Science.gov

Sample records for accurate location information

  1. Nonexposure Accurate Location K-Anonymity Algorithm in LBS

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper tackles location privacy protection in current location-based services (LBS) where mobile users have to report their exact location information to an LBS provider in order to obtain their desired services. Location cloaking has been proposed and well studied to protect user privacy. It blurs the user's accurate coordinate and replaces it with a well-shaped cloaked region. However, to obtain such an anonymous spatial region (ASR), nearly all existent cloaking algorithms require knowing the accurate locations of all users. Therefore, location cloaking without exposing the user's accurate location to any party is urgently needed. In this paper, we present such two nonexposure accurate location cloaking algorithms. They are designed for K-anonymity, and cloaking is performed based on the identifications (IDs) of the grid areas which were reported by all the users, instead of directly on their accurate coordinates. Experimental results show that our algorithms are more secure than the existent cloaking algorithms, need not have all the users reporting their locations all the time, and can generate smaller ASR. PMID:24605060

  2. Nonexposure accurate location K-anonymity algorithm in LBS.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jinying; Zhang, Fengli

    2014-01-01

    This paper tackles location privacy protection in current location-based services (LBS) where mobile users have to report their exact location information to an LBS provider in order to obtain their desired services. Location cloaking has been proposed and well studied to protect user privacy. It blurs the user's accurate coordinate and replaces it with a well-shaped cloaked region. However, to obtain such an anonymous spatial region (ASR), nearly all existent cloaking algorithms require knowing the accurate locations of all users. Therefore, location cloaking without exposing the user's accurate location to any party is urgently needed. In this paper, we present such two nonexposure accurate location cloaking algorithms. They are designed for K-anonymity, and cloaking is performed based on the identifications (IDs) of the grid areas which were reported by all the users, instead of directly on their accurate coordinates. Experimental results show that our algorithms are more secure than the existent cloaking algorithms, need not have all the users reporting their locations all the time, and can generate smaller ASR.

  3. Pan-information Location Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X. Y.; Guo, W.; Huang, L.; Hu, T.; Gao, W. X.

    2013-11-01

    A huge amount of information, including geographic, environmental, socio-economic, personal and social network information, has been generated from diverse sources. Most of this information exists separately and is disorderly even if some of it is about the same person, feature, phenomenon or event. Users generally need to collect related information from different sources and then utilize them in applications. An automatic mechanism, therefore, for establishing a connection between potentially-related information will profoundly expand the usefulness of this huge body of information. A connection tie is semantic location describing semantically concepts and attributes of locations as well as relationships between locations, since 80% of information contains some kind of geographic reference but not all of geographic reference has explicit geographic coordinates. Semantic location is an orthogonal form of location representation which can be represented as domain ontology or UML format. Semantic location associates various kinds of information about a same object to provide timely information services according to users' demands, habits, preferences and applications. Based on this idea, a Pan-Information Location Map (PILM) is proposed as a new-style 4D map to associates semantic location-based information dynamically to organize and consolidate the locality and characteristics of corresponding features and events, and delivers on-demand information with a User-Adaptive Smart Display (UASD).

  4. Experiences with information locator services

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christian, E.

    1999-01-01

    Over the last few years, governments and other organizations have been using new technologies to create networked Information Locator Services that help people find information resources. These services not only enhance access to information, but also are designed to support fundamental information policy principles. This article relates experiences in developing and promoting services interoperable with the Global Information Locator Service standard that has now been adopted and promoted in many forums worldwide. The article describes sample implementations and touches on the strategic choices made in public policy, standards, and technology. Ten recommendations are offered for successful implementation of an Information Locator Service. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Locating Information within Extended Hypermedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Azevedo, Roger

    2009-01-01

    New literacies researchers have identified a core set of strategies for locating information, one of which is "reading a Web page to locate information that might be present there" (Leu et al. in: Rush, Eakle, Berger (eds) "Secondary school reading and writing: What research reveals for classroom practices," 2007, p. 46). Do middle-school, high…

  6. Accurate source location from waves scattered by surface topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nian; Shen, Yang; Flinders, Ashton; Zhang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Accurate source locations of earthquakes and other seismic events are fundamental in seismology. The location accuracy is limited by several factors, including velocity models, which are often poorly known. In contrast, surface topography, the largest velocity contrast in the Earth, is often precisely mapped at the seismic wavelength (>100 m). In this study, we explore the use of P coda waves generated by scattering at surface topography to obtain high-resolution locations of near-surface seismic events. The Pacific Northwest region is chosen as an example to provide realistic topography. A grid search algorithm is combined with the 3-D strain Green's tensor database to improve search efficiency as well as the quality of hypocenter solutions. The strain Green's tensor is calculated using a 3-D collocated-grid finite difference method on curvilinear grids. Solutions in the search volume are obtained based on the least squares misfit between the "observed" and predicted P and P coda waves. The 95% confidence interval of the solution is provided as an a posteriori error estimation. For shallow events tested in the study, scattering is mainly due to topography in comparison with stochastic lateral velocity heterogeneity. The incorporation of P coda significantly improves solution accuracy and reduces solution uncertainty. The solution remains robust with wide ranges of random noises in data, unmodeled random velocity heterogeneities, and uncertainties in moment tensors. The method can be extended to locate pairs of sources in close proximity by differential waveforms using source-receiver reciprocity, further reducing errors caused by unmodeled velocity structures.

  7. Development of an accurate transmission line fault locator using the global positioning system satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Harry

    1994-01-01

    A highly accurate transmission line fault locator based on the traveling-wave principle was developed and successfully operated within B.C. Hydro. A transmission line fault produces a fast-risetime traveling wave at the fault point which propagates along the transmission line. This fault locator system consists of traveling wave detectors located at key substations which detect and time tag the leading edge of the fault-generated traveling wave as if passes through. A master station gathers the time-tagged information from the remote detectors and determines the location of the fault. Precise time is a key element to the success of this system. This fault locator system derives its timing from the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. System tests confirmed the accuracy of locating faults to within the design objective of +/-300 meters.

  8. Hydrogen atoms can be located accurately and precisely by x-ray crystallography.

    PubMed

    Woińska, Magdalena; Grabowsky, Simon; Dominiak, Paulina M; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2016-05-01

    Precise and accurate structural information on hydrogen atoms is crucial to the study of energies of interactions important for crystal engineering, materials science, medicine, and pharmacy, and to the estimation of physical and chemical properties in solids. However, hydrogen atoms only scatter x-radiation weakly, so x-rays have not been used routinely to locate them accurately. Textbooks and teaching classes still emphasize that hydrogen atoms cannot be located with x-rays close to heavy elements; instead, neutron diffraction is needed. We show that, contrary to widespread expectation, hydrogen atoms can be located very accurately using x-ray diffraction, yielding bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms (A-H) that are in agreement with results from neutron diffraction mostly within a single standard deviation. The precision of the determination is also comparable between x-ray and neutron diffraction results. This has been achieved at resolutions as low as 0.8 Å using Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR). We have applied HAR to 81 crystal structures of organic molecules and compared the A-H bond lengths with those from neutron measurements for A-H bonds sorted into bonds of the same class. We further show in a selection of inorganic compounds that hydrogen atoms can be located in bridging positions and close to heavy transition metals accurately and precisely. We anticipate that, in the future, conventional x-radiation sources at in-house diffractometers can be used routinely for locating hydrogen atoms in small molecules accurately instead of large-scale facilities such as spallation sources or nuclear reactors.

  9. Hydrogen atoms can be located accurately and precisely by x-ray crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Woińska, Magdalena; Grabowsky, Simon; Dominiak, Paulina M.; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2016-01-01

    Precise and accurate structural information on hydrogen atoms is crucial to the study of energies of interactions important for crystal engineering, materials science, medicine, and pharmacy, and to the estimation of physical and chemical properties in solids. However, hydrogen atoms only scatter x-radiation weakly, so x-rays have not been used routinely to locate them accurately. Textbooks and teaching classes still emphasize that hydrogen atoms cannot be located with x-rays close to heavy elements; instead, neutron diffraction is needed. We show that, contrary to widespread expectation, hydrogen atoms can be located very accurately using x-ray diffraction, yielding bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms (A–H) that are in agreement with results from neutron diffraction mostly within a single standard deviation. The precision of the determination is also comparable between x-ray and neutron diffraction results. This has been achieved at resolutions as low as 0.8 Å using Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR). We have applied HAR to 81 crystal structures of organic molecules and compared the A–H bond lengths with those from neutron measurements for A–H bonds sorted into bonds of the same class. We further show in a selection of inorganic compounds that hydrogen atoms can be located in bridging positions and close to heavy transition metals accurately and precisely. We anticipate that, in the future, conventional x-radiation sources at in-house diffractometers can be used routinely for locating hydrogen atoms in small molecules accurately instead of large-scale facilities such as spallation sources or nuclear reactors. PMID:27386545

  10. Processing locational and orientational information.

    PubMed

    Maki, R H; Maki, W S; Marsh, L G

    1977-09-01

    In choice reaction time (RT) tasks, college students verified the truth of displays expressing spatial relations between two objects. The relations werelocational (A is left of B) ororientational (A and B are horizontal). The objects were names of states in the United States, symbols, or letter arrays. The objects were memorized prior to the display (states and letters) or were presented as part of the display (symbols and letters). In the location tasks with both states and symbols, locatives were spatial (right, left, above, below) or compass (north, south, east, west). Distance between states was also varied. When location was judged, horizontally aligned stimuli resulted in slower responses than vertically aligned stimuli, independently of materials and locative set. Reaction time was inversely related to distance. When orientation was judged, responses to horizontal pairs of states were slower than responses to vertical pairs of states, responses to horizontal pairs of letters were faster than responses to vertical pairs, and RT did not depend upon the orientation of symbols. This pattern of results suggests that orientational judgments are influenced by type of materials and the entext to which the material has been encoded (i.e., memorized). Locational judgments reflect a potent source of difficulty not present in orientation tasks, namely, telling left from right. Alternative explanations of the right-left effect are discussed.

  11. 10 CFR 75.11 - Location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location information. 75.11 Section 75.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Facility and Location Information § 75.11 Location information. (a) As required by the Additional...

  12. The Value of Location Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvrcek, Dan; Kumpost, Marek; Matyas, Vashek; Danezis, George

    The value attached to privacy has become a common notion in the press, featuring frequent stories of people selling sensitive personal information for a couple of dollars. Syverson argues [1] that we should incorporate the risk of data misuse into our reasoning about privacy valuations. Yet there are doubts as to whether people can, and do, value their privacy correctly and appropriately.

  13. Locating Job Information. ERIC Digest No. 85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Judith O.

    How to locate information that can be used in career decision making is the subject of this digest. The first section lists the career/occupational information collections generally found in public libraries, including printed resources, information about associations, information about local sources of job information, information on specific…

  14. Accurate Damage Location in Complex Composite Structures and Industrial Environments using Acoustic Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, M.; Pearson, M.; Lee, W.; Pullin, R.

    2015-07-01

    The ability to accurately locate damage in any given structure is a highly desirable attribute for an effective structural health monitoring system and could help to reduce operating costs and improve safety. This becomes a far greater challenge in complex geometries and materials, such as modern composite airframes. The poor translation of promising laboratory based SHM demonstrators to industrial environments forms a barrier to commercial up take of technology. The acoustic emission (AE) technique is a passive NDT method that detects elastic stress waves released by the growth of damage. It offers very sensitive damage detection, using a sparse array of sensors to detect and globally locate damage within a structure. However its application to complex structures commonly yields poor accuracy due to anisotropic wave propagation and the interruption of wave propagation by structural features such as holes and thickness changes. This work adopts an empirical mapping technique for AE location, known as Delta T Mapping, which uses experimental training data to account for such structural complexities. The technique is applied to a complex geometry composite aerospace structure undergoing certification testing. The component consists of a carbon fibre composite tube with varying wall thickness and multiple holes, that was loaded under bending. The damage location was validated using X-ray CT scanning and the Delta T Mapping technique was shown to improve location accuracy when compared with commercial algorithms. The onset and progression of damage were monitored throughout the test and used to inform future design iterations.

  15. The Location of Information Processing Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monge, Peter R.; And Others

    Location theory was extended into the domain of information-processing firms by attempting to optimally place a federal research and development agency according to its information-processing functions. The techniques used consisted of identifying possible locations within the continental United States, examining the costs of performing the…

  16. Approaching system equilibrium with accurate or not accurate feedback information in a two-route system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiao-mei; Xie, Dong-fan; Li, Qi

    2015-02-01

    With the development of intelligent transport system, advanced information feedback strategies have been developed to reduce traffic congestion and enhance the capacity. However, previous strategies provide accurate information to travelers and our simulation results show that accurate information brings negative effects, especially in delay case. Because travelers prefer to the best condition route with accurate information, and delayed information cannot reflect current traffic condition but past. Then travelers make wrong routing decisions, causing the decrease of the capacity and the increase of oscillations and the system deviating from the equilibrium. To avoid the negative effect, bounded rationality is taken into account by introducing a boundedly rational threshold BR. When difference between two routes is less than the BR, routes have equal probability to be chosen. The bounded rationality is helpful to improve the efficiency in terms of capacity, oscillation and the gap deviating from the system equilibrium.

  17. TWRS information locator database system design description

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, B.J.

    1996-09-13

    This document gives an overview and description of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Information Locator Database (ILD)system design. The TWRS ILD system is an inventory of information used in the TWRS Systems Engineering process to represent the TWRS Technical Baseline. The inventory is maintained in the form of a relational database developed in Paradox 4.5.

  18. 10 CFR 75.11 - Location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... specified in the instructions for DOC/NRC Form AP-1 and associated forms. (b) Location information includes...) through (b)(7) of this section must be supplied as specified in the instructions for DOC/NRC Form AP-1 and associated forms. The Information provided on DOC/NRC Form AP-1 and associated forms must be...

  19. 10 CFR 75.11 - Location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... specified in the instructions for DOC/NRC Form AP-1 and associated forms. (b) Location information includes...) through (b)(7) of this section must be supplied as specified in the instructions for DOC/NRC Form AP-1 and associated forms. The Information provided on DOC/NRC Form AP-1 and associated forms must be...

  20. 10 CFR 75.11 - Location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... specified in the instructions for DOC/NRC Form AP-1 and associated forms. (b) Location information includes...) through (b)(7) of this section must be supplied as specified in the instructions for DOC/NRC Form AP-1 and associated forms. The Information provided on DOC/NRC Form AP-1 and associated forms must be...

  1. 10 CFR 75.11 - Location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... specified in the instructions for DOC/NRC Form AP-1 and associated forms. (b) Location information includes...) through (b)(7) of this section must be supplied as specified in the instructions for DOC/NRC Form AP-1 and associated forms. The Information provided on DOC/NRC Form AP-1 and associated forms must be...

  2. Nature and location of quantum information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2002-07-01

    Quantum information is defined by applying the concepts of ordinary (Shannon) information theory to a quantum sample space consisting of a single framework or consistent family. A classical analogy for a spin-half particle and other arguments show that the infinite amount of information needed to specify a precise vector in its Hilbert space is not a measure of the information carried by a quantum entity with a d-dimensional Hilbert space; the latter is, instead, bounded by log2d bits (one bit per qubit). The two bits of information transmitted in dense coding are located not in one but in the correlation between two qubits, consistent with this bound. A quantum channel can be thought of as a structure or collection of frameworks, and the physical location of the information in the individual frameworks can be used to identify the location of the channel. Analysis of a quantum circuit used as a model of teleportation shows that the location of the channel depends upon which structure is employed; for ordinary teleportation it is not (contrary to Deutsch and Hayden) present in the two bits resulting from the Bell-basis measurement, but in correlations of these with a distant qubit. In neither teleportation nor dense coding does information travel backwards in time, nor is it transmitted by nonlocal (superluminal) influences. It is (tentatively) proposed that all aspects of quantum information can in principle be understood in terms of the (basically classical) behavior of information in a particular framework, along with the framework dependence of this information.

  3. The Government Information Locator Service (GILS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christian, E.

    1996-01-01

    In coordination with the Information Infrastructure Task Force (IITF), the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is promoting the establishment of an agency-based Government Information Locator Service (GILS) to help the public locate and access information throughout the Federal Government. This report presents a vision of how GILS will be implemented. Working primarily with OMB and the Locator Subgroup of the Interagency Working Group on Public Access, Eliot Christian of the US Geological Survey prepared this report under the auspices of the IITF Committee on Information Policy. This vision of GILS has also received extensive review by various Federal agencies and other interested parties, including some non-Federal organizations and by the general public through notices in both the Federal Register and the Commerce Business Daily and at a public meeting held in December, 1993. As part of the Federal role in the National Information Infrastructure, GILS will identify and describe information resources throughout the Federal government, and provide assistance in obtaining the information. It will be decentralized and will supplement other agency and commercial information dissemination mechanisms. The public will use GILS directly or through intermediaries, such as the Government Printing Office, the National Technical Information Service, the Federal depository libraries, other public libraries, and private sector information services. Direct users will have access to a GILS Core accessible on the Internet without charge. Intermediate access may include kiosks, "800 numbers", electronic mail, bulletin boards, fax, and off-line media such as floppy disks, CD-ROM, and printed works. GILS will use standard network technology and the American National Standards Institute Z39.50 standard for information search and retrieval so that information can be retrieved in a variety of ways. Direct users will eventually have access to many other Federal and non

  4. An efficient sliding window strategy for accurate location of eukaryotic protein coding regions.

    PubMed

    Rao, Nini; Lei, Xu; Guo, Jianxiu; Huang, Hao; Ren, Zhenglong

    2009-04-01

    The sliding window is one of important factors that seriously affect the accuracy of coding region prediction and location for the methods based on power spectrum technique. It is very difficult to select the appropriate sliding step and the window length for different organisms. In this study, a novel sliding window strategy is proposed on the basis of power spectrum analysis for the accurate location of eukaryotic protein coding regions. The proposed sliding window strategy is very simple and the sliding step of window is changeable. Our tests show that the average location error for the novel method is 12 bases. Compared with the previous location error of 54 bases using the fixed sliding step, the novel sliding window strategy increased the location accuracy greatly. Further, the consumed CPU time to run the novel strategy is much shorter than the strategy of the fixed length sliding step. So, the computational complexity for the novel method is decreased greatly.

  5. Flair-fleet location and information reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, E. R.; Dunlap, M. E.

    1974-01-01

    The FLAIR system, as now produced, automatically updates each vehicle's location and corresponding officer's status once each two seconds and presents this information to police dispatchers in the command and control center. The position of all vehicles available for assignment is displayed on a color video map at each dispatcher's console to an accuracy of 50 feet. This gives the dispatcher a continuous picture of the deployment of the total available force and thus complete command and control of all police under his responsibility.

  6. Accurate relative location estimates for the North Korean nuclear tests using empirical slowness corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, S. J.; Pabian, F.; Näsholm, S. P.; Kværna, T.; Mykkeltveit, S.

    2017-01-01

    velocity gradients reduce the residuals, the relative location uncertainties and the sensitivity to the combination of stations used. The traveltime gradients appear to be overestimated for the regional phases, and teleseismic relative location estimates are likely to be more accurate despite an apparent lower precision. Calibrations for regional phases are essential given that smaller magnitude events are likely not to be recorded teleseismically. We discuss the implications for the absolute event locations. Placing the 2006 event under a local maximum of overburden at 41.293°N, 129.105°E would imply a location of 41.299°N, 129.075°E for the January 2016 event, providing almost optimal overburden for the later four events.

  7. Accurate Relative Location Estimates for the North Korean Nuclear Tests Using Empirical Slowness Corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, S. J.; Pabian, F.; Näsholm, S. P.; Kværna', T.; Mykkeltveit, S.

    2016-10-01

    modified velocity gradients reduce the residuals, the relative location uncertainties, and the sensitivity to the combination of stations used. The traveltime gradients appear to be overestimated for the regional phases, and teleseismic relative location estimates are likely to be more accurate despite an apparent lower precision. Calibrations for regional phases are essential given that smaller magnitude events are likely not to be recorded teleseismically. We discuss the implications for the absolute event locations. Placing the 2006 event under a local maximum of overburden at 41.293°N, 129.105°E would imply a location of 41.299°N, 129.075°E for the January 2016 event, providing almost optimal overburden for the later four events.

  8. The accurate location of the injection-induced microearthquakes in German Continental Deep Drilling Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Yi-Min; Chen, Yun-Tai

    2002-11-01

    From August 21, 2000 to October 20, 2000 a fluid injection-induced seismicity experiment has been carried out in the KTB (German Continental Deep Drilling Program). The KTB seismic network recorded more than 2 700 events. Among them 237 events were of high signal-to-noise ratio, and were processed and accurately located. When the events were located, non KTB events were weeded out by Wadati’s method. The standard deviation, mean and median were obtained by Jackknife’s technique, and finally the events were accurately located by Geiger’s method so that the mean error is about 0.1 km. No earthquakes with focal depth greater than 9.3 km, which is nearly at the bottom of the hole, were detected. One of the explanation is that at such depths the stress levels may not close to the rock’s frictional strength so that failure could not be induced by the relatively small perturbation in pore pressure. Or at these depths there may be no permeable, well-oriented faults. This depth may be in close proximity to the bottom of the hole to the brittle-ductile transition, even in this relatively stable interior of the interaplate. This phenomenon is explained by the experimental results and geothermal data from the superdeep borehole.

  9. Distributed fiber sensing system with wide frequency response and accurate location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yi; Feng, Hao; Zeng, Zhoumo

    2016-02-01

    A distributed fiber sensing system merging Mach-Zehnder interferometer and phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometer (Φ-OTDR) is demonstrated for vibration measurement, which requires wide frequency response and accurate location. Two narrow line-width lasers with delicately different wavelengths are used to constitute the interferometer and reflectometer respectively. A narrow band Fiber Bragg Grating is responsible for separating the two wavelengths. In addition, heterodyne detection is applied to maintain the signal to noise rate of the locating signal. Experiment results show that the novel system has a wide frequency from 1 Hz to 50 MHz, limited by the sample frequency of data acquisition card, and a spatial resolution of 20 m, according to 200 ns pulse width, along 2.5 km fiber link.

  10. Accurate Vehicle Location System Using RFID, an Internet of Things Approach.

    PubMed

    Prinsloo, Jaco; Malekian, Reza

    2016-06-04

    Modern infrastructure, such as dense urban areas and underground tunnels, can effectively block all GPS signals, which implies that effective position triangulation will not be achieved. The main problem that is addressed in this project is the design and implementation of an accurate vehicle location system using radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology in combination with GPS and the Global system for Mobile communication (GSM) technology, in order to provide a solution to the limitation discussed above. In essence, autonomous vehicle tracking will be facilitated with the use of RFID technology where GPS signals are non-existent. The design of the system and the results are reflected in this paper. An extensive literature study was done on the field known as the Internet of Things, as well as various topics that covered the integration of independent technology in order to address a specific challenge. The proposed system is then designed and implemented. An RFID transponder was successfully designed and a read range of approximately 31 cm was obtained in the low frequency communication range (125 kHz to 134 kHz). The proposed system was designed, implemented, and field tested and it was found that a vehicle could be accurately located and tracked. It is also found that the antenna size of both the RFID reader unit and RFID transponder plays a critical role in the maximum communication range that can be achieved.

  11. Accurate Vehicle Location System Using RFID, an Internet of Things Approach

    PubMed Central

    Prinsloo, Jaco; Malekian, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Modern infrastructure, such as dense urban areas and underground tunnels, can effectively block all GPS signals, which implies that effective position triangulation will not be achieved. The main problem that is addressed in this project is the design and implementation of an accurate vehicle location system using radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology in combination with GPS and the Global system for Mobile communication (GSM) technology, in order to provide a solution to the limitation discussed above. In essence, autonomous vehicle tracking will be facilitated with the use of RFID technology where GPS signals are non-existent. The design of the system and the results are reflected in this paper. An extensive literature study was done on the field known as the Internet of Things, as well as various topics that covered the integration of independent technology in order to address a specific challenge. The proposed system is then designed and implemented. An RFID transponder was successfully designed and a read range of approximately 31 cm was obtained in the low frequency communication range (125 kHz to 134 kHz). The proposed system was designed, implemented, and field tested and it was found that a vehicle could be accurately located and tracked. It is also found that the antenna size of both the RFID reader unit and RFID transponder plays a critical role in the maximum communication range that can be achieved. PMID:27271638

  12. Ultra-accurate collaborative information filtering via directed user similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Q.; Song, W.-J.; Liu, J.-G.

    2014-07-01

    A key challenge of the collaborative filtering (CF) information filtering is how to obtain the reliable and accurate results with the help of peers' recommendation. Since the similarities from small-degree users to large-degree users would be larger than the ones in opposite direction, the large-degree users' selections are recommended extensively by the traditional second-order CF algorithms. By considering the users' similarity direction and the second-order correlations to depress the influence of mainstream preferences, we present the directed second-order CF (HDCF) algorithm specifically to address the challenge of accuracy and diversity of the CF algorithm. The numerical results for two benchmark data sets, MovieLens and Netflix, show that the accuracy of the new algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art CF algorithms. Comparing with the CF algorithm based on random walks proposed by Liu et al. (Int. J. Mod. Phys. C, 20 (2009) 285) the average ranking score could reach 0.0767 and 0.0402, which is enhanced by 27.3% and 19.1% for MovieLens and Netflix, respectively. In addition, the diversity, precision and recall are also enhanced greatly. Without relying on any context-specific information, tuning the similarity direction of CF algorithms could obtain accurate and diverse recommendations. This work suggests that the user similarity direction is an important factor to improve the personalized recommendation performance.

