

    2000-11-01

    Recent work has proposed the principle of 'asymptotic past trivality' to characterize the initial state in the pre-big bang scenario of string cosmology, that it is a generic perturbative solution of the low-energy effective action. Among the more generic sets of solutions which is simple enough to investigate thoroughly, yet complex enough to exhibit interesting behavior, is the gravity-dilation system in spherical symmetry. Since, in the Einstein frame, this system reduces to a massless minimally coupled scalar, which has been the target of a large body of previous investigation, the authors will draw on this and interpret it in the cosmological context. Since the scenario necessarily involves the transition from weak field initial data into the strong field regime, gravitational collapse, the authors have made numerical computations to answer some of the questions raised on the road to the proposal that the 'pre-big bang is as generic as gravitational collapse'.

  14. Parametric initial conditions for core-collapse supernova simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwa, Yudai; Müller, Ewald

    2016-08-01

    We investigate a method to construct parametrized progenitor models for core-collapse supernova simulations. Different from all modern core-collapse supernova studies, which rely on progenitor models from stellar evolution calculations, we follow the methodology of Baron & Cooperstein to construct initial models. Choosing parametrized spatial distributions of entropy and electron fraction as a function of mass coordinate and solving the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium, we obtain the initial density structures of our progenitor models. First, we calculate structures with parameters fitting broadly the evolutionary model s11.2 of Woosley et al. (2002). We then demonstrate the reliability of our method by performing general relativistic hydrodynamic simulations in spherical symmetry with the isotropic diffusion source approximation to solve the neutrino transport. Our comprehensive parameter study shows that initial models with a small central entropy (≲0.4 kB nucleon-1) can explode even in spherically symmetric simulations. Models with a large entropy (≳6 kB nucleon-1) in the Si/O layer have a rather large explosion energy (˜4 × 1050 erg) at the end of the simulations, which is still rapidly increasing.

  15. Initial experience with CO2 laser in treating dermatological conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, C T; Tham, S N; Tan, T

    1987-10-01

    CO2 laser was first used in the treatment of melanomas in animals. Since then, it has been successfully used in treating many dermatological conditions. A total of 47 patients were treated once as outpatients in Middle Road Hospital by using Model 720 Sharplan CO2 Laser System and Yoshida Opelaser-01 CO2 Laser System to determine the usefulness of CO2 laser in the treatment of various dermatological conditions. The laser was used mainly in the defocused mode at 10 watts. Local anaesthetic with 1% lignocaine HCL was employed in all cases. 3 patients defaulted follow-up. Of the 30 patients with warts, most of which were recalcitrant, 14 were cured and the remaining 16 showed marked improvement. 4 of the 5 patients with lichen simplex chronicus were cured. 1 patient each of the following conditions were also treated; prurigo nodularis, psoriasis, solar keratosis, ingrowing toe nail, Bowen's disease, infected callosity and lichen amyloidosis; cure was achieved in the former 4 conditions. The laser failed to cure 2 patients with pyogenic granuloma. Side effects included hypopigmentation (62%), mild post-operative pain (11%), scarring (11%), excess granulation tissue (11%), and infection (2%). CO2 laser is a potentially useful, effective and safe treatment modality for many dermatological conditions.

  16. Bouncing braneworld cosmologies and initial conditions to inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, R.; Soares, I. Damiao; Tonini, E. V.

    2009-01-15

    We examine the full nonlinear dynamics of closed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes in the framework of D-branes formalism. Friedmann equations contain additional terms arising from the bulk-brane interaction that provide a concrete model for nonsingular bounces in the early phase of the Universe. We construct nonsingular cosmological scenarios sourced with perfect fluids and a massive inflaton field, which are past eternal, oscillatory, and may emerge into an inflationary phase due to nonlinear resonance mechanisms. Oscillatory behavior becomes metastable when the system is driven into a resonance window of the parameter space of the models, with consequent breakup of KAM tori that trap the inflaton, leading the Universe to the inflationary regime. A construction of the resonance chart of the models is made. Resonance windows are labeled by an integer n{>=}2, where n is related to the ratio of the frequencies in the scale factor/scalar field degrees of freedom. They are typically small compared to the volume of the whole parameter space, and we examine the constraints imposed by nonlinear resonance in the physical domain of initial configurations so that inflation may be realized. We discuss the complex dynamics arising in this preinflationary stage, the structural stability of the resonance pattern and some of its possible imprints in the physics of inflation. We also approach the issue of initial configurations that are connected to a chaotic exit to inflation. Pure scalar field bouncing cosmologies are constructed. Contrary to models with perfect fluid components, the structure of the bouncing dynamics is highly sensitive to the initial amplitude and to the mass of the inflaton; dynamical potential barriers allowing for bounces appear as a new feature of the dynamics. We argue that if our actual Universe is a brane inflated by a parametric resonance mechanism triggered by the inflaton, some observable cosmological parameters should then have a signature of

  17. Cross-Modal Transfer of Conditioned Suppression in Rats: Effects of US Intensity and Extinction of the Initial Conditioning Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doe, Nobutaka; Nakajima, Sadahiko; Tamai, Noriko

    2004-01-01

    In conditioned suppression of water licking behavior by rats, we obtained data indicating general transfer of fear conditioning. A series of experiments resulted in two major findings. First, pairing of a neutral stimulus with a shock in the initial conditioning task facilitated acquisition of subsequent fear conditioning to another neutral…

  18. Spin-up behavior and effects of initial conditions for an integrated hydrologic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seck, Alimatou; Welty, Claire; Maxwell, Reed M.

    2015-04-01

    Initial conditions have been shown to have a strong effect on outputs of surface water models, but their impact on integrated hydrologic models is not well documented. We investigated the effects of initial conditions on an integrated hydrologic model of a 5632 km2 domain in the northeastern U.S. Simulations were run for the year 1980 using four initial conditions spanning a range of average depth to water table, including 1 m ("wet"), 3m, 5m, and 7 m ("dry") below land surface. Model outputs showed significant effects of initial conditions on basin-averaged variables such as subsurface storage, surface storage, and surface runoff, with the greatest impact observed on surface storage and runoff. Effects of initial conditions were related to meteorological conditions, with precipitation reducing the effects of initial conditions on surface storage and runoff. Additionally, feedbacks between soil moisture and land-energy fluxes affected the impacts of initial conditions: higher temperatures magnified the differences in storage, recharge, and discharge among the four initial-condition scenarios. Ten year recursive runs were conducted for the wet and dry scenarios. Spin-up times varied by model components and were considerably smaller for land-surface states and fluxes. Spin-up for dry initial conditions was slower than for wet initial conditions, indicating longer system memory for dry initial conditions. These variations in persistence of initial conditions should be taken into consideration when designing model initialization approaches. More broadly, this behavior is indicative of increased persistence of the effects of dry years as opposed to wet years in hydrologic systems.

  19. Do initial conditions matter? A comparison of model climatologies generated from different initial states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spar, J.; Cohen, C.; Wu, P.

    1981-01-01

    A coarse mesh (8 by 10) 7 layer global climate model was used to compute 15 months of meteorological history in two perpetual January experiments on a water planet (without continents) with a zonally symmetric climatological January sea surface temperature field. In the first of the two water planet experiments the initial atmospheric state was a set of zonal mean values of specific humidity, temperature, and wind at each latitude. In the second experiment the model was initialized with globally uniform mean values of specific humidity and temperature on each sigma level surface, constant surface pressure (1010 mb), and zero wind everywhere. A comparison was made of the mean January climatic states generated by the two water planet experiments. The first two months of each 15 January run were discarded, and 13 month averages were computed from months 3 through 15.

  20. Validation of the criteria for initiating the cleaning of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) ductwork under real conditions.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Jacques; Marchand, Geneviève; Cloutier, Yves; Lavoué, Jérôme

    2011-08-01

    Dust accumulation in the components of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems is a potential source of contaminants. To date, very little information is available on recognized methods for assessing dust buildup in these systems. The few existing methods are either objective in nature, involving numerical values, or subjective in nature, based on experts' judgments. An earlier project aimed at assessing different methods of sampling dust in ducts was carried out in the laboratories of the Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST). This laboratory study showed that all the sampling methods were practicable, provided that a specific surface-dust cleaning initiation criterion was used for each method. However, these conclusions were reached on the basis of ideal conditions in a laboratory using a reference dust. The objective of this present study was to validate these laboratory results in the field. To this end, the laboratory sampling templates were replicated in real ducts and the three sampling methods (the IRSST method, the method of the U.S. organization National Air Duct Cleaner Association [NADCA] and that of the French organization Association pour la Prévention et l'Étude de la Contamination [ASPEC]) were used simultaneously in a statistically representative number of systems. The air return and supply ducts were also compared. Cleaning initiation criteria under real conditions were found to be 6.0 mg/100 cm(2) using the IRSST method, 2.0 mg/100 cm(2) using the NADCA method, and 23 mg/100 cm(2) using the ASPEC method. In the laboratory study, the criteria using the same methods were 6.0 for the IRSST method, 2.0 for the NADCA method, and 3.0 for the ASPEC method. The laboratory criteria for the IRSST and NADCA methods were therefore validated in the field. The ASPEC criterion was the only one to change. The ASPEC method therefore allows for the most accurate evaluation of dust accumulation in HVAC

  1. Initiation of clement surface conditions on the earliest Earth

    PubMed Central

    Sleep, N. H.; Zahnle, K.; Neuhoff, P. S.

    2001-01-01

    In the beginning the surface of the Earth was extremely hot, because the Earth as we know it is the product of a collision between two planets, a collision that also created the Moon. Most of the heat within the very young Earth was lost quickly to space while the surface was still quite hot. As it cooled, the Earth's surface passed monotonically through every temperature regime between silicate vapor to liquid water and perhaps even to ice, eventually reaching an equilibrium with sunlight. Inevitably the surface passed through a time when the temperature was around 100°C at which modern thermophile organisms live. How long this warm epoch lasted depends on how long a thick greenhouse atmosphere can be maintained by heat flow from the Earth's interior, either directly as a supplement to insolation, or indirectly through its influence on the nascent carbonate cycle. In both cases, the duration of the warm epoch would have been controlled by processes within the Earth's interior where buffering by surface conditions played little part. A potentially evolutionarily significant warm period of between 105 and 107 years seems likely, which nonetheless was brief compared to the vast expanse of geological time. PMID:11259665

  2. Cl atom initiated oxidation of 1-alkenes under atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walavalkar, M.; Sharma, A.; Alwe, H. D.; Pushpa, K. K.; Dhanya, S.; Naik, P. D.; Bajaj, P. N.

    2013-03-01

    In view of the importance of the oxidation pathways of alkenes in the troposphere, and the significance of Cl atom as an oxidant in marine boundary layer (MBL) and polluted industrial atmosphere, the reactions of four 1-alkenes (C6-C9) with Cl atoms are investigated. The rate coefficients at 298 K are measured to be (4.0 ± 0.5), (4.4 ± 0.7), (5.5 ± 0.9) and (5.9 ± 1.7) × 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for 1-hexene, 1-heptene, 1-octene and 1-nonene, respectively. The quoted errors include the experimental 2σ, along with the error in the reference rate coefficients. From the systematic increase in the rate coefficients with the number of carbon atoms, an approximate value for the average rate coefficient for hydrogen abstraction per CH2 group in alkenes is estimated to be (4.9 ± 0.3) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. Based on these rate coefficients, the contribution of Cl atom reactions towards the degradation of these molecules is found to be comparable to that of OH radical reactions, under MBL conditions. The products identified in gas phase indicate that Cl atom addition occurs mainly at the terminal carbon, leading to the formation of 1-chloro-2-ketones and 1-chloro-2-ols. The major gas phase products from the alkenyl radicals (formed by H atom abstraction) are different positional isomers of long chain enols and enones. A preference for dissociation leading to an allyl radical, resulting in aldehydes, lower by three carbon atoms, is indicated. The observed relative yields suggest that in general, the increased contribution of the reactions of Cl atoms towards degradation of 1-alkenes in NOx free air does not result in an increase in the generation of small aldehydes (carbon number < 4), including chloroethanal, as compared to that in the reaction of 1-butene.

  3. Estimating the state of a geophysical system with sparse observations: time delay methods to achieve accurate initial states for prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Zhe; Rey, Daniel; Ye, Jingxin; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of forecasting the behavior of a complex dynamical system through analysis of observational time-series data becomes difficult when the system expresses chaotic behavior and the measurements are sparse, in both space and/or time. Despite the fact that this situation is quite typical across many fields, including numerical weather prediction, the issue of whether the available observations are "sufficient" for generating successful forecasts is still not well understood. An analysis by Whartenby et al. (2013) found that in the context of the nonlinear shallow water equations on a β plane, standard nudging techniques require observing approximately 70 % of the full set of state variables. Here we examine the same system using a method introduced by Rey et al. (2014a), which generalizes standard nudging methods to utilize time delayed measurements. We show that in certain circumstances, it provides a sizable reduction in the number of observations required to construct accurate estimates and high-quality predictions. In particular, we find that this estimate of 70 % can be reduced to about 33 % using time delays, and even further if Lagrangian drifter locations are also used as measurements.

  4. Accurate Attitude Estimation Using ARS under Conditions of Vehicle Movement Based on Disturbance Acceleration Adaptive Estimation and Correction

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Li; Hang, Yijun; Xiong, Zhi; Liu, Jianye; Wan, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a disturbance acceleration adaptive estimate and correction approach for an attitude reference system (ARS) so as to improve the attitude estimate precision under vehicle movement conditions. The proposed approach depends on a Kalman filter, where the attitude error, the gyroscope zero offset error and the disturbance acceleration error are estimated. By switching the filter decay coefficient of the disturbance acceleration model in different acceleration modes, the disturbance acceleration is adaptively estimated and corrected, and then the attitude estimate precision is improved. The filter was tested in three different disturbance acceleration modes (non-acceleration, vibration-acceleration and sustained-acceleration mode, respectively) by digital simulation. Moreover, the proposed approach was tested in a kinematic vehicle experiment as well. Using the designed simulations and kinematic vehicle experiments, it has been shown that the disturbance acceleration of each mode can be accurately estimated and corrected. Moreover, compared with the complementary filter, the experimental results have explicitly demonstrated the proposed approach further improves the attitude estimate precision under vehicle movement conditions. PMID:27754469

  5. Rescattering effects on intensity interferometry and initial conditions in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang

    The properties of the quark-gluon plasma are being thoroughly studied by utilizing relativistic heavy ion collisions. After its invention in astronomy in the 1950s, intensity interferometry was found to be a robust method to probe the spatial and temporal information of the nuclear collisions also. Although rescattering effects are negligible in elementary particle collisions, it may be very important for heavy ion collisions at RHIC and in the future LHC. Rescattering after production will modify the measured correlation function and make it harder to extract the dynamical information from data. To better understand the data which are dimmed by this final state process, we derive a general formula for intensity interferometry which can calculate rescattering effects easily. The formula can be used both non-relativistically and relativistically. Numerically, we found that rescattering effects on kaon interferometry for RHIC experiments can modify the measured ratio of the outward radius to the sideward radius, which is a sensitive probe to the equation of state, by as large as 15%. It is a nontrivial contribution which should be included to understand the data more accurately. The second part of this thesis is on the initial conditions in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Although relativistic hydrodynamics is successful in explaining many aspects of the data, it is only valid after some finite time after nuclear contact. The results depend on the choice of initial conditions which, so far, have been very uncertain. I describe a formula based on the McLerran-Venugopalan model to compute the initial energy density. The soft gluon fields produced immediately after the overlap of the nuclei can be expanded as a power series of the proper time t. Solving Yang-Mills equations with color current conservation can give us the analytical formulas for the fields. The local color charges on the transverse plane are stochastic variables and have to be taken care of by random

  6. Can traditional birth attendants be trained to accurately identify septic infants, initiate antibiotics, and refer in a rural African setting?

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Christopher John; MacLeod, William B; Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Guerina, Nicholas G; Mirochnick, Mark; Knapp, Anna B; Hamer, Davidson H

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of neonatal mortality. In populations with limited access to health care, early identification of bacterial infections and initiation of antibiotics by community health workers (CHWs) could be lifesaving. It is unknown whether this strategy would be feasible using traditional birth attendants (TBAs), a cadre of CHWs who typically have limited training and educational backgrounds. Methods: We analyzed data from the intervention arm of a cluster-randomized trial involving TBAs in Lufwanyama District, Zambia, from June 2006 to November 2008. TBAs followed neonates for signs of potential infection through 28 days of life. If any of 16 criteria were met, TBAs administered oral amoxicillin and facilitated referral to a rural health center. Results: Our analysis included 1,889 neonates with final vital status by day 28. TBAs conducted a median of 2 (interquartile range 2–6) home visits (51.4% in week 1 and 48.2% in weeks 2–4) and referred 208 neonates (11%) for suspected sepsis. Of referred neonates, 176/208 (84.6%) completed their referral. Among neonates given amoxicillin, 171/183 (93.4%) were referred; among referred neonates, 171/208 (82.2%) received amoxicillin. Referral and/or initiation of antibiotics were strongly associated with neonatal death (for referral, relative risk [RR] = 7.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.4–14.3; for amoxicillin administration, RR = 4.7, 95% CI = 2.4–8.7). Neonates clinically judged to be “extremely sick” by the referring TBA were at greatest risk of death (RR = 8.61, 95% CI = 4.0–18.5). Conclusion: The strategy of administering a first dose of antibiotics and referring based solely on the clinical evaluation of a TBA is feasible and could be effective in reducing neonatal mortality in remote rural settings. PMID:25276591

  7. ON THE INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR STAR FORMATION AND THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2011-04-10

    Density probability distribution functions (PDFs) for turbulent self-gravitating clouds should be convolutions of the local log-normal PDF, which depends on the local average density {rho}{sub ave} and Mach number M, and the PDFs for {rho}{sub ave} and M, which depend on the overall cloud structure. When self-gravity drives a cloud to increased central density, the total PDF develops an extended tail. If there is a critical density or column density for star formation, then the fraction of the local mass exceeding this threshold becomes higher near the cloud center. These elements of cloud structure should be in place before significant star formation begins. Then the efficiency is high so that bound clusters form rapidly, and the stellar initial mass function (IMF) has an imprint in the gas before destructive radiation from young stars can erase it. The IMF could arise from a power-law distribution of mass for cloud structure. These structures should form stars down to the thermal Jeans mass M{sub J} at each density in excess of a threshold. The high-density tail of the PDF, combined with additional fragmentation in each star-forming core, extends the IMF into the brown dwarf regime. The core fragmentation process is distinct from the cloud structuring process and introduces an independent core fragmentation mass function (CFMF). The CFMF would show up primarily below the IMF peak.

  8. Influence of changes in initial conditions for the simulation of dynamic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kotyrba, Martin

    2015-03-10

    Chaos theory is a field of study in mathematics, with applications in several disciplines including meteorology, sociology, physics, engineering, economics, biology, and philosophy. Chaos theory studies the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions—a paradigm popularly referred to as the butterfly effect. Small differences in initial conditions field widely diverging outcomes for such dynamical systems, rendering long-term prediction impossible in general. This happens even though these systems are deterministic, meaning that their future behavior is fully determined by their initial conditions, with no random elements involved. In this paperinfluence of changes in initial conditions will be presented for the simulation of Lorenz system.

  9. Experiments and simulations of Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability with measured,volumetric initial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sewell, Everest; Ferguson, Kevin; Jacobs, Jeffrey; Greenough, Jeff; Krivets, Vitaliy

    2016-11-01

    We describe experiments of single-shock Richtmyer-Meskhov Instability (RMI) performed on the shock tube apparatus at the University of Arizona in which the initial conditions are volumetrically imaged prior to shock wave arrival. Initial perturbations play a major role in the evolution of RMI, and previous experimental efforts only capture a single plane of the initial condition. The method presented uses a rastered laser sheet to capture additional images throughout the depth of the initial condition immediately before the shock arrival time. These images are then used to reconstruct a volumetric approximation of the experimental perturbation. Analysis of the initial perturbations is performed, and then used as initial conditions in simulations using the hydrodynamics code ARES, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Experiments are presented and comparisons are made with simulation results.

  10. The β-hairpin of 40S exit channel protein Rps5/uS7 promotes efficient and accurate translation initiation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Visweswaraiah, Jyothsna; Pittman, Yvette; Dever, Thomas E; Hinnebusch, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic 43S pre-initiation complex bearing tRNAiMet scans the mRNA leader for an AUG start codon in favorable context. Structural analyses revealed that the β-hairpin of 40S protein Rps5/uS7 protrudes into the 40S mRNA exit-channel, contacting the eIF2∙GTP∙Met-tRNAi ternary complex (TC) and mRNA context nucleotides; but its importance in AUG selection was unknown. We identified substitutions in β-strand-1 and C-terminal residues of yeast Rps5 that reduced bulk initiation, conferred ‘leaky-scanning’ of AUGs; and lowered initiation fidelity by exacerbating the effect of poor context of the eIF1 AUG codon to reduce eIF1 abundance. Consistently, the β-strand-1 substitution greatly destabilized the ‘PIN’ conformation of TC binding to reconstituted 43S·mRNA complexes in vitro. Other substitutions in β-hairpin loop residues increased initiation fidelity and destabilized PIN at UUG, but not AUG start codons. We conclude that the Rps5 β-hairpin is as crucial as soluble initiation factors for efficient and accurate start codon recognition. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07939.001 PMID:26134896

  11. Necessary Conditions for Accurate, Transient Hot-Wire Measurements of the Apparent Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids are Seldom Satisfied

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniadis, Konstantinos D.; Tertsinidou, Georgia J.; Assael, Marc J.; Wakeham, William A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper considers the conditions that are necessary to secure accurate measurement of the apparent thermal conductivity of two-phase systems comprising nanoscale particles of one material suspended in a fluid phase of a different material. It is shown that instruments operating according to the transient hot-wire technique can, indeed, produce excellent measurements when a finite element method (FEM) is employed to describe the instrument for the exact geometry of the hot wire. Furthermore, it is shown that an approximate analytic solution can be employed with equal success, over the time range of 0.1 s to 1 s, provided that (a) two wires are employed, so that end effects are canceled, (b) each wire is very thin, less than 30 \\upmu m diameter, so that the line source model and the corresponding corrections are valid, (c) low values of the temperature rise, less than 4 K, are employed in order to minimize the effect of convection on the heat transfer in the time of measurement of 1 s, and (d) insulated wires are employed for measurements in electrically conducting or polar liquids to avoid current leakage or other electrical distortions. According to these criteria, a transient hot-wire instrument has been designed, constructed, and employed for the measurement of the enhancement of the thermal conductivity of water when TiO2 or multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are added. These new results, together with a critical evaluation of other measurements, demonstrate the importance of proper implementation of the technique.

  12. Characterization of condenser microphones under different environmental conditions for accurate speed of sound measurements with acoustic resonators.

    PubMed

    Guianvarc'h, Cécile; Gavioso, Roberto M; Benedetto, Giuliana; Pitre, Laurent; Bruneau, Michel

    2009-07-01

    Condenser microphones are more commonly used and have been extensively modeled and characterized in air at ambient temperature and static pressure. However, several applications of interest for metrology and physical acoustics require to use these transducers in significantly different environmental conditions. Particularly, the extremely accurate determination of the speed of sound in monoatomic gases, which is pursued for a determination of the Boltzmann constant k by an acoustic method, entails the use of condenser microphones mounted within a spherical cavity, over a wide range of static pressures, at the temperature of the triple point of water (273.16 K). To further increase the accuracy achievable in this application, the microphone frequency response and its acoustic input impedance need to be precisely determined over the same static pressure and temperature range. Few previous works examined the influence of static pressure, temperature, and gas composition on the microphone's sensitivity. In this work, the results of relative calibrations of 1/4 in. condenser microphones obtained using an electrostatic actuator technique are presented. The calibrations are performed in pure helium and argon gas at temperatures near 273 K and in the pressure range between 10 and 600 kPa. These experimental results are compared with the predictions of a realistic model available in the literature, finding a remarkable good agreement. The model provides an estimate of the acoustic impedance of 1/4 in. condenser microphones as a function of frequency and static pressure and is used to calculate the corresponding frequency perturbations induced on the normal modes of a spherical cavity when this is filled with helium or argon gas.

  13. Characterization of condenser microphones under different environmental conditions for accurate speed of sound measurements with acoustic resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Guianvarc'h, Cecile; Pitre, Laurent; Bruneau, Michel

    2009-07-15

    Condenser microphones are more commonly used and have been extensively modeled and characterized in air at ambient temperature and static pressure. However, several applications of interest for metrology and physical acoustics require to use these transducers in significantly different environmental conditions. Particularly, the extremely accurate determination of the speed of sound in monoatomic gases, which is pursued for a determination of the Boltzmann constant k by an acoustic method, entails the use of condenser microphones mounted within a spherical cavity, over a wide range of static pressures, at the temperature of the triple point of water (273.16 K). To further increase the accuracy achievable in this application, the microphone frequency response and its acoustic input impedance need to be precisely determined over the same static pressure and temperature range. Few previous works examined the influence of static pressure, temperature, and gas composition on the microphone's sensitivity. In this work, the results of relative calibrations of 1/4 in. condenser microphones obtained using an electrostatic actuator technique are presented. The calibrations are performed in pure helium and argon gas at temperatures near 273 K and in the pressure range between 10 and 600 kPa. These experimental results are compared with the predictions of a realistic model available in the literature, finding a remarkable good agreement. The model provides an estimate of the acoustic impedance of 1/4 in. condenser microphones as a function of frequency and static pressure and is used to calculate the corresponding frequency perturbations induced on the normal modes of a spherical cavity when this is filled with helium or argon gas.

  14. Relative Influence of Initial Surface and Atmospheric Conditions on Seasonal Water and Energy Balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglesby, Robert J.; Marshall, Susan; Roads, John O.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Goodman, H. Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We constructed and analyzed wet and dry soil moisture composites for the mid-latitude GCIP region of the central US using long climate model simulations made with the NCAR CCM3 and reanalysis products from NCEP. Using the diagnostic composites as a guide, we have completed a series of predictability experiments in which we imposed soil water initial conditions in CCM3 for the GCIP region for June 1 from anomalously wet and dry years, with atmospheric initial conditions taken from June 1 of a year with 'near-normal' soil water, and initial soil water from the near-normal year and atmospheric initial conditions from the wet and dry years. Preliminary results indicate that the initial state of the atmosphere is more important than the initial state of soil water determining the subsequent late spring and summer evolution of sod water over the GCIP region. Surprisingly, neither the composites or the predictability experiments yielded a strong influence of soil moisture on the atmosphere. To explore this further, we have made runs with extreme dry soil moisture initial anomalies imposed over the GCIP region (the soil close to being completely dry). These runs did yield a very strong effect on the atmosphere that persisted for at least three months. We conclude that the magnitude of the initial soil moisture anomaly is crucial, at least in CCM3, and are currently investigating whether a threshold exists, below which little impact is seen. In a complementary study, we compared the impact of the initial condition of snow cover versus the initial atmospheric state over the western US (corresponding to the westward extension of the GAPP program follow-on to GCIP). In this case, the initial prescription of snow cover is far more important than the initial atmospheric state in determining the subsequent evolution of snow cover. We are currently working to understand the very different soil water and snow cover results.

  15. The Use of Graphs in Specific Situations of the Initial Conditions of Linear Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buendía, Gabriela; Cordero, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a discussion on the role of graphs and its significance in the relation between the number of initial conditions and the order of a linear differential equation, which is known as the initial value problem. We propose to make a functional framework for the use of graphs that intends to broaden the explanations of the…

  16. The Effect of Spray Initial Conditions on Heat Release and Emissions in LDI CFD Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iannetti, Anthony C.; Liu, Nan-Suey; Davoudzadeh, Farhad

    2008-01-01

    The mass and velocity distribution of liquid spray has a primary effect on the combustion heat release process. This heat release process then affects emissions like nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO). Computational Fluid Dynamics gives the engineer insight into these processes, but various setup options exist (number of droplet groups, and initial droplet temperature) for spray initial conditions. This paper studies these spray initial condition options using the National Combustion Code (NCC) on a single swirler lean direct injection (LDI) flame tube. Using laminar finite rate chemistry, comparisons are made against experimental data for velocity measurements, temperature, and emissions (NOx, CO).

  17. Role of initial conditions in the decay of spatially periodic patterns in a nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Werner; Kramer, Lorenz; Eber, Nándor; Buka, Agnes

    2006-06-01

    The decay of stripe patterns in planarly aligned nematic liquid crystals has been studied experimentally and theoretically. The initial patterns have been generated by the electrohydrodynamic instability and a light diffraction technique has been used to monitor their decay. In our experiments different decay rates have been observed as a function of the pattern wave number. According to our theoretical analysis they belong to a spectrum of decay modes and are individually selected in dependence on the initial conditions. Additional insight has emerged from a refined physical optical description of the diffraction intensity. The results compare well with experiments, which include also controlled modifications of the initial conditions to assess different decay modes.

  18. A no hair theorem and the problem of initial conditions. [in cosmological model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Lars Gerhard; Stein-Schabes, Jaime A.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that under very general conditions, any inhomogeneous cosmological model with a positive cosmological constant that can be described in a synchronous reference system will tend asymptotically in time towards the de Sitter solution. This renders the problem of initial conditions less severe.

  19. Correcting the initialization of models with fractional derivatives via history-dependent conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Maolin; Wang, Zaihua

    2016-04-01

    Fractional differential equations are more and more used in modeling memory (history-dependent, non-local, or hereditary) phenomena. Conventional initial values of fractional differential equations are defined at a point, while recent works define initial conditions over histories. We prove that the conventional initialization of fractional differential equations with a Riemann-Liouville derivative is wrong with a simple counter-example. The initial values were assumed to be arbitrarily given for a typical fractional differential equation, but we find one of these values can only be zero. We show that fractional differential equations are of infinite dimensions, and the initial conditions, initial histories, are defined as functions over intervals. We obtain the equivalent integral equation for Caputo case. With a simple fractional model of materials, we illustrate that the recovery behavior is correct with the initial creep history, but is wrong with initial values at the starting point of the recovery. We demonstrate the application of initial history by solving a forced fractional Lorenz system numerically.

  20. The influence of initial and surface boundary conditions on a model-generated January climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. F.; Spar, J.

    1981-01-01

    The influence on a model-generated January climate of various surface boundary conditions, as well as initial conditions, was studied by using the GISS coarse-mesh climate model. Four experiments - two with water planets, one with flat continents, and one with mountains - were used to investigate the effects of initial conditions, and the thermal and dynamical effects of the surface on the model generated-climate. However, climatological mean zonal-symmetric sea surface temperature is used in all four runs over the model oceans. Moreover, zero ground wetness and uniform ground albedo except for snow are used in the last experiments.

  1. UV Laser Conditioning for Reduction of 351-nm Damage Initiation in Fused Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Brusasco, R M; Penetrante, B M; Peterson, J E; Maricle, S M; Menapace, J A

    2001-12-20

    This paper describes the effect of 355-nm laser conditioning on the concentration of UV-laser-induced surface damage sites on large-aperture fused silica optics. We will show the effect of various 355-nm laser conditioning methodologies on the reduction of surface-damage initiation in fused silica samples that have varying qualities of polishing. With the best, generally available fused silica optic, we have demonstrated that 355-nm laser conditioning can achieve up to 10x reduction in surface damage initiation concentration in the fluence range of 10-14 J/cm{sup 2} (355-nm {at} 3 ns).

  2. Inner boundary conditions for black hole initial data derived from isolated horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, José Luis; Gourgoulhon, Eric; Marugán, Guillermo A.

    2004-12-01

    We present a set of boundary conditions for solving the elliptic equations in the initial data problem for space-times containing a black hole, together with a number of constraints to be satisfied by the otherwise freely specifiable standard parameters of the conformal thin sandwich formulation. These conditions altogether are sufficient for the construction of a horizon that is instantaneously in equilibrium in the sense of the isolated horizons formalism. We then investigate the application of these conditions to the initial data problem of binary black holes and discuss the relation of our analysis with other proposals that exist in the literature.

  3. Analysis of the Conformally Flat Approximation for Binary Neutron Star Initial Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, In-Saeng; Mathews, Grant J.; Haywood, J. Reese; Lan, N. Q.

    The spatially conformally flat approximation (CFA) is a viable method to deduce initial conditions for the subsequent evolution of binary neutron stars employing the full Einstein equations. Here we review the status of the original formulation of the CFA for the general relativistic hydrodynamic initial conditions of binary neutron stars. We illustrate the stability of the conformally flat condition on the hydrodynamics by numerically evolving ~100 quasi-circular orbits. We illustrate the use of this approximation for orbiting neutron stars in the quasi-circular orbit approximation to demonstrate the equation of state dependence of these initial conditions and how they might affect the emergent gravitational wave frequency as the stars approach the innermost stable circular orbit.

  4. Investigation into the Role of Initial Conditions on Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities by Low Atwood Experiments and Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Mueschke, N; Andrews, M; Schilling, O

    2003-07-14

    The primary goal of the research being conducted this summer is to investigate the role of initial conditions in the development of a two fluid mix driven by Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The effects of initial conditions will be studied through the use of experimental facilities located at the Buoyancy-Driven Mixing Lab at Texas A&M University and through high resolution direct numerical simulations of the experiment by the MIRANDA code developed at Lawrence Livermore National Lab. The Experimental Objectives are: (1) Analyze the early time development of a two fluid Rayleigh-Taylor driven mix between two miscible fluids at low Atwood numbers. (2) Quantify the initial conditions of the unstably stratified fluids by means of statistical mixing parameters and spectral analysis of the centerline density fluctuations. (3) Capture PLIF images of initial development of the flow for use in simulation setup. (Wayne Kraft) (4) Determine exactly what component of the experimental mixing data (position downstream from the splitter plate) most accurately represents the initial conditions of the experiment. The Simulation Objectives are: (1) Perform two dimensional and three dimensional simulations of the experimental setup. Analyze the results of these simulations for comparison to the experimental results. (2) Various methods of implementing the initial conditions in the simulations are to be investigated. Some of those methods are: (a) Various simplified density profile assumptions will also be investigated, such as repeating saw-teeth patterns, etc. There is also a concern to add some degree of randomness to these simplified perturbation profile assumptions. (b) Convert portions of raw PLIF data to a set of parameterized surfaces that can be directly input as both two dimensional and three dimensional surfaces. (c) Determine and implement a method for directly converting the initial density spectral data into a density profile that can be implemented in two and three

  5. Sensitivity of soil moisture initialization for decadal predictions under different regional climatic conditions in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodayar, S.; Sehlinger, A.; Feldmann, H.; Kottmeier, C.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of soil initialization is investigated through perturbation simulations with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM. The focus of the investigation is to assess the sensitivity of simulated extreme periods, dry and wet, to soil moisture initialization in different climatic regions over Europe and to establish the necessary spin up time within the framework of decadal predictions for these regions. Sensitivity experiments consisted of a reference simulation from 1968 to 1999 and 5 simulations from 1972 to 1983. The Effective Drought Index (EDI) is used to select and quantify drought status in the reference run to establish the simulation time period for the sensitivity experiments. Different soil initialization procedures are investigated. The sensitivity of the decadal predictions to soil moisture initial conditions is investigated through the analysis of water cycle components' (WCC) variability. In an episodic time scale the local effects of soil moisture on the boundary-layer and the propagated effects on the large-scale dynamics are analysed. The results show: (a) COSMO-CLM reproduces the observed features of the drought index. (b) Soil moisture initialization exerts a relevant impact on WCC, e.g., precipitation distribution and intensity. (c) Regional characteristics strongly impact the response of the WCC. Precipitation and evapotranspiration deviations are larger for humid regions. (d) The initial soil conditions (wet/dry), the regional characteristics (humid/dry) and the annual period (wet/dry) play a key role in the time that soil needs to restore quasi-equilibrium and the impact on the atmospheric conditions. Humid areas, and for all regions, a humid initialization, exhibit shorter spin up times, also soil reacts more sensitive when initialised during dry periods. (e) The initial soil perturbation may markedly modify atmospheric pressure field, wind circulation systems and atmospheric water vapour distribution affecting atmospheric stability

  6. On the Impact of Uncertainty in Initial Conditions of Hydrologic Models on Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, S.; Sheikholeslami, R.

    2015-12-01

    Determining the initial conditions for predictive models remains a challenge due to the uncertainty in measurement/identification of the state variables at the scale of interest. However, the characterization of uncertainty in initial conditions has arguably attracted less attention compared with other sources of uncertainty in hydrologic modelling (e.g, parameter, data, and structural uncertainty). This is perhaps because it is commonly believed that: (1) hydrologic systems (relatively rapidly) forget their initial conditions over time, and (2) other sources of uncertainty (e.g., in data) are dominant. This presentation revisits the basic principles of the theory of nonlinear dynamical systems in the context of hydrologic systems. Through simple example case studies, we demonstrate how and under what circumstances different hydrologic processes represent a range of attracting limit sets in their evolution trajectory in state space over time, including fixed points, limit cycles (periodic behaviour), torus (quasi-periodic behaviour), and strange attractors (chaotic behaviour). Furthermore, the propagation (or dissipation) of uncertainty in initial conditions of several hydrologic models through time, under any of the possible attracting limit sets, is investigated. This study highlights that there are definite situations in hydrology where uncertainty in initial conditions remains of significance. The results and insights gained have important implications for hydrologic modelling under non-stationarity in climate and environment.

  7. Accurate coarse-grained models for mixtures of colloids and linear polymers under good-solvent conditions

    SciTech Connect

    D’Adamo, Giuseppe; Pelissetto, Andrea; Pierleoni, Carlo

    2014-12-28

    A coarse-graining strategy, previously developed for polymer solutions, is extended here to mixtures of linear polymers and hard-sphere colloids. In this approach, groups of monomers are mapped onto a single pseudoatom (a blob) and the effective blob-blob interactions are obtained by requiring the model to reproduce some large-scale structural properties in the zero-density limit. We show that an accurate parametrization of the polymer-colloid interactions is obtained by simply introducing pair potentials between blobs and colloids. For the coarse-grained (CG) model in which polymers are modelled as four-blob chains (tetramers), the pair potentials are determined by means of the iterative Boltzmann inversion scheme, taking full-monomer (FM) pair correlation functions at zero-density as targets. For a larger number n of blobs, pair potentials are determined by using a simple transferability assumption based on the polymer self-similarity. We validate the model by comparing its predictions with full-monomer results for the interfacial properties of polymer solutions in the presence of a single colloid and for thermodynamic and structural properties in the homogeneous phase at finite polymer and colloid density. The tetramer model is quite accurate for q ≲ 1 (q=R{sup ^}{sub g}/R{sub c}, where R{sup ^}{sub g} is the zero-density polymer radius of gyration and R{sub c} is the colloid radius) and reasonably good also for q = 2. For q = 2, an accurate coarse-grained description is obtained by using the n = 10 blob model. We also compare our results with those obtained by using single-blob models with state-dependent potentials.

  8. Computational Study of the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability with a Complex Initial Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, Jacob; Reilly, David; Greenough, Jeffrey; Ranjan, Devesh

    2014-11-01

    Results are presented for a computational study of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with a complex initial condition. This study covers experiments which will be conducted at the newly-built inclined shock tube facility at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The complex initial condition employed consists of an underlying inclined interface perturbation with a broadband spectrum of modes superimposed. A three-dimensional staggered mesh arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamics code developed at Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory called ARES was used to obtain both qualitative and quantitative results. Qualitative results are discussed using time series of density plots from which mixing width may be extracted. Quantitative results are also discussed using vorticity fields, circulation components, and energy spectra. The inclined interface case is compared to the complex interface case in order to study the effect of initial conditions on shocked, variable-density flows.

  9. Initial conditions from the action principle: Application to cosmology and to false vacuum bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guendelman, Eduardo; Steiner, Roee

    2013-07-01

    We study models in which parameters such as the gauge coupling constant and mass are functions of some conserved charge in the universe. We first consider the standard Dirac action but in which the mass and electromagnetic coupling constant are a function of the charge in the universe, and then extend this to scalar fields. For a Dirac field in the flat space formulation, the formalism is not manifestly Lorentz-invariant. However, Lorentz invariance can be restored by performing a phase transformation of the Dirac field. For a scalar field, we identify a new feature whereby the initial conditions for the field are derived from the action. For a Higgs field, the initial conditions require that the universe is in a false vacuum state at a certain time slice, which is quite important for inflation scenarios. We also study false vacuum branes using a similar approach. We discuss the use of spoiling terms that violate gauge invariance to introduce this initial condition.

  10. Improving Weather Research and Forecasting Model Initial Conditions via Surface Pressure Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    ARL‐TR‐7447 ● SEP 2015          US Army Research Laboratory      Improving  Weather  Research and Forecasting  Model Initial Conditions via... Weather  Research and Forecasting  Model Initial Conditions via Surface Pressure  Analysis     by Brian P Reen   Computational and Information Sciences...Improving Weather Research and Forecasting Model Initial Conditions via Surface Pressure Analysis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER  5b. GRANT NUMBER  5c. PROGRAM

  11. Controlling Chaos Via Knowledge of Initial Condition for a Curved Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, L.

    2000-01-01

    Nonlinear response of a flexible curved panel exhibiting bifurcation to fully developed chaos is demonstrated along with the sensitivity to small perturbation from the initial conditions. The response is determined from the measured time series at two fixed points. The panel is forced by an external nonharmonic multifrequency and monofrequency sound field. Using a low power time-continuous feedback control, carefully tuned at each initial condition, produces large long-term effects on the dynamics toward taming chaos. Without the knowledge of the initial conditions, control may be achieved by destructive interference. In this case, the control power is proportional to the loading power. Calculation of the correlation dimension and the estimation of positive Lyapunov exponents, in practice, are the proof of chaotic response.

  12. Use of an Accurate DNS Particulate Flow Method to Supply and Validate Boundary Conditions for the MFIX Code

    SciTech Connect

    Zhi-Gang Feng

    2012-05-31

    The simulation of particulate flows for industrial applications often requires the use of two-fluid models, where the solid particles are considered as a separate continuous phase. One of the underlining uncertainties in the use of the two-fluid models in multiphase computations comes from the boundary condition of the solid phase. Typically, the gas or liquid fluid boundary condition at a solid wall is the so called no-slip condition, which has been widely accepted to be valid for single-phase fluid dynamics provided that the Knudsen number is low. However, the boundary condition for the solid phase is not well understood. The no-slip condition at a solid boundary is not a valid assumption for the solid phase. Instead, several researchers advocate a slip condition as a more appropriate boundary condition. However, the question on the selection of an exact slip length or a slip velocity coefficient is still unanswered. Experimental or numerical simulation data are needed in order to determinate the slip boundary condition that is applicable to a two-fluid model. The goal of this project is to improve the performance and accuracy of the boundary conditions used in two-fluid models such as the MFIX code, which is frequently used in multiphase flow simulations. The specific objectives of the project are to use first principles embedded in a validated Direct Numerical Simulation particulate flow numerical program, which uses the Immersed Boundary method (DNS-IB) and the Direct Forcing scheme in order to establish, modify and validate needed energy and momentum boundary conditions for the MFIX code. To achieve these objectives, we have developed a highly efficient DNS code and conducted numerical simulations to investigate the particle-wall and particle-particle interactions in particulate flows. Most of our research findings have been reported in major conferences and archived journals, which are listed in Section 7 of this report. In this report, we will present a

  13. An Investigation of the Influence of Initial Conditions on Rayleigh-Taylor Mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Mueschke, Nicholas J.

    2004-12-01

    Experiments and direct numerical simulations (DNS) have been performed to examine the effects of initial conditions on the dynamics of a Rayleigh-Taylor unstable mixing layer. Experiments were performed on a water channel facility to measure the interfacial and velocity perturbations initially present at the two-fluid interface in a small Atwood number mixing layer. The experimental measurements have been parameterized for use in numerical simulations of the experiment. Two- and three-dimensional DNS of the experiment have been performed using the parameterized initial conditions. It is shown that simulations implemented with initial velocity and density perturbations, rather than density perturbations alone, are required to match experimentally-measured statistics and spectra. Data acquired from both the experiment and numerical simulations are used to examine the role of initial conditions on the evolution of integral-scale, turbulence, and mixing statistics. Early-time turbulence and mixing statistics are shown to be strongly-dependent upon the early-time transition of the initial perturbation from a weakly-nonlinear to a strongly-nonlinear flow.

  14. Conditional stability in determination of initial data for stochastic parabolic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ganghua

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we solve two kinds of inverse problems in determination of the initial data for stochastic parabolic equations. One is determination of the initial data by lateral boundary observation on arbitrary portion of the boundary, the second one is determination of the initial data by internal observation in a subregion inside the domain. We obtain conditional stability for the two kinds of inverse problems. To prove the results, we estimate the initial data by a terminal observation near the initial time, then we estimate this terminal observation by lateral boundary observation on arbitrary portion of the boundary or internal observation in a subregion inside the domain. To achieve those goals, we derive several new Carleman estimates for stochastic parabolic equations in this paper.

  15. 3-D simulations to investigate initial condition effects on the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Malcolm J

    2008-01-01

    The effect of initial conditions on the growth rate of turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing has been studied using carefully formulated numerical simulations. An integrated large-eddy simulation (ILES) that uses a finite-volume technique was employed to solve the three-dimensional incompressible Euler equations with numerical dissipation. The initial conditions were chosen to test the dependence of the RT growth parameters ({alpha}{sub b}, {alpha}{sub s}) on variations in (a) the spectral bandwidth, (b) the spectral shape, and (c) discrete banded spectra. Our findings support the notion that the overall growth of the RT mixing is strongly dependent on initial conditions. Variation in spectral shapes and bandwidths are found to have a complex effect of the late time development of the RT mixing layer, and raise the question of whether we can design RT transition and turbulence based on our choice of initial conditions. In addition, our results provide a useful database for the initialization and development of closures describing RT transition and turbulence.

  16. Bayesian inference of the initial conditions from large-scale structure surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclercq, Florent

    2016-10-01

    Analysis of three-dimensional cosmological surveys has the potential to answer outstanding questions on the initial conditions from which structure appeared, and therefore on the very high energy physics at play in the early Universe. We report on recently proposed statistical data analysis methods designed to study the primordial large-scale structure via physical inference of the initial conditions in a fully Bayesian framework, and applications to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7. We illustrate how this approach led to a detailed characterization of the dynamic cosmic web underlying the observed galaxy distribution, based on the tidal environment.

  17. Multi-initial-conditions and Multi-physics Ensembles in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model to Improve Coastal Stratocumulus Forecasts for Solar Power Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.

    2015-12-01

    In coastal Southern California, variation in solar energy production is predominantly due to the presence of stratocumulus clouds (Sc), as they greatly attenuate surface solar irradiance and cover most distributed photovoltaic systems on summer mornings. Correct prediction of the spatial coverage and lifetime of coastal Sc is therefore vital to the accuracy of solar energy forecasts in California. In Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations, underprediction of Sc inherent in the initial conditions directly leads to an underprediction of Sc in the resulting forecasts. Hence, preprocessing methods were developed to create initial conditions more consistent with observational data and reduce spin-up time requirements. Mathiesen et al. (2014) previously developed a cloud data assimilation system to force WRF initial conditions to contain cloud liquid water based on CIMSS GOES Sounder cloud cover. The Well-mixed Preprocessor and Cloud Data Assimilation (WEMPPDA) package merges an initial guess of cloud liquid water content obtained from mixed-layer theory with assimilated CIMSS GOES Sounder cloud cover to more accurately represent the spatial coverage of Sc at initialization. The extent of Sc inland penetration is often constrained topographically; therefore, the low inversion base height (IBH) bias in NAM initial conditions decreases Sc inland penetration. The Inversion Base Height (IBH) package perturbs the initial IBH by the difference between model IBH and the 12Z radiosonde measurement. The performance of these multi-initial-condition configurations was evaluated over June, 2013 against SolarAnywhere satellite-derived surface irradiance data. Four configurations were run: 1) NAM initial conditions, 2) RAP initial conditions, 3) WEMPPDA applied to NAM, and 4) IBH applied to NAM. Both preprocessing methods showed significant improvement in the prediction of both spatial coverage and lifetime of coastal Sc. The best performing configuration was then

  18. A new way of setting the phases for cosmological multiscale Gaussian initial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Adrian

    2013-09-01

    We describe how to define an extremely large discrete realization of a Gaussian white noise field that has a hierarchical structure and the property that the value of any part of the field can be computed quickly. Tiny subregions of such a field can be used to set the phase information for Gaussian initial conditions for individual cosmological simulations of structure formation. This approach has several attractive features: (i) the hierarchical structure based on an octree is particularly well suited for generating follow-up resimulation or zoom initial conditions; (ii) the phases are defined for all relevant physical scales in advance so that resimulation initial conditions are, by construction, consistent both with their parent simulation and with each other; (iii) the field can easily be made public by releasing a code to compute it - once public, phase information can be shared or published by specifying a spatial location within the realization. In this paper, we describe the principles behind creating such realizations. We define an example called Panphasia and in a companion paper by Jenkins and Booth (2013) make public a code to compute it. With 50 octree levels Panphasia spans a factor of more than 1015 in linear scale - a range that significantly exceeds the ratio of the current Hubble radius to the putative cold dark matter free-streaming scale. We show how to modify a code used for making cosmological and resimulation initial conditions so that it can take the phase information from Panphasia and, using this code, we demonstrate that it is possible to make good quality resimulation initial conditions. We define a convention for publishing phase information from Panphasia and publish the initial phases for several of the Virgo Consortium's most recent cosmological simulations including the 303 billion particle MXXL simulation. Finally, for reference, we give the locations and properties of several dark matter haloes that can be resimulated within these

  19. Effect of initial conditions and Mach number on the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in ICF like conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Pooja; She, Dan; Lim, Hyunkyung; Glimm, James

    2015-11-01

    The qualitative and quantitative effect of initial conditions (linear and non-linear) and high Mach number (1.3 and 1.45) is studied on the turbulent mixing induced by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in idealized ICF conditions. The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability seeds Rayleigh-taylor instabilities in ICF experiments and is one of the factors that contributes to reduced performance of ICF experiments. Its also found in collapsing cores of stars and supersonic combustion. We use the Stony Brook University code, FronTier, which is verified via a code comparison study against the AMR multiphysics code FLASH, and validated against vertical shock tube experiments done by the LANL Extreme Fluids Team. These simulations are designed as a step towards simulating more realistic ICF conditions and quantifying the detrimental effects of mixing on the yield.

  20. The Effect of Spray Initial Conditions on Heat Release and Emissions in LDI CFD Calculations (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    equations, which are then advanced temporally by an explicit 4-stage Runge-Kutta scheme. For low Mach number compressible flow, a pre-conditioning is...currently valid OMB control number . PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 05-06-2008 2. REPORT TYPE...Technical Memo 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER The Effect of Spray Initial Conditions on Heat

  1. Predicting a contact's sensitivity to initial conditions using metrics of frictional coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Flicek, Robert C.; Hills, David A.; Brake, Matthew Robert W.

    2016-09-29

    This paper presents a method for predicting how sensitive a frictional contact’s steady-state behavior is to its initial conditions. Previous research has proven that if a contact is uncoupled, i.e. if slip displacements do not influence the contact pressure distribution, then its steady-state response is independent of initial conditions, but if the contact is coupled, the steady-state response depends on initial conditions. In this paper, two metrics for quantifying coupling in discrete frictional systems are examined. These metrics suggest that coupling is dominated by material dissimilarity due to Dundurs’ composite material parameter β when β ≥ 0.2, but geometric mismatch becomes the dominant source of coupling for smaller values of β. Based on a large set of numerical simulations with different contact geometries, material combinations, and friction coefficients, a contact’s sensitivity to initial conditions is found to be correlated with the product of the coupling metric and the friction coefficient. For cyclic shear loading, this correlation is maintained for simulations with different contact geometries, material combinations, and friction coefficients. Furthermore, for cyclic bulk loading, the correlation is only maintained when the contact edge angle is held constant.

  2. Predicting a contact's sensitivity to initial conditions using metrics of frictional coupling

    DOE PAGES

    Flicek, Robert C.; Hills, David A.; Brake, Matthew Robert W.

    2016-09-29

    This paper presents a method for predicting how sensitive a frictional contact’s steady-state behavior is to its initial conditions. Previous research has proven that if a contact is uncoupled, i.e. if slip displacements do not influence the contact pressure distribution, then its steady-state response is independent of initial conditions, but if the contact is coupled, the steady-state response depends on initial conditions. In this paper, two metrics for quantifying coupling in discrete frictional systems are examined. These metrics suggest that coupling is dominated by material dissimilarity due to Dundurs’ composite material parameter β when β ≥ 0.2, but geometric mismatchmore » becomes the dominant source of coupling for smaller values of β. Based on a large set of numerical simulations with different contact geometries, material combinations, and friction coefficients, a contact’s sensitivity to initial conditions is found to be correlated with the product of the coupling metric and the friction coefficient. For cyclic shear loading, this correlation is maintained for simulations with different contact geometries, material combinations, and friction coefficients. Furthermore, for cyclic bulk loading, the correlation is only maintained when the contact edge angle is held constant.« less

  3. 42 CFR 410.16 - Initial preventive physical examination: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.16 Initial preventive physical examination: Conditions for... Part B benefits as described in sections 1861(s)(10), (jj), (nn), (oo), (pp), (qq)(1), (rr), (uu), (vv... and vitamins. (3) Family history, including a review of medical events in the beneficiary's...