  13. Accurate prediction of V1 location from cortical folds in a surface coordinate system

    PubMed Central

    Hinds, Oliver P.; Rajendran, Niranjini; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Augustinack, Jean C.; Wiggins, Graham; Wald, Lawrence L.; Rosas, H. Diana; Potthast, Andreas; Schwartz, Eric L.; Fischl, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated substantial variability of the location of primary visual cortex (V1) in stereotaxic coordinates when linear volume-based registration is used to match volumetric image intensities (Amunts et al., 2000). However, other qualitative reports of V1 location (Smith, 1904; Stensaas et al., 1974; Rademacher et al., 1993) suggested a consistent relationship between V1 and the surrounding cortical folds. Here, the relationship between folds and the location of V1 is quantified using surface-based analysis to generate a probabilistic atlas of human V1. High-resolution (about 200 μm) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 7 T of ex vivo human cerebral hemispheres allowed identification of the full area via the stria of Gennari: a myeloarchitectonic feature specific to V1. Separate, whole-brain scans were acquired using MRI at 1.5 T to allow segmentation and mesh reconstruction of the cortical gray matter. For each individual, V1 was manually identified in the high-resolution volume and projected onto the cortical surface. Surface-based intersubject registration (Fischl et al., 1999b) was performed to align the primary cortical folds of individual hemispheres to those of a reference template representing the average folding pattern. An atlas of V1 location was constructed by computing the probability of V1 inclusion for each cortical location in the template space. This probabilistic atlas of V1 exhibits low prediction error compared to previous V1 probabilistic atlases built in volumetric coordinates. The increased predictability observed under surface-based registration suggests that the location of V1 is more accurately predicted by the cortical folds than by the shape of the brain embedded in the volume of the skull. In addition, the high quality of this atlas provides direct evidence that surface-based intersubject registration methods are superior to volume-based methods at superimposing functional areas of cortex, and therefore are better

  14. Distinctions Between Reading Comprehension and Locating Information in Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T.; Kirsch, Irwin S.

    1987-01-01

    Reading tasks frequently performed by electronics engineers and technicians were identified and simulated with test items in four domains: (1) comprehending articles; (2) locating information in schematics; (3) locating information in articles; and (4) locating information in manuals. Factor analyses revealed two factors: comprehension and…

  15. Accurate and efficient long-range lightning geo-location using a VLF radio atmospheric waveform bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Ryan Khalil

    2009-07-01

    . This new technique catalogs the dominant variation in expected received waveforms to form a set of waveform banks, which are then used to estimate the propagation distance and identify features on each waveform that allow for a more accurate determination of the arrival time. Using three stations in a trial network, this new technique is used to demonstrate an accuracy of 1-4 km, depending on network geometry and the time of day. Furthermore, this technique provides an estimate of the peak current and polarity in the lightning channel, parameters that existing long-range networks do not measure using VLF radio atmospherics. The propagation distance estimated at each receiver, together with an arrival azimuth measurement, enables accurate geo-location using as few as three sensors. The redundancy offered by this range and azimuth information mitigates the complexity involved with correlating radio atmospherics from multiple sensors and enables a high detection efficiency. An overall stroke detection efficiency between ˜40-60% is estimated by correlating individual lightning stroke events to data from a commercial LF reference network. There are a significant number of additional events reported by the trial network that do not time-correlate with data from the commercial network, but the tight spatial clustering of lightning strokes between the two networks suggest that many of the unmatched events are not spurious but rather may correspond to weak cloud-to-ground strokes or cloud flashes.

  16. 14 CFR 1206.401 - Location of NASA Information Centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Location of NASA Information Centers. 1206... § 1206.401 Location of NASA Information Centers. (a) NASA will maintain the following Information Centers... which copies of Agency forms may be obtained: (1) NASA Headquarters (HQ) Information Center,...

  17. 14 CFR 1206.401 - Location of NASA Information Centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Location of NASA Information Centers. 1206... § 1206.401 Location of NASA Information Centers. (a) NASA will maintain the following Information Centers... which copies of Agency forms may be obtained: (1) NASA Headquarters (HQ) Information Center,...

  18. 14 CFR 1206.401 - Location of NASA Information Centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Location of NASA Information Centers. 1206... § 1206.401 Location of NASA Information Centers. (a) NASA will maintain the following Information Centers... which copies of Agency forms may be obtained: (1) NASA Headquarters (HQ) Information Center,...

  19. 14 CFR 1206.401 - Location of NASA Information Centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of NASA Information Centers. 1206... § 1206.401 Location of NASA Information Centers. (a) NASA will maintain the following Information Centers... which copies of Agency forms may be obtained: (1) NASA Headquarters (HQ) Information Center,...

  20. 36 CFR 290.4 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE CAVE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT § 290.4 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a) Information... harm, theft, or destruction to cave resources. (b) Requesting confidential information. Notwithstanding... Federal or State governmental agencies, bona fide educational or research institutes, or individuals...

  1. Private Information Retrieval Techniques for Enabling Location Privacy in Location-Based Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshgozaran, Ali; Shahabi, Cyrus

    The ubiquity of smartphones and other location-aware hand-held devices has resulted in a dramatic increase in popularity of location-based services (LBS) tailored to user locations. The comfort of LBS comes with a privacy cost. Various distressing privacy violations caused by sharing sensitive location information with potentially malicious services have highlighted the importance of location privacy research aiming to protect user privacy while interacting with LBS.

  2. Location-aware access to hospital information and services.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Marcela D; Favela, Jesus; Martínez, Edgar A; Muñoz, Miguel A

    2004-12-01

    Hospital workers are highly mobile; they are constantly changing location to perform their daily work, which includes visiting patients, locating resources, such as medical records, or consulting with other specialists. The information required by these specialists is highly dependent on their location. Access to a patient's laboratory results might be more relevant when the physician is near the patient's bed and not elsewhere. We describe a location-aware medical information system that was developed to provide access to resources such as patient's records or the location of a medical specialist, based on the user's location. The system is based on a handheld computer which includes a trained backpropagation neural-network used to estimate the user's location and a client to access information from the hospital information system that is relevant to the user's current location.

  3. 43 CFR 37.12 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Confidentiality of cave location information. 37.12 Section 37.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CAVE MANAGEMENT Cave Designation § 37.12 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a) Information...

  4. 43 CFR 37.12 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Confidentiality of cave location information. 37.12 Section 37.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CAVE MANAGEMENT Cave Designation § 37.12 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a) Information...

  5. 43 CFR 37.12 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Confidentiality of cave location information. 37.12 Section 37.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CAVE MANAGEMENT Cave Designation § 37.12 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a) Information...

  6. 43 CFR 37.12 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality of cave location information. 37.12 Section 37.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CAVE MANAGEMENT Cave Designation § 37.12 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a) Information...

  7. 43 CFR 37.12 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Confidentiality of cave location information. 37.12 Section 37.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CAVE MANAGEMENT Cave Designation § 37.12 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a) Information...

  8. 9 CFR 317.302 - Location of nutrition information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 317... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.302 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition information on a label of a packaged meat or meat...

  9. 9 CFR 317.302 - Location of nutrition information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 317... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.302 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition information on a label of a packaged meat or meat...

  10. 9 CFR 381.402 - Location of nutrition information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 381... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.402 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition information on a label of a packaged poultry product shall appear...

  11. 9 CFR 317.302 - Location of nutrition information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 317... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.302 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition information on a label of a packaged meat or meat...

  12. 9 CFR 317.302 - Location of nutrition information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 317... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.302 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition information on a label of a packaged meat or meat...

  13. 9 CFR 381.402 - Location of nutrition information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 381... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.402 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition information on a label of a packaged poultry product shall appear...

  14. 9 CFR 381.402 - Location of nutrition information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 381... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.402 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition information on a label of a packaged poultry product shall appear...

  15. 9 CFR 381.402 - Location of nutrition information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 381... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.402 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition information on a label of a packaged poultry product shall appear...

  16. 9 CFR 381.402 - Location of nutrition information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 381... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.402 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition information on a label of a packaged poultry product shall appear...

  17. 9 CFR 317.302 - Location of nutrition information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 317... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.302 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition information on a label of a packaged meat or meat...

  18. 36 CFR 290.4 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Confidentiality of cave... AGRICULTURE CAVE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT § 290.4 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a) Information... location of a significant cave or a cave nominated for designation, unless the authorized...

  19. 36 CFR 290.4 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Confidentiality of cave... AGRICULTURE CAVE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT § 290.4 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a) Information... location of a significant cave or a cave nominated for designation, unless the authorized...

  20. 36 CFR 290.4 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Confidentiality of cave... AGRICULTURE CAVE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT § 290.4 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a) Information... location of a significant cave or a cave nominated for designation, unless the authorized...

  1. 36 CFR 290.4 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Confidentiality of cave... AGRICULTURE CAVE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT § 290.4 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a) Information... location of a significant cave or a cave nominated for designation, unless the authorized...

  2. Accurate identification of centromere locations in yeast genomes using Hi-C.

    PubMed

    Varoquaux, Nelle; Liachko, Ivan; Ay, Ferhat; Burton, Joshua N; Shendure, Jay; Dunham, Maitreya J; Vert, Jean-Philippe; Noble, William S

    2015-06-23

    Centromeres are essential for proper chromosome segregation. Despite extensive research, centromere locations in yeast genomes remain difficult to infer, and in most species they are still unknown. Recently, the chromatin conformation capture assay, Hi-C, has been re-purposed for diverse applications, including de novo genome assembly, deconvolution of metagenomic samples and inference of centromere locations. We describe a method, Centurion, that jointly infers the locations of all centromeres in a single genome from Hi-C data by exploiting the centromeres' tendency to cluster in three-dimensional space. We first demonstrate the accuracy of Centurion in identifying known centromere locations from high coverage Hi-C data of budding yeast and a human malaria parasite. We then use Centurion to infer centromere locations in 14 yeast species. Across all microbes that we consider, Centurion predicts 89% of centromeres within 5 kb of their known locations. We also demonstrate the robustness of the approach in datasets with low sequencing depth. Finally, we predict centromere coordinates for six yeast species that currently lack centromere annotations. These results show that Centurion can be used for centromere identification for diverse species of yeast and possibly other microorganisms.

  3. A new accurate pill recognition system using imprint information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Kamata, Sei-ichiro

    2013-12-01

    Great achievements in modern medicine benefit human beings. Also, it has brought about an explosive growth of pharmaceuticals that current in the market. In daily life, pharmaceuticals sometimes confuse people when they are found unlabeled. In this paper, we propose an automatic pill recognition technique to solve this problem. It functions mainly based on the imprint feature of the pills, which is extracted by proposed MSWT (modified stroke width transform) and described by WSC (weighted shape context). Experiments show that our proposed pill recognition method can reach an accurate rate up to 92.03% within top 5 ranks when trying to classify more than 10 thousand query pill images into around 2000 categories.

  4. Use of Loran-C navigation system to accurately determine sampling site location in an above ground cooling reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, R.E.; Blankinship, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Environmental monitoring programs often require accurate determination of sampling site locations in aquatic environments. This is especially true when a {open_quotes}picture{close_quotes} of high resolution is needed for observing a changing variable in a given area and location is assumed to be important to the distribution of that variable. Sample site location can be difficult if few visible land marks are available for reference on a large body of water. The use of navigational systems such as Global Positioning System (GPS) and its predecessor, Loran-C, provide an excellent method for sample site location. McFarland (1992) discusses the practicality of GPS for location determination. This article discusses the use of Loran-C in a sampling scheme implemented at the South Texas Project Electrical Generating Station (STPEGS), Wadsworth, Texas.

  5. Building accurate geometric models from abundant range imaging information

    SciTech Connect

    Diegert, C.; Sackos, J.; Nellums, R.

    1997-05-01

    The authors define two simple metrics for accuracy of models built from range imaging information. They apply the metric to a model built from a recent range image taken at the Laser Radar Development and Evaluation Facility (LDERF), Eglin AFB, using a Scannerless Range Imager (SRI) from Sandia National Laboratories. They also present graphical displays of the residual information produced as a byproduct of this measurement, and discuss mechanisms that these data suggest for further improvement in the performance of this already impressive SRI.

  6. Location of long-period events below Kilauea Volcano using seismic amplitudes and accurate relative relocation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglia, J.; Got, J.-L.; Okubo, P.

    2003-01-01

    We present methods for improving the location of long-period (LP) events, deep and shallow, recorded below Kilauea Volcano by the permanent seismic network. LP events might be of particular interest to understanding eruptive processes as their source mechanism is assumed to directly involve fluid transport. However, it is usually difficult or impossible to locate their source using traditional arrival time methods because of emergent wave arrivals. At Kilauea, similar LP waveform signatures suggest the existence of LP multiplets. The waveform similarity suggests spatially close sources, while catalog solutions using arrival time estimates are widely scattered beneath Kilauea's summit caldera. In order to improve estimates of absolute LP location, we use the distribution of seismic amplitudes corrected for station site effects. The decay of the amplitude as a function of hypocentral distance is used for inferring LP location. In a second stage, we use the similarity of the events to calculate their relative positions. The analysis of the entire LP seismicity recorded between January 1997 and December 1999 suggests that a very large part of the LP event population, both deep and shallow, is generated by a small number of compact sources. Deep events are systematically composed of a weak high-frequency onset followed by a low-frequency wave train. Aligning the low-frequency wave trains does not lead to aligning the onsets indicating the two parts of the signal are dissociated. This observation favors an interpretation in terms of triggering and resonance of a magmatic conduit. Instead of defining fault planes, the precise relocation of similar LP events, based on the alignment of the high-energy low-frequency wave trains, defines limited size volumes. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Accurate estimation of object location in an image sequence using helicopter flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Yuan-Liang; Kasturi, Rangachar

    1994-01-01

    In autonomous navigation, it is essential to obtain a three-dimensional (3D) description of the static environment in which the vehicle is traveling. For a rotorcraft conducting low-latitude flight, this description is particularly useful for obstacle detection and avoidance. In this paper, we address the problem of 3D position estimation for static objects from a monocular sequence of images captured from a low-latitude flying helicopter. Since the environment is static, it is well known that the optical flow in the image will produce a radiating pattern from the focus of expansion. We propose a motion analysis system which utilizes the epipolar constraint to accurately estimate 3D positions of scene objects in a real world image sequence taken from a low-altitude flying helicopter. Results show that this approach gives good estimates of object positions near the rotorcraft's intended flight-path.

  8. The Good, the Strong, and the Accurate: Preschoolers' Evaluations of Informant Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusaro, Maria; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    Much recent evidence shows that preschoolers are sensitive to the accuracy of an informant. Faced with two informants, one of whom names familiar objects accurately and the other inaccurately, preschoolers subsequently prefer to learn the names and functions of unfamiliar objects from the more accurate informant. This study examined the inference…

  9. Accurate GPS measurement of the location and orientation of a floating platform. [for sea floor geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purcell, G. H., Jr.; Young, L. E.; Wolf, S. K.; Meehan, T. K.; Duncan, C. B.; Fisher, S. S.; Spiess, F. N.; Austin, G.; Boegeman, D. E.; Lowenstein, C. D.

    1990-01-01

    This article describes the design and initial tests of the GPS portion of a system for making seafloor geodesy measurements. In the planned system, GPS antennas on a floating platform will be used to measure the location of an acoustic transducer, attached below the platform, which interrogates an array of transponders on the seafloor. Since the GPS antennas are necessarily some distance above the transducer, a short-baseline GPS interferometer consisting of three antennas is used to measure the platform's orientation. A preliminary test of several crucial elements of the system was performed. The test involved a fixed antenna on the pier and a second antenna floating on a buoy about 80 m away. GPS measurements of the vertical component of this baseline, analyzed independently by two groups using different software, agree with each other and with an independent measurement within a centimeter. The first test of an integrated GPS/acoustic system took place in the Santa Cruz Basin off the coast of southern California in May 1990. In this test a much larger buoy, designed and built at SIO, was equipped with three GPS antennas and an acoustic transducer that interrogated a transponder on the ocean floor. Preliminary analysis indicates that the horizontal position of the transponder can be determined with a precision of about a centimeter.

  10. Accurate GPS measurement of the location and orientation of a floating platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, G. H., Jr.; Young, L. E.; Wolf, S. K.; Meehan, T. K.; Duncan, C. B.; Fisher, S. S.; Spiess, F. N.; Austin, G.; Boegeman, D. E.; Lowenstein, C. D.

    This article describes the design and initial tests of the GPS portion of a system for making seafloor geodesy measurements. In the planned system, GPS antennas on a floating platform will be used to measure the location of an acoustic transducer, attached below the platform, which interrogates an array of transponders on the seafloor. Since the GPS antennas are necessarily some distance above the transducer, a short-baseline GPS interferometer consisting of three antennas is used to measure the platform's orientation. A preliminary test of several crucial elements of the system was performed. The test involved a fixed antenna on the pier and a second antenna floating on a buoy about 80 m away. GPS measurements of the vertical component of this baseline, analyzed independently by two groups using different software, agree with each other and with an independent measurement within a centimeter. The first test of an integrated GPS/acoustic system took place in the Santa Cruz Basin off the coast of southern California in May 1990. In this test a much larger buoy, designed and built at SIO, was equipped with three GPS antennas and an acoustic transducer that interrogated a transponder on the ocean floor. Preliminary analysis indicates that the horizontal position of the transponder can be determined with a precision of about a centimeter.

  11. TWRS information locator database system administrator`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, B.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-13

    This document is a guide for use by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Information Locator Database (ILD) System Administrator. The TWRS ILD System is an inventory of information used in the TWRS Systems Engineering process to represent the TWRS Technical Baseline. The inventory is maintained in the form of a relational database developed in Paradox 4.5.

  12. A novel method to accurately locate and count large numbers of steps by photobleaching

    PubMed Central

    Tsekouras, Konstantinos; Custer, Thomas C.; Jashnsaz, Hossein; Walter, Nils G.; Pressé, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Photobleaching event counting is a single-molecule fluorescence technique that is increasingly being used to determine the stoichiometry of protein and RNA complexes composed of many subunits in vivo as well as in vitro. By tagging protein or RNA subunits with fluorophores, activating them, and subsequently observing as the fluorophores photobleach, one obtains information on the number of subunits in a complex. The noise properties in a photobleaching time trace depend on the number of active fluorescent subunits. Thus, as fluorophores stochastically photobleach, noise properties of the time trace change stochastically, and these varying noise properties have created a challenge in identifying photobleaching steps in a time trace. Although photobleaching steps are often detected by eye, this method only works for high individual fluorophore emission signal-to-noise ratios and small numbers of fluorophores. With filtering methods or currently available algorithms, it is possible to reliably identify photobleaching steps for up to 20–30 fluorophores and signal-to-noise ratios down to ∼1. Here we present a new Bayesian method of counting steps in photobleaching time traces that takes into account stochastic noise variation in addition to complications such as overlapping photobleaching events that may arise from fluorophore interactions, as well as on-off blinking. Our method is capable of detecting ≥50 photobleaching steps even for signal-to-noise ratios as low as 0.1, can find up to ≥500 steps for more favorable noise profiles, and is computationally inexpensive. PMID:27654946

  13. The Government Information Locator Service: Origins and Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Margaret O'Neill; Thibodeau, Sharon Gibbs

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the origins and development of the Government Information Locator Service (GILS) initiative as well as expectations for its implementation. In addition, it considers the contributions of the National Archives and Records Administration in establishing descriptive standards for GILS data elements to enhance public access. (Author/LRW)

  14. Accurate Analysis of the Change in Volume, Location, and Shape of Metastatic Cervical Lymph Nodes During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Takao, Seishin; Tadano, Shigeru; Taguchi, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Koichi; Onimaru, Rikiya; Ishikawa, Masayori; Bengua, Gerard; Suzuki, Ryusuke; Shirato, Hiroki

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To establish a method for the accurate acquisition and analysis of the variations in tumor volume, location, and three-dimensional (3D) shape of tumors during radiotherapy in the era of image-guided radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Finite element models of lymph nodes were developed based on computed tomography (CT) images taken before the start of treatment and every week during the treatment period. A surface geometry map with a volumetric scale was adopted and used for the analysis. Six metastatic cervical lymph nodes, 3.5 to 55.1 cm{sup 3} before treatment, in 6 patients with head and neck carcinomas were analyzed in this study. Three fiducial markers implanted in mouthpieces were used for the fusion of CT images. Changes in the location of the lymph nodes were measured on the basis of these fiducial markers. Results: The surface geometry maps showed convex regions in red and concave regions in blue to ensure that the characteristics of the 3D tumor geometries are simply understood visually. After the irradiation of 66 to 70 Gy in 2 Gy daily doses, the patterns of the colors had not changed significantly, and the maps before and during treatment were strongly correlated (average correlation coefficient was 0.808), suggesting that the tumors shrank uniformly, maintaining the original characteristics of the shapes in all 6 patients. The movement of the gravitational center of the lymph nodes during the treatment period was everywhere less than {+-}5 mm except in 1 patient, in whom the change reached nearly 10 mm. Conclusions: The surface geometry map was useful for an accurate evaluation of the changes in volume and 3D shapes of metastatic lymph nodes. The fusion of the initial and follow-up CT images based on fiducial markers enabled an analysis of changes in the location of the targets. Metastatic cervical lymph nodes in patients were suggested to decrease in size without significant changes in the 3D shape during radiotherapy. The movements of the

  15. Government Information Locator Service (GILS). Draft report to the Information Infrastructure Task Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a draft report on the Government Information Locator Service (GILS) to the National Information Infrastructure (NII) task force. GILS is designed to take advantage of internetworking technology known as client-server architecture which allows information to be distributed among multiple independent information servers. Two appendices are provided -- (1) A glossary of related terminology and (2) extracts from a draft GILS profile for the use of the American National Standard Information Retrieval Application Service Definition and Protocol Specification for Library Applications.

  16. Finding Faces Among Faces: Human Faces are Located More Quickly and Accurately than Other Primate and Mammal Faces

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Buchin, Zachary; Werner, Katie; Worrell, Rey; Jakobsen, Krisztina V.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the specificity of human face search efficiency by examining whether there is a broad window of detection for various face-like stimuli—human and animal faces—or whether own-species faces receive greater attentional allocation. We assessed the strength of the own-species face detection bias by testing whether human faces are located more efficiently than other animal faces, when presented among various other species’ faces, in heterogeneous 16-, 36-, and 64-item arrays. Across all array sizes, we found that, controlling for distractor type, human faces were located faster and more accurately than primate and mammal faces, and that, controlling for target type, searches were faster when distractors were human faces compared to animal faces, revealing more efficient processing of human faces regardless of their role as targets or distractors (Experiment 1). Critically, these effects remained when searches were for specific species’ faces (human, chimpanzee, otter), ruling out a category-level explanation (Experiment 2). Together, these results suggest that human faces may be processed more efficiently than animal faces, both when task-relevant (targets), and when task-irrelevant (distractors), even when in direct competition with other faces. These results suggest that there is not a broad window of detection for all face-like patterns, but that human adults process own-species’ faces more efficiently than other species’ faces. Such own-species search efficiencies may arise through experience with own-species faces throughout development, or may be privileged early in development, due to the evolutionary importance of conspecifics’ faces. PMID:25113852

  17. The semantics of locative information in pictures and mental images.

    PubMed

    Just, M A; Carpenter, P A

    1975-11-01

    Three experiments examined how people compare sentences about spatial location to pictures and images. Previous investigations have found that people are faster at judging relative location when the description contains the word above or right than when it contains the word below or left. Expt I showed that this asymmetry persisted when the words were replaced by arrows, indicating that the effect is not specific to particular lexical items. Expt. II showed the asymmetry persisted even when the response latency did not iclude the time to encode the description, indicating that the asymmetry does not lie in the description-encoding stage. Finally, Expt. III investigated how people compare sentences to information from a previously memorized picture. In this situation, the usual asymmetry was not present. The three studies suggest that the asymmetry arises from the way descriptions influence the encoding of perceptual events. The results also show that the information encoded in a mental representation of a picture is ordered such that certain features can be access-d more quickly than others. However, the same features are equally quickly accessed in a picture that is physically present.

  18. Location-based health information services: a new paradigm in personalised information delivery.

    PubMed

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel

    2003-01-10

    Brute health information delivery to various devices can be easily achieved these days, making health information instantly available whenever it is needed and nearly anywhere. However, brute health information delivery risks overloading users with unnecessary information that does not answer their actual needs, and might even act as noise, masking any other useful and relevant information delivered with it. Users' profiles and needs are definitely affected by where they are, and this should be taken into consideration when personalising and delivering information to users in different locations. The main goal of location-based health information services is to allow better presentation of the distribution of health and healthcare needs and Internet resources answering them across a geographical area, with the aim to provide users with better support for informed decision-making. Personalised information delivery requires the acquisition of high quality metadata about not only information resources, but also information service users, their geographical location and their devices. Throughout this review, experience from a related online health information service, HealthCyberMap http://healthcybermap.semanticweb.org/, is referred to as a model that can be easily adapted to other similar services. HealthCyberMap is a Web-based directory service of medical/health Internet resources exploring new means to organise and present these resources based on consumer and provider locations, as well as the geographical coverage or scope of indexed resources. The paper also provides a concise review of location-based services, technologies for detecting user location (including IP geolocation), and their potential applications in health and healthcare.

  19. Single-sideband modulator accurately reproduces phase information in 2-Mc signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strenglein, H. F.

    1966-01-01

    Phase-locked oscillator system employing solid state components acts as a single-sideband modulator to accurately reproduce phase information in 2-Mc signals. This system is useful in telemetry, aircraft communications and position-finding stations, and VHF test circuitry.

  20. Assessment of Receiver Signal Strength Sensing for Location Estimation Based on Fisher Information

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, John; Nielsen, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Currently there is almost ubiquitous availability of wireless signaling for data communications within commercial building complexes resulting in receiver signal strength (RSS) observables that are typically sufficient for generating viable location estimates of mobile wireless devices. However, while RSS observables are generally plentiful, achieving an accurate estimation of location is difficult due to several factors affecting the electromagnetic coupling between the mobile antenna and the building access points that are not modeled and hence contribute to the overall estimation uncertainty. Such uncertainty is typically mitigated with a moderate redundancy of RSS sensor observations in combination with other constraints imposed on the mobile trajectory. In this paper, the Fisher Information (FI) of a set of RSS sensor observations in the context of variables related to the mobile location is developed. This provides a practical method of determining the potential location accuracy for the given set of wireless signals available. Furthermore, the information value of individual RSS measurements can be quantified and the RSS observables weighted accordingly in estimation combining algorithms. The practical utility of using FI in this context was demonstrated experimentally with an extensive set of RSS measurements recorded in an office complex. The resulting deviation of the mobile location estimation based on application of weighted likelihood processing to the experimental RSS data was shown to agree closely with the Cramer Rao bound determined from the FI analysis. PMID:27669262

  1. Assessment of Receiver Signal Strength Sensing for Location Estimation Based on Fisher Information.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, John; Nielsen, Christopher

    2016-09-24

    Currently there is almost ubiquitous availability of wireless signaling for data communications within commercial building complexes resulting in receiver signal strength (RSS) observables that are typically sufficient for generating viable location estimates of mobile wireless devices. However, while RSS observables are generally plentiful, achieving an accurate estimation of location is difficult due to several factors affecting the electromagnetic coupling between the mobile antenna and the building access points that are not modeled and hence contribute to the overall estimation uncertainty. Such uncertainty is typically mitigated with a moderate redundancy of RSS sensor observations in combination with other constraints imposed on the mobile trajectory. In this paper, the Fisher Information (FI) of a set of RSS sensor observations in the context of variables related to the mobile location is developed. This provides a practical method of determining the potential location accuracy for the given set of wireless signals available. Furthermore, the information value of individual RSS measurements can be quantified and the RSS observables weighted accordingly in estimation combining algorithms. The practical utility of using FI in this context was demonstrated experimentally with an extensive set of RSS measurements recorded in an office complex. The resulting deviation of the mobile location estimation based on application of weighted likelihood processing to the experimental RSS data was shown to agree closely with the Cramer Rao bound determined from the FI analysis.

  2. Helping the public find information the U.S. Government Information Locator Service (GILS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christian, E.J.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the National Information Infrastructure, the U.S. federal government is establishing a Government Information Locator Service (GILS). GILS will identify and describe public information resources throughout the federal government and provide assistance in obtaining the information. It will be decentralized and will supplement other agency and commercial information dissemination mechanisms. The public will use GILS directly or through intermediaries, including the Government Printing Office and the National Technical Information Service, as well as federal depository libraries, other public libraries, and private sector information services. Direct users will have access to a GILS Core accessible on the Internet without charge. Intermediate access may include kiosks, 800 numbers, electronic mail, bulletin boards, FAX, and offline media such as floppy disks, CD-ROM, and printed works. GILS will use network technology and the American National Standards Institute Z39.50 standard for information search and retrieval so that information can be retrieved in a variety of ways. Direct users may have access to many other major federal and nonfederal information resources, linkages to data systems, and electronic delivery of information products. An Office of Management and Budget Bulletin in 1994 will provide implementing guidance to agencies. The National Institute of Standards and Technology will also establish a Federal Information Processing Standard specifying a GILS Profile and its application for agencies establishing information locators. ?? 1994.

  3. Accurate protein structure modeling using sparse NMR data and homologous structure information.

    PubMed

    Thompson, James M; Sgourakis, Nikolaos G; Liu, Gaohua; Rossi, Paolo; Tang, Yuefeng; Mills, Jeffrey L; Szyperski, Thomas; Montelione, Gaetano T; Baker, David

    2012-06-19

    While information from homologous structures plays a central role in X-ray structure determination by molecular replacement, such information is rarely used in NMR structure determination because it can be incorrect, both locally and globally, when evolutionary relationships are inferred incorrectly or there has been considerable evolutionary structural divergence. Here we describe a method that allows robust modeling of protein structures of up to 225 residues by combining (1)H(N), (13)C, and (15)N backbone and (13)Cβ chemical shift data, distance restraints derived from homologous structures, and a physically realistic all-atom energy function. Accurate models are distinguished from inaccurate models generated using incorrect sequence alignments by requiring that (i) the all-atom energies of models generated using the restraints are lower than models generated in unrestrained calculations and (ii) the low-energy structures converge to within 2.0 Å backbone rmsd over 75% of the protein. Benchmark calculations on known structures and blind targets show that the method can accurately model protein structures, even with very remote homology information, to a backbone rmsd of 1.2-1.9 Å relative to the conventional determined NMR ensembles and of 0.9-1.6 Å relative to X-ray structures for well-defined regions of the protein structures. This approach facilitates the accurate modeling of protein structures using backbone chemical shift data without need for side-chain resonance assignments and extensive analysis of NOESY cross-peak assignments.

  4. BlueDetect: An iBeacon-Enabled Scheme for Accurate and Energy-Efficient Indoor-Outdoor Detection and Seamless Location-Based Service.

    PubMed

    Zou, Han; Jiang, Hao; Luo, Yiwen; Zhu, Jianjie; Lu, Xiaoxuan; Xie, Lihua

    2016-02-22

    The location and contextual status (indoor or outdoor) is fundamental and critical information for upper-layer applications, such as activity recognition and location-based services (LBS) for individuals. In addition, optimizations of building management systems (BMS), such as the pre-cooling or heating process of the air-conditioning system according to the human traffic entering or exiting a building, can utilize the information, as well. The emerging mobile devices, which are equipped with various sensors, become a feasible and flexible platform to perform indoor-outdoor (IO) detection. However, power-hungry sensors, such as GPS and WiFi, should be used with caution due to the constrained battery storage on mobile device. We propose BlueDetect: an accurate, fast response and energy-efficient scheme for IO detection and seamless LBS running on the mobile device based on the emerging low-power iBeacon technology. By leveraging the on-broad Bluetooth module and our proposed algorithms, BlueDetect provides a precise IO detection service that can turn on/off on-board power-hungry sensors smartly and automatically, optimize their performances and reduce the power consumption of mobile devices simultaneously. Moreover, seamless positioning and navigation services can be realized by it, especially in a semi-outdoor environment, which cannot be achieved by GPS or an indoor positioning system (IPS) easily. We prototype BlueDetect on Android mobile devices and evaluate its performance comprehensively. The experimental results have validated the superiority of BlueDetect in terms of IO detection accuracy, localization accuracy and energy consumption.

  5. BlueDetect: An iBeacon-Enabled Scheme for Accurate and Energy-Efficient Indoor-Outdoor Detection and Seamless Location-Based Service

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Han; Jiang, Hao; Luo, Yiwen; Zhu, Jianjie; Lu, Xiaoxuan; Xie, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    The location and contextual status (indoor or outdoor) is fundamental and critical information for upper-layer applications, such as activity recognition and location-based services (LBS) for individuals. In addition, optimizations of building management systems (BMS), such as the pre-cooling or heating process of the air-conditioning system according to the human traffic entering or exiting a building, can utilize the information, as well. The emerging mobile devices, which are equipped with various sensors, become a feasible and flexible platform to perform indoor-outdoor (IO) detection. However, power-hungry sensors, such as GPS and WiFi, should be used with caution due to the constrained battery storage on mobile device. We propose BlueDetect: an accurate, fast response and energy-efficient scheme for IO detection and seamless LBS running on the mobile device based on the emerging low-power iBeacon technology. By leveraging the on-broad Bluetooth module and our proposed algorithms, BlueDetect provides a precise IO detection service that can turn on/off on-board power-hungry sensors smartly and automatically, optimize their performances and reduce the power consumption of mobile devices simultaneously. Moreover, seamless positioning and navigation services can be realized by it, especially in a semi-outdoor environment, which cannot be achieved by GPS or an indoor positioning system (IPS) easily. We prototype BlueDetect on Android mobile devices and evaluate its performance comprehensively. The experimental results have validated the superiority of BlueDetect in terms of IO detection accuracy, localization accuracy and energy consumption. PMID:26907295

  6. Functional MRI Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals a Dissociation between Discriminative and Relative Location Information in the Human Visual System.

    PubMed

    Roth, Zvi N

    2016-01-01

    Neural responses in visual cortex are governed by a topographic mapping from retinal locations to cortical responses. Moreover, at the voxel population level early visual cortex (EVC) activity enables accurate decoding of stimuli locations. However, in many cases information enabling one to discriminate between locations (i.e., discriminative information) may be less relevant than information regarding the relative location of two objects (i.e., relative information). For example, when planning to grab a cup, determining whether the cup is located at the same retinal location as the hand is hardly relevant, whereas the location of the cup relative to the hand is crucial for performing the action. We have previously used multivariate pattern analysis techniques to measure discriminative location information, and found the highest levels in EVC, in line with other studies. Here we show, using representational similarity analysis, that availability of discriminative information in fMRI activation patterns does not entail availability of relative information. Specifically, we find that relative location information can be reliably extracted from activity patterns in posterior intraparietal sulcus (pIPS), but not from EVC, where we find the spatial representation to be warped. We further show that this variability in relative information levels between regions can be explained by a computational model based on an array of receptive fields. Moreover, when the model's receptive fields are extended to include inhibitory surround regions, the model can account for the spatial warping in EVC. These results demonstrate how size and shape properties of receptive fields in human visual cortex contribute to the transformation of discriminative spatial representations into relative spatial representations along the visual stream.

  7. Functional MRI Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals a Dissociation between Discriminative and Relative Location Information in the Human Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Zvi N.

    2016-01-01

    Neural responses in visual cortex are governed by a topographic mapping from retinal locations to cortical responses. Moreover, at the voxel population level early visual cortex (EVC) activity enables accurate decoding of stimuli locations. However, in many cases information enabling one to discriminate between locations (i.e., discriminative information) may be less relevant than information regarding the relative location of two objects (i.e., relative information). For example, when planning to grab a cup, determining whether the cup is located at the same retinal location as the hand is hardly relevant, whereas the location of the cup relative to the hand is crucial for performing the action. We have previously used multivariate pattern analysis techniques to measure discriminative location information, and found the highest levels in EVC, in line with other studies. Here we show, using representational similarity analysis, that availability of discriminative information in fMRI activation patterns does not entail availability of relative information. Specifically, we find that relative location information can be reliably extracted from activity patterns in posterior intraparietal sulcus (pIPS), but not from EVC, where we find the spatial representation to be warped. We further show that this variability in relative information levels between regions can be explained by a computational model based on an array of receptive fields. Moreover, when the model's receptive fields are extended to include inhibitory surround regions, the model can account for the spatial warping in EVC. These results demonstrate how size and shape properties of receptive fields in human visual cortex contribute to the transformation of discriminative spatial representations into relative spatial representations along the visual stream. PMID:27242455

  8. Cas9-chromatin binding information enables more accurate CRISPR off-target prediction

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ritambhara; Kuscu, Cem; Quinlan, Aaron; Qi, Yanjun; Adli, Mazhar

    2015-01-01

    The CRISPR system has become a powerful biological tool with a wide range of applications. However, improving targeting specificity and accurately predicting potential off-targets remains a significant goal. Here, we introduce a web-based CRISPR/Cas9 Off-target Prediction and Identification Tool (CROP-IT) that performs improved off-target binding and cleavage site predictions. Unlike existing prediction programs that solely use DNA sequence information; CROP-IT integrates whole genome level biological information from existing Cas9 binding and cleavage data sets. Utilizing whole-genome chromatin state information from 125 human cell types further enhances its computational prediction power. Comparative analyses on experimentally validated datasets show that CROP-IT outperforms existing computational algorithms in predicting both Cas9 binding as well as cleavage sites. With a user-friendly web-interface, CROP-IT outputs scored and ranked list of potential off-targets that enables improved guide RNA design and more accurate prediction of Cas9 binding or cleavage sites. PMID:26032770

  9. Efficient Information Access for Location-Based Services in Mobile Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chi Keung

    2009-01-01

    The demand for pervasive access of location-related information (e.g., local traffic, restaurant locations, navigation maps, weather conditions, pollution index, etc.) fosters a tremendous application base of "Location Based Services (LBSs)". Without loss of generality, we model location-related information as "spatial objects" and the accesses…

  10. Fast, Accurate and Precise Mid-Sagittal Plane Location in 3D MR Images of the Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergo, Felipe P. G.; Falcão, Alexandre X.; Yasuda, Clarissa L.; Ruppert, Guilherme C. S.

    Extraction of the mid-sagittal plane (MSP) is a key step for brain image registration and asymmetry analysis. We present a fast MSP extraction method for 3D MR images, based on automatic segmentation of the brain and on heuristic maximization of the cerebro-spinal fluid within the MSP. The method is robust to severe anatomical asymmetries between the hemispheres, caused by surgical procedures and lesions. The method is also accurate with respect to MSP delineations done by a specialist. The method was evaluated on 64 MR images (36 pathological, 20 healthy, 8 synthetic), and it found a precise and accurate approximation of the MSP in all of them with a mean time of 60.0 seconds per image, mean angular variation within a same image (precision) of 1.26o and mean angular difference from specialist delineations (accuracy) of 1.64o.

  11. The utility of accurate mass and LC elution time information in the analysis of complex proteomes

    SciTech Connect

    Norbeck, Angela D.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Daly, Don S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2005-08-01

    Theoretical tryptic digests of all predicted proteins from the genomes of three organisms of varying complexity were evaluated for specificity and possible utility of combined peptide accurate mass and predicted LC normalized elution time (NET) information. The uniqueness of each peptide was evaluated using its combined mass (+/- 5 ppm and 1 ppm) and NET value (no constraint, +/- 0.05 and 0.01 on a 0-1 NET scale). The set of peptides both underestimates actual biological complexity due to the lack of specific modifications, and overestimates the expected complexity since many proteins will not be present in the sample or observable on the mass spectrometer because of dynamic range limitations. Once a peptide is identified from an LCMS/MS experiment, its mass and elution time is representative of a unique fingerprint for that peptide. The uniqueness of that fingerprint in comparison to that for the other peptides present is indicative of the ability to confidently identify that peptide based on accurate mass and NET measurements. These measurements can be made using HPLC coupled with high resolution MS in a high-throughput manner. Results show that for organisms with comparatively small proteomes, such as Deinococcus radiodurans, modest mass and elution time accuracies are generally adequate for peptide identifications. For more complex proteomes, increasingly accurate easurements are required. However, the majority of proteins should be uniquely identifiable by using LC-MS with mass accuracies within +/- 1 ppm and elution time easurements within +/- 0.01 NET.

  12. One dimensional P wave velocity structure of the crust beneath west Java and accurate hypocentre locations from local earthquake inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Supardiyono; Santosa, Bagus Jaya

    2012-06-20

    A one-dimensional (1-D) velocity model and station corrections for the West Java zone were computed by inverting P-wave arrival times recorded on a local seismic network of 14 stations. A total of 61 local events with a minimum of 6 P-phases, rms 0.56 s and a maximum gap of 299 Degree-Sign were selected. Comparison with previous earthquake locations shows an improvement for the relocated earthquakes. Tests were carried out to verify the robustness of inversion results in order to corroborate the conclusions drawn out from our reasearch. The obtained minimum 1-D velocity model can be used to improve routine earthquake locations and represents a further step toward more detailed seismotectonic studies in this area of West Java.

  13. Alignment of leading-edge and peak-picking time of arrival methods to obtain accurate source locations

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E.; Fox, C.; and Vanderlinde, O.

    2009-08-01

    The location of a radiating source can be determined by time-tagging the arrival of the radiated signal at a network of spatially distributed sensors. The accuracy of this approach depends strongly on the particular time-tagging algorithm employed at each of the sensors. If different techniques are used across the network, then the time tags must be referenced to a common fiducial for maximum location accuracy. In this report we derive the time corrections needed to temporally align leading-edge, time-tagging techniques with peak-picking algorithms. We focus on broadband radio frequency (RF) sources, an ionospheric propagation channel, and narrowband receivers, but the final results can be generalized to apply to any source, propagation environment, and sensor. Our analytic results are checked against numerical simulations for a number of representative cases and agree with the specific leading-edge algorithm studied independently by Kim and Eng (1995) and Pongratz (2005 and 2007).

  14. Helicopter Based Magnetic Detection Of Wells At The Teapot Dome (Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 Oilfield: Rapid And Accurate Geophysical Algorithms For Locating Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbert, W.; Hammack, R.; Veloski, G.; Hodge, G.

    2011-12-01

    In this study Airborne magnetic data was collected by Fugro Airborne Surveys from a helicopter platform (Figure 1) using the Midas II system over the 39 km2 NPR3 (Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3) oilfield in east-central Wyoming. The Midas II system employs two Scintrex CS-2 cesium vapor magnetometers on opposite ends of a transversely mounted, 13.4-m long horizontal boom located amidships (Fig. 1). Each magnetic sensor had an in-flight sensitivity of 0.01 nT. Real time compensation of the magnetic data for magnetic noise induced by maneuvering of the aircraft was accomplished using two fluxgate magnetometers mounted just inboard of the cesium sensors. The total area surveyed was 40.5 km2 (NPR3) near Casper, Wyoming. The purpose of the survey was to accurately locate wells that had been drilled there during more than 90 years of continuous oilfield operation. The survey was conducted at low altitude and with closely spaced flight lines to improve the detection of wells with weak magnetic response and to increase the resolution of closely spaced wells. The survey was in preparation for a planned CO2 flood to enhance oil recovery, which requires a complete well inventory with accurate locations for all existing wells. The magnetic survey was intended to locate wells that are missing from the well database and to provide accurate locations for all wells. The well location method used combined an input dataset (for example, leveled total magnetic field reduced to the pole), combined with first and second horizontal spatial derivatives of this input dataset, which were then analyzed using focal statistics and finally combined using a fuzzy combination operation. Analytic signal and the Shi and Butt (2004) ZS attribute were also analyzed using this algorithm. A parameter could be adjusted to determine sensitivity. Depending on the input dataset 88% to 100% of the wells were located, with typical values being 95% to 99% for the NPR3 field site.

  15. Vultures acquire information on carcass location from scavenging eagles.

    PubMed

    Kane, Adam; Jackson, Andrew L; Ogada, Darcy L; Monadjem, Ara; McNally, Luke

    2014-10-22

    Vultures are recognized as the scroungers of the natural world, owing to their ecological role as obligate scavengers. While it is well known that vultures use intraspecific social information as they forage, the possibility of inter-guild social information transfer and the resulting multi-species social dilemmas has not been explored. Here, we use data on arrival times at carcasses to show that such social information transfer occurs, with raptors acting as producers of information and vultures acting as scroungers of information. We develop a game-theoretic model to show that competitive asymmetry, whereby vultures dominate raptors at carcasses, predicts this evolutionary outcome. We support this theoretical prediction using empirical data from competitive interactions at carcasses. Finally, we use an individual-based model to show that these producer-scrounger dynamics lead to vultures being vulnerable to declines in raptor populations. Our results show that social information transfer can lead to important non-trophic interactions among species and highlight important potential links among social evolution, community ecology and conservation biology. With vulture populations suffering global declines, our study underscores the importance of ecosystem-based management for these endangered keystone species.

  16. 34 CFR 300.616 - List of types and locations of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of types and locations of information. 300.616... EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Monitoring, Enforcement, Confidentiality, and Program Information Confidentiality of Information § 300.616 List of types and locations of information. Each participating...

  17. 14 CFR § 1206.401 - Location of NASA Information Centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Location of NASA Information Centers. Â... § 1206.401 Location of NASA Information Centers. (a) NASA will maintain the following Information Centers... which copies of Agency forms may be obtained: (1) NASA Headquarters (HQ) Information Center,...

  18. The utility of accurate mass and LC elution time information in the analysis of complex proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Norbeck, Angela D.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Smith, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical tryptic digests of all predicted proteins from the genomes of three organisms of varying complexity were evaluated for specificity and possible utility of combined peptide accurate mass and predicted LC normalized elution time (NET) information. The uniqueness of each peptide was evaluated using its combined mass (+/− 5 ppm and 1 ppm) and NET value (no constraint, +/− 0.05 and 0.01 on a 0–1 NET scale). The set of peptides both underestimates actual biological complexity due to the lack of specific modifications, and overestimates the expected complexity since many proteins will not be present in the sample or observable on the mass spectrometer because of dynamic range limitations. Once a peptide is identified from an LC-MS/MS experiment, its mass and elution time is representative of a unique fingerprint for that peptide. The uniqueness of that fingerprint in comparison to that for the other peptides present is indicative of the ability to confidently identify that peptide based on accurate mass and NET measurements. These measurements can be made using HPLC coupled with high resolution MS in a high-throughput manner. Results show that for organisms with comparatively small proteomes, such as Deinococcus radiodurans, modest mass and elution time accuracies are generally adequate for peptide identifications. For more complex proteomes, increasingly accurate measurements are required. However, the majority of proteins should be uniquely identifiable by using LC-MS with mass accuracies within +/− 1 ppm and elution time measurements within +/− 0.01 NET. PMID:15979333

  19. Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer: Mission Design for Rapid, Accurate Location of Gamma-ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bundas, David J.

    2004-01-01

    The Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer is a NASA Mid-sized Explorer (MIDEX) with the primary mission of determining the origins of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). It will be the first mission to autonomously respond to newly-discovered GRBs and provide immediate follow-up with narrow field instruments capable of multi-wavelength (UV, Optical, X-ray) observations. The characteristics of GRBs that are the key mission design drivers, are their non-repeating and brief duration bursts of multi-wavelength photons. In addition, rapid notification of the location and characteristics of the GRBs to ground-and-space-based observatories drive the end-to-end data analysis and distribution requirements.

  20. Seismic monitoring of EGS tests at the Coso Geothermal area, California, using accurate MEQ locations and full moment tensors

    SciTech Connect

    Foulger, Gillian R.; Julian, Bruce R.; Monastero, Francis C.

    2008-03-31

    In this study, we studied high-resolution relative locations and full moment tensors of microearthquakes (MEQs) occurring before, during and following Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) experiments in two wells at the Coso geothermal area, California. The objective was to map new fractures, determine the mode and sense of failure, and characterize the stress cycle associated with injection. New software developed for this work combines waveform cross-correlation measurement of arrival times with relative relocation methods, and assesses confidence regions for moment tensors derived using linear-programming methods. For moment tensor determination we also developed a convenient Graphical User Interface (GUI), to streamline the work. We used data from the U.S. Navy’s permanent network of three-component digital borehole seismometers and from 14 portable three-component digital instruments. The latter supplemented the permanent network during injection experiments in well 34A-9 in 2004 and well 34-9RD2 in 2005. In the experiment in well 34A-9, the co-injection earthquakes were more numerous, smaller, more explosive and had more horizontal motion, compared with the pre-injection earthquakes. In the experiment in well 34-9RD2 the relocated hypocenters reveal a well-defined planar structure, 700 m long and 600 m high in the depth range 0.8 to 1.4 km below sea level, striking N 20° E and dipping at 75° to the WNW. The moment tensors show that it corresponds to a mode I (opening) crack. Finally, for both wells, the perturbed stress state near the bottom of the well persisted for at least two months following the injection.

  1. 14 CFR 420.27 - Launch site location review-information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Launch site location review-information... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Criteria and Information Requirements for Obtaining a License § 420.27 Launch site location review—information requirements....

  2. A Mathematical Model of the Information Center Location Problem and Its Implications for Decision Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Donald H.; Hill, T. W., Jr.

    The problem of selecting which sites to use in locating library and information centers in order to best achieve system objectives is modeled as a mixed zero-one linear programming problem and examined in detail. The model incorporates an objective function based on the costs of locating centers and of transmitting information to the users. The…

  3. Highly Accurate Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions via Incorporating Evolutionary Information and Physicochemical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng-Wei; You, Zhu-Hong; Chen, Xing; Gui, Jie; Nie, Ru

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) occur at almost all levels of cell functions and play crucial roles in various cellular processes. Thus, identification of PPIs is critical for deciphering the molecular mechanisms and further providing insight into biological processes. Although a variety of high-throughput experimental techniques have been developed to identify PPIs, existing PPI pairs by experimental approaches only cover a small fraction of the whole PPI networks, and further, those approaches hold inherent disadvantages, such as being time-consuming, expensive, and having high false positive rate. Therefore, it is urgent and imperative to develop automatic in silico approaches to predict PPIs efficiently and accurately. In this article, we propose a novel mixture of physicochemical and evolutionary-based feature extraction method for predicting PPIs using our newly developed discriminative vector machine (DVM) classifier. The improvements of the proposed method mainly consist in introducing an effective feature extraction method that can capture discriminative features from the evolutionary-based information and physicochemical characteristics, and then a powerful and robust DVM classifier is employed. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that DVM model is applied to the field of bioinformatics. When applying the proposed method to the Yeast and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) datasets, we obtain excellent prediction accuracies of 94.35% and 90.61%, respectively. The computational results indicate that our method is effective and robust for predicting PPIs, and can be taken as a useful supplementary tool to the traditional experimental methods for future proteomics research. PMID:27571061

  4. Accurately decoding visual information from fMRI data obtained in a realistic virtual environment

    PubMed Central

    Floren, Andrew; Naylor, Bruce; Miikkulainen, Risto; Ress, David

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional interactive virtual environments (VEs) are a powerful tool for brain-imaging based cognitive neuroscience that are presently under-utilized. This paper presents machine-learning based methods for identifying brain states induced by realistic VEs with improved accuracy as well as the capability for mapping their spatial topography on the neocortex. VEs provide the ability to study the brain under conditions closer to the environment in which humans evolved, and thus to probe deeper into the complexities of human cognition. As a test case, we designed a stimulus to reflect a military combat situation in the Middle East, motivated by the potential of using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Each subject experienced moving through the virtual town where they encountered 1–6 animated combatants at different locations, while fMRI data was collected. To analyze the data from what is, compared to most studies, more complex and less controlled stimuli, we employed statistical machine learning in the form of Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis (MVPA) with special attention given to artificial Neural Networks (NN). Extensions to NN that exploit the block structure of the stimulus were developed to improve the accuracy of the classification, achieving performances from 58 to 93% (chance was 16.7%) with six subjects. This demonstrates that MVPA can decode a complex cognitive state, viewing a number of characters, in a dynamic virtual environment. To better understand the source of this information in the brain, a novel form of sensitivity analysis was developed to use NN to quantify the degree to which each voxel contributed to classification. Compared with maps produced by general linear models and the searchlight approach, these sensitivity maps revealed a more diverse pattern of information relevant to the classification of cognitive state. PMID:26106315

  5. Accurately mapping the location of the binding site for the interaction between hepatitis B virus X protein and cytochrome c oxidase III

    PubMed Central

    LI, DAN; DING, JIAN; CHEN, ZHIXIN; CHEN, YUN; LIN, NA; CHEN, FENGLIN; WANG, XIAOZHONG

    2015-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) plays an important pathogenetic role in hepatocarcinoma tumorigenesis. As HBx does not have the ability to bind to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), protein-protein interaction is crucial for HBx functions. In a previous study, we screened a novel HBx-interacting protein, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (COXIII). In the present study, we aimed to accurately map the location of the binding site for the interaction of HBx with COXIII. Two fragments of HBx mutants (X1 aa1-72 and X2 aa1-117) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and separately inserted into the pAS2-1 plasmid. PCR and gene sequencing confirmed the correct insertion of the mutant fragments in the plasmid. The tanscription of the mutant fragments in yeast cells was demonstrated by RT-PCR and western blot analysis confirmed that they were accurately translated into fusion proteins. Hybridization on solid medium and the detection of β-galactosidase (β-gal) activity indicated that the binding site for the interaction between HBx and COXIII was located between aa72 and aa117. Specific interactions between the HBxX2 protein and COXIII were verified by co-immunoprecipitation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing to demonstrate that aa72-117 in HBx is the key region for binding with COXIII. PMID:25483779

  6. Z39.50 and GILS model. [Government Information Locator Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Eliot

    1994-01-01

    The Government Information Locator System (GILS) is a component of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) which provides electronic access to sources of publicly accessible information maintained throughout the Federal Government. GILS is an internetworking information resource that identifies other information resources, describes the information available in the referenced resources, and provides assistance in how to obtain the information either directly or through intermediaries. The GILS core content which references each Federal information system holding publicly accessible data or information is described in terms of mandatory and optional core elements.