  4. 42 CFR 410.16 - Initial preventive physical examination: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.16 Initial preventive physical examination: Conditions for... Part B benefits as described in sections 1861(s)(10), (jj), (nn), (oo), (pp), (qq)(1), (rr), (uu), (vv... and vitamins. (3) Family history, including a review of medical events in the beneficiary's...

  5. 42 CFR 410.16 - Initial preventive physical examination: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.16 Initial preventive physical examination: Conditions for... Part B benefits as described in sections 1861(s)(10), (jj), (nn), (oo), (pp), (qq)(1), (rr), (uu), (vv... and vitamins. (3) Family history, including a review of medical events in the beneficiary's...

  6. 42 CFR 410.16 - Initial preventive physical examination: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.16 Initial preventive physical examination: Conditions for... Part B benefits as described in sections 1861(s)(10), (jj), (nn), (oo), (pp), (qq)(1), (rr), (uu), (vv... and vitamins. (3) Family history, including a review of medical events in the beneficiary's...

  7. Model Forecast Skill and Sensitivity to Initial Conditions in the Seasonal Sea Ice Outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, E.; Cullather, R. I.; Wang, W.; Zhang, J.; Bitz, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    We explore the skill of predictions of September Arctic sea ice extent from dynamical models participating in the Sea Ice Outlook (SIO). Forecasts submitted in August, at roughly 2 month lead times, are skillful. However, skill is lower in forecasts submitted to SIO, which began in 2008, than in hindcasts (retrospective forecasts) of the last few decades. The multimodel mean SIO predictions offer slightly higher skill than the single-model SIO predictions, but neither beats a damped persistence forecast at longer than 2 month lead times. The models are largely unsuccessful at predicting each other, indicating a large difference in model physics and/or initial conditions. Motivated by this, we perform an initial condition sensitivity experiment with four SIO models, applying a fixed -1 m perturbation to the initial sea ice thickness. The significant range of the response among the models suggests that different model physics make a significant contribution to forecast uncertainty.

  8. Model forecast skill and sensitivity to initial conditions in the seasonal Sea Ice Outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, E.; Cullather, R. I.; Wang, W.; Zhang, J.; Bitz, C. M.

    2015-10-01

    We explore the skill of predictions of September Arctic sea ice extent from dynamical models participating in the Sea Ice Outlook (SIO). Forecasts submitted in August, at roughly 2 month lead times, are skillful. However, skill is lower in forecasts submitted to SIO, which began in 2008, than in hindcasts (retrospective forecasts) of the last few decades. The multimodel mean SIO predictions offer slightly higher skill than the single-model SIO predictions, but neither beats a damped persistence forecast at longer than 2 month lead times. The models are largely unsuccessful at predicting each other, indicating a large difference in model physics and/or initial conditions. Motivated by this, we perform an initial condition sensitivity experiment with four SIO models, applying a fixed -1 m perturbation to the initial sea ice thickness. The significant range of the response among the models suggests that different model physics make a significant contribution to forecast uncertainty.

  9. Buckling of stiffened shells with random initial imperfections, thickness and boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elishakoff, I.; Arbocz, J.; Starnes, J. H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The paper proposes a method to predict the buckling load of stiffened, composite shells reliably, where besides the randomness of the initial geometric imperfections also a random variation of the wall thickness and the uncertainty of the precise edge conditions is included in the analysis. The introduction of the variability in the thickness from shell to shell, in an ensemble of nominally identical shells, produced by the same manufacturing procedure is motivated by the growing realization of the importance of thickness variations by composite shells. The probabilistic treatment of the boundary conditions is dictated by the fact that 'true', deterministically specified boundary conditions are unlikely to be realizable in practice.

  10. Effects of eddy initial conditions on nonlinear forcing of planetary scale waves by amplifying baroclinic eddies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    The previous study of Young and Villere concerning growth of planetary scale waves forced by wave-wave interactions of amplifying intermediate scale baroclinic eddies is extended to investigate effects of different eddy initial conditions. A global, spectral, primitive equation model is used for the calculations. For every set of eddy initial conditions considered, growth rates of planetary modes are considerably greater than growth rates computed from linear instability theory for a fixed zonally independent basic state. However, values of growth rates ranged over a factor of 3 depending on the particular set of eddy initial conditions used. Nonlinear forcing of planetary modes via wave-wave coupling becomes more important than baroclinic growth on the basic state at small values of the intermediate-scale modal amplitudes. The relative importance of direct transfer of kinetic energy from intermediate scales of motion to a planetary mode, compared to baroclinic conversion of available potential energy to kinetic energy within that planetary mode, depends on the individual case. In all cases, however, the transfer of either kinetic or available potential energy to the planetary modes was accomplished principally by wave-wave transfer from intermediate scale eddies, rather than from the zonally averaged state. The zonal wavenumber 2 planetary mode was prominent in all solutions, even in those for which eddy initial conditions were such that a different planetary mode was selectively forced at the start. General characteristics of the structural evolution of the planetary wave components of total heat and momentum flux, and modal structures themselves, were relatively insensitive to variations in eddy initial conditions, even though quantitative details varied from case to case.

  11. Pre-slow-roll initial conditions: Large scale power suppression and infrared aspects during inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lello, Louis; Boyanovsky, Daniel; Holman, Richard

    2014-03-01

    If the large-scale anomalies in the temperature power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background are of primordial origin, they may herald modifications to the slow-roll inflationary paradigm on the largest scales. We study the possibility that the origin of the large-scale power suppression is a modification of initial conditions during slow roll as a result of a pre-slow-roll phase during which the inflaton evolves rapidly. This stage is manifest in a potential in the equations for the Gaussian fluctuations during slow roll and modifies the power spectra of scalar perturbations via an initial condition transfer function T(k). We provide a general analytical study of its large- and small-scale properties and analyze the impact of these initial conditions on the infrared aspects of typical test scalar fields. The infrared behavior of massless minimally coupled test scalar field theories leads to the dynamical generation of mass and anomalous dimensions, both depending nonanalytically on T(0). During inflation, all quanta decay into many quanta even of the same field because of the lack of kinematic thresholds. The decay leads to a quantum entangled state of subhorizon and superhorizon quanta with correlations across the horizon. We find the modifications of the decay width and the entanglement entropy from the initial conditions. In all cases, initial conditions from a "fast-roll" stage that lead to a suppression in the scalar power spectrum at large scales also result in a suppression of the dynamically generated masses, anomalous dimensions and decay widths.

  12. Conditions for circumstellar disc formation - II. Effects of initial cloud stability and mass accretion rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Masahiro N.; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2016-12-01

    Disc formation in strongly magnetized cloud cores is investigated using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation with a focus on the effects of the initial cloud stability and the mass accretion rate. The initial cloud stability greatly alters the disc formation process even for prestellar clouds with the same mass-to-flux ratio. A high mass accretion rate on to the disc-forming region is realized in initially unstable clouds, and a large angular momentum is introduced into the circumstellar region in a short time. The region around the protostar has both a thin infalling envelope and a weak magnetic field, which both weaken the effect of magnetic braking. The growth of the rotation-supported disc is promoted in such unstable clouds. Conversely, clouds in an initially near-equilibrium state show lower accretion rates of mass and angular momentum. The angular momentum is transported to the outer envelope before protostar formation. After protostar formation, the circumstellar region has a thick infalling envelope and a strong magnetic field that effectively brakes the disc. As a result, disc formation is suppressed when the initial cloud is in a nearly stable state. The density distribution of the initial cloud also affects the disc formation process. Disc growth strongly depends on the initial conditions when the prestellar cloud has a uniform density, whereas there is no significant difference in the disc formation process in prestellar clouds with non-uniform densities.

  13. Network growth with arbitrary initial conditions: Degree dynamics for uniform and preferential attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotouhi, Babak; Rabbat, Michael G.

    2013-12-01

    This paper provides time-dependent expressions for the expected degree distribution of a given network that is subject to growth. We consider both uniform attachment, where incoming nodes form links to existing nodes selected uniformly at random, and preferential attachment, where probabilities are assigned proportional to the degrees of the existing nodes. We consider the cases of single and multiple links being formed by each newly introduced node. The initial conditions are arbitrary, that is, the solution depends on the degree distribution of the initial graph which is the substrate of the growth. Previous work in the literature focuses on the asymptotic state, that is, when the number of nodes added to the initial graph tends to infinity, rendering the effect of the initial graph negligible. Our contribution provides a solution for the expected degree distribution as a function of time, for arbitrary initial condition. Previous results match our results in the asymptotic limit. The results are discrete in the degree domain and continuous in the time domain, where the addition of new nodes to the graph are approximated by a continuous arrival rate.

  14. EARLY DYNAMICAL EVOLUTION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM: PINNING DOWN THE INITIAL CONDITIONS OF THE NICE MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Batygin, Konstantin; Brown, Michael E.

    2010-06-20

    In the recent years, the 'Nice' model of solar system formation has attained an unprecedented level of success in reproducing much of the observed orbital architecture of the solar system by evolving the planets to their current locations from a more compact configuration. Within the context of this model, the formation of the classical Kuiper Belt requires a phase during which the ice giants have a high eccentricity. An outstanding question of this model is the initial configuration from which the solar system started out. Recent work has shown that multi-resonant initial conditions can serve as good candidates, as they naturally prevent vigorous type-II migration. In this paper, we use analytical arguments, as well as self-consistent numerical N-body simulations to identify fully resonant initial conditions, whose dynamical evolution is characterized by an eccentric phase of the ice giants, as well as planetary scattering. We find a total of eight such initial conditions. Four of these primordial states are compatible with the canonical 'Nice' model, while the others imply slightly different evolutions. The results presented here should prove useful in further development of a comprehensive model for solar system formation.

  15. Simulations of the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability with experimentally measured volumetric initial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Kevin; Sewell, Everest; Krivets, Vitaliy; Greenough, Jeffrey; Jacobs, Jeffrey

    2016-11-01

    Initial conditions for the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) are measured in three dimensions in the University of Arizona Vertical Shock Tube using a moving magnet galvanometer system. The resulting volumetric data is used as initial conditions for the simulation of the RMI using ARES at Lawrence-Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The heavy gas is sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and the light gas is air. The perturbations are generated by harmonically oscillating the gasses vertically using two loudspeakers mounted to the shock tube which cause Faraday resonance, producing a random short wavelength perturbation on the interface. Planar Mie scattering is used to illuminate the flow field through the addition of propylene glycol particles seeded in the heavy gas. An M=1.2 shock impulsively accelerates the interface, initiating instability growth. Images of the initial condition and instability growth are captured at a rate of 6 kHz using high speed cameras. Comparisons between experimental and simulation results, mixing diagnostics, and mixing zone growth are presented.

  16. 3-D Time-Accurate CFD Simulations of a Multi-Megawatt Slender Bladed HAWT under Yawed Inflow Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayed, M.; Lutz, Th.; Krämer, E.

    2016-09-01

    In the present study numerical investigations of a generic Multi-Megawatt slender bladed Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) under yawed inflow conditions were conducted. A three-dimensional URANS flow solver based on structured overlapping meshes was used. The simulations were conducted at wind speeds of 7m/sec, 11 m/sec and 15 m/sec for different yaw angles ranging from +60° to -60°. It was concluded that, for below rated wind speeds, under small yaw angles (below ±15°) the magnitudes of the blade forces are slightly increased, while under high yaw angles (above ±15°) there is a significant decrease. Moreover, the load fluctuations, for the different yaw angles, have the same frequency but different amplitude and oscillation shape. It was concluded that at the above rated wind speed of 15 m/sec, the blade aerodynamic loads are significantly affected by the yaw inflow conditions and the magnitude values of the loads are decreased with increasing yaw angle. It can be concluded that the angle of attack and the tower interference are the utmost variables affecting the yawed turbines.

  17. Evaluation of the effects of initial conditions on transients in PUMA

    SciTech Connect

    Parlatan, Y.; Jo, J.; Rohatgi, U.S.

    1996-07-01

    Major differences between the SBWR and the currently operating BWRs include the use of passive gravity-driven systems in the SBWR for emergency cooling of the vessel and containment. In order to investigate the phenomena expected during a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), NRC has sponsored an integral scaled-test facility, called Purdue, University Multidimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA). The facility models all the major safety-related components of SBWR. Two PUMA initialization calculations were performed to assist the Purdue University in establishing test initialization procedures. Both calculations were based on the initial conditions obtained from SBWR LOCA simulation. In the base case, a complete separation between vapor and liquid was assumed, with all the water in the lower part of the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) and all the vapor above it. In the sensitivity case, the water inventory was distributed in the vessel in the same way as in the SBWR at 1.034 MPa, which is the initial pressure for PUMA facility. Purdue University plans to initialize the PUMA tests as in the base case. The sensitivity calculation is performed to provide assurance that this mode of initialization is adequate. It also provides information on possible differences in the progress of transients. The conditions outside of the vessel were identical for both cases prior to initiation of the accident. The paper will discuss the differences in the early part of the transient. The conclusion from this study will also apply to many integral facilities which simulate the reactor transients from the middle of the transient.

  18. Influences of initial launch conditions on flight performance of high altitude balloon ascending process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Liu, Dongxu

    2015-08-01

    Influences of initial launch conditions on flight performance are addressed for the high altitude balloon ascending process. A novel dynamic model was established to describe thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of balloon which consists of atmospheric, thermal and dynamic submodels. Based on the model, ascending processes of a high altitude balloon under different initial launch conditions were simulated. The initial launch conditions were classified into three types: inflating quantity, launch time and launch position. The ascending velocity and the differential pressure were defined and used as evaluation parameters of flight performance. Results showed that the inflating quantity is the most effective factor for ascending process, and the upper and lower limits were also proposed separately from safety and performance perspectives. For both launch time and launch location conditions, different solar radiation is the main effect approach during ascending process. Specifically, the influence mechanism of launch time in one day and launch longitude are completely identical due to the Earth's rotation. Results also showed that the sunset process is the optimal selection for safety of balloon and efficient utilization of solar energy. Due to the Earth's revolution, the influence mechanism of launch date and launch latitude are identical and the effects are more seasonal and less effective. Launch time and location should be considered comprehensively in practical operation of ballooning.

  19. Effect of Initial Conditions on Compressible Rayleigh-Taylor Instability and Transition to Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, A R; Edwards, M; Greenough, J A

    2004-01-07

    Perturbations on an interface driven by a strong blast wave grow in time due to a combination of Rayleigh-Taylor, Richtmyer-Meshkov, and decompression effects. In this paper, we present the first results from a computational study of such a system under drive conditions to be attainable on the National Ignition Facility. Using the multiphysics, AMR, higher order Godunov Eulerian hydrocode, Raptor, we consider the late nonlinear instability evolution for multiple amplitude and phase realizations of a variety of multimode spectral types. We show that compressibility effects preclude the emergence of a regime of self-similar instability growth independent of the initial conditions by allowing for memory of the initial conditions to be retained in the mix-width at all times. The loss of transverse spectral information is demonstrated, however, along with the existence of a quasi-self-similar regime over short time intervals. The initial conditions are shown to have a strong affect on the time to transition to the quasi-self-similar regime.

  20. ACCURATE TIME-DEPENDENT WAVE PACKET STUDY OF THE H{sup +}+LiH REACTION AT EARLY UNIVERSE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Aslan, E.; Bulut, N.; Castillo, J. F.; Banares, L.; Aoiz, F. J.; Roncero, O.

    2012-11-01

    The dynamics and kinetics of the H{sup +} + LiH reaction have been studied using a quantum reactive time-dependent wave packet (TDWP) coupled-channel quantum mechanical method on an ab initio potential energy surface at conditions of the early universe. The total reaction probabilities for the H{sup +} + LiH(v = 0, j = 0) {yields} H{sup +} {sub 2} + Li process have been calculated from 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} eV up to 1 eV for total angular momenta J from 0 to 110. Using a Langevin model, integral cross sections have been calculated in that range of collision energies and extrapolated for energies below 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} eV. The calculated rate constants are found to be nearly independent of temperature in the 10-1000 K interval with a value of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -9} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}, which is in good agreement with estimates used in evolutionary models of the early universe lithium chemistry.

  1. Initial conditions for dark soliton generation in normal-dispersion fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Ge, Y Q; Luo, J L; Li, L; Jin, X X; Tang, D Y; Shen, D Y; Zhang, S M; Zhao, L M

    2015-01-01

    We report results of numerical simulations on the various initial conditions for dark soliton generation in an all-normal-dispersion fiber laser. All the dark solitons generated are odd dark solitons. Differently from the dark soliton generation in fibers, where an arbitrary dip could evolve into a dark soliton, it is found that the dark soliton can originate only from an initial dip with a certain parameter requirement. A bright pulse with either a hyperbolic secant square, Gaussian, or Lorentz profile can be developed into a dark soliton, provided that the parameters of the initial bright pulse are selected. Dark solitons can be generated in fiber lasers only if there is a phase jump, and this phase jump can be maintained and evolve to π during the pulse evolution.

  2. Numerical investigation of initial condition effects on Rayleigh-Taylor instability with acceleration reversals.

    PubMed

    Aslangil, Denis; Banerjee, Arindam; Lawrie, Andrew G W

    2016-11-01

    The influence of initial conditions on miscible incompressible baroclinically driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability undergoing nonuniform acceleration is explored computationally using an implicit large eddy simulation (ILES) technique. We consider the particular case of evolution during multiple reversals of acceleration direction, where the flow is alternately statically stable or unstable. In the unstable phase, the flow is driven by the baroclinic release of potential energy, whereas in the stable phase, work is done against the density stratification with the energy exchange taking place by wavelike mechanisms. These dynamics are fundamentally different; here, we track the evolution of volume-averaged turbulent statistics that are most sensitive to changes in the distribution of spectral power and bandwidth of the initial conditions as the flow alternates between dynamical regimes due to acceleration reversal.

  3. Numerical investigation of initial condition effects on Rayleigh-Taylor instability with acceleration reversals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslangil, Denis; Banerjee, Arindam; Lawrie, Andrew G. W.

    2016-11-01

    The influence of initial conditions on miscible incompressible baroclinically driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability undergoing nonuniform acceleration is explored computationally using an implicit large eddy simulation (ILES) technique. We consider the particular case of evolution during multiple reversals of acceleration direction, where the flow is alternately statically stable or unstable. In the unstable phase, the flow is driven by the baroclinic release of potential energy, whereas in the stable phase, work is done against the density stratification with the energy exchange taking place by wavelike mechanisms. These dynamics are fundamentally different; here, we track the evolution of volume-averaged turbulent statistics that are most sensitive to changes in the distribution of spectral power and bandwidth of the initial conditions as the flow alternates between dynamical regimes due to acceleration reversal.

  4. Quantifying uncertainty in Gulf of Mexico forecasts stemming from uncertain initial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskandarani, Mohamed; Le Hénaff, Matthieu; Thacker, William Carlisle; Srinivasan, Ashwanth; Knio, Omar M.

    2016-07-01

    Polynomial Chaos (PC) methods are used to quantify the impacts of initial conditions uncertainties on oceanic forecasts of the Gulf of Mexico circulation. Empirical Orthogonal Functions are used as initial conditions perturbations with their modal amplitudes considered as uniformly distributed uncertain random variables. These perturbations impact primarily the Loop Current system and several frontal eddies located in its vicinity. A small ensemble is used to sample the space of the modal amplitudes and to construct a surrogate for the evolution of the model predictions via a nonintrusive Galerkin projection. The analysis of the surrogate yields verification measures for the surrogate's reliability and statistical information for the model output. A variance analysis indicates that the sea surface height predictability in the vicinity of the Loop Current is limited to about 20 days.

  5. Non-Gaussian initial conditions in ΛCDM: Newtonian, relativistic, and primordial contributions

    SciTech Connect

    Bruni, Marco; Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Meures, Nikolai; Wands, David

    2014-04-10

    The goal of the present paper is to set initial conditions for structure formation at nonlinear order, consistent with general relativity, while also allowing for primordial non-Gaussianity. We use the nonlinear continuity and Raychaudhuri equations, which together with the nonlinear energy constraint, determine the evolution of the matter density fluctuation in general relativity. We solve this equations at first and second order in a perturbative expansion, recovering and extending previous results derived in the matter-dominated limit and in the Newtonian regime. We present a second-order solution for the comoving density contrast in a ΛCDM universe, identifying nonlinear contributions coming from the Newtonian growing mode, primordial non-Gaussianity and intrinsic non-Gaussianity, due to the essential nonlinearity of the relativistic constraint equations. We discuss the application of these results to initial conditions in N-body simulations, showing that relativistic corrections mimic a non-zero nonlinear parameter f {sub NL}.

  6. Micro-mechanical study of stress path and initial conditions in granular materials using DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorostkar, Omid; Mirghasemi, Ali Asghar

    2016-03-01

    The macroscale response of granular materials under different loading conditions stems from the alteration of micromechanical properties during loading. Previous studies have used either physical experiments or discrete element method simulations to explore the effect of initial conditions and stress path on granular materials. However, microscale studies are not sufficient, especially for various loading paths. We study micromechanics of granular materials using the stress-force-fabric (SFF) relationship for a better understanding of the behavior of granular materials. Triaxial compression and extension tests are conducted on samples containing 1000 spherical particles, with periodic boundaries, and the effect of initial porosity is studied. In the next step, using the SFF relationship, we study the effect of anisotropic consolidation ratio. In addition to providing an appropriate explanation for shear strength out of evolution of anisotropy coefficients, our results show that anisotropic consolidation does not affect the micromechanical properties of granular materials in a way to change mobilized friction angle of sample at failure point.

  7. Algorithmic independence of initial condition and dynamical law in thermodynamics and causal inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzing, Dominik; Chaves, Rafael; Schölkopf, Bernhard

    2016-09-01

    We postulate a principle stating that the initial condition of a physical system is typically algorithmically independent of the dynamical law. We discuss the implications of this principle and argue that they link thermodynamics and causal inference. On the one hand, they entail behavior that is similar to the usual arrow of time. On the other hand, they motivate a statistical asymmetry between cause and effect that has recently been postulated in the field of causal inference, namely, that the probability distribution {P}{{cause}} contains no information about the conditional distribution {P}{{effect}| {{cause}}} and vice versa, while {P}{{effect}} may contain information about {P}{{cause}| {{effect}}}.

  8. Inverted initial conditions: Exploring the growth of cosmic structure and voids

    SciTech Connect

    Pontzen, Andrew; Roth, Nina; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Slosar, Anze

    2016-05-18

    We introduce and explore “paired” cosmological simulations. A pair consists of an A and B simulation with initial conditions related by the inversion δA(x,tinitial) = –δB(x,tinitial) (underdensities substituted for overdensities and vice versa). We argue that the technique is valuable for improving our understanding of cosmic structure formation. The A and B fields are by definition equally likely draws from ΛCDM initial conditions, and in the linear regime evolve identically up to the overall sign. As nonlinear evolution takes hold, a region that collapses to form a halo in simulation A will tend to expand to create a void in simulation B. Applications include (i) contrasting the growth of A-halos and B-voids to test excursion-set theories of structure formation, (ii) cross-correlating the density field of the A and B universes as a novel test for perturbation theory, and (iii) canceling error terms by averaging power spectra between the two boxes. Furthermore, generalizations of the method to more elaborate field transformations are suggested.

  9. Sensitivity to initial conditions in the Bak-Sneppen model of biological evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamarit, F. A.; Cannas, S. A.; Tsallis, C.

    1998-03-01

    We consider biological evolution as described within the Bak and Sneppen 1993 model. We exhibit, at the self-organized critical state, a power-law sensitivity to the initial conditions, calculate the associated exponent, and relate it to the recently introduced nonextensive thermostatistics. The scenario which here emerges without tuning strongly reminds of that of the tuned onset of chaos in say logistic-like one-dimensional maps. We also calculate the dynamical exponent z.

  10. Initial condition dependence and wave function confinement in the Schrödinger-Newton equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestrini, Marion; Brunnet, Leonardo G.; Disconzi, Marcelo; Brito, Carolina

    2015-11-01

    In this work we study the dynamics of the Schrödinger-Newton (SN) equation upon different choices of initial conditions. Setting up superpositions of Gaussian-like wave packages, a very rich behavior for the critical mass as a function of the parameters of the problem is observed. We find that, for certain values of the parameters, the critical mass is smaller than the critical mass for the system whose initial condition is a single Gaussian wave package, which was the situation previously investigated in the literature. This opens a possibility that more complex initial conditions could in fact produce a significant decrease in the value of the critical mass, which could imply that the SN approach could be tested experimentally. Our conclusions rely on both numerical and analytic estimates. Furthermore, a detailed numerical study is carried out in order to investigate finite-size effects on the simulations, refining earlier results already published. In order to facilitate the reproducibility of our results, a detailed description of our numerical methods has been included in the presentation.

  11. Effect of initial conditions on mixing within a turbulent channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germaine, Emmanuel; Mydlarski, Laurent; Cortelezzi, Luca

    2011-11-01

    We analyze the mixing of a passive scalar (temperature) in a turbulent channel flow for different initial conditions by means of numerical simulations. The numerical domain is a channel delimited by two parallel and infinite flat walls, simulated using periodic boundary conditions in the streamwise and spanwise directions. We consider three initial distributions of temperature, where hot and cold fluids are separated by a sharp but continuous interface that subdivides the computational domain into two identical halves. The interface is taken parallel to the walls or perpendicular to them, oriented in the streamwise or spanwise directions. We perform a direct numerical simulation of the temperature field at Reτ = 190 when the flow is fully turbulent. The numerical scheme combines an advection diffusion solver, i.e, a third-order flux integral method based on UTOPIA (Leonard et al., Appl. Math. Modeling, 1995), with a Navier-Stokes solver, i.e, spectral code released by Prof. John Gibson, http://www.channelflow.org). We quantify the time-evolution of the mixing performance of the turbulent flow using different measures of the mixing, including a negative Sobolev norm - a diagnostic currently used to asses the mixing performance of laminar flows. Finally, we discuss the influence of the initial conditions on the turbulent mixing. Funding was provided by NSERC (grants RGPIN217169 and RGPIN217184).

  12. A Comparison of Perturbed Initial Conditions and Multiphysics Ensembles in a Severe Weather Episode in Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapiador, Francisco; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Angelis, Carlos F.; Martinez, Miguel A.; Cecilia Marcos; Antonio Rodriguez; Hou, Arthur; Jong Shi, Jain

    2012-01-01

    Ensembles of numerical model forecasts are of interest to operational early warning forecasters as the spread of the ensemble provides an indication of the uncertainty of the alerts, and the mean value is deemed to outperform the forecasts of the individual models. This paper explores two ensembles on a severe weather episode in Spain, aiming to ascertain the relative usefulness of each one. One ensemble uses sensible choices of physical parameterizations (precipitation microphysics, land surface physics, and cumulus physics) while the other follows a perturbed initial conditions approach. The results show that, depending on the parameterizations, large differences can be expected in terms of storm location, spatial structure of the precipitation field, and rain intensity. It is also found that the spread of the perturbed initial conditions ensemble is smaller than the dispersion due to physical parameterizations. This confirms that in severe weather situations operational forecasts should address moist physics deficiencies to realize the full benefits of the ensemble approach, in addition to optimizing initial conditions. The results also provide insights into differences in simulations arising from ensembles of weather models using several combinations of different physical parameterizations.

  13. Growth condition-dependent Esp expression by Enterococcus faecium affects initial adherence and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Van Wamel, Willem J B; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Bonten, Marc J M; Top, Janetta; Posthuma, George; Willems, Rob J L

    2007-02-01

    A genetic subpopulation of Enterococcus faecium, called clonal complex 17 (CC-17), is strongly associated with hospital outbreaks and invasive infections. Most CC-17 strains contain a putative pathogenicity island encoding the E. faecium variant of enterococcal surface protein (Esp). Western blotting, flow cytometric analyses, and electron microscopy showed that Esp is expressed and exposed on the surface of E. faecium, though Esp expression and surface exposure are highly varied among different strains. Furthermore, Esp expression depends on growth conditions like temperature and anaerobioses. When grown at 37 degrees C, five of six esp-positive E. faecium strains showed significantly increased levels of surface-exposed Esp compared to bacteria grown at 21 degrees C, which was confirmed at the transcriptional level by real-time PCR. In addition, a significant increase in surface-exposed Esp was found in half of these strains when grown at 37 degrees C under anaerobic conditions compared to the level in bacteria grown under aerobic conditions. Finally, amounts of surface-exposed Esp correlated with initial adherence to polystyrene (R(2) = 0.7146) and biofilm formation (R(2) = 0.7535). Polystyrene adherence was competitively inhibited by soluble recombinant N-terminal Esp. This study demonstrates that Esp expression on the surface of E. faecium (i) varies consistently between strains, (ii) is growth condition dependent, and (iii) is quantitatively correlated with initial adherence and biofilm formation. These data indicate that E. faecium senses and responds to changing environmental conditions, which might play a role in the early stages of infection when bacteria transit from oxygen-rich conditions at room temperature to anaerobic conditions at body temperature. In addition, variation of surface exposure may explain the contrasting findings reported on the role of Esp in biofilm formation.

  14. Parametrisation of initial conditions for seasonal stream flow forecasting in the Swiss Rhine basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schick, Simon; Rössler, Ole; Weingartner, Rolf

    2016-04-01

    Current climate forecast models show - to the best of our knowledge - low skill in forecasting climate variability in Central Europe at seasonal lead times. When it comes to seasonal stream flow forecasting, initial conditions thus play an important role. Here, initial conditions refer to the catchments moisture at the date of forecast, i.e. snow depth, stream flow and lake level, soil moisture content, and groundwater level. The parametrisation of these initial conditions can take place at various spatial and temporal scales. Examples are the grid size of a distributed model or the time aggregation of predictors in statistical models. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the extent to which the parametrisation of initial conditions at different spatial scales leads to differences in forecast errors. To do so, we conduct a forecast experiment for the Swiss Rhine at Basel, which covers parts of Germany, Austria, and Switzerland and is southerly bounded by the Alps. Seasonal mean stream flow is defined for the time aggregation of 30, 60, and 90 days and forecasted at 24 dates within the calendar year, i.e. at the 1st and 16th day of each month. A regression model is employed due to the various anthropogenic effects on the basins hydrology, which often are not quantifiable but might be grasped by a simple black box model. Furthermore, the pool of candidate predictors consists of antecedent temperature, precipitation, and stream flow only. This pragmatic approach follows the fact that observations of variables relevant for hydrological storages are either scarce in space or time (soil moisture, groundwater level), restricted to certain seasons (snow depth), or regions (lake levels, snow depth). For a systematic evaluation, we therefore focus on the comprehensive archives of meteorological observations and reanalyses to estimate the initial conditions via climate variability prior to the date of forecast. The experiment itself is based on four different

  15. Tensor to scalar ratio and large scale power suppression from pre-slow roll initial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lello, Louis; Boyanovsky, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    We study the corrections to the power spectra of curvature and tensor perturbations and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r in single field slow roll inflation with standard kinetic term due to initial conditions imprinted by a ``fast-roll'' stage prior to slow roll. For a wide range of initial inflaton kinetic energy, this stage lasts only a few e-folds and merges smoothly with slow-roll thereby leading to non-Bunch-Davies initial conditions for modes that exit the Hubble radius during slow roll. We describe a program that yields the dynamics in the fast-roll stage while matching to the slow roll stage in a manner that is independent of the inflationary potentials. Corrections to the power spectra are encoded in a ``transfer function'' for initial conditions Script Tα(k), Script Pα(k) = PBDα(k)Script Tα(k), implying a modification of the ``consistency condition'' for the tensor to scalar ratio at a pivot scale k0: r(k0) = -8nT(k0) [Script TT(k0)/Script TScript R(k0)]. We obtain Script Tα(k) to leading order in a Born approximation valid for modes of observational relevance today. A fit yields Script Tα(k) = 1+Aαk-pcos [2πωk/Hsr+varphiα], with 1.5lesssimplesssim2, ω simeq 1 and Hsr the Hubble scale during slow roll inflation, where curvature and tensor perturbations feature the same p,ω for a wide range of initial conditions. These corrections lead to both a suppression of the quadrupole and oscillatory features in both PR(k) and r(k0) with a period of the order of the Hubble scale during slow roll inflation. The results are quite general and independent of the specific inflationary potentials, depending solely on the ratio of kinetic to potential energy κ and the slow roll parameters epsilonV, ηV to leading order in slow roll. For a wide range of κ and the values of epsilonV ηV corresponding to the upper bounds from Planck, we find that the low quadrupole is consistent with the results from Planck, and the oscillations in r(k0) as a function of k0 could

  16. Evaluation of the effects of initial conditions on transients in PUMA

    SciTech Connect

    Parlatan, Y.; Jo, J.; Rohatgi, U.S.

    1996-06-01

    A Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) is the latest Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) designed by the General Electric (GE). Major differences between the SBWR and the currently operating BWRs include the use of passive gravity-driven systems in the SBWR for emergency cooling of the vessel and containment. In order to investigate the phenomena expected during a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored an integral scaled-test facility, called Purdue University Multidimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA). The facility models all the major safety-related components of SBWR. Two PUMA initialization calculations were performed to assist the Purdue University in establishing test initialization procedures. Both calculations were based on the initial conditions obtained from SBWR LOCA simulation. In the base case, a complete separation between vapor and liquid was assumed, with all the water in the lower part of the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) and all the vapor above it. In the sensitivity case, the water inventory was distributed in the vessel in the same way as in the SBWR at 1.034 MPa, which is the initial pressure for PUMA facility. Purdue University plans to initialize the PUMA tests as in the base case. The sensitivity calculation is performed to provide assurance that this mode of initialization is adequate. It also provides information on possible differences in the progress of transients. The paper will discuss the differences in the early part of the transient. The conclusion from this study will also apply to many integral facilities which simulate the reactor transients form the middle of the transient.

  17. Sensitivities of AGCM-Simulated Tropical Cyclones to Varying Initial Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, F.; Posselt, D. J.; Narisetty, N.; Zarzycki, C.; Nair, V.

    2013-12-01

    General Circulation Models (GCMs) have been increasingly used to simulate Tropical Cyclones (TCs) and predict their changes due to the effects of climate warming. As such, the motivation is to examine how the development of Tropical Cyclones (TCs) is represented in Atmospheric General circulation Models (AGCMs) and assesses the impact of changes in initial conditions, which include Radius of Maximum wind speed (RMW), Maximum wind speed (MWS), Sea surface temperature (SST), Environmental lapse rate (Gamma) and mid-level relative humidity (500-hPa RH), on modeled TCs. The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) has been used to simulate the development of idealized TCs over 10 days. A Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) method is used to generate two 300-member space-filling ensembles of simulations with grid resolution of 1×1 and 0.5 ×0.5 degree respectively. Composite analysis is first used to analyze the ensemble results, then, the Expanded Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (EMARS) method is implemented to characterize various TC response functions. Both 0.5 and 1.0 degree simulations produce a wide range of TC intensities ranging from tropical depression to category 4 or 5 on the Saffir-Simpson scale. On average, storms in the higher resolution simulations are stronger than those produced by the coarser-resolution model. Specifically, it is found that (1) the intensity, track, cloud, precipitation and radiative fields of simulated TCs are highly sensitive to changes in the initial vortex characteristics and surrounding environment; (2) nonlinear interaction between the initial conditions is crucial to the distribution of clouds, precipitation, and radiation of simulated TCs; (3) favorable initial conditions are able to produce intense and destructive TCs even in1 ×1 degree resolution global climate models; (4) inter-relationships exist among the cloud radiative forcing, cloud water content, precipitation and intensity

  18. Medicare's Bundled Payment initiative: most hospitals are focused on a few high-volume conditions.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Thomas C; Joynt, Karen E; Wild, Robert C; Orav, E John; Jha, Ashish K

    2015-03-01

    The Bundled Payments for Care Improvement initiative is a federally funded innovation model mandated by the Affordable Care Act. It is designed to help transition Medicare away from fee-for-service payments and toward bundling a single payment for an episode of acute care in a hospital and related postacute care in an appropriate setting. While results from the initiative will not be available for several years, current data can help provide critical early insights. However, little is known about the participating organizations and how they are focusing their efforts. We identified participating hospitals and used national Medicare claims data to assess their characteristics and previous spending patterns. These hospitals are mostly large, nonprofit, teaching hospitals in the Northeast, and they have selectively enrolled in the bundled payment initiative covering patient conditions with high clinical volumes. We found no significant differences in episode-based spending between participating and nonparticipating hospitals. Postacute care explains the largest variation in overall episode-based spending, signaling an opportunity to align incentives across providers. However, the focus on a few selected clinical conditions and the high degree of integration that already exists between enrolled hospitals and postacute care providers may limit the generalizability of bundled payment across the Medicare system.

  19. Impact of soil moisture initial conditions on multi model summer predictions over mid-latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardilouze, Constantin; Prodhomme, Chloé; Batté, Lauriane; Déqué, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Land surface initial conditions have been recognized as a potential source of predictability at seasonal time scales. As an example, results from GLACE-2 (phase 2 of the Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment) highlighted the impact of spring soil moisture in summer near-surface air temperature prediction over Europe and Northern America with global long-range forecast systems (Koster et al., 2011, van den Hurk et al.,2012). Yet, few studies have explored such an influence over a sufficient hindcast period to produce a robust quantitative assessment. In the framework of the FP7-SPECS project, dedicated experiments have been carried out with June-August hindcasts from 5 distinct Atmosphere Ocean Global Climate Models initialized either by realistic or climatological soil moisture conditions on May 1st. Realistic initialization leads to an improved 2-meter temperature prediction skill over parts of Europe in the multi model, particularly the Balkans peninsula which had been identified as a hot spot of soil moisture-atmosphere coupling (Seneviratne et al. 2006) However no improvement was found over North-American Great Plains in spite of the high potential of this region. Further analyses suggest that this lack of skill stems from a common shortcoming of the models. All of them tend to overestimate the positive feedback between soil moisture, temperature and precipitation with respect to the observations. Hence, tackling model systematic biases over the US Southern Great Plains appears as a necessary prerequisite for summer predictability enhancement.

  20. Flight initiation of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) under natural climatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Gurevitz, Juan M; Ceballos, Leonardo A; Kitron, Uriel; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2006-03-01

    Flight dispersal of Triatoma infestans Klug is probably the most important mechanism for house reinfestation at a village scale after residual spraying with insecticides. The aim of the current study was to estimate the flight initiation probability of field-collected T. infestans and to assess how this probability was affected by sex, adult age, partial bloodmeal, and the presence of a host inaccessible for feeding. Four experimental series, each consisting of three to six consecutive nights and repeated measurements of flight initiation on each individually marked bug, were carried out in experimental huts inside closed cages under natural climatic conditions. We demonstrate that flight initiation probability of T. infestans is much higher than previously reported, responds to temperature in a sigmoid manner, and is higher in females than males, and that the frequency distribution of the number of flights per individual is highly aggregated in female and male bugs. The age of adults had strong effects on flight initiation, whereas the presence of an inaccessible host and a partial bloodmeal exerted no significant effects in models controlling for the effects of bug weight-to-length ratio. The high flight potential found is consistent with the rapid changes in reinfestation patterns observed in the field. The present estimates of flight probabilities and the identification of factors modifying them provide essential knowledge for modeling reinfestation patterns and for improving control strategies of T.

  1. Reduction of damage initiation density in fused silica optics via UV laser conditioning

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, John E.; Maricle, Stephen M.; Brusasco, Raymond M.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.

    2004-03-16

    The present invention provides a method for reducing the density of sites on the surface of fused silica optics that are prone to the initiation of laser-induced damage, resulting in optics which have far fewer catastrophic defects and are better capable of resisting optical deterioration upon exposure for a long period of time to a high-power laser beam having a wavelength of about 360 nm or less. The initiation of laser-induced damage is reduced by conditioning the optic at low fluences below levels that normally lead to catastrophic growth of damage. When the optic is then irradiated at its high fluence design limit, the concentration of catastrophic damage sites that form on the surface of the optic is greatly reduced.

  2. Origins of the rings of Uranus and Neptune. II - Initial conditions and ring moon populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, Joshua E.; Esposito, Larry W.

    1993-01-01

    Catastrophic fragmentation of the ring moons of Uranus and Neptune occurs in approximately 10 exp 8 years. The fate of the debris following a fragmenting impact is central to understanding the evolution of these satellites and the hypothesized origin of rings from their debris. In this paper the possible effects of the velocity distribution of fragments following a catastrophic fragmentation on satellite diminution via a collisional cascade is examined. Fragment velocities are critical in the evolution of the collisional cascade because of the possibility of reaccretion following disruption. The fragment velocity distribution is used to calculate the initial phase space distribution of the new ring particles. This provides a physically realistic initial condition for simulations of the collisional evolution of planetary rings.

  3. The problem of the initial conditions in flavoured leptogenesis and the tauon N-dominated scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Di Bari, Pasquale; Marzola, Luca

    2011-08-01

    We discuss the conditions to realise a scenario of 'strong thermal leptogenesis,' where the final asymmetry is fully independent of the initial conditions, taking into account both heavy and light neutrino flavour effects. In particular, the contribution to the final asymmetry from an initial pre-existing asymmetry has to be negligible. We show that in the case of a hierarchical right-handed (RH) neutrino mass spectrum, the only possible way is an N-dominated leptogenesis scenario with a lightest RH neutrino mass M≪10 GeV and with a next-to-lightest RH neutrino mass 10 GeV≫M≫10 GeV. This scenario necessarily requires the presence of a heaviest third RH neutrino specie. Moreover, we show that the final asymmetry has to be dominantly produced in the tauon flavour while the electron and the muon asymmetries have to be efficiently washed-out by the lightest RH neutrino inverse processes. Intriguingly, such seemingly special conditions for successful strong thermal leptogenesis are naturally fulfilled within SO(10)-inspired models. Besides the tauon N-dominated scenario, successful strong thermal leptogenesis is also achieved in scenarios with quasi-degenerate RH neutrino masses. We also comment on the supersymmetric case. We also derive an expression for the final asymmetry produced from leptogenesis taking fully into account heavy neutrino flavour effects in the specific case M≫10 GeV (heavy flavoured scenario), a result that can be extended to any other mass pattern.

  4. Analysis of initial reactions of MALDI based on chemical properties of matrixes and excitation condition.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yin-Hung; Wang, Chia-Chen; Chen, Chiu Wen; Liu, Bo-Hong; Lin, Sheng Hsien; Lee, Yuan Tseh; Wang, Yi-Sheng

    2012-08-16

    This investigation concerns the initial chemical reactions that affect the ionization of matrixes in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). The study focuses on the relaxations of photon energy that occur on a comparable time scale to that of ionization, in which the available laser energy is shared and the ionization condition is changed. The relaxations include fluorescence, fragmentation, and nonradiative relaxation from the excited state to the ground state. With high absorption cross section and long excited-state lifetime, photoionization of matrix plays an important role if sufficient laser energy is used. Under other conditions, thermal ionization of the molecule in the ground state is predicted to be one of the important reactions. Evidence of change in the branching ratio of initial reactions with the matrix and the excitation wavelength was obtained with α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, sinapinic acid, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone. These matrixes are studied by obtaining their mixed crystal absorption spectra, fluorescence properties, laser-induced infrared emission, and product ions. The exact ionization pathway depends on the chemical properties of matrixes and the excitation conditions. This concept may explain the diversity of experimental results observed in MALDI experiments, which provides an insight into the ensemble of chemical reactions that govern the generation of ions.

  5. Impact of the initial tropospheric zenith path delay on precise point positioning convergence during active conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, J. Z.; Rzepecka, Z.

    2017-04-01

    Tropospheric delay is one of the key factors that influence the convergence time of the precise point positioning (PPP) method. Current models do not allow for the fixing of the zenith path delay tropospheric parameter, leaving the difference between nominal and final value to the estimation process. Here, we present an analysis of several PPP result-sets using the tropospheric parameter’s nominal value adopted from models: VMF1, GPT2w, MOPS, and ZERO-WET. The last variant assumes a zero value for the initial wet part of the zenith delay. The PPP results are subtracted from a solution based on the final tropospheric product from the International GNSS Service (IGS). Several days exhibiting the most active tropospheric conditions were selected for each of the 7 stations located in the mid-latitude Central European region. During the active days, application of the VMF1 model increases the resulting height component’s quality by about 33–36% when compared to the GPT2w and MOPS. The respective improvement in VMF1 latitude and longitude components is 27% and 15%. The average relative deterioration in the result standard deviations between active and calm tropospheric conditions reaches about 20–30% of the former. We discuss the impact of the initial tropospheric parameter’s variance and bias on positioning. In addition, we compare the results with those of other studies over the impact of active tropospheric conditions on the PPP method.

  6. Simultaneous inversion of mantle properties and initial conditions using an adjoint of mantle convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lijun; Gurnis, Michael

    2008-08-01

    Through the assimilation of present-day mantle seismic structure, adjoint methods can be used to constrain the structure of the mantle at earlier times, i.e., mantle initial conditions. However, the application to geophysical problems is restricted through both the high computational expense from repeated iteration between forward and adjoint models and the need to know mantle properties (such as viscosity and the absolute magnitude of temperature or density) a priori. We propose that an optimal first guess to the initial condition can be obtained through a simple backward integration (SBI) of the governing equations, thus lessening the computational expense. Given a model with known mantle properties, we show that a solution based on an SBI-generated first guess has smaller residuals than arbitrary guesses. Mantle viscosity and the effective Rayleigh number are crucial for mantle convection models, neither of which is exactly known. We place additional constraints on these basic mantle properties when the convection-induced dynamic topography on Earth's surface is considered within an adjoint inverse method. Besides assimilating present-day seismic structure as a constraint, we use dynamic topography and its rate of change in an inverse method that allows simultaneous inversion of the absolute upper and lower mantle viscosities, scaling between seismic velocity and thermal anomalies, and initial condition. The theory is derived from the governing equations of mantle convection and validated by synthetic experiments for both one-layer viscosity and two-layer viscosity regionally bounded spherical shells. For the one-layer model, at any instant of time, the magnitude of dynamic topography is controlled by the temperature scaling while the rate of change of topography is controlled by the absolute value of viscosity. For the two-layer case, the rate of change of topography constrains upper mantle viscosity while the magnitude of dynamic topography determines the

  7. Chimera states and the interplay between initial conditions and non-local coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalle, Peter; Sawicki, Jakub; Zakharova, Anna; Schöll, Eckehard

    2017-03-01

    Chimera states are complex spatio-temporal patterns that consist of coexisting domains of coherent and incoherent dynamics. We study chimera states in a network of non-locally coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators. We investigate the impact of initial conditions in combination with non-local coupling. Based on an analytical argument, we show how the coupling phase and the coupling strength are linked to the occurrence of chimera states, flipped profiles of the mean phase velocity, and the transition from a phase- to an amplitude-mediated chimera state.

  8. RAPID OPTIMAL SPH PARTICLE DISTRIBUTIONS IN SPHERICAL GEOMETRIES FOR CREATING ASTROPHYSICAL INITIAL CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Raskin, Cody; Owen, J. Michael

    2016-04-01

    Creating spherical initial conditions in smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations that are spherically conformal is a difficult task. Here, we describe two algorithmic methods for evenly distributing points on surfaces that when paired can be used to build three-dimensional spherical objects with optimal equipartition of volume between particles, commensurate with an arbitrary radial density function. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method against stretched lattice arrangements on the metrics of hydrodynamic stability, spherical conformity, and the harmonic power distribution of gravitational settling oscillations. We further demonstrate how our method is highly optimized for simulating multi-material spheres, such as planets with core–mantle boundaries.

  9. Exact solution for four-order acousto-optic Bragg diffraction with arbitrary initial conditions.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Ron; Koslover, Deborah; Poon, Ting-Chung

    2009-03-01

    An exact solution to the four-order acousto-optic (AO) Bragg diffraction problem with arbitrary initial conditions compatible with exact Bragg angle incident light is developed. The solution, obtained by solving a 4th-order differential equation, is formalized into a transition matrix operator predicting diffracted light orders at the exit of the AO cell in terms of the same diffracted light orders at the entrance. It is shown that the transition matrix is unitary and that this unitary matrix condition is sufficient to guarantee energy conservation. A comparison of analytical solutions with numerical predictions validates the formalism. Although not directly related to the approach used to obtain the solution, it was discovered that all four generated eigenvalues from the four-order AO differential matrix operator are expressed simply in terms of Euclid's Divine Proportion.

  10. INITIAL TEST WELL CONDITIONING AT NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT, SIERRA PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    R.D. Oliver; J.C. Dinsmoor; S.J. Goldstein; I. Reyes; R. De La Garza

    2005-07-11

    Three test wells, PB-1, PB-2, and PB-3, were drilled at the Nopal I uranium deposit as part of a natural analogue study to evaluate radionuclide transport processes during March-April 2003. The initial pumping to condition the wells was completed during December 2003. The PB-1 well, drilled immediately adjacent to the Nopal I ore body, was continuously cored to a depth of 250 m, terminating 20 m below the top of the measured water level. The PB-2 and PB-3 wells, which were drilled on opposite sides of PB-1 at a radial distance of approximately 40 to 50 m outside of the remaining projected ore body, were also drilled to about 20 m below the top of the measured water level. Each test well was completed with 4-inch (10.2-cm) diameter PVC casing with a slotted liner below the water table. Initial conditioning of all three wells using a submersible pump at low pump rates [less than 1 gallon (3.8 1) per minute] resulted in measurable draw down and recoveries. The greatest drawdown ({approx}15 m) was observed in PB-2, whereas only minor (<1 m) drawdown occurred in PB-3. For PB-1 and PB-2, the water turbidity decreased as the wells were pumped and the pH values decreased, indicating that the contamination from the drilling fluid was reduced as the wells were conditioned. Test wells PB-1 and PB-2 showed increased inflow after several borehole volumes of fluid were removed, but their inflow rates remained less that the pumping rate. Test well PB-3 showed the smallest drawdown and least change in pH and conductivity during initial pumping and quickest recovery with a rise in measured water level after conditioning. The 195 gallons (750 l) of water pumped from PB-3 during conditioning was discharged through a household sponge. That sponge showed measurable gamma radiation, which decayed to background values in less than 12 hours. Preliminary interpretations include filtration of a radioisotope source with a short half-life or of a radioisotope that volatized as the sponge

  11. Assessment of land use impact on hydraulic threshold conditions for gully head cut initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazari Samani, Aliakbar; Chen, Qiuwen; Khalighi, Shahram; Wasson, Robert James; Rahdari, Mohammad Reza

    2016-07-01

    A gully as an accelerated erosion process is responsible for land degradation under various environmental conditions and has been known as a threshold phenomenon. Although the effects of gullying processes have been well documented, few soil erosion models have taken into account the threshold condition necessary for gully development. This research was devoted to determining the effects of land use change on hydraulic threshold condition and stream power of water flow through an in situ experimental flume (15 m × 0.4 m). Results indicated that head cut initiation and detachment rates showed a better correlation to stream power indices than shear stress (τcr). The threshold unit stream power value (ωu) for head cut initiation in rangeland, abandoned land, and dry farming land was 0.0276, 0.0149, and 4.5 × 10-5 m s-1, respectively. Moreover, the micro-relief condition of soil surface and surface vegetation affected the flow regime of discharge and velocity. It is seen that the composite hydraulic criteria of Froude number (Fr) and discharge (Q) can clearly discriminate the land uses' threshold. In fact, the remarkable decrease of τcr in dry farming was related to the effect of tillage practice on soil susceptibility and aggregate strength. The findings indicated that using the unit steam power index instead of critical shear stress could increase the models' precision for prediction of head cut development. Compared to the Ephemeral Gully Erosion Model (EGEM) equation for critical shear stress, it is important to point out that for modelling of gully erosion, using single soil attributes can lead to an inaccurate estimation for τcr. In addition, based on the findings of this research, the use of threshold values of τcr = 35 dyne cm-2 and ωu = 0.4 cm s-1 in physically based soil erosion models is susceptible to high uncertainty when assessing gully erosion.

  12. Importance of initial conditions in seasonal predictions of Arctic sea ice extent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Msadek, R.; Vecchi, G. A.; Winton, M.; Gudgel, R. G.

    2014-07-01

    We present seasonal predictions of Arctic sea ice extent (SIE) over the 1982-2013 period using two suites of retrospective forecasts initialized from a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere-sea ice assimilation system. High skill scores are found in predicting year-to-year fluctuations of Arctic SIE, with significant correlations up to 7 month ahead for September detrended anomalies. Predictions over the recent era, which coincides with an improved observational coverage, outperform the earlier period for most target months. We find, however, a degradation of skill in September during the last decade, a period of sea ice thinning in observations. The two prediction models, Climate Model version 2.1 (CM2.1) and Forecast-oriented Low Ocean Resolution (FLOR), share very similar ocean and ice component and initialization but differ by their atmospheric component. FLOR has improved climatological atmospheric circulation and sea ice mean state, but its skill is overall similar to CM2.1 for most seasons, which suggests a key role for initial conditions in predicting seasonal SIE fluctuations.