  7. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 15 - Location Information for HUD FOIA Reading Rooms and Contact Information for Regional Counsel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Reading Rooms and Contact Information for Regional Counsel A Appendix A to Part 15 Housing and Urban..., App. A Appendix A to Part 15—Location Information for HUD FOIA Reading Rooms and Contact Information for Regional Counsel The Department maintains a reading room in Headquarters and in each of...

  8. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 15 - Location Information for HUD FOIA Reading Rooms and Contact Information for Regional Counsel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Reading Rooms and Contact Information for Regional Counsel A Appendix A to Part 15 Housing and Urban..., App. A Appendix A to Part 15—Location Information for HUD FOIA Reading Rooms and Contact Information for Regional Counsel The Department maintains a reading room in Headquarters and in each of...

  9. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 15 - Location Information for HUD FOIA Reading Rooms and Contact Information for Regional Counsel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Reading Rooms and Contact Information for Regional Counsel A Appendix A to Part 15 Housing and Urban..., App. A Appendix A to Part 15—Location Information for HUD FOIA Reading Rooms and Contact Information for Regional Counsel The Department maintains a reading room in Headquarters and in each of...

  10. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 15 - Location Information for HUD FOIA Reading Rooms and Contact Information for Regional Counsel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Reading Rooms and Contact Information for Regional Counsel A Appendix A to Part 15 Housing and Urban..., App. A Appendix A to Part 15—Location Information for HUD FOIA Reading Rooms and Contact Information for Regional Counsel The Department maintains a reading room in Headquarters and in each of...

  11. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 15 - Location Information for HUD FOIA Reading Rooms and Contact Information for Regional Counsel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Reading Rooms and Contact Information for Regional Counsel A Appendix A to Part 15 Housing and Urban..., App. A Appendix A to Part 15—Location Information for HUD FOIA Reading Rooms and Contact Information for Regional Counsel The Department maintains a reading room in Headquarters and in each of...

  12. 77 FR 33479 - Information Collection Activities: Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located Seaward...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement Information Collection Activities: Oil-Spill Response... requirements in the regulations under Part 254, ``Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located... 254, Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located Seaward of the Coast Line. OMB...

  13. "Right Time, Right Place" Health Communication on Twitter: Value and Accuracy of Location Information

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Scott H; Tanner, Kesler W; West, Joshua H; Barnes, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Background Twitter provides various types of location data, including exact Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates, which could be used for infoveillance and infodemiology (ie, the study and monitoring of online health information), health communication, and interventions. Despite its potential, Twitter location information is not well understood or well documented, limiting its public health utility. Objective The objective of this study was to document and describe the various types of location information available in Twitter. The different types of location data that can be ascertained from Twitter users are described. This information is key to informing future research on the availability, usability, and limitations of such location data. Methods Location data was gathered directly from Twitter using its application programming interface (API). The maximum tweets allowed by Twitter were gathered (1% of the total tweets) over 2 separate weeks in October and November 2011. The final dataset consisted of 23.8 million tweets from 9.5 million unique users. Frequencies for each of the location options were calculated to determine the prevalence of the various location data options by region of the world, time zone, and state within the United States. Data from the US Census Bureau were also compiled to determine population proportions in each state, and Pearson correlation coefficients were used to compare each state’s population with the number of Twitter users who enable the GPS location option. Results The GPS location data could be ascertained for 2.02% of tweets and 2.70% of unique users. Using a simple text-matching approach, 17.13% of user profiles in the 4 continental US time zones were able to be used to determine the user’s city and state. Agreement between GPS data and data from the text-matching approach was high (87.69%). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the number of Twitter users per state and the 2010 US Census state

  14. Humans use visual and remembered information about object location to plan pointing movements.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Knill, David C

    2009-01-21

    We investigated whether humans use a target's remembered location to plan reaching movements to targets according to the relative reliabilities of visual and remembered information. Using their index finger, subjects moved a virtual object from one side of a table to the other, and then went back to a target. In some trials, the target shifted unnoticed while the finger made the first movement. We regressed subjects' movement trajectories against the initial and shifted target locations to infer the weights that subjects gave to remembered and visual locations. We measured the reliability of vision and memory by adding conditions in which the target only appeared after subjects made the first movement (vision only) and in which the target was initially present but disappeared during the first movement (memory only). When both visual and remembered information were available, movement trajectories were biased to the remembered target location. The different weights that subjects gave to memory and visual information on average matched the weights predicted by the variance associated with the use of vision and memory alone. This suggests that humans integrate remembered information about object locations with peripheral visual information by taking into account the relative reliability of the two sources of information.

  15. Accurate refinement of docked protein complexes using evolutionary information and deep learning.

    PubMed

    Akbal-Delibas, Bahar; Farhoodi, Roshanak; Pomplun, Marc; Haspel, Nurit

    2016-06-01

    One of the major challenges for protein docking methods is to accurately discriminate native-like structures from false positives. Docking methods are often inaccurate and the results have to be refined and re-ranked to obtain native-like complexes and remove outliers. In a previous work, we introduced AccuRefiner, a machine learning based tool for refining protein-protein complexes. Given a docked complex, the refinement tool produces a small set of refined versions of the input complex, with lower root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD) of atomic positions with respect to the native structure. The method employs a unique ranking tool that accurately predicts the RMSD of docked complexes with respect to the native structure. In this work, we use a deep learning network with a similar set of features and five layers. We show that a properly trained deep learning network can accurately predict the RMSD of a docked complex with 1.40 Å error margin on average, by approximating the complex relationship between a wide set of scoring function terms and the RMSD of a docked structure. The network was trained on 35000 unbound docking complexes generated by RosettaDock. We tested our method on 25 different putative docked complexes produced also by RosettaDock for five proteins that were not included in the training data. The results demonstrate that the high accuracy of the ranking tool enables AccuRefiner to consistently choose the refinement candidates with lower RMSD values compared to the coarsely docked input structures.

  16. Individual information beam broadcasting system using a PAL-SLM based CGH beam former for the location based information services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Shunichi; Itoh, Hideo; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki; Nishimura, Takuichi; Lin, Xin; Tokuda, Masamitsu

    2006-01-01

    As an implementation of ubiquitous information service environments, we have been researching location-based information service systems at indoor and short distance area. The system should provide adequate information services, which fit the user's attributes, such as language, knowledge level and the volume of information, what is so-called "Right now, Here, and for Me" information services. Keeping privacy and security of the user is an important issue. Spatial optical communication technique is used for the system because the technique is easy to implement a location- and direction-based communication system. Information broadcasting in an area can be realized by an omnidirectional modulated light emission. However, the omnidirectional beam causes spill out of secure information to others, and has lower energy conservation than a focused beam communication. In this paper, a new spatial optical information broadcasting system, which can focus modulated beams only to intended users. CGH (Computer Generated Hologram) technique on a SLM (Spatial Light Modulator) is proposed and demonstrated. The system is composed of a PAL-SLM (Parallel Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator), an eye-safe semiconductor laser or a semiconductor laser pumped YAG laser for the beam emitter, and an infrared video camera with an infrared LED illuminator for user locator. Experimental results of beam deflecting characteristics are described on beam uniformity, deflecting angle and the enhancement, communication characteristics, and real time tracking of user with a corner-reflecting sheet.

  17. Polyallelic structural variants can provide accurate, highly informative genetic markers focused on diagnosis and therapeutic targets: Accuracy vs. Precision.

    PubMed

    Roses, A D

    2016-02-01

    Structural variants (SVs) include all insertions, deletions, and rearrangements in the genome, with several common types of nucleotide repeats including single sequence repeats, short tandem repeats, and insertion-deletion length variants. Polyallelic SVs provide highly informative markers for association studies with well-phenotyped cohorts. SVs can influence gene regulation by affecting epigenetics, transcription, splicing, and/or translation. Accurate assays of polyallelic SV loci are required to define the range and allele frequency of variable length alleles.

  18. Location representation in enclosed spaces: what types of information afford young children an advantage?

    PubMed

    Lourenco, Stella F; Addy, Dede; Huttenlocher, Janellen

    2009-11-01

    It has been suggested that young children can only reorient, locating a target object, when the geometry of an enclosed space provides distinctive shape information [e.g., Hermer, L., & Spelke, E. (1994). A geometric process for spatial reorientation in young children. Nature, 370, 57-59]. Recently, however, young children were shown to specify location in a square-shaped space, where geometry is uninformative, so long as scale-like information was available on the walls of the space [Huttenlocher, J., & Lourenco, S. F. (2007a). Coding location in enclosed spaces: Is geometry the principle? Developmental Science, 10, 741-746]. Here we build on this work by examining more closely what types of cues afford 18- to 24-month-olds an advantage in locating a target object following disorientation. Their performance was assessed when linear scale-like information was presented either in isolation or in composite form. It was found that, even in isolation, young children searched at the appropriate locations, with added benefit when presented as a composite. We suggest that linear scale-like dimensions, especially when available in composite form, play a critical role in supporting location representation in young children.

  19. 16 CFR 1101.32 - Reasonable steps to assure information is accurate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reasonable steps to assure information is... to the best of the submitter's knowledge and belief, provided that: (i) The confirmation is made by... physician; or (v) The confirmation is made by a parent or guardian of a child involved in an...

  20. 16 CFR 1101.32 - Reasonable steps to assure information is accurate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable steps to assure information is... to the best of the submitter's knowledge and belief, provided that: (i) The confirmation is made by... physician; or (v) The confirmation is made by a parent or guardian of a child involved in an...

  1. 16 CFR 1101.32 - Reasonable steps to assure information is accurate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reasonable steps to assure information is... to the best of the submitter's knowledge and belief, provided that: (i) The confirmation is made by... physician; or (v) The confirmation is made by a parent or guardian of a child involved in an...

  2. 16 CFR 1101.32 - Reasonable steps to assure information is accurate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reasonable steps to assure information is... to the best of the submitter's knowledge and belief, provided that: (i) The confirmation is made by... physician; or (v) The confirmation is made by a parent or guardian of a child involved in an...

  3. 16 CFR 1101.32 - Reasonable steps to assure information is accurate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reasonable steps to assure information is... to the best of the submitter's knowledge and belief, provided that: (i) The confirmation is made by... physician; or (v) The confirmation is made by a parent or guardian of a child involved in an...

  4. Exploratory Movement Generates Higher-Order Information That Is Sufficient for Accurate Perception of Scaled Egocentric Distance

    PubMed Central

    Mantel, Bruno; Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Campbell, Alain; Bardy, Benoît G.

    2015-01-01

    Body movement influences the structure of multiple forms of ambient energy, including optics and gravito-inertial force. Some researchers have argued that egocentric distance is derived from inferential integration of visual and non-visual stimulation. We suggest that accurate information about egocentric distance exists in perceptual stimulation as higher-order patterns that extend across optics and inertia. We formalize a pattern that specifies the egocentric distance of a stationary object across higher-order relations between optics and inertia. This higher-order parameter is created by self-generated movement of the perceiver in inertial space relative to the illuminated environment. For this reason, we placed minimal restrictions on the exploratory movements of our participants. We asked whether humans can detect and use the information available in this higher-order pattern. Participants judged whether a virtual object was within reach. We manipulated relations between body movement and the ambient structure of optics and inertia. Judgments were precise and accurate when the higher-order optical-inertial parameter was available. When only optic flow was available, judgments were poor. Our results reveal that participants perceived egocentric distance from the higher-order, optical-inertial consequences of their own exploratory activity. Analysis of participants’ movement trajectories revealed that self-selected movements were complex, and tended to optimize availability of the optical-inertial pattern that specifies egocentric distance. We argue that accurate information about egocentric distance exists in higher-order patterns of ambient energy, that self-generated movement can generate these higher-order patterns, and that these patterns can be detected and used to support perception of egocentric distance that is precise and accurate. PMID:25856410

  5. Constructing Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) for Searching the Marine Realms Information Bank

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linck, Guthrie A.; Allwardt, Alan O.; Lightsom, Frances L.

    2009-01-01

    The Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB) is a digital library that provides access to free online scientific information about the oceans and coastal regions. To search its collection, MRIB uses a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) program, which allows automated search requests using Uniform Resource Locators (URLs). This document provides an overview of how to construct URLs to execute MRIB queries. The parameters listed allow detailed control of which records are retrieved, how they are returned, and how their display is formatted.

  6. 75 FR 30865 - Proposed Submission of Information Collection for OMB Review; Comment Request; Locating and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION Proposed Submission of Information Collection for OMB Review; Comment Request; Locating and Paying Participants AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Notice of Intent to request OMB approval...

  7. 77 FR 25505 - Proposed Submission of Information Collection for OMB Review; Comment Request; Locating and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION Proposed Submission of Information Collection for OMB Review; Comment Request; Locating and Paying Participants AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Notice of intent to request OMB approval...

  8. Uniform Resource Locators (URLs): Powerful Reference Tools for Librarians and Information Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Teresa S.

    The Internet is a network of networks which continually accumulates and amasses information, much of which is without organization and evaluation. This study addresses the need for establishing a database of Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), and for collecting, organizing, indexing, and publishing catalogs of URLs. Librarians and information…

  9. 49 CFR 1580.103 - Location and shipping information for certain rail cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cars. 1580.103 Section 1580.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Shippers, Rail Hazardous Materials Receivers, and Private Cars § 1580.103 Location and shipping information for certain rail cars. (a) Applicability. This section applies to: (1) Each freight railroad...

  10. Location Representation in Enclosed Spaces: What Types of Information Afford Young Children an Advantage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourenco, Stella F.; Addy, Dede; Huttenlocher, Janellen

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that young children can only reorient, locating a target object, when the geometry of an enclosed space provides distinctive shape information [e.g., Hermer, L., & Spelke, E. (1994). A geometric process for spatial reorientation in young children. "Nature," 370, 57-59]. Recently, however, young children were shown to specify…

  11. 49 CFR 1580.103 - Location and shipping information for certain rail cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cars. 1580.103 Section 1580.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Shippers, Rail Hazardous Materials Receivers, and Private Cars § 1580.103 Location and shipping information for certain rail cars. (a) Applicability. This section applies to: (1) Each freight railroad...

  12. 49 CFR 1580.103 - Location and shipping information for certain rail cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... cars. 1580.103 Section 1580.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Shippers, Rail Hazardous Materials Receivers, and Private Cars § 1580.103 Location and shipping information for certain rail cars. (a) Applicability. This section applies to: (1) Each freight railroad...

  13. 49 CFR 1580.103 - Location and shipping information for certain rail cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... cars. 1580.103 Section 1580.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Shippers, Rail Hazardous Materials Receivers, and Private Cars § 1580.103 Location and shipping information for certain rail cars. (a) Applicability. This section applies to: (1) Each freight railroad...

  14. Honey bees can perform accurately directed waggle dances based solely on information from a homeward trip.

    PubMed

    Edrich, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Honey bees were displaced several 100 m from their hive to an unfamiliar site and provisioned with honey. After feeding, almost two-thirds of the bees flew home to their hive within a 50 min observation time. About half of these returning, bees signalled the direction of the release site in waggle dances thus demonstrating that the dance can be guided entirely by information gathered on a single homeward trip. The likely reason for the bees' enthusiastic dancing on their initial return from this new site was the highly rewarding honeycomb that they were given there. The attractive nature of the site is confirmed by many of these bees revisiting the site and continuing to forage there.

  15. Assessing the benefits of the integration of location information in e-Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenbroucke, D.; Vancauwenberghe, G.; Crompvoets, J.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past years more and more geospatial data have been made readily accessible for different user communities as part of government efforts to set-up Spatial Data Infrastructures. As a result users from different sectors can search, find and bind spatial information and combine it with their own data resources and applications. However, too often, spatial data applications and services remain organised as separate silos, not well integrated in the business processes they are supposed to support. The European Union Location Framework (EULF), as part of the Interoperability Solutions for European Public Administrations (ISA) Programme of the EU (EC-DG DIGIT), aims to improve the integration of location information in e-Government processes through a better policy and strategy alignment, and through the improved legal, organisational, semantic and technical interoperability of data and systems. The EULF seeks to enhance interactions between Governments, Businesses and Citizens with location information and location enabled services and to make them part of the more generic ICT infrastructures of public administrations. One of the challenges that arise in this context is to describe, estimate or measure the benefits and added value of this integration of location information in e-Government. In the context of the EULF several existing approaches to assess the benefits of spatially enabled services and applications in e-Government have been studied. Two examples will be presented, one from Denmark, the other from Abu Dhabi. Both served as input to the approach developed for the EULF. A concrete case to estimate benefits at service and process level will be given with the aim to respond questions such as "which indicators can be used and how to measure them", "how can process owners collect the necessary information", "how to solve the benefits attribute question" and "how to extrapolate findings from one level of analysis to another"?

  16. Sensor Location Problem Optimization for Traffic Network with Different Spatial Distributions of Traffic Information.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xu; Li, Haijian; Qin, Lingqiao; Xu, Dongwei; Ran, Bin; Rong, Jian

    2016-10-27

    To obtain adequate traffic information, the density of traffic sensors should be sufficiently high to cover the entire transportation network. However, deploying sensors densely over the entire network may not be realistic for practical applications due to the budgetary constraints of traffic management agencies. This paper describes several possible spatial distributions of traffic information credibility and proposes corresponding different sensor information credibility functions to describe these spatial distribution properties. A maximum benefit model and its simplified model are proposed to solve the traffic sensor location problem. The relationships between the benefit and the number of sensors are formulated with different sensor information credibility functions. Next, expanding models and algorithms in analytic results are performed. For each case, the maximum benefit, the optimal number and spacing of sensors are obtained and the analytic formulations of the optimal sensor locations are derived as well. Finally, a numerical example is proposed to verify the validity and availability of the proposed models for solving a network sensor location problem. The results show that the optimal number of sensors of segments with different model parameters in an entire freeway network can be calculated. Besides, it can also be concluded that the optimal sensor spacing is independent of end restrictions but dependent on the values of model parameters that represent the physical conditions of sensors and roads.

  17. Sensor Location Problem Optimization for Traffic Network with Different Spatial Distributions of Traffic Information

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Xu; Li, Haijian; Qin, Lingqiao; Xu, Dongwei; Ran, Bin; Rong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    To obtain adequate traffic information, the density of traffic sensors should be sufficiently high to cover the entire transportation network. However, deploying sensors densely over the entire network may not be realistic for practical applications due to the budgetary constraints of traffic management agencies. This paper describes several possible spatial distributions of traffic information credibility and proposes corresponding different sensor information credibility functions to describe these spatial distribution properties. A maximum benefit model and its simplified model are proposed to solve the traffic sensor location problem. The relationships between the benefit and the number of sensors are formulated with different sensor information credibility functions. Next, expanding models and algorithms in analytic results are performed. For each case, the maximum benefit, the optimal number and spacing of sensors are obtained and the analytic formulations of the optimal sensor locations are derived as well. Finally, a numerical example is proposed to verify the validity and availability of the proposed models for solving a network sensor location problem. The results show that the optimal number of sensors of segments with different model parameters in an entire freeway network can be calculated. Besides, it can also be concluded that the optimal sensor spacing is independent of end restrictions but dependent on the values of model parameters that represent the physical conditions of sensors and roads. PMID:27801794

  18. Rice DB: an Oryza Information Portal linking annotation, subcellular location, function, expression, regulation, and evolutionary information for rice and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Narsai, Reena; Devenish, James; Castleden, Ian; Narsai, Kabir; Xu, Lin; Shou, Huixia; Whelan, James

    2013-12-01

    Omics research in Oryza sativa (rice) relies on the use of multiple databases to obtain different types of information to define gene function. We present Rice DB, an Oryza information portal that is a functional genomics database, linking gene loci to comprehensive annotations, expression data and the subcellular location of encoded proteins. Rice DB has been designed to integrate the direct comparison of rice with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), based on orthology or 'expressology', thus using and combining available information from two pre-eminent plant models. To establish Rice DB, gene identifiers (more than 40 types) and annotations from a variety of sources were compiled, functional information based on large-scale and individual studies was manually collated, hundreds of microarrays were analysed to generate expression annotations, and the occurrences of potential functional regulatory motifs in promoter regions were calculated. A range of computational subcellular localization predictions were also run for all putative proteins encoded in the rice genome, and experimentally confirmed protein localizations have been collated, curated and linked to functional studies in rice. A single search box allows anything from gene identifiers (for rice and/or Arabidopsis), motif sequences, subcellular location, to keyword searches to be entered, with the capability of Boolean searches (such as AND/OR). To demonstrate the utility of Rice DB, several examples are presented including a rice mitochondrial proteome, which draws on a variety of sources for subcellular location data within Rice DB. Comparisons of subcellular location, functional annotations, as well as transcript expression in parallel with Arabidopsis reveals examples of conservation between rice and Arabidopsis, using Rice DB (http://ricedb.plantenergy.uwa.edu.au).

  19. Rice DB: an Oryza Information Portal linking annotation, subcellular location, function, expression, regulation, and evolutionary information for rice and Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Narsai, Reena; Devenish, James; Castleden, Ian; Narsai, Kabir; Xu, Lin; Shou, Huixia; Whelan, James

    2013-01-01

    Omics research in Oryza sativa (rice) relies on the use of multiple databases to obtain different types of information to define gene function. We present Rice DB, an Oryza information portal that is a functional genomics database, linking gene loci to comprehensive annotations, expression data and the subcellular location of encoded proteins. Rice DB has been designed to integrate the direct comparison of rice with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), based on orthology or ‘expressology’, thus using and combining available information from two pre-eminent plant models. To establish Rice DB, gene identifiers (more than 40 types) and annotations from a variety of sources were compiled, functional information based on large-scale and individual studies was manually collated, hundreds of microarrays were analysed to generate expression annotations, and the occurrences of potential functional regulatory motifs in promoter regions were calculated. A range of computational subcellular localization predictions were also run for all putative proteins encoded in the rice genome, and experimentally confirmed protein localizations have been collated, curated and linked to functional studies in rice. A single search box allows anything from gene identifiers (for rice and/or Arabidopsis), motif sequences, subcellular location, to keyword searches to be entered, with the capability of Boolean searches (such as AND/OR). To demonstrate the utility of Rice DB, several examples are presented including a rice mitochondrial proteome, which draws on a variety of sources for subcellular location data within Rice DB. Comparisons of subcellular location, functional annotations, as well as transcript expression in parallel with Arabidopsis reveals examples of conservation between rice and Arabidopsis, using Rice DB (http://ricedb.plantenergy.uwa.edu.au). PMID:24147765

  20. Location, Location, Location!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsdell, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Of prime importance in real estate, location is also a key element in the appeal of romances. Popular geographic settings and historical periods sell, unpopular ones do not--not always with a logical explanation, as the author discovered when she conducted a survey on this topic last year. (Why, for example, are the French Revolution and the…

  1. Finding the evidence: resources and skills for locating information on clinical effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Bidwell, S R

    2004-12-01

    Limited time and lack of knowledge about where and how to search for information often present barriers to practitioners who want to locate current best evidence for treating their patients. There is as yet no single place they can go to get an answer to all their questions. High quality clinical studies are difficult to filter out from the mass of information on large databases, and secondary resources of evaluated information are dispersed over hundreds of Internet sites worldwide. This overview presents a practical guide for the busy practitioner who searches only occasionally and needs to maximise the time spent. Major collections of secondary resources are identified and their individual features described briefly. Following this, several services using PubMed are outlined that automatically apply filters for studies with high quality research design. Further sources of information and assistance are listed for those who wish to learn more.

  2. Dynamic binding of identity and location information: a serial model of multiple identity tracking.

    PubMed

    Oksama, Lauri; Hyönä, Jukka

    2008-06-01

    Tracking of multiple moving objects is commonly assumed to be carried out by a fixed-capacity parallel mechanism. The present study proposes a serial model (MOMIT) to explain performance accuracy in the maintenance of multiple moving objects with distinct identities. A serial refresh mechanism is postulated, which makes recourse to continuous attention switching, a capacity-limited episodic buffer for identity-location bindings, indexed location information stored in the visuospatial short-term memory, and an active role of long-term memory. As identity-location bindings are refreshed serially, a location error is inherent for all other targets except the focally attended one. The magnitude of this location error is a key factor in predicting tracking accuracy. MOMIT's predictions were supported by the data of five experiments: performance accuracy decreased as a function of target set-size, speed, and familiarity. A mathematical version of MOMIT fitted nicely to the observed data with plausible parameter estimates for the binding capacity and refresh time.

  3. Octopus vulgaris uses visual information to determine the location of its arm.

    PubMed

    Gutnick, Tamar; Byrne, Ruth A; Hochner, Binyamin; Kuba, Michael

    2011-03-22

    Octopuses are intelligent, soft-bodied animals with keen senses that perform reliably in a variety of visual and tactile learning tasks. However, researchers have found them disappointing in that they consistently fail in operant tasks that require them to combine central nervous system reward information with visual and peripheral knowledge of the location of their arms. Wells claimed that in order to filter and integrate an abundance of multisensory inputs that might inform the animal of the position of a single arm, octopuses would need an exceptional computing mechanism, and "There is no evidence that such a system exists in Octopus, or in any other soft bodied animal." Recent electrophysiological experiments, which found no clear somatotopic organization in the higher motor centers, support this claim. We developed a three-choice maze that required an octopus to use a single arm to reach a visually marked goal compartment. Using this operant task, we show for the first time that Octopus vulgaris is capable of guiding a single arm in a complex movement to a location. Thus, we claim that octopuses can combine peripheral arm location information with visual input to control goal-directed complex movements.

  4. Preferential access to genetic information from endogenous hominin ancient DNA and accurate quantitative SNP-typing via SPEX

    PubMed Central

    Brotherton, Paul; Sanchez, Juan J.; Cooper, Alan; Endicott, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of targeted genetic loci from ancient, forensic and clinical samples is usually built upon polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-generated sequence data. However, many studies have shown that PCR amplification from poor-quality DNA templates can create sequence artefacts at significant levels. With hominin (human and other hominid) samples, the pervasive presence of highly PCR-amplifiable human DNA contaminants in the vast majority of samples can lead to the creation of recombinant hybrids and other non-authentic artefacts. The resulting PCR-generated sequences can then be difficult, if not impossible, to authenticate. In contrast, single primer extension (SPEX)-based approaches can genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms from ancient fragments of DNA as accurately as modern DNA. A single SPEX-type assay can amplify just one of the duplex DNA strands at target loci and generate a multi-fold depth-of-coverage, with non-authentic recombinant hybrids reduced to undetectable levels. Crucially, SPEX-type approaches can preferentially access genetic information from damaged and degraded endogenous ancient DNA templates over modern human DNA contaminants. The development of SPEX-type assays offers the potential for highly accurate, quantitative genotyping from ancient hominin samples. PMID:19864251

  5. Guide to Groundwater Well Locations and Information at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, D.D.; Faulkner, M.A.

    1991-09-01

    The need for a guide monitoring wells at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has steadily increased over the past decade. This guide displays well locations in the context of waste area groupings (WAGs) and includes a simple tabulation of well location and depth for over 1400 wells. Although this information is not all-inclusive, it allows the reader to identify areas of interest and serves as a starting point for the development of maps and tabular data to meet a variety of needs. The scope of this guide is anticipated is anticipated to expand in the future to include wells that have been plugged and abandoned, and to indicate general water chemistry features. 4 refs., 24 figs., 25 tabs.

  6. Quantum tagging: Authenticating location via quantum information and relativistic signaling constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Adrian; Munro, William J.; Spiller, Timothy P.

    2011-07-15

    We define the task of quantum tagging, that is, authenticating the classical location of a classical tagging device by sending and receiving quantum signals from suitably located distant sites, in an environment controlled by an adversary whose quantum information processing and transmitting power is unbounded. We define simple security models for this task and briefly discuss alternatives. We illustrate the pitfalls of naive quantum cryptographic reasoning in this context by describing several protocols which at first sight appear unconditionally secure but which, as we show, can in fact be broken by teleportation-based attacks. We also describe some protocols which cannot be broken by these specific attacks, but do not prove they are unconditionally secure. We review the history of quantum tagging protocols, and show that protocols previously proposed by Malaney and Chandran et al. are provably insecure.

  7. Mobile Location-Based Services for Trusted Information in Disaster Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragia, Lemonia; Deriaz, Michel; Seigneur, Jean-Marc

    The goal of the present chapter is to provide location-based services for disaster management. The application involves services related to the safety of the people due to an unexpected event. The current prototype is implemented for a specific issue of disaster management which is road traffic control. The users can ask requests on cell phones or via Internet to the system and get an answer in a display or in textual form. The data are in a central database and every user can input data via virtual tags. The system is based on spatial messages which can be sent from any user to any other in a certain distance. In this way all the users and not a separate source provide the necessary information for a dangerous situation. To avoid any contamination problems we use trust security to check the input to the system and a trust engine model to provide information with a considerable reliability.

  8. SnowyOwl: accurate prediction of fungal genes by using RNA-Seq and homology information to select among ab initio models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Locating the protein-coding genes in novel genomes is essential to understanding and exploiting the genomic information but it is still difficult to accurately predict all the genes. The recent availability of detailed information about transcript structure from high-throughput sequencing of messenger RNA (RNA-Seq) delineates many expressed genes and promises increased accuracy in gene prediction. Computational gene predictors have been intensively developed for and tested in well-studied animal genomes. Hundreds of fungal genomes are now or will soon be sequenced. The differences of fungal genomes from animal genomes and the phylogenetic sparsity of well-studied fungi call for gene-prediction tools tailored to them. Results SnowyOwl is a new gene prediction pipeline that uses RNA-Seq data to train and provide hints for the generation of Hidden Markov Model (HMM)-based gene predictions and to evaluate the resulting models. The pipeline has been developed and streamlined by comparing its predictions to manually curated gene models in three fungal genomes and validated against the high-quality gene annotation of Neurospora crassa; SnowyOwl predicted N. crassa genes with 83% sensitivity and 65% specificity. SnowyOwl gains sensitivity by repeatedly running the HMM gene predictor Augustus with varied input parameters and selectivity by choosing the models with best homology to known proteins and best agreement with the RNA-Seq data. Conclusions SnowyOwl efficiently uses RNA-Seq data to produce accurate gene models in both well-studied and novel fungal genomes. The source code for the SnowyOwl pipeline (in Python) and a web interface (in PHP) is freely available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/snowyowl/. PMID:24980894

  9. The Role of Color Cues in Facilitating Accurate and Rapid Location of Aided Symbols by Children with and without Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Krista; Carlin, Michael; Thistle, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This research examined how the color distribution of symbols within a visual aided augmentative and alternative communication array influenced the speed and accuracy with which participants with and without Down syndrome located a target picture symbol. Method: Eight typically developing children below the age of 4 years, 8 typically…

  10. Using expert informed GIS to locate important marine social-ecological hotspots.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Pouyan; Parkes, Margot; Stephen, Craig; Chan, Hing Man

    2015-09-01

    The marine environment provides significant benefits to many local communities. Pressure to develop coastal waterways worldwide creates an urgent need for tools to locate marine spaces that have important social or ecological values, and to quantify their relative importance. The primary objective of this study was to develop, apply and critically assess a tool to identify important social-ecological hotspots in the marine environment. The study was conducted in a typical coastal community in northern British Columbia, Canada. This expert-informed GIS, or xGIS, tool used a survey instrument to draw on the knowledge of local experts from a range of backgrounds with respect to a series of 12 social-ecological value attributes, such as biodiversity, cultural and economic values. We identified approximately 1500 polygons on marine maps and assigned relative values to them using a token distribution exercise. A series of spatial statistical analyses were performed to locate and quantify the relative social-ecological importance of marine spaces and the results were ultimately summarized in a single hotspot map of the entire study area. This study demonstrates the utility of xGIS as a useful tool for stakeholders and environmental managers engaged in the planning and management of marine resources at the local and regional levels.

  11. Parallel processing of information about location in the amygdala, entorhinal cortex and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Gaskin, Stephane; White, Norman M

    2013-11-01

    The conditioned cue preference paradigm was used to study how rats use extra-maze cues to discriminate between 2 adjacent arms on an 8-arm radial maze, a situation in which most of the same cues can be seen from both arms but only one arm contains food. Since the food-restricted rats eat while passively confined on the food-paired arm no responses are reinforced, so the discrimination is due to Pavlovian stimulus-reward (or outcome) learning. Consistent with other evidence that rats must move around in an environment to acquire a spatial map, we found that learning the adjacent arms CCP (ACCP) required a minimum amount of active exploration of the maze with no reinforcers present prior to passive pairing of the extra-maze cues with the food reinforcer, an instance of latent learning. Temporary inactivation of the hippocampus during the pre-exposure sessions had no effect on ACCP learning, confirming other evidence that the hippocampus is not involved in latent learning. A series of experiments indentified a circuit involving fimbria-fornix and dorsal entorhinal cortex as the neural basis of latent learning in this situation. In contrast, temporary inactivation of the entorhinal cortex or hippocampus during passive training or during testing blocked ACCP learning and expression, respectively, suggesting that these two structures co-operate in using spatial information to learn the location of food on the maze during passive pairing and to express this combined information during testing. In parallel with these processes we found that the amygdala processes information leading to an equal tendency to enter both adjacent arms (even though only one was paired with food) suggesting that the stimulus information available to this structure is not sufficiently precise to discriminate between the ambiguous cues visible from the adjacent arms. Expression of the ACCP in normal rats depends on hippocampus-based learning to avoid the unpaired arm which competes with the

  12. From Objects to Landmarks: The Function of Visual Location Information in Spatial Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Edgar; Baumann, Oliver; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2012-01-01

    Landmarks play an important role in guiding navigational behavior. A host of studies in the last 15 years has demonstrated that environmental objects can act as landmarks for navigation in different ways. In this review, we propose a parsimonious four-part taxonomy for conceptualizing object location information during navigation. We begin by outlining object properties that appear to be important for a landmark to attain salience. We then systematically examine the different functions of objects as navigational landmarks based on previous behavioral and neuroanatomical findings in rodents and humans. Evidence is presented showing that single environmental objects can function as navigational beacons, or act as associative or orientation cues. In addition, we argue that extended surfaces or boundaries can act as landmarks by providing a frame of reference for encoding spatial information. The present review provides a concise taxonomy of the use of visual objects as landmarks in navigation and should serve as a useful reference for future research into landmark-based spatial navigation. PMID:22969737

  13. Effectiveness of Journal Ranking Schemes as a Tool for Locating Information

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, Michael J.; Sales-Pardo, Marta; Nunes Amaral, Luís A.

    2008-01-01

    Background The rise of electronic publishing [1], preprint archives, blogs, and wikis is raising concerns among publishers, editors, and scientists about the present day relevance of academic journals and traditional peer review [2]. These concerns are especially fuelled by the ability of search engines to automatically identify and sort information [1]. It appears that academic journals can only remain relevant if acceptance of research for publication within a journal allows readers to infer immediate, reliable information on the value of that research. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we systematically evaluate the effectiveness of journals, through the work of editors and reviewers, at evaluating unpublished research. We find that the distribution of the number of citations to a paper published in a given journal in a specific year converges to a steady state after a journal-specific transient time, and demonstrate that in the steady state the logarithm of the number of citations has a journal-specific typical value. We then develop a model for the asymptotic number of citations accrued by papers published in a journal that closely matches the data. Conclusions/Significance Our model enables us to quantify both the typical impact and the range of impacts of papers published in a journal. Finally, we propose a journal-ranking scheme that maximizes the efficiency of locating high impact research. PMID:18301760

  14. Using ancillary information to improve hypocenter estimation: Bayesian single event location (BSEL)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dale N

    2008-01-01

    We have developed and tested an algorithm, Bayesian Single Event Location (BSEL), for estimating the location of a seismic event. The main driver for our research is the inadequate representation of ancillary information in the hypocenter estimation procedure. The added benefit is that we have also addressed instability issues often encountered with historical NLR solvers (e.g., non-convergence or seismically infeasible results). BSEL differs from established nonlinear regression techniques by using a Bayesian prior probability density function (prior PDF) to incorporate ancillary physical basis constraints about event location. P-wave arrival times from seismic events are used in the development. Depth, a focus of this paper, may be modeled with a prior PDF (potentially skewed) that captures physical basis bounds from surface wave observations. This PDF is constructed from a Rayleigh wave depth excitation eigenfunction that is based on the observed minimum period from a spectrogram analysis and estimated near-source elastic parameters. For example, if the surface wave is an Rg phase, it potentially provides a strong constraint for depth, which has important implications for remote monitoring of nuclear explosions. The proposed Bayesian algorithm is illustrated with events that demonstrate its congruity with established hypocenter estimation methods and its application potential. The BSEL method is applied to three events: (1) A shallow Mw 4 earthquake that occurred near Bardwell, KY on June 6, 2003, (2) the Mw 5.6 earthquake of July 26, 2005 that occurred near Dillon, MT, and (3) a deep Mw 5.7 earthquake that occurred off the coast of Japan on April 22, 1980. A strong Rg was observed from the Bardwell, KY earthquake that places very strong constraints on depth and origin time. No Rg was observed for the Dillon, MT earthquake, but we used the minimum observed period of a Rayleigh wave (7 seconds) to reduce the depth and origin time uncertainty. Because the Japan

  15. Mapping the physical location of Telecenter using the geospatial information systems: A requirement of spatial digital mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohari, Abdul Manaf; Hin, Cheng Wei; Fuad, Nurwahida

    2016-08-01

    Recently, a study of Telecenter lifetime value is vital to academician, government and non-profit organization where Telecenter has great contribute to the nation development of rural community. Telecenter as important location of enhance the relationship of socio-economic, where placed all non-profit activity into single location platform. Consistently, previous studies mentioned Telecenter have significance contribution toward the nation, however, research and knowledge still lacking regarding the location factors that affecting the Telecenter specifically on spatial aspects of physical location environment. This research aimed to understand the requirement of spatial digital mapping the physical location of Telecenter, according to location of user and it environment, by using the geospatial information systems references, as called grid coordinate systems. The suggestion and implications of this study are briefly explored where spatial location factor plays important role in determine the lifetime value of Telecenter.

  16. Integrating information about location and value of resources by white-faced saki monkeys (Pithecia pithecia).

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Elena; Janson, Charles

    2007-07-01

    Most studies of spatial memory in primates focus on species that inhabit large home ranges and have dispersed, patchy resources. Researchers assume that primates use memory to minimize distances traveled between resources. We investigated the use of spatial memory in a group of six white-faced sakis (Pithecia pithecia) on 12.8-ha Round Island, Guri Lake, Venezuela during a period of fruit abundance. The sakis' movements were analyzed with logistic regressions, a predictive computer model and a computer model that simulates movements. We considered all the resources available to the sakis and compared observed distances to predicted distances from a computer model for foragers who know nothing about the location of resources. Surprisingly, the observed distances were four times greater than the predicted distances, suggesting that the sakis passed by a majority of the available fruit trees without feeding. The odds of visiting a food tree, however, were significantly increased if the tree had been visited in the previous 3 days and had more than 100 fruit. The sakis' preferred resources were highly productive fruit trees, Capparis trees, and trees with water holes. They traveled efficiently to these sites. The sakis choice of feeding sites indicate that they combined knowledge acquired by repeatedly traveling through their home range with 'what' and 'where' information gained from individual visits to resources. Although the sakis' foraging choices increased the distance they traveled overall, choosing more valued sites allowed the group to minimize intra-group feeding competition, maintain intergroup dominance over important resources, and monitor the state of resources throughout their home range. The sakis' foraging decisions appear to have used spatial memory, elements of episodic-like memory and social and nutritional considerations.

  17. Information retrieval in respiratory care: tips to locate what you need to know.

    PubMed

    Hess, Dean R

    2004-04-01

    We need current information to support effective practice. This information can be accessed relatively quickly and inexpensively, using nothing more than a computer and an Internet connection. This demands skills in searching and accessing that information. In many hospitals, computers with an Internet connection are readily available in the clinical wards, allowing those with skills in retrieving medical information to find that information near the bedside where it is needed. This report describes techniques to access information on the Internet from various sources. This information exists at high levels, such as PubMed, the National Guideline Clearinghouse, and the Cochrane Library. However, there is also much information available on the Internet that has not been validated or subjected to peer review. Thus, it is important not only to find information but also to separate useful from useless information.

  18. Location Privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiaofeng; Chen, Jidong

    With rapid development of sensor and wireless mobile devices, it is easy to access mobile users' location information anytime and anywhere. On one hand, LBS is becoming more and more valuable and important. On the other hand, location privacy issues raised by such applications have also gained more attention. However, due to the specificity of location information, traditional privacy-preserving techniques in data publishing cannot be used. In this chapter, we will introduce location privacy, and analyze the challenges of location privacy-preserving, and give a survey of existing work including the system architecture, location anonymity and query processing.

  19. Determining accessibility to dermatologists and teledermatology locations in Kentucky: demonstration of an innovative geographic information systems approach.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Gary William; Buker, Carol Marie

    2010-01-01

    Teledermatology provides a partial solution to the problem of accessibility to dermatology services in underserved areas, yet methodologies to determine the locations and geographic dimensions of these areas and the locational efficiency of remote teledermatology sites have been found wanting. This article illustrates an innovative Geographic Information Systems approach using dermatologists' addresses, U.S. Census population data, and the Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing System. Travel-time-based service areas were calculated and mapped for each dermatologist in the state of Kentucky and for possible locations of several remote teledermatology sites. Populations within the current and possible remote service areas were determined. These populations and associated maps permit assessment of the locational efficiency of the current distribution of dermatologists, location of underserved areas, and the potential contribution of proposed hypothetical teledermatology sites. This approach is a valuable and practical tool for evaluating access to current distributions of dermatologists as well as planning for and implementing teledermatology.

  20. Meeting Nontraditional Medical Information Needs for the Unique Populations and Geographically Remote Locations of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lema, Dana V

    2016-01-01

    The types of information required by hospital and clinical staff can be greatly influenced by the geography and culture of the area in which they operate. In some situations, information must be acquired from sources that fall outside the traditional provisions of a medical or reference library. This article provides examples of the unique information needs of clinical staff serving a primarily Native Alaskan and Native American clientele in Alaska. It also presents sources and personnel utilized to meet those information needs outside of traditional reference sources.

  1. Web Search Engines: Key To Locating Information for All Users or Only the Cognoscenti?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaiuolo, Nicholas G.; Packer, Joan G.

    This paper describes a study that attempted to ascertain the degree of success that undergraduates and graduate students, with varying levels of experience using the World Wide Web and Web search engines, and without librarian instruction or intervention, had in locating relevant material on specific topics furnished by the investigators. Because…

  2. Informal Participation in Science in the UK: Identification, Location and Mobility with iSpot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Eileen; Woods, Will; Clow, Doug

    2014-01-01

    Informal participation in science is being recognized as an important way of developing science learning both for children and adults. Mobile learning has particular properties that have potential in informal science settings, particularly outside traditional educational settings. Mobile technologies provide new opportunities for learners to…

  3. User Resistance and Trust in a Clinical RFID Employee Location Tracking Information System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    User resistance has been identified as a factor in information systems implementation failures in the health care industry. RFID, radio frequency identification, is being incorporated into new health care information systems in order to effect cost reductions by tracking, identifying and monitoring individuals and medical items. This is the first…

  4. Fusion of Building Information and Range Imaging for Autonomous Location Estimation in Indoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Kohoutek, Tobias K.; Mautz, Rainer; Wegner, Jan D.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel approach for autonomous location estimation and navigation in indoor environments using range images and prior scene knowledge from a GIS database (CityGML). What makes this task challenging is the arbitrary relative spatial relation between GIS and Time-of-Flight (ToF) range camera further complicated by a markerless configuration. We propose to estimate the camera's pose solely based on matching of GIS objects and their detected location in image sequences. We develop a coarse-to-fine matching strategy that is able to match point clouds without any initial parameters. Experiments with a state-of-the-art ToF point cloud show that our proposed method delivers an absolute camera position with decimeter accuracy, which is sufficient for many real-world applications (e.g., collision avoidance). PMID:23435055

  5. An Evaluation of Detect and Avoid Displays for UAS: The Effect of Information Level and Display Location on Pilot Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rorie, Conrad; Fern, Lisa; Pack, Jessica; Shively, Jay; Draper, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    The pilot-in-the-loop Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) task requires the pilot to carry out three major functions: 1) detect a potential threat, 2) determine an appropriate resolution maneuver, and 3) execute that resolution maneuver via the GCS control and navigation interface(s). The purpose of the present study was to examine two main questions with respect to DAA display considerations that could impact pilots ability to maintain well clear from other aircraft. First, what is the effect of a minimum (or basic) information display compared to an advanced information display on pilot performance? Second, what is the effect of display location on UAS pilot performance? Two levels of information level (basic, advanced) were compared across two levels of display location (standalone, integrated), for a total of four displays. The results indicate that the advanced displays had faster overall response times compared to the basic displays, however, there were no significant differences between the standalone and integrated displays.

  6. The role of cognitive switching in head-up displays. [to determine pilot ability to accurately extract information from either of two sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, E.

    1979-01-01

    The pilot's ability to accurately extract information from either one or both of two superimposed sources of information was determined. Static, aerial, color 35 mm slides of external runway environments and slides of corresponding static head-up display (HUD) symbology were used as the sources. A three channel tachistoscope was utilized to show either the HUD alone, the scene alone, or the two slides superimposed. Cognitive performance of the pilots was assessed by determining the percentage of correct answers given to two HUD related questions, two scene related questions, or one HUD and one scene related question.

  7. Short Term Retention of Temporal Sequence, Spatial Location, and Item Magnitude Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    temporal-spatial pattern coding described in Healy (1975b). References Atkinson , R. C. & Shiffrin , R. M. (1968). Human Memory : A proposed system and it’s...retention intervals, particularly concerning the role of phonetic coding in the retention of temporal information ,(see, e.g., Atkinson and Shiffrin ...Estes, W. K. (1982). Models of Learning, Memory , and Choice. New York: Praeger Publications. Healy, A. F. (1974). Separating Item from Order Information

  8. The Effect of Symbology Location and Format on Attentional Deployment within a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Walter W.; Liao, Min-Ju; Tse, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    The present experiment employed target detection tasks to investigate attentional deployment during visual search for target aircraft symbols on a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI). Targets were defined by either a geometric property (aircraft on a collision course with Ownship) or a textual property (aircraft with associated altitude tags indicating an even altitude level). Effects of target location and target brightness (highlighting) were examined. Target location was systematically related to target detection time, and this interacted with the target's defining property (collision geometry or associated text). Highlighting (which was not linked to whether an aircraft symbol was the target) did not influence target detection time.

  9. 77 FR 59682 - Submission of Information Collection for OMB Review; Comment Request; Locating and Paying...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... adding Form 721T to collect tax withholding information for one-time payments that are not eligible for... rollover. However, because of tax withholding changes for rollover- eligible payments for non-spouse... sections on spousal consent to participants' waivers to explicitly state that spouses have the right not...

  10. DSSTox EPA Integrated Risk Information System Structure-Index Locator File: SDF File and Documentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database was developed and is maintained by EPA's Office of Research and Developement, National Center for Environmental Assessment. IRIS is a database of human health effects that may result from exposure to various substances fou...

  11. Using internet search engines and library catalogs to locate toxicology information.

    PubMed

    Wukovitz, L D

    2001-01-12

    The increasing importance of the Internet demands that toxicologists become aquainted with its resources. To find information, researchers must be able to effectively use Internet search engines, directories, subject-oriented websites, and library catalogs. The article will explain these resources, explore their benefits and weaknesses, and identify skills that help the researcher to improve search results and critically evaluate sources for their relevancy, validity, accuracy, and timeliness.

  12. The Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment: Accurate ranges have given a large improvement in the lunar orbit and new selenophysical information.

    PubMed

    Bender, P L; Currie, D G; Poultney, S K; Alley, C O; Dicke, R H; Wilkinson, D T; Eckhardt, D H; Faller, J E; Kaula, W M; Mulholland, J D; Plotkin, H H; Silverberg, E C; Williams, J G

    1973-10-19

    The lunar ranging measurements now being made at the McDonald Observatory have an accuracy of 1 nsec in round-trip travel time. This corresponds to 15 cm in the one-way distance. The use of lasers with pulse-lengths of less than 1 nsec is expected to give an accuracy of 2 to 3 cm in the next few years. A new station is under construction in Hawaii, and additional stations in other countries are either in operation or under development. It is hoped that these stations will form the basis for a worldwide network to determine polar motion and earth rotation on a regular basis, and will assist in providing information about movement of the tectonic plates making up the earth's surface. Several mobile lunar ranging stations with telescopes having diameters of 1.0 m or less could, in the future, greatly extend the information obtainable about motions within and between the tectonic plates. The data obtained so far by the McDonald Observatory have been used to generate a new lunar ephemeris based on direct numerical integration of the equations of motion for the moon and planets. With this ephemeris, the range to the three Apollo retro-reflectors can be fit to an accuracy of 5 m by adjusting the differences in moments of inertia of the moon about its principal axes, the selenocentric coordinates of the reflectors, and the McDonald longitude. The accuracy of fitting the results is limited currently by errors of the order of an arc second in the angular orientation of the moon, as derived from the best available theory of how the moon rotates in response to the torques acting on it. Both a new calculation of the moon's orientation as a function of time based on direct numerical integration of the torque equations and a new analytic theory of the moon's orientation are expected to be available soon, and to improve considerably the accuracy of fitting the data. The accuracy already achieved routinely in lunar laser ranging represents a hundredfold improvement over any

  13. A U.S. Geological Survey Data Standard (Specifications for representation of geographic point locations for information interchange)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1983-01-01

    This standard establishes uniform formats for geographic point location data. Geographic point location refers to the use of a coordinate system to define the position of a point that may be on, above, or below the Earth's surface. It provides a means for representing these data in digital form for the purpose of interchanging information among data systems and improving clarity and accuracy of interpersonal communications. This document is an expansion and clarification of National Bureau of Standards FIPS PUB 70, issued October 24, 1980. There are minor editorial changes, plus the following additions and modifications: (I) The representation of latitude and longitude using radian measure was added. (2) Alternate 2 for Representation of Hemispheric Information was deleted. (3) Use of the maximum precision for all numerical values was emphasized. The Alternate Representation of Precision was deleted. (4) The length of the zone representation for the State Plane Coordinate System was standardized. (5) The term altitude was substituted for elevation throughout to conform with international usage. (6) Section 3, Specifications for Altitude Data, was expanded and upgraded significantly to the same level of detail as for the horizontal values. (7) A table delineating the coverage of Universal Transverse Mercator zones and the longitudes of the Central Meridians was added and the other tables renumbered. (8) The total length of the representation of point location data at maximum precision was standardized.