  13. Initial subjective reward: single-exposure conditioned place preference to alcohol in mice

    PubMed Central

    Grisel, Judith E.; Beasley, John B.; Bertram, Emma C.; Decker, Brooke E.; Duan, Chunyu A.; Etuma, Mahder; Hand, Annie; Locklear, Mallory N.; Whitmire, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Most adults consume alcohol with relative impunity, but about 10–20% of users persist (or progress) in their consumption, despite mounting and serious repercussions. Identifying at-risk individuals before neuroadaptative changes associated with chronic use become well ingrained is thus a key step in mitigating and preventing the end stage disease and its devastating impacts. Explaining liability has been impeded, in part, by the absence of animal models for assessing initial sensitivity to the drug's reinforcing properties, an important endophenotype in the trajectory toward excessive drinking. Here we assess the initial rewarding effects of the drug in a novel application of the conditioned place preference paradigm. In contrast to previous studies that have all employed repeated drug administration, we demonstrated a robust preference for a context paired with a single exposure to 1.5 g/kg EtOH in male and female subjects of three strains. This model validates an assay of initial sensitivity to the subjective rewarding effects of alcohol, a widely used drug with multifarious impacts on both brain and society, and provides a new tool for theory-driven endophenotypic pharmacogenetic approaches to understanding and treating addiction. PMID:25408633

  14. Wave packet dynamics for Gross-Pitaevskii equation in one dimension: Dependence on initial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Sukla; Bhattacharjee, Jayanta K.

    2015-10-01

    The propagation of an initially Gaussian wave packet of width Δ0 in Gross-Pitaevskii equation is extensively studied both for attractive and repulsive interactions. It is predicted analytically and verified numerically that for a free particle with attractive interaction, the dynamics of the width is governed by an effective potential which is sensitive to initial conditions. If Δ0 is equal to a corresponding critical width Δc, then the packet will propagate in time with very little change in shape. These are in essence like coherent states. Whereas, if Δ≠Δc, depending on the nature of the effective potential for chosen Δ0 and the interaction strength (|g|), the width of the packet in course of time, either oscillates with bounded width or will spread like a free particle. For a simple harmonic oscillator (SHO) also, we find that for Δ0 smaller than a critical value, there always exists a coupling strength for which the packet simply oscillates about the mean position without changing its shape, once again providing a resemblance to a coherent state. We also consider the Morse potential, which interpolates between the free particle and the oscillator. For large attractive interactions, the two limiting dynamics (free and simple harmonic) are indeed observed but in the intermediate form of the potential where the nonlinear terms dominate in the dynamics, an initial Gaussian wave packet does not retain its shape. For repulsive interaction, the Gaussian packet always changes shape no matter what the system parameters are.

  15. What initial condition of inflation would suppress the large-scale CMB spectrum?

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Pisin; Lin, Yu -Hsiang

    2016-01-08

    There is an apparent power deficit relative to the Λ CDM prediction of the cosmic microwave background spectrum at large scales, which, though not yet statistically significant, persists from WMAP to Planck data. Proposals that invoke some form of initial condition for the inflation have been made to address this apparent power suppression, albeit with conflicting conclusions. By studying the curvature perturbations of a scalar field in the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe parameterized by the equation of state parameter w, we find that the large-scale spectrum at the end of inflation reflects the superhorizon spectrum of the initial state. The large-scale spectrum is suppressed if the universe begins with the adiabatic vacuum in a superinflation (w < –1) or positive-pressure (w > 0) era. In the latter case, there is however no causal mechanism to establish the initial adiabatic vacuum. On the other hand, as long as the universe begins with the adiabatic vacuum in an era with –1 < w < 0, even if there exists an intermediate positive-pressure era, the large-scale spectrum would be enhanced rather than suppressed. In conclusion, we further calculate the spectrum of a two-stage inflation model with a two-field potential and show that the result agrees with that obtained from the ad hoc single-field analysis.

  16. What initial condition of inflation would suppress the large-scale CMB spectrum?

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Pisin; Lin, Yu -Hsiang

    2016-01-08

    There is an apparent power deficit relative to the Λ CDM prediction of the cosmic microwave background spectrum at large scales, which, though not yet statistically significant, persists from WMAP to Planck data. Proposals that invoke some form of initial condition for the inflation have been made to address this apparent power suppression, albeit with conflicting conclusions. By studying the curvature perturbations of a scalar field in the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe parameterized by the equation of state parameter w, we find that the large-scale spectrum at the end of inflation reflects the superhorizon spectrum of the initial state. The large-scale spectrummore » is suppressed if the universe begins with the adiabatic vacuum in a superinflation (w < –1) or positive-pressure (w > 0) era. In the latter case, there is however no causal mechanism to establish the initial adiabatic vacuum. On the other hand, as long as the universe begins with the adiabatic vacuum in an era with –1 < w < 0, even if there exists an intermediate positive-pressure era, the large-scale spectrum would be enhanced rather than suppressed. In conclusion, we further calculate the spectrum of a two-stage inflation model with a two-field potential and show that the result agrees with that obtained from the ad hoc single-field analysis.« less

  17. MOCCA code for star cluster simulations - V. Initial globular cluster conditions influence on blue stragglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hypki, Arkadiusz; Giersz, Mirek

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of the properties of blue straggler (BS) populations based on MOCCA simulations covering a range of initial globular cluster conditions. We broadly separate the BSs created in our simulations into two distinct types corresponding to their formation mechanism, namely evolutionary BSs formed from binary evolution and dynamical BSs formed from collisions or mergers induced by direct dynamical interactions between stars and binaries. We find that the dominant type of BS strongly depends on the initial semi-major axis distribution. With mostly compact binaries, the number of evolutionary BSs dominates. Conversely, with mostly wide binaries, dynamical BSs dominate. Higher cluster concentrations increase the contribution from dynamical BSs without affecting the numbers of evolutionary BSs, which are thus mostly descended from primordial binaries. We further consider the ratio between the number of BSs in binaries and as single stars (RB/S). Models that prefer compact and wide binaries begin with, respectively, high and low values of the ratio RB/S before converging to a nearly universal value ∼ 0.4. Finally, the initial eccentricity distribution has little to no influence on BS formation.

  18. Variation in initiation condition of debris flows in the mountain regions surrounding Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chao; Wang, Yu-jie; Du, Cui; Wang, Yun-qi; Li, Yun-peng

    2016-11-01

    Debris flows in the mountain regions surrounding Beijing have been occurring for a long time and have resulted in great economic losses. In this study, 23 rainstorm events, surficial sediments, and debris flow deposits were analyzed to quantify the area's rainfall threshold and to investigate how such conditions may be used to predict debris flow in this region. Rainfall threshold of intensity-duration (I-D) functions after vegetation recovery was higher than before recovery and also higher than I-D levels in other regions where debris flows are closely associated with runoff. Field investigations revealed that surficial sediments were characterized by coarse-grained sediments and that debris flow deposits lacked fine particles. Local debris flows can be triggered by runoff; however, no single standard equation is used to predict the conditions that lead to runoff-triggered debris flow; and commonly used equations give different values. Here, we propose an empirical function that takes into account peak discharge per width and particle diameter. This model should be verified with further investigations so that it can be used as a reference to analyze the conditions that lead to debris flow in the study area. Finally, debris flows may have been related to occasional storms in the study area, which has been experiencing substantially increased temperatures and decreased annual precipitation. This work provides important information about the conditions that initiated debris flow in the Beijing mountain regions in the last few decades.

  19. Plate tectonics on large exoplanets and the importance of the initial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Lena; Breuer, Doris

    2013-04-01

    Several numerical studies have been published in the past years speculating about the existence of plate tectonics on large exoplanets. These studies focus on various aspects like the mass of a planet [1,2,3,5], the interior heating rate and mantle temperatures [4,5] and the occurrence of water in the upper mantle [6]. Different trends in the propensity for plate tectonics have been observed in particular when varying the planetary mass: with increasing mass the surface mobilization is found to be either more [2,3,5], equally [3,6] or less [1,4] likely than on Earth. These studies and their implications are, however, difficult to compare as they assume different initial conditions and parameter sets, and either neglect the pressure effect on the viscosity or assume a rather small influence of the pressure on the rheology. Furthermore, the thermal evolution of the planets (i.e. cooling of core and decrease in radioactive heat sources with time) is typically neglected. In our study, we us the finite volume code GAIA [7] and apply a pseudo-plastic rheology. We investigate how a strong pressure-dependence of the viscosity [8] influences not only the convective regime in the lower mantle, but also the upper mantle and hence the likelihood to obtain plate tectonics. We investigate how our results change when assuming different initial conditions, focussing on the initial temperature in the lower mantle and at the core-mantle boundary. We find that the initial temperature conditions have a first-order influence on the likelihood of plate tectonics on large exoplanets and (as observed in earlier studies) surface mobilization may either be more, equally or less likely than on Earth. References [1] O'Neill, C. and A. Lenardic (2007), GRL 34, 1-4. [2] Valencia, D., O'Connell, R.J. and Sasselov, D.D. (2007), Astrophys. J. Let., 670(1):45-48. [3] van Heck, H.J. and Tackley, P.J. (2011), EPSL, 310:252-261. [4] Stein, C.; A. Finnenkötter, J. P. Lowman and U. Hansen (2011), GRL

  20. Inverted initial conditions: Exploring the growth of cosmic structure and voids

    DOE PAGES

    Pontzen, Andrew; Roth, Nina; Peiris, Hiranya V.; ...

    2016-05-18

    We introduce and explore “paired” cosmological simulations. A pair consists of an A and B simulation with initial conditions related by the inversion δA(x,tinitial) = –δB(x,tinitial) (underdensities substituted for overdensities and vice versa). We argue that the technique is valuable for improving our understanding of cosmic structure formation. The A and B fields are by definition equally likely draws from ΛCDM initial conditions, and in the linear regime evolve identically up to the overall sign. As nonlinear evolution takes hold, a region that collapses to form a halo in simulation A will tend to expand to create a void inmore » simulation B. Applications include (i) contrasting the growth of A-halos and B-voids to test excursion-set theories of structure formation, (ii) cross-correlating the density field of the A and B universes as a novel test for perturbation theory, and (iii) canceling error terms by averaging power spectra between the two boxes. Furthermore, generalizations of the method to more elaborate field transformations are suggested.« less

  1. The gaseous proto-cluster: better characterizing the initial conditions of stellar cluster formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.-N.; Hennebelle, P.

    2016-12-01

    Cluster formation simulations have always been numerically challenging due to the large range of spatial and temporal scales that vary by orders of magnitudes and multiple physical mechanisms involved. The simulation box is typically of parsec (pc) scale while resolution down to a few astronomical units (AUs) is needed to well resolve individual stars. However, studies of this kind are important for the understanding of the interaction between gravity and turbulence that guides the star formation and the mechanisms through which the possibly self-regulated initial mass function (IMF) is shaped by stellar feedback. Most simulation works have initial conditions that correspond to molecular clouds (MCs), while the actual star formation occurs in a very small volume fraction of the whole simulation box. We present a series of simulations to characterise the early stage of cluster formation, of which a primary stage of gas concentration is noticed. We denote this stage as the gaseous proto-cluster, which forms from gravo-turbulent collapse of the MC. This high-density region is indeed the principle site of star formation. The existence of this primary stage implies that the cluster formation environment is somewhat universal and cluster formation studies could therefore set out from more local conditions, therefore reducing the computational demand.

  2. Tensor to scalar ratio and large scale power suppression from pre-slow roll initial conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lello, Louis; Boyanovsky, Daniel E-mail: boyan@pitt.edu

    2014-05-01

    We study the corrections to the power spectra of curvature and tensor perturbations and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r in single field slow roll inflation with standard kinetic term due to initial conditions imprinted by a ''fast-roll'' stage prior to slow roll. For a wide range of initial inflaton kinetic energy, this stage lasts only a few e-folds and merges smoothly with slow-roll thereby leading to non-Bunch-Davies initial conditions for modes that exit the Hubble radius during slow roll. We describe a program that yields the dynamics in the fast-roll stage while matching to the slow roll stage in a manner that is independent of the inflationary potentials. Corrections to the power spectra are encoded in a ''transfer function'' for initial conditions T{sub α}(k), P{sub α}(k) = P{sup BD}{sub α}(k)T{sub α}(k), implying a modification of the ''consistency condition'' for the tensor to scalar ratio at a pivot scale k{sub 0}: r(k{sub 0}) = −8n{sub T}(k{sub 0}) [T{sub T}(k{sub 0})/T{sub R}(k{sub 0})]. We obtain T{sub α}(k) to leading order in a Born approximation valid for modes of observational relevance today. A fit yields T{sub α}(k) = 1+A{sub α}k{sup −p}cos [2πωk/H{sub sr}+φ{sub α}], with 1.5∼initial conditions. These corrections lead to both a suppression of the quadrupole and oscillatory features in both P{sub R}(k) and r(k{sub 0}) with a period of the order of the Hubble scale during slow roll inflation. The results are quite general and independent of the specific inflationary potentials, depending solely on the ratio of kinetic to potential energy κ and the slow roll parameters ε{sub V}, η{sub V} to leading order in slow roll. For a wide range of κ and the values of ε{sub V}; η{sub V} corresponding to the upper bounds from Planck, we find that the low quadrupole is consistent

  3. Effects of Initial Condition Spectral Content on Shock Driven-Turbulent Mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Nicholas James; Grinstein, Fernando F.

    2015-07-15

    The mixing of materials due to the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and the ensuing turbulent behavior is of intense interest in a variety of physical systems including inertial confinement fusion, combustion, and the final stages of stellar evolution. Extensive numerical and laboratory studies of shock-driven mixing have demonstrated the rich behavior associated with the onset of turbulence due to the shocks. Here we report on progress in understanding shock-driven mixing at interfaces between fluids of differing densities through three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations using the RAGE code in the implicit large eddy simulation context. We consider a shock-tube configuration with a band of high density gas (SF6) embedded in low density gas (air). Shocks with a Mach number of 1.26 are passed through SF6 bands, resulting in transition to turbulence driven by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. The system is followed as a rarefaction wave and a reflected secondary shock from the back wall pass through the SF6 band. We apply a variety of initial perturbations to the interfaces between the two fluids in which the physical standard deviation, wave number range, and the spectral slope of the perturbations are held constant, but the number of modes initially present is varied. By thus decreasing the density of initial spectral modes of the interface, we find that we can achieve as much as 25% less total mixing at late times. This has potential direct implications for the treatment of initial conditions applied to material interfaces in both 3D and reduced dimensionality simulation models.

  4. Effects of initial condition spectral content on shock-driven turbulent mixing.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Nicholas J; Grinstein, Fernando F

    2015-07-01

    The mixing of materials due to the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and the ensuing turbulent behavior is of intense interest in a variety of physical systems including inertial confinement fusion, combustion, and the final stages of stellar evolution. Extensive numerical and laboratory studies of shock-driven mixing have demonstrated the rich behavior associated with the onset of turbulence due to the shocks. Here we report on progress in understanding shock-driven mixing at interfaces between fluids of differing densities through three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations using the rage code in the implicit large eddy simulation context. We consider a shock-tube configuration with a band of high density gas (SF(6)) embedded in low density gas (air). Shocks with a Mach number of 1.26 are passed through SF(6) bands, resulting in transition to turbulence driven by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. The system is followed as a rarefaction wave and a reflected secondary shock from the back wall pass through the SF(6) band. We apply a variety of initial perturbations to the interfaces between the two fluids in which the physical standard deviation, wave number range, and the spectral slope of the perturbations are held constant, but the number of modes initially present is varied. By thus decreasing the density of initial spectral modes of the interface, we find that we can achieve as much as 25% less total mixing at late times. This has potential direct implications for the treatment of initial conditions applied to material interfaces in both 3D and reduced dimensionality simulation models.

  5. Effects of initial condition spectral content on shock-driven turbulent mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Nicholas J.; Grinstein, Fernando F.

    2015-07-01

    The mixing of materials due to the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and the ensuing turbulent behavior is of intense interest in a variety of physical systems including inertial confinement fusion, combustion, and the final stages of stellar evolution. Extensive numerical and laboratory studies of shock-driven mixing have demonstrated the rich behavior associated with the onset of turbulence due to the shocks. Here we report on progress in understanding shock-driven mixing at interfaces between fluids of differing densities through three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations using the rage code in the implicit large eddy simulation context. We consider a shock-tube configuration with a band of high density gas (SF6) embedded in low density gas (air). Shocks with a Mach number of 1.26 are passed through SF6 bands, resulting in transition to turbulence driven by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. The system is followed as a rarefaction wave and a reflected secondary shock from the back wall pass through the SF6 band. We apply a variety of initial perturbations to the interfaces between the two fluids in which the physical standard deviation, wave number range, and the spectral slope of the perturbations are held constant, but the number of modes initially present is varied. By thus decreasing the density of initial spectral modes of the interface, we find that we can achieve as much as 25% less total mixing at late times. This has potential direct implications for the treatment of initial conditions applied to material interfaces in both 3D and reduced dimensionality simulation models.

  6. Effects of Initial Condition Spectral Content on Shock Driven-Turbulent Mixing

    DOE PAGES

    Nelson, Nicholas James; Grinstein, Fernando F.

    2015-07-15

    The mixing of materials due to the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and the ensuing turbulent behavior is of intense interest in a variety of physical systems including inertial confinement fusion, combustion, and the final stages of stellar evolution. Extensive numerical and laboratory studies of shock-driven mixing have demonstrated the rich behavior associated with the onset of turbulence due to the shocks. Here we report on progress in understanding shock-driven mixing at interfaces between fluids of differing densities through three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations using the RAGE code in the implicit large eddy simulation context. We consider a shock-tube configuration with a band ofmore » high density gas (SF6) embedded in low density gas (air). Shocks with a Mach number of 1.26 are passed through SF6 bands, resulting in transition to turbulence driven by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. The system is followed as a rarefaction wave and a reflected secondary shock from the back wall pass through the SF6 band. We apply a variety of initial perturbations to the interfaces between the two fluids in which the physical standard deviation, wave number range, and the spectral slope of the perturbations are held constant, but the number of modes initially present is varied. By thus decreasing the density of initial spectral modes of the interface, we find that we can achieve as much as 25% less total mixing at late times. This has potential direct implications for the treatment of initial conditions applied to material interfaces in both 3D and reduced dimensionality simulation models.« less

  7. Runoff sensitivity over Asia: Role of climate variables and initial soil conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Di; Mishra, Ashok K.; Zhang, Ke

    2017-02-01

    We applied statistical and numerical modeling approach to evaluate the sensitivity of runoff (ROF) to climate variables using Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) data and regional climate model (RegCM4). It was observed that ROF is more sensitive to precipitation (P) compared to other analyzed hydroclimatic variables (potential evapotranspiration (PET), 2 m air temperature (T2m), solar radiation (Rn), specific humidity (SSH), and wind speed (U), especially over India, Indochina, and south-north-northeast China semihumid-humid climate transition zones based on the higher correlation coefficient (>0.7) and elasticity (>2). The abnormal positive T2m-ROF observed over Tibetan Plateau region (TP) may be due to its high topography and cold weather regime, while positive PET-ROF over India and north China-southeast Mongolia regions can be attributed to the stronger influence of local land-atmosphere interactions. Soil moisture (SM) reflects high correlation with runoff, especially over the climate transition zones (i.e., India and Indochina-southeast China). The initial wet (dry) soil moisture (SM) anomalies lead to an increase (decrease) of ROF in each season with the hot spots mainly located in middle to high latitudes (spring), TP and northeast (summer and autumn), and Indochina (autumn) regions. Such influence can persist almost 4 months in spring while only about 1 month in autumn during dry and wet conditions. The wet condition has stronger influence at beginning but dissipates quickly, while the dry condition can last longer within the same season. The impact of initial soil temperature anomalies on ROF is weaker than SM, with the only obvious ROF changes located over south China (spring and summer) and north India (autumn).

  8. Numerical Analysis of Nucleate Boiling on High Heat-Flux and High Subcooling Condition for Reactivity Initiation Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Heo, S.; Koshizuka, S.; Oka, Y.

    2002-07-01

    This paper shows the numerical simulation study on the growth of the bubble in the transient pool boiling using MPS-MAFL method. The growth process of a bubble with the different initial radii is calculated in a high heat-flux and high subcooling condition expected in nuclear reactor core during RIA. The smaller initial radius is, the earlier the growth starts. The initial bubble radius has little effect on the growth initiation time and the bubble departure radius. (authors)

  9. Photolysis and OH-Initiated oxidation of glycolaldehyde under atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Magneron, I; Mellouki, A; Le Bras, G; Moortgat, G K; Horowitz, A; Wirtz, K

    2005-05-26

    The photolysis and OH-initiated oxidation of glycolaldehyde (HOCH(2)CHO), which are relevant atmospheric processes, have been investigated under different conditions using complementary methods in three different laboratories. The UV absorption cross sections of glycolaldehyde determined in two of the laboratories are in excellent agreement. The photolysis of glycolaldehyde in air has been investigated in a quartz cell with sunlamps and in the EUPHORE chamber irradiated by sunlight. The mean photolysis rate measured under solar radiation was (1.1 +/- 0.3) x 10(-5) s(-1) corresponding to a mean effective photolysis quantum yield of (1.3 +/- 0.3). The major products detected were HCHO and CO, whereas CH(3)OH was also observed with an initial yield around 10%. Evidence for OH production was found in both experiments using either OH scavenger or OH tracer species. Photolysis of glycolaldehyde was used as the OH source to measure the reaction rate constants of OH with a series of dienes by the relative method and to identify and quantify the oxidation products of the OH-initiated oxidation of 2-propanol. The different experiments suggest that OH is produced by the primary channel: HOCH(2)CHO + hnu --> OH + CH(2)CHO (1). The rate constant of the OH reaction with glycolaldehyde has been measured at 298 K using the relative method: k(glyc) = (1.2 +/- 0.3) x 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The product study of the OH-initiated oxidation of glycolaldehyde in air has been performed using both a FEP bag and the EUPHORE chamber. HCHO was observed to be the major product with a primary yield of around 65%. Glyoxal (CHOCHO) was also observed in EUPHORE with a primary yield of (22 +/- 6)%. This yield corresponds to the branching ratio ( approximately 20%) of the H-atom abstraction channel from the CH(2) group in the OH + HOCH(2)CHO reaction, the major channel ( approximately 80%) being the H-atom abstraction from the carbonyl group. The data obtained in this work, especially the

  10. Dynamic analysis of offshore structures with non-zero initial conditions in the frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fushun; Lu, Hongchao; Li, Huajun

    2016-03-01

    The state of non-zero conditions is typically treated as fact when considering the dynamic analysis of offshore structures. This article extends a newly proposed method [1] to manage the non-zero initial conditions of offshore structures in the frequency domain, including new studies on original environmental loads reconstruction, response comparisons with the commercial software ANSYS, and a demonstration using an experimental cantilever beam. The original environmental loads, such as waves, currents, and winds, that act on a structure are decomposed into multiple complex exponential components are represented by a series of poles and corresponding residues. Counter to the traditional frequency-domain method, the non-zero initial conditions of offshore structures could be solved in the frequency domain. Compared with reference [1], an improvement reported in this article is that practical issues, including the choice of model order and central-processing-unit (CPU) time consumption, are further studied when applying this new method to offshore structures. To investigate the feasibility of the representation of initial environmental loads by their poles and corresponding residues, a measured random wave force collected from a column experiment at the Lab of Ocean University of China is used, decomposed, reconstructed and then compared with the original wave force; then, a numerical offshore platform is used to study the performance of the proposed method in detail. The numerical results of this study indicate that (1) a short duration of environmental loads are required to obtain their constitutive poles and residues, which implies good computational efficiency; and (2) the proposed method has a similar computational efficiency to traditional methods due to the use of the inverse Fourier transform technique. To better understand the performance, of time consumption and accuracy of the proposed method, the commercial software ANSYS is used to determine responses

  11. Initiation conditions for debris flows generated by runoff at Chalk Cliffs, central Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, Jeffrey A.; Kinner, David A.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    2008-04-01

    We have monitored initiation conditions for six debris flows between May 2004 and July 2006 in a 0.3 km 2 drainage basin at Chalk Cliffs; a band of hydrothermally-altered quartz monzonite in central Colorado. Debris flows were initiated by water runoff from colluvium and bedrock that entrained sediment from rills and channels with slopes ranging from about 14° to 45°. The availability of channel material is essentially unlimited because of thick channel fill and refilling following debris flows by rock fall and dry ravel processes. Rainfall exceeding I = 6.61( D) - 0.77 , where I is rainfall intensity (mm/h), and D is duration (h), was required for the initiation of debris flows in the drainage basin. The approximate minimum runoff discharge from the surface of bedrock required to initiate debris flows in the channels was 0.15 m 3/s. Colluvium in the basin was unsaturated immediately prior to (antecedent) and during debris flows. Antecedent, volumetric moisture levels in colluvium at depths of 1 cm and 29 cm ranged from 4-9%, and 4-7%, respectively. During debris flows, peak moisture levels in colluvium at depths of 1 cm and 29 cm ranged from 10-20%, and 4-12%, respectively. Channel sediment at a depth of 45 cm was unsaturated before and during debris flows; antecedent moisture ranged from 20-22%, and peak moisture ranged from 24-38%. Although we have no measurements from shallow rill or channel sediment, we infer that it was unsaturated before debris flows, and saturated by surface-water runoff during debris flows. Our results allow us to make the following general statements with regard to debris flows generated by runoff in semi-arid to arid mountainous regions: 1) high antecedent moisture levels in hillslope and channel sediment are not required for the initiation of debris flows by runoff, 2) locations of entrainment of sediment by successive runoff events can vary within a basin as a function of variations in the thickness of existing channel fill and the

  12. Universality and dependence on initial conditions in the class of the nonlinear molecular beam epitaxy equation.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, I S S; Oliveira, T J

    2016-11-01

    We report extensive numerical simulations of growth models belonging to the nonlinear molecular beam epitaxy (nMBE) class, on flat (fixed-size) and expanding substrates (ES). In both d=1+1 and 2+1, we find that growth regime height distributions (HDs), and spatial and temporal covariances are universal, but are dependent on the initial conditions, while the critical exponents are the same for flat and ES systems. Thus, the nMBE class does split into subclasses, as does the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) class. Applying the "KPZ ansatz" to nMBE models, we estimate the cumulants of the 1+1 HDs. Spatial covariance for the flat subclass is hallmarked by a minimum, which is not present in the ES one. Temporal correlations are shown to decay following well-known conjectures.

  13. Initial conditions and modeling for simulations of shock driven turbulent material mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Grinstein, Fernando F.

    2016-11-17

    Here, we focus on the simulation of shock-driven material mixing driven by flow instabilities and initial conditions (IC). Beyond complex multi-scale resolution issues of shocks and variable density turbulence, me must address the equally difficult problem of predicting flow transition promoted by energy deposited at the material interfacial layer during the shock interface interactions. Transition involves unsteady large-scale coherent-structure dynamics capturable by a large eddy simulation (LES) strategy, but not by an unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) approach based on developed equilibrium turbulence assumptions and single-point-closure modeling. On the engineering end of computations, such URANS with reduced 1D/2D dimensionality and coarser grids, tend to be preferred for faster turnaround in full-scale configurations.

  14. Current Fluctuations of the One Dimensional Symmetric Simple Exclusion Process with Step Initial Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrida, Bernard; Gerschenfeld, Antoine

    2009-07-01

    For the symmetric simple exclusion process on an infinite line, we calculate exactly the fluctuations of the integrated current Q t during time t through the origin when, in the initial condition, the sites are occupied with density ρ a on the negative axis and with density ρ b on the positive axis. All the cumulants of Q t grow like sqrt{t} . In the range where Qt˜ sqrt{t} , the decay exp [- Q {/t 3}/ t] of the distribution of Q t is non-Gaussian. Our results are obtained using the Bethe ansatz and several identities derived recently by Tracy and Widom for exclusion processes on the infinite line.

  15. Nonminimally coupled inflation with initial conditions from a preinflation anamorphic contracting era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, John

    2016-08-01

    Inflation due to a nonminimally coupled scalar field, as first proposed by Salopek, Bardeen and Bond (SBB), is in good agreement with the observed value of the spectral index and constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio. Here we explore the possibility that SBB inflation represents the late stage of a Universe which emerges from an early contracting era. We present a model in which the Universe smoothly transitions from an anamorphic contracting era to late-time SBB inflation without encountering a singular bounce. This corresponds to a continuous expansion in the Einstein frame throughout. We show that the anamorphic contracting era is able to provide the smooth superhorizon initial conditions necessary for subsequent SBB inflation to occur. The model predicts corrections to the nonminimal coupling, kinetic term and potential of SBB inflation which can observably increase the spectral index relative to its SBB prediction.

  16. The Mechanical Response of Advanced Claddings during Proposed Reactivity Initiated Accident Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Cinbiz, Mahmut N; Brown, Nicholas R; Terrani, Kurt A; Lowden, Rick R; ERDMAN III, DONALD L

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the failure mechanisms of advanced nuclear fuel cladding of FeCrAl at high-strain rates, similar to design basis reactivity initiated accidents (RIA). During RIA, the nuclear fuel cladding was subjected to the plane-strain to equibiaxial tension strain states. To achieve those accident conditions, the samples were deformed by the expansion of high strength Inconel alloy tube under pre-specified pressure pulses as occurring RIA. The mechanical response of the advanced claddings was compared to that of hydrided zirconium-based nuclear fuel cladding alloy. The hoop strain evolution during pressure pulses were collected in situ; the permanent diametral strains of both accident tolerant fuel (ATF) claddings and the current nuclear fuel alloys were determined after rupture.

  17. Initial conditions and modeling for simulations of shock driven turbulent material mixing

    DOE PAGES

    Grinstein, Fernando F.

    2016-11-17

    Here, we focus on the simulation of shock-driven material mixing driven by flow instabilities and initial conditions (IC). Beyond complex multi-scale resolution issues of shocks and variable density turbulence, me must address the equally difficult problem of predicting flow transition promoted by energy deposited at the material interfacial layer during the shock interface interactions. Transition involves unsteady large-scale coherent-structure dynamics capturable by a large eddy simulation (LES) strategy, but not by an unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) approach based on developed equilibrium turbulence assumptions and single-point-closure modeling. On the engineering end of computations, such URANS with reduced 1D/2D dimensionality and coarsermore » grids, tend to be preferred for faster turnaround in full-scale configurations.« less

  18. Still at the choice-point: action selection and initiation in instrumental conditioning.

    PubMed

    Balleine, Bernard W; Ostlund, Sean B

    2007-05-01

    Contrary to classic stimulus-response (S-R) theory, recent evidence suggests that, in instrumental conditioning, rats encode the relationship between their actions and the specific consequences that these actions produce. It has remained unclear, however, how encoding this relationship acts to control instrumental performance. Although S-R theories were able to give a clear account of how learning translates into performance, the argument that instrumental learning constitutes the acquisition of information of the form "response R leads to outcome O" does not directly imply a particular performance rule or policy; this information can be used both to perform R and to avoid performing R. Recognition of this problem has forced the development of accounts that allow the O and stimuli that predict the O (i.e., S-O) to play a role in the initiation of specific Rs. In recent experiments, we have used a variety of behavioral procedures in an attempt to isolate the processes that contribute to instrumental performance, including outcome devaluation, reinstatement, and Pavlovian-instrumental transfer. Our results, particularly from experiments assessing outcome-selective reinstatement, suggest that both "feed-forward" (O-R) and "feed-back" (R-O) associations are critical and that although the former appear to be important to response selection, the latter-together with processes that determine outcome value-mediate response initiation. We discuss a conceptual model that integrates these processes and its neural implementation.

  19. The effects of sinusoidal initial conditions on finite-thickness, HED shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Stefano, Carlos; Merritt, Elizabeth; Doss, Forrest; Desjardins, Tiffany; Flippo, Kirk; Kline, John; Loomis, Eric; Rasmus, Alex

    2016-10-01

    Hydrodynamic shear instability plays a role in any system in which shear flow across materials can be found, including in high-energy-density examples such as fusion plasmas and many astrophysical systems. In this work we describe experiments, performed on the OMEGA laser, exploring shear instability through the use of carefully-controlled, single-mode initial conditions. A novel aspect of these experiments is that they employ counter-propagating shocks separated by a collimating layer. This produces a region of shear flow in which the pressure is balanced across flow, simplifying theoretical analysis and modeling. We discuss two interesting behaviors seen in these experiments. First, at early times, radiographs show the expansion of the collimator and the spectral evolution of the initial perturbation features from laser-drive heating of the material. The evolved features then couple to the primary shear instability we seek to probe. Second, at late times, we observe the persistence of a coherent long-wavelength mode in the mixing layer, driven by the imposed surface perturbation, which resonates with and the length scale introduced by the finite thickness of the collimator.

  20. INITIAL CHEMICAL AND RESERVOIR CONDITIONS AT LOS AZUFRES WELLHEAD POWER PLANT STARTUP

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, P.; Semprini, L.; Verma, S.; Barragan, R.; Molinar, R.; Aragon, A.; Ortiz, J.; Miranda, C.

    1985-01-22

    One of the major concerns of electric utilities in installing geothermal power plants is not only the longevity of the steam supply, but also the potential for changes in thermodynamic properties of the resource that might reduce the conversion efficiency of the design plant equipment. Production was initiated at Los Azufres geothermal field with wellhead generators not only to obtain electric energy at a relatively early date, but also to acquire needed information about the resource so that plans for large central power plants could be finalized. Commercial electric energy production started at Los Azufres during the summer of 1982 with five 5-MWe wellhead turbine-generator units. The wells associated with these units had undergone extensive testing and have since been essentially in constant production. The Los Azufres geothermal reservoir is a complex structural and thermodynamic system, intersected by at least 4 major parallel faults and producing geothermal fluids from almost all water to all steam. The five wellhead generators are associated with wells of about 30%, 60%, and 100% steam fraction. A study to compile existing data on the chemical and reservoir conditions during the first two years of operation has been completed. Data have been compiled on mean values of wellhead and separator pressures, steam and liquid flowrates, steam fraction, enthalpy, and pertinent chemical components. The compilation serves both as a database of conditions during the start-up period and as an initial point to observe changes with continued and increased production. Current plans are to add additional wellhead generators in about two years followed by central power plants when the data have been sufficiently evaluated for optimum plant design. During the next two years, the data acquired at the five 5-MWe wellhead generator units can be compared to this database to observe any significant changes in reservoir behavior at constant production.

  1. The Effect of Corner Modes in the Initial Conditions of Cosmological Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falck, B.; McCullagh, N.; Neyrinck, M. C.; Wang, J.; Szalay, A. S.

    2017-03-01

    In view of future high-precision large-scale structure surveys, it is important to quantify the percent and subpercent level effects in cosmological N-body simulations from which theoretical predictions are drawn. One such effect involves deciding whether to zero all modes above the one-dimensional Nyquist frequency, the so-called “corner” modes, in the initial conditions. We investigate this effect by comparing power spectra, density distribution functions, halo mass functions, and halo profiles in simulations with and without these modes. For a simulation with a mass resolution of {m}p∼ {10}11 {h}-1 {M}ȯ , we find that at z> 6, the difference in the matter power spectrum is large at wavenumbers above ∼80% of {k}{Ny}, reducing to below 2% at all scales by z∼ 3. Including corner modes results in a better match between low- and high-resolution simulations at wavenumbers around the Nyquist frequency of the low-resolution simulation, but the effect of the corner modes is smaller than the effect of particle discreteness. The differences in mass functions are 3% for the smallest halos at z = 6 for the {m}p∼ {10}11 {h}-1 {M}ȯ simulation, but we find no significant difference in the stacked profiles of well-resolved halos at z≤slant 6. Thus removing power at | {\\boldsymbol{k}}| > {k}{Ny} in the initial conditions of cosmological simulations has a small effect on small scales and high redshifts, typically below a few percent.

  2. Monitoring and modeling conditions for regional shallow landslide initiation in the San Francisco Bay area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, B. D.; Stock, J. D.; Godt, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Intense winter storms in the San Francisco Bay area (SFBA) of California often trigger widespread landsliding, including debris flows that originate as shallow (<3 m) landslides. The strongest storms result in the loss of lives and millions of dollars in damage. Whereas precipitation-based rainfall intensity-duration landslide initiation thresholds are available for the SFBA, antecedent soil moisture conditions also play a major role in determining the likelihood for landslide generation from a given storm. Previous research has demonstrated that antecedent triggering conditions can be obtained using pre-storm precipitation thresholds (e.g., 250-400 mm of seasonal pre-storm rainfall). However, these types of thresholds do not account for the often cyclic pattern of wetting and drying that can occur early in the winter storm season (i.e. October - December), and which may skew the applicability of precipitation-only based thresholds. To account for these cyclic and constantly evolving soil moisture conditions, we have pursued methods to measure soil moisture directly and integrate these measurements into predictive analyses. During the past three years, the USGS installed a series of four subsurface hydrology monitoring stations in shallow landslide-prone locations of the SFBA to establish a soil-moisture-based antecedent threshold. In addition to soil moisture sensors, the monitoring stations are each equipped with piezometers to record positive pore water pressure that is likely required for shallow landslide initiation and a rain gauge to compare storm intensities with existing precipitation-based thresholds. Each monitoring station is located on a natural, grassy hillslope typically composed of silty sands, underlain by sandstone, sloping at approximately 30°, and with a depth to bedrock of approximately 1 meter - conditions typical of debris flow generation in the SFBA. Our observations reveal that various locations respond differently to seasonal

  3. Improvement of boundary conditions for non-planar boundaries represented by polygons with an initial particle arrangement technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tiangang; Koshizuka, Seiichi; Murotani, Kohei; Shibata, Kazuya; Ishii, Eiji; Ishikawa, Masanori

    2016-02-01

    The boundary conditions represented by polygons in moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method (Koshizuka and Oka, Nuclear Science and Engineering, 1996) have been widely used in the industry simulations since it can simply simulate complex geometry with high efficiency. However, the inaccurate particle number density near non-planar wall boundaries dramatically affects the accuracy of simulations. In this paper, we propose an initial boundary particle arrangement technique coupled with the wall weight function method (Zhang et al. Transaction of JSCES, 2015) to improve the particle number density near slopes and curved surfaces with boundary conditions represented by polygons in three dimensions. Two uniform grids are utilized in the proposed technique. The grid points in the first uniform grid are used to construct boundary particles, and the second uniform grid stores the same information as in the work by Zhang et al. The wall weight functions of the grid points in the second uniform grid are calculated by newly constructed boundary particles. The wall weight functions of the fluid particles are interpolated from the values stored on the grid points in the second uniform grid. Because boundary particles are located on the polygons, complex geometries can be accurately represented. The proposed method can dramatically improve the particle number density and maintain the high efficiency. The performance of the previously proposed wall weight function (Zhang et al.) with the boundary particle arrangement technique is verified in comparison with the wall weight function without boundary particle arrangement by investigating two example geometries. The simulations of a water tank with a wedge and a complex geometry show the general applicability of the boundary particle arrangement technique to complex geometries and demonstrate its improvement of the wall weight function near the slopes and curved surfaces.

  4. Differential label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of Shewanella oneidensis cultured under aerobic and suboxic conditions by accurate mass and time tag approach.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ruihua; Elias, Dwayne A; Monroe, Matthew E; Shen, Yufeng; McIntosh, Martin; Wang, Pei; Goddard, Carrie D; Callister, Stephen J; Moore, Ronald J; Gorby, Yuri A; Adkins, Joshua N; Fredrickson, Jim K; Lipton, Mary S; Smith, Richard D

    2006-04-01

    We describe the application of LC-MS without the use of stable isotope labeling for differential quantitative proteomic analysis of whole cell lysates of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cultured under aerobic and suboxic conditions. LC-MS/MS was used to initially identify peptide sequences, and LC-FTICR was used to confirm these identifications as well as measure relative peptide abundances. 2343 peptides covering 668 proteins were identified with high confidence and quantified. Among these proteins, a subset of 56 changed significantly using statistical approaches such as statistical analysis of microarrays, whereas another subset of 56 that were annotated as performing housekeeping functions remained essentially unchanged in relative abundance. Numerous proteins involved in anaerobic energy metabolism exhibited up to a 10-fold increase in relative abundance when S. oneidensis was transitioned from aerobic to suboxic conditions.

  5. Differential Label-free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Shewanella oneidensis Cultured under Aerobic and Suboxic Conditions by Accurate Mass and Time Tag Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ruihua; Elias, Dwayne A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Shen, Yufeng; McIntosh, Martin; Wang, Pei; Goddard, Carrie D.; Callister, Stephen J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Gorby, Yuri A.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2006-04-01

    We describe the application of liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC/MS) without the use of stable isotope labeling for differential quantitative proteomics analysis of whole cell lysates of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cultured under aerobic and sub-oxic conditions. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to initially identify peptide sequences, and LC coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC-FTICR) was used to confirm these identifications, as well as measure relative peptide abundances. 2343 peptides, covering 668 proteins were identified with high confidence and quantified. Among these proteins, a subset of 56 changed significantly using statistical approaches such as SAM, while another subset of 56 that were annotated as performing housekeeping functions remained essentially unchanged in relative abundance. Numerous proteins involved in anaerobic energy metabolism exhibited up to a 10-fold increase in relative abundance when S. oneidensis is transitioned from aerobic to sub-oxic conditions.

  6. Is there any association between imidapril hydrochloride stability profile under dry air conditions and cancer initiation?

    PubMed

    Regulska, Katarzyna; Murias, Marek; Stanisz, Beata; Regulski, Miłosz

    2013-11-18

    Stability study for imidapril hydrochloride (IMD) was performed under stress conditions of increased temperature (T=373 K) and decreased relative air humidity (RH=0%) in order to obtain and identify its degradation product. The degradation sample stored for 15 days under the above environmental conditions was analyzed by LC-MS technique and it was found that the only degradation impurity formed in the course of the investigated drug degradation was IMD diketopiperazine derivative (DKP) which was produced by dehydration and intramolecular cyclization. The kinetics of its formation was analyzed by a revalidated RP-HPLC method and the kinetic model of this reaction was established. It was concluded that the DKP formation follows Prout-Tompkins kinetics with the rate constant k±Δk=2.034±0.157×10(-6) [s(-1)]. The obtained degradation impurity was further assessed with respect to its mutagenic potential using commercial Ames MPF 98/100 microplate format mutagenicity assay kit equipped with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98 and TA 100. Both strains were exposed to six concentrations (in a range of 0.16-5.0mg/mL) of DKP in the presence and absence of metabolic activation system. No mutagenic effect was observed confirming that the presence of DKP in IMD final dosage form has no impact on cancer initiation.

  7. Welfare Conditions of Donkeys in Europe: Initial Outcomes from On-Farm Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Francesca; Dalla Costa, Emanuela; Murray, Leigh Margareth Anne; Canali, Elisabetta; Minero, Michela

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary This paper aims to present the first outcomes of data collected using the AWIN welfare assessment protocol for donkeys in 20 EU donkey facilities. Three assessors evaluated 278 donkeys. The authors found recurrent issues: tendency to obesity, lack of hoof care and irregular positive interactions with humans. The protocol proved to be applicable in different management conditions and for donkeys of different attitude. Abstract This paper is a baseline study to present the initial outcomes of data collected in a sample of EU donkey farms using the AWIN welfare assessment protocol for donkeys, comprehensive of 22 valid, reliable and feasible animal-based indicators. A total of 20 donkey facilities (N = 12 in Italy and N = 8 in United Kingdom) were visited and 278 donkeys of different breed, aged 2–45 years, were assessed. Three assessors underwent a common training period to learn how to perform and score all the indicators included in the protocol. Data was collected using digitalized systems and downloaded to a database. A descriptive statistic for each welfare indicator was calculated. The authors found recurrent issues: 25% of donkeys were moderately over weight; although most of the assessed animals had good quality hoof care, 15.16% of them presented some signs of neglect, such as overgrowth and/or incorrect trimming; 18.05% of donkeys showed an avoidance reaction to an approaching human in the avoidance distance test. The protocol has proven to be applicable in different management conditions and for donkeys of different attitude. PMID:26761034

  8. A Robust and Accurate Two-Step Auto-Labeling Conditional Iterative Closest Points (TACICP) Algorithm for Three-Dimensional Multi-Modal Carotid Image Registration

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hengkai; Wang, Guijin; Huang, Lingyun; Hu, Yuxin; Yuan, Chun; Li, Rui; Zhao, Xihai

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is among the leading causes of death and disability. Combining information from multi-modal vascular images is an effective and efficient way to diagnose and monitor atherosclerosis, in which image registration is a key technique. In this paper a feature-based registration algorithm, Two-step Auto-labeling Conditional Iterative Closed Points (TACICP) algorithm, is proposed to align three-dimensional carotid image datasets from ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR). Based on 2D segmented contours, a coarse-to-fine strategy is employed with two steps: rigid initialization step and non-rigid refinement step. Conditional Iterative Closest Points (CICP) algorithm is given in rigid initialization step to obtain the robust rigid transformation and label configurations. Then the labels and CICP algorithm with non-rigid thin-plate-spline (TPS) transformation model is introduced to solve non-rigid carotid deformation between different body positions. The results demonstrate that proposed TACICP algorithm has achieved an average registration error of less than 0.2mm with no failure case, which is superior to the state-of-the-art feature-based methods. PMID:26881433

  9. A Robust and Accurate Two-Step Auto-Labeling Conditional Iterative Closest Points (TACICP) Algorithm for Three-Dimensional Multi-Modal Carotid Image Registration.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hengkai; Wang, Guijin; Huang, Lingyun; Hu, Yuxin; Yuan, Chun; Li, Rui; Zhao, Xihai

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is among the leading causes of death and disability. Combining information from multi-modal vascular images is an effective and efficient way to diagnose and monitor atherosclerosis, in which image registration is a key technique. In this paper a feature-based registration algorithm, Two-step Auto-labeling Conditional Iterative Closed Points (TACICP) algorithm, is proposed to align three-dimensional carotid image datasets from ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR). Based on 2D segmented contours, a coarse-to-fine strategy is employed with two steps: rigid initialization step and non-rigid refinement step. Conditional Iterative Closest Points (CICP) algorithm is given in rigid initialization step to obtain the robust rigid transformation and label configurations. Then the labels and CICP algorithm with non-rigid thin-plate-spline (TPS) transformation model is introduced to solve non-rigid carotid deformation between different body positions. The results demonstrate that proposed TACICP algorithm has achieved an average registration error of less than 0.2mm with no failure case, which is superior to the state-of-the-art feature-based methods.

  10. Initial conditions of formation of starburst clusters: constraints from stellar dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Sambaran; Kroupa, Pavel

    2015-08-01

    Recent high resolution observations of dense regions of molecular clouds and massive gaseous clumps with instruments like Herschel and ALMA have revealed intricate and filamentary overdensity structures in them. Such progenitors of massive starburst clusters are in contrast with smooth, centrally-pronounced profiles of the latter. In this work, we intend to constrain massive, substructured stellar distributions that would evolve to cluster-like profiles at very young ages (~Myr), as seen in starburst clusters. Taking the well observed NGC3603 Young Cluster (NYC) as an example, we compute the infall and final merger of filament-like compact (0.1-0.3 pc) subclusters, totalling 10000 M_sun, from a range of spatial scales and modes of sub-clustering, using direct N-body calculations. These calculations infer an allowable span of approx. 2.5 pc from which the subclusters can fall in a gas potential and merge to form a single centrally-dense structure in near dynamical equilibrium, within the young age of NYC (1-2 Myr). However, these merged clusters are too compact and centrally overdense compared to typical young clusters. Our N-body calculations, beginning from such compact initial conditions, show that even stellar wind and supernova mass loss, dynamical heating from retaining black holes, external tidal field and heating due to tight O-star binaries together cannot expand these clusters to their observed sizes, even in 100 Myr. Hence an explosive gas dispersal phase seems essential for forming starburst and other young clusters observed in the Milky Way and in the Local Group which can expand the clusters to their observed sizes and concentrations; including that for NYC with approx. 30% clump star formation efficiency. However, some observed massive but highly extended (>10 pc) , >10 Myr old clusters better fit a slow (several Myr timescale) gas dispersal from parsec-scale initial profiles, which can be the future of embedded systems like W3 Main.

  11. Hydrologic modification to improve habitat in riverine lakes: Management objectives, experimental approach, and initial conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Barry L.; Barko, John W.; Gerasimov, Yuri; James, William F.; Litvinov, Alexander; Naimo, Teresa J.; Wiener, James G.; Gaugush, Robert F.; Rogala, James T.; Rogers, Sara J.; Schoettger, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Finger Lakes habitat-rehabilitation project is intended to improve physical and chemical conditions for fish in six connected back water lakes in Navigation Pool 5 of the upper Missouri River. The primary management objective is to improve water temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration and current velocity during winter for bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, and black crappies, Pomoxis nigromaculatus, two of the primary sport fishes in the lakes. The lakes will be hydrologically altered by Installing culverts to Introduce controlled flows of oxygenated water into four lakes, and an existing unregulated culvert on a fifth lake will be equipped with a control gate to regulate inflow. These habitat modifications constitute a manipulative field experiment that will compare pre-project (1991 to summer 1993) and post-project (fall 1993 to 1996) conditions in the lakes, including hydrology, chemistry, rooted vegetation, and fish and macroinvertebrate communities. Initial data indicate that the Finger Lakes differ in water chemistry, hydrology, and macrophyte abundance. Macroinvertebrate communities also differed among lakes: species diversity was highest in lakes with dense aquatic macrophytes. The system seems to support a single fish community, although some species concentrated in individual lakes at different times. The introduction of similar flows into five of the lakes will probably reduce the existing physical and chemical differences among lakes. However, our ability to predict the effects of hydrologic modification on fish populations is limited by uncertainties concerning both the interactions of temperature, oxygen and current in winter and the biological responses of primary and secondary producers. Results from this study should provide guidance for similar habitat-rehabilitation projects in large rivers.

  12. Fingerprints of the initial conditions on the density profiles of cold and warm dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polisensky, E.; Ricotti, M.

    2015-06-01

    We use N-body simulations of dark matter haloes in cold dark matter (CDM) and a large set of different warm dark matter (WDM) cosmologies to demonstrate that the spherically averaged density profile of dark matter haloes has a shape that depends on the power spectrum of matter perturbations. Density profiles are steeper in WDM but become shallower at r < 0.01Rvir. Virialization isotropizes the velocity dispersion in the inner regions of the halo but does not erase the memory of the initial conditions in phase space. The location of the observed deviations from CDM in the density profile and in phase space can be directly related to the ratio between the halo mass and the filtering mass and are most evident in small mass haloes, even for a 34 keV thermal relic WDM. The rearrangement of mass within the haloes supports analytic models of halo structure that include angular momentum. We also find evidence of a dependence of the slope of the inner density profile in CDM cosmologies on the halo mass with more massive haloes exhibiting steeper profiles, in agreement with the model predictions and with previous simulation results. Our work complements recent studies of microhaloes near the filtering scale in CDM and strongly argue against a universal shape for the density profile.

  13. The CFL condition for spectral approximations to hyperbolic initial-boundary value problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, David; Tadmor, Eitan

    1990-01-01

    The stability of spectral approximations to scalar hyperbolic initial-boundary value problems with variable coefficients are studied. Time is discretized by explicit multi-level or Runge-Kutta methods of order less than or equal to 3 (forward Euler time differencing is included), and spatial discretizations are studied by spectral and pseudospectral approximations associated with the general family of Jacobi polynomials. It is proved that these fully explicit spectral approximations are stable provided their time-step, delta t, is restricted by the CFL-like condition, delta t less than Const. N(exp-2), where N equals the spatial number of degrees of freedom. We give two independent proofs of this result, depending on two different choices of approximate L(exp 2)-weighted norms. In both approaches, the proofs hinge on a certain inverse inequality interesting for its own sake. The result confirms the commonly held belief that the above CFL stability restriction, which is extensively used in practical implementations, guarantees the stability (and hence the convergence) of fully-explicit spectral approximations in the nonperiodic case.

  14. The CFL condition for spectral approximations to hyperbolic initial-boundary value problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, David; Tadmor, Eitan

    1991-01-01

    The stability of spectral approximations to scalar hyperbolic initial-boundary value problems with variable coefficients are studied. Time is discretized by explicit multi-level or Runge-Kutta methods of order less than or equal to 3 (forward Euler time differencing is included), and spatial discretizations are studied by spectral and pseudospectral approximations associated with the general family of Jacobi polynomials. It is proved that these fully explicit spectral approximations are stable provided their time-step, delta t, is restricted by the CFL-like condition, delta t less than Const. N(exp-2), where N equals the spatial number of degrees of freedom. We give two independent proofs of this result, depending on two different choices of approximate L(exp 2)-weighted norms. In both approaches, the proofs hinge on a certain inverse inequality interesting for its own sake. The result confirms the commonly held belief that the above CFL stability restriction, which is extensively used in practical implementations, guarantees the stability (and hence the convergence) of fully-explicit spectral approximations in the nonperiodic case.

  15. The charged inflaton and its gauge fields: preheating and initial conditions for reheating

    SciTech Connect

    Lozanov, Kaloian D.; Amin, Mustafa A.

    2016-06-14

    We calculate particle production during inflation and in the early stages of reheating after inflation in models with a charged scalar field coupled to Abelian and non-Abelian gauge fields. A detailed analysis of the power spectra of primordial electric fields, magnetic fields and charge fluctuations at the end of inflation and preheating is provided. We carefully account for the Gauss constraints during inflation and preheating, and clarify the role of the longitudinal components of the electric field. We calculate the timescale for the back-reaction of the produced gauge fields on the inflaton condensate, marking the onset of non-linear evolution of the fields. We provide a prescription for initial conditions for lattice simulations necessary to capture the subsequent nonlinear dynamics. On the observational side, we find that the primordial magnetic fields generated are too small to explain the origin of magnetic fields on galactic scales and the charge fluctuations are well within observational bounds for the models considered in this paper.