  14. Location, duration, and power; How Americans' driving habits and charging infrastructure inform vehicle-grid interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearre, Nathaniel S.

    The substitution of electrical energy for gasoline as a transportation fuel is an initiative both with a long history, and one made both pressing and important in today's policy discussion by renewed interest in plug-in vehicles. The research presented in this dissertation attempts to inform the policy discussion for governments, for electric utilities, for the makers of electric cars, and for the industries developing and planning charging infrastructure. To that end, the impacts of variations to several possible system design parameters, on several metrics of evaluation, are assessed. The analysis is based on a dataset of vehicle trips collected by Georgia Institute of Technology, tracking almost 500 vehicles that commute to, from or within the Atlanta city center, comprising Atlanta `commuter-shed'. By assuming that this dataset of trips defines the desired travel behavior of urban and suburban American populations, the effects of travel electrification in personal vehicles can be assessed. Several significant and novel findings have emerged from this research. These include the conclusion that at-work charging is not necessarily the logical next step beyond home-charging, as it will in general add little to the substitutability of electric vehicles. In contrast, high power en-route charging, combined with modest power home charging is shown to be surprisingly effective, potentially requiring of EV drivers a total time spent at en-route recharging stations similar to that for liquid fueled cars. From the vehicle marketing perspective, a quantification of the hybrid household effect, wherein multi-vehicle households own one EV, showed that about a quarter of all households could adopt a vehicle with 80 miles of range with no changes to travel patterns. Of interest to grid management, this research showed an apparent maximum fleet-wide load from unregulated charging of about 1 kW per vehicle, regardless of EVSE power or EV battery size. This contrasts with a

  15. Engaging research participants to inform the ethical conduct of mobile imaging, pervasive sensing, and location tracking research.

    PubMed

    Nebeker, Camille; Lagare, Tiffany; Takemoto, Michelle; Lewars, Brittany; Crist, Katie; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2016-12-01

    Researchers utilize mobile imaging, pervasive sensing, social media, and location tracking (MISST) technologies to observe and intervene with participants in their natural environment. The use of MISST methods and tools introduces unique ethical issues due to the type and quantity of data, and produces raising new challenges around informed consent, risk assessment, and data management. Since MISST methods are relatively new in behavioral research, there is little documented evidence to guide institutional review board (IRB) risk assessment and inform appropriate risk management strategies. This study was conducted to contribute the participant perspectives when considering ethical and responsible practices. Participants (n = 82) enrolled in an observational study where they wore several MISST devices for 1 week completed an exit survey. Survey items focused on the following: 1-device comfort, 2-informed consent, 3-privacy protections, and 4-bystander engagement. The informed consent process reflected participant actual experience. Device comfort and privacy were raised as concerns to both the participants and bystanders. While the majority of the participants reported a positive experience, it is important to note that the participants were volunteers who were not mandated to wear tracking devices and that persons who are mandated may not have a similar response. Findings support strategies proposed in the Kelly et al. (2013) ethical framework, which emphasizes procedures to improve informed consent, protect privacy, manage data, and respect bystander rights when using a wearable camera.

  16. Trial-to-trial variability in the responses of neurons carries information about stimulus location in the rat whisker thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Scaglione, Alessandro; Moxon, Karen A.; Aguilar, Juan; Foffani, Guglielmo

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of neural coding, the considerable trial-to-trial variability in the responses of neurons to sensory stimuli is puzzling. Trial-to-trial response variability is typically interpreted in terms of “noise” (i.e., it represents either intrinsic noise of the system or information unrelated to the stimuli). However, trial-to-trial response variability can be considerably different across stimuli, suggesting that it could also provide an important contribution to the information conveyed by the neural responses about the stimuli. To test this hypothesis, we addressed the problem of discriminating stimulus location from the spike-count responses of neurons recorded in the ventro-postero-medial (VPM) nucleus of the thalamus in anesthetized rats. Using a recently developed information theory approach, we verified that differences between stimuli in the trial-to-trial spike-count variability of the responses provided an important contribution to the overall information carried by the neurons. In addition, we found that the relatively reliable (sub-Poisson) firing regime of our VPM neurons was not only more informative, but also more redundant between neurons compared with a more variable (Poisson) firing regime with the same total number of spikes. The typical increase in trial-to-trial response variability from the periphery to the cortex could therefore serve as a strategy to reduce redundancy between neurons and promote efficient sparse coding distributed in large populations of neurons. Overall, our data suggest that the trial-to-trial response variability plays a critical role in establishing the trade-off between total information and redundancy between neurons in population codes. PMID:21873241

  17. Argon Cluster Sputtering Source for ToF-SIMS Depth Profiling of Insulating Materials: High Sputter Rate and Accurate Interfacial Information.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoying; Liu, Bingwen; Zhao, Evan W; Jin, Ke; Du, Yingge; Neeway, James J; Ryan, Joseph V; Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Kelvin H L; Hong, Mina; Le Guernic, Solenne; Thevuthasan, Suntharampilai; Wang, Fuyi; Zhu, Zihua

    2015-08-01

    The use of an argon cluster ion sputtering source has been demonstrated to perform superiorly relative to traditional oxygen and cesium ion sputtering sources for ToF-SIMS depth profiling of insulating materials. The superior performance has been attributed to effective alleviation of surface charging. A simulated nuclear waste glass (SON68) and layered hole-perovskite oxide thin films were selected as model systems because of their fundamental and practical significance. Our results show that high sputter rates and accurate interfacial information can be achieved simultaneously for argon cluster sputtering, whereas this is not the case for cesium and oxygen sputtering. Therefore, the implementation of an argon cluster sputtering source can significantly improve the analysis efficiency of insulating materials and, thus, can expand its applications to the study of glass corrosion, perovskite oxide thin film characterization, and many other systems of interest.

  18. Approach and Evaluation of a Mobile Video-Based and Location-Based Augmented Reality Platform for Information Brokerage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dastageeri, H.; Storz, M.; Koukofikis, A.; Knauth, S.; Coors, V.

    2016-09-01

    Providing mobile location-based information for pedestrians faces many challenges. On one hand the accuracy of localisation indoors and outdoors is restricted due to technical limitations of GPS and Beacons. Then again only a small display is available to display information as well as to develop a user interface. Plus, the software solution has to consider the hardware characteristics of mobile devices during the implementation process for aiming a performance with minimum latency. This paper describes our approach by including a combination of image tracking and GPS or Beacons to ensure orientation and precision of localisation. To communicate the information on Points of Interest (POIs), we decided to choose Augmented Reality (AR). For this concept of operations, we used besides the display also the acceleration and positions sensors as a user interface. This paper especially goes into detail on the optimization of the image tracking algorithms, the development of the video-based AR player for the Android platform and the evaluation of videos as an AR element in consideration of providing a good user experience. For setting up content for the POIs or even generate a tour we used and extended the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard Augmented Reality Markup Language (ARML).

  19. Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) point to inform a human about the location of a tool.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Felizitas; Zemke, Franziska; Call, Josep; Gómez, Juan Carlos

    2009-03-01

    Although pointing is not part of great apes' natural gestural repertoire, they can learn to point to food, in order to request it. To assess the flexibility with which they can use this gesture, one can vary the potential referent of the point. In two previous studies, three orangutans (two of them human-reared) have shown the ability to point to the location of a tool which a human experimenter needed in order to give them food. Here, we tested six orangutans and five bonobos using a set-up in which our subjects had to guide a human experimenter to the hiding place of a fork which was needed in order to retrieve a piece of food for the subject out of a vertical tube. We further examined the potential role of a competitive/deceptive context by varying the identity of the person responsible for hiding the tool. In addition, we implemented three different control conditions in which an object was hidden but it was not necessary to indicate its location to get the food. We found that the majority of subjects spontaneously guided the experimenter to the hiding place of the fork by pointing to it when it was necessary and they did so significantly less in control conditions. We did not find an effect of the person hiding the fork. Our results show that mother-reared orangutans and bonobos are able to point to inform a human about the location of an object that the human needs to procure food for the subject and that they can take into account whether it is relevant or not to do so.

  20. Development of an indoor location based service test bed and geographic information system with a wireless sensor network.

    PubMed

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Hsu, Li-Ta; Tsai, Wen-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In order to provide the seamless navigation and positioning services for indoor environments, an indoor location based service (LBS) test bed is developed to integrate the indoor positioning system and the indoor three-dimensional (3D) geographic information system (GIS). A wireless sensor network (WSN) is used in the developed indoor positioning system. Considering the power consumption, in this paper the ZigBee radio is used as the wireless protocol, and the received signal strength (RSS) fingerprinting positioning method is applied as the primary indoor positioning algorithm. The matching processes of the user location include the nearest neighbor (NN) algorithm, the K-weighted nearest neighbors (KWNN) algorithm, and the probabilistic approach. To enhance the positioning accuracy for the dynamic user, the particle filter is used to improve the positioning performance. As part of this research, a 3D indoor GIS is developed to be used with the indoor positioning system. This involved using the computer-aided design (CAD) software and the virtual reality markup language (VRML) to implement a prototype indoor LBS test bed. Thus, a rapid and practical procedure for constructing a 3D indoor GIS is proposed, and this GIS is easy to update and maintenance for users. The building of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan is used as an example to assess the performance of various algorithms for the indoor positioning system.

  1. IrisPlex: a sensitive DNA tool for accurate prediction of blue and brown eye colour in the absence of ancestry information.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Susan; Liu, Fan; Ballantyne, Kaye N; van Oven, Mannis; Lao, Oscar; Kayser, Manfred

    2011-06-01

    A new era of 'DNA intelligence' is arriving in forensic biology, due to the impending ability to predict externally visible characteristics (EVCs) from biological material such as those found at crime scenes. EVC prediction from forensic samples, or from body parts, is expected to help concentrate police investigations towards finding unknown individuals, at times when conventional DNA profiling fails to provide informative leads. Here we present a robust and sensitive tool, termed IrisPlex, for the accurate prediction of blue and brown eye colour from DNA in future forensic applications. We used the six currently most eye colour-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that previously revealed prevalence-adjusted prediction accuracies of over 90% for blue and brown eye colour in 6168 Dutch Europeans. The single multiplex assay, based on SNaPshot chemistry and capillary electrophoresis, both widely used in forensic laboratories, displays high levels of genotyping sensitivity with complete profiles generated from as little as 31pg of DNA, approximately six human diploid cell equivalents. We also present a prediction model to correctly classify an individual's eye colour, via probability estimation solely based on DNA data, and illustrate the accuracy of the developed prediction test on 40 individuals from various geographic origins. Moreover, we obtained insights into the worldwide allele distribution of these six SNPs using the HGDP-CEPH samples of 51 populations. Eye colour prediction analyses from HGDP-CEPH samples provide evidence that the test and model presented here perform reliably without prior ancestry information, although future worldwide genotype and phenotype data shall confirm this notion. As our IrisPlex eye colour prediction test is capable of immediate implementation in forensic casework, it represents one of the first steps forward in the creation of a fully individualised EVC prediction system for future use in forensic DNA intelligence.

  2. Identifying suitable sanitary landfill locations in the state of Morelos, México, using a Geographic Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín, Luis E.; Torres, Vicente; Bolongaro, Andrea; Reyna, José A.; Pohle, O.; Hernández-Espriú, A.; Chavarría, Jerónimo; García-Barrios, R.; Tabla, Hugo Francisco Parra

    GIS is a powerful tool that may help to better manage natural resources. In this paper, we present a GIS model developed for the state of Morelos as an aid to determine whether a potential site, Loma de Mejia, met the Mexican Federal Guidelines. The Mexican Government has established federal guidelines for sanitary landfill site selection (NOM-083-SERMARNAT-2003). These guidelines were translated into a water-based Geographic Information System and applied to the state of Morelos, Mexico. For these examples, we used the SIGAM® (Sistema de Información Geográfico del Agua en México; a water-based GIS for Mexico) which has at least 60 layers from the National Water Commission (CONAGUA), the national mapping agency (INEGI; Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática), NASA, and academic institutions. Results show that a GIS is a powerful tool that may allow federal, state and municipal policy makers to conduct an initial regional site reconnaissance rapidly. Once potential sites are selected, further characterization must be carried out in order to determine if proposed locations are suitable or not for a sanitary landfill. Based on the SIGAM© software, the Loma de Mejia would not comply with the Mexican Federal Guidelines.

  3. Generating regional infrasound celerity-range models using ground-truth information and the implications for event location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nippress, Alexandra; Green, David N.; Marcillo, Omar E.; Arrowsmith, Stephen J.

    2014-05-01

    Celerity-range models, where celerity is defined as the epicentral distance divided by the total traveltime (similar to the definition of group velocity for dispersed seismic surface waves), can be used for the association of infrasound automatic detections, for event location and for the validation of acoustic propagation simulations. Signals recorded from ground truth events are used to establish celerity-range models, but data coverage is uneven in both space and time. To achieve a high density of regional recordings we use data from USArray seismic stations recording air-to-ground coupled waves from explosions during the summers of 2004-2008 at the Utah Training and Test Range, in the western United States, together with data from five microbarograph arrays at regional distances (<1000 km). We have developed a consistent methodology for analysing the infrasound and seismic data, including choosing filter characteristics from a limited group of two-octave wide filter bands and picking the maximum peak-to-peak arrival. We clearly observe tropospheric, thermospheric and stratospheric arrivals, in agreement with regional ray tracing models. Due to data availability and the dependence of infrasound propagation on the season, we develop three regional celerity-range models for the U.S. summer, with a total of 2211 data picks. The new models suggest event locations using the Geiger method could be improved in terms of both accuracy (up to 80 per cent closer to ground truth) and precision (error ellipse area reduced by >90 per cent) when compared to those estimated using the global International Data Center model, particularly for events where stations detect arrivals at ranges <350 km. Whilst adding data-based prior information into the Bayesian Infrasound Source Localization (BISL) method is also shown to increase precision, to increase accuracy, the parameter space must be expanded to include station-specific celerity distributions.

  4. The effects of information type (features vs. configuration) and location (eyes vs. mouth) on the development of face perception.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, James W; Quinn, Paul C; Xu, Buyun; Maynard, Kim; Huxtable, Natalie; Lee, Kang; Pascalis, Olivier

    2014-08-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate the development of face processing strategies in a perceptual discrimination task. Children (7-12 years of age) and young adults were administered the Face Dimensions Task. In the Face Dimensions Task, participants were asked to judge whether two simultaneously presented faces were the "same" or "different". For the "same" trials, the two faces were identical. For the "different" trials, the faces differed in either the spacing between the eyes, the spacing between the nose and the mouth, the size of the eyes, or the size of the mouth. The main finding was that 7- to 10-year-old children showed no difference in their ability to discriminate differences in eye size and eye spacing but showed a poor ability to discriminate differences in nose and mouth spacing and, to a lesser extent, mouth size. The developmental lag between nose-mouth discriminations and the other featural and configural discriminations was reduced in older children and eliminated by young adulthood. These results indicate that the type of face information (i.e., configural vs. featural) and its location (i.e., eye vs. mouth) jointly contribute to the development of face perception abilities.

  5. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  6. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  7. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  8. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  9. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  10. Geographic information system-based healthcare waste management planning for treatment site location and optimal transportation routeing.

    PubMed

    Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh; Soulalay, Vongdeuane; Chettiyappan, Visvanathan

    2012-06-01

    In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), a growth of healthcare centres, and the environmental hazards and public health risks typically accompanying them, increased the need for healthcare waste (HCW) management planning. An effective planning of an HCW management system including components such as the treatment plant siting and an optimized routeing system for collection and transportation of waste is deemed important. National government offices at developing countries often lack the proper tools and methodologies because of the high costs usually associated with them. However, this study attempts to demonstrate the use of an inexpensive GIS modelling tool for healthcare waste management in the country. Two areas were designed for this study on HCW management, including: (a) locating centralized treatment plants and designing optimum travel routes for waste collection from nearby healthcare facilities; and (b) utilizing existing hospital incinerators and designing optimum routes for collecting waste from nearby healthcare facilities. Spatial analysis paved the way to understand the spatial distribution of healthcare wastes and to identify hotspots of higher waste generating locations. Optimal route models were designed for collecting and transporting HCW to treatment plants, which also highlights constraints in collecting and transporting waste for treatment and disposal. The proposed model can be used as a decision support tool for the efficient management of hospital wastes by government healthcare waste management authorities and hospitals.

  11. Using side scan sonar data in a geographic information system to locate and display lake trout spawning habitat in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Charles L.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Waltermire, Robert G.; White, Barbara

    1988-01-01

    The National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has extensively used a side scan sonar to survey and pinpoint lake trout spawning grounds in the Great Lakes. The Geographic Information System (GIS) of the National Ecology Research Center produced maps from the side scan sonar data showing the exact location of the spawning grounds; this will enable current stocking programs to be carried out at those locations. These maps show the geographic position (latitude and longitude) of both the color-coded primary substrate types and the secondary substrate types, which are denoted by overstrikes. The maps must be supplemented with a Loran-C navigation grid for field use. The maps are proving useful to fishery managers by locating lake trout stocking areas in Lakes Michigan and Huron, as well as to researchers who investigate habitat quality on lake trout spawning grounds.

  12. 77 FR 26056 - LocatePlus Holdings Corporation; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ...: 2012-10671] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] LocatePlus Holdings Corporation; Order... there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of LocatePlus Holdings Corporation (``LocatePlus'') because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended March...

  13. Lost in translation: preclinical studies on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine provide information on mechanisms of action, but do not allow accurate prediction of adverse events in humans

    PubMed Central

    Green, AR; King, MV; Shortall, SE; Fone, KCF

    2012-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) induces both acute adverse effects and long-term neurotoxic loss of brain 5-HT neurones in laboratory animals. However, when choosing doses, most preclinical studies have paid little attention to the pharmacokinetics of the drug in humans or animals. The recreational use of MDMA and current clinical investigations of the drug for therapeutic purposes demand better translational pharmacology to allow accurate risk assessment of its ability to induce adverse events. Recent pharmacokinetic studies on MDMA in animals and humans are reviewed and indicate that the risks following MDMA ingestion should be re-evaluated. Acute behavioural and body temperature changes result from rapid MDMA-induced monoamine release, whereas long-term neurotoxicity is primarily caused by metabolites of the drug. Therefore acute physiological changes in humans are fairly accurately mimicked in animals by appropriate dosing, although allometric dosing calculations have little value. Long-term changes require MDMA to be metabolized in a similar manner in experimental animals and humans. However, the rate of metabolism of MDMA and its major metabolites is slower in humans than rats or monkeys, potentially allowing endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms to function in a species specific manner. Furthermore acute hyperthermia in humans probably limits the chance of recreational users ingesting sufficient MDMA to produce neurotoxicity, unlike in the rat. MDMA also inhibits the major enzyme responsible for its metabolism in humans thereby also assisting in preventing neurotoxicity. These observations question whether MDMA alone produces long-term 5-HT neurotoxicity in human brain, although when taken in combination with other recreational drugs it may induce neurotoxicity. LINKED ARTICLES This article is commented on by Parrott, pp. 1518–1520 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01941.x and to view the the

  14. Student Information Systems Demystified: The Increasing Demand for Accurate, Timely Data Means Schools and Districts Are Relying Heavily on SIS Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntire, Todd

    2004-01-01

    Student information systems, one of the first applications of computer technology in education, are undergoing a significant transition yet again. The first major shift in SIS technologies occurred about 15 years ago when they evolved from mainframe programs to client-server solutions. Now, vendors across the board are offering centralized…

  15. A multiple information fusion method for predicting subcellular locations of two different types of bacterial protein simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Xu, Huimin; He, Ping-An; Dai, Qi; Yao, Yuhua

    2016-01-01

    Subcellular localization prediction of bacterial protein is an important component of bioinformatics, which has great importance for drug design and other applications. For the prediction of protein subcellular localization, as we all know, lots of computational tools have been developed in the recent decades. In this study, we firstly introduce three kinds of protein sequences encoding schemes: physicochemical-based, evolutionary-based, and GO-based. The original and consensus sequences were combined with physicochemical properties. And elements information of different rows and columns in position-specific scoring matrix were taken into consideration simultaneously for more core and essence information. Computational methods based on gene ontology (GO) have been demonstrated to be superior to methods based on other features. Then principal component analysis (PCA) is applied for feature selection and reduced vectors are input to a support vector machine (SVM) to predict protein subcellular localization. The proposed method can achieve a prediction accuracy of 98.28% and 97.87% on a stringent Gram-positive (Gpos) and Gram-negative (Gneg) dataset with Jackknife test, respectively. At last, we calculate "absolute true overall accuracy (ATOA)", which is stricter than overall accuracy. The ATOA obtained from the proposed method is also up to 97.32% and 93.06% for Gpos and Gneg. From both the rationality of testing procedure and the success rates of test results, the current method can improve the prediction quality of protein subcellular localization.

  16. Integrating multi-criteria techniques with geographical information systems in waste facility location to enhance public participation.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Gary

    2006-04-01

    Despite recent U.K. Government commitments' to encourage public participation in environmental decision making, those exercises conducted to date have been largely confined to 'traditional' modes of participation such as the dissemination of information and in encouraging feedback on proposals through, for example, questionnaires or surveys. It is the premise of this paper that participative approaches that use IT-based methods, based on combined geographical information systems (GIS) and multi-criteria evaluation techniques that could involve the public in the decision-making process, have the potential to build consensus and reduce disputes and conflicts such as those arising from the siting of different types of waste facilities. The potential of these techniques are documented through a review of the existing literature in order to highlight the opportunities and challenges facing decision makers in increasing the involvement of the public at different stages of the waste facility management process. It is concluded that there are important lessons to be learned by researchers, consultants, managers and decision makers if barriers hindering the wider use of such techniques are to be overcome.

  17. Reconstructing Spatial Distributions from Anonymized Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Horey, James L; Forrest, Stephanie; Groat, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Devices such as mobile phones, tablets, and sensors are often equipped with GPS that accurately report a person's location. Combined with wireless communication, these devices enable a wide range of new social tools and applications. These same qualities, however, leave location-aware applications vulnerable to privacy violations. This paper introduces the Negative Quad Tree, a privacy protection method for location aware applications. The method is broadly applicable to applications that use spatial density information, such as social applications that measure the popularity of social venues. The method employs a simple anonymization algorithm running on mobile devices, and a more complex reconstruction algorithm on a central server. This strategy is well suited to low-powered mobile devices. The paper analyzes the accuracy of the reconstruction method in a variety of simulated and real-world settings and demonstrates that the method is accurate enough to be used in many real-world scenarios.

  18. Improved integrated sniper location system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figler, Burton D.; Spera, Timothy J.

    1999-01-01

    In July of 1995, Lockheed Martin IR Imaging Systems, of Lexington, Massachusetts began the development of an integrated sniper location system for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and for the Department of the Navy's Naval Command Control & Ocean Surveillance Center, RDTE Division in San Diego, California. The I-SLS integrates acoustic and uncooled infrared sensing technologies to provide an affordable and highly effective sniper detection and location capability. This system, its performance and results from field tests at Camp Pendleton, California, in October 1996 were described in a paper presented at the November 1996 SPIE Photonics East Symposium1 on Enabling Technologies for Law Enforcement and Security. The I-SLS combines an acoustic warning system with an uncooled infrared warning system. The acoustic warning system has been developed by SenTech, Inc., of Lexington, Massachusetts. This acoustic warning system provides sniper detection and coarse location information based upon the muzzle blast of the sniper's weapon and/or upon the shock wave produced by the sniper's bullet, if the bullet is supersonic. The uncooled infrared warning system provides sniper detection and fine location information based upon the weapon's muzzle flash. In addition, the uncooled infrared warning system can provide thermal imagery that can be used to accurately locate and identify the sniper. Combining these two technologies improves detection probability, reduces false alarm rate and increases utility. In the two years since the last report of the integrated sniper location system, improvements have been made and a second field demonstration was planned. In this paper, we describe the integrated sniper location system modifications in preparation for the new field demonstration. In addition, fundamental improvements in the uncooled infrared sensor technology continue to be made. These improvements include higher sensitivity (lower minimum resolvable temperature

  19. Wave equation based microseismic source location and velocity inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yikang; Wang, Yibo; Chang, Xu

    2016-12-01

    The microseismic event locations and velocity information can be used to infer the stress field and guide hydraulic fracturing process, as well as to image the subsurface structures. How to get accurate microseismic event locations and velocity model is the principal problem in reservoir monitoring. For most location methods, the velocity model has significant relation with the accuracy of the location results. The velocity obtained from log data is usually too rough to be used for location directly. It is necessary to discuss how to combine the location and velocity inversion. Among the main techniques for locating microseismic events, time reversal imaging (TRI) based on wave equation avoids traveltime picking and offers high-resolution locations. Frequency dependent wave equation traveltime inversion (FWT) is an inversion method that can invert velocity model with source uncertainty at certain frequency band. Thus we combine TRI with FWT to produce improved event locations and velocity model. In the proposed approach, the location and model information are interactively used and updated. Through the proposed workflow, the inverted model is better resolved and the event locations are more accurate. We test this method on synthetic borehole data and filed data of a hydraulic fracturing experiment. The results verify the effectiveness of the method and prove it has potential for real-time microseismic monitoring.