  16. Study on multi-scale blending initial condition perturbations for a regional ensemble prediction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hanbin; Chen, Jing; Zhi, Xiefei; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    An initial conditions (ICs) perturbation method was developed with the aim to improve an operational regional ensemble prediction system (REPS). Three issues were identified and investigated: (1) the impacts of perturbation scale on the ensemble spread and forecast skill of the REPS; (2) the scale characteristic of the IC perturbations of the REPS; and (3) whether the REPS's skill could be improved by adding large-scale information to the IC perturbations. Numerical experiments were conducted to reveal the impact of perturbation scale on the ensemble spread and forecast skill. The scales of IC perturbations from the REPS and an operational global ensemble prediction system (GEPS) were analyzed. A "multi-scale blending" (MSB) IC perturbation scheme was developed, and the main findings can be summarized as follows: The growth rates of the ensemble spread of the REPS are sensitive to the scale of the IC perturbations; the ensemble forecast skills can benefit from large-scale perturbations; the global ensemble IC perturbations exhibit more power at larger scales, while the regional ensemble IC perturbations contain more power at smaller scales; the MSB method can generate IC perturbations by combining the small-scale component from the REPS and the large-scale component from the GEPS; the energy norm growth of the MSB-generated perturbations can be appropriate at all forecast lead times; and the MSB-based REPS shows higher skill than the original system, as determined by ensemble forecast verification.

  17. Numerical convergence in self-gravitating disc simulations: initial conditions and edge effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan; Baruteau, Clément; Meru, Farzana

    2011-09-01

    We study the numerical convergence of hydrodynamical simulations of self-gravitating accretion discs, in which a simple cooling law is balanced by shock heating. It is well known that there exists a critical cooling time-scale for which shock heating can no longer compensate for the energy losses, at which point the disc fragments. The numerical convergence of previous results of this critical cooling time-scale was questioned recently using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). We employ a two-dimensional grid-based code to study this problem and find that for smooth initial conditions, fragmentation is possible for slower cooling as the resolution is increased, in agreement with recent SPH results. We show that this non-convergence is at least partly due to the creation of a special location in the disc, the boundary between the turbulent and the laminar region, when cooling towards a gravito-turbulent state. Converged results appear to be obtained in setups where no such sharp edges appear, and we then find a critical cooling time-scale of ˜4Ω-1, where Ω is the local angular velocity.

  18. Low- and high-order accurate boundary conditions: From Stokes to Darcy porous flow modeled with standard and improved Brinkman lattice Boltzmann schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Goncalo; Talon, Laurent; Ginzburg, Irina

    2017-04-01

    The present contribution focuses on the accuracy of reflection-type boundary conditions in the Stokes-Brinkman-Darcy modeling of porous flows solved with the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), which we operate with the two-relaxation-time (TRT) collision and the Brinkman-force based scheme (BF), called BF-TRT scheme. In parallel, we compare it with the Stokes-Brinkman-Darcy linear finite element method (FEM) where the Dirichlet boundary conditions are enforced on grid vertices. In bulk, both BF-TRT and FEM share the same defect: in their discretization a correction to the modeled Brinkman equation appears, given by the discrete Laplacian of the velocity-proportional resistance force. This correction modifies the effective Brinkman viscosity, playing a crucial role in the triggering of spurious oscillations in the bulk solution. While the exact form of this defect is available in lattice-aligned, straight or diagonal, flows; in arbitrary flow/lattice orientations its approximation is constructed. At boundaries, we verify that such a Brinkman viscosity correction has an even more harmful impact. Already at the first order, it shifts the location of the no-slip wall condition supported by traditional LBM boundary schemes, such as the bounce-back rule. For that reason, this work develops a new class of boundary schemes to prescribe the Dirichlet velocity condition at an arbitrary wall/boundary-node distance and that supports a higher order accuracy in the accommodation of the TRT-Brinkman solutions. For their modeling, we consider the standard BF scheme and its improved version, called IBF; this latter is generalized in this work to suppress or to reduce the viscosity correction in arbitrarily oriented flows. Our framework extends the one- and two-point families of linear and parabolic link-wise boundary schemes, respectively called B-LI and B-MLI, which avoid the interference of the Brinkman viscosity correction in their closure relations. The performance of LBM and FEM

  19. Does complex absorption behavior leading to conditioning and damage in KDP/DKDP reflect the electronic structure of initiators?

    SciTech Connect

    Feit, M D; DeMange, P P; Negres, R A; Rubenchik, A M; Demos, S G

    2007-10-24

    Currently, most of our thinking about the defects responsible for initiating laser damage considers them as featureless absorbers. However, an increasing body of evidence, particularly involving multi-wavelength irradiation, suggests electronic structure of damage initiators is important in determining both initiation and conditioning behaviors in KDP. The effective absorption coefficient of energy under multi-wavelength irradiation cannot be accounted for by a structureless absorber, but is consistent with an initiator with a multi-level structure. We outline the evidence and assess the ability of such a simple multi-level model to explain these and other experimentally observed behaviors.

  20. Stochastic modeling of crack initiation and short-crack growth under creep and creep-fatigue conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitamura, Takayuki; Ghosn, Louis J.; Ohtani, Ryuichi

    1989-01-01

    A simplified stochastic model is proposed for crack initiation and short-crack growth under creep and creep-fatigue conditions. Material inhomogeneity provides the random nature of crack initiation and early growth. In the model, the influence of microstructure is introduced by the variability of: (1) damage accumulation along grain boundaries, (2) critical damage required for crack initiation or growth, and (3) the grain-boundary length. The probabilities of crack initiation and growth are derived by using convolution integrals. The model is calibrated and used to predict the crack density and crack-growth rate of short cracks of 304 stainless steel under creep and creep-fatigue conditions. The mean-crack initiation lives are predicted to be within an average deviation of about 10 percent from the experimental results. The predicted cumulative distributions of crack-growth rate follow the experimental data closely. The applicability of the simplified stochastic model is discussed and the future research direction is outlined.

  1. Attribution of soil moisture dynamics - Initial conditions vs. atmospheric forcing and the role of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orth, Rene; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2014-05-01

    conditions versus the atmospheric forcing for monthly soil moisture variations. We find that initial soil moisture anomalies are overall more important than the forcing, even if less pronounced in summer. Especially in southern Europe we show high drought forecasting potential, whereas the forcing is more important in Central and North-eastern Europe.

  2. A new Approach to Estimate Initial Condition Uncertainty Structures in Mesoscale Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Liselotte; Keller, Jan D.; Hense, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of uncertainties in the initial conditions for the numerical weather prediction is a main focus of ensemble data assimilation. A variety of different methods has been developed, e.g. the ensemble Kalman filter. A new approach to the estimation of fast growing error modes in the evolution of dynamical systems like numerical weather forecast models is based on the breeding of growing modes method (abbr. breeding). One advantage of the breeding technique is that no a priori information of the errors in model or background are needed. The method rather directly estimates the fastest-growing error modes related to the Lyapunov vectors of the dynamical system. In the conventional breeding method, a control run and perturbed ensemble members are integrated from one analysis time step to the next using the full non-linear model. Then, the increase in perturbation amplitude is measured and used to rescale the perturbations to the initial size and add them to the new analysis. However, when applying this technique to high-resolution limited-area models, the perturbations are quickly transported out of the domain and do therefore not have sufficient time to evolve into reliable assessments of atmospheric uncertainty structures. The proposed technique - called self-breeding - uses no analysis state but only the control run as a reference and is therefore not restricted to certain, usually long time intervals between the analyses. This has proven to be beneficial regarding the implementation of breeding in limited-area models as the uncertainty structures can build up much faster compared to the conventional method. Two variations of self-breeding are proposed: progressive and stationary. While the progressive variant is similar to classical breeding but makes use of much shorter rescaling intervals, stationary self-breeding applies the integration and rescaling to the same time period repeatedly. This can be used to target specific situations or events and to

  3. A new large initial condition ensemble to assess avoided impacts in a climate mitigation scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, B. M.; Tebaldi, C.; Knutti, R.; Oleson, K. W.

    2014-12-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that when considering timescales of up to 50 years, natural variability may play an equal role to anthropogenic forcing on subcontinental trends for a variety of climate indicators. Thus, for many questions assessing climate impacts on such time and spatial scales, it has become clear that a significant number of ensemble members may be required to produce robust statistics (and especially so for extreme events). However, large ensemble experiments to date have considered the role of variability in a single scenario, leaving uncertain the relationship between the forced climate trajectory and the variability about that path. To address this issue, we present a new, publicly available, 15 member initial condition ensemble of 21st century climate projections for the RCP 4.5 scenario using the CESM1.1 Earth System Model, which we propose as a companion project to the existing 40 member CESM large ensemble which uses the higher greenhouse gas emission future of RCP8.5. This provides a valuable data set for assessing what societal and ecological impacts might be avoided through a moderate mitigation strategy in contrast to a fossil fuel intensive future. We present some early analyses of these combined ensembles to assess to what degree the climate variability can be considered to combine linearly with the underlying forced response. In regions where there is no detectable relationship between the mean state and the variability about the mean trajectory, then linear assumptions can be trivially exploited to utilize a single ensemble or control simulation to characterize the variability in any scenario of interest. We highlight regions where there is a detectable nonlinearity in extreme event frequency, how far in the future they will be manifested and propose mechanisms to account for these effects.

  4. STAR FORMATION AT VERY LOW METALLICITY. IV. FRAGMENTATION DOES NOT DEPEND ON METALLICITY FOR COLD INITIAL CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Jappsen, Anne-Katharina; Klessen, Ralf S.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark E-mail: rklessen@ita.uni-heidelberg.de

    2009-05-10

    Primordial star formation appears to result in stars at least an order of magnitude more massive than modern star formation. It has been proposed that the transition from primordial to modern initial mass functions occurs due to the onset of effective metal-line cooling at a metallicity Z/Z {sub sun} = 10{sup -3.5}. However, these simulations neglected molecular hydrogen cooling. We perform simulations using the same initial conditions, but including molecular cooling, using a complex network that follows molecular hydrogen formation and also directly follows carbon monoxide and water. We find that molecular hydrogen cooling allows roughly equivalent fragmentation to proceed even at zero metallicity for these initial conditions. The apparent transition just represents the point where metal-line cooling becomes more important than molecular cooling. In all cases, the fragments are massive enough to be consistent with models of primordial stellar masses, suggesting that the transition to the modern initial mass function may be determined by other physics such as dust formation. We conclude that such additional cooling mechanisms, combined with the exact initial conditions produced by cosmological collapse are likely more important than metal-line cooling in determining the initial mass function, and thus that there is unlikely to be a sharp transition in the initial mass function at Z/Z {sub sun} = 10{sup -3.5}.

  5. The Healthy Learner Model for Student Chronic Condition Management--Part II: The Asthma Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Cecelia DuPlessis; Splett, Patricia L.; Mullett, Sara Stoltzfus; Jensen, Charlotte; Belseth, Stephanie Bisson

    2006-01-01

    The Healthy Learner Asthma Initiative (HLAI) was designed as a comprehensive, school-community initiative to improve asthma management and produce healthy learners. National asthma guidelines were translated into components of asthma management in the school setting that defined performance expectations and lead to greater quality and consistency…

  6. Sensitivity of CFC-11 uptake to physical initial conditions and interannually varying surface forcing in a global ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Peacock, Synte; Lindsay, Keith; Tsumune, Daisuke

    Sensitivity of the oceanic chlorofluorocarbon CFC-11 uptake to physical initial conditions and surface dynamical forcing (heat and salt fluxes and wind stress) is investigated in a global ocean model used in climate studies. Two different initial conditions are used: a solution following a short integration starting with observed temperature and salinity and zero velocities, and the quasi-equilibrium solution of an independent integration. For surface dynamical forcing, recently developed normal-year and interannually varying (1958-2000) data sets are used. The model CFC-11 global and basin inventories, particularly in the normal-year forcing case, are below the observed mean estimates, but they remain within the observational error bars. Column inventory spatial distributions indicate nontrivial differences due to both initial condition and forcing changes, particularly in the northern North Atlantic and Southern Ocean. These differences are larger between forcing sensitivity experiments than between the initial condition cases. The comparisons along the A16N and SR3 WOCE sections also show differences between cases. However, comparisons with observations do not clearly favor a particular case, and model-observation differences remain much larger than model-model differences for all simulations. The choice of initial condition does not significantly change the CFC-11 distributions. Both because of locally large differences between normal-year and interannually varying simulations and because the dynamical and CFC-11 forcing calendars are synchronized, we favor using the more realistic interannually varying forcing in future simulations, given the availability of the forcing data sets.

  7. A CLUSTER IN THE MAKING: ALMA REVEALS THE INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR HIGH-MASS CLUSTER FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Rathborne, J. M.; Contreras, Y.; Longmore, S. N.; Bastian, N.; Jackson, J. M.; Alves, J. F.; Bally, J.; Foster, J. B.; Garay, G.; Kruijssen, J. M. D.; Testi, L.; Walsh, A. J.

    2015-04-01

    G0.253+0.016 is a molecular clump that appears to be on the verge of forming a high-mass cluster: its extremely low dust temperature, high mass, and high density, combined with its lack of prevalent star formation, make it an excellent candidate for an Arches-like cluster in a very early stage of formation. Here we present new Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array observations of its small-scale (∼0.07 pc) 3 mm dust continuum and molecular line emission from 17 different species that probe a range of distinct physical and chemical conditions. The data reveal a complex network of emission features with a complicated velocity structure: there is emission on all spatial scales, the morphology of which ranges from small, compact regions to extended, filamentary structures that are seen in both emission and absorption. The dust column density is well traced by molecules with higher excitation energies and critical densities, consistent with a clump that has a denser interior. A statistical analysis supports the idea that turbulence shapes the observed gas structure within G0.253+0.016. We find a clear break in the turbulent power spectrum derived from the optically thin dust continuum emission at a spatial scale of ∼0.1 pc, which may correspond to the spatial scale at which gravity has overcome the thermal pressure. We suggest that G0.253+0.016 is on the verge of forming a cluster from hierarchical, filamentary structures that arise from a highly turbulent medium. Although the stellar distribution within high-mass Arches-like clusters is compact, centrally condensed, and smooth, the observed gas distribution within G0.253+0.016 is extended, with no high-mass central concentration, and has a complex, hierarchical structure. If this clump gives rise to a high-mass cluster and its stars are formed from this initially hierarchical gas structure, then the resulting cluster must evolve into a centrally condensed structure via a dynamical process.

  8. The effects of initial conditions and control time on optimal actuator placement via a max-min Genetic Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Redmond, J.; Parker, G.

    1993-07-01

    This paper examines the role of the control objective and the control time in determining fuel-optimal actuator placement for structural vibration suppression. A general theory is developed that can be easily extended to include alternative performance metrics such as energy and time-optimal control. The performance metric defines a convex admissible control set which leads to a max-min optimization problem expressing optimal location as a function of initial conditions and control time. A solution procedure based on a nested Genetic Algorithm is presented and applied to an example problem. Results indicate that the optimal locations vary widely as a function of control time and initial conditions.

  9. Prazosin differentially affects extinction of cocaine conditioned place preference on the basis of dose and initial preference.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Rick E; Lattal, K Matthew

    2012-12-19

    Recent work has shown that α1-adrenergic receptor blockade impairs extinction in fear conditioning paradigms in rodents. However, studies of the role of α1-adrenergic receptors in extinction using other conditioning paradigms, such as those examining the conditioned effects of drug of abuse, have yielded inconsistent results. In this article, we reanalyze and extend previously reported findings of the effect of prazosin, an α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, on the extinction of a cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in rats, using a median split of performance during the initial test for preference. This new reanalysis, which includes further extinction testing, indicated a paradoxical dose effect. A single post-test administration of a lower dose of prazosin, 0.3 mg/kg intraperitoneally, impaired extinction in rats that showed a below-median preference during initial testing, but had no effect on extinction in rats that showed an above-median preference during initial testing. In contrast, a single post-test administration of a higher dose of prazosin, 1.0 mg/kg intraperitoneally, enhanced extinction in rats that showed an above-median preference during initial testing, but had no effect on extinction in rats that showed a below-median preference during initial testing. Consistent with other studies of fear and drug conditioning, these results suggest the involvement of the α1-adrenergic receptor in the formation of extinction memories, but also indicate a potentially important differential effect on extinction on the basis of the dose of prazosin and the strength of the initial learning.

  10. A reconstruction of the initial conditions of the universe by optimal mass transportation.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Uriel; Matarrese, Sabino; Mohayaee, Roya; Sobolevski, Andrei

    2002-05-16

    Reconstructing the density fluctuations in the early Universe that evolved into the distribution of galaxies we see today is a challenge to modern cosmology. An accurate reconstruction would allow us to test cosmological models by simulating the evolution starting from the reconstructed primordial state and comparing it to observations. Several reconstruction techniques have been proposed, but they all suffer from lack of uniqueness because the velocities needed to produce a unique reconstruction usually are not known. Here we show that reconstruction can be reduced to a well-determined problem of optimization, and present a specific algorithm that provides excellent agreement when tested against data from N-body simulations. By applying our algorithm to the redshift surveys now under way, we will be able to recover reliably the properties of the primeval fluctuation field of the local Universe, and to determine accurately the peculiar velocities (deviations from the Hubble expansion) and the true positions of many more galaxies than is feasible by any other method.

  11. A theoretical model for the initiation of debris flow in unconsolidated soil under hydrodynamic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, C.-X.; Zhou, J.-W.; Cui, P.; Hao, M.-H.; Xu, F.-G.

    2014-06-01

    Debris flow is one of the catastrophic disasters in an earthquake-stricken area, and remains to be studied in depth. It is imperative to obtain an initiation mechanism and model of the debris flow, especially from unconsolidated soil. With flume experiments and field investigation on the Wenjiagou Gully debris flow induced from unconsolidated soil, it can be found that surface runoff can support the shear force along the slope and lead to soil strength decreasing, with fine particles migrating and forming a local relatively impermeable face. The surface runoff effect is the primary factor for accelerating the unconsolidated slope failure and initiating debris flow. Thus, a new theoretical model for the initiation of debris flow in unconsolidated soil was established by incorporating hydrodynamic theory and soil mechanics. This model was validated by a laboratory test and proved to be better suited for unconsolidated soil failure analysis. In addition, the mechanism analysis and the established model can provide a new direction and deeper understanding of debris flow initiation with unconsolidated soil.

  12. A Knoevenagel Initiated Annulation Reaction Using Room Temperature or Microwave Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, A. Gilbert

    2007-01-01

    An experiment is presented that has the student execute a Knoevenagel initiated annulation reaction. The reaction can be carried out either through use of a microwave reactor or by allowing the mixture to stand at room temperature for two days. The student is then challenged to identify the reaction product through a guided prelab exercise of the…

  13. What Variables Condition Syntactic Transfer? A Look at the L3 Initial State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Jason; Cabrelli Amaro, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates transfer at the third-language (L3) initial state, testing between the following possibilities: (1) the first language (L1) transfer hypothesis (an L1 effect for all adult acquisition), (2) the second language (L2) transfer hypothesis, where the L2 blocks L1 transfer (often referred to in the recent literature as the "L2…

  14. SCIENTIFIC UNCERTAINTIES IN ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY MODELS III: BOUNDARY AND INITIAL CONDITIONS, MODEL GRID RESOLUTION, AND HG(II) REDUCTION MECHANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study we investigate the CMAQ model response in terms of simulated mercury concentration and deposition to boundary/initial conditions (BC/IC), model grid resolution (12- versus 36-km), and two alternative Hg(II) reduction mechanisms. The model response to the change of g...

  15. Features of the development of round jets for different initial conditions and in the presence of obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, V. V.; Litvinenko, M. V.; Litvinenko, Yu. A.; Kozlov, G. V.

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this work is an experimental study of the influence of the initial conditions (nozzle configuration, mean velocity profile at the nozzle exit, surface roughness, and jet diameter) on the flow structure in a round jet by various methods: hot-wire anemometry, smoke visualization, and particle image velocimetry (PIV).

  16. The heat equation source determination for the case of non-smooth boundary and initial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovi’ev, V. V.; Tkachenko, D. S.

    2017-01-01

    An inverse problem of reconstructing the source of a special kind for parabolic equations in a bounded region with smooth boundary is considered. Solutions are sought in the Holder classes. We prove an uniqueness criterion for the solution and sufficient conditions of Fredholm property of the task at hand. As a consequence of the sufficient conditions for existence and uniqueness of solution of the inhomogeneous inverse problems are found.

  17. Mixing layer produced by a screen and its dependence on initial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguchi, H.; Inoue, O.

    1984-05-01

    Attention is given to dependence on initial disturbances in an attempt to elucidate the structure of turbulent mixing layers produced by setting a woven wire screen perpendicular to the freestream in a wind tunnel test section in order to obstruct part of the flow. Three kinds of model geometry screens yielded mixing layers that can be regarded as the equivalents of the plane mixing layer, and of two-dimensional and axisymmetric wakes, issuing into ambient streams of higher velocity. Flow features are visualized by the smoke-wire method, and statistical quantities are measured by a laser-Doppler velocimeter. Large scale transverse vortices persist in all cases. The mixing layers are in self-preserving state up to at least the third-order moments, but the self-preserving state is different in each case. Mixing layer growth rates strongly depend on the disturbance initially imposed.

  18. On Stochastic Stability of Regional Ocean Models to Finite-Amplitude Perturbations of Initial Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    practical applications , the ensemble generated −τ PDF [ ),,( ετ WF , hereafter, this is a PDF which corresponds to the given ensemble of initial...for small 2I and large 2ε , the −τ variance does not demonstrate a behavior that Eq. (24) predicts. It is practically constant (about 9 days P2P ...A3) where mλ are its eigenvalues. Spectral decomposition (A1)-(A3) is also applicable for non-rectangular domains and

  19. Initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations of the scalar sector of theories of Newtonian, Relativistic and Modified Gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Valkenburg, Wessel; Hu, Bin E-mail: hu@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl

    2015-09-01

    We present a description for setting initial particle displacements and field values for simulations of arbitrary metric theories of gravity, for perfect and imperfect fluids with arbitrary characteristics. We extend the Zel'dovich Approximation to nontrivial theories of gravity, and show how scale dependence implies curved particle paths, even in the entirely linear regime of perturbations. For a viable choice of Effective Field Theory of Modified Gravity, initial conditions set at high redshifts are affected at the level of up to 5% at Mpc scales, which exemplifies the importance of going beyond Λ-Cold Dark Matter initial conditions for modifications of gravity outside of the quasi-static approximation. In addition, we show initial conditions for a simulation where a scalar modification of gravity is modelled in a Lagrangian particle-like description. Our description paves the way for simulations and mock galaxy catalogs under theories of gravity beyond the standard model, crucial for progress towards precision tests of gravity and cosmology.

  20. Adaptation and Diversification of an RNA Replication System under Initiation- or Termination-Impaired Translational Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mizuuchi, Ryo; Ichihashi, Norikazu; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2016-07-01

    Adaptation to various environments is a remarkable characteristic of life. Is this limited to extant complex living organisms, or is it also possible for a simpler self-replication system to adapt? In this study, we addressed this question by using a translation-coupled RNA replication system that comprised a reconstituted translation system and an RNA "genome" that encoded a replicase gene. We performed RNA replication reactions under four conditions, under which different components of translation were partly inhibited. We found that replication efficiency increased with the number of rounds of replication under all the tested conditions. The types of dominant mutations differed depending on the condition, thus indicating that this simple system adapted to different environments in different ways. This suggests that even a primitive self-replication system composed of a small number of genes on the early earth could have had the ability to adapt to various environments.

  1. Importance of the initial conditions for star formation - III. Statistical properties of embedded protostellar clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girichidis, Philipp; Federrath, Christoph; Allison, Richard; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2012-03-01

    We investigate the formation of protostellar clusters during the collapse of dense molecular cloud cores with a focus on the evolution of potential and kinetic energy, the degree of substructure and the early phase of mass segregation. Our study is based on a series of hydrodynamic simulations of dense cores, where we vary the initial density profile and the initial turbulent velocity. In the three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement simulations, we follow the dynamical formation of filaments and protostars until a star formation efficiency of 20 per cent. Despite the different initial configurations, the global ensemble of all protostars in a setup shows a similar energy evolution and forms sub-virial clusters with an energy ratio Ekin/|Epot|˜ 0.2. Concentrating on the innermost central region, the clusters show a roughly virialized energy balance. However, the region of virial balance only covers the innermost ˜10-30 per cent of all the protostars. In all simulations with multiple protostars, the total kinetic energy of the protostars is higher than the kinetic energy of the gas cloud, although the protostars only contain 20 per cent of the total mass. The clusters vary significantly in size, mass and number of protostars, and show different degrees of substructure and mass segregation. Flat density profiles and compressive turbulent modes produce more subclusters than centrally concentrated profiles and solenoidal turbulence. We find that dynamical relaxation and hence dynamical mass segregation is very efficient in all cases from the very beginning of the nascent cluster, i.e. during a phase when protostars constantly form and accrete.

  2. A comprehensive analysis of the importance of translation initiation factors for Haloferax volcanii applying deletion and conditional depletion mutants.

    PubMed

    Gäbel, Katrin; Schmitt, Jessica; Schulz, Sebastian; Näther, Daniela J; Soppa, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Translation is an important step in gene expression. The initiation of translation is phylogenetically diverse, since currently five different initiation mechanisms are known. For bacteria the three initiation factors IF1 - IF3 are described in contrast to archaea and eukaryotes, which contain a considerably higher number of initiation factor genes. As eukaryotes and archaea use a non-overlapping set of initiation mechanisms, orthologous proteins of both domains do not necessarily fulfill the same function. The genome of Haloferax volcanii contains 14 annotated genes that encode (subunits of) initiation factors. To gain a comprehensive overview of the importance of these genes, it was attempted to construct single gene deletion mutants of all genes. In 9 cases single deletion mutants were successfully constructed, showing that the respective genes are not essential. In contrast, the genes encoding initiation factors aIF1, aIF2γ, aIF5A, aIF5B, and aIF6 were found to be essential. Factors aIF1A and aIF2β are encoded by two orthologous genes in H. volcanii. Attempts to generate double mutants failed in both cases, indicating that also these factors are essential. A translatome analysis of one of the single aIF2β deletion mutants revealed that the translational efficiency of the second ortholog was enhanced tenfold and thus the two proteins can replace one another. The phenotypes of the single deletion mutants also revealed that the two aIF1As and aIF2βs have redundant but not identical functions. Remarkably, the gene encoding aIF2α, a subunit of aIF2 involved in initiator tRNA binding, could be deleted. However, the mutant had a severe growth defect under all tested conditions. Conditional depletion mutants were generated for the five essential genes. The phenotypes of deletion mutants and conditional depletion mutants were compared to that of the wild-type under various conditions, and growth characteristics are discussed.

  3. Long-time asymptotic solution structure of Camassa-Holm equation subject to an initial condition with non-zero reflection coefficient of the scattering data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chueh-Hsin; Yu, Ching-Hao; Sheu, Tony Wen-Hann

    2016-10-01

    In this article, we numerically revisit the long-time solution behavior of the Camassa-Holm equation ut - uxxt + 2ux + 3uux = 2uxuxx + uuxxx. The finite difference solution of this integrable equation is sought subject to the newly derived initial condition with Delta-function potential. Our underlying strategy of deriving a numerical phase accurate finite difference scheme in time domain is to reduce the numerical dispersion error through minimization of the derived discrepancy between the numerical and exact modified wavenumbers. Additionally, to achieve the goal of conserving Hamiltonians in the completely integrable equation of current interest, a symplecticity-preserving time-stepping scheme is developed. Based on the solutions computed from the temporally symplecticity-preserving and the spatially wavenumber-preserving schemes, the long-time asymptotic CH solution characters can be accurately depicted in distinct regions of the space-time domain featuring with their own quantitatively very different solution behaviors. We also aim to numerically confirm that in the two transition zones their long-time asymptotics can indeed be described in terms of the theoretically derived Painlevé transcendents. Another attempt of this study is to numerically exhibit a close connection between the presently predicted finite-difference solution and the solution of the Painlevé ordinary differential equation of type II in two different transition zones.

  4. 49 CFR 236.502 - Automatic brake application, initiation by restrictive block conditions stopping distance in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... restrictive block conditions stopping distance in advance. 236.502 Section 236.502 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control...

  5. 49 CFR 236.502 - Automatic brake application, initiation by restrictive block conditions stopping distance in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... restrictive block conditions stopping distance in advance. 236.502 Section 236.502 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control...

  6. 49 CFR 236.502 - Automatic brake application, initiation by restrictive block conditions stopping distance in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... restrictive block conditions stopping distance in advance. 236.502 Section 236.502 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control...

  7. 49 CFR 236.502 - Automatic brake application, initiation by restrictive block conditions stopping distance in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... restrictive block conditions stopping distance in advance. 236.502 Section 236.502 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control...

  8. 49 CFR 236.502 - Automatic brake application, initiation by restrictive block conditions stopping distance in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... restrictive block conditions stopping distance in advance. 236.502 Section 236.502 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control...

  9. 42 CFR 418.54 - Condition of participation: Initial and comprehensive assessment of the patient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... needs of the patient's family and other individuals focusing on the social, spiritual, and cultural... comprehensive assessment must take into consideration the following factors: (1) The nature and condition...) Complications and risk factors that affect care planning. (3) Functional status, including the patient's...

  10. 42 CFR 418.54 - Condition of participation: Initial and comprehensive assessment of the patient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... needs of the patient's family and other individuals focusing on the social, spiritual, and cultural... comprehensive assessment must take into consideration the following factors: (1) The nature and condition...) Complications and risk factors that affect care planning. (3) Functional status, including the patient's...

  11. 42 CFR 418.54 - Condition of participation: Initial and comprehensive assessment of the patient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... family and other individuals focusing on the social, spiritual, and cultural factors that may impact... take into consideration the following factors: (1) The nature and condition causing admission... factors that affect care planning. (3) Functional status, including the patient's ability to...

  12. 42 CFR 418.54 - Condition of participation: Initial and comprehensive assessment of the patient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... needs of the patient's family and other individuals focusing on the social, spiritual, and cultural... comprehensive assessment must take into consideration the following factors: (1) The nature and condition...) Complications and risk factors that affect care planning. (3) Functional status, including the patient's...

  13. 42 CFR 418.54 - Condition of participation: Initial and comprehensive assessment of the patient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... family and other individuals focusing on the social, spiritual, and cultural factors that may impact... take into consideration the following factors: (1) The nature and condition causing admission... factors that affect care planning. (3) Functional status, including the patient's ability to...

  14. Measurement of Initial Conditions at Nozzle Exit of High Speed Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, J.; Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Seasholtz, R. G.

    2004-01-01

    The time averaged and unsteady density fields close to the nozzle exit (0.1 less than or = x/D less than or = 2, x: downstream distance, D: jet diameter) of unheated free jets at Mach numbers of 0.95, 1.4, and 1.8 were measured using a molecular Rayleigh scattering based technique. The initial thickness of shear layer and its linear growth rate were determined from time-averaged density survey and a modeling process, which utilized the Crocco-Busemann equation to relate density profiles to velocity profiles. The model also corrected for the smearing effect caused by a relatively long probe length in the measured density data. The calculated shear layer thickness was further verified from a limited hot-wire measurement. Density fluctuations spectra, measured using a two-Photomultiplier-tube technique, were used to determine evolution of turbulent fluctuations in various Strouhal frequency bands. For this purpose spectra were obtained from a large number of points inside the flow; and at every axial station spectral data from all radial positions were integrated. The radially-integrated fluctuation data show an exponential growth with downstream distance and an eventual saturation in all Strouhal frequency bands. The initial level of density fluctuations was calculated by extrapolation to nozzle exit.

  15. INITIATORS AND TRIGGERING CONDITIONS FOR ADAPTIVE AUTOMATION IN ADVANCED SMALL MODULAR REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Katya L Le Blanc; Johanna h Oxstrand

    2014-04-01

    It is anticipated that Advanced Small Modular Reactors (AdvSMRs) will employ high degrees of automation. High levels of automation can enhance system performance, but often at the cost of reduced human performance. Automation can lead to human out-of the loop issues, unbalanced workload, complacency, and other problems if it is not designed properly. Researchers have proposed adaptive automation (defined as dynamic or flexible allocation of functions) as a way to get the benefits of higher levels of automation without the human performance costs. Adaptive automation has the potential to balance operator workload and enhance operator situation awareness by allocating functions to the operators in a way that is sensitive to overall workload and capabilities at the time of operation. However, there still a number of questions regarding how to effectively design adaptive automation to achieve that potential. One of those questions is related to how to initiate (or trigger) a shift in automation in order to provide maximal sensitivity to operator needs without introducing undesirable consequences (such as unpredictable mode changes). Several triggering mechanisms for shifts in adaptive automation have been proposed including: operator initiated, critical events, performance-based, physiological measurement, model-based, and hybrid methods. As part of a larger project to develop design guidance for human-automation collaboration in AdvSMRs, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory have investigated the effectiveness and applicability of each of these triggering mechanisms in the context of AdvSMR. Researchers reviewed the empirical literature on adaptive automation and assessed each triggering mechanism based on the human-system performance consequences of employing that mechanism. Researchers also assessed the practicality and feasibility of using the mechanism in the context of an AdvSMR control room. Results indicate that there are tradeoffs associated with each

  16. Nonlinear Modeling and Initial Condition Estimation for Identifying the Aerothermodynamic Environment of the Space Shuttle Orbiter.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    Point Smoothing The optimal fixed-point smoother for a general point is given by Meditch (Ref 16) and Maybeck (Ref 15). The smoother relation is run...HEATEST Data Reduction Technique with Intial Condition Smoothing ........................... 35 C.1. Simulated Thermocouple Data (Two Segment Model...93 iv a,. ’ , . ’ -_, .. ,-. . ., . .- / ._-./ . ,.-. ,., . . , . ,,- . . , VP r ; ? y . , ° ’ ’ ’ ’ t ’ ’ E.1. Smoothing Simulation

  17. Infrared Extinction and the Initial Conditions For Star and Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lada, Charles J.

    2003-01-01

    This grant funds a research program to use infrared extinction measurements to probe the detailed structure of dark molecular clouds and investigate the physical conditions which give rise to star and planet formation. The goals of the this program are to: 1) acquire deep infrared and molecular-line observations of a carefully selected sample of nearby dark clouds, 2) reduce and analyze the data obtained in order to produce detailed extinction maps of the clouds, 3) prepare results, where appropriate, for publication.

  18. The influence of initial damage on microcrack healing at hydrothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anuar, A.; Mitchell, T. M.; Meredith, P. G.; Perez-Flores, P.

    2015-12-01

    Off-fault coseismic fracture damage at depth can be inferred from reductions of crustal seismic velocity following large earthquakes. A growing body of geophysical evidence exists for 'healing' processes occurring in the bulk following such earthquakes, inferred from time-dependent increases in seismic velocity lasting from days to years. Surprisingly, little is known about the controls on co-seismic microfracture damage healing rates. Here, we present experimental and microstructural observations on the rates of microfracture healing in terms of post-seismic recovery of seismic velocity, porosity and permeability, as a function of varying initial damage. Preliminary results indicate that highly damaged samples show up to three orders of magnitude reduction in permeability over several days at temperatures and pressures commensurate with just 4km depth, combined with significant decreases in porosity and increases in seismic velocity.

  19. Effects of quadrat size and shape, initial epidemic conditions, and spore dispersal gradient on spatial statistics of plant disease epidemics.

    PubMed

    Xu, X M; Ridout, M S

    2000-07-01

    ABSTRACT The spatiotemporal spread of plant diseases was simulated using a stochastic model to study the effects of initial conditions (number of plants initially infected and their spatial pattern), spore dispersal gradient, and size and shape of sampling quadrats on statistics describing the spatiotemporal dynamics of epidemics. The spatial spread of disease was simulated using a half-Cauchy distribution with median dispersal distance mu (units of distance). A total of 54 different quadrat types, including 23 distinct sizes ranging from 4 to 144 plants, were used to sample the simulated epidemics. A symmetric form of the binary power law with two parameters (alpha, beta) was fitted to the sampled epidemic data using each of the 54 quadrats for each replicate simulation run. The alpha and beta estimates were highly correlated positively with each other, and their estimates were comparable to those estimated from observed epidemics. Intraclass correlation (kappa) was calculated for each quadrat type; kappa decreased exponentially with increasing quadrat size. An asymmetric form of the binary power law with three parameters (alpha (1), beta(1), beta(2)) was used to relate kappa to the disease incidence (p); beta1 was highly correlated to beta: beta1 approximately beta - 1. In general, initial conditions and quadrat size affected alpha, beta, alpha(1), beta(1), and beta(2) greatly. The parameter estimates increased as quadrat size increased, and the relationships were described well by a linear regression model on the logarithm of quadrat size with the slope or intercept parameters dependent on initial conditions and mu. Compared with initial conditions and quadrat size, the overall effects of mu and quadrat shape were generally small, although within each quadrat size and initial condition they could be substantial. Quadrat shape had the greatest effect when the quadrat was long and thin. The relationship of the index of dispersion (D) to p and quadrat size was

  20. Rock thermal conductivity at the cap rock and initial conditions in two-phase volcanic hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mario Cesar Suarez Arriaga

    1993-01-28

    Numerical experiments are performed to investigate the rock thermal conductivity influence in the formation of the thermodynamic initial conditions of two-phase systems located in volcanic rocks. These systems exhibit pressure and temperature profiles characterized by a sudden change or discontinuity in their vertical gradients. Vapor dominated, two-phase fluids are found at the upper reservoir's levels. Liquid is the dominated phase within the layers below some critical point. Numerical results presented in this paper, suggest that the vertical location of this point of discontinuity be controlled by the thermal conductivity existing between the limit of the reservoir and the caprock. Too high values could originate liquid dominated reservoirs. Small values would be at the origin of vapor dominated reservoirs. A characteristic middle value could be responsible for the formation of a counter flow mechanism originating the initial conditions observed at some locations of the Los Azufres, Mexico, geothermal field.

  1. Initial conditions implied by t exp 1/2 solidification of a sphere with capillarity and interfacial kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekerka, R. F.; Voorhees, P. W.; Coriel, S. R.; Mcfadden, G. B.

    1988-01-01

    The paper explores the initial conditions implied by t exp 1/2 growth of a spherical crystal solidifying from a pure, undercooled melt, including the effects of both capillarity and interface kinetics, and relates the findings to initial conditions that would be expected on the basis of classical nucleation theory. For crystal sizes near the nucleation radius, the calculated temperature profiles show a cold region ahead of the advancing interface that is even more undercooled than the undercooled bath. This cold region acts as a local heat sink that compensates for the reduced growth speed that would otherwise result from capillarity and kinetics, leading to precisely the same t exp 1/2 growth law that would have been obtained had both capillarity and kinetics been neglected.

  2. Assessment on Integrity of BWR Internals Against Impact Load by Water Hammer Under Conditions of Reactivity Initiated Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Azuma, Mie; Taniguchi, Atsushi; Hotta, Akitoshi; Ohta, Takeshi

    2005-03-15

    The integrity of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) head and reactor internals was assessed by means of fluid and fluid-structural coupled analyses to evaluate the water hammer phenomenon arising from postulated high burnup fuel failure under reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions. The fluid viscosity effect on the water column burst as well as the complex three-dimensional flow paths caused by a core shroud and standpipes were considered in this study. It is shown that fluid viscosity becomes an influential factor to dissipate impacting kinetic energy. Integrity of the RPV head and the shroud head was ensured with a sufficient level of margin even under these excessively conservative RIA conditions.

  3. MERGER RATES OF DOUBLE NEUTRON STARS AND STELLAR ORIGIN BLACK HOLES: THE IMPACT OF INITIAL CONDITIONS ON BINARY EVOLUTION PREDICTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mink, S. E. de; Belczynski, K. E-mail: kbelczyn@astrouw.edu.pl

    2015-11-20

    The initial mass function (IMF), binary fraction, and distributions of binary parameters (mass ratios, separations, and eccentricities) are indispensable inputs for simulations of stellar populations. It is often claimed that these are poorly constrained, significantly affecting evolutionary predictions. Recently, dedicated observing campaigns have provided new constraints on the initial conditions for massive stars. Findings include a larger close binary fraction and a stronger preference for very tight systems. We investigate the impact on the predicted merger rates of neutron stars and black holes. Despite the changes with previous assumptions, we only find an increase of less than a factor of 2 (insignificant compared with evolutionary uncertainties of typically a factor of 10–100). We further show that the uncertainties in the new initial binary properties do not significantly affect (within a factor of 2) our predictions of double compact object merger rates. An exception is the uncertainty in IMF (variations by a factor of 6 up and down). No significant changes in the distributions of final component masses, mass ratios, chirp masses, and delay times are found. We conclude that the predictions are, for practical purposes, robust against uncertainties in the initial conditions concerning binary parameters, with the exception of the IMF. This eliminates an important layer of the many uncertain assumptions affecting the predictions of merger detection rates with the gravitational wave detectors aLIGO/aVirgo.

  4. Impact of rainfall spatial distribution on rainfall-runoff modelling efficiency and initial soil moisture conditions estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramblay, Y.; Bouvier, C.; Ayral, P.-A.; Marchandise, A.

    2011-01-01

    A good knowledge of rainfall is essential for hydrological operational purposes such as flood forecasting. The objective of this paper was to analyze, on a relatively large sample of flood events, how rainfall-runoff modeling using an event-based model can be sensitive to the use of spatial rainfall compared to mean areal rainfall over the watershed. This comparison was based not only on the model's efficiency in reproducing the flood events but also through the estimation of the initial conditions by the model, using different rainfall inputs. The initial conditions of soil moisture are indeed a key factor for flood modeling in the Mediterranean region. In order to provide a soil moisture index that could be related to the initial condition of the model, the soil moisture output of the Safran-Isba-Modcou (SIM) model developed by Météo-France was used. This study was done in the Gardon catchment (545 km2) in South France, using uniform or spatial rainfall data derived from rain gauge and radar for 16 flood events. The event-based model considered combines the SCS runoff production model and the Lag and Route routing model. Results show that spatial rainfall increases the efficiency of the model. The advantage of using spatial rainfall is marked for some of the largest flood events. In addition, the relationship between the model's initial condition and the external predictor of soil moisture provided by the SIM model is better when using spatial rainfall, in particular when using spatial radar data with R2 values increasing from 0.61 to 0.72.

  5. Radiographic detection of initial carious lesions on the proximal surfaces of teeth. Part I. The influence of exposure conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, L.V.

    1987-08-01

    The relationship between a number of technical exposure conditions and the diagnostic value of bitewing radiographs in the interpretation of initial proximal carious lesions was evaluated. The most important exposure factors for radiographs are tube voltage, filtration, and exposure time. Tube voltage and filtration were found to have an insignificant influence on the diagnostic quality. Exposure time proved to be the most critical factor in influencing diagnostic quality. The greatest difference in diagnostic quality, however, was caused by differences between observers.

  6. Infrared Extinction and the Initial Conditions for Star and Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lada, Charles J.

    2002-01-01

    This grant funds a research program to use infrared extinction measurements to probe the detailed structure of dark molecular clouds and investigate the physical conditions which give rise to star and planet formation. The goals of the this program are to: (1) acquire deep infrared and molecular-line observations of a carefully selected sample of nearby dark clouds; (2) reduce and analyze the data obtained in order to produce detailed extinction maps of the clouds; and (3) prepare results, where appropriate, for publication.

  7. Infrared Extinction and the Initial Conditions for Star and Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lada, Charles J.

    2004-01-01

    This grant funds a research program to use infrared extinction measurements to probe the detailed structure of dark molecular clouds and investigate the physical conditions which give rise to star and planet formation. The goals of the this program are to: 1) acquire deep infrared and molecular-line observations of a carefully selected sample of nearby dark clouds, 2) reduce and analyze the data obtained in order to produce detailed extinction maps of the clouds, 3) prepare results, where appropriate, for publication. A description of how these goals were met are included.

  8. Sloan Digital Sky Survey III photometric quasar clustering: probing the initial conditions of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Shirley; Agarwal, Nishant; Myers, Adam D.; Lyons, Richard; Disbrow, Ashley; Seo, Hee-Jong; Ross, Ashley; Hirata, Christopher; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; O'Connell, Ross; Huff, Eric; Schlegel, David; Slosar, Anže; Weinberg, David; Strauss, Michael; Ross, Nicholas P.; Schneider, Donald P.; Bahcall, Neta; Brinkmann, J.; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Yèche, Christophe

    2015-05-01

    parameters. In this paper, if the bias and shot noise parameters are fixed to their known values (which we model by fixing them to their best-fit Gaussian values), we find that the error bar reduces to 1σ simeq 65. We expect this error bar to reduce further by at least another factor of five if the data is free of any observational systematics. We therefore emphasize that in order to make best use of large scale structure data we need an accurate modeling of known systematics, a method to mitigate unknown systematics, and additionally independent theoretical models or observations to probe the bias of dark matter halos.

  9. Phytoplankton succession in an isolated upwelled Benguela water body in relation to different initial nutrient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasmund, Norbert; Nausch, Günther; Hansen, Anja

    2014-11-01

    Freshly upwelled water is poor in phytoplankton biomass but rich in nutrients. With its ageing, phytoplankton biomass increases whereas the nutrients are consumed. The overall aim of our investigation was to check the succession in the phytoplankton composition as a consequence of changing nutrient conditions. The experiments were carried out in mesocosms filled with surface water in the northern Benguela region and installed on board of R/V "Maria S. Merian". In the freshly upwelled water, phytoplankton took up nitrogen at a higher rate than phosphorus if compared with the Redfield ratio. Therefore, nitrogen was exhausted already by day 6. Nitrogen limitation after day 6 was indicated by decreasing chlorophyll a (chla) concentrations, primary production rates and productivity indices and increasing C/N ratios in particulate matter. Despite nitrogen limitation, phosphorus addition stimulated further growth, mainly of diatoms, pointing to luxury uptake. Cyanobacteria did not develop and nitrogen fixation was zero even with phosphorus and iron addition. Diatoms stay the most important group in the freshly upwelled water, but autotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates increase strongly in the matured upwelled water. Mesocosms excluded disturbances by advective water transports, which influence the study of succssions under field conditions.

  10. Experimental characterization of initial conditions and spatio-temporal evolution of a small Atwood number Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer

    SciTech Connect

    Mueschke, N J; Andrews, M J; Schilling, O

    2005-09-26

    The initial multi-mode interfacial velocity and density perturbations present at the onset of a small Atwood number, incompressible, miscible, Rayleigh-Taylor instability-driven mixing layer have been quantified using a combination of experimental techniques. The streamwise interfacial and spanwise interfacial perturbations were measured using high-resolution thermocouples and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), respectively. The initial multi-mode streamwise velocity perturbations at the two-fluid density interface were measured using particle-image velocimetry (PIV). It was found that the measured initial conditions describe an initially anisotropic state, in which the perturbations in the streamwise and spanwise directions are independent of one another. The evolution of various fluctuating velocity and density statistics, together with velocity and density variance spectra, were measured using PIV and high-resolution thermocouple data. The evolution of the velocity and density statistics is used to investigate the early-time evolution and the onset of strongly-nonlinear, transitional dynamics within the mixing layer. The early-time evolution of the density and vertical velocity variance spectra indicate that velocity fluctuations are the dominant mechanism driving the instability development. The implications of the present experimental measurements on the initialization of Reynolds-averaged turbulent transport and mixing models and of direct and large-eddy simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor instability-induced turbulence are discussed.

  11. Experimental characterization of initial conditions and spatio-temporal evolution of a small Atwood number Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer

    SciTech Connect

    Mueschke, N J; Andrews, M J; Schilling, O

    2006-03-24

    The initial multi-mode interfacial velocity and density perturbations present at the onset of a small Atwood number, incompressible, miscible, Rayleigh-Taylor instability-driven mixing layer have been quantified using a combination of experimental techniques. The streamwise interfacial and spanwise interfacial perturbations were measured using high-resolution thermocouples and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), respectively. The initial multi-mode streamwise velocity perturbations at the two-fluid density interface were measured using particle-image velocimetry (PIV). It was found that the measured initial conditions describe an initially anisotropic state, in which the perturbations in the streamwise and spanwise directions are independent of one another. The evolution of various fluctuating velocity and density statistics, together with velocity and density variance spectra, were measured using PIV and high-resolution thermocouple data. The evolution of the velocity and density statistics is used to investigate the early-time evolution and the onset of strongly-nonlinear, transitional dynamics within the mixing layer. The early-time evolution of the density and vertical velocity variance spectra indicate that velocity fluctuations are the dominant mechanism driving the instability development. The implications of the present experimental measurements on the initialization of Reynolds-averaged turbulent transport and mixing models and of direct and large-eddy simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor instability-induced turbulence are discussed.

  12. Predicting uncertainty in sediment transport and landscape evolution - the influence of initial surface conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, G. R.; Coulthard, T. J.; Lowry, J. B. C.

    2016-05-01

    Numerical landscape evolution models were initially developed to examine natural catchment hydrology and geomorphology and have become a common tool to examine geomorphic behaviour over a range of time and space scales. These models all use a digital elevation model (DEM) as a representation of the landscape surface and a significant issue is the quality and resolution of this surface. Here we focus on how subtle perturbations or roughness on the DEM surface can produce alternative model results. This study is carried out by randomly varying the elevations of the DEM surface and examining the effect on sediment transport rates and geomorphology for a proposed rehabilitation design for a post-mining landscape using multiple landscape realisations with increasing magnitudes of random changes. We show that an increasing magnitude of random surface variability does not appear to have any significant effect on sediment transport over millennial time scales. However, the random surface variability greatly changes the temporal pattern or delivery of sediment output. A significant finding is that all simulations at the end of the 10,000 year modelled period are geomorphologically similar and present a geomorphological equifinality. However, the individual patterns of erosion and deposition were different for repeat simulations with a different sequence of random perturbations. The alternative positions of random perturbations strongly influence local patterns of hillslope erosion and evolution together with the pattern and behaviour of deposition. The findings demonstrate the complex feedbacks that occur even within a simple modelled system.

  13. Evaluation of the effects of 3D diffusion, crystal geometry, and initial conditions on retrieved time-scales from Fe-Mg zoning in natural oriented orthopyroxene crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimer, Daniel; Costa, Fidel

    2017-01-01

    Volcano petrologists and geochemists increasingly use time-scale determinations of magmatic processes from modeling the chemical zoning patterns in crystals. Most determinations are done using one-dimensional traverses across a two-dimensional crystal section. However, crystals are three-dimensional objects with complex shapes, and diffusion and re-equilibration occurs in multiple dimensions. Given that we can mainly study the crystals in two-dimensional petrographic thin sections, the determined time-scales could be in error if multiple dimensional and geometrical effects are not identified and accounted for. Here we report the results of a numerical study where we investigate the role of multiple dimensions, geometry, and initial conditions of Fe-Mg diffusion in an orthopyroxene crystal with the view towards proper determinations of time scales from modeling natural crystals. We found that merging diffusion fronts (i.e. diffusion from multiple directions) causes 'additional' diffusion that has the greatest influence close to the crystal's corners (i.e. where two crystal faces meet), and with longer times the affected area widens. We also found that the one-dimensional traverses that can lead to the most accurate calculated time-scales from natural crystals are along the b- crystallographic axis on the ab-plane when model inputs (concentration and zoning geometry) are taken as measured (rather than inferred from other observations). More specifically, accurate time-scales are obtained if the compositional traverses are highly symmetrical and contain a concentration plateau measured through the crystal center. On the other hand, for two-dimensional models the ab- and ac-planes are better suited if the initial (pre-diffusion) concentration and zoning geometry inputs are known or can be estimated, although these are a priory unknown, and thus, may be difficult to use in practical terms. We also found that under certain conditions, a combined one-dimensional and two

  14. Two initial vaccinations with the Bm86-based Gavacplus vaccine against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus induce similar reproductive suppression to three initial vaccinations under production conditions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, affects livestock production in many regions of the world. Up to now, the widespread use of chemical acaricides has led to the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and to environmental contamination. Gavacplus is a subunit vaccine based on the recombinant Bm86 tick antigen expressed in yeast, capable to control infestations of R. microplus under controlled and production conditions. The vaccine constitutes the core element of broad control programs against this ectoparasite, in which acquired immunity in cattle to Bm86 is combined with a rational use of acaricides. At present, the conventional vaccine scheme consists of three doses that should be administered at weeks 0, 4 and 7, followed by a booster every six months. Results In this study we assayed a reduction in the number of the initial doses of Gavacplus, evaluated the time course and the level of bovine anti-Bm86 antibodies elicited, and analyzed the vaccine effect on ticks engorging on immunized cattle under production conditions. Following three different immunization schemes, the bovines developed a strong and specific immune response characterized by elevated anti-Bm86 IgG titers. A reduction in the weight of engorging female ticks, in the weight of the eggs laid and also in R. microplus viable eggs percentage was obtained by using only two doses of Gavacplus administered at weeks 0 and 4, followed by a booster six months later. This reduction did not differ from the results obtained on ticks engorging on cattle immunized at weeks 0, 4 and 7. It was also demonstrated that anti-Bm86 antibody titers over 1:640, measured in bovines immunized at weeks 0 and 4, were sufficient to affect weight and reproductive potential of female ticks as compared with ticks engorging on unvaccinated animals. In addition, no statistically significant differences were detected in the average weight of eggs laid by ticks engorged on immunized cattle that showed

  15. Sudden pore pressure rise and rapid landslide initiation induced under extreme rainfall conditions - a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Wang, Fawu; Wang, Gonghui

    2010-05-01

    Since July 19 to 26, 2009, western Japan had a severe rainstorms and caused floods and landslides. Most of the landslides are debris slide - debris flows. Most devastated case took place in Hofu city, Japan. On July 21, extremely intense rainstorm caused numerous debris flows and mud flows in the hillslopes Some of the debris flows destroyed residential houses and home for elderly people, and finally killed 14 residents. Debris flow distribution map was prepared soon based on airphoto interpretation. Japanese Meteorological Agency runs nation-wide ground-based rain gauge network as well as radar rain gauges, which provide hourly to 10 minutes precipitation distribution real-time with spatial resolution of about 5 km. Distribution of daily (cumulative) precipitation of July 21 shows (1) The cumulative precipitation from 6 am -- 12 am of the day was evaluated that their return period could be 200 - 600 years statistically. In 2009, another extraordinary rainfall, of which intensity was evaluated as less than 100 years more more, caused floods in another city claiming many residents lives on the way to evacuation area. Those frequent extraordinary extreme rainfall is not concluded as the consequence of global warming nor climate change, however, those frequency of extreme rainfall events affecting societies are obviously increasing in Japan, too. As for the Hofu city case, it was proved that debris flows took place in the high precipitation area and covered by covered by weathered granite sands and silts which is called "masa". This sands has been proved susceptible against landslides under extreme rainfall conditions. However, the transition from slide - debris flow process is not well revealed, except authors past experiment on the similar masa samples in June 1999 Hiroshima debris flow case. Authors have embedded pore pressure control system for the undrained ring shear apparatus. Strongly weathered sandy soils were sampled just on the smooth and flat granitic

  16. Sloan Digital Sky Survey III photometric quasar clustering: probing the initial conditions of the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Shirley; Agarwal, Nishant; Lyons, Richard; Disbrow, Ashley; O'Connell, Ross; Myers, Adam D.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Schlegel, David; Ross, Nicholas P.; Ross, Ashley; Hirata, Christopher; Huff, Eric; Weinberg, David; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Slosar, Anže; Strauss, Michael; Bahcall, Neta; Schneider, Donald P.; Brinkmann, J.; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie [CEA, Centre de Saclay, Irfu and others

    2015-05-01

    completely determined, and allowing precise estimates of the bias parameters. In this paper, if the bias and shot noise parameters are fixed to their known values (which we model by fixing them to their best-fit Gaussian values), we find that the error bar reduces to 1σ ≅ 65. We expect this error bar to reduce further by at least another factor of five if the data is free of any observational systematics. We therefore emphasize that in order to make best use of large scale structure data we need an accurate modeling of known systematics, a method to mitigate unknown systematics, and additionally independent theoretical models or observations to probe the bias of dark matter halos.

  17. Assessment of Initial Test Conditions for Experiments to Assess Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, Jeremy T; Gussev, Maxim N

    2011-04-01

    Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking is a key materials degradation issue in today s nuclear power reactor fleet and affects critical structural components within the reactor core. The effects of increased exposure to irradiation, stress, and/or coolant can substantially increase susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking of austenitic steels in high-temperature water environments. . Despite 30 years of experience, the underlying mechanisms of IASCC are unknown. Extended service conditions will increase the exposure to irradiation, stress, and corrosive environment for all core internal components. The objective of this effort within the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program is to evaluate the response and mechanisms of IASCC in austenitic stainless steels with single variable experiments. A series of high-value irradiated specimens has been acquired from the past international research programs, providing a valuable opportunity to examine the mechanisms of IASCC. This batch of irradiated specimens has been received and inventoried. In addition, visual examination and sample cleaning has been completed. Microhardness testing has been performed on these specimens. All samples show evidence of hardening, as expected, although the degree of hardening has saturated and no trend with dose is observed. Further, the change in hardening can be converted to changes in mechanical properties. The calculated yield stress is consistent with previous data from light water reactor conditions. In addition, some evidence of changes in deformation mode was identified via examination of the microhardness indents. This analysis may provide further insights into the deformation mode under larger scale tests. Finally, swelling analysis was performed using immersion density methods. Most alloys showed some evidence of swelling, consistent with the expected trends for this class of alloy. The Hf-doped alloy showed densification rather than swelling. This observation may be

  18. The Impact of Sea-Surface Winds on Meteorological Conditions in Israel: An Initial Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Saaroni, H.; Atlas, R.; Ardizzone, J.; Ben-Dor, E.; Druyan, L.; Jusem, C. J.; Karnieli, A.; Terry, J.

    2000-01-01

    The SSM/I (Spectral Sensor Microwave Imager) dataset is used to monitor surface wind speed and direction at four locations over the Eastern Mediterranean during December 1998 - January 1999. Time series of these data are compared to concurrent series of precipitation, surface temperature, humidity and winds at selected Israeli stations: Sde Dov (coastal), Bet Dagan (5 km. inland), Jerusalem (Judean Hills), Hafetz Haim (3 km. inland) and Sde Boker (central Negev). December 1998 and the beginning of January 1999 were dry in Israel, but significant precipitation was recorded at many stations during the second half of January (1999). SSM/I data show a surge in westerly surface winds west of Israel (32 N, 32.5 E) on 15 January, coinciding with the renewal of precipitation. We discuss the relevant circulation and pressure patterns during this transition in the context of the evolving meteorological conditions at the selected Israeli locations. The SSM/I dataset of near ocean surface winds, available for the last 12 years, is described. We analyze lagged correlation between these data and the Israeli station data and investigate possibility of predictive skill. Application of such relationships to short-term weather prediction would require real-time access to the SSM/I observations.

  19. Effect of Initial Condition on Subsonic Jet Noise from Two Rectangular Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in jet noise data from two small 8:1 aspect ratio nozzles are investigated experimentally. The interiors of the two nozzles are identical but one has a thin-lip at the exit while the has a perpendicular face at the exit (thick-lip). It is found that the thin-lip nozzle is substantially noisier throughout the subsonic Mach number range. As much as 5dB difference in OASPL is noticed around Mj =0.96. Hot-wire measurements are carried out for the characteristics of the exit boundary layer and, overall, the noise difference can be ascribed to differences in the boundary layer state. The boundary layer of the quieter (thick-lip) nozzle goes through transition around M(sub j) =0.25 and at higher M(sub j) it remains "nominally turbulent". In comparison, the boundary layer of the thin-lip nozzle is found to remain "nominally laminar". at high subsonic conditions. The nominally laminar state involves significantly larger turbulence intensities commensurate with the higher radiated noise.

  20. Solution of the quantum initial value problem with transparent boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puga, A.; Miller, B. N.

    2013-01-01

    Many systems of interest at the forefront of technological development, for example, in quantum computation, consist of weakly interacting elements that obey quantum mechanics. A challenge for modern theoretical physics is to develop a systematic methodology for approaching these "open" quantum systems. In particular, applied mathematicians have formulated the method of transparent boundary conditions (TBCs) to model interacting quantum systems of infinite extent. Here, we consider a particular application of TBCs to the escape of a particle from a one-dimensional infinite well when one of the bounding barriers is extinguished. We analytically obtain the exact time-dependent wave function by a Green's function method and then show that a numerical solution based on the TBC method is in excellent agreement. This work was motivated by an experiment carried out at the University of Texas on escape from a gravitational wedge billiard. Physicists have used billiards to understand and explore both classical and quantum chaos. Although the original experiment was carried out in the classical regime, current work is probing lower temperatures, where a quantum mechanical formulation is required.

  1. Wheel-running mitigates psychomotor sensitization initiation but not post-sensitization conditioned activity and conditioned place preference induced by cocaine in mice.

    PubMed

    Geuzaine, Annabelle; Tirelli, Ezio

    2014-04-01

    Previous literature suggests that physical exercise allowed by an unlimited access to a running wheel for several weeks can mitigate chronic neurobehavioral responsiveness to several addictive drugs in rodents. Here, the potential preventive effects of unlimited wheel-running on the initiation of psychomotor sensitization and the acquisition and extinction of conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by 10 mg/kg cocaine in C56BL/6J mice were assessed in two independent experiments. To this end, half of the mice were singly housed with a running wheel at 28 days of age for 10 weeks prior to psychopharmacological tests, during which housing conditions did not change, and the other half of mice were housed without running wheel. In Experiment 1, prior to initiating sensitization, psychomotor activity on the two first drug-free once-daily sessions was not affected by wheel-running. This was also found for the acute psychomotor-activating effect of cocaine on the first sensitization session. Psychomotor sensitization readily developed over the 9 following once-daily sessions in mice housed without wheel, whereas it was inhibited in mice housed with a wheel. However, that difference did not transfer to post-sensitization conditioned activity. In contrast with the sensitization results, mice housed with a wheel still expressed a clear-cut CPP which did not extinguish differently from that of the other group, a result in disaccord with previous studies reporting either an attenuating or an increasing effect of wheel-running on cocaine-induced conditioned reward. The available results together indicate that interactions between wheel-running and cocaine effects are far from being satisfactorily characterized.

  2. Infrared Extinction and the Initial Conditions for Star and Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lada, Charles J.

    2005-01-01

    This grant funded a research program to use infrared extinction measurements to probe the detailed structure of dark molecular clouds and investigate the physical conditions which give rise to star and planet formation. The goals of the this program were to: 1) acquire deep infrared and molecular-line observations of a carefully selected sample of nearby dark clouds, 2) reduce and analyze the data obtained in order to produce detailed extinction maps of the clouds, 3) use the results to measure and quantitatively describe the physical conditions of the dense gas and dust that produce stars and their accompanying planetary systems in molecular clouds. The goals of this project were met and exceeded as described below. 1) The infrared data for the project were obtained in a number of observing runs using the 3.5-meter NTT and 8-meter VLT telescopes of the European Southern Observatory in Chile and the 1.2-meter telescope of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Arizona, the 1 0-meter Keck telescope in Hawaii, the 6.5-meter MMT of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Arizona, and the NASA Hubble Space Telescope. The molecular-line data was obtained in three runs using the IRAM 30-meter telescope in Spain and one run with the ESO-15 meter millimeter-wave telescope in Chile. Millimeter-wave continuum measurements were obtained with the 15-meter JCMT in Hawaii. 2) Considerable effort was expended to reduce the infrared imaging observations including the development of custom software to produce high quality photometry and source astrometry. All the millimeter-line data was reduced using standard reduction routines. The highlights of the infrared analysis were the production of detailed extinction maps and the construction of profiles of the density structure of the B68, Coalsack, B335 and Lupus clouds. 3) The principal scientific accomplishments of this research program include the following: We were able to use our infrared observations to determine the

  3. Effect of initial conditions and of intra-event rainfall intensity variability on shallow landslide triggering return period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, David Johnny; Cancelliere, Antonino

    2016-04-01

    Assessment of shallow landslide hazard is important for appropriate planning of mitigation measures. Generally, return period of slope instability is assumed as a quantitative metric to map landslide triggering hazard on a catchment. The most commonly applied approach to estimate such return period consists in coupling a physically-based landslide triggering model (hydrological and slope stability) with rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves. Among the drawbacks of such an approach, the following assumptions may be mentioned: (1) prefixed initial conditions, with no regard to their probability of occurrence, and (2) constant intensity-hyetographs. In our work we propose the use of a Monte Carlo simulation approach in order to investigate the effects of the two above mentioned assumptions. The approach is based on coupling a physically based hydrological and slope stability model with a stochastic rainfall time series generator. By this methodology a long series of synthetic rainfall data can be generated and given as input to a landslide triggering physically based model, in order to compute the return period of landslide triggering as the mean inter-arrival time of a factor of safety less than one. In particular, we couple the Neyman-Scott rectangular pulses model for hourly rainfall generation and the TRIGRS v.2 unsaturated model for the computation of transient response to individual rainfall events. Initial conditions are computed by a water table recession model that links initial conditions at a given event to the final response at the preceding event, thus taking into account variable inter-arrival time between storms. One-thousand years of synthetic hourly rainfall are generated to estimate return periods up to 100 years. Applications are first carried out to map landslide triggering hazard in the Loco catchment, located in highly landslide-prone area of the Peloritani Mountains, Sicily, Italy. Then a set of additional simulations are performed

  4. Effects of initial soil condition on the effectiveness of biological geotextiles in reducing interrill runoff and erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smets, T.; Poesen, J.

    2009-04-01

    The effectiveness of a surface cover material (e.g. geotextiles, rock fragments, mulches, vegetation) in reducing runoff and soil erosion rates is often only assessed by the fraction of the soil surface covered. However, there are indications that soil structure has important effects on the runoff and erosion-reducing effectiveness of the cover materials. This study investigates the impact of initial soil condition (i.e. fine tilth versus sealed soil surface) on the effectiveness of biological geotextiles in increasing infiltration rates and in reducing runoff and interrill erosion rates on a medium and steep slope gradient. Rainfall was simulated during 60 minutes with an intensity of 67 mm h-1 on an interrill erosion plot having two slope gradients (i.e. 15 and 45%) and filled with an erodible sandy loam. Five biological and three simulated geotextiles with different cover percentage were tested on two simulated initial soil conditions (i.e. fine tilth and sealed soil surface). Final infiltration rates on a sealed soil surface (7.5-18.5 mm h-1) are observed after ca. 10 minutes of rainfall compared to ca. 50 minutes of rainfall on an initial seedbed (16.4-56.7 mm h-1). On the two tested slope gradients, significantly (α = 0.05) smaller runoff coefficients (RC) are observed on an initial seedbed (8.2% < RC < 59.8%) compared to a sealed soil surface (75.7% < RC < 87.0%). On an initial seedbed, decreasing RC are observed with an increasing simulated geotextile cover. However, on an initial sealed soil surface no significant effect of simulated geotextile cover on RC is observed. On a 15% slope gradient, calculated b-values from the mulch factor equation equalled 0.054 for an initial fine tilth and 0.022 for a sealed soil surface, indicating a higher effectiveness of geotextiles in reducing interrill erosion on a fine tilth compared to a sealed soil surface. Therefore, this study demonstrates the importance of applying geotextiles on the soil surface before the

  5. Critical rainfall conditions for the initiation of torrential flows. Results from the Rebaixader catchment (Central Pyrenees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Moya, José; Berenguer, Marc

    2016-10-01

    Torrential flows like debris flows or debris floods are fast movements formed by a mix of water and different amounts of unsorted solid material. They generally occur in steep torrents and pose high risk in mountainous areas. Rainfall is their most common triggering factor and the analysis of the critical rainfall conditions is a fundamental research task. Due to their wide use in warning systems, rainfall thresholds for the triggering of torrential flows are an important outcome of such analysis and are empirically derived using data from past events. In 2009, a monitoring system was installed in the Rebaixader catchment, Central Pyrenees (Spain). Since then, rainfall data of 25 torrential flows ("TRIG rainfalls") were recorded, with a 5-min sampling frequency. Other 142 rainfalls that did not trigger torrential flows ("NonTRIG rainfalls") were also collected and analyzed. The goal of this work was threefold: (i) characterize rainfall episodes in the Rebaixader catchment and compare rainfall data that triggered torrential flows and others that did not; (ii) define and test Intensity-Duration (ID) thresholds using rainfall data measured inside the catchment by with different techniques; (iii) analyze how the criterion used for defining the rainfall duration and the spatial variability of rainfall influences the value obtained for the thresholds. The statistical analysis of the rainfall characteristics showed that the parameters that discriminate better the TRIG and NonTRIG rainfalls are the rainfall intensities, the mean rainfall and the total rainfall amount. The antecedent rainfall was not significantly different between TRIG and NonTRIG rainfalls, as it can be expected when the source material is very pervious (a sandy glacial soil in the study site). Thresholds were derived from data collected at one rain gauge located inside the catchment. Two different methods were applied to calculate the duration and intensity of rainfall: (i) using total duration, Dtot

  6. Artificial boundary conditions for certain evolution PDEs with cubic nonlinearity for non-compactly supported initial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaibhav, V.

    2011-04-01

    The paper addresses the problem of constructing non-reflecting boundary conditions for two types of one dimensional evolution equations, namely, the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation, ∂tu+Lu-iχ|u|2u=0 with L≡-i∂x2, and the equation obtained by letting L≡∂x3. The usual restriction of compact support of the initial data is relaxed by allowing it to have a constant amplitude along with a linear phase variation outside a compact domain. We adapt the pseudo-differential approach developed by Antoine et al. (2006) [5] for the NLS equation to the second type of evolution equation, and further, extend the scheme to the aforementioned class of initial data for both of the equations. In addition, we discuss efficient numerical implementation of our scheme and produce the results of several numerical experiments demonstrating its effectiveness.

  7. Effects of initial conditions uncertainty on regional climate variability: An analysis using a low-resolution CESM ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriver, Ryan L.; Forest, Chris E.; Keller, Klaus

    2015-07-01

    The uncertainties surrounding the initial conditions in Earth system models can considerably influence interpretations about climate trends and variability. Here we present results from a new climate change ensemble experiment using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) to analyze the effect of internal variability on regional climate variables that are relevant for decision making. Each simulation is initialized from a unique and dynamically consistent model state sampled from a ~10,000 year fully coupled equilibrium simulation, which captures the internal unforced variability of the coupled Earth system. We find that internal variability has a sizeable contribution to the modeled ranges of temperature and precipitation. The effects increase for more localized regions. The ensemble exhibits skill in simulating key regional climate processes relevant to decision makers, such as seasonal temperature variability and extremes. The presented ensemble framework and results can provide useful resources for uncertainty quantification, integrated assessment, and climate risk management.

  8. A highly accurate spectral method for the Navier-Stokes equations in a semi-infinite domain with flexible boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, Toshiki; Ishioka, Keiichi

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a spectral method for numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations in a semi-infinite domain bounded by a flat plane: the aim is to obtain high accuracy with flexible boundary conditions. The proposed use is for numerical simulations of small-scale atmospheric phenomena near the ground. We introduce basis functions that fit the semi-infinite domain, and an integral condition for vorticity is used to reduce the computational cost when solving the partial differential equations that appear when the viscosity term is treated implicitly. Furthermore, in order to ensure high accuracy, two iteration techniques are applied when solving the system of linear equations and in determining boundary values. This significantly reduces numerical errors, and the proposed method enables high-resolution numerical experiments. This is demonstrated by numerical experiments showing the collision of a vortex ring into a wall; these were performed using numerical models based on the proposed method. It is shown that the time evolution of the flow field is successfully obtained not only near the boundary, but also in a region far from the boundary. The applicability of the proposed method and the integral condition is discussed.

  9. Onset of the initial instability during the solidification of welding pool of aluminum alloy under transient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wenjian; Dong, Zhibo; Wei, Yanhong; Song, Kuijing

    2014-09-01

    Onset of initial morphological instability is predicted by using a new analytic model and quantitative phase field model during the solidification of the welding pool of Al-Cu alloy under transient conditions. In the linear growth stage of the welding pool, the dynamic evolution of the interface instability is analyzed, and the interface behaviors under infinitesimal fluctuations are also investigated. The results show that the mean wavelength at the crossover time evaluated from this analytic model is in good agreement with those obtained by the quantitative phase field simulations and the experiments. The linear growth stage takes up quite a long time of the whole solidification of welding pool and thus it should be primarily considered in investigating the transient growth of welding pool. This study establishes a valid numerical framework for studying the dendrite growth under transient solidification conditions and provides a new approach for studying the transient solidification of welding pool.

  10. The Role of Model and Initial Condition Error in Numerical Weather Forecasting Investigated with an Observing System Simulation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prive, Nikki C.; Errico, Ronald M.

    2013-01-01

    A series of experiments that explore the roles of model and initial condition error in numerical weather prediction are performed using an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) framework developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (NASA/GMAO). The use of an OSSE allows the analysis and forecast errors to be explicitly calculated, and different hypothetical observing networks can be tested with ease. In these experiments, both a full global OSSE framework and an 'identical twin' OSSE setup are utilized to compare the behavior of the data assimilation system and evolution of forecast skill with and without model error. The initial condition error is manipulated by varying the distribution and quality of the observing network and the magnitude of observation errors. The results show that model error has a strong impact on both the quality of the analysis field and the evolution of forecast skill, including both systematic and unsystematic model error components. With a realistic observing network, the analysis state retains a significant quantity of error due to systematic model error. If errors of the analysis state are minimized, model error acts to rapidly degrade forecast skill during the first 24-48 hours of forward integration. In the presence of model error, the impact of observation errors on forecast skill is small, but in the absence of model error, observation errors cause a substantial degradation of the skill of medium range forecasts.

  11. Seeding the Galactic Centre gas stream: gravitational instabilities set the initial conditions for the formation of protocluster clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henshaw, J. D.; Longmore, S. N.; Kruijssen, J. M. D.

    2016-11-01

    Star formation within the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) may be intimately linked to the orbital dynamics of the gas. Recent models suggest that star formation within the dust ridge molecular clouds (from G0.253+0.016 to Sgr B2) follows an evolutionary time sequence, triggered by tidal compression during their preceding pericentre passage. Given that these clouds are the most likely precursors to a generation of massive stars and extreme star clusters, this scenario would have profound implications for constraining the time-evolution of star formation. In this Letter, we search for the initial conditions of the protocluster clouds, focusing on the kinematics of gas situated upstream from pericentre. We observe a highly regular corrugated velocity field in {l, vLSR} space, with amplitude and wavelength A = 3.7 ± 0.1 km s-1 and λvel,i = 22.5 ± 0.1 pc, respectively. The extremes in velocity correlate with a series of massive (˜104 M⊙) and compact (Req ˜ 2 pc), quasi-regularly spaced (˜8 pc), molecular clouds. The corrugation wavelength and cloud separation closely agree with the predicted Toomre (˜17 pc) and Jeans (˜6 pc) lengths, respectively. We conclude that gravitational instabilities are driving the condensation of molecular clouds within the Galactic Centre gas stream. Furthermore, we speculate these seeds are the historical analogue of the dust-ridge molecular clouds, representing the initial conditions of star and cluster formation in the CMZ.

  12. Solving modal equations of motion with initial conditions using MSC/NASTRAN DMAP. Part 1: Implementing exact mode superposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdallah, Ayman A.; Barnett, Alan R.; Ibrahim, Omar M.; Manella, Richard T.

    1993-01-01

    Within the MSC/NASTRAN DMAP (Direct Matrix Abstraction Program) module TRD1, solving physical (coupled) or modal (uncoupled) transient equations of motion is performed using the Newmark-Beta or mode superposition algorithms, respectively. For equations of motion with initial conditions, only the Newmark-Beta integration routine has been available in MSC/NASTRAN solution sequences for solving physical systems and in custom DMAP sequences or alters for solving modal systems. In some cases, one difficulty with using the Newmark-Beta method is that the process of selecting suitable integration time steps for obtaining acceptable results is lengthy. In addition, when very small step sizes are required, a large amount of time can be spent integrating the equations of motion. For certain aerospace applications, a significant time savings can be realized when the equations of motion are solved using an exact integration routine instead of the Newmark-Beta numerical algorithm. In order to solve modal equations of motion with initial conditions and take advantage of efficiencies gained when using uncoupled solution algorithms (like that within TRD1), an exact mode superposition method using MSC/NASTRAN DMAP has been developed and successfully implemented as an enhancement to an existing coupled loads methodology at the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  13. ATP-P2X7 Receptor Modulates Axon Initial Segment Composition and Function in Physiological Conditions and Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Del Puerto, Ana; Fronzaroli-Molinieres, Laure; Perez-Alvarez, María José; Giraud, Pierre; Carlier, Edmond; Wandosell, Francisco; Debanne, Dominique; Garrido, Juan José

    2015-08-01

    Axon properties, including action potential initiation and modulation, depend on both AIS integrity and the regulation of ion channel expression in the AIS. Alteration of the axon initial segment (AIS) has been implicated in neurodegenerative, psychiatric, and brain trauma diseases, thus identification of the physiological mechanisms that regulate the AIS is required to understand and circumvent AIS alterations in pathological conditions. Here, we show that the purinergic P2X7 receptor and its agonist, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), modulate both structural proteins and ion channel density at the AIS in cultured neurons and brain slices. In cultured hippocampal neurons, an increment of extracellular ATP concentration or P2X7-green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression reduced the density of ankyrin G and voltage-gated sodium channels at the AIS. This effect is mediated by P2X7-regulated calcium influx and calpain activation, and impaired by P2X7 inhibition with Brilliant Blue G (BBG), or P2X7 suppression. Electrophysiological studies in brain slices showed that P2X7-GFP transfection decreased both sodium current amplitude and intrinsic neuronal excitability, while P2X7 inhibition had the opposite effect. Finally, inhibition of P2X7 with BBG prevented AIS disruption after ischemia/reperfusion in rats. In conclusion, our study demonstrates an involvement of P2X7 receptors in the regulation of AIS mediated neuronal excitability in physiological and pathological conditions.

  14. Transients from initial conditions based on Lagrangian perturbation theory in N-body simulations II: the effect of the transverse mode

    SciTech Connect

    Tatekawa, Takayuki

    2014-04-01

    We study the initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations for precision cosmology. In general, Zel'dovich approximation has been applied for the initial conditions of N-body simulations for a long time. These initial conditions provide incorrect higher-order growth. These error caused by setting up the initial conditions by perturbation theory is called transients. We investigated the impact of transient on non-Gaussianity of density field by performing cosmological N-body simulations with initial conditions based on first-, second-, and third-order Lagrangian perturbation theory in previous paper. In this paper, we evaluates the effect of the transverse mode in the third-order Lagrangian perturbation theory for several statistical quantities such as power spectrum and non-Gaussianty. Then we clarified that the effect of the transverse mode in the third-order Lagrangian perturbation theory is quite small.

  15. Evaluation of reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression for real time-quantitative PCR in Pyrus pyrifolia using different tissue samples and seasonal conditions.

    PubMed

    Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ubi, Benjamin E; Saito, Takanori; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2014-01-01

    We have evaluated suitable reference genes for real time (RT)-quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia). We tested most frequently used genes in the literature such as β-Tubulin, Histone H3, Actin, Elongation factor-1α, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, together with newly added genes Annexin, SAND and TIP41. A total of 17 primer combinations for these eight genes were evaluated using cDNAs synthesized from 16 tissue samples from four groups, namely: flower bud, flower organ, fruit flesh and fruit skin. Gene expression stabilities were analyzed using geNorm and NormFinder software packages or by ΔCt method. geNorm analysis indicated three best performing genes as being sufficient for reliable normalization of RT-qPCR data. Suitable reference genes were different among sample groups, suggesting the importance of validation of gene expression stability of reference genes in the samples of interest. Ranking of stability was basically similar between geNorm and NormFinder, suggesting usefulness of these programs based on different algorithms. ΔCt method suggested somewhat different results in some groups such as flower organ or fruit skin; though the overall results were in good correlation with geNorm or NormFinder. Gene expression of two cold-inducible genes PpCBF2 and PpCBF4 were quantified using the three most and the three least stable reference genes suggested by geNorm. Although normalized quantities were different between them, the relative quantities within a group of samples were similar even when the least stable reference genes were used. Our data suggested that using the geometric mean value of three reference genes for normalization is quite a reliable approach to evaluating gene expression by RT-qPCR. We propose that the initial evaluation of gene expression stability by ΔCt method, and subsequent evaluation by geNorm or NormFinder for limited number of superior gene candidates will be a practical way of finding out

  16. The effect of initial conditions on the nonlinear evolution of perturbed interfaces driven by strong blast waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Aaron R.

    2004-08-01

    In core-collapse supernovae, strong blast waves drive interfaces susceptible to Rayleigh-Taylor (RT), Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM), and Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instabilities. In addition, perturbation growth can result from material expansion in large-scale velocity gradients behind the shock front. Laser-driven experiments are designed to produce a strongly shocked interface whose evolution is a scaled version of the unstable hydrogen-helium interface in core-collapse supernovae such as SN 1987A. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop an understanding of the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities and the resulting transition to turbulence on supernovae observables that remain as yet unexplained. In this dissertation, we present a computational study of unstable systems driven by high Mach number shock and blast waves. Using multi-physics radiation hydrodynamics codes and theoretical models, we consider the late nonlinear instability evolution of single mode, few mode, and multimode interfaces. We rely primarily on 2D calculations but present recent 3D results as well. For planar multimode systems, we show that compressibility effects preclude the emergence of a regime of self- similar instability growth independent of the initial conditions (IC's) by allowing for memory of the initial conditions to be retained in the mix-width at all times. The loss of transverse spectral information is demonstrated, however, along with the existence of a quasi-self-similar regime over short time intervals. Aspects of the IC's are shown to have a strong effect on the time to transition to the quasi-self-similar regime. With higher-dimensional blast waves, divergence restores the properties necessary for establishment of the self- similar state, but achieving it requires very high initial characteristic mode number and high Mach number for the incident blast wave. We point to recent stellar calculations that predict IC's we find incompatible with self-similarity, and emphasize the

  17. The Effect of Initial Conditions on the Nonlinear Evolution of Perturbed Interfaces Driven by Strong Blast Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Aaron R.

    2004-01-01

    In core-collapse supernovae, strong blast waves drive interfaces susceptible to Rayleigh-Taylor (RT), Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM), and Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instabilities. In addition, perturbation growth can result from material expansion in large-scale velocity gradients behind the shock front. Laser-driven experiments are designed to produce a strongly shocked interface whose evolution is a scaled version of the unstable hydrogen-helium interface in core-collapse supernovae such as SN 1987A. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop an understanding of the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities and the resulting transition to turbulence on supernovae observables that remain as yet unexplained. In this dissertation, we present a computational study of unstable systems driven by high Mach number shock and blast waves. Using multi-physics radiation hydrodynamics codes and theoretical models, we consider the late nonlinear instability evolution of single mode, few mode, and multimode interfaces. We rely primarily on 2D calculations but present recent 3D results as well. For planar multimode systems, we show that compressibility effects preclude the emergence of a regime of self-similar instability growth independent of the initial conditions (IC's) by allowing for memory of the initial conditions to be retained in the mix-width at all times. The loss of transverse spectral information is demonstrated, however, along with the existence of a quasi-self-similar regime over short time intervals. Aspects of the IC's are shown to have a strong effect on the time to transition to the quasi-self-similar regime. With higher-dimensional blast waves, divergence restores the properties necessary for establishment of the self-similar state, but achieving it requires very high initial characteristic mode number and high Mach number for the incident blast wave. We point to recent stellar calculations that predict IC's we find incompatible with self-similarity, and emphasize the

  18. Path integral for stochastic inflation: Nonperturbative volume weighting, complex histories, initial conditions, and the end of inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratton, Steven

    2011-09-01

    In this paper we present a path integral formulation of stochastic inflation. Volume weighting can be naturally implemented from this new perspective in a very straightforward way when compared to conventional Langevin approaches. With an in-depth study of inflation in a quartic potential, we investigate how the inflaton evolves and how inflation typically ends both with and without volume weighting. The calculation can be carried to times beyond those accessible to conventional Fokker-Planck approaches. Perhaps unexpectedly, complex histories sometimes emerge with volume weighting. The reward for this excursion into the complex plane is an insight into how volume-weighted inflation both loses memory of initial conditions and ends via slow roll. The slow-roll end of inflation mitigates certain “Youngness Paradox”-type criticisms of the volume-weighted paradigm. Thus it is perhaps time to rehabilitate proper-time volume weighting as a viable measure for answering at least some interesting cosmological questions.

  19. Solving Modal Equations of Motion with Initial Conditions Using MSC/NASTRAN DMAP. Part 2; Coupled Versus Uncoupled Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Alan R.; Ibrahim, Omar M.; Abdallah, Ayman A.; Sullivan, Timothy L.

    1993-01-01

    By utilizing MSC/NASTRAN DMAP (Direct Matrix Abstraction Program) in an existing NASA Lewis Research Center coupled loads methodology, solving modal equations of motion with initial conditions is possible using either coupled (Newmark-Beta) or uncoupled (exact mode superposition) integration available within module TRD1. Both the coupled and newly developed exact mode superposition methods have been used to perform transient analyses of various space systems. However, experience has shown that in most cases, significant time savings are realized when the equations of motion are integrated using the uncoupled solver instead of the coupled solver. Through the results of a real-world engineering analysis, advantages of using the exact mode superposition methodology are illustrated.

  20. The Effects of Initial Conditions on Photoacoustic Waveforms Generated by a Gaussian Heating Source Moving in One Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Wenyu; Diebold, Gerald J.

    2016-05-01

    Although the photoacoustic effect is almost universally generated by radiation whose intensity is varied in time either by amplitude modulation of a continuous optical source or through the use of pulsed irradiation, it is possible to produce sound by movement of a continuous source in space. Here, the characteristics of sound production by movement of a light source in one dimension are discussed by solution to the wave equation for pressure. Solutions to the wave equation for the velocity potential, from which the acoustic pressure can be determined, are found using the D'Alembert integral and by Fourier transformation of the wave equation. The characteristics of the waveform generated by a Gaussian heat source moving uniformly in space are found to depend on the initial conditions for movement of the source.

  1. Nonuniqueness for the vanishing viscosity solution with fixed initial condition in a nonstrictly hyperbolic system of conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrov, Daniel N.

    2007-11-01

    We consider the Riemann problem for a system of two decoupled, nonstrictly hyperbolic, Burgers-like conservation equations with added artificial viscosity. We analytically establish two different vanishing viscosity limits for the solution of this system, which correspond to the two cases where one of the viscosities vanishes much faster than the other. This is done without altering the initial condition as is necessary with travelling wave methods. Numerical evidence is then provided to show that when the two viscosities vanish at the same rate, the solution converges to a limit that lies strictly between the two previously established limits. Finally, we use control theory to explain the mechanism behind this nonuniqueness behavior, which indicates other systems of nonstrictly hyperbolic conservation laws where nonuniqueness will occur.

  2. Plasma evolution regulations with the change of initial conditions of femtosecond laser and an optical detecting scheme is verified numerically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuze; Nie, Jinsong; Wang, Haitao; Wang, Lei; Dou, Xianan

    2016-10-01

    The plasma channel evolution tendencies are studied numerically with the change of initial conditions based on the Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation. Then, the accuracy of an optical scheme to detect the plasma density inside the filaments is certified numerically. A Gaussian beam with pulse width 50fs, radius 2.5mm ranging energy from 10mJ to 50mJ at interval of 10mJ are simulated to yield plasma channel. With the augment of energy, firstly, the beginning position of plasma channel tend to be drew back gradually whereas the end position of the channel can be putted forward in a gradient form instead of continuously. Secondly, the number of peaks add one each time when the energy increase 10mJ. Lastly, the radius of plasma channel barely changes with initial energy up from 10mJ to 50mJ. On the other hand, plasma channel produced by a Gaussian beam with pulse width 50fs, energy 50mJ ranging the radius from 2.5mm to 10mm at interval of 2.5mm are simulated. With the increase of initial beam waist, the plasma channel length becomes shorter. The channel becomes broader and broader whereas the length of the channel becomes shorter. In order to verify the rationality of the approximation, Nornaraki detecting scheme through interference of the probe laser has been tested with the numerical simulation. As a consequence, the integral of refractive index along the radius direction can be replaced by the product of average refractive index and plasma channel diameter.

  3. Breakdown of coral colonial form under reduced pH conditions is initiated in polyps and mediated through apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Kvitt, Hagit; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Maor-Landaw, Keren; Zandbank, Keren; Kushmaro, Ariel; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Fine, Maoz; Tchernov, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Certain stony corals can alternate between a calcifying colonial form and noncalcifying solitary polyps, supporting the hypothesis that corals have survived through geologic timescale periods of unfavorable calcification conditions. However, the mechanisms enabling this biological plasticity are yet to be identified. Here we show that incubation of two coral species (Pocillopora damicornis and Oculina patagonica) under reduced pH conditions (pH 7.2) simulating past ocean acidification induce tissue-specific apoptosis that leads to the dissociation of polyps from coenosarcs. This in turn leads to the breakdown of the coenosarc and, as a consequence, to loss of coloniality. Our data show that apoptosis is initiated in the polyps and that once dissociation between polyp and coenosarc terminates, apoptosis subsides. After reexposure of the resulting solitary polyps to normal pH (pH 8.2), both coral species regenerated coenosarc tissues and resumed calcification. These results indicate that regulation of coloniality is under the control of the polyp, the basic modular unit of the colony. A mechanistic explanation for several key evolutionarily important phenomena that occurred throughout coral evolution is proposed, including mechanisms that permitted species to survive the third tier of mass extinctions. PMID:25646434

  4. KLF4 and PCNA identify stages of tumor initiation in a conditional model of cutaneous squamous epithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Conway C; Liu, Zhaoli; Li, Xingnan; Bailey, Sarah K; Nail, Clinton D; Foster, K Wade; Frost, Andra R; Ruppert, J Michael; Lobo-Ruppert, Susan M

    2005-12-01

    KLF4 is induced upon growth-arrest in vitro and during epithelial maturation in vivo, and is essential for proper cell fate specification of post-mitotic cells. In spite of a normal role in post-mitotic cells, expression is upregulated and constitutive in certain tumor types. KLF4 functions as an oncogene in vitro, and enforced expression in basal cells of mouse skin rapidly induces lesions similar to hyperplasia, dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Here we used conditional expression to characterize early steps in KLF4-mediated tumor initiation. In contrast to SCC-like lesions that result when using a conditional, keratin 14 promoter-dependent strategy, lower conditional expression achieved using a MMTV promoter induced only epidermal cycling within morphologically normal skin, a process we termed occult cell turnover. Surprisingly, KLF4-induced hyperplastic lesions showed increased transgene-derived mRNA and protein in maturing, PCNA-negative cells, a property of endogenous KLF4. In contrast, hyperplastic lesions induced by GLI1, a control, showed uniform transgene expression. In KLF4-induced dysplasia and SCC the complementarity of KLF4 and PCNA was replaced by concordance of the two proteins. These studies show that KLF4 transcripts are normally suppressed in cycling cells in a promoter-independent fashion, consistent with a post-transcriptional control, and reveal loss of this control in the transition from hyperplasia to dysplasia. Like the mouse tumors, human cutaneous SCCs and adjacent dysplasias frequently showed maturation-independence of KLF4, with co-expression of KLF4 and PCNA. A smaller subset of human SCCs showed complementarity of KLF4 and PCNA, similar to hyperplastic mouse skin. The results identify parallels between a mouse model and human primary tumors, and show that successive increases of KLF4 in the nuclei of basal keratinocytes leads to occult cell turnover followed by hyperplasia, dysplasia, and invasive SCC.

  5. Inverse dynamical population synthesis. Constraining the initial conditions of young stellar clusters by studying their binary populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, M.; Kroupa, P.

    2012-07-01

    Binary populations in young star clusters show multiplicity fractions both lower and up to twice as high as those observed in the Galactic field. We follow the evolution of a population of binary stars in dense and loose star clusters starting with an invariant initial binary population and a formal multiplicity fraction of unity, and demonstrate that these models can explain the observed binary properties in Taurus, ρ Ophiuchus, Chamaeleon, Orion, IC 348, Upper Scorpius A, Praesepe, and the Pleiades. The model needs to consider solely different birth densities for these regions. The evolved theoretical orbital-parameter distributions are highly probable parent distributions for the observed ones. We constrain the birth conditions (stellar mass, Mecl, and half-mass radius, rh) for the derived progenitors of the star clusters and the overall present-day binary fractions allowed by the present model. The results compare very well with properties of molecular cloud clumps on the verge of star formation. Combining these with previously and independently obtained constraints on the birth densities of globular clusters, we identify a weak stellar mass - half-mass radius correlation for cluster-forming cloud clumps, rh/pc ∝ (Mecl/M⊙)0.13 ± 0.04. The ability of the model to reproduce the binary properties in all the investigated young objects, covering present-day densities from 1-10 stars pc-3 (Taurus) to 2 × 104 stars pc-3 (Orion), suggests that environment-dependent dynamical evolution plays an important role in shaping the present-day properties of binary populations in star clusters, and that the initial binary properties may not vary dramatically between different environments.

  6. Effect of initial conditions of a catchment on seasonal streamflow prediction using ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP) technique for the Rangitata and Waitaki River basins on the South Island of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Shailesh Kumar; Zammit, Christian; Hreinsson, Einar; Woods, Ross; Clark, Martyn; Hamlet, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Increased access to water is a key pillar of the New Zealand government plan for economic growths. Variable climatic conditions coupled with market drivers and increased demand on water resource result in critical decision made by water managers based on climate and streamflow forecast. Because many of these decisions have serious economic implications, accurate forecast of climate and streamflow are of paramount importance (eg irrigated agriculture and electricity generation). New Zealand currently does not have a centralized, comprehensive, and state-of-the-art system in place for providing operational seasonal to interannual streamflow forecasts to guide water resources management decisions. As a pilot effort, we implement and evaluate an experimental ensemble streamflow forecasting system for the Waitaki and Rangitata River basins on New Zealand's South Island using a hydrologic simulation model (TopNet) and the familiar ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP) paradigm for estimating forecast uncertainty. To provide a comprehensive database for evaluation of the forecasting system, first a set of retrospective model states simulated by the hydrologic model on the first day of each month were archived from 1972-2009. Then, using the hydrologic simulation model, each of these historical model states was paired with the retrospective temperature and precipitation time series from each historical water year to create a database of retrospective hindcasts. Using the resulting database, the relative importance of initial state variables (such as soil moisture and snowpack) as fundamental drivers of uncertainties in forecasts were evaluated for different seasons and lead times. The analysis indicate that the sensitivity of flow forecast to initial condition uncertainty is depend on the hydrological regime and season of forecast. However initial conditions do not have a large impact on seasonal flow uncertainties for snow dominated catchments. Further analysis indicates

  7. How will precipitation change in extratropical cyclones as the planet warms? Insights from a large initial condition climate model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yettella, Vineel; Kay, Jennifer E.

    2016-10-01

    The extratropical precipitation response to global warming is investigated within a 30-member initial condition climate model ensemble. As in observations, modeled cyclonic precipitation contributes a large fraction of extratropical precipitation, especially over the ocean and in the winter hemisphere. When compared to present day, the ensemble projects increased cyclone-associated precipitation under twenty-first century business-as-usual greenhouse gas forcing. While the cyclone-associated precipitation response is weaker in the near-future (2016-2035) than in the far-future (2081-2100), both future periods have similar patterns of response. Though cyclone frequency changes are important regionally, most of the increased cyclone-associated precipitation results from increased within-cyclone precipitation. Consistent with this result, cyclone-centric composites show statistically significant precipitation increases in all cyclone sectors. Decomposition into thermodynamic (mean cyclone water vapor path) and dynamic (mean cyclone wind speed) contributions shows that thermodynamics explains 92 and 95% of the near-future and far-future within-cyclone precipitation increases respectively. Surprisingly, the influence of dynamics on future cyclonic precipitation changes is negligible. In addition, the forced response exceeds internal variability in both future time periods. Overall, this work suggests that future cyclonic precipitation changes will result primarily from increased moisture availability in a warmer world, with secondary contributions from changes in cyclone frequency and cyclone dynamics.

  8. Curli fimbriae are conditionally required in Escherichia coli O157:H7 for initial attachment and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Carter, Michelle Qiu; Louie, Jacqueline W; Feng, Doris; Zhong, Wayne; Brandl, Maria T

    2016-08-01

    Several species of enteric pathogens produce curli fimbriae, which may affect their interaction with surfaces and other microbes in nonhost environments. Here we used two Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak strains with distinct genotypes to understand the role of curli in surface attachment and biofilm formation in several systems relevant to fresh produce production and processing. Curli significantly enhanced the initial attachment of E. coli O157:H7 to spinach leaves and stainless steel surfaces by 5-fold. Curli was also required for E. coli O157:H7 biofilm formation on stainless steel and enhanced biofilm production on glass by 19-27 fold in LB no-salt broth. However, this contribution was not observed when cells were grown in sterile spinach lysates. Furthermore, both strains of E. coli O157:H7 produced minimal biofilms on polypropylene in LB no-salt broth but considerable amounts in spinach lysates. Under the latter conditions, curli appeared to slightly increase biofilm production. Importantly, curli played an essential role in the formation of mixed biofilm by E. coli O157:H7 and plant-associated microorganisms in spinach leaf washes, as revealed by confocal microscopy. Little or no E. coli O157:H7 biofilms were detected at 4 °C, supporting the importance of temperature control in postharvest and produce processing environments.

  9. The effects of initial conditions and circulation deposition on the inclined-interface reshocked Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, David; McFarland, Jacob; Mohaghar, Mohammad; Ranjan, Devesh

    2015-08-01

    An experimental study of a twice-accelerated Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, where reshock provides the second acceleration, focusing on the effects of initial conditions and circulation deposition is presented. Experiments were performed using the inclined shock tube facility at the Shock Tube and Advanced Mixing Laboratory. Three experimental cases are presented that have the same Atwood number, inclination angle, and Mach number, but are differentiated by their pre-reshock development time. Both Mie scattering and particle image velocimetry diagnostics were implemented. Velocity statistics were ensemble-averaged over instantaneous realizations for each case before and after reshock. Results show that while the mix width decreases after reshock, the interface length continues to increase because the reshock wave amplifies small-scale perturbations on the pre-reshock interface, resulting in greater mixing. A more developed interface also experiences greater circulation deposition after reshock. After reshock, the sign of the vorticity near the interface reverses due to a second application of baroclinic torque by the reshock wave. Velocity statistics showed that the cross-correlation () is nonzero over much of the mixing layer, which indicates that shear and anisotropy are present. Turbulent kinetic energy spectra for the most developed case after reshock exhibited a inertial range.

  10. An experimental seasonal hydrological forecasting system over the Yellow River basin - Part 1: Understanding the role of initial hydrological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xing; Ma, Feng; Wang, Linying; Zheng, Ziyan; Ma, Zhuguo; Ye, Aizhong; Peng, Shaoming

    2016-06-01

    The hydrological cycle over the Yellow River has been altered by the climate change and human interventions greatly during past decades, with a decadal drying trend mixed with a large variation of seasonal hydrological extremes. To provide support for the adaptation to a changing environment, an experimental seasonal hydrological forecasting system is established over the Yellow River basin. The system draws from a legacy of a global hydrological forecasting system that is able to make use of real-time seasonal climate predictions from North American Multimodel Ensemble (NMME) climate models through a statistical downscaling approach but with a higher resolution and a spatially disaggregated calibration procedure that is based on a newly compiled hydrological observation dataset with 5 decades of naturalized streamflow at 12 mainstream gauges and a newly released meteorological observation dataset including 324 meteorological stations over the Yellow River basin. While the evaluation of the NMME-based seasonal hydrological forecasting will be presented in a companion paper to explore the added values from climate forecast models, this paper investigates the role of initial hydrological conditions (ICs) by carrying out 6-month Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) and reverse ESP-type simulations for each calendar month during 1982-2010 with the hydrological models in the forecasting system, i.e., a large-scale land surface hydrological model and a global routing model that is regionalized over the Yellow River. In terms of streamflow predictability, the ICs outweigh the meteorological forcings up to 2-5 months during the cold and dry seasons, but the latter prevails over the former in the predictability after the first month during the warm and wet seasons. For the streamflow forecasts initialized at the end of the rainy season, the influence of ICs for lower reaches of the Yellow River can be 5 months longer than that for the upper reaches, while such a difference

  11. Mean Flow Boundary Conditions for Computational Aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, R.; Nallasamy, M.; Sawyer, S.; Dyson, R.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, a new type of boundary condition for time-accurate Computational Aeroacoustics solvers is described. This boundary condition is designed to complement the existing nonreflective boundary conditions while ensuring that the correct mean flow conditions are maintained throughout the flow calculation. Results are shown for a loaded 2D cascade, started with various initial conditions.

  12. Acquisition of accurate data from intramolecular quenched fluorescence protease assays.

    PubMed

    Arachea, Buenafe T; Wiener, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    The Intramolecular Quenched Fluorescence (IQF) protease assay utilizes peptide substrates containing donor-quencher pairs that flank the scissile bond. Following protease cleavage, the dequenched donor emission of the product is subsequently measured. Inspection of the IQF literature indicates that rigorous treatment of systematic errors in observed fluorescence arising from inner-filter absorbance (IF) and non-specific intermolecular quenching (NSQ) is incompletely performed. As substrate and product concentrations vary during the time-course of enzyme activity, iterative solution of the kinetic rate equations is, generally, required to obtain the proper time-dependent correction to the initial velocity fluorescence data. Here, we demonstrate that, if the IQF assay is performed under conditions where IF and NSQ are approximately constant during the measurement of initial velocity for a given initial substrate concentration, then a simple correction as a function of initial substrate concentration can be derived and utilized to obtain accurate initial velocity data for analysis.

  13. A COSMIC-RAY-DOMINATED INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN ULTRA LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES: NEW INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, Padelis P.

    2010-09-01

    The high-density star formation typical of the merger/starburst events that power the large IR luminosities of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L{sub IR}(8-1000 {mu}m) {approx}>10{sup 12} L{sub sun}) throughout the universe results in extraordinarily high cosmic-ray (CR) energy densities of U{sub CR} {approx} few x(10{sup 3}-10{sup 4}) U{sub CR,Gal} permeating their interstellar medium, a direct consequence of the large supernova remnant number densities in such systems. Unlike far-UV photons emanating from numerous star-forming (SF) sites, these large CR energy densities in ULIRGs will volumetrically heat and raise the ionization fraction of dense (n > 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}) UV-shielded gas cores throughout their compact SF volumes. Such conditions can turn most of the large molecular gas masses found in such systems and their high redshift counterparts ({approx}10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} M {sub sun}) into giant CR-dominated regions (CRDRs) rather than ensembles of photon-dominated regions (PDRs) which dominate in less IR-luminous systems where star formation and molecular gas distributions are much more extended. The molecular gas in CRDRs will have a minimum temperature of T{sub kin} {approx} (80-160) K, and very high ionization fractions of x(e) > 10{sup -6} throughout its UV-shielded dense core, which in turn will fundamentally alter the initial conditions for star formation in such systems. Observational tests of CRDRs can be provided by high-J CO and {sup 13}CO lines or multi-J transitions of any heavy rotor molecules (e.g., HCN) and their isotopologs. Chemical signatures of very high ionization fractions in dense UV-shielded gas such as low [DCO{sup +}]/[HCO{sup +}] and high [HCO{sup +}]/[CO] abundance ratios would be good probes of CRDRs in extreme starbursts. These tests, along with direct measurements of the high CO line brightness temperatures expected over the areas of compact dense gas disks found in ULIRGs, will soon be feasible as sub

  14. Accurate spectral color measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Jouni; Jaeaeskelaeinen, Timo; Parkkinen, Jussi P. S.

    1999-08-01

    Surface color measurement is of importance in a very wide range of industrial applications including paint, paper, printing, photography, textiles, plastics and so on. For a demanding color measurements spectral approach is often needed. One can measure a color spectrum with a spectrophotometer using calibrated standard samples as a reference. Because it is impossible to define absolute color values of a sample, we always work with approximations. The human eye can perceive color difference as small as 0.5 CIELAB units and thus distinguish millions of colors. This 0.5 unit difference should be a goal for the precise color measurements. This limit is not a problem if we only want to measure the color difference of two samples, but if we want to know in a same time exact color coordinate values accuracy problems arise. The values of two instruments can be astonishingly different. The accuracy of the instrument used in color measurement may depend on various errors such as photometric non-linearity, wavelength error, integrating sphere dark level error, integrating sphere error in both specular included and specular excluded modes. Thus the correction formulas should be used to get more accurate results. Another question is how many channels i.e. wavelengths we are using to measure a spectrum. It is obvious that the sampling interval should be short to get more precise results. Furthermore, the result we get is always compromise of measuring time, conditions and cost. Sometimes we have to use portable syste or the shape and the size of samples makes it impossible to use sensitive equipment. In this study a small set of calibrated color tiles measured with the Perkin Elmer Lamda 18 and the Minolta CM-2002 spectrophotometers are compared. In the paper we explain the typical error sources of spectral color measurements, and show which are the accuracy demands a good colorimeter should have.

  15. Study of the effect of reducing conditions on the initial chlorophyll fluorescence rise in the green microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Antal, T K; Kolacheva, A; Maslakov, A; Riznichenko, G Yu; Krendeleva, T E; Rubin, A B

    2013-03-01

    Incubation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells under nutrient deficiency results in the faster initial rise in the light-induced chlorophyll fluorescence kinetic curve. We showed that short-term anaerobic incubation of algal cells altered initial fluorescence in a way similar to nutrient starvation, suggesting an important role of the plastoquinones redox state in the observed effect. Bi-component analysis of highly resolved initial fluorescence rise kinetics in sulfur- or oxygen-depleted C. reinhardtii cells suggested that one of the mechanisms underlying the observed phenomenon involves primary closure (photochemical inactivation via Qa reduction) of β-type PSII as compared to α-PSII. Moreover, results of modeling of the fluorescence curve brought us to the conclusion that accumulation of closed centers in α-PSII supercomplexes may also cause a faster initial fluorescence rise. The observed correlations between nutrient supply rate and initial fluorescence rise pattern in green algae can serve to characterize culture nutritional status in vivo.