  20. An Evaluation of Detect and Avoid (DAA) Displays for Unmanned Aircraft Systems: The Effect of Information Level and Display Location on Pilot Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fern, Lisa; Rorie, R. Conrad; Pack, Jessica S.; Shively, R. Jay; Draper, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    A consortium of government, industry and academia is currently working to establish minimum operational performance standards for Detect and Avoid (DAA) and Control and Communications (C2) systems in order to enable broader integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS). One subset of these performance standards will need to address the DAA display requirements that support an acceptable level of pilot performance. From a pilot's perspective, the DAA task is the maintenance of self separation and collision avoidance from other aircraft, utilizing the available information and controls within the Ground Control Station (GCS), including the DAA display. The pilot-in-the-loop DAA task requires the pilot to carry out three major functions: 1) detect a potential threat, 2) determine an appropriate resolution maneuver, and 3) execute that resolution maneuver via the GCS control and navigation interface(s). The purpose of the present study was to examine two main questions with respect to DAA display considerations that could impact pilots' ability to maintain well clear from other aircraft. First, what is the effect of a minimum (or basic) information display compared to an advanced information display on pilot performance? Second, what is the effect of display location on UAS pilot performance? Two levels of information level (basic, advanced) were compared across two levels of display location (standalone, integrated), for a total of four displays. The authors propose an eight-stage pilot-DAA interaction timeline from which several pilot response time metrics can be extracted. These metrics were compared across the four display conditions. The results indicate that the advanced displays had faster overall response times compared to the basic displays, however, there were no significant differences between the standalone and integrated displays. Implications of the findings on understanding pilot performance on the DAA task, the

  1. Information Ubiquity in Austere Locations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    These balloons flew at near-space altitudes (with no tether ), and used a low -throughput IP radio that pro- vided on the order of tens of kB/s of...can be hosted and rapidly deployed on manned or unmanned aircraft or on high altitude balloons , as shown in Figure 1. At high altitudes , Marti... altitude balloon , a pod attached to a manned aircraft, and un- manned aircraft, including the Scan Eagle. Joseph Loyall/ Procedia Computer Science

  2. Close binding of identity and location in visual feature perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, J. C.; Pashler, H.

    1990-01-01

    The binding of identity and location information in disjunctive feature search was studied. Ss searched a heterogeneous display for a color or a form target, and reported both target identity and location. To avoid better than chance guessing of target identity (by choosing the target less likely to have been seen), the difficulty of the two targets was equalized adaptively; a mathematical model was used to quantify residual effects. A spatial layout was used that minimized postperceptual errors in reporting location. Results showed strong binding of identity and location perception. After correction for guessing, no perception of identity without location was found. A weak trend was found for accurate perception of target location without identity. We propose that activated features generate attention-calling "interrupt" signals, specifying only location; attention then retrieves the properties at that location.

  3. Accurate upper body rehabilitation system using kinect.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sanjana; Bhowmick, Brojeshwar; Chakravarty, Kingshuk; Sinha, Aniruddha; Das, Abhijit

    2016-08-01

    The growing importance of Kinect as a tool for clinical assessment and rehabilitation is due to its portability, low cost and markerless system for human motion capture. However, the accuracy of Kinect in measuring three-dimensional body joint center locations often fails to meet clinical standards of accuracy when compared to marker-based motion capture systems such as Vicon. The length of the body segment connecting any two joints, measured as the distance between three-dimensional Kinect skeleton joint coordinates, has been observed to vary with time. The orientation of the line connecting adjoining Kinect skeletal coordinates has also been seen to differ from the actual orientation of the physical body segment. Hence we have proposed an optimization method that utilizes Kinect Depth and RGB information to search for the joint center location that satisfies constraints on body segment length and as well as orientation. An experimental study have been carried out on ten healthy participants performing upper body range of motion exercises. The results report 72% reduction in body segment length variance and 2° improvement in Range of Motion (ROM) angle hence enabling to more accurate measurements for upper limb exercises.

  4. e-SpaceCam : Development of a Remote Cooperative Observation System for Telescopes with P2P(Peer-to-Peer) Agent Network Using Location Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, T.; Kato, S.

    2006-08-01

    Introduction. It is very important for astronomical study and observation to operate a telescope by oneself. However, there are various problems such as the cost and location to use the telescope. The most promising technology that solves those problems is a remote telescope system. However, an old and usual remote telescope system was Server & Client type system. Therefore, the remote telescope owners and the remote telescope users have to manage their telescope by themselves. Especially, enough knowledge of the network, the time and cost to control the telescopes are necessary for the remote telescope owners. So it is difficult for general telescope owners to offer their telescopes as remote telescopes. We are developing a new environment that manages the remote telescopes. The environment connects users who want to use telescopes with the telescopes connected with PC (RS232c, USB, etc) all over the world. Our goal is to develop an environment by which users are able to cooperate and to share a lot of telescopes and the observational data for the education and the observation. Methods. Our remote telescope system is established on the P2P agent network. Various agents execute tasks allocated instead of users. (to retrieve, to connect, to control, etc) So users needn't do irksome tasks. Our system mounts LL-Net (Location-based Logical Network). LL-Net can manage user nodes on the P2P network by a key made based on location information. Our system key is allocated by the longitude and latitude. Results and Discussion. Users can retrieve remote telescopes that suit them and connect with them. Telescope owners can make their telescopes remote telescopes without troublesome jobs. Logical network constructed with LL-Net enables telescopes which the user hoped to be retrieved efficiently. We investigate more suitable use of LL-Net for a remote telescope. We plan to realize to share the observational data and to make remote telescopes cooperate.

  5. Text Content Pushing Technology Research Based on Location and Topic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Dongqi; Wei, Jianxin; Wumuti, Naheman; Jiang, Baode

    2016-11-01

    In the field, geological workers usually want to obtain related geological background information in the working area quickly and accurately. This information exists in the massive geological data, text data is described in natural language accounted for a large proportion. This paper studied location information extracting method in the mass text data; proposed a geographic location—geological content—geological content related algorithm based on Spark and Mapreduce2, finally classified content by using KNN, and built the content pushing system based on location and topic. It is running in the geological survey cloud, and we have gained a good effect in testing by using real geological data.

  6. Use of remote sensing and geographic information systems to predict locations of Anopheles darlingi-positive breeding sites within the Sibun River in Belize, Central America.

    PubMed

    Achee, Nicole L; Grieco, John P; Masuoka, Penny; Andre, Richard G; Roberts, Donald R; Thomas, James; Briceno, Ireneo; King, Russell; Rejmankova, Eliska

    2006-03-01

    Previous studies have identified several anopheline species integral to the transmission of malaria in Belize. The highly efficient vector, Anopheles darlingi Root, is currently considered the most important. The preferred larval habitat of An. darlingi has been described as floating detritus patches, which are commonly associated with overhanging spiny bamboo, Guadua longifolia (E. Fourn.), along river margins. The objectives of this study were to use remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) tools to 1) define the landscape features (i.e., river curvature, land cover, and house locations) associated with An. darlingi-positive breeding habitats and 2) determine the association between cleared land cover and the growth of spiny bamboo. A systematic survey was conducted in which all detritus patches of at least 1 m2 were sampled, mapped using GPS, and characterized by cause of habitat lodging. Bamboo stretches growing along the river margins also were mapped. Spatial analyses of satellite imagery found no associations between river characteristics or land cover with positive An. darlingi habitats. In addition, there was no significant difference in cleared versus forested land cover in relation to the presence or absence of bamboo. Results indicate that the average distance from homes to negative habitats was significantly greater than from positive detritus mats. Based on the land cover and river characteristics used, our results do not support the use of remote sensing as a predictive tool to locate specific areas within rivers positive for An. darlingi habitats.

  7. Uranium Location Database Compilation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has compiled mine location information from federal, state, and Tribal agencies into a single database as part of its investigation into the potential environmental hazards of wastes from abandoned uranium mines in the western United States.

  8. Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.

  9. Accurate monotone cubic interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1991-01-01

    Monotone piecewise cubic interpolants are simple and effective. They are generally third-order accurate, except near strict local extrema where accuracy degenerates to second-order due to the monotonicity constraint. Algorithms for piecewise cubic interpolants, which preserve monotonicity as well as uniform third and fourth-order accuracy are presented. The gain of accuracy is obtained by relaxing the monotonicity constraint in a geometric framework in which the median function plays a crucial role.

  10. Efficient and Accurate Indoor Localization Using Landmark Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, F.; Kealy, A.; Khoshelham, K.; Shang, J.

    2016-06-01

    Indoor localization is important for a variety of applications such as location-based services, mobile social networks, and emergency response. Fusing spatial information is an effective way to achieve accurate indoor localization with little or with no need for extra hardware. However, existing indoor localization methods that make use of spatial information are either too computationally expensive or too sensitive to the completeness of landmark detection. In this paper, we solve this problem by using the proposed landmark graph. The landmark graph is a directed graph where nodes are landmarks (e.g., doors, staircases, and turns) and edges are accessible paths with heading information. We compared the proposed method with two common Dead Reckoning (DR)-based methods (namely, Compass + Accelerometer + Landmarks and Gyroscope + Accelerometer + Landmarks) by a series of experiments. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve 73% accuracy with a positioning error less than 2.5 meters, which outperforms the other two DR-based methods.

  11. Accurate quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.

  12. Analysis of the Bayesian Cramér-Rao lower bound in astrometry. Studying the impact of prior information in the location of an object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeverria, Alex; Silva, Jorge F.; Mendez, Rene A.; Orchard, Marcos

    2016-10-01

    Context. The best precision that can be achieved to estimate the location of a stellar-like object is a topic of permanent interest in the astrometric community. Aims: We analyze bounds for the best position estimation of a stellar-like object on a CCD detector array in a Bayesian setting where the position is unknown, but where we have access to a prior distribution. In contrast to a parametric setting where we estimate a parameter from observations, the Bayesian approach estimates a random object (i.e., the position is a random variable) from observations that are statistically dependent on the position. Methods: We characterize the Bayesian Cramér-Rao (CR) that bounds the minimum mean square error (MMSE) of the best estimator of the position of a point source on a linear CCD-like detector, as a function of the properties of detector, the source, and the background. Results: We quantify and analyze the increase in astrometric performance from the use of a prior distribution of the object position, which is not available in the classical parametric setting. This gain is shown to be significant for various observational regimes, in particular in the case of faint objects or when the observations are taken under poor conditions. Furthermore, we present numerical evidence that the MMSE estimator of this problem tightly achieves the Bayesian CR bound. This is a remarkable result, demonstrating that all the performance gains presented in our analysis can be achieved with the MMSE estimator. Conclusions: The Bayesian CR bound can be used as a benchmark indicator of the expected maximum positional precision of a set of astrometric measurements in which prior information can be incorporated. This bound can be achieved through the conditional mean estimator, in contrast to the parametric case where no unbiased estimator precisely reaches the CR bound.

  13. BIOACCESSIBILITY TESTS ACCURATELY ESTIMATE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contaminated soils. Relative bioavailabilities were expressed by comparison with blood Pb concentrations in quail fed a Pb acetate reference diet. Diets containing soil from five Pb-contaminated Superfund sites had relative bioavailabilities from 33%-63%, with a mean of about 50%. Treatment of two of the soils with P significantly reduced the bioavailability of Pb. The bioaccessibility of the Pb in the test soils was then measured in six in vitro tests and regressed on bioavailability. They were: the “Relative Bioavailability Leaching Procedure” (RBALP) at pH 1.5, the same test conducted at pH 2.5, the “Ohio State University In vitro Gastrointestinal” method (OSU IVG), the “Urban Soil Bioaccessible Lead Test”, the modified “Physiologically Based Extraction Test” and the “Waterfowl Physiologically Based Extraction Test.” All regressions had positive slopes. Based on criteria of slope and coefficient of determination, the RBALP pH 2.5 and OSU IVG tests performed very well. Speciation by X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that, on average, most of the Pb in the sampled soils was sorbed to minerals (30%), bound to organic matter 24%, or present as Pb sulfate 18%. Ad

  14. Separatrix location in NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Frederick; Maingi, Rajesh; Maqueda, Ricky; Menard, Jon; Leblanc, Ben; Bell, Ron; Paul, Stephen

    2008-11-01

    The separatrix location and corresponding plasma parameters in NSTX were estimated for H-mode discharge 117125 containing both MARFEs and ELMs and for Type V ELMy H-mode discharge 128337. Since equilibrium reconstructions with LRDFIT did not accurately locate the LFS separatrix, a method based on the strong electron parallel heat conductivity was used to map the LFS magnetic flux surfaces to the HFS since the innermost Thomson scattering measurement of Te(R) is the most accurate. During a MARFE or at MARFE onset in NSTX shot 117125, this method estimated the electron temperature at the LFS separatrix, Te,sep, to vary between 31 and 41 eV. At times with no MARFE or ELM, Te,sep ranged between 41 and 93 eV. These Te,sep values compare well with Te,sep values (28-35 eV) in TEXTOR just before MARFE onset.^1 In NSTX shot 128337 late in the Type V ELMy phase, Te,sep was estimated to be ˜100 eV. These separatrix locations place the Er well outside the separatrix. [1] F.A. Kelly, W.M. Stacey, J. Rapp and M. Brix, Phys. Plasmas 8 (2001) 3382.

  15. Accurate spectral color measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Jouni; Jaeaeskelaeinen, Timo; Parkkinen, Jussi P. S.

    1999-08-01

    Surface color measurement is of importance in a very wide range of industrial applications including paint, paper, printing, photography, textiles, plastics and so on. For a demanding color measurements spectral approach is often needed. One can measure a color spectrum with a spectrophotometer using calibrated standard samples as a reference. Because it is impossible to define absolute color values of a sample, we always work with approximations. The human eye can perceive color difference as small as 0.5 CIELAB units and thus distinguish millions of colors. This 0.5 unit difference should be a goal for the precise color measurements. This limit is not a problem if we only want to measure the color difference of two samples, but if we want to know in a same time exact color coordinate values accuracy problems arise. The values of two instruments can be astonishingly different. The accuracy of the instrument used in color measurement may depend on various errors such as photometric non-linearity, wavelength error, integrating sphere dark level error, integrating sphere error in both specular included and specular excluded modes. Thus the correction formulas should be used to get more accurate results. Another question is how many channels i.e. wavelengths we are using to measure a spectrum. It is obvious that the sampling interval should be short to get more precise results. Furthermore, the result we get is always compromise of measuring time, conditions and cost. Sometimes we have to use portable syste or the shape and the size of samples makes it impossible to use sensitive equipment. In this study a small set of calibrated color tiles measured with the Perkin Elmer Lamda 18 and the Minolta CM-2002 spectrophotometers are compared. In the paper we explain the typical error sources of spectral color measurements, and show which are the accuracy demands a good colorimeter should have.

  16. Oak Ridge Health Studies Phase 1 report, Volume 2: Part C, Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study. Tasks 5: A summary of information concerning historical locations and activities of populations potentially affected by releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    DaMassa, C.L.; Widner, T.E.

    1993-09-01

    A significant number of information sources have been identified that are relevant to historical locations and activities of populations potentially affected by releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation. The information that has been reviewed as part of this Task 5 investigation has shown that numerous residences and farms have historically been present near the ORR boundary and that a variety of land uses and recreational activities have been practiced. Based on this information alone, it would appear that many routes of off-site exposure could have been plausible. Most of the available published information addresses demographic and land use data on a regional or county-wide basis over fairly broad time periods. The information sources that are most readily available do not support direct evaluation of potential exposure pathways at specific geographic locations near the Oak Ridge facilities at specific points in time. A number of information sources have been identified that can provide demography and land use information more specific to locations and time periods that are identified to be of interest. Examples of data sources in this category include individual USGS topographic maps, aerial photographs, lowest-level census tract data, and interviews with long-time local residents. However, specific release events and periods of interest should be identified prior to attempts to collect more specific demographic or land use information for actual dose reconstruction.

  17. Underwater hydrophone location survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Jack B.

    1993-01-01

    The Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) is a U.S. Navy test range located on Andros Island, Bahamas, and a Division of the Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC), Newport, RI. The Headquarters of AUTEC is located at a facility in West Palm Beach, FL. AUTEC's primary mission is to provide the U.S. Navy with a deep-water test and evaluation facility for making underwater acoustic measurements, testing and calibrating sonars, and providing accurate underwater, surface, and in-air tracking data on surface ships, submarines, aircraft, and weapon systems. Many of these programs are in support of Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW), undersea research and development programs, and Fleet assessment and operational readiness trials. Most tests conducted at AUTEC require precise underwater tracking (plus or minus 3 yards) of multiple acoustic signals emitted with the correct waveshape and repetition criteria from either a surface craft or underwater vehicle.

  18. Atom location by electron channeling analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pennycook, S.J.

    1984-07-01

    For many years the orientation dependence of the characteristic x-ray emission close to a Bragg reflection has been regarded as a hindrance to accurate microanalysis, and a random incident beam direction has always been recommended for accurate composition analysis. However, this orientation dependence can be put to use to extract information on the lattice location of foreign atoms within the crystalline matrix. Here a generalization of the technique is described which is applicable to any crystal structure including monatomic crystals, and can quantitatively determine substitutional fractions of impurities. The technique was referred to as electron channeling analysis, by analogy with the closely related and widely used bulk technique of ion channeling analysis, and was developed for lattice location studies of dopants in semiconductors at high spatial resolution. Only two spectra are required for each channeling analysis, one in each of the channeling conditions described above. If the matrix and dopant x-ray yields vary identically between the two orientations then the dopant necessarily lies within the reflecting matrix planes. If the dopant x-ray yield does not vary the dopant atoms are randomly located with respect to the matrix planes. 10 references, 2 figures.

  19. Automated fault location and diagnosis on electric power distribution feeders

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, J.; Lubkeman, D.L.; Girgis, A.A.

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents new techniques for locating and diagnosing faults on electric power distribution feeders. The proposed fault location and diagnosis scheme is capable of accurately identifying the location of a fault upon its occurrence, based on the integration of information available from disturbance recording devices with knowledge contained in a distribution feeder database. The developed fault location and diagnosis system can also be applied to the investigation of temporary faults that may not result in a blown fuse. The proposed fault location algorithm is based on the steady-state analysis of the faulted distribution network. To deal with the uncertainties inherent in the system modeling and the phasor estimation, the fault location algorithm has been adapted to estimate fault regions based on probabilistic modeling and analysis. Since the distribution feeder is a radial network, multiple possibilities of fault locations could be computed with measurements available only at the substation. To identify the actual fault location, a fault diagnosis algorithm has been developed to prune down and rank the possible fault locations by integrating the available pieces of evidence. Testing of the developed fault location and diagnosis system using field data has demonstrated its potential for practical use.

  20. Historical Thinking in Information Rich Environments: An Exploration of Eighth Grade Students' Actions Locating and Analyzing Digital Historical Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    List, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses a bounded case to investigate how students engage in historical inquiry using digital historical sources. Drawing on research and theory related to historical thinking, digital history and new literacies, this study explores how students located historical documents in an online archive and then analyzed those documents given…

  1. Automatic classification and accurate size measurement of blank mask defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhamidipati, Samir; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Pereira, Mark; Buck, Peter

    2015-07-01

    A blank mask and its preparation stages, such as cleaning or resist coating, play an important role in the eventual yield obtained by using it. Blank mask defects' impact analysis directly depends on the amount of available information such as the number of defects observed, their accurate locations and sizes. Mask usability qualification at the start of the preparation process, is crudely based on number of defects. Similarly, defect information such as size is sought to estimate eventual defect printability on the wafer. Tracking of defect characteristics, specifically size and shape, across multiple stages, can further be indicative of process related information such as cleaning or coating process efficiencies. At the first level, inspection machines address the requirement of defect characterization by detecting and reporting relevant defect information. The analysis of this information though is still largely a manual process. With advancing technology nodes and reducing half-pitch sizes, a large number of defects are observed; and the detailed knowledge associated, make manual defect review process an arduous task, in addition to adding sensitivity to human errors. Cases where defect information reported by inspection machine is not sufficient, mask shops rely on other tools. Use of CDSEM tools is one such option. However, these additional steps translate into increased costs. Calibre NxDAT based MDPAutoClassify tool provides an automated software alternative to the manual defect review process. Working on defect images generated by inspection machines, the tool extracts and reports additional information such as defect location, useful for defect avoidance[4][5]; defect size, useful in estimating defect printability; and, defect nature e.g. particle, scratch, resist void, etc., useful for process monitoring. The tool makes use of smart and elaborate post-processing algorithms to achieve this. Their elaborateness is a consequence of the variety and

  2. An Impact-Location Estimation Algorithm for Subsonic Uninhabited Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeffrey E.; Teets, Edward

    1997-01-01

    An impact-location estimation algorithm is being used at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center to support range safety for uninhabited aerial vehicle flight tests. The algorithm computes an impact location based on the descent rate, mass, and altitude of the vehicle and current wind information. The predicted impact location is continuously displayed on the range safety officer's moving map display so that the flightpath of the vehicle can be routed to avoid ground assets if the flight must be terminated. The algorithm easily adapts to different vehicle termination techniques and has been shown to be accurate to the extent required to support range safety for subsonic uninhabited aerial vehicles. This paper describes how the algorithm functions, how the algorithm is used at NASA Dryden, and how various termination techniques are handled by the algorithm. Other approaches to predicting the impact location and the reasons why they were not selected for real-time implementation are also discussed.

  3. How are medical students trained to locate biomedical information to practice evidence-based medicine? a review of the 2007–2012 literature

    PubMed Central

    Maggio, Lauren A.; Kung, Janice Y.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study describes how information retrieval skills are taught in evidence-based medicine (EBM) at the undergraduate medical education (UGME) level. Methods: The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, Scopus, Educational Resource Information Center, Web of Science, and Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews for English-language articles published between 2007 and 2012 describing information retrieval training to support EBM. Data on learning environment, frequency of training, learner characteristics, resources and information skills taught, teaching modalities, and instructor roles were compiled and analyzed. Results: Twelve studies were identified for analysis. Studies were set in the United States (9), Australia (1), the Czech Republic (1), and Iran (1). Most trainings (7) featured multiple sessions with trainings offered to preclinical students (5) and clinical students (6). A single study described a longitudinal training experience. A variety of information resources were introduced, including PubMed, DynaMed, UpToDate, and AccessMedicine. The majority of the interventions (10) were classified as interactive teaching sessions in classroom settings. Librarians played major and collaborative roles with physicians in teaching and designing training. Unfortunately, few studies provided details of information skills activities or evaluations, making them difficult to evaluate and replicate. Conclusions: This study reviewed the literature and characterized how EBM search skills are taught in UGME. Details are provided on learning environment, frequency of training, level of learners, resources and skills trained, and instructor roles. Implications: The results suggest a number of steps that librarians can take to improve information skills training including using a longitudinal approach, integrating consumer health resources, and developing robust assessments. PMID:25031559

  4. Synchronized sampling improves fault location

    SciTech Connect

    Kezunovic, M.; Perunicic, B.

    1995-04-01

    Transmission line faults must be located accurately to allow maintenance crews to arrive at the scene and repair the faulted section as soon as possible. Rugged terrain and geographical layout cause some sections of power transmission lines to be difficult to reach. In the past, a variety of fault location algorithms were introduced as either an add-on feature in protective relays or stand-alone implementation in fault locators. In both cases, the measurements of current and voltages were taken at one terminal of a transmission line only. Under such conditions, it may become difficult to determine the fault location accurately, since data from other transmission line ends are required for more precise computations. In the absence of data from the other end, existing algorithms have accuracy problems under several circumstances, such as varying switching and loading conditions, fault infeed from the other end, and random value of fault resistance. Most of the one-end algorithms were based on estimation of voltage and current phasors. The need to estimate phasors introduces additional difficulty in high-speed tripping situations where the algorithms may not be fast enough in determining fault location accurately before the current signals disappear due to the relay operation and breaker opening. This article introduces a unique concept of high-speed fault location that can be implemented either as a simple add-on to the digital fault recorders (DFRs) or as a stand-alone new relaying function. This advanced concept is based on the use of voltage and current samples that are synchronously taken at both ends of a transmission line. This sampling technique can be made readily available in some new DFR designs incorporating receivers for accurate sampling clock synchronization using the satellite Global Positioning System (GPS).

  5. Method for Accurate Surface Temperature Measurements During Fast Induction Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larregain, Benjamin; Vanderesse, Nicolas; Bridier, Florent; Bocher, Philippe; Arkinson, Patrick

    2013-07-01

    A robust method is proposed for the measurement of surface temperature fields during induction heating. It is based on the original coupling of temperature-indicating lacquers and a high-speed camera system. Image analysis tools have been implemented to automatically extract the temporal evolution of isotherms. This method was applied to the fast induction treatment of a 4340 steel spur gear, allowing the full history of surface isotherms to be accurately documented for a sequential heating, i.e., a medium frequency preheating followed by a high frequency final heating. Three isotherms, i.e., 704, 816, and 927°C, were acquired every 0.3 ms with a spatial resolution of 0.04 mm per pixel. The information provided by the method is described and discussed. Finally, the transformation temperature Ac1 is linked to the temperature on specific locations of the gear tooth.

  6. Location Privacy Protection on Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Justin; Fang, Xing

    Location information is considered as private in many scenarios. Protecting location information on mobile ad-hoc networks has attracted much research in past years. However, location information protection on social networks has not been paid much attention. In this paper, we present a novel location privacy protection approach on the basis of user messages in social networks. Our approach grants flexibility to users by offering them multiple protecting options. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to protect social network users' location information via text messages. We propose five algorithms for location privacy protection on social networks.