  16. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: A Novel Method for the Initial-Condition Estimation of a Tent Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Gao, Yong; Yang, Yuan

    2009-07-01

    Based on the connection between the tent map and the saw tooth map or Bernoulli map, a novel method for the initial-condition estimation of the tent map is presented. In the method, firstly the symbolic sequence generated from the tent map is converted to the forms obtained from the saw tooth map and Bernoulli map, and then the relationship between the symbolic sequence and the initial condition of the tent map can be obtained from the initial-condition estimation equations, which can be easily obtained, hence the estimation of the tent map can be achieved finally. The method is computationally simple and the error of the estimator is less than 1/2N. The method is verified by software simulation.

  17. Studies on flower initiation of Super-Dwarf wheat under stress conditions simulating those on the Space Station, Mir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, L.; Salisbury, F. B.; Campbell, W. F.; Carman, J. G.; Nan, R.

    1998-01-01

    Super-Dwarf wheat plants were grown in growth chambers under 12 treatments with three photoperiods (18 h, 21 h, 24 h) and four carbon dioxide (CO2) levels (360, 1,200, 3,000 and 7,000 micromoles mol-1). Carbon dioxide concentrations affected flower initiation rates of Super-Dwarf wheat. The optimum CO2 level for flower initiation and development was 1,200 micromoles mol-1. Super-optimum CO2 levels delayed flower initiation, but did not decrease final flower bud number per head. Longer photoperiods not only accelerated flower initiation rates, but also decreased deleterious effects of super-optimum CO2. Flower bud size and head length at the same developmental stage were larger under longer photoperiods, but final flower bud number was not affected by photoperiod.

  18. Accurate pose estimation for forensic identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merckx, Gert; Hermans, Jeroen; Vandermeulen, Dirk

    2010-04-01

    In forensic authentication, one aims to identify the perpetrator among a series of suspects or distractors. A fundamental problem in any recognition system that aims for identification of subjects in a natural scene is the lack of constrains on viewing and imaging conditions. In forensic applications, identification proves even more challenging, since most surveillance footage is of abysmal quality. In this context, robust methods for pose estimation are paramount. In this paper we will therefore present a new pose estimation strategy for very low quality footage. Our approach uses 3D-2D registration of a textured 3D face model with the surveillance image to obtain accurate far field pose alignment. Starting from an inaccurate initial estimate, the technique uses novel similarity measures based on the monogenic signal to guide a pose optimization process. We will illustrate the descriptive strength of the introduced similarity measures by using them directly as a recognition metric. Through validation, using both real and synthetic surveillance footage, our pose estimation method is shown to be accurate, and robust to lighting changes and image degradation.

  19. Comparisons of Stuttering Frequency during and after Speech Initiation in Unaltered Feedback, Altered Auditory Feedback and Choral Speech Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltuklaroglu, Tim; Kalinowski, Joseph; Robbins, Mary; Crawcour, Stephen; Bowers, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background: Stuttering is prone to strike during speech initiation more so than at any other point in an utterance. The use of auditory feedback (AAF) has been found to produce robust decreases in the stuttering frequency by creating an electronic rendition of choral speech (i.e., speaking in unison). However, AAF requires users to self-initiate…

  20. The Roles of Radiative Forcing, Sea Surface Temperatures, and Atmospheric and Land Initial Conditions in U.S. Summer Warming Episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, L.; Vecchi, G. A.; Yang, X.; Gudgel, R.; Delworth, T. L.; Stern, B.; Paffendorf, K.; Underwood, S.; Zeng, F. J.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the roles of radiative forcing, sea surface temperatures (SSTs), and atmospheric and land initial conditions in the summer warming episodes of the United States. The summer warming episodes are defined as the above normal (1983-2012) June-August 2-m temperature anomalies, and are referred to as heat waves in this study. Two contrasting cases, the summers of 2006 and 2012, are explored in detail to illustrate the distinct roles of SSTs, and atmospheric and land initial conditions in driving U.S. summer heat waves. For 2012, simulations with the GFDL atmospheric general circulation model reveal that SSTs play a critical role. Further sensitivity experiments reveal the contributions of global SST warming and SSTs in individual ocean basins to the geographic distribution and magnitudes of warm temperature anomalies. In contrast to 2012, for 2006, the atmospheric and land initial conditions are key drivers. The atmospheric (land) initial conditions play a key (minor) role in the central and northwestern (north and east) of U.S.. Due to changes in radiative forcing, the probability of areal averaged U.S. summer temperature anomalies exceeding the observed 2012 temperature anomaly increases with time over the early 21st century. La Nina (El Nino) events tend to increase (reduce) the occurrence of heat waves. The temperatures over the great central U.S. are mostly influenced by El Nino/La Nina. And, the central/western tropical Pacific plays a more important role than the eastern tropical Pacific. Thus, atmospheric and land initial conditions, SSTs and radiative forcing are all important drivers of, and sources of predictability for U.S. summer heat waves.

  1. Fear of falling is associated with prolonged anticipatory postural adjustment during gait initiation under dual-task conditions in older adults.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Kazuki; Yamada, Minoru; Nagai, Koutatsu; Tanaka, Buichi; Mori, Shuhei; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2012-02-01

    Little is known about dynamic balance control under dual-task conditions in older adults with fear of falling (FoF). The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of FoF on anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) during gait initiation under dual-task conditions in older adults. Fifty-seven elderly volunteers (age, 79.2 [6.8] years) from the community participated in this study. Each participant was categorised into either the Fear (n=24) or No-fear (n=33) group on the basis of the presence or absence of FoF. Under single- and dual-task conditions, centre of pressure (COP) data were collected while the participants performed gait initiation trials from a starting position on a force platform. We also performed a 10-m walking test (WT), a timed up & go test (TUG), and a functional reach test (FR). The reaction and APA phases were measured from the COP data. The results showed that under the dual-task condition, the Fear group had significantly longer APA phases than the No-fear group, although no significant differences were observed between the 2 groups in the reaction and APA phases under the single-task condition and in any clinical measurements (WT, TUG, and FR). Our findings suggest that specific deficits in balance control occur in subjects with FoF during gait initiation while dual tasking, even if their physical functions are comparable to subjects without FoF.

  2. PLI cancellation in ECG signal based on adaptive filter by using Wiener-Hopf equation for providing initial condition.

    PubMed

    Manosueb, Anchalee; Koseeyaporn, Jeerasuda; Wardkein, Paramote

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for finding the optimal initial weight for adaptive filter by using difference equation. The obtained analytical response of the system identifies the appropriate weights for the system and shows that the MSE depends on the initial weight. The proposed technique is applied to eliminate the known frequency power line interference (PLI) signal in the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. The PLI signal is considered as a combination of cosine and sine signals. The adaptive filter, therefore, attempts to adjust the amplitude of cosine and sine signals to synthesize a reference signal very similar to the contaminated PLI signal. To compare the potential of the proposed technique to other techniques, the system is simulated by using the Matlab program and the TMS320C6713 digital board. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed technique enables the system to eliminate the PLI signal with the fastest time and gains the superior results of the recovered ECG signal.

  3. Effects of initial epidemic conditions, sporulation rate, and spore dispersal gradient on the spatio-temporal dynamics of plant disease epidemics.

    PubMed

    Xu, X M; Ridout, M S

    1998-10-01

    ABSTRACT A stochastic model that simulates the spread of disease over space and time was developed to study the effects of initial epidemic conditions (number of initial inocula and their spatial pattern), sporulation rate, and spore dispersal gradient on the spatio-temporal dynamics of plant disease epidemics. The spatial spread of disease was simulated using a half-Cauchy distribution with median dispersal distance mu (units of distance). The rate of temporal increase in disease incidence (beta(I), per day) was influenced jointly by mu and by the sporulation rate lambda (spores per lesion per day). The relationship between beta(I) and mu was nonlinear: the increase in beta(I) with increasing mu was greatest when mu was small (i.e., when the dispersal gradient was steep). The rate of temporal increase in disease severity of diseased plants (beta(S)) was affected mainly by lambda: beta(S) increased directly with increasing lambda. Intraclass correlation (kappa(t)), the correlation of disease status of plants within quadrats, increased initially with disease incidence, reached a peak, and then declined as disease incidence approached 1.0. This relationship was well described by a power-law model that is consistent with the binary form of the variance power law. The amplitude of the model relating kappa(t) to disease incidence was affected mainly by mu: kappa(t) decreased with increasing mu. The shape of the curve was affected mainly by initial conditions, especially the spatial pattern of the initial inocula. Generally, the relationship of spatial autocorrelation (rho(t,k)), the correlation of disease status of plants at various distances apart, to disease incidence and distance was well described by a four-parameter power-law model. rho(t,k) increased with disease incidence to a maximum and then declined at higher values of disease incidence, in agreement with a power-law relationship. The amplitude of rho(t,k) was determined mainly by initial conditions and by mu

  4. Direct Numerical Simulation of a Temporally Evolving Incompressible Plane Wake: Effect of Initial Conditions on Evolution and Topology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sondergaard, R.; Cantwell, B.; Mansour, N.

    1997-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations have been used to examine the effect of the initial disturbance field on the development of three-dimensionality and the transition to turbulence in the incompressible plane wake. The simulations were performed using a new numerical method for solving the time-dependent, three-dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in flows with one infinite and two periodic directions. The method uses standard Fast Fourier Transforms and is applicable to cases where the vorticity field is compact in the infinite direction. Initial disturbances fields examined were combinations of two-dimensional waves and symmetric pairs of 60 deg oblique waves at the fundamental, subharmonic, and sub-subharmonic wavelengths. The results of these simulations indicate that the presence of 60 deg disturbances at the subharmonic streamwise wavelength results in the development of strong coherent three-dimensional structures. The resulting strong three-dimensional rate-of-strain triggers the growth of intense fine scale motions. Wakes initiated with 60 deg disturbances at the fundamental streamwise wavelength develop weak coherent streamwise structures, and do not develop significant fine scale motions, even at high Reynolds numbers. The wakes which develop strong three-dimensional structures exhibit growth rates on par with experimentally observed turbulent plane wakes. Wakes which develop only weak three-dimensional structures exhibit significantly lower late time growth rates. Preliminary studies of wakes initiated with an oblique fundamental and a two-dimensional subharmonic, which develop asymmetric coherent oblique structures at the subharmonic wavelength, indicate that significant fine scale motions only develop if the resulting oblique structures are above an angle of approximately 45 deg.

  5. Dynamical Tuning of the Initial Condition in Small Field Inflations - Can We Testify the CW Mechanism in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iso, Satoshi

    I explain the cosmological consequence of the particle physics models with the Coleman-Weinberg (CW) type potential. Such particle physics models generally predict the small field inflation (SFI), but the SFI requires a very unnatural fine-tuning of the initial condi- tion. In this talk, I reviewed our proposal1 to solve the fine-tuning problem dynamically by a trapping of the inflaton field due to the preheating before the SFI starts.

  6. Intensive MHD-structures penetration in the middle atmosphere initiated in the ionospheric cusp under quiet geomagnetic conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mateev, L. N.; Nenovski, P. I.; Vellinov, P. I.

    1989-01-01

    In connection with the recently detected quasiperiodical magnetic disturbances in the ionospheric cusp, the penetration of compressional surface magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves through the middle atmosphere is modelled numerically. For the COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA) 72 model the respective energy density flux of the disturbances in the middle atmosphere is determined. On the basis of the developed model certain conclusions are reached about the height distribution of the structures (energy losses, currents, etc.) initiated by intensive magnetic cusp disturbances.

  7. Initial soil moisture effects on flash flood generation - A comparison between basins of contrasting hydro-climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillakis, M. G.; Koutroulis, A. G.; Komma, J.; Tsanis, I. K.; Wagner, W.; Blöschl, G.

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the importance of the initial soil moisture state for flash flood magnitudes. Four extreme events that occurred in different case study regions were analysed, one winter and one autumn flash flood in the Giofiros and Almirida catchments in Crete, and two summer floods in the Rastenberg catchment in Austria. The hydrological processes were simulated by the spatially distributed flash flood model Kampus. For the Crete cases Kampus model was calibrated against remotely sensed soil moisture while for the Austrian case the model was calibrated against observed runoff. Kampus model was then used to estimate the sensitivity of the stream flow peak to initial soil moisture. The largest of the events analysed (in terms of specific peak discharge) was found to have a sensitivity of less than 0.2% flood peak change per % soil moisture change while the smallest event had a sensitivity of more than 3% flood peak change per % soil moisture change. This suggests that initial soil moisture effects on the flash flood response probably depend on event magnitude rather than on the climate or region. Moreover, the Austrian catchment was found to exhibit a more nonlinear relationship between antecedent soil moisture and the peak discharge than the Cretan catchments which was explained by differences in the soil type.

  8. Body condition and wind support initiate the shift of migratory direction and timing of nocturnal departure in a songbird.

    PubMed

    Schmaljohann, Heiko; Naef-Daenzer, Beat

    2011-11-01

    1. An innate migration strategy guides birds through space and time. Environmental variation further modulates individual behaviour within a genetically determined frame. In particular, ecological barriers could influence departure direction and its timing. A shift in the migratory direction in response to an ecological barrier could reveal how birds adjust their individual trajectories to environmental cues and body condition. 2. Northern wheatears of the Greenland/Iceland subspecies Oenanthe oenanthe leucorhoa arrive in Western Europe en route from their West African winter range. They then undergo an endogenously controlled shift in migratory direction from north to north-west to cross a large ecological barrier, the North Atlantic. We radiotracked these songbirds departing from Helgoland, a small island in the North Sea, over an unprecedented range of their journey. 3. Here, we show that both birds' body condition and the wind conditions that they encountered influenced the departure direction significantly. Jointly high fuel loads and favourable wind conditions enabled migrants to cross large stretches of sea. Birds in good condition departed early in the night heading to the sea towards their breeding areas, while birds with low fuel loads and/or flying in poor weather conditions departed in directions leading towards nearby mainland areas during the entire night. These areas could be reached even after setting off late at night. 4. Behavioural adjustment of migratory patterns is a critical adaptation for crossing ecological barriers. The observed variation in departure direction and time in relation to fuel load and wind revealed that these birds have an innate ability to respond by jointly incorporating internal information (body condition) and external information (wind support).

  9. Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.

  10. Accurate monotone cubic interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1991-01-01

    Monotone piecewise cubic interpolants are simple and effective. They are generally third-order accurate, except near strict local extrema where accuracy degenerates to second-order due to the monotonicity constraint. Algorithms for piecewise cubic interpolants, which preserve monotonicity as well as uniform third and fourth-order accuracy are presented. The gain of accuracy is obtained by relaxing the monotonicity constraint in a geometric framework in which the median function plays a crucial role.

  11. Crack initiation testing of thimble tube material under PWR conditions to determine a stress threshold for IASCC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, R. W.; Vankeerberghen, M.; Gérard, R.; Somville, F.

    2015-06-01

    IASCC (Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking) crack initiation tests have been carried out on thimble tube material retrieved from a Belgian PWR. The crack initiation tests were carried out by constant load testing of thimble tube specimens at different stress levels. The time-to-failure was determined as a function of the applied stress to find a stress threshold under which no stress corrosion cracking will take place. The thimble tube was made of 316L cold-worked stainless steel and the dose profile along the thimble tube ranges from 45 to 80 dpa. This allows adding crack initiation data for dose values that have not been significantly reported, i.e. in the range of 45-55 dpa and at 80 dpa. The results can be used to determine whether the stress under which no IASCC occurs saturates for a dose larger than 30 dpa or whether a small further threshold decrease with dose can be observed. Over a period of four years, more than 40 specimens have been tested with doses ranging from 45 to 80 dpa at stress levels between 40% and 70% of the irradiated yield stress. Fracture occurred at all stress levels (but not all specimens) although the time-to-failure increased with decreasing stress. The results show that intergranular cracking was the main fracture mode in all failed O-rings. Three of six 80 dpa O-rings subjected to 40% and 45% of the yield stress did not fail after six months of testing. Based on these results and a comparison with literature data, an apparent stress limit for IASCC could be estimated at 40% of the irradiated yield stress.

  12. ON BOUNDARY AND INITIAL CONDITIONS IN \\mathscr{L}_p, p>1, OF SOLUTIONS OF PARABOLIC EQUATIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrushko, I. M.

    1986-02-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions on the solutions of parabolic equations in a cylinder are established for the existence of limits in \\mathscr{L}_p on the lateral surface of the cylinder and in \\mathscr{L}_p with a weight on its lower base.Bibliography: 9 titles.

  13. Magma Storage Conditions, Eruption Initiation and Magma Evolution Over Time: Investigating the Eruptions of Organ Caldera, Southern NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lente, J. L.; Johnson, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Organ caldera in southern New Mexico formed ~36 Ma from a series of three explosive, voluminous eruptions. The volcanic deposits are now exposed in the Organ Mountains and have a combined thickness of nearly 3 km and an estimated volume between 500 and1000 km3 (Seager & McCurry, 1988). This research uses analyses of quartz-hosted melt inclusions from the first- and last-erupted units to study the storage and differentiation of the magma body prior-to and during the initial eruption, as well as changes in the magma chamber over time as the eruptions progressed and ultimately ceased. Previous work suggests the Organ magma chamber was compositionally stratified (Seager, 1981) erupting top-down and tapping less-evolved magmas over time. However, preliminary results suggest a more complex system; possibly a convecting, homogenized magma chamber or a series of dykes and sills. Results obtained using FTIR analyses of H2O and CO2 in melt inclusions have shown variable volatile contents from the first erupted unit (~2.3 to 6.8 weight percent H2O, 0-118 ppm CO2). Using these values, saturation pressures of 45 to 266 MPa were calculated, indicating a minimum pressure at which the melt inclusion was trapped. These pressures suggest magma storage depths for the first erupted magmas of ~2 to 9 km (with most inclusions trapped between 4 and 8 km) which is inconsistent with the initial eruption coming from the top of a normally stratified chamber. The large variation in volatile contents and storage depths can have many explanations, such as degassing and shallow crystallization during ascent, or perhaps a more complex, elongate magma storage system. These possibilities, and whether or not magma mixing/rejuvenation triggered the initial eruption, will be explored with the acquisition of major and trace element compositions of melt inclusions. Additionally, analyses of melt inclusions from the last erupted ignimbrite, which erupted ~0.5 Ma after the first eruption, will enable

  14. Effects of Initial Temper Condition and Postweld Heat Treatment on the Properties of Dissimilar Friction-Stir-Welded Joints between AA7075 and AA6061 Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    İpekoğlu, Güven; Çam, Gürel

    2014-06-01

    In this study, dissimilar AA7075-O/6061-O and AA7075-T6/6061-T6 butt joints were produced by friction stir welding (FSW), and postweld heat treatment (PWHT) was applied to the joints obtained. The effects of initial temper condition and PWHT on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the dissimilar joints were thus investigated. It was demonstrated that sound dissimilar joints can be produced for both temper conditions. A hardness increase in the joint area ( i.e., strength overmatching) was obtained in the joints produced in the O-temper condition, whereas a hardness loss was observed in the joint area of the joints obtained in the T6 temper condition. It was also well demonstrated that PWHT could be used in order to improve the joint properties for both O and T6 joints provided that the joint is defect-free prior to subsequent heat treatment.

  15. Investigation of Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence and mixing using direct numerical simulation with experimentally-measured initial conditions. I. Comparison to experimental data

    SciTech Connect

    Mueschke, N; Schilling, O

    2008-07-23

    A 1152 x 760 x 1280 direct numerical simulation (DNS) using initial conditions, geometry, and physical parameters chosen to approximate those of a transitional, small Atwood number Rayleigh-Taylor mixing experiment [Mueschke, Andrews and Schilling, J. Fluid Mech. 567, 27 (2006)] is presented. The density and velocity fluctuations measured just off of the splitter plate in this buoyantly unstable water channel experiment were parameterized to provide physically-realistic, anisotropic initial conditions for the DNS. The methodology for parameterizing the measured data and numerically implementing the resulting perturbation spectra in the simulation is discussed in detail. The DNS model of the experiment is then validated by comparing quantities from the simulation to experimental measurements. In particular, large-scale quantities (such as the bubble front penetration hb and the mixing layer growth parameter {alpha}{sub b}), higher-order statistics (such as velocity variances and the molecular mixing parameter {theta}), and vertical velocity and density variance spectra from the DNS are shown to be in favorable agreement with the experimental data. Differences between the quantities obtained from the DNS and from experimental measurements are related to limitations in the dynamic range of scales resolved in the simulation and other idealizations of the simulation model. This work demonstrates that a parameterization of experimentally-measured initial conditions can yield simulation data that quantitatively agrees well with experimentally-measured low- and higher-order statistics in a Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer. This study also provides resolution and initial conditions implementation requirements needed to simulate a physical Rayleigh-Taylor mixing experiment. In Part II [Mueschke and Schilling, Phys. Fluids (2008)], other quantities not measured in the experiment are obtained from the DNS and discussed, such as the integral- and Taylor-scale Reynolds numbers

  16. Accurate quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.

  17. ENSO response to high-latitude volcanic eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere: The role of the initial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Karamperidou, Christina; Caballero, Rodrigo; Battisti, David S.

    2016-08-01

    A large ensemble of Earth System Model simulations is analyzed to show that high-latitude Northern Hemisphere eruptions give rise to El Niño-like anomalies in the winter following the eruption, the amplitude of which depends on the state of the tropical Pacific at the time of the eruption. The El Niño-like anomalies are almost three times larger when the eruption occurs during an incipient La Niña or during a neutral state compared to an incipient El Niño. The differential response results from stronger atmosphere-ocean coupling and extra-tropical feedbacks during an incipient La Niña compared to El Niño. Differences in the response continue through the second and third years following the eruption. When the eruption happens in a year of an incipient El Niño, a large cold (La Niña-like) anomaly develops in year 2; if the eruption occurs in a year of an incipient La Niña, no anomalies are simulated in year 2 and a La Niña-like response appears in year 3. After the El Niño-like anomaly in the first winter, the overall tendency of ENSO in the following 2 years is toward a La Niña state. Our results highlight the high sensitivity of tropical Pacific dynamics under volcanic forcing to the ENSO initial state and lay the groundwork for improved predictions of the global climatic response to high-latitude volcanic eruptions.

  18. On the Early Evolution of Forming Jovian Planets. I. Initial Conditions, Systematics, and Qualitative Comparisons to Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Benz, Willy

    2003-05-01

    We analyze the formation and migration of an already formed proto-Jovian companion embedded in a circumstellar disk. We use two-dimensional (r,θ)2 hydrodynamic simulations using a piecewise parabolic method code to model the evolutionary period in which the companion makes its transition from type I migration to type II migration. The results of our simulations show that spiral waves extending several wavelengths inward and outward from the planet are generated by the gravitational torque of the planet on the disk. Their effect on the planet causes it to migrate inward toward the star, and their effect on the disk causes it to form a deep (low surface density) gap near the planet. We study the sensitivity of the planet's migration rate to the planet's mass and to the disk's mass. Until a transition to slower type II migration, the migration rate of the planet is of order 1 AU per 103 yr and varies by less than a factor of 2 with a factor of 20 change in planet mass, but it depends near linearly on the disk mass. Although the disk is stable to self-gravitating disk perturbations (Toomre Q>5 everywhere), implying that the effects of gravity should be insignificant, migration is faster by a factor of 2 or more when disk self-gravity is suppressed. Migration is equally sensitive to the disk's mass distribution within 1-2 Hill radii of the planet, as demonstrated by our simulations' sensitivity to the planet's assumed gravitational softening parameter, which also crudely models the effect of the disk's extent into the third (z) dimension. Deep gaps form within ~500 yr after the beginning of the simulations, but migration can continue much longer: the formation of a deep gap and the onset of type II migration are not equivalent. The gap is several AU in width and displays very nearly the M2/3pl proportionality predicted by theory. Beginning from an initially unperturbed 0.05 Msolar disk, planets of mass Mpl>0.3MJ can open a gap that is deep and wide enough to complete

  19. Changes in bacterial community structure correlate with initial operating conditions of a field-scale denitrifying fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Hwang, C; Wu, W-M; Gentry, T J; Carley, J; Carroll, S L; Schadt, C; Watson, D; Jardine, P M; Zhou, J; Hickey, R F; Criddle, C S; Fields, M W

    2006-08-01

    High levels of nitrate are present in groundwater migrating from the former waste disposal ponds at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, TN. A field-scale denitrifying fluidized bed reactor (FBR) was designed, constructed, and operated with ethanol as an electron donor for the removal of nitrate. After inoculation, biofilms developed on the granular activated carbon particles. Changes in the bacterial community of the FBR were evaluated with clone libraries (n = 500 partial sequences) of the small-subunit rRNA gene for samples taken over a 4-month start-up period. Early phases of start-up operation were characterized by a period of selection, followed by low diversity and predominance by Azoarcus-like sequences. Possible explanations were high pH and nutrient limitations. After amelioration of these conditions, diversification increased rapidly, with the appearance of Dechloromonas, Pseudomonas, and Hydrogenophaga sequences. Changes in NO3, SO4, and pH also likely contributed to shifts in community composition. The detection of sulfate-reducing-bacteria-like sequences closely related to Desulfovibrio and Desulfuromonas in the FBR have important implications for downstream applications at the field site.

  20. Non-Markovian reduced propagator, multiple-time correlation functions, and master equations with general initial conditions in the weak-coupling limit

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, Ines de; Alonso, Daniel

    2006-02-15

    In this paper we derive the evolution equation for the reduced propagator, an object that evolves vectors of the Hilbert space of a system S interacting with an environment B in a non-Markovian way. This evolution is conditioned to certain initial and final states of the environment. Once an average over these environmental states is made, reduced propagators permit the evaluation of multiple-time correlation functions of system observables. When this average is done stochastically the reduced propagator evolves according to a stochastic Schroedinger equation. In addition, it is possible to obtain the evolution equations of the multiple-time correlation functions which generalize the well-known quantum regression theorem to the non-Markovian case. Here, both methods, stochastic and evolution equations, are described by assuming a weak coupling between system and environment. Finally, we show that reduced propagators can be used to obtain a master equation with general initial conditions, and not necessarily an initial vacuum state for the environment. We illustrate the theory with several examples.

  1. BIOACCESSIBILITY TESTS ACCURATELY ESTIMATE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contaminated soils. Relative bioavailabilities were expressed by comparison with blood Pb concentrations in quail fed a Pb acetate reference diet. Diets containing soil from five Pb-contaminated Superfund sites had relative bioavailabilities from 33%-63%, with a mean of about 50%. Treatment of two of the soils with P significantly reduced the bioavailability of Pb. The bioaccessibility of the Pb in the test soils was then measured in six in vitro tests and regressed on bioavailability. They were: the “Relative Bioavailability Leaching Procedure” (RBALP) at pH 1.5, the same test conducted at pH 2.5, the “Ohio State University In vitro Gastrointestinal” method (OSU IVG), the “Urban Soil Bioaccessible Lead Test”, the modified “Physiologically Based Extraction Test” and the “Waterfowl Physiologically Based Extraction Test.” All regressions had positive slopes. Based on criteria of slope and coefficient of determination, the RBALP pH 2.5 and OSU IVG tests performed very well. Speciation by X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that, on average, most of the Pb in the sampled soils was sorbed to minerals (30%), bound to organic matter 24%, or present as Pb sulfate 18%. Ad

  2. Modifying mixing and instability growth through the adjustment of initial conditions in a high-energy-density counter-propagating shear experiment on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, E. C.; Doss, F. W.; Loomis, E. N.; Flippo, K. A.; Kline, J. L.

    2015-06-24

    Counter-propagating shear experiments conducted at the OMEGA Laser Facility have been evaluating the effect of target initial conditions, specifically the characteristics of a tracer foil located at the shear boundary, on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability evolution and experiment transition toward nonlinearity and turbulence in the high-energy-density (HED) regime. Experiments are focused on both identifying and uncoupling the dependence of the model initial turbulent length scale in variable-density turbulence models of k-ϵ type on competing physical instability seed lengths as well as developing a path toward fully developed turbulent HED experiments. We present results from a series of experiments controllably and independently varying two initial types of scale lengths in the experiment: the thickness and surface roughness (surface perturbation scale spectrum) of a tracer layer at the shear interface. We show that decreasing the layer thickness and increasing the surface roughness both have the ability to increase the relative mixing in the system, and thus theoretically decrease the time required to begin transitioning to turbulence in the system. In addition, we also show that we can connect a change in observed mix width growth due to increased foil surface roughness to an analytically predicted change in model initial turbulent scale lengths.

  3. Modifying mixing and instability growth through the adjustment of initial conditions in a high-energy-density counter-propagating shear experiment on OMEGA

    DOE PAGES

    Merritt, E. C.; Doss, F. W.; Loomis, E. N.; ...

    2015-06-24

    Counter-propagating shear experiments conducted at the OMEGA Laser Facility have been evaluating the effect of target initial conditions, specifically the characteristics of a tracer foil located at the shear boundary, on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability evolution and experiment transition toward nonlinearity and turbulence in the high-energy-density (HED) regime. Experiments are focused on both identifying and uncoupling the dependence of the model initial turbulent length scale in variable-density turbulence models of k-ϵ type on competing physical instability seed lengths as well as developing a path toward fully developed turbulent HED experiments. We present results from a series of experiments controllably and independently varyingmore » two initial types of scale lengths in the experiment: the thickness and surface roughness (surface perturbation scale spectrum) of a tracer layer at the shear interface. We show that decreasing the layer thickness and increasing the surface roughness both have the ability to increase the relative mixing in the system, and thus theoretically decrease the time required to begin transitioning to turbulence in the system. In addition, we also show that we can connect a change in observed mix width growth due to increased foil surface roughness to an analytically predicted change in model initial turbulent scale lengths.« less

  4. Modifying mixing and instability growth through the adjustment of initial conditions in a high-energy-density counter-propagating shear experiment on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, E. C. Doss, F. W.; Loomis, E. N.; Flippo, K. A.; Kline, J. L.

    2015-06-15

    Counter-propagating shear experiments conducted at the OMEGA Laser Facility have been evaluating the effect of target initial conditions, specifically the characteristics of a tracer foil located at the shear boundary, on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability evolution and experiment transition toward nonlinearity and turbulence in the high-energy-density (HED) regime. Experiments are focused on both identifying and uncoupling the dependence of the model initial turbulent length scale in variable-density turbulence models of k-ϵ type on competing physical instability seed lengths as well as developing a path toward fully developed turbulent HED experiments. We present results from a series of experiments controllably and independently varying two initial types of scale lengths in the experiment: the thickness and surface roughness (surface perturbation scale spectrum) of a tracer layer at the shear interface. We show that decreasing the layer thickness and increasing the surface roughness both have the ability to increase the relative mixing in the system, and thus theoretically decrease the time required to begin transitioning to turbulence in the system. We also show that we can connect a change in observed mix width growth due to increased foil surface roughness to an analytically predicted change in model initial turbulent scale lengths.

  5. Transient minimization in data assimilation: examining the effect of plausible initial conditions and model forcings on the evolution of the Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkerhoff, D. J.; Johnson, J. V.

    2013-12-01

    Lengthy model initialization or spin-up procedures designed to eliminate spurious transient signals in a modelled system are often undesirable or impractical for a variety of reasons, such as excessive computational cost or the requirement that the model state at the starting time correspond exactly to certain data. Data assimilation procedures may exacerbate these transients by forcing a model to conform to data sets that are incompatible with model physics. In the case of dynamical models of ice physics, a common case of this incompatibility occurs when a measured surface velocity field is used to estimate bed friction, and in so doing generates non-physical rates of change in the ice surface elevation. In order to overcome this issue without accepting the disadvantages noted above, we use an expanded data assimilation procedure that not only minimizes misfit in modelled and observed surface velocities, but also explores uncertainties in a variety of input data such as surface mass balance, ice thickness, and surface velocities, such that spurious transient signals are minimized and lengthy spin-up procedures are rendered unnecessary. This type of initialization technique employs several control variables and necessarily produces non-unique solutions. We apply regularization based on existing patterns within and a priori assumptions about the behavior of input data sets in order to reduce the number of possible initial model states. We implement this technique in the ice sheet model VarGlaS, and show the result of an initially transient-free simulation of the Greenland Ice Sheet that uses contemporary data within specified error bounds for the generation of initial conditions and model forcings. We carry this simulation of Greenland 500 years into the future and examine the effect of using various transient free and error bound respecting configurations of input data.

  6. How accurate are sphygmomanometers?

    PubMed

    Mion, D; Pierin, A M

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy and reliability of mercury and aneroid sphygmomanometers. Measurement of accuracy of calibration and evaluation of physical conditions were carried out in 524 sphygmomanometers, 351 from a hospital setting, and 173 from private medical offices. Mercury sphygmomanometers were considered inaccurate if the meniscus was not '0' at rest. Aneroid sphygmomanometers were tested against a properly calibrated mercury manometer, and were considered calibrated when the error was < or =3 mm Hg. Both types of sphygmomanometers were evaluated for conditions of cuff/bladder, bulb, pump and valve. Of the mercury sphygmomanometers tested 21 % were found to be inaccurate. Of this group, unreliability was noted due to: excessive bouncing (14%), illegibility of the gauge (7%), blockage of the filter (6%), and lack of mercury in the reservoir (3%). Bladder damage was noted in 10% of the hospital devices and in 6% of private medical practices. Rubber aging occurred in 34% and 25%, leaks/holes in 19% and 18%, and leaks in the pump bulb in 16% and 30% of hospital devices and private practice devices, respectively. Of the aneroid sphygmomanometers tested, 44% in the hospital setting and 61% in private medical practices were found to be inaccurate. Of these, the magnitude of inaccuracy was 4-6 mm Hg in 32%, 7-12 mm Hg in 19% and > 13 mm Hg in 7%. In summary, most of the mercury and aneroid sphygmomanometers showed inaccuracy (21% vs 58%) and unreliability (64% vs 70%).

  7. Identifying the initiating events of anti-Listeria responses using mice with conditional loss of IFNγ receptor subunit 1 (IFNGR1)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hun; Carrero, Javier A.; Uppaluri, Ravindra; White, J. Michael; Archambault, Jessica M.; Lai, Koon Siew; Chan, Szeman Ruby; Sheehan, Kathleen C. F.; Unanue, Emil R.; Schreiber, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas IFNγ is required for resolution of Listeria monocytogenes infection, the identities of the IFNγ responsive cells that initiate the process remain unclear. We addressed this question using novel mice with conditional loss of the IFNγ receptor (IFNGR1). Itgax-cre+Ifngr1f/f mice with selective IFNγ unresponsiveness in CD8α+ dendritic cells displayed increased susceptibility to infection. This phenotype was due to the inability of IFNγ unresponsive CD8α+ DCs to produce the initial burst of IL-12 induced by IFNγ from TNFα-activated NK/NKT cells. The defect in early IL-12 production resulted in increased IL-4 production that established a myeloid cell environment favoring Listeria growth. Neutralization of IL-4 restored Listeria resistance in Itgax-cre+Ifngr1f/f mice. We also found that Itgax-cre+Ifngr1f/f mice survived infection with low dose Listeria due to a second wave of IL-12 produced by Ly6Chi monocytes. Thus, an IFNγ-driven cascade involving CD8α+ DCs and NK/NKT cells induces the rapid production of IL-12 that initiates the anti-Listeria response. PMID:24048899

  8. Semiclassical modelling of finite-pulse effects on non-adiabatic photodynamics via initial condition filtering: The predissociation of NaI as a test case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Mesa, Aliezer; Saalfrank, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Femtosecond-laser pulse driven non-adiabatic spectroscopy and dynamics in molecular and condensed phase systems continue to be a challenge for theoretical modelling. One of the main obstacles is the "curse of dimensionality" encountered in non-adiabatic, exact wavepacket propagation. A possible route towards treating complex molecular systems is via semiclassical surface-hopping schemes, in particular if they account not only for non-adiabatic post-excitation dynamics but also for the initial optical excitation. One such approach, based on initial condition filtering, will be put forward in what follows. As a simple test case which can be compared with exact wavepacket dynamics, we investigate the influence of the different parameters determining the shape of a laser pulse (e.g., its finite width and a possible chirp) on the predissociation dynamics of a NaI molecule, upon photoexcitation of the A(0+) state. The finite-pulse effects are mapped into the initial conditions for semiclassical surface-hopping simulations. The simulated surface-hopping diabatic populations are in qualitative agreement with the quantum mechanical results, especially concerning the subpicosend photoinduced dynamics, the main deviations being the relative delay of the non-adiabatic transitions in the semiclassical picture. Likewise, these differences in the time-dependent electronic populations calculated via the semiclassical and the quantum methods are found to have a mild influence on the overall probability density distribution. As a result, the branching ratios between the bound and the dissociative reaction channels and the time-evolution of the molecular wavepacket predicted by the semiclassical method agree with those computed using quantum wavepacket propagation. Implications for more challenging molecular systems are given.

  9. Semiclassical modelling of finite-pulse effects on non-adiabatic photodynamics via initial condition filtering: The predissociation of NaI as a test case

    SciTech Connect

    Martínez-Mesa, Aliezer; Saalfrank, Peter

    2015-05-21

    Femtosecond-laser pulse driven non-adiabatic spectroscopy and dynamics in molecular and condensed phase systems continue to be a challenge for theoretical modelling. One of the main obstacles is the “curse of dimensionality” encountered in non-adiabatic, exact wavepacket propagation. A possible route towards treating complex molecular systems is via semiclassical surface-hopping schemes, in particular if they account not only for non-adiabatic post-excitation dynamics but also for the initial optical excitation. One such approach, based on initial condition filtering, will be put forward in what follows. As a simple test case which can be compared with exact wavepacket dynamics, we investigate the influence of the different parameters determining the shape of a laser pulse (e.g., its finite width and a possible chirp) on the predissociation dynamics of a NaI molecule, upon photoexcitation of the A(0{sup +}) state. The finite-pulse effects are mapped into the initial conditions for semiclassical surface-hopping simulations. The simulated surface-hopping diabatic populations are in qualitative agreement with the quantum mechanical results, especially concerning the subpicosend photoinduced dynamics, the main deviations being the relative delay of the non-adiabatic transitions in the semiclassical picture. Likewise, these differences in the time-dependent electronic populations calculated via the semiclassical and the quantum methods are found to have a mild influence on the overall probability density distribution. As a result, the branching ratios between the bound and the dissociative reaction channels and the time-evolution of the molecular wavepacket predicted by the semiclassical method agree with those computed using quantum wavepacket propagation. Implications for more challenging molecular systems are given.

  10. Interactions between accumulation conditions of sediment storage and debris flow characteristics in a debris-flow initiation zone in Ohya landslide, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imaizumi, Fumitoshi; Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Hotta, Norifumi; Tsunetaka, Haruka; Tsuchiya, Satoshi; Ohsaka, Okihiro

    2015-04-01

    It is important to understand the behavior of debris flow in the initiation zone for the development of mitigative measures, such as warning systems and structures. Volume and surface topography of sediment storage in the initiation zones change with time affected by the sediment supply from hillslopes as well as the evacuation of sediment by occurrence of debris flows. However, influences of such changes on the characteristics of the debris flow are not well understood because of a lack of field data. To clarify interactions between accumulation conditions of sediment storage and debris flow characteristics in the initiation zone, we conducted field observations in the Ohya landslide, central Japan. Flows that monitored by our video-camera system could be classified as either flows comprising mainly muddy water, or flows comprising mainly cobbles and boulders. Flows comprising mainly muddy water are turbulent and are characterized by black surfaces due to high concentrations of silty shale, whereas muddy water is almost absent at the surface of flows comprising mainly cobbles and boulders. Changes in the topography in the initiation zones were periodically measured by the airbone LiDAR scanning and terrestrial laser scanning. Slope gradient in most parts of the sediment storage was steeper than 20˚ when the volume of sediment storage was large. In such cases, debris flows were usually dominated by flows comprising mainly cobbles and boulders, and topography formed by occurrence of the debris flows was also steeper than 20˚. Simple analysis on the shear stress and the shear strength elucidates that such steep topography can be formed by movement of unsaturated or nearly saturated sediments. In contrast, slope gradient in some parts of the sediment storage was gentler than 20˚ when only small volume of sediment existed in the initiation zone. Occurrence of debris flows comprising manly muddy water, which was usually monitored when the volume of sediment storage

  11. FITTING NONLINEAR ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION MODELS WITH RANDOM EFFECTS AND UNKNOWN INITIAL CONDITIONS USING THE STOCHASTIC APPROXIMATION EXPECTATION–MAXIMIZATION (SAEM) ALGORITHM

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Sy- Miin; Lu, Zhaohua; Zhu, Hongtu; Sherwood, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The past decade has evidenced the increased prevalence of irregularly spaced longitudinal data in social sciences. Clearly lacking, however, are modeling tools that allow researchers to fit dynamic models to irregularly spaced data, particularly data that show nonlinearity and heterogeneity in dynamical structures. We consider the issue of fitting multivariate nonlinear differential equation models with random effects and unknown initial conditions to irregularly spaced data. A stochastic approximation expectation–maximization algorithm is proposed and its performance is evaluated using a benchmark nonlinear dynamical systems model, namely, the Van der Pol oscillator equations. The empirical utility of the proposed technique is illustrated using a set of 24-h ambulatory cardiovascular data from 168 men and women. Pertinent methodological challenges and unresolved issues are discussed. PMID:25416456

  12. Fitting Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equation Models with Random Effects and Unknown Initial Conditions Using the Stochastic Approximation Expectation-Maximization (SAEM) Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chow, Sy-Miin; Lu, Zhaohua; Sherwood, Andrew; Zhu, Hongtu

    2016-03-01

    The past decade has evidenced the increased prevalence of irregularly spaced longitudinal data in social sciences. Clearly lacking, however, are modeling tools that allow researchers to fit dynamic models to irregularly spaced data, particularly data that show nonlinearity and heterogeneity in dynamical structures. We consider the issue of fitting multivariate nonlinear differential equation models with random effects and unknown initial conditions to irregularly spaced data. A stochastic approximation expectation-maximization algorithm is proposed and its performance is evaluated using a benchmark nonlinear dynamical systems model, namely, the Van der Pol oscillator equations. The empirical utility of the proposed technique is illustrated using a set of 24-h ambulatory cardiovascular data from 168 men and women. Pertinent methodological challenges and unresolved issues are discussed.

  13. The impact of the uncertainty in the initial soil moisture condition of irrigated areas on the spatiotemporal characteristics of convective activity in Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Ioannis, Tegoulias; Ioannis, Pytharoulis; Stergios, Kartsios; Dimitrios, Bampzelis; Theodore, Karacostas

    2015-04-01

    The region of Thessaly is the second largest plain in Greece and has a vital role in the financial life of the country, because of its significant agricultural production. The intensive and extensive cultivation of irrigated crops, in combination with the population increase and the alteration of precipitation patterns due to climate change, often leading the region to experience severe drought conditions, especially during the warm period of the year. The aim of the DAPHNE project is to tackle the problem of drought in this area by means of Weather Modification.In the framework of the project DAPHNE, the numerical weather prediction model WRF-ARW 3.5.1 is used to provide operational forecasts and hindcasts for the region of Thessaly. The goal of this study is to investigate the impact of the uncertainty in the initial soil moisture condition of irrigated areas, on the spatiotemporal characteristics of convective activity in the region of interest. To this end, six cases under the six most frequent synoptic conditions, which are associated with convective activity in the region of interest, are utilized, considering six different soil moisture initialization scenarios. In the first scenario (Control Run), the model is initialized with the surface soil moisture of the ECMWF analysis data, that usually does not take into account the modification of soil moisture due to agricultural activity in the area of interest. In the other five scenarios (Experiment 1,2,3,4,5) the soil moisture in the upper soil layers of the study area are modified from -50% to 50% of field capacity (-50%FC, -25%FC, FC, 25%FC, 50%FC),for the irrigated cropland.Three model domains, covering Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and northern Africa (d01), the wider area of Greece (d02) and central Greece - Thessaly region (d03) are used at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km respectively. ECMWF operational analyses at 6-hourly intervals (0.25ox0.25o lat.-long.) are imported as initial and

  14. The effects of initial acetate concentration on CO2-brine-anorthite interactions under geologic CO2 sequestration conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yi; Ronzio, Christian; Jun, Young-Shin

    2011-12-09

    Acetate is one of the most abundant organic compounds in many formation waters and is likely to be present in deep saline aquifers suitable for geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS). This work studied the effect of initially present acetate on the dissolution of anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) and on subsequent secondary mineral precipitation under GCS conditions (35 °C and 74.8 atm). Anorthite was chosen as a model mineral because of the abundance of feldspar in clayey sandstones and the possibility of metal carbonation. In this study, acetate was found to decrease the cumulative aqueous concentrations of Al, Si, and Ca upon CO2 injection by inhibiting anorthite dissolution and increasing the amount of secondary mineral precipitates. The extent of the effect of acetate on metal concentration changes was element-specific (Al > Si > Ca), and the effect was found to be more significant in systems with lower salinity and lower pH. For anorthite dissolution, acetic acid inhibited the proton-mediated decomposition of the Al/Si-containing feldspar framework, while acetate anions may have facilitated the ion-exchange between interstitial Ca and aqueous cations. For secondary mineral precipitation, stoichiometry analysis of aqueous metal concentrations suggested the formation of Al-containing mineral(s). The presence of kaolinite as a secondary mineral was confirmed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy's electron diffraction data. An increase in the relative amount of precipitation due to the initial presence of acetate was suggested by mass balancing and verified on the cleaved anorthite surfaces by atomic force microscopy analysis. These results provide new insights for understanding and predicting GCS system evolution upon scCO2 injection in the initial presence of acetate.

  15. VARIABLE AND EXTREME IRRADIATION CONDITIONS IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM INFERRED FROM THE INITIAL ABUNDANCE OF {sup 10}Be IN ISHEYEVO CAIs

    SciTech Connect

    Gounelle, Matthieu; Chaussidon, Marc; Rollion-Bard, Claire

    2013-02-01

    A search for short-lived {sup 10}Be in 21 calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from Isheyevo, a rare CB/CH chondrite, showed that only 5 CAIs had {sup 10}B/{sup 11}B ratios higher than chondritic correlating with the elemental ratio {sup 9}Be/{sup 11}B, suggestive of in situ decay of this key short-lived radionuclide. The initial ({sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be){sub 0} ratios vary between {approx}10{sup -3} and {approx}10{sup -2} for CAI 411. The initial ratio of CAI 411 is one order of magnitude higher than the highest ratio found in CV3 CAIs, suggesting that the more likely origin of CAI 411 {sup 10}Be is early solar system irradiation. The low ({sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al){sub 0} [{<=} 8.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}] with which CAI 411 formed indicates that it was exposed to gradual flares with a proton fluence of a few 10{sup 19} protons cm{sup -2}, during the earliest phases of the solar system, possibly the infrared class 0. The irradiation conditions for other CAIs are less well constrained, with calculated fluences ranging between a few 10{sup 19} and 10{sup 20} protons cm{sup -2}. The variable and extreme value of the initial {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratios in carbonaceous chondrite CAIs is the reflection of the variable and extreme magnetic activity in young stars observed in the X-ray domain.

  16. TEM study on the initial oxidation of Zircaloy-4 thin foil specimens heated in a low vacuum air condition at 280-300 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Zhou, Bang-xin; Zhu, Wei; Wen, Bang; Yao, Mei-yi; Li, Qiang; Wu, Lu; Zhang, Jin-long; Fang, Zhong-qiang

    2017-04-01

    As one of the important structural materials in nuclear industry, the corrosion resistance of zirconium alloy limits their in-pile application. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the corrosion mechanism of zirconium alloys. The zirconium-oxygen reaction at the O/M interface is one of the factors that affect the oxidation process. There are few reports in this regard. Ideally, the reaction process at the O/M interface has certain relevance with the initiation oxidation of zirconium, which provided a new way to investigate the reaction process by observing the initiation oxidation behaviours. To investigate the oxidation behaviours of zirconium alloy at the initial stage, in this paper, zircaloy-4 TEM thin foil specimens in 3 mm diameter were studied by TEM observation after heating in air condition with a vacuum of 3 Pa at 280 °C, 290 °C and 300 °C for 30 min exposures. The results show that, ZrO2 begin to nucleate at a size of 3-5 nm at a high Zr/O ratio of 10.4 and oxide layer formed while Zr/O was 4.6. As a result of stress caused by the P.B ratio of Zr, slip bands formed and a bcc structure sub-oxide b-ZrOx (a = 0.51 nm) grew up along with the slip bands was observed. At both sides of b-ZrOx, two hcp structure sub-oxides having the same a-axis lattice parameter and different c-axis lattice parameter were detected.

  17. Impacts of biological parameterization, initial conditions, and environmental forcing on parameter sensitivity and uncertainty in a marine ecosystem model for the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, G. A.; Spitz, Y. H.

    2011-11-01

    We use a series of Monte Carlo experiments to explore simultaneously the sensitivity of the BEST marine ecosystem model to environmental forcing, initial conditions, and biological parameterizations. Twenty model output variables were examined for sensitivity. The true sensitivity of biological and environmental parameters becomes apparent only when each parameter is allowed to vary within its realistic range. Many biological parameters were important only to their corresponding variable, but several biological parameters, e.g., microzooplankton grazing and small phytoplankton doubling rate, were consistently very important to several output variables. Assuming realistic biological and environmental variability, the standard deviation about simulated mean mesozooplankton biomass ranged from 1 to 14 mg C m - 3 during the year. Annual primary productivity was not strongly correlated with temperature but was positively correlated with initial nitrate and light. Secondary productivity was positively correlated with primary productivity and negatively correlated with spring bloom timing. Mesozooplankton productivity was not correlated with water temperature, but a shift towards a system in which smaller zooplankton undertake a greater proportion of the secondary production as the water temperature increases appears likely. This approach to incorporating environmental variability within a sensitivity analysis could be extended to any ecosystem model to gain confidence in climate-driven ecosystem predictions.

  18. Dense water formation in the north-western Mediterranean area during HyMeX-SOP2 in 1/36° ocean simulations: Sensitivity to initial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léger, Fabien; Lebeaupin Brossier, Cindy; Giordani, Hervé; Arsouze, Thomas; Beuvier, Jonathan; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Bresson, Émilie; Ducrocq, Véronique; Fourrié, Nadia; Nuret, Mathieu

    2016-08-01

    The north-western Mediterranean Sea is a key location where intense air-sea exchanges occur in autumn and winter. The succession of strong mistral and tramontane situations, leading to significant evaporation and ocean heat loss, is well known as the controlling factor in the dense water formation (DWF) with deep convection episodes. During HyMeX-SOP2 (1 February to 15 March 2013), several platforms sampled the area in order to document DWF and air-sea exchanges. This study investigates the ability of the NEMO-WMED36 ocean model (1/36°-resolution), driven in surface by the hourly air-sea fluxes from the AROME-WMED forecasts (2.5 km resolution), to represent DWF during HyMeX-SOP2 and focuses on the sensitivity to initial conditions. After a short evaluation of the atmospheric forcing, the high-resolution oceanic simulations using three different data sets as initial and boundary conditions are compared to observations collected during the field campaign. It evidences that using regional model outputs may lead to unrealistic thermohaline characteristics for the intermediate and deep waters, which degrade the simulated new dense water formed. Using ocean analyses built from observations, permits to obtain more realistic characteristics of the Western Mediterranean dense water. However, a low stratification favors an overestimation of the convective area and of the DWF rate. The DWF chronology is also impacted. Nevertheless, in every run, SOP2 is characterized by the production of water denser than 29.11 kg m-3 with a peak during the strong mistral event of 23-25 February followed by a period of restratification, before a last event of bottom convection on 13-15 March.

  19. An accurate predictor-corrector HOC solver for the two dimensional Riemann problem of gas dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogoi, Bidyut B.

    2016-10-01

    The work in the present manuscript is concerned with the simulation of twodimensional (2D) Riemann problem of gas dynamics. We extend our recently developed higher order compact (HOC) method from one-dimensional (1D) to 2D solver and simulate the problem on a square geometry with different initial conditions. The method is fourth order accurate in space and second order accurate in time. We then compare our results with the available benchmark results. The comparison shows an excellent agreement of our results with the existing ones in the literature. Being a finite difference solver, it is quite straight-forward and simple.

  20. Comprehensive and Integrated Palliative Care for People With Advanced Chronic Conditions: An Update From Several European Initiatives and Recommendations for Policy.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Batiste, Xavier; Murray, Scott A; Thomas, Keri; Blay, Carles; Boyd, Kirsty; Moine, Sebastien; Gignon, Maxime; Van den Eynden, Bart; Leysen, Bert; Wens, Johan; Engels, Yvonne; Dees, Marianne; Costantini, Massimo

    2017-03-01

    The number of people in their last years of life with advanced chronic conditions, palliative care needs, and limited life prognosis due to different causes including multi-morbidity, organ failure, frailty, dementia, and cancer is rising. Such people represent more than 1% of the population. They are present in all care settings, cause around 75% of mortality, and may account for up to one-third of total national health system spend. The response to their needs is usually late and largely based around institutional palliative care focused on cancer. There is a great need to identify these patients and integrate an early palliative approach according to their individual needs in all settings, as suggested by the World Health Organization. Several tools have recently been developed in different European regions to identify patients with chronic conditions who might benefit from palliative care. Similarly, several models of integrated palliative care have been developed, some with a public health approach to promote access to all in need. We describe the characteristics of these initiatives and suggest how to develop a comprehensive and integrated palliative approach in primary and hospital care and to design public health and community-oriented practices to assess and respond to the needs in the whole population. Additionally, we report ethical challenges and prognostic issues raised and emphasize the need for research to test the various tools and models to generate evidence about the benefits of these approaches to patients, their families, and to the health system.

  1. Accurate Biomass Estimation via Bayesian Adaptive Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, K.; Knuth, K.; Castle, P.

    2005-12-01

    Typical estimates of standing wood derived from remote sensing sources take advantage of aggregate measurements of canopy heights (e.g. LIDAR) and canopy diameters (segmentation of IKONOS imagery) to obtain a wood volume estimate by assuming homogeneous species and a fixed function that returns volume. The validation of such techniques use manually measured diameter at breast height records (DBH). Our goal is to improve the accuracy and applicability of biomass estimation methods to heterogeneous forests and transitional areas. We are developing estimates with quantifiable uncertainty using a new form of estimation function, active sampling, and volumetric reconstruction image rendering for species specific mass truth. Initially we are developing a Bayesian adaptive sampling method for BRDF associated with the MISR Rahman model with respect to categorical biomes. This involves characterizing the probability distributions of the 3 free parameters of the Rahman model for the 6 categories of biomes used by MISR. Subsequently, these distributions can be used to determine the optimal sampling methodology to distinguish biomes during acquisition. We have a remotely controlled semi-autonomous helicopter that has stereo imaging, lidar, differential GPS, and spectrometers covering wavelengths from visible to NIR. We intend to automatically vary the way points of the flight path via the Bayesian adaptive sampling method. The second critical part of this work is in automating the validation of biomass estimates via using machine vision techniques. This involves taking 2-D pictures of trees of known species, and then via Bayesian techniques, reconstructing 3-D models of the trees to estimate the distribution moments associated with wood volume. Similar techniques have been developed by the medical imaging community. This then provides probability distributions conditional upon species. The final part of this work is in relating the BRDF actively sampled measurements to species

  2. New model accurately predicts reformate composition

    SciTech Connect

    Ancheyta-Juarez, J.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. )

    1994-01-31

    Although naphtha reforming is a well-known process, the evolution of catalyst formulation, as well as new trends in gasoline specifications, have led to rapid evolution of the process, including: reactor design, regeneration mode, and operating conditions. Mathematical modeling of the reforming process is an increasingly important tool. It is fundamental to the proper design of new reactors and revamp of existing ones. Modeling can be used to optimize operating conditions, analyze the effects of process variables, and enhance unit performance. Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo has developed a model of the catalytic reforming process that accurately predicts reformate composition at the higher-severity conditions at which new reformers are being designed. The new AA model is more accurate than previous proposals because it takes into account the effects of temperature and pressure on the rate constants of each chemical reaction.

  3. Control of initial heterogeneities and boundary conditions on the deformation partitioning of continental rift: a comparison between Rio Grande Rift and Main Ethiopian Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieulot, C.; Philippon, M.; Sokoutis, D.; Van Wijk, J. W.; Willingshofer, E.; Cloetingh, S.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding how initial heterogeneities and boundary conditions control the development of fault network and the deformation partitioning mechanisms in rifts that affect continental crust still remains a challenge. Among the active continental rifts affecting the Earth lithosphere, the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and the Rio Grande Rift (RGR) appear to be ideal natural laboratories to investigate this issues as they share structural characteristics but develop under different geological settings. From a structural point of view both rifts show the same length (~1000km), width (50 to 70 km) and asymmetry. The MER is the NE-SW trending plate boundary between the Nubian and Somalian plates that has been developing for the past 11 Ma above a paleo-proterozoic lithospheric-scale weak zone re-heated by the Afar hotspot, whereas the RGR is the eastern "boundary" of the basin & range system that has been developing for the past 30 Ma in the frame of a westward retreating Farallon subduction zone. However, the RGR shows evidence of low angle normal faulting whereas the MER shows steeply dipping normal faults and conversely the MER shows a larger volume of erupted lavas than the RGR. Combined with a structural analysis of both rifts, we present here a series of preliminary numerical models that allows for a better understanding of the influence of initial heterogeneities such as 1) the state of the crust (craton versus crust affected by "wide rift" type extension); 2) the presence of a crustal-scale to lithospheric-scale weak zone, 3) the effect of the orientation of these weak zones & 4) the effects of the presence of magma.

  4. Simulation of blast-furnace raceway conditions in a wire-mesh reactor: interference by the reactions of molybdenum mesh and initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Long Wu; N. Paterson; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti

    2006-12-15

    A novel trapped air injection system has been built for a wire-mesh reactor to enable tests with short exposure times to air that are intended to simulate typical residence times in blast-furnace raceways. Initial tests have shown that the molybdenum wire-mesh sample-holder reacts with O{sub 2} under conditions intended for this work. By varying the proportions of solid MoO{sub 2} (weight gain), vapor phase oxides (weight loss) may form, depending on reaction conditions. Oxide formation pathways thus become relevant to coal weight loss determinations during experiments. If, in addition to solid MoO{sub 2} formation, significant formation of vapor phase oxides occurs, then the weight change is more complicated to understand and the impact on the O{sub 2} concentration cannot be unravelled. Furthermore, it turns out that O{sub 2}-scavenging by the mesh affects the amount of O{sub 2} that is available to react with the coal sample. It was concluded that it is only possible to conduct reliable tests under conditions which the favor the formation of solid MoO{sub 2} only, as this leads to a quantifiable weight gain. Its impact can then be accounted for in the evaluation of the experimental weight change. In the case of MoO{sub 2} formation, the impact of the mesh oxidation on the amount of O{sub 2} available to react with the sample can also be estimated. It has been found that the wire-mesh reactor, equipped with the trapped air injection system, can be used to obtain valid data at up to 1600{sup o} C and 0.5 MPa. This pressure is similar to that of the blast-furnace raceway, but the temperature is several hundred degrees lower. However, preliminary tests have shown that useful kinetic data on the extents of reaction can be obtained with the equipment, provided it is operated under conditions that minimize the formation of vapor phase Mo oxides. 18 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Initial fluconazole prophylaxis may not be required in adults with acute leukemia or myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative disorders after reduced intensity conditioning peripheral blood stem cell allogeneic transplantation.

    PubMed

    Brissot, Eolia; Cahu, Xavier; Guillaume, Thierry; Delaunay, Jacques; Ayari, Sameh; Peterlin, Pierre; Le Bourgeois, Amandine; Harousseau, Jean-Luc; Milpied, Noel; Bene, Marie-Christine; Moreau, Philippe; Mohty, Mohamad; Chevallier, Patrice

    2015-04-01

    In the myeloablative transplant setting, the early use of fluconazole prophylaxis provides a benefit in overall survival. Recent changes in transplantation practices, including the use of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) and/or reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen may have favorably impacted the epidemiology of invasive fungal infections (IFI) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Yet, the impact of removing fluconazole prophylaxis after RIC PBSC allotransplant is ill known. Here, a retrospective analysis was performed comparing patients who received fluconazole as antifungal prophylaxis (n = 53) or not (n = 56) after allo-SCT for acute leukemia or myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative syndrome. Sixteen IFI were documented (14 %) at a median time of 103 days after transplantation, including eight before day +100, at a similar rate, whether the patients received fluconazole prophylaxis (13 %) or not (16 %). IFI were due mainly to Aspergillus species (87 %), and only two Candida-related IFI (13 %) were documented in the non-fluconazole group before day +100. The incidences of IFI (overall, before or after day +100) as well as 3-year overall and disease-free survival, non-relapse mortality, or acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were similar between both groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that fluconazole may not be required at the initial phase of RIC allo-SCT using PBSC. This result has to be confirmed prospectively while Aspergillus prophylaxis should be discussed in this particular setting.

  6. Initial Piloted Simulation Evaluation of the Reference-H High-Speed Civil Transport Design During Takeoff and Recovery From Limit Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Louis J.

    1999-01-01

    An initial assessment of a proposed High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) was conducted in the fall of 1995 at the NASA Langley Research Center. This configuration, known as the Industry Reference-H (Ref.-H), was designed by the Boeing Aircraft Company as part of their work in the High Speed Research program. It included a conventional tail, a cranked-arrow wing, four mixed-flow turbofan engines, and capacity for transporting approximately 300 passengers. The purpose of this assessment was to evaluate and quantify operational aspects of the Reference-H configuration from a pilot's perspective with the additional goal of identifying design strengths as well as any potential configuration deficiencies. This study was aimed at evaluating the Ref.-H configuration at many points of the aircraft's envelope to determine the suitability of the vehicle to accomplish typical mission profiles as well as emergency or envelope-limit conditions. Pilot-provided Cooper-Harper ratings and comments constituted the primary vehicle evaluation metric. The analysis included simulated real-time piloted evaluations, performed in a 6 degree of freedom motion base NASA Langley Visual-Motion Simulator, combined with extensive bath analysis. The assessment was performed using the third major release of the simulation data base (known as Ref.-H cycle 2B).

  7. A preliminary study of the application of HCMM satellite data to define initial and boundary conditions for numerical models: A case study in St. Louis, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vukovich, F. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Infrared and visible HCMM data were used to examine the potential application of these data to define initial and boundary conditions for mesoscale numerical models. Various boundary layer models were used to calculate the distribution of the surface heat flux, specific humidity depression (the difference between the specific humidity in the air at approxmately the 10 m level and the specific humidity at the ground), and the eddy vicosity in a 72 km by 72 km area centered about St. Louis, Missouri. Various aspects of the implications of the results on the meteorology of St. Louis are discussed. Overall, the results indicated that a reasonable estimate of the surface heat flux, urban albedo, ground temperature, and specific humidity depression can be obtained using HCMM satellite data. Values of the ground-specific humidity can be obtained if the distribution of the air-specific humidity is available. More research is required in estimating the absolute magnitude of the specific humidity depression because calculations may be sensitive to model parameters.

  8. Accurate Evaluation of Quantum Integrals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galant, D. C.; Goorvitch, D.; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Combining an appropriate finite difference method with Richardson's extrapolation results in a simple, highly accurate numerical method for solving a Schrodinger's equation. Important results are that error estimates are provided, and that one can extrapolate expectation values rather than the wavefunctions to obtain highly accurate expectation values. We discuss the eigenvalues, the error growth in repeated Richardson's extrapolation, and show that the expectation values calculated on a crude mesh can be extrapolated to obtain expectation values of high accuracy.

  9. Use of fog water to the initial establishment of tree species under conditions of barren Lomas in the Quebrada Topará, Chincha-Perú

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, A.; Cabrera, R.; Bederski, K.; Orellana, A.

    2010-07-01

    The Quebrada Topara is located in the Peruvian coastal desert (13012'L.S, 76009'L.W.) and is influenced by the fog during the winter months, these conditions of high humidity allows its use to achieve the establishment of a permanent vegetation cover Huaquina hill, which is representative at the place of study. Uncounted fog water can be captured and used for irrigation of plants. Also due to the absence of any tree species coverage in this region is not known which or which could have a better performance under these environmental conditions, We used to native species Caesalpinia spinosa "tara" and Schinus molle "molle" also introduced species Casuarina equisetifolia "Casuarina", as these could have a better adaptation. Soil analysis determined a high salinity and nitrogen poverty, preventing water infiltration into the soil and is not used by the plant so that the saline soil difficult to establish plants. This research can be considered an exploratory phase, the objectives were: to determine the potential for fog water harvesting to capture in the study area, to assess for 20 months the initial performance of the species tara, molle and casuarina, and profit incorporation in the final sowing of organic matter and soil amendments to facilitate a better development of plants. 3 standard fog collector (SFC) proposed by Schemenauer and Cereceda (1993) were installed and we evaluated the capture water during 31 months, from June 2007 to December 2009, finding much water collected in the winter months, the average annual in the 3 SFC was similar (1.1, 1.2 and 1.1 L m -2 day-1) which allows us to plan according to necessary the best way to harness and store water to supply the plants. It was found that native species, tara and molle were more adaptable to extreme conditions of the place that introduced casuarina species. The tara does grow faster in height and stem diameter, also achieves a good coverage to intercept fog water itself making it more viable and capable

  10. An Accurate, Simplified Model Intrabeam Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, Karl LF

    2002-05-23

    Beginning with the general Bjorken-Mtingwa solution for intrabeam scattering (IBS) we derive an accurate, greatly simplified model of IBS, valid for high energy beams in normal storage ring lattices. In addition, we show that, under the same conditions, a modified version of Piwinski's IBS formulation (where {eta}{sub x,y}{sup 2}/{beta}{sub x,y} has been replaced by {Eta}{sub x,y}) asymptotically approaches the result of Bjorken-Mtingwa.

  11. Approaching system equilibrium with accurate or not accurate feedback information in a two-route system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiao-mei; Xie, Dong-fan; Li, Qi

    2015-02-01

    With the development of intelligent transport system, advanced information feedback strategies have been developed to reduce traffic congestion and enhance the capacity. However, previous strategies provide accurate information to travelers and our simulation results show that accurate information brings negative effects, especially in delay case. Because travelers prefer to the best condition route with accurate information, and delayed information cannot reflect current traffic condition but past. Then travelers make wrong routing decisions, causing the decrease of the capacity and the increase of oscillations and the system deviating from the equilibrium. To avoid the negative effect, bounded rationality is taken into account by introducing a boundedly rational threshold BR. When difference between two routes is less than the BR, routes have equal probability to be chosen. The bounded rationality is helpful to improve the efficiency in terms of capacity, oscillation and the gap deviating from the system equilibrium.

  12. Accurate measurement of the specific absorption rate using a suitable adiabatic magnetothermal setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natividad, Eva; Castro, Miguel; Mediano, Arturo

    2008-03-01

    Accurate measurements of the specific absorption rate (SAR) of solids and fluids were obtained by a calorimetric method, using a special-purpose setup working under adiabatic conditions. Unlike in current nonadiabatic setups, the weak heat exchange with the surroundings allowed a straightforward determination of temperature increments, avoiding the usual initial-time approximations. The measurements performed on a commercial magnetite aqueous ferrofluid revealed a good reproducibility (4%). Also, the measurements on a copper sample allowed comparison between experimental and theoretical values: adiabatic conditions gave SAR values only 3% higher than the theoretical ones, while the typical nonadiabatic method underestimated SAR by 21%.

  13. Accurate Guitar Tuning by Cochlear Implant Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task. PMID:24651081

  14. Accurate guitar tuning by cochlear implant musicians.

    PubMed

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼ 30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task.

  15. How to measure the wind accurately in icing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, P.R.; Blittersdorf, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    Atmospheric icing occurs frequently in the northwestern, Midwestern and northeastern United States from early October through April at locations with high average wind speeds. It has caused wind data recovery problems at sites as far south as Texas. Icing slows anemometers used to assess the wind resource. Data recovered from sites prone to icing will show lower average wind speeds than actual, undervaluing them. The assessment of a wind site must present the actual wind potential. Anemometers used at these sites must remain free of ice. This report presents a description of icing types and the data distortion they cause based on NRG field experience. A brief history of anti-icing anemometers available today for remote site and turbine site monitoring follows. Comparative data of NRG`s IceFree anemometers and the industry standard unheated anemometer is included.

  16. Precipitation monitoring to accurately depict drought conditions on your allotment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Great Basin Rangelands Research Unit of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service has been reading numerous precipitation gauges throughout the Great Basin for more than three decades. State climatologists, land owners and researchers have obtained data from this long-ter...

  17. Different target-discrimination times can be followed by the same saccade-initiation timing in different stimulus conditions during visual searches.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tomohiro; Nishida, Satoshi; Ogawa, Tadashi

    2015-07-01

    The neuronal processes that underlie visual searches can be divided into two stages: target discrimination and saccade preparation/generation. This predicts that the length of time of the prediscrimination stage varies according to the search difficulty across different stimulus conditions, whereas the length of the latter postdiscrimination stage is stimulus invariant. However, recent studies have suggested that the length of the postdiscrimination interval changes with different stimulus conditions. To address whether and how the visual stimulus affects determination of the postdiscrimination interval, we recorded single-neuron activity in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) when monkeys (Macaca fuscata) performed a color-singleton search involving four stimulus conditions that differed regarding luminance (Bright vs. Dim) and target-distractor color similarity (Easy vs. Difficult). We specifically focused on comparing activities between the Bright-Difficult and Dim-Easy conditions, in which the visual stimuli were considerably different, but the mean reaction times were indistinguishable. This allowed us to examine the neuronal activity when the difference in the degree of search speed between different stimulus conditions was minimal. We found that not only prediscrimination but also postdiscrimination intervals varied across stimulus conditions: the postdiscrimination interval was longer in the Dim-Easy condition than in the Bright-Difficult condition. Further analysis revealed that the postdiscrimination interval might vary with stimulus luminance. A computer simulation using an accumulation-to-threshold model suggested that the luminance-related difference in visual response strength at discrimination time could be the cause of different postdiscrimination intervals.

  18. Memory conformity affects inaccurate memories more than accurate memories.

    PubMed

    Wright, Daniel B; Villalba, Daniella K

    2012-01-01

    After controlling for initial confidence, inaccurate memories were shown to be more easily distorted than accurate memories. In two experiments groups of participants viewed 50 stimuli and were then presented with these stimuli plus 50 fillers. During this test phase participants reported their confidence that each stimulus was originally shown. This was followed by computer-generated responses from a bogus participant. After being exposed to this response participants again rated the confidence of their memory. The computer-generated responses systematically distorted participants' responses. Memory distortion depended on initial memory confidence, with uncertain memories being more malleable than confident memories. This effect was moderated by whether the participant's memory was initially accurate or inaccurate. Inaccurate memories were more malleable than accurate memories. The data were consistent with a model describing two types of memory (i.e., recollective and non-recollective memories), which differ in how susceptible these memories are to memory distortion.

  19. Adapting to Changing Conditions: Accessing State Tobacco Settlement Revenue for Out-of-School Time and Community School Initiatives. Strategy Brief, Volume 1, Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Carol; Wegener, Victoria

    Noting that out-of-school time and community school initiatives are operating in a rapidly changing policy context and that tobacco settlement funds provide a flexible, significant inflow of new state revenue, this strategy brief provides policymakers, community leaders, and program developers with background information on the tobacco settlement…

  20. Using Scaling for accurate stochastic macroweather forecasts (including the "pause")

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, Shaun; del Rio Amador, Lenin

    2015-04-01

    At scales corresponding to the lifetimes of structures of planetary extent (about 5 - 10 days), atmospheric processes undergo a drastic "dimensional transition" from high frequency weather to lower frequency macroweather processes. While conventional GCM's generally well reproduce both the transition and the corresponding (scaling) statistics, due to their sensitive dependence on initial conditions, the role of the weather scale processes is to provide random perturbations to the macroweather processes. The main problem with GCM's is thus that their long term (control run, unforced) statistics converge to the GCM climate and this is somewhat different from the real climate. This is the motivation for using a stochastic model and exploiting the empirical scaling properties and past data to make a stochastic model. It turns out that macroweather intermittency is typically low (the multifractal corrections are small) so that they can be approximated by fractional Gaussian Noise (fGN) processes whose memory can be enormous. For example for annual forecasts, and using the observed global temperature exponent, even 50 years of global temperature data would only allow us to exploit 90% of the available memory (for ocean regions, the figure increases to 600 years). The only complication is that anthropogenic effects dominate the global statistics at time scales beyond about 20 years. However, these are easy to remove using the CO2 forcing as a linear surrogate for all the anthropogenic effects. Using this theoretical framework, we show how to make accurate stochastic macroweather forecasts. We illustrate this on monthly and annual scale series of global and northern hemisphere surface temperatures (including nearly perfect hindcasts of the "pause" in the warming since 1998). We obtain forecast skill nearly as high as the theoretical (scaling) predictability limits allow. These scaling hindcasts - using a single effective climate sensitivity and single scaling exponent are

  1. On numerically accurate finite element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagtegaal, J. C.; Parks, D. M.; Rice, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A general criterion for testing a mesh with topologically similar repeat units is given, and the analysis shows that only a few conventional element types and arrangements are, or can be made suitable for computations in the fully plastic range. Further, a new variational principle, which can easily and simply be incorporated into an existing finite element program, is presented. This allows accurate computations to be made even for element designs that would not normally be suitable. Numerical results are given for three plane strain problems, namely pure bending of a beam, a thick-walled tube under pressure, and a deep double edge cracked tensile specimen. The effects of various element designs and of the new variational procedure are illustrated. Elastic-plastic computation at finite strain are discussed.

  2. Biological and Environmental Initial Conditions Shape the Trajectories of Cognitive and Social-Emotional Development across the First Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth; Eidelman, Arthur I.

    2009-01-01

    Human development is thought to evolve from the dynamic interchange of biological dispositions and environmental provisions; yet the effects of specific biological and environmental birth conditions on the trajectories of cognitive and social-emotional growth have rarely been studied. We observed 126 children at six time-points from birth to 5…

  3. A practical method based on stress evaluation ({sigma}{sub d} criterion) to predict initiation of crack under creep and creep-fatigue conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Moulin, D.; Drubay, B.; Acker, D.; Laiarinandrasana, L.

    1995-11-01

    In some parts of primary circuit of fast breeder reactor, where the temperature is higher than 427 C, preservice inspection has revealed indications that were conservatively assumed to be sharp cracks. These pipes are made of 316 SPH material, an austenitic material close to 316L. This material is subjected to creep behavior at this temperature. Here, the behavior of defects like cracks in nuclear components operating at high temperature, where creep is significant, must be under control. There exists the need to have a practical method of analysis, which can be used by engineers, to calculate the time of initiation for defects existing at the start of life of nuclear components. This study presents the background, the development, the application, and results concerning validation work made for a simplified method named {sigma}{sub d} of prediction of initiation for nuclear structures made of 316L austenitic steel and operating at temperature where creep is significant. This method relies on the evaluation of real stress-strain history on a small distance d (d = 0.05 mm) close to the crack front and material characteristics (limiting stresses) that are available in nuclear codes like ASME Code cases or RCC-MR.

  4. Initial inhomogeneity-induced crazy-clock behavior in the iodate-arsenous acid reaction in a buffered medium under stirred batch conditions.

    PubMed

    Valkai, László; Csekő, György; Horváth, Attila K

    2015-09-14

    It is unambiguously demonstrated that in the case of an autocatalytic reaction, initial inhomogeneities induced by the imperfectly mixed part of the overall volume may result in a serious irreproducibility of the individual kinetic runs. A statistically meaningful number of repetitions, however, gives rise to a reproducible cumulative probability distribution curve often referred to as a support of the stochastic feature. The iodate-arsenous acid reaction being autocatalytic with respect to both iodide and hydrogen ions displays clock behavior. However, the time lag necessary for the appearance of iodine, even in buffered solution, varies in an apparently random manner. Careful analysis of the variation of the different parameters like stirring rate, overall volume, geometry of the reactor and the way of mixing the reactants led us to conclude that the fate of the individual samples is determined at the initial stage when the reacting system is per se inhomogeneous. The place, the size of the so-called ignition volume, where the reacting system is imperfectly stirred, as well as the residence time spent there by the imperfectly mixed reactants all seem to depend on external factors.

  5. High-Order Weno Simulations of Three-Dimensional Reshocked Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability to Late Times: Dynamics, Dependence on Initial Conditions, and Comparisons to Experimental Data

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, O; Latini, M

    2010-01-12

    The dynamics of the reshocked multi-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is investigated using 513 x 257{sup 2} three-dimensional ninth-order weighted essentially nonoscillatory shock-capturing simulations. A two-mode initial perturbation with superposed random noise is used to model the Mach 1.5 air/SF{sub 6} Vetter-Sturtevant shock tube experiment. The mass fraction and enstrophy isosurfaces, and density cross-sections are utilized to show the detailed flow structure before, during, and after reshock. It is shown that the mixing layer growth agrees well with the experimentally measured growth rate before and after reshock. The post-reshock growth rate is also in good agreement with the prediction of the Mikaelian model. A parametric study of the sensitivity of the layer growth to the choice of amplitudes of the short and long wavelength initial interfacial perturbation is also presented. Finally, the amplification effects of reshock are quantified using the evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent enstrophy spectra, as well as the evolution of the baroclinic enstrophy production, buoyancy production, and shear production terms in the enstrophy and turbulent kinetic transport equations.

  6. Connecting the dots: Semi-analytical and random walk numerical solutions of the diffusion–reaction equation with stochastic initial conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Paster, Amir; Bolster, Diogo; Benson, David A.

    2014-04-15

    We study a system with bimolecular irreversible kinetic reaction A+B→∅ where the underlying transport of reactants is governed by diffusion, and the local reaction term is given by the law of mass action. We consider the case where the initial concentrations are given in terms of an average and a white noise perturbation. Our goal is to solve the diffusion–reaction equation which governs the system, and we tackle it with both analytical and numerical approaches. To obtain an analytical solution, we develop the equations of moments and solve them approximately. To obtain a numerical solution, we develop a grid-less Monte Carlo particle tracking approach, where diffusion is modeled by a random walk of the particles, and reaction is modeled by annihilation of particles. The probability of annihilation is derived analytically from the particles' co-location probability. We rigorously derive the relationship between the initial number of particles in the system and the amplitude of white noise represented by that number. This enables us to compare the particle simulations and the approximate analytical solution and offer an explanation of the late time discrepancies. - Graphical abstract:.

  7. Motor equivalence during multi-finger accurate force production

    PubMed Central

    Mattos, Daniela; Schöner, Gregor; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    We explored stability of multi-finger cyclical accurate force production action by analysis of responses to small perturbations applied to one of the fingers and inter-cycle analysis of variance. Healthy subjects performed two versions of the cyclical task, with and without an explicit target. The “inverse piano” apparatus was used to lift/lower a finger by 1 cm over 0.5 s; the subjects were always instructed to perform the task as accurate as they could at all times. Deviations in the spaces of finger forces and modes (hypothetical commands to individual fingers) were quantified in directions that did not change total force (motor equivalent) and in directions that changed the total force (non-motor equivalent). Motor equivalent deviations started immediately with the perturbation and increased progressively with time. After a sequence of lifting-lowering perturbations leading to the initial conditions, motor equivalent deviations were dominating. These phenomena were less pronounced for analysis performed with respect to the total moment of force with respect to an axis parallel to the forearm/hand. Analysis of inter-cycle variance showed consistently higher variance in a subspace that did not change the total force as compared to the variance that affected total force. We interpret the results as reflections of task-specific stability of the redundant multi-finger system. Large motor equivalent deviations suggest that reactions of the neuromotor system to a perturbation involve large changes of neural commands that do not affect salient performance variables, even during actions with the purpose to correct those salient variables. Consistency of the analyses of motor equivalence and variance analysis provides additional support for the idea of task-specific stability ensured at a neural level. PMID:25344311

  8. Accurate spectral numerical schemes for kinetic equations with energy diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkening, Jon; Cerfon, Antoine J.; Landreman, Matt

    2015-08-01

    We examine the merits of using a family of polynomials that are orthogonal with respect to a non-classical weight function to discretize the speed variable in continuum kinetic calculations. We consider a model one-dimensional partial differential equation describing energy diffusion in velocity space due to Fokker-Planck collisions. This relatively simple case allows us to compare the results of the projected dynamics with an expensive but highly accurate spectral transform approach. It also allows us to integrate in time exactly, and to focus entirely on the effectiveness of the discretization of the speed variable. We show that for a fixed number of modes or grid points, the non-classical polynomials can be many orders of magnitude more accurate than classical Hermite polynomials or finite-difference solvers for kinetic equations in plasma physics. We provide a detailed analysis of the difference in behavior and accuracy of the two families of polynomials. For the non-classical polynomials, if the initial condition is not smooth at the origin when interpreted as a three-dimensional radial function, the exact solution leaves the polynomial subspace for a time, but returns (up to roundoff accuracy) to the same point evolved to by the projected dynamics in that time. By contrast, using classical polynomials, the exact solution differs significantly from the projected dynamics solution when it returns to the subspace. We also explore the connection between eigenfunctions of the projected evolution operator and (non-normalizable) eigenfunctions of the full evolution operator, as well as the effect of truncating the computational domain.

  9. Accurate upwind methods for the Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1993-01-01

    A new class of piecewise linear methods for the numerical solution of the one-dimensional Euler equations of gas dynamics is presented. These methods are uniformly second-order accurate, and can be considered as extensions of Godunov's scheme. With an appropriate definition of monotonicity preservation for the case of linear convection, it can be shown that they preserve monotonicity. Similar to Van Leer's MUSCL scheme, they consist of two key steps: a reconstruction step followed by an upwind step. For the reconstruction step, a monotonicity constraint that preserves uniform second-order accuracy is introduced. Computational efficiency is enhanced by devising a criterion that detects the 'smooth' part of the data where the constraint is redundant. The concept and coding of the constraint are simplified by the use of the median function. A slope steepening technique, which has no effect at smooth regions and can resolve a contact discontinuity in four cells, is described. As for the upwind step, existing and new methods are applied in a manner slightly different from those in the literature. These methods are derived by approximating the Euler equations via linearization and diagonalization. At a 'smooth' interface, Harten, Lax, and Van Leer's one intermediate state model is employed. A modification for this model that can resolve contact discontinuities is presented. Near a discontinuity, either this modified model or a more accurate one, namely, Roe's flux-difference splitting. is used. The current presentation of Roe's method, via the conceptually simple flux-vector splitting, not only establishes a connection between the two splittings, but also leads to an admissibility correction with no conditional statement, and an efficient approximation to Osher's approximate Riemann solver. These reconstruction and upwind steps result in schemes that are uniformly second-order accurate and economical at smooth regions, and yield high resolution at discontinuities.

  10. Accurate ab Initio Spin Densities.

    PubMed

    Boguslawski, Katharina; Marti, Konrad H; Legeza, Ors; Reiher, Markus

    2012-06-12

    We present an approach for the calculation of spin density distributions for molecules that require very large active spaces for a qualitatively correct description of their electronic structure. Our approach is based on the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm to calculate the spin density matrix elements as a basic quantity for the spatially resolved spin density distribution. The spin density matrix elements are directly determined from the second-quantized elementary operators optimized by the DMRG algorithm. As an analytic convergence criterion for the spin density distribution, we employ our recently developed sampling-reconstruction scheme [J. Chem. Phys.2011, 134, 224101] to build an accurate complete-active-space configuration-interaction (CASCI) wave function from the optimized matrix product states. The spin density matrix elements can then also be determined as an expectation value employing the reconstructed wave function expansion. Furthermore, the explicit reconstruction of a CASCI-type wave function provides insight into chemically interesting features of the molecule under study such as the distribution of α and β electrons in terms of Slater determinants, CI coefficients, and natural orbitals. The methodology is applied to an iron nitrosyl complex which we have identified as a challenging system for standard approaches [J. Chem. Theory Comput.2011, 7, 2740].

  11. Model simulation studies to clarify the effect on saccadic eye movements of initial condition velocities set by the Vestibular Ocular Reflex (VOR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nam, M. H.; Winters, J. M.; Stark, L.

    1981-01-01

    Voluntary active head rotations produced vestibulo-ocular reflex eye movements (VOR) with the subject viewing a fixation target. When this target jumped, the size of the refixation saccades were a function of the ongoing initial velocity of the eye. Saccades made against the VOR were larger in magnitude. Simulation of a reciprocally innervated model eye movement provided results comparable to the experimental data. Most of the experimental effect appeared to be due to linear summation for saccades of 5 and 10 degree magnitude. For small saccades of 2.5 degrees, peripheral nonlinear interaction of state variables in the neuromuscular plant also played a role as proven by comparable behavior in the simulated model with known controller signals.

  12. A laboratory test setup for in situ measurements of the dielectric properties of catalyst powder samples under reaction conditions by microwave cavity perturbation: set up and initial tests.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Markus; Rauch, Dieter; Porch, Adrian; Moos, Ralf

    2014-09-10

    The catalytic behavior of zeolite catalysts for the ammonia-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOX) depends strongly on the type of zeolite material. An essential precondition for SCR is a previous ammonia gas adsorption that occurs on acidic sites of the zeolite. In order to understand and develop SCR active materials, it is crucial to know the amount of sorbed ammonia under reaction conditions. To support classical temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments, a correlation of the dielectric properties with the catalytic properties and the ammonia sorption under reaction conditions appears promising. In this work, a laboratory test setup, which enables direct measurements of the dielectric properties of catalytic powder samples under a defined gas atmosphere and temperature by microwave cavity perturbation, has been developed. Based on previous investigations and computational simulations, a resonator cavity and a heating system were designed, installed and characterized. The resonator cavity is designed to operate in its TM010 mode at 1.2 GHz. The first measurement of the ammonia loading of an H-ZSM-5 zeolite confirmed the operating performance of the test setup at constant temperatures of up to 300 °C. It showed how both real and imaginary parts of the relative complex permittivity are strongly correlated with the mass of stored ammonia.

  13. Effects of initial climatic conditions on growth and accumulation of fluoride and nitrogen in leaves of two tropical tree species exposed to industrial air pollution.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Cláudia Maria; Domingos, Marisa; Salatino, Antonio

    2007-03-15

    Saplings of Tibouchina pulchra and Psidium guajava, cultivated under standardized soil conditions, were placed in two sites at Cubatão (state of São Paulo, southeast Brazil) to study the effects of air pollution on growth, biomass allocation and foliar nitrogen and fluoride concentrations. Thirty-six potted plants were maintained over two periods of one year (Jul/00 to Jun/01; Dec/00 to Nov/01) at each of two experimental sites with distinct levels of air pollution: Pilões River Valley (PV) with vegetation virtually unaffected by air pollution; and Mogi River Valley (MV) severely affected by pollutants released mainly by chemical, fertilizer, iron and steel industries. For both species, saplings growing at MV showed alterations of growth and biomass allocation, as well as increased leaf concentrations of nitrogen and fluoride. Comparing both experimental periods, the one starting in winter (the driest season in Southeastern Brazil) seemed to affect the saplings more severely, the differences of the measured parameters between MV and PV being higher than in the second period. Multivariate analysis revealed two groups of data: one representing the MV and the other the PV saplings. For both species, saplings growing at MV showed differences in chemical composition, growth and biomass allocation, compared with the PV saplings. The results suggested that seasonal conditions of the first months of sapling exposure (summer or winter) modulate the intensity of responses to pollution stress.

  14. A Laboratory Test Setup for in Situ Measurements of the Dielectric Properties of Catalyst Powder Samples under Reaction Conditions by Microwave Cavity Perturbation: Set up and Initial Tests

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Markus; Rauch, Dieter; Porch, Adrian; Moos, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic behavior of zeolite catalysts for the ammonia-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOX) depends strongly on the type of zeolite material. An essential precondition for SCR is a previous ammonia gas adsorption that occurs on acidic sites of the zeolite. In order to understand and develop SCR active materials, it is crucial to know the amount of sorbed ammonia under reaction conditions. To support classical temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments, a correlation of the dielectric properties with the catalytic properties and the ammonia sorption under reaction conditions appears promising. In this work, a laboratory test setup, which enables direct measurements of the dielectric properties of catalytic powder samples under a defined gas atmosphere and temperature by microwave cavity perturbation, has been developed. Based on previous investigations and computational simulations, a resonator cavity and a heating system were designed, installed and characterized. The resonator cavity is designed to operate in its TM010 mode at 1.2 GHz. The first measurement of the ammonia loading of an H-ZSM-5 zeolite confirmed the operating performance of the test setup at constant temperatures of up to 300 °C. It showed how both real and imaginary parts of the relative complex permittivity are strongly correlated with the mass of stored ammonia. PMID:25211199

  15. Towards Accurate Molecular Modeling of Plastic Bonded Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantawansri, T. L.; Andzelm, J.; Taylor, D.; Byrd, E.; Rice, B.

    2010-03-01

    There is substantial interest in identifying the controlling factors that influence the susceptibility of polymer bonded explosives (PBXs) to accidental initiation. Numerous Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of PBXs using the COMPASS force field have been reported in recent years, where the validity of the force field in modeling the solid EM fill has been judged solely on its ability to reproduce lattice parameters, which is an insufficient metric. Performance of the COMPASS force field in modeling EMs and the polymeric binder has been assessed by calculating structural, thermal, and mechanical properties, where only fair agreement with experimental data is obtained. We performed MD simulations using the COMPASS force field for the polymer binder hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene and five EMs: cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine, 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetra-azacyclo-octane, 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexantirohexaazazisowurzitane, 2,4,6-trinitro-1,3,5-benzenetriamine, and pentaerythritol tetranitate. Predicted EM crystallographic and molecular structural parameters, as well as calculated properties for the binder will be compared with experimental results for different simulation conditions. We also present novel simulation protocols, which improve agreement between experimental and computation results thus leading to the accurate modeling of PBXs.

  16. Small dispersion limit of the Korteweg-de Vries equation with periodic initial conditions and analytical description of the Zabusky-Kruskal experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Guo; Biondini, Gino; Trillo, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    We study the small dispersion limit of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation with periodic boundary conditions and we apply the results to the Zabusky-Kruskal experiment. In particular, we employ a WKB approximation for the solution of the scattering problem for the KdV equation [i.e., the time-independent Schrödinger equation] to obtain an asymptotic expression for the trace of the monodromy matrix and thereby of the spectrum of the problem. We then perform a detailed analysis of the structure of said spectrum (i.e., band widths, gap widths and relative band widths) as a function of the dispersion smallness parameter ɛ. We then formulate explicit approximations for the number of solitons and corresponding soliton amplitudes as a function of ɛ. Finally, by performing an appropriate rescaling, we compare our results to those in the famous Zabusky and Kruskal's paper, showing very good agreement with the numerical results.

  17. Robust air refractometer for accurate compensation of the refractive index of air in everyday use.

    PubMed

    Kruger, O; Chetty, N

    2016-11-10

    The definition of the meter is based on the speed of light in a vacuum; however, most dimensional measurements, when performed using laser interferometry, are performed in air. A velocity of light compensation needs to be applied to the velocity of the laser light for accurate measurements of the speed of light to be approximated in a vacuum. Most practices use a weather-station method, whereby the ambient conditions are measured. Thereafter, the modified Edlén's equation is used, and corrections are calculated for the wavelength of the laser. The theoretical calculation is, however, only accurate to 3*10-8 without taking into account the accuracy of the sensors. Thus, this work focuses on investigations into the velocity of light compensations, both to improve upon the accuracy of the Edlén equation method in everyday use, and to verify the accuracy of the current weather-station systems in use through comparison with the refractometer. A refractometer that allows for velocity of light compensation measurements was developed, tested, and verified. The system was designed to be simple and cost-effective for use in everyday dimensional measurements, but with high accuracy. Achieved results show that although simple in design, the refractometer is accurate to at least 1*10-8, which meets our initial condition for design.

  18. Measurement and model comparison of methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone concentrations from the OH-initiated oxidation of isoprene under NOx free conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, M. A.; Dusanter, S.; Stevens, P. S.; Hites, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    Isoprene, the dominant natural hydrocarbon emitted into the atmosphere by deciduous trees, contributes significantly to the production of tropospheric ozone, organic nitrates, and secondary VOCs due to its high reactivity with hydroxyl radicals (OH). As a result, the chemical mechanism for the oxidation of isoprene is a subject of considerable interest in atmospheric chemistry. Recent measurements of OH and HO2 radical concentrations in forest environments do not agree with modeled concentrations, bringing into question our understanding of the atmospheric chemistry of isoprene and other reactive biogenic emissions. In this study, a small UV-irradiated reaction chamber was coupled to an on-line mass spectrometer to investigate the formation of isoprene oxidation products under NOx free conditions using UV-photolysis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the OH source. Time-resolved concentration profiles were measured for the two main products of isoprene oxidation: methacrolein (MAC) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK). These experimental concentration profiles were compared to the values predicted by both the explicit Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) and the condensed Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM). Several changes to the oxidation mechanism were incorporated, including the addition of recently proposed OH recycling reactions, in order to determine their impact on the predicted yields of MAC and MVK.

  19. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  20. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  1. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  2. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  3. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  4. Accurate, reliable prototype earth horizon sensor head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F.; Cohen, H.

    1973-01-01

    The design and performance is described of an accurate and reliable prototype earth sensor head (ARPESH). The ARPESH employs a detection logic 'locator' concept and horizon sensor mechanization which should lead to high accuracy horizon sensing that is minimally degraded by spatial or temporal variations in sensing attitude from a satellite in orbit around the earth at altitudes in the 500 km environ 1,2. An accuracy of horizon location to within 0.7 km has been predicted, independent of meteorological conditions. This corresponds to an error of 0.015 deg-at 500 km altitude. Laboratory evaluation of the sensor indicates that this accuracy is achieved. First, the basic operating principles of ARPESH are described; next, detailed design and construction data is presented and then performance of the sensor under laboratory conditions in which the sensor is installed in a simulator that permits it to scan over a blackbody source against background representing the earth space interface for various equivalent plant temperatures.

  5. Increased belowground C release during initial plant development of Populus deltoides x nigra grown under light and C reserve limited conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studer, Mirjam S.; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.; Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Abiven, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    Plants might be a key factor for the long-term stabilisation of carbon (C) in the soil, e.g. through enhanced physical protection of root-derived C against microbial decomposition in soil aggregates. On the other hand C released by the plants into the soil might promote the decomposition of native soil organic matter (SOM) through the stimulation of microbial activity. We measured the C budget of developing plant-soil systems (Populus deltoides x nigra, Cambisol soil) in the laboratory under controlled environmental conditions. In order to distinguish plant-derived from native C in the SOM and the soil CO2 efflux, we labelled the poplar shoots continuously with 13C-CO2 from first emergence of leaves (sprouting from stem cuttings). Throughout the experiment the CO2 fluxes (photosynthetic assimilation, dark respiratory loss, soil CO2 efflux) were measured frequently (every 30 min) and the 13C was traced in the soil CO2 efflux (1-2 times a week). After 10 weeks the plant-soil systems were destructively harvested and the distribution of the 13C distribution was analysed. The plants developed slowly (compared to previous experiments), most likely due to limitation in C reserves (long term cutting storage) and C supply (low light intensities). The amount of 13C recovered in the roots, microbial biomass and soil CO2 efflux was directly correlated with the leaf area of the different plant individuals. After 3-4 weeks of plant development we observed a high peak in the total soil CO2 efflux. During this time the relative belowground C release was increased massively over the basal rate of 17 % of net C assimilated, whereby the variability between the plant individuals was large. The smallest plants, i.e. the plants that were most resource limited, obtained the highest belowground C release accounting at the peak time for up to 57 % of net assimilated C. We hypothesize that the plants released specific compounds, which either directly (enzymatically) or indirectly (priming

  6. Accurate method for computing correlated color temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Changjun; Cui, Guihua; Melgosa, Manuel; Ruan, Xiukai; Zhang, Yaoju; Ma, Long; Xiao, Kaida; Luo, M Ronnier

    2016-06-27

    For the correlated color temperature (CCT) of a light source to be estimated, a nonlinear optimization problem must be solved. In all previous methods available to compute CCT, the objective function has only been approximated, and their predictions have achieved limited accuracy. For example, different unacceptable CCT values have been predicted for light sources located on the same isotemperature line. In this paper, we propose to compute CCT using the Newton method, which requires the first and second derivatives of the objective function. Following the current recommendation by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) for the computation of tristimulus values (summations at 1 nm steps from 360 nm to 830 nm), the objective function and its first and second derivatives are explicitly given and used in our computations. Comprehensive tests demonstrate that the proposed method, together with an initial estimation of CCT using Robertson's method [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1528-1535 (1968)], gives highly accurate predictions below 0.0012 K for light sources with CCTs ranging from 500 K to 106 K.

  7. Ellipsoidal-mirror reflectometer accurately measures infrared reflectance of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, S. T.; Richmond, J. C.

    1967-01-01

    Reflectometer accurately measures the reflectance of specimens in the infrared beyond 2.5 microns and under geometric conditions approximating normal irradiation and hemispherical viewing. It includes an ellipsoidal mirror, a specially coated averaging sphere associated with a detector for minimizing spatial and angular sensitivity, and an incident flux chopper.

  8. Ports Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of the ports initiative is to assist EPA and other participants to formulate strategies for moving forward on actions addressing the transportation, air quality and climate issues raised in the National Conversations.

  9. Accurate, reproducible measurement of blood pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, N R; Chockalingam, A; Fodor, J G; McKay, D W

    1990-01-01

    The diagnosis of mild hypertension and the treatment of hypertension require accurate measurement of blood pressure. Blood pressure readings are altered by various factors that influence the patient, the techniques used and the accuracy of the sphygmomanometer. The variability of readings can be reduced if informed patients prepare in advance by emptying their bladder and bowel, by avoiding over-the-counter vasoactive drugs the day of measurement and by avoiding exposure to cold, caffeine consumption, smoking and physical exertion within half an hour before measurement. The use of standardized techniques to measure blood pressure will help to avoid large systematic errors. Poor technique can account for differences in readings of more than 15 mm Hg and ultimately misdiagnosis. Most of the recommended procedures are simple and, when routinely incorporated into clinical practice, require little additional time. The equipment must be appropriate and in good condition. Physicians should have a suitable selection of cuff sizes readily available; the use of the correct cuff size is essential to minimize systematic errors in blood pressure measurement. Semiannual calibration of aneroid sphygmomanometers and annual inspection of mercury sphygmomanometers and blood pressure cuffs are recommended. We review the methods recommended for measuring blood pressure and discuss the factors known to produce large differences in blood pressure readings. PMID:2192791

  10. A novel P450-initiated biphasic process for sustainable biodegradation of benzo[a]pyrene in soil under nutrient-sufficient conditions by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sukanta S; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Shann, Jodi; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2013-10-15

    High molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are resistant to biodegradation in soil. Conventionally, white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been investigated for HMW-PAH degradation in soil primarily using nutrient-deficient (ligninolytic) conditions, albeit with limited and non-sustainable biodegradation outcomes. In this study, we report development of an alternative novel biphasic process initiated under nutrient-sufficient (non-ligninolytic) culture conditions, by employing an advanced experimental design strategy. During the initial nutrient-sufficient non-ligninolytic phase (16 days), the process showed upregulation (3.6- and 22.3-fold, respectively) of two key PAH-oxidizing P450 monooxygenases pc2 (CYP63A2) and pah4 (CYP5136A3) and formation of typical P450-hydroxylated metabolite. This along with abrogation (84.9%) of BaP degradation activity in response to a P450-specific inhibitor implied key role of these monooxygenases. The subsequent phase triggered on continued incubation (to 25 days) switched the process from non-ligninolytic to ligninolytic resulting in a significantly higher net degradation (91.6% as against 67.4% in the control nutrient-limited set) of BaP with concomitant de novo ligninolytic enzyme expression making it a biphasic process yielding improved sustainable bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil. To our knowledge this is the first report on development of such biphasic process for bioremediation application of a white rot fungus.

  11. Accurate orbit propagation with planetary close encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baù, Giulio; Milani Comparetti, Andrea; Guerra, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    We tackle the problem of accurately propagating the motion of those small bodies that undergo close approaches with a planet. The literature is lacking on this topic and the reliability of the numerical results is not sufficiently discussed. The high-frequency components of the perturbation generated by a close encounter makes the propagation particularly challenging both from the point of view of the dynamical stability of the formulation and the numerical stability of the integrator. In our approach a fixed step-size and order multistep integrator is combined with a regularized formulation of the perturbed two-body problem. When the propagated object enters the region of influence of a celestial body, the latter becomes the new primary body of attraction. Moreover, the formulation and the step-size will also be changed if necessary. We present: 1) the restarter procedure applied to the multistep integrator whenever the primary body is changed; 2) new analytical formulae for setting the step-size (given the order of the multistep, formulation and initial osculating orbit) in order to control the accumulation of the local truncation error and guarantee the numerical stability during the propagation; 3) a new definition of the region of influence in the phase space. We test the propagator with some real asteroids subject to the gravitational attraction of the planets, the Yarkovsky and relativistic perturbations. Our goal is to show that the proposed approach improves the performance of both the propagator implemented in the OrbFit software package (which is currently used by the NEODyS service) and of the propagator represented by a variable step-size and order multistep method combined with Cowell's formulation (i.e. direct integration of position and velocity in either the physical or a fictitious time).

  12. In-line sensor for accurate rf power measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahan, D.; Hopkins, M. B.

    2005-10-01

    An in-line sensor has been constructed with 50Ω characteristic impedance to accurately measure rf power dissipated in a matched or unmatched load with a view to being implemented as a rf discharge diagnostic. The physical construction and calibration technique are presented. The design is a wide band, hybrid directional coupler/current-voltage sensor suitable for fundamental and harmonic power measurements. A comparison with a standard wattmeter using dummy load impedances shows that this in-line sensor is significantly more accurate in mismatched conditions.

  13. In-line sensor for accurate rf power measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gahan, D.; Hopkins, M.B.

    2005-10-15

    An in-line sensor has been constructed with 50 {omega} characteristic impedance to accurately measure rf power dissipated in a matched or unmatched load with a view to being implemented as a rf discharge diagnostic. The physical construction and calibration technique are presented. The design is a wide band, hybrid directional coupler/current-voltage sensor suitable for fundamental and harmonic power measurements. A comparison with a standard wattmeter using dummy load impedances shows that this in-line sensor is significantly more accurate in mismatched conditions.

  14. Simulation of shock-initiated ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melguizo-Gavilanes, J.; Rezaeyan, N.; Lopez-Aoyagi, M.; Bauwens, L.

    2010-12-01

    The scenario of detonative ignition in shocked mixture is significant because it is a contributor to deflagration to detonation transition, for example following shock reflections. However, even in one dimension, simulation of ignition between a contact surface or a flame and a shock moving into a combustible mixture is difficult because of the singular nature of the initial conditions. Initially, as the shock starts moving into reactive mixture, the region filled with reactive mixture has zero thickness. On a fixed grid, the number of grid points between the shock and the contact surface increases as the shock moves away from the latter. Due to initial lack of resolution in the region of interest, staircasing may occur, whereby the resulting plots consist of jumps between few values a few grid points, and these numerical artifacts are amplified by the chemistry which is very sensitive to temperature, leading to unreliable results. The formulation is transformed, replacing time and space by time and space over time as the independent variables. This frame of reference corresponds to the self-similar formulation in which the non-reactive problem remains stationary, and the initial conditions are well-resolved. Additionally, a solution obtained from short time perturbation is used as initial condition, at a time still short enough for the perturbation to be very accurate, but long enough so that there is sufficient resolution. The numerical solution to the transformed problem is obtained using an essentially non-oscillatory algorithm, which is adequate not only for the early part of the process, but also for the latter part, when chemistry leads to appearance of a shock and eventually a detonation wave is formed. A validation study was performed and the results were compared with the literature, for single step Arrhenius chemistry. The method and its implementation were found to be effective. Results are presented for values of activation energy ranging from mild to

  15. Youth Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Office of Youth Programs.

    Summarizing the first eight months of the planning, design, and implementation of the new federal youth programs created by the Youth Employment and Demonstration Projects Act of 1977 (YEDPA) and the efforts for expansion and enrichment of the Job Corps, this report explains the charters of the two projects and their initial successes in and…

  16. Conditional overexpression of the wild-type Gs alpha as the gsp oncogene initiates chronic extracellularly regulated kinase 1/2 activation and hormone hypersecretion in pituitary cell lines.

    PubMed

    Romano, D; Magalon, K; Pertuit, M; Rasolonjanahary, R; Barlier, A; Enjalbert, A; Gerard, C

    2007-06-01

    In pituitary cells, activation of the cAMP pathway by specific G protein-coupled receptors controls differentiative functions and proliferation. Constitutively active forms of the alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G(s) protein resulting from mutations at codon 201 or 227 (gsp oncogene) were first identified in 30-40% of human GH-secreting pituitary adenomas. This rate of occurrence suggests that the gsp oncogene is not responsible for initiating the majority of these tumors. Moreover, there is a large overlap between the clinical phenotypes observed in patients with tumors bearing the gsp oncogene and those devoid of this oncogene. To explore the role of G(s)alpha in GH-secreting adenomas, we obtained somatolactotroph GH4C1 cell lines by performing doxycycline-dependent conditional overexpression of the wild-type G(s)alpha protein and expression of the gsp oncogene. Although the resulting adenylyl cyclase and cAMP levels were 10-fold lower in the wild-type G(s)alpha-overexpressing cell line, a sustained MAPK ERK1/2 activation was observed in both cell lines. Overexpression of the wild-type G(s)alpha protein as the gsp oncogene initiated chronic activation of endogenous prolactin synthesis and release, as well as chronic activation of ERK1/2-sensitive human prolactin and GH promoters.

  17. Accurately measuring dynamic coefficient of friction in ultraform finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Dennis; Echaves, Samantha; Pidgeon, Brendan; Travis, Nathan; Ellis, Jonathan D.

    2013-09-01

    UltraForm Finishing (UFF) is a deterministic sub-aperture computer numerically controlled grinding and polishing platform designed by OptiPro Systems. UFF is used to grind and polish a variety of optics from simple spherical to fully freeform, and numerous materials from glasses to optical ceramics. The UFF system consists of an abrasive belt around a compliant wheel that rotates and contacts the part to remove material. This work aims to accurately measure the dynamic coefficient of friction (μ), how it changes as a function of belt wear, and how this ultimately affects material removal rates. The coefficient of friction has been examined in terms of contact mechanics and Preston's equation to determine accurate material removal rates. By accurately predicting changes in μ, polishing iterations can be more accurately predicted, reducing the total number of iterations required to meet specifications. We have established an experimental apparatus that can accurately measure μ by measuring triaxial forces during translating loading conditions or while manufacturing the removal spots used to calculate material removal rates. Using this system, we will demonstrate μ measurements for UFF belts during different states of their lifecycle and assess the material removal function from spot diagrams as a function of wear. Ultimately, we will use this system for qualifying belt-wheel-material combinations to develop a spot-morphing model to better predict instantaneous material removal functions.

  18. SCB initiator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes Jr., Robert W.; Renlund, Anita M.; Stanton, Philip L.

    1994-11-01

    A detonator for high explosives initiated by mechanical impact includes a cylindrical barrel, a layer of flyer material mechanically covering the barrel at one end, and a semiconductor bridge ignitor including a pair of electrically conductive pads connected by a semiconductor bridge. The bridge is in operational contact with the layer, whereby ignition of said bridge forces a portion of the layer through the barrel to detonate the explosive. Input means are provided for igniting the semiconductor bridge ignitor.

  19. SCB initiator

    SciTech Connect

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Renlund, Anita M.; Stanton, Philip L.

    1994-01-01

    A detonator for high explosives initiated by mechanical impact includes a cylindrical barrel, a layer of flyer material mechanically covering the barrel at one end, and a semiconductor bridge ignitor including a pair of electrically conductive pads connected by a semiconductor bridge. The bridge is in operational contact with the layer, whereby ignition of said bridge forces a portion of the layer through the barrel to detonate the explosive. Input means are provided for igniting the semiconductor bridge ignitor.

  20. A novel P450-initiated biphasic process for sustainable biodegradation of benzo[a]pyrene in soil under nutrient-sufficient conditions by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Sukanta S.; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Shann, Jodi; Yadav, Jagjit S.

    2013-01-01

    High molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are resistant to biodegradation in soil. Conventionally, white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been investigated for HMW-PAH degradation in soil primarily using nutrient-deficient (ligninolytic) conditions, albeit with limited and non-sustainable biodegradation outcomes. In this study, we report development of an alternative novel biphasic process initiated under nutrient-sufficient (non-ligninolytic) culture conditions, by employing an advanced experimental design strategy. During the initial nutrient-sufficient non-ligninolytic phase (16 days), the process showed upregulation (3.6-and 22.3-fold, respectively) of two key PAH-oxidizing P450 monooxygenases pc2 (CYP63A2) and pah4 (CYP5136A3) and formation of typical P450-hydroxylated metabolite. This along with abrogation (84.9%) of BaP degradation activity in response to a P450-specific inhibitor implied key role of these monooxygenases. The subsequent phase triggered on continued incubation (to 25 days) switched the process from non-ligninolytic to ligninolytic resulting in a significantly higher net degradation (91.6% as against 67.4% in the control nutrient-limited set) of BaP with concomitant de novo ligninolytic enzyme expression making it a biphasic process yielding improved sustainable bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil. To our knowledge this is the first report on development of such biphasic process for bioremediation application of a white rot fungus. PMID:24051002

  1. Mill profiler machines soft materials accurately

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1966-01-01

    Mill profiler machines bevels, slots, and grooves in soft materials, such as styrofoam phenolic-filled cores, to any desired thickness. A single operator can accurately control cutting depths in contour or straight line work.

  2. Accurate modeling of switched reluctance machine based on hybrid trained WNN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shoujun; Ge, Lefei; Ma, Shaojie; Zhang, Man

    2014-04-01

    According to the strong nonlinear electromagnetic characteristics of switched reluctance machine (SRM), a novel accurate modeling method is proposed based on hybrid trained wavelet neural network (WNN) which combines improved genetic algorithm (GA) with gradient descent (GD) method to train the network. In the novel method, WNN is trained by GD method based on the initial weights obtained per improved GA optimization, and the global parallel searching capability of stochastic algorithm and local convergence speed of deterministic algorithm are combined to enhance the training accuracy, stability and speed. Based on the measured electromagnetic characteristics of a 3-phase 12/8-pole SRM, the nonlinear simulation model is built by hybrid trained WNN in Matlab. The phase current and mechanical characteristics from simulation under different working conditions meet well with those from experiments, which indicates the accuracy of the model for dynamic and static performance evaluation of SRM and verifies the effectiveness of the proposed modeling method.

  3. Accurate modeling of switched reluctance machine based on hybrid trained WNN

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Shoujun Ge, Lefei; Ma, Shaojie; Zhang, Man

    2014-04-15

    According to the strong nonlinear electromagnetic characteristics of switched reluctance machine (SRM), a novel accurate modeling method is proposed based on hybrid trained wavelet neural network (WNN) which combines improved genetic algorithm (GA) with gradient descent (GD) method to train the network. In the novel method, WNN is trained by GD method based on the initial weights obtained per improved GA optimization, and the global parallel searching capability of stochastic algorithm and local convergence speed of deterministic algorithm are combined to enhance the training accuracy, stability and speed. Based on the measured electromagnetic characteristics of a 3-phase 12/8-pole SRM, the nonlinear simulation model is built by hybrid trained WNN in Matlab. The phase current and mechanical characteristics from simulation under different working conditions meet well with those from experiments, which indicates the accuracy of the model for dynamic and static performance evaluation of SRM and verifies the effectiveness of the proposed modeling method.

  4. Library preparation for highly accurate population sequencing of RNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Ashley; Andino, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Circular resequencing (CirSeq) is a novel technique for efficient and highly accurate next-generation sequencing (NGS) of RNA virus populations. The foundation of this approach is the circularization of fragmented viral RNAs, which are then redundantly encoded into tandem repeats by ‘rolling-circle’ reverse transcription. When sequenced, the redundant copies within each read are aligned to derive a consensus sequence of their initial RNA template. This process yields sequencing data with error rates far below the variant frequencies observed for RNA viruses, facilitating ultra-rare variant detection and accurate measurement of low-frequency variants. Although library preparation takes ~5 d, the high-quality data generated by CirSeq simplifies downstream data analysis, making this approach substantially more tractable for experimentalists. PMID:24967624

  5. Uniformly high order accurate essentially non-oscillatory schemes 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harten, A.; Engquist, B.; Osher, S.; Chakravarthy, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper (a third in a series) the construction and the analysis of essentially non-oscillatory shock capturing methods for the approximation of hyperbolic conservation laws are presented. Also presented is a hierarchy of high order accurate schemes which generalizes Godunov's scheme and its second order accurate MUSCL extension to arbitrary order of accuracy. The design involves an essentially non-oscillatory piecewise polynomial reconstruction of the solution from its cell averages, time evolution through an approximate solution of the resulting initial value problem, and averaging of this approximate solution over each cell. The reconstruction algorithm is derived from a new interpolation technique that when applied to piecewise smooth data gives high-order accuracy whenever the function is smooth but avoids a Gibbs phenomenon at discontinuities. Unlike standard finite difference methods this procedure uses an adaptive stencil of grid points and consequently the resulting schemes are highly nonlinear.

  6. Accurate thermoelastic tensor and acoustic velocities of NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcondes, Michel L.; Shukla, Gaurav; da Silveira, Pedro; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the importance of thermoelastic properties of minerals in geology and geophysics, their measurement at high pressures and temperatures are still challenging. Thus, ab initio calculations are an essential tool for predicting these properties at extreme conditions. Owing to the approximate description of the exchange-correlation energy, approximations used in calculations of vibrational effects, and numerical/methodological approximations, these methods produce systematic deviations. Hybrid schemes combining experimental data and theoretical results have emerged as a way to reconcile available information and offer more reliable predictions at experimentally inaccessible thermodynamics conditions. Here we introduce a method to improve the calculated thermoelastic tensor by using highly accurate thermal equation of state (EoS). The corrective scheme is general, applicable to crystalline solids with any symmetry, and can produce accurate results at conditions where experimental data may not exist. We apply it to rock-salt-type NaCl, a material whose structural properties have been challenging to describe accurately by standard ab initio methods and whose acoustic/seismic properties are important for the gas and oil industry.

  7. Accurate thermoelastic tensor and acoustic velocities of NaCl

    SciTech Connect

    Marcondes, Michel L.; Shukla, Gaurav; Silveira, Pedro da; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.

    2015-12-15

    Despite the importance of thermoelastic properties of minerals in geology and geophysics, their measurement at high pressures and temperatures are still challenging. Thus, ab initio calculations are an essential tool for predicting these properties at extreme conditions. Owing to the approximate description of the exchange-correlation energy, approximations used in calculations of vibrational effects, and numerical/methodological approximations, these methods produce systematic deviations. Hybrid schemes combining experimental data and theoretical results have emerged as a way to reconcile available information and offer more reliable predictions at experimentally inaccessible thermodynamics conditions. Here we introduce a method to improve the calculated thermoelastic tensor by using highly accurate thermal equation of state (EoS). The corrective scheme is general, applicable to crystalline solids with any symmetry, and can produce accurate results at conditions where experimental data may not exist. We apply it to rock-salt-type NaCl, a material whose structural properties have been challenging to describe accurately by standard ab initio methods and whose acoustic/seismic properties are important for the gas and oil industry.

  8. Initial planning benefits complex prospective memory at a cost.

    PubMed

    Settle, Jill R; Clawson, Deborah M; Sebrechts, Marc M

    2017-08-01

    The effect of initial planning on complex prospective memory was investigated using a virtual environment and a sample of healthy young adults (N = 34). Participants were assigned to either an initial planning or a control condition and were asked to complete a series of time- and event-based prospective memory tasks. The planning group completed the tasks more quickly and accurately than the control group. However, the total time spent, including both planning and task execution, was comparable for the two groups. Within the planning group, tasks that were planned were more likely to be completed than unplanned tasks, but inclusion of overly detailed information in the plans resulted in poorer performance. These results suggest that although initial planning can be beneficial to task completion, the complexity of a plan may contribute to decrements in performance.

  9. Openness initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, S.S.

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  10. Accurate determination of heteroclinic orbits in chaotic dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jizhou; Tomsovic, Steven

    2017-03-01

    Accurate calculation of heteroclinic and homoclinic orbits can be of significant importance in some classes of dynamical system problems. Yet for very strongly chaotic systems initial deviations from a true orbit will be magnified by a large exponential rate making direct computational methods fail quickly. In this paper, a method is developed that avoids direct calculation of the orbit by making use of the well-known stability property of the invariant unstable and stable manifolds. Under an area-preserving map, this property assures that any initial deviation from the stable (unstable) manifold collapses onto them under inverse (forward) iterations of the map. Using a set of judiciously chosen auxiliary points on the manifolds, long orbit segments can be calculated using the stable and unstable manifold intersections of the heteroclinic (homoclinic) tangle. Detailed calculations using the example of the kicked rotor are provided along with verification of the relation between action differences and certain areas bounded by the manifolds.

  11. Accurate pointing of tungsten welding electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegelmeier, P.

    1971-01-01

    Thoriated-tungsten is pointed accurately and quickly by using sodium nitrite. Point produced is smooth and no effort is necessary to hold the tungsten rod concentric. The chemically produced point can be used several times longer than ground points. This method reduces time and cost of preparing tungsten electrodes.

  12. Accurate and simple calibration of DLP projector systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilm, Jakob; Olesen, Oline V.; Larsen, Rasmus

    2014-03-01

    Much work has been devoted to the calibration of optical cameras, and accurate and simple methods are now available which require only a small number of calibration targets. The problem of obtaining these parameters for light projectors has not been studied as extensively and most current methods require a camera and involve feature extraction from a known projected pattern. In this work we present a novel calibration technique for DLP Projector systems based on phase shifting profilometry projection onto a printed calibration target. In contrast to most current methods, the one presented here does not rely on an initial camera calibration, and so does not carry over the error into projector calibration. A radial interpolation scheme is used to convert features coordinates into projector space, thereby allowing for a very accurate procedure. This allows for highly accurate determination of parameters including lens distortion. Our implementation acquires printed planar calibration scenes in less than 1s. This makes our method both fast and convenient. We evaluate our method in terms of reprojection errors and structured light image reconstruction quality.

  13. Accurate determination of the sedimentation flux of concentrated suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J.; Rakotomalala, N.; Salin, D.

    1995-10-01

    Flow rate jumps are used to generate propagating concentration variations in a counterflow stabilized suspension (a liquid fluidized bed). An acoustic technique is used to measure accurately the resulting concentration profiles through the bed. Depending on the experimental conditions, we have observed self-sharpening, or/and self-spreading concentration fronts. Our data are analyzed in the framework of Kynch's theory, providing an accurate determination of the sedimentation flux [CU(C); U(C) is the hindered sedimentation velocity of the suspension] and its derivatives in the concentration range 30%-60%. In the vicinity of the packing concentration, controlling the flow rate has allowed us to increase the maximum packing up to 60%.

  14. Microdrill Initiative - Initial Market Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Spears & Associates, Inc

    2003-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is launching a major research and development initiative to create a small, fast, inexpensive and environmentally friendly rig for drilling 5000 feet boreholes to investigate potential oil and gas reservoirs. DOE wishes to get input from petroleum industry operators, service companies and equipment suppliers on the operation and application of this coiled-tubing-based drilling unit. To that end, DOE has asked Spears & Associates, Inc. (SAI) to prepare a special state-of-the-market report and assist during a DOE-sponsored project-scoping workshop in Albuquerque near the end of April 2003. The scope of the project is four-fold: (1) Evaluate the history, status and future of demand for very small bore-hole drilling; (2) Measure the market for coiled tubing drilling and describe the state-of-the-art; (3) Identify companies and individuals who should have an interest in micro drilling and invite them to the DOE workshop; and (4) Participate in 3 concurrent workshop sessions, record and evaluate participant comments and report workshop conclusions.

  15. Rapid and Accurate Identification of Candida albicans Isolates by Use of PNA FISHFlow▿

    PubMed Central

    Trnovsky, Jan; Merz, William; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Wu, Fann; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Stender, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    We developed the simple, rapid (1 h), and accurate PNA FISHFlow method for the identification of Candida albicans. The method exploits unique in solution in situ hybridization conditions under which the cells are simultaneously fixed and hybridized. This method facilitates the accurate identification of clinical yeast isolates using two scoring techniques: flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. PMID:18287325

  16. Feedback about More Accurate versus Less Accurate Trials: Differential Effects on Self-Confidence and Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badami, Rokhsareh; VaezMousavi, Mohammad; Wulf, Gabriele; Namazizadeh, Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-confidence or anxiety would be differentially affected by feedback from more accurate rather than less accurate trials. The second purpose was to determine whether arousal variations (activation) would predict performance. On Day 1, participants performed a golf putting task under one of…

  17. Accurate colorimetric feedback for RGB LED clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Kwong; Ashdown, Ian

    2006-08-01

    We present an empirical model of LED emission spectra that is applicable to both InGaN and AlInGaP high-flux LEDs, and which accurately predicts their relative spectral power distributions over a wide range of LED junction temperatures. We further demonstrate with laboratory measurements that changes in LED spectral power distribution with temperature can be accurately predicted with first- or second-order equations. This provides the basis for a real-time colorimetric feedback system for RGB LED clusters that can maintain the chromaticity of white light at constant intensity to within +/-0.003 Δuv over a range of 45 degrees Celsius, and to within 0.01 Δuv when dimmed over an intensity range of 10:1.

  18. An accurate registration technique for distorted images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delapena, Michele; Shaw, Richard A.; Linde, Peter; Dravins, Dainis

    1990-01-01

    Accurate registration of International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) images is crucial because the variability of the geometrical distortions that are introduced by the SEC-Vidicon cameras ensures that raw science images are never perfectly aligned with the Intensity Transfer Functions (ITFs) (i.e., graded floodlamp exposures that are used to linearize and normalize the camera response). A technique for precisely registering IUE images which uses a cross correlation of the fixed pattern that exists in all raw IUE images is described.

  19. On accurate determination of contact angle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.

    1992-01-01

    Methods are proposed that exploit a microgravity environment to obtain highly accurate measurement of contact angle. These methods, which are based on our earlier mathematical results, do not require detailed measurement of a liquid free-surface, as they incorporate discontinuous or nearly-discontinuous behavior of the liquid bulk in certain container geometries. Physical testing is planned in the forthcoming IML-2 space flight and in related preparatory ground-based experiments.

  20. The Impact of Soil Moisture Initialization On Seasonal Precipitation Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, R. D.; Suarez, M. J.; Tyahla, L.; Houser, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Some studies suggest that the proper initialization of soil moisture in a forecasting model may contribute significantly to the accurate prediction of seasonal precipitation, especially over mid-latitude continents. In order for the initialization to have any impact at all, however, two conditions must be satisfied: (1) the initial soil moisture anomaly must be "remembered" into the forecasted season, and (2) the atmosphere must respond in a predictable way to the soil moisture anomaly. In our previous studies, we identified the key land surface and atmospheric properties needed to satisfy each condition. Here, we tie these studies together with an analysis of an ensemble of seasonal forecasts. Initial soil moisture conditions for the forecasts are established by forcing the land surface model with realistic precipitation prior to the start of the forecast period. As expected, the impacts on forecasted precipitation (relative to an ensemble of runs that do not utilize soil moisture information) tend to be localized over the small fraction of the earth with all of the required land and atmosphere properties.

  1. High Frequency QRS ECG Accurately Detects Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Arenare, Brian; Poulin, Gregory; Moser, Daniel R.; Delgado, Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    High frequency (HF, 150-250 Hz) analysis over the entire QRS interval of the ECG is more sensitive than conventional ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia. However, the accuracy of HF QRS ECG for detecting cardiomyopathy is unknown. We obtained simultaneous resting conventional and HF QRS 12-lead ECGs in 66 patients with cardiomyopathy (EF = 23.2 plus or minus 6.l%, mean plus or minus SD) and in 66 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using PC-based ECG software recently developed at NASA. The single most accurate ECG parameter for detecting cardiomyopathy was an HF QRS morphological score that takes into consideration the total number and severity of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present plus the clustering of RAZs together in contiguous leads. This RAZ score had an area under the receiver operator curve (ROC) of 0.91, and was 88% sensitive, 82% specific and 85% accurate for identifying cardiomyopathy at optimum score cut-off of 140 points. Although conventional ECG parameters such as the QRS and QTc intervals were also significantly longer in patients than controls (P less than 0.001, BBBs excluded), these conventional parameters were less accurate (area under the ROC = 0.77 and 0.77, respectively) than HF QRS morphological parameters for identifying underlying cardiomyopathy. The total amplitude of the HF QRS complexes, as measured by summed root mean square voltages (RMSVs), also differed between patients and controls (33.8 plus or minus 11.5 vs. 41.5 plus or minus 13.6 mV, respectively, P less than 0.003), but this parameter was even less accurate in distinguishing the two groups (area under ROC = 0.67) than the HF QRS morphologic and conventional ECG parameters. Diagnostic accuracy was optimal (86%) when the RAZ score from the HF QRS ECG and the QTc interval from the conventional ECG were used simultaneously with cut-offs of greater than or equal to 40 points and greater than or equal to 445 ms, respectively. In conclusion 12-lead HF QRS ECG employing

  2. Dynamical correction of control laws for marine ships' accurate steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veremey, Evgeny I.

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this work is the analytical synthesis problem for marine vehicles autopilots design. Despite numerous known methods for a solution, the mentioned problem is very complicated due to the presence of an extensive population of certain dynamical conditions, requirements and restrictions, which must be satisfied by the appropriate choice of a steering control law. The aim of this paper is to simplify the procedure of the synthesis, providing accurate steering with desirable dynamics of the control system. The approach proposed here is based on the usage of a special unified multipurpose control law structure that allows decoupling a synthesis into simpler particular optimization problems. In particular, this structure includes a dynamical corrector to support the desirable features for the vehicle's motion under the action of sea wave disturbances. As a result, a specialized new method for the corrector design is proposed to provide an accurate steering or a trade-off between accurate steering and economical steering of the ship. This method guaranties a certain flexibility of the control law with respect to an actual environment of the sailing; its corresponding turning can be realized in real time onboard.

  3. Accurate modelling of unsteady flows in collapsible tubes.

    PubMed

    Marchandise, Emilie; Flaud, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    The context of this paper is the development of a general and efficient numerical haemodynamic tool to help clinicians and researchers in understanding of physiological flow phenomena. We propose an accurate one-dimensional Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RK-DG) method coupled with lumped parameter models for the boundary conditions. The suggested model has already been successfully applied to haemodynamics in arteries and is now extended for the flow in collapsible tubes such as veins. The main difference with cardiovascular simulations is that the flow may become supercritical and elastic jumps may appear with the numerical consequence that scheme may not remain monotone if no limiting procedure is introduced. We show that our second-order RK-DG method equipped with an approximate Roe's Riemann solver and a slope-limiting procedure allows us to capture elastic jumps accurately. Moreover, this paper demonstrates that the complex physics associated with such flows is more accurately modelled than with traditional methods such as finite difference methods or finite volumes. We present various benchmark problems that show the flexibility and applicability of the numerical method. Our solutions are compared with analytical solutions when they are available and with solutions obtained using other numerical methods. Finally, to illustrate the clinical interest, we study the emptying process in a calf vein squeezed by contracting skeletal muscle in a normal and pathological subject. We compare our results with experimental simulations and discuss the sensitivity to parameters of our model.

  4. Evaluating Cloud Initialization in a Convection-permit NWP Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Chen, Baode

    2015-04-01

    In general, to avoid "double counting precipitation" problem, in convection permit NWP models, it was a common practice to turn off convective parameterization. However, if there were not any cloud information in the initial conditions, the occurrence of precipitation could be delayed due to spin-up of cloud field or microphysical variables. In this study, we utilized the complex cloud analysis package from the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) to adjust the initial states of the model on water substance, such as cloud water, cloud ice, rain water, et al., that is, to initialize the microphysical variables (i.e., hydrometers), mainly based on radar reflectivity observations. Using the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) model, numerical experiments with/without cloud initialization and convective parameterization were carried out at grey-zone resolutions (i.e. 1, 3, and 9 km). The results from the experiments without convective parameterization indicate that model ignition with radar reflectivity can significantly reduce spin-up time and accurately simulate precipitation at the initial time. In addition, it helps to improve location and intensity of predicted precipitation. With grey-zone resolutions (i.e. 1, 3, and 9 km), using the cumulus convective parameterization scheme (without radar data) cannot produce realistic precipitation at the early time. The issues related to microphysical parametrization associated with cloud initialization were also discussed.

  5. Accurate measurement of unsteady state fluid temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaremkiewicz, Magdalena

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, two accurate methods for determining the transient fluid temperature were presented. Measurements were conducted for boiling water since its temperature is known. At the beginning the thermometers are at the ambient temperature and next they are immediately immersed into saturated water. The measurements were carried out with two thermometers of different construction but with the same housing outer diameter equal to 15 mm. One of them is a K-type industrial thermometer widely available commercially. The temperature indicated by the thermometer was corrected considering the thermometers as the first or second order inertia devices. The new design of a thermometer was proposed and also used to measure the temperature of boiling water. Its characteristic feature is a cylinder-shaped housing with the sheath thermocouple located in its center. The temperature of the fluid was determined based on measurements taken in the axis of the solid cylindrical element (housing) using the inverse space marching method. Measurements of the transient temperature of the air flowing through the wind tunnel using the same thermometers were also carried out. The proposed measurement technique provides more accurate results compared with measurements using industrial thermometers in conjunction with simple temperature correction using the inertial thermometer model of the first or second order. By comparing the results, it was demonstrated that the new thermometer allows obtaining the fluid temperature much faster and with higher accuracy in comparison to the industrial thermometer. Accurate measurements of the fast changing fluid temperature are possible due to the low inertia thermometer and fast space marching method applied for solving the inverse heat conduction problem.

  6. The first accurate description of an aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    2006-12-01

    As technology has advanced, the scientific study of auroral phenomena has increased by leaps and bounds. A look back at the earliest descriptions of aurorae offers an interesting look into how medieval scholars viewed the subjects that we study.Although there are earlier fragmentary references in the literature, the first accurate description of the aurora borealis appears to be that published by the German Catholic scholar Konrad von Megenberg (1309-1374) in his book Das Buch der Natur (The Book of Nature). The book was written between 1349 and 1350.

  7. Determining accurate distances to nearby galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanos, Alceste Zoe

    2005-11-01

    Determining accurate distances to nearby or distant galaxies is a very simple conceptually, yet complicated in practice, task. Presently, distances to nearby galaxies are only known to an accuracy of 10-15%. The current anchor galaxy of the extragalactic distance scale is the Large Magellanic Cloud, which has large (10-15%) systematic uncertainties associated with it, because of its morphology, its non-uniform reddening and the unknown metallicity dependence of the Cepheid period-luminosity relation. This work aims to determine accurate distances to some nearby galaxies, and subsequently help reduce the error in the extragalactic distance scale and the Hubble constant H 0 . In particular, this work presents the first distance determination of the DIRECT Project to M33 with detached eclipsing binaries. DIRECT aims to obtain a new anchor galaxy for the extragalactic distance scale by measuring direct, accurate (to 5%) distances to two Local Group galaxies, M31 and M33, with detached eclipsing binaries. It involves a massive variability survey of these galaxies and subsequent photometric and spectroscopic follow-up of the detached binaries discovered. In this work, I also present a catalog of variable stars discovered in one of the DIRECT fields, M31Y, which includes 41 eclipsing binaries. Additionally, we derive the distance to the Draco Dwarf Spheroidal galaxy, with ~100 RR Lyrae found in our first CCD variability study of this galaxy. A "hybrid" method of discovering Cepheids with ground-based telescopes is described next. It involves applying the image subtraction technique on the images obtained from ground-based telescopes and then following them up with the Hubble Space Telescope to derive Cepheid period-luminosity distances. By re-analyzing ESO Very Large Telescope data on M83 (NGC 5236), we demonstrate that this method is much more powerful for detecting variability, especially in crowded fields. I finally present photometry for the Wolf-Rayet binary WR 20a

  8. New law requires 'medically accurate' lesson plans.

    PubMed

    1999-09-17

    The California Legislature has passed a bill requiring all textbooks and materials used to teach about AIDS be medically accurate and objective. Statements made within the curriculum must be supported by research conducted in compliance with scientific methods, and published in peer-reviewed journals. Some of the current lesson plans were found to contain scientifically unsupported and biased information. In addition, the bill requires material to be "free of racial, ethnic, or gender biases." The legislation is supported by a wide range of interests, but opposed by the California Right to Life Education Fund, because they believe it discredits abstinence-only material.

  9. Accurate taxonomic assignment of short pyrosequencing reads.

    PubMed

    Clemente, José C; Jansson, Jesper; Valiente, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Ambiguities in the taxonomy dependent assignment of pyrosequencing reads are usually resolved by mapping each read to the lowest common ancestor in a reference taxonomy of all those sequences that match the read. This conservative approach has the drawback of mapping a read to a possibly large clade that may also contain many sequences not matching the read. A more accurate taxonomic assignment of short reads can be made by mapping each read to the node in the reference taxonomy that provides the best precision and recall. We show that given a suffix array for the sequences in the reference taxonomy, a short read can be mapped to the node of the reference taxonomy with the best combined value of precision and recall in time linear in the size of the taxonomy subtree rooted at the lowest common ancestor of the matching sequences. An accurate taxonomic assignment of short reads can thus be made with about the same efficiency as when mapping each read to the lowest common ancestor of all matching sequences in a reference taxonomy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on several metagenomic datasets of marine and gut microbiota.

  10. Accurate shear measurement with faint sources

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun; Foucaud, Sebastien; Luo, Wentao E-mail: walt@shao.ac.cn

    2015-01-01

    For cosmic shear to become an accurate cosmological probe, systematic errors in the shear measurement method must be unambiguously identified and corrected for. Previous work of this series has demonstrated that cosmic shears can be measured accurately in Fourier space in the presence of background noise and finite pixel size, without assumptions on the morphologies of galaxy and PSF. The remaining major source of error is source Poisson noise, due to the finiteness of source photon number. This problem is particularly important for faint galaxies in space-based weak lensing measurements, and for ground-based images of short exposure times. In this work, we propose a simple and rigorous way of removing the shear bias from the source Poisson noise. Our noise treatment can be generalized for images made of multiple exposures through MultiDrizzle. This is demonstrated with the SDSS and COSMOS/ACS data. With a large ensemble of mock galaxy images of unrestricted morphologies, we show that our shear measurement method can achieve sub-percent level accuracy even for images of signal-to-noise ratio less than 5 in general, making it the most promising technique for cosmic shear measurement in the ongoing and upcoming large scale galaxy surveys.

  11. Sparse and accurate high resolution SAR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Duc; Zhao, Kexin; Rowe, William; Li, Jian

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the usage of an adaptive method, the Iterative Adaptive Approach (IAA), in combination with a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate to reconstruct high resolution SAR images that are both sparse and accurate. IAA is a nonparametric weighted least squares algorithm that is robust and user parameter-free. IAA has been shown to reconstruct SAR images with excellent side lobes suppression and high resolution enhancement. We first reconstruct the SAR images using IAA, and then we enforce sparsity by using MAP with a sparsity inducing prior. By coupling these two methods, we can produce a sparse and accurate high resolution image that are conducive for feature extractions and target classification applications. In addition, we show how IAA can be made computationally efficient without sacrificing accuracies, a desirable property for SAR applications where the size of the problems is quite large. We demonstrate the success of our approach using the Air Force Research Lab's "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set Version 1.0" challenge dataset. Via the widely used FFT, individual vehicles contained in the scene are barely recognizable due to the poor resolution and high side lobe nature of FFT. However with our approach clear edges, boundaries, and textures of the vehicles are obtained.

  12. Accurate basis set truncation for wavefunction embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Taylor A.; Goodpaster, Jason D.; Manby, Frederick R.; Miller, Thomas F.

    2013-07-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) provides a formally exact framework for performing embedded subsystem electronic structure calculations, including DFT-in-DFT and wavefunction theory-in-DFT descriptions. In the interest of efficiency, it is desirable to truncate the atomic orbital basis set in which the subsystem calculation is performed, thus avoiding high-order scaling with respect to the size of the MO virtual space. In this study, we extend a recently introduced projection-based embedding method [F. R. Manby, M. Stella, J. D. Goodpaster, and T. F. Miller III, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 8, 2564 (2012)], 10.1021/ct300544e to allow for the systematic and accurate truncation of the embedded subsystem basis set. The approach is applied to both covalently and non-covalently bound test cases, including water clusters and polypeptide chains, and it is demonstrated that errors associated with basis set truncation are controllable to well within chemical accuracy. Furthermore, we show that this approach allows for switching between accurate projection-based embedding and DFT embedding with approximate kinetic energy (KE) functionals; in this sense, the approach provides a means of systematically improving upon the use of approximate KE functionals in DFT embedding.

  13. Will Your Campus Diversity Initiative Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingle, Grant

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author gives suggestions on how to make campus diversity initiative work. The author suggests making sure that the following conditions apply to a campus initiative before getting involved: (1) The communications about the initiative, on and off campus, are comparable to those for a capital campaign; (2) The initiative has an…

  14. D-BRAIN: Anatomically Accurate Simulated Diffusion MRI Brain Data.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Daniele; Jeurissen, Ben; Aelterman, Jan; Roine, Timo; Sijbers, Jan; Pizurica, Aleksandra; Leemans, Alexander; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion Weighted (DW) MRI allows for the non-invasive study of water diffusion inside living tissues. As such, it is useful for the investigation of human brain white matter (WM) connectivity in vivo through fiber tractography (FT) algorithms. Many DW-MRI tailored restoration techniques and FT algorithms have been developed. However, it is not clear how accurately these methods reproduce the WM bundle characteristics in real-world conditions, such as in the presence of noise, partial volume effect, and a limited spatial and angular resolution. The difficulty lies in the lack of a realistic brain phantom on the one hand, and a sufficiently accurate way of modeling the acquisition-related degradation on the other. This paper proposes a software phantom that approximates a human brain to a high degree of realism and that can incorporate complex brain-like structural features. We refer to it as a Diffusion BRAIN (D-BRAIN) phantom. Also, we propose an accurate model of a (DW) MRI acquisition protocol to allow for validation of methods in realistic conditions with data imperfections. The phantom model simulates anatomical and diffusion properties for multiple brain tissue components, and can serve as a ground-truth to evaluate FT algorithms, among others. The simulation of the acquisition process allows one to include noise, partial volume effects, and limited spatial and angular resolution in the images. In this way, the effect of image artifacts on, for instance, fiber tractography can be investigated with great detail. The proposed framework enables reliable and quantitative evaluation of DW-MR image processing and FT algorithms at the level of large-scale WM structures. The effect of noise levels and other data characteristics on cortico-cortical connectivity and tractography-based grey matter parcellation can be investigated as well.

  15. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Smith, D.D.

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  16. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Douglas D.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperaes in the range of about 1800.degree. to 2700.degree. C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  17. LSM: perceptually accurate line segment merging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Naila; Khan, Nazar

    2016-11-01

    Existing line segment detectors tend to break up perceptually distinct line segments into multiple segments. We propose an algorithm for merging such broken segments to recover the original perceptually accurate line segments. The algorithm proceeds by grouping line segments on the basis of angular and spatial proximity. Then those line segment pairs within each group that satisfy unique, adaptive mergeability criteria are successively merged to form a single line segment. This process is repeated until no more line segments can be merged. We also propose a method for quantitative comparison of line segment detection algorithms. Results on the York Urban dataset show that our merged line segments are closer to human-marked ground-truth line segments compared to state-of-the-art line segment detection algorithms.

  18. Highly accurate articulated coordinate measuring machine

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Jokiel, Jr., Bernhard; Ensz, Mark T.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-12-30

    Disclosed is a highly accurate articulated coordinate measuring machine, comprising a revolute joint, comprising a circular encoder wheel, having an axis of rotation; a plurality of marks disposed around at least a portion of the circumference of the encoder wheel; bearing means for supporting the encoder wheel, while permitting free rotation of the encoder wheel about the wheel's axis of rotation; and a sensor, rigidly attached to the bearing means, for detecting the motion of at least some of the marks as the encoder wheel rotates; a probe arm, having a proximal end rigidly attached to the encoder wheel, and having a distal end with a probe tip attached thereto; and coordinate processing means, operatively connected to the sensor, for converting the output of the sensor into a set of cylindrical coordinates representing the position of the probe tip relative to a reference cylindrical coordinate system.

  19. Practical aspects of spatially high accurate methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfrey, Andrew G.; Mitchell, Curtis R.; Walters, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The computational qualities of high order spatially accurate methods for the finite volume solution of the Euler equations are presented. Two dimensional essentially non-oscillatory (ENO), k-exact, and 'dimension by dimension' ENO reconstruction operators are discussed and compared in terms of reconstruction and solution accuracy, computational cost and oscillatory behavior in supersonic flows with shocks. Inherent steady state convergence difficulties are demonstrated for adaptive stencil algorithms. An exact solution to the heat equation is used to determine reconstruction error, and the computational intensity is reflected in operation counts. Standard MUSCL differencing is included for comparison. Numerical experiments presented include the Ringleb flow for numerical accuracy and a shock reflection problem. A vortex-shock interaction demonstrates the ability of the ENO scheme to excel in simulating unsteady high-frequency flow physics.

  20. Toward Accurate and Quantitative Comparative Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Nayfach, Stephen; Pollard, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    Shotgun metagenomics and computational analysis are used to compare the taxonomic and functional profiles of microbial communities. Leveraging this approach to understand roles of microbes in human biology and other environments requires quantitative data summaries whose values are comparable across samples and studies. Comparability is currently hampered by the use of abundance statistics that do not estimate a meaningful parameter of the microbial community and biases introduced by experimental protocols and data-cleaning approaches. Addressing these challenges, along with improving study design, data access, metadata standardization, and analysis tools, will enable accurate comparative metagenomics. We envision a future in which microbiome studies are replicable and new metagenomes are easily and rapidly integrated with existing data. Only then can the potential of metagenomics for predictive ecological modeling, well-powered association studies, and effective microbiome medicine be fully realized. PMID:27565341

  1. Obtaining accurate translations from expressed sequence tags.

    PubMed

    Wasmuth, James; Blaxter, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The genomes of an increasing number of species are being investigated through the generation of expressed sequence tags (ESTs). However, ESTs are prone to sequencing errors and typically define incomplete transcripts, making downstream annotation difficult. Annotation would be greatly improved with robust polypeptide translations. Many current solutions for EST translation require a large number of full-length gene sequences for training purposes, a resource that is not available for the majority of EST projects. As part of our ongoing EST programs investigating these "neglected" genomes, we have developed a polypeptide prediction pipeline, prot4EST. It incorporates freely available software to produce final translations that are more accurate than those derived from any single method. We describe how this integrated approach goes a long way to overcoming the deficit in training data.

  2. Micron Accurate Absolute Ranging System: Range Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Larry L.; Smith, Kely L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate Fresnel diffraction as a means of obtaining absolute distance measurements with micron or greater accuracy. It is believed that such a system would prove useful to the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as a non-intrusive, non-contact measuring system for use with secondary concentrator station-keeping systems. The present research attempts to validate past experiments and develop ways to apply the phenomena of Fresnel diffraction to micron accurate measurement. This report discusses past research on the phenomena, and the basis of the use Fresnel diffraction distance metrology. The apparatus used in the recent investigations, experimental procedures used, preliminary results are discussed in detail. Continued research and equipment requirements on the extension of the effective range of the Fresnel diffraction systems is also described.

  3. Accurate radio positions with the Tidbinbilla interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batty, M. J.; Gulkis, S.; Jauncey, D. L.; Rayner, P. T.

    1979-01-01

    The Tidbinbilla interferometer (Batty et al., 1977) is designed specifically to provide accurate radio position measurements of compact radio sources in the Southern Hemisphere with high sensitivity. The interferometer uses the 26-m and 64-m antennas of the Deep Space Network at Tidbinbilla, near Canberra. The two antennas are separated by 200 m on a north-south baseline. By utilizing the existing antennas and the low-noise traveling-wave masers at 2.29 GHz, it has been possible to produce a high-sensitivity instrument with a minimum of capital expenditure. The north-south baseline ensures that a good range of UV coverage is obtained, so that sources lying in the declination range between about -80 and +30 deg may be observed with nearly orthogonal projected baselines of no less than about 1000 lambda. The instrument also provides high-accuracy flux density measurements for compact radio sources.

  4. Magnetic ranging tool accurately guides replacement well

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J.B.; Wesson, J.P. )

    1992-12-21

    This paper reports on magnetic ranging surveys and directional drilling technology which accurately guided a replacement well bore to intersect a leaking gas storage well with casing damage. The second well bore was then used to pump cement into the original leaking casing shoe. The repair well bore kicked off from the surface hole, bypassed casing damage in the middle of the well, and intersected the damaged well near the casing shoe. The repair well was subsequently completed in the gas storage zone near the original well bore, salvaging the valuable bottom hole location in the reservoir. This method would prevent the loss of storage gas, and it would prevent a potential underground blowout that could permanently damage the integrity of the storage field.

  5. The high cost of accurate knowledge.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, Kathleen M; Weber, Klaus

    2003-05-01

    Many business thinkers believe it's the role of senior managers to scan the external environment to monitor contingencies and constraints, and to use that precise knowledge to modify the company's strategy and design. As these thinkers see it, managers need accurate and abundant information to carry out that role. According to that logic, it makes sense to invest heavily in systems for collecting and organizing competitive information. Another school of pundits contends that, since today's complex information often isn't precise anyway, it's not worth going overboard with such investments. In other words, it's not the accuracy and abundance of information that should matter most to top executives--rather, it's how that information is interpreted. After all, the role of senior managers isn't just to make decisions; it's to set direction and motivate others in the face of ambiguities and conflicting demands. Top executives must interpret information and communicate those interpretations--they must manage meaning more than they must manage information. So which of these competing views is the right one? Research conducted by academics Sutcliffe and Weber found that how accurate senior executives are about their competitive environments is indeed less important for strategy and corresponding organizational changes than the way in which they interpret information about their environments. Investments in shaping those interpretations, therefore, may create a more durable competitive advantage than investments in obtaining and organizing more information. And what kinds of interpretations are most closely linked with high performance? Their research suggests that high performers respond positively to opportunities, yet they aren't overconfident in their abilities to take advantage of those opportunities.

  6. Initial data sets for the Schwarzschild spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Lobo, Alfonso Garcia-Parrado; Kroon, Juan A. Valiente

    2007-01-15

    A characterization of initial data sets for the Schwarzschild spacetime is provided. This characterization is obtained by performing a 3+1 decomposition of a certain invariant characterization of the Schwarzschild spacetime given in terms of concomitants of the Weyl tensor. This procedure renders a set of necessary conditions--which can be written in terms of the electric and magnetic parts of the Weyl tensor and their concomitants--for an initial data set to be a Schwarzschild initial data set. Our approach also provides a formula for a static Killing initial data set candidate--a KID candidate. Sufficient conditions for an initial data set to be a Schwarzschild initial data set are obtained by supplementing the necessary conditions with the requirement that the initial data set possesses a stationary Killing initial data set of the form given by our KID candidate. Thus, we obtain an algorithmic procedure of checking whether a given initial data set is Schwarzschildean or not.

  7. Method for Accurate Unsupervised Cell Nucleus Segmentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    development of a cervical cancer screening ma- chine despite projects being initiated in the 1950’s is perhaps a good indication of the magnitude of the...classi- fication processes can only become more robust. REFERENCES [1] P. Bamford. The Segmentation of Cell Images with Applica- tion to Cervical Cancer Screening... Cervical Cancer : Algorithms and Implementation. PhD thesis, Uppsala University, 1989.

  8. Initiation of slug flow

    SciTech Connect

    Hanratty, T.J.; Woods, B.D.

    1995-12-31

    The initiation of slug flow in a horizontal pipe can be predicted either by considering the stability of a slug or by considering the stability of a stratified flow. Measurements of the shedding rate of slugs are used to define necessary conditions for the existence of a slug. Recent results show that slugs develop from an unstable stratified flow through the evolution of small wavelength waves into large wavelength waves that have the possibility of growing to form a slug. The mechanism appears to be quite different for fluids with viscosities close to water than for fluids with large viscosities (20 centipoise).

  9. Higher order accurate partial implicitization: An unconditionally stable fourth-order-accurate explicit numerical technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, R. A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The previously obtained second-order-accurate partial implicitization numerical technique used in the solution of fluid dynamic problems was modified with little complication to achieve fourth-order accuracy. The Von Neumann stability analysis demonstrated the unconditional linear stability of the technique. The order of the truncation error was deduced from the Taylor series expansions of the linearized difference equations and was verified by numerical solutions to Burger's equation. For comparison, results were also obtained for Burger's equation using a second-order-accurate partial-implicitization scheme, as well as the fourth-order scheme of Kreiss.

  10. High order accurate solutions of viscous problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayder, M. E.; Turkel, Eli

    1993-01-01

    We consider a fourth order extension to MacCormack's scheme. The original extension was fourth order only for the inviscid terms but was second order for the viscous terms. We show how to modify the viscous terms so that the scheme is uniformly fourth order in the spatial derivatives. Applications are given to some boundary layer flows. In addition, for applications to shear flows the effect of the outflow boundary conditions are very important. We compare the accuracy of several of these different boundary conditions for both boundary layer and shear flows. Stretching at the outflow usually increases the oscillations in the numerical solution but the addition of a filtered sponge layer (with or without stretching) reduces such oscillations. The oscillations are generated by insufficient resolution of the shear layer. When the shear layer is sufficiently resolved then oscillations are not generated and there is less of a need for a nonreflecting boundary condition.

  11. Statistically accurate simulations for atmospheric flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinkina, S.

    2009-04-01

    A Hamiltonian particle-mesh method for quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity flow is proposed. The microscopic vorticity field at any time is an area- and energy-conserving rearrangement of the initial field. We construct a statistical mechanics theory to explain the long-time behavior of the numerical solution. The statistical theory correctly predicts the spatial distribution of particles as a function of their point vorticity. A nonlinear relation between the coarse grained mean stream function and mean vorticity fields is predicted, consistent with the preservation of higher moments of potential vorticity reported in [R. V. Abramov, A. J. Majda 2003, PNAS 100 3841--3846].

  12. Accurate Biomass Estimation via Bayesian Adaptive Sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Kevin R.; Knuth, Kevin H.; Castle, Joseph P.; Lvov, Nikolay

    2005-01-01

    The following concepts were introduced: a) Bayesian adaptive sampling for solving biomass estimation; b) Characterization of MISR Rahman model parameters conditioned upon MODIS landcover. c) Rigorous non-parametric Bayesian approach to analytic mixture model determination. d) Unique U.S. asset for science product validation and verification.

  13. MSI develops refugee initiative.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    This brief article highlights the new initiative by Marie Stopes International (MSI), which is part of a Reproductive Health for Refugees Consortium of four organizations formed in 1995. The new initiative will promote awareness about the need for reproductive health among refugees. Over 80% of refugees are women and children who fled a variety of disasters only to be at high risk from sexual violence, sexually transmitted infections, and the effects of unintended and unsafe pregnancies. The consortium members will work to increase donors' understanding of the health conditions of women and to significantly increase donor support for reproductive health initiatives. In addition to the role of advocacy, MSI will be introducing refugee services into its global network of reproductive health services. MSI gained experience in delivering reproductive health services in refugee situations in the former Yugoslavia and among Mozambican refugees in Malawi. MSI is investigating sources of information from several countries about refugees' needs. The consortium is also collecting information on the most effective ways of delivering reproductive health services in refugee situations. The aim is to institutionalize reproductive health services into all humanitarian responses. MSI has developed refugee programs over the past 3 years in the former Yugoslavia, Malawi, Sri Lanka, and Sierra Leone. MSI expects to establish projects in 1996 for refugees in Zaire, Guinea, and Mozambique. The numbers of displaced persons or refugees is continuing to increase worldwide, and there is a continued need to provide for these vulnerable communities.

  14. Does a pneumotach accurately characterize voice function?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Gage; Krane, Michael

    2016-11-01

    A study is presented which addresses how a pneumotach might adversely affect clinical measurements of voice function. A pneumotach is a device, typically a mask, worn over the mouth, in order to measure time-varying glottal volume flow. By measuring the time-varying difference in pressure across a known aerodynamic resistance element in the mask, the glottal volume flow waveform is estimated. Because it adds aerodynamic resistance to the vocal system, there is some concern that using a pneumotach may not accurately portray the behavior of the voice. To test this hypothesis, experiments were performed in a simplified airway model with the principal dimensions of an adult human upper airway. A compliant constriction, fabricated from silicone rubber, modeled the vocal folds. Variations of transglottal pressure, time-averaged volume flow, model vocal fold vibration amplitude, and radiated sound with subglottal pressure were performed, with and without the pneumotach in place, and differences noted. Acknowledge support of NIH Grant 2R01DC005642-10A1.

  15. Accurate thermoplasmonic simulation of metallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Da-Miao; Liu, Yan-Nan; Tian, Fa-Lin; Pan, Xiao-Min; Sheng, Xin-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Thermoplasmonics leads to enhanced heat generation due to the localized surface plasmon resonances. The measurement of heat generation is fundamentally a complicated task, which necessitates the development of theoretical simulation techniques. In this paper, an efficient and accurate numerical scheme is proposed for applications with complex metallic nanostructures. Light absorption and temperature increase are, respectively, obtained by solving the volume integral equation (VIE) and the steady-state heat diffusion equation through the method of moments (MoM). Previously, methods based on surface integral equations (SIEs) were utilized to obtain light absorption. However, computing light absorption from the equivalent current is as expensive as O(NsNv), where Ns and Nv, respectively, denote the number of surface and volumetric unknowns. Our approach reduces the cost to O(Nv) by using VIE. The accuracy, efficiency and capability of the proposed scheme are validated by multiple simulations. The simulations show that our proposed method is more efficient than the approach based on SIEs under comparable accuracy, especially for the case where many incidents are of interest. The simulations also indicate that the temperature profile can be tuned by several factors, such as the geometry configuration of array, beam direction, and light wavelength.

  16. Accurate Theoretical Thermochemistry for Fluoroethyl Radicals.

    PubMed

    Ganyecz, Ádám; Kállay, Mihály; Csontos, József

    2017-02-09

    An accurate coupled-cluster (CC) based model chemistry was applied to calculate reliable thermochemical quantities for hydrofluorocarbon derivatives including radicals 1-fluoroethyl (CH3-CHF), 1,1-difluoroethyl (CH3-CF2), 2-fluoroethyl (CH2F-CH2), 1,2-difluoroethyl (CH2F-CHF), 2,2-difluoroethyl (CHF2-CH2), 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl (CF3-CH2), 1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl (CF3-CHF), and pentafluoroethyl (CF3-CF2). The model chemistry used contains iterative triple and perturbative quadruple excitations in CC theory, as well as scalar relativistic and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections. To obtain heat of formation values with better than chemical accuracy perturbative quadruple excitations and scalar relativistic corrections were inevitable. Their contributions to the heats of formation steadily increase with the number of fluorine atoms in the radical reaching 10 kJ/mol for CF3-CF2. When discrepancies were found between the experimental and our values it was always possible to resolve the issue by recalculating the experimental result with currently recommended auxiliary data. For each radical studied here this study delivers the best heat of formation as well as entropy data.

  17. Accurate methods for large molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Mark S; Mullin, Jonathan M; Pruitt, Spencer R; Roskop, Luke B; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V; Boatz, Jerry A

    2009-07-23

    Three exciting new methods that address the accurate prediction of processes and properties of large molecular systems are discussed. The systematic fragmentation method (SFM) and the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method both decompose a large molecular system (e.g., protein, liquid, zeolite) into small subunits (fragments) in very different ways that are designed to both retain the high accuracy of the chosen quantum mechanical level of theory while greatly reducing the demands on computational time and resources. Each of these methods is inherently scalable and is therefore eminently capable of taking advantage of massively parallel computer hardware while retaining the accuracy of the corresponding electronic structure method from which it is derived. The effective fragment potential (EFP) method is a sophisticated approach for the prediction of nonbonded and intermolecular interactions. Therefore, the EFP method provides a way to further reduce the computational effort while retaining accuracy by treating the far-field interactions in place of the full electronic structure method. The performance of the methods is demonstrated using applications to several systems, including benzene dimer, small organic species, pieces of the alpha helix, water, and ionic liquids.

  18. Accurate equilibrium structures for piperidine and cyclohexane.

    PubMed

    Demaison, Jean; Craig, Norman C; Groner, Peter; Écija, Patricia; Cocinero, Emilio J; Lesarri, Alberto; Rudolph, Heinz Dieter

    2015-03-05

    Extended and improved microwave (MW) measurements are reported for the isotopologues of piperidine. New ground state (GS) rotational constants are fitted to MW transitions with quartic centrifugal distortion constants taken from ab initio calculations. Predicate values for the geometric parameters of piperidine and cyclohexane are found from a high level of ab initio theory including adjustments for basis set dependence and for correlation of the core electrons. Equilibrium rotational constants are obtained from GS rotational constants corrected for vibration-rotation interactions and electronic contributions. Equilibrium structures for piperidine and cyclohexane are fitted by the mixed estimation method. In this method, structural parameters are fitted concurrently to predicate parameters (with appropriate uncertainties) and moments of inertia (with uncertainties). The new structures are regarded as being accurate to 0.001 Å and 0.2°. Comparisons are made between bond parameters in equatorial piperidine and cyclohexane. Another interesting result of this study is that a structure determination is an effective way to check the accuracy of the ground state experimental rotational constants.

  19. Accurate lineshape spectroscopy and the Boltzmann constant

    PubMed Central

    Truong, G.-W.; Anstie, J. D.; May, E. F.; Stace, T. M.; Luiten, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopy has an illustrious history delivering serendipitous discoveries and providing a stringent testbed for new physical predictions, including applications from trace materials detection, to understanding the atmospheres of stars and planets, and even constraining cosmological models. Reaching fundamental-noise limits permits optimal extraction of spectroscopic information from an absorption measurement. Here, we demonstrate a quantum-limited spectrometer that delivers high-precision measurements of the absorption lineshape. These measurements yield a very accurate measurement of the excited-state (6P1/2) hyperfine splitting in Cs, and reveals a breakdown in the well-known Voigt spectral profile. We develop a theoretical model that accounts for this breakdown, explaining the observations to within the shot-noise limit. Our model enables us to infer the thermal velocity dispersion of the Cs vapour with an uncertainty of 35 p.p.m. within an hour. This allows us to determine a value for Boltzmann's constant with a precision of 6 p.p.m., and an uncertainty of 71 p.p.m. PMID:26465085

  20. Accurate upper body rehabilitation system using kinect.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sanjana; Bhowmick, Brojeshwar; Chakravarty, Kingshuk; Sinha, Aniruddha; Das, Abhijit

    2016-08-01

    The growing importance of Kinect as a tool for clinical assessment and rehabilitation is due to its portability, low cost and markerless system for human motion capture. However, the accuracy of Kinect in measuring three-dimensional body joint center locations often fails to meet clinical standards of accuracy when compared to marker-based motion capture systems such as Vicon. The length of the body segment connecting any two joints, measured as the distance between three-dimensional Kinect skeleton joint coordinates, has been observed to vary with time. The orientation of the line connecting adjoining Kinect skeletal coordinates has also been seen to differ from the actual orientation of the physical body segment. Hence we have proposed an optimization method that utilizes Kinect Depth and RGB information to search for the joint center location that satisfies constraints on body segment length and as well as orientation. An experimental study have been carried out on ten healthy participants performing upper body range of motion exercises. The results report 72% reduction in body segment length variance and 2° improvement in Range of Motion (ROM) angle hence enabling to more accurate measurements for upper limb exercises.