  7. Accurate Evaluation of Quantum Integrals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galant, D. C.; Goorvitch, D.; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Combining an appropriate finite difference method with Richardson's extrapolation results in a simple, highly accurate numerical method for solving a Schrodinger's equation. Important results are that error estimates are provided, and that one can extrapolate expectation values rather than the wavefunctions to obtain highly accurate expectation values. We discuss the eigenvalues, the error growth in repeated Richardson's extrapolation, and show that the expectation values calculated on a crude mesh can be extrapolated to obtain expectation values of high accuracy.

  8. The high cost of accurate knowledge.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, Kathleen M; Weber, Klaus

    2003-05-01

    Many business thinkers believe it's the role of senior managers to scan the external environment to monitor contingencies and constraints, and to use that precise knowledge to modify the company's strategy and design. As these thinkers see it, managers need accurate and abundant information to carry out that role. According to that logic, it makes sense to invest heavily in systems for collecting and organizing competitive information. Another school of pundits contends that, since today's complex information often isn't precise anyway, it's not worth going overboard with such investments. In other words, it's not the accuracy and abundance of information that should matter most to top executives--rather, it's how that information is interpreted. After all, the role of senior managers isn't just to make decisions; it's to set direction and motivate others in the face of ambiguities and conflicting demands. Top executives must interpret information and communicate those interpretations--they must manage meaning more than they must manage information. So which of these competing views is the right one? Research conducted by academics Sutcliffe and Weber found that how accurate senior executives are about their competitive environments is indeed less important for strategy and corresponding organizational changes than the way in which they interpret information about their environments. Investments in shaping those interpretations, therefore, may create a more durable competitive advantage than investments in obtaining and organizing more information. And what kinds of interpretations are most closely linked with high performance? Their research suggests that high performers respond positively to opportunities, yet they aren't overconfident in their abilities to take advantage of those opportunities.

  9. Evaluation of workplace air monitoring locations

    SciTech Connect

    Stoetzel, G.A.; Cicotte, G.R.; Lynch, T.P. ); Aldrich, L.K. )

    1991-10-01

    Current federal guidance on occupational radiation protection recognizes the importance of conducting air flow studies to assist in the placement of air sampling and monitoring equipment. In support of this, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has provided technical assistance to Westinghouse Hanford Company for the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of air sampling and monitoring locations at selected Hanford facilities. Qualitative air flow studies were performed using smoke aerosols to visually determine air movement. Three examples are provided of how air flow studies results, along with information on the purpose of the air sample being collected, were used as a guide in placing the air samplers and monitors. Preparatory steps in conducting an air flow study should include: (1) identifying type of work performed in the work area including any actual or potential release points; (2) determining the amounts of radioactive material available for release and its chemical and physical form; (3) obtaining accurate work area descriptions and diagrams; (4) identifying the location of existing air samplers and monitors; (5) documenting physical and ventilation configurations; (6) notifying appropriate staff of the test; and (7) obtaining necessary equipment and supplies. The primary steps in conducting an air flow study are measurements of air velocities in the work area, release of the smoke aerosol at selected locations in the work area and the observation of air flow patterns, and finally evaluation and documentation of the results. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Universal Health Coverage's evolving location in the post-2015 development agenda: Key informant perspectives within multilateral and related agencies during the first phase of post-2015 negotiations.

    PubMed

    Brolan, Claire E; Hill, Peter S

    2016-05-01

    In 2001, technocrats from four multilateral organizations selected the Millennium Development Goals mainly from the previous decade of United Nations (UN) summits and conferences. Few accounts are available of that significant yet cloistered synthesis process: none contemporaneous. In contrast, this study examines health's evolving location in the first-phase of the next iteration of global development goal negotiation for the post-2015 era, through the synchronous perspectives of representatives of key multilateral and related organizations. As part of the Go4Health Project, in-depth interviews were conducted in mid-2013 with 57 professionals working on health and the post-2015 agenda within multilaterals and related agencies. Using discourse analysis, this article reports the results and analysis of a Universal Health Coverage (UHC) theme: contextualizing UHC's positioning within the post-2015 agenda-setting process immediately after the Global Thematic Consultation on Health and High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda (High-Level Panel) released their post-2015 health and development goal aspirations in April and May 2013, respectively. After the findings from the interview data analysis are presented, the Results will be discussed drawing on Shiffman and Smith (Generation of political priority for global health initiatives: a framework and case study of maternal mortality.The Lancet2007; 370: : 1370-79) agenda-setting analytical framework (examining ideas, issues, actors and political context), modified by Benzianet al.(2011). Although more participants support the High-Level Panel's May 2013 report's proposal-'Ensure Healthy Lives'-as the next umbrella health goal, they nevertheless still emphasize the need for UHC to achieve this and thus be incorporated as part of its trajectory. Despite UHC's conceptual ambiguity and cursory mention in the High-Level Panel report, its proponents suggest its re-emergence will occur in

  11. Locating the stranger rapist.

    PubMed

    Davies, A; Dale, A

    1996-04-01

    As part of a larger project evaluating aspects of offender profiling, an initial study was undertaken of the geographic aspects of approximately 300 sexual offences carried out by 79 stranger rapists. The objective was to focus further research on the topic into potentially useful channels, but information thought to be of immediate use to investigating officers was also produced. It was ascertained that at least one-fifth of the sample of stranger rapists were itinerant to a greater or lesser extent. Analysis of the cases where both the offender's address and the location where he approached the victim were known, indicated that the majority of attacks (75 per cent) were initiated within five miles of the offenders' homes. The apparent reasons for victims being approached unusually far away included targeting of locations where numbers of suitable victims were available; raping during relatively sophisticated property offences; 'prowling' or 'hunting' over large areas by subjects who spent considerable amounts of time so doing; access to transport; and familiarity with widely dispersed neighbourhoods, often due to the offender having lived in two or more locations. As a result of this work, future research on the geography of rape will be directed towards those aspects of the offences which have been identified as relevant to the distance between an offender's base and the site where he approached his victim.

  12. Automated microseismic event location using Master-Event Waveform Stacking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoli, Francesco; Cesca, Simone; Krieger, Lars; Kriegerowski, Marius; Gammaldi, Sergio; Horalek, Josef; Priolo, Enrico; Dahm, Torsten

    2016-05-01

    Accurate and automated locations of microseismic events are desirable for many seismological and industrial applications. The analysis of microseismicity is particularly challenging because of weak seismic signals with low signal-to-noise ratio. Traditional location approaches rely on automated picking, based on individual seismograms, and make no use of the coherency information between signals at different stations. This strong limitation has been overcome by full-waveform location methods, which exploit the coherency of waveforms at different stations and improve the location robustness even in presence of noise. However, the performance of these methods strongly depend on the accuracy of the adopted velocity model, which is often quite rough; inaccurate models result in large location errors. We present an improved waveform stacking location method based on source-specific station corrections. Our method inherits the advantages of full-waveform location methods while strongly mitigating the dependency on the accuracy of the velocity model. With this approach the influence of an inaccurate velocity model on the results is restricted to the estimation of travel times solely within the seismogenic volume, but not for the entire source-receiver path. We finally successfully applied our new method to a realistic synthetic dataset as well as real data.

  13. Automated microseismic event location using Master-Event Waveform Stacking

    PubMed Central

    Grigoli, Francesco; Cesca, Simone; Krieger, Lars; Kriegerowski, Marius; Gammaldi, Sergio; Horalek, Josef; Priolo, Enrico; Dahm, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and automated locations of microseismic events are desirable for many seismological and industrial applications. The analysis of microseismicity is particularly challenging because of weak seismic signals with low signal-to-noise ratio. Traditional location approaches rely on automated picking, based on individual seismograms, and make no use of the coherency information between signals at different stations. This strong limitation has been overcome by full-waveform location methods, which exploit the coherency of waveforms at different stations and improve the location robustness even in presence of noise. However, the performance of these methods strongly depend on the accuracy of the adopted velocity model, which is often quite rough; inaccurate models result in large location errors. We present an improved waveform stacking location method based on source-specific station corrections. Our method inherits the advantages of full-waveform location methods while strongly mitigating the dependency on the accuracy of the velocity model. With this approach the influence of an inaccurate velocity model on the results is restricted to the estimation of travel times solely within the seismogenic volume, but not for the entire source-receiver path. We finally successfully applied our new method to a realistic synthetic dataset as well as real data. PMID:27185465

  14. Integrated multi-criteria decision making techniques AHP with Geographic Information System for Modelling of suitable Landfill location: a case study in Keraniganj of Dhaka city, Bangladesh.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M.

    2015-12-01

    This study is approaches a GIS based multi-criteria decision making technique to select potential land fill in Keraniganj of Dhaka city in Bangladesh. Site selection of landfill for Municipal solid waste is an important concern for the urban government in whole world. Dhaka city is highly dense populated city in Bangladesh and municipal solid waste generation rate is increase rapidly day by day. These large amount of generated municipal waste needs appropriate landfill considering environmental, geological, social and technical aspect of the region. The traditional process of site selection process is much difficult, time consuming and costly and needs to replace by a new approaches. An integration of Geographical Information System (GIS) and Multi-criteria Evaluation (MCE) method is best combination to solve complex decision and used to select suitable site. Analytical Hierarchy process (AHP) is world widely most popular decision making MCE technique. In this study AHP used as a multi-criteria decision making to compare five suitability attributes with each other and evaluate weight according to attributes potentiality. Various type raster map layer created using GIS tool for this study. Five suitability raster was assigned with the AHP calculated weight value. A combined weighted spatial layer obtained name as suitability map which is overlapped with a restriction raster map, as result a final suitable map was obtained. The result shows that 12.2% of the area is suitable for constructing landfill site where 4.9% is very high suitable, 2.6% is moderate suitable and 4.7% is low suitable. The final site is constructed after detail field investigation, other technical investigation, land ownership status and public acceptancy. Suitable site selection for non-hazardous landfill is not easy and its needs to consider many environmental factor at time. GIS tool combining with many decision making tool such as multi-criteria evaluation can solve this problem. A combining

  15. Real-time Accurate Surface Reconstruction Pipeline for Vision Guided Planetary Exploration Using Unmanned Ground and Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almeida, Eduardo DeBrito

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses work completed over the summer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology. A system is presented to guide ground or aerial unmanned robots using computer vision. The system performs accurate camera calibration, camera pose refinement and surface extraction from images collected by a camera mounted on the vehicle. The application motivating the research is planetary exploration and the vehicles are typically rovers or unmanned aerial vehicles. The information extracted from imagery is used primarily for navigation, as robot location is the same as the camera location and the surfaces represent the terrain that rovers traverse. The processed information must be very accurate and acquired very fast in order to be useful in practice. The main challenge being addressed by this project is to achieve high estimation accuracy and high computation speed simultaneously, a difficult task due to many technical reasons.

  16. Privacy-Preserving Location-Based Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Chi Yin

    2010-01-01

    Location-based services (LBS for short) providers require users' current locations to answer their location-based queries, e.g., range and nearest-neighbor queries. Revealing personal location information to potentially untrusted service providers could create privacy risks for users. To this end, our objective is to design a privacy-preserving…

  17. Sequential optimal monitoring network design and iterative spatial estimation of pollutant concentration for identification of unknown groundwater pollution source locations.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Datta, Bithin

    2013-07-01

    One of the difficulties in accurate characterization of unknown groundwater pollution sources is the uncertainty regarding the number and the location of such sources. Only when the number of source locations is estimated with some degree of certainty that the characterization of the sources in terms of location, magnitude, and activity duration can be meaningful. A fairly good knowledge of source locations can substantially decrease the degree of nonuniqueness in the set of possible aquifer responses to subjected geochemical stresses. A methodology is developed to use a sequence of dedicated monitoring network design and implementation and to screen and identify the possible source locations. The proposed methodology utilizes a combination of spatial interpolation of concentration measurements and simulated annealing as optimization algorithm for optimal design of the monitoring network. These monitoring networks are to be designed and implemented sequentially. The sequential design is based on iterative pollutant concentration measurement information from the sequentially designed monitoring networks. The optimal monitoring network design utilizes concentration gradient information from the monitoring network at previous iteration to define the objective function. The capability of the feedback information based iterative methodology is shown to be effective in estimating the source locations when no such information is initially available. This unknown pollution source locations identification methodology should be very useful as a screening model for subsequent accurate estimation of the unknown pollution sources in terms of location, magnitude, and activity duration.

  18. Providing Location Security in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Gongjun

    2010-01-01

    Location is fundamental information in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs). Almost all VANET applications rely on location information. Therefore it is of importance to ensure location information integrity, meaning that location information is original (from the generator), correct (not bogus or fabricated) and unmodified (value not changed). We…

  19. New law requires 'medically accurate' lesson plans.

    PubMed

    1999-09-17

    The California Legislature has passed a bill requiring all textbooks and materials used to teach about AIDS be medically accurate and objective. Statements made within the curriculum must be supported by research conducted in compliance with scientific methods, and published in peer-reviewed journals. Some of the current lesson plans were found to contain scientifically unsupported and biased information. In addition, the bill requires material to be "free of racial, ethnic, or gender biases." The legislation is supported by a wide range of interests, but opposed by the California Right to Life Education Fund, because they believe it discredits abstinence-only material.

  20. 76 FR 44892 - Information Collection; Locatable Minerals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... Geology Management Staff, Mail Stop 1126, 1601 N. Kent Street, 5th Floor, Arlington, VA 22209. Comments... may inspect comments received at USDA Forest Service, Minerals and Geology Management Staff, 1601 N...: Tony Ferguson, Director, Minerals and Geology Management, at 703-605-4785. Individuals who...

  1. U.G. Government Technology Information Locator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    improved living standards for all Americans by working in partnership with business , universities, and communities. The DOC works toward that mission by...American business and trade, and today the DOC has a broad range of responsibilities. These include: • Expanding U.S. exports • Developing innovative...for S&T researchers can be divided into three major focus areas: 1. Business and trade 2. Economy and statistics 3. Science and technology (S&T

  2. Magnetic ranging tool accurately guides replacement well

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J.B.; Wesson, J.P. )

    1992-12-21

    This paper reports on magnetic ranging surveys and directional drilling technology which accurately guided a replacement well bore to intersect a leaking gas storage well with casing damage. The second well bore was then used to pump cement into the original leaking casing shoe. The repair well bore kicked off from the surface hole, bypassed casing damage in the middle of the well, and intersected the damaged well near the casing shoe. The repair well was subsequently completed in the gas storage zone near the original well bore, salvaging the valuable bottom hole location in the reservoir. This method would prevent the loss of storage gas, and it would prevent a potential underground blowout that could permanently damage the integrity of the storage field.

  3. Accurate measurement of unsteady state fluid temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaremkiewicz, Magdalena

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, two accurate methods for determining the transient fluid temperature were presented. Measurements were conducted for boiling water since its temperature is known. At the beginning the thermometers are at the ambient temperature and next they are immediately immersed into saturated water. The measurements were carried out with two thermometers of different construction but with the same housing outer diameter equal to 15 mm. One of them is a K-type industrial thermometer widely available commercially. The temperature indicated by the thermometer was corrected considering the thermometers as the first or second order inertia devices. The new design of a thermometer was proposed and also used to measure the temperature of boiling water. Its characteristic feature is a cylinder-shaped housing with the sheath thermocouple located in its center. The temperature of the fluid was determined based on measurements taken in the axis of the solid cylindrical element (housing) using the inverse space marching method. Measurements of the transient temperature of the air flowing through the wind tunnel using the same thermometers were also carried out. The proposed measurement technique provides more accurate results compared with measurements using industrial thermometers in conjunction with simple temperature correction using the inertial thermometer model of the first or second order. By comparing the results, it was demonstrated that the new thermometer allows obtaining the fluid temperature much faster and with higher accuracy in comparison to the industrial thermometer. Accurate measurements of the fast changing fluid temperature are possible due to the low inertia thermometer and fast space marching method applied for solving the inverse heat conduction problem.

  4. Locative Inversion in Cantonese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Sui-Sang

    This study investigates the phenomenon of "Locative Inversion" in Cantonese. The term "Locative Inversion" indicates that the locative phrase (LP) syntactic process in Cantonese and the appears at the sentence-initial position and its logical subject occurs postverbally. It is demonstrated that this Locative Inversion is a…

  5. Location, Location, Location: Development of Spatiotemporal Sequence Learning in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkham, Natasha Z.; Slemmer, Jonathan A.; Richardson, Daniel C.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated infants' sensitivity to spatiotemporal structure. In Experiment 1, circles appeared in a statistically defined spatial pattern. At test 11-month-olds, but not 8-month-olds, looked longer at a novel spatial sequence. Experiment 2 presented different color/shape stimuli, but only the location sequence was violated during test;…

  6. Non-targeted analysis of electronics waste by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry: Using accurate mass information and mass defect analysis to explore the data.

    PubMed

    Ubukata, Masaaki; Jobst, Karl J; Reiner, Eric J; Reichenbach, Stephen E; Tao, Qingping; Hang, Jiliang; Wu, Zhanpin; Dane, A John; Cody, Robert B

    2015-05-22

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) offer the best possible separation of their respective techniques. Recent commercialization of combined GC×GC-HRMS systems offers new possibilities for the analysis of complex mixtures. However, such experiments yield enormous data sets that require new informatics tools to facilitate the interpretation of the rich information content. This study reports on the analysis of dust obtained from an electronics recycling facility by using GC×GC in combination with a new high-resolution time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. New software tools for (non-traditional) Kendrick mass defect analysis were developed in this research and greatly aided in the identification of compounds containing chlorine and bromine, elements that feature in most persistent organic pollutants (POPs). In essence, the mass defect plot serves as a visual aid from which halogenated compounds are recognizable on the basis of their mass defect and isotope patterns. Mass chromatograms were generated based on specific ions identified in the plots as well as region of the plot predominantly occupied by halogenated contaminants. Tentative identification was aided by database searches, complementary electron-capture negative ionization experiments and elemental composition determinations from the exact mass data. These included known and emerging flame retardants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromobenzene, tetrabromo bisphenol A and tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), as well as other legacy contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs).

  7. Locating the source of diffusion in complex networks by time-reversal backward spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zhesi; Cao, Shinan; Wang, Wen-Xu; Di, Zengru; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2016-03-01

    Locating the source that triggers a dynamical process is a fundamental but challenging problem in complex networks, ranging from epidemic spreading in society and on the Internet to cancer metastasis in the human body. An accurate localization of the source is inherently limited by our ability to simultaneously access the information of all nodes in a large-scale complex network. This thus raises two critical questions: how do we locate the source from incomplete information and can we achieve full localization of sources at any possible location from a given set of observable nodes. Here we develop a time-reversal backward spreading algorithm to locate the source of a diffusion-like process efficiently and propose a general locatability condition. We test the algorithm by employing epidemic spreading and consensus dynamics as typical dynamical processes and apply it to the H1N1 pandemic in China. We find that the sources can be precisely located in arbitrary networks insofar as the locatability condition is assured. Our tools greatly improve our ability to locate the source of diffusion in complex networks based on limited accessibility of nodal information. Moreover, they have implications for controlling a variety of dynamical processes taking place on complex networks, such as inhibiting epidemics, slowing the spread of rumors, pollution control, and environmental protection.

  8. Locating the source of diffusion in complex networks by time-reversal backward spreading.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhesi; Cao, Shinan; Wang, Wen-Xu; Di, Zengru; Stanley, H Eugene

    2016-03-01

    Locating the source that triggers a dynamical process is a fundamental but challenging problem in complex networks, ranging from epidemic spreading in society and on the Internet to cancer metastasis in the human body. An accurate localization of the source is inherently limited by our ability to simultaneously access the information of all nodes in a large-scale complex network. This thus raises two critical questions: how do we locate the source from incomplete information and can we achieve full localization of sources at any possible location from a given set of observable nodes. Here we develop a time-reversal backward spreading algorithm to locate the source of a diffusion-like process efficiently and propose a general locatability condition. We test the algorithm by employing epidemic spreading and consensus dynamics as typical dynamical processes and apply it to the H1N1 pandemic in China. We find that the sources can be precisely located in arbitrary networks insofar as the locatability condition is assured. Our tools greatly improve our ability to locate the source of diffusion in complex networks based on limited accessibility of nodal information. Moreover, they have implications for controlling a variety of dynamical processes taking place on complex networks, such as inhibiting epidemics, slowing the spread of rumors, pollution control, and environmental protection.

  9. Sleeping at work: not all about location, location, location.

    PubMed

    Jay, Sarah M; Aisbett, Brad; Sprajcer, Madeline; Ferguson, Sally A

    2015-02-01

    Working arrangements in industries that use non-standard hours sometimes necessitate an 'onsite' workforce where workers sleep in accommodation within or adjacent to the workplace. Of particular relevance to these workers is the widely held (and largely anecdotal) assumption that sleep at home is better than sleep away, particularly when away for work. This narrative review explores the idea that sleep outcomes in these unique work situations are the product of an interaction between numerous factors including timing and duration of breaks, commute length, sleeping environment (noise, movement, vibration, light), circadian phase, demographic factors and familiarity with the sleep location. Based on the data presented in this review, it is our contention that the location of sleep, whilst important, is secondary to other factors such as the timing and duration of sleep periods. We suggest that future research should include measures that allow conceptualisation of other critical factors such as familiarity with the sleeping environment.

  10. Accurate, reliable prototype earth horizon sensor head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F.; Cohen, H.

    1973-01-01

    The design and performance is described of an accurate and reliable prototype earth sensor head (ARPESH). The ARPESH employs a detection logic 'locator' concept and horizon sensor mechanization which should lead to high accuracy horizon sensing that is minimally degraded by spatial or temporal variations in sensing attitude from a satellite in orbit around the earth at altitudes in the 500 km environ 1,2. An accuracy of horizon location to within 0.7 km has been predicted, independent of meteorological conditions. This corresponds to an error of 0.015 deg-at 500 km altitude. Laboratory evaluation of the sensor indicates that this accuracy is achieved. First, the basic operating principles of ARPESH are described; next, detailed design and construction data is presented and then performance of the sensor under laboratory conditions in which the sensor is installed in a simulator that permits it to scan over a blackbody source against background representing the earth space interface for various equivalent plant temperatures.

  11. On numerically accurate finite element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagtegaal, J. C.; Parks, D. M.; Rice, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A general criterion for testing a mesh with topologically similar repeat units is given, and the analysis shows that only a few conventional element types and arrangements are, or can be made suitable for computations in the fully plastic range. Further, a new variational principle, which can easily and simply be incorporated into an existing finite element program, is presented. This allows accurate computations to be made even for element designs that would not normally be suitable. Numerical results are given for three plane strain problems, namely pure bending of a beam, a thick-walled tube under pressure, and a deep double edge cracked tensile specimen. The effects of various element designs and of the new variational procedure are illustrated. Elastic-plastic computation at finite strain are discussed.

  12. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Fancher, Tammy S.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Leib, Kenneth J.; Matherne, Anne-Marie; Turner, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The Colorado wind-turbine data series provides geospatial data for all wind turbines established within the State as of August 2009. Attributes specific to each turbine include: turbine location, manufacturer and model, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, potential megawatt output, land ownership, and county. Wind energy facility data for each turbine include: facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, year the facility went online, and development status of wind facility. Turbine locations were derived from August 2009 1-meter true-color aerial photographs produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program; the photographs have a positional accuracy of about + or - 5 meters. The location of turbines under construction during August 2009 likely will be less accurate than the location of existing turbines. This data series contributes to an Online Interactive Energy Atlas currently (2011) in development by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Energy Atlas will synthesize data on existing and potential energy development in Colorado and New Mexico and will include additional natural resource data layers. This information may be used by decisionmakers to evaluate and compare the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with different energy development strategies or scenarios. Interactive maps, downloadable data layers, comprehensive metadata, and decision-support tools will be included in the Energy Atlas. The format of the Energy Atlas will facilitate the integration of information about energy with key terrestrial and aquatic resources for evaluating resource values and minimizing risks from energy development.

  13. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in New Mexico, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Fancher, Tammy S.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Leib, Kenneth J.; Matherne, Anne-Marie; Turner, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The New Mexico wind-turbine data series provides geospatial data for all wind turbines established within the State as of August 2009. Attributes specific to each turbine include: turbine location, manufacturer and model, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, potential megawatt output, land ownership, and county. Wind energy facility data for each turbine include: facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, year the facility went online, and development status of wind facility. Turbine locations were derived from 1-meter August 2009 true-color aerial photographs produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program; the photographs have a positional accuracy of about + or - 5 meters. The location of turbines under construction during August 2009 likely will be less accurate than the location of existing turbines. This data series contributes to an Online Interactive Energy Atlas currently (2011) in development by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Energy Atlas will synthesize data on existing and potential energy development in Colorado and New Mexico and will include additional natural resource data layers. This information may be used by decisionmakers to evaluate and compare the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with different energy development strategies or scenarios. Interactive maps, downloadable data layers, comprehensive metadata, and decision-support tools will be included in the Energy Atlas. The format of the Energy Atlas will facilitate the integration of information about energy with key terrestrial and aquatic resources for evaluating resource values and minimizing risks from energy development.

  14. Neural correlates of locative prepositions.

    PubMed

    Noordzij, Matthijs L; Neggers, Sebastiaan F W; Ramsey, Nick F; Postma, Albert

    2008-04-01

    Locative prepositions might be special linguistic modifiers because they form a natural link between verbal and visual-spatial information. In the present fMRI study we found evidence that understanding categorical spatial relations expressed in language with locative prepositions such as "to the left of" and "to the right of" were reliably associated with cerebral activity in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) located in the left inferior parietal lobe. The higher activity associated with spatial as compared to non-spatial sentences in this region was not dependent on the context (verbal or visual-spatial) in which the sentence was read. Therefore, the function of this activity appears to be to create a general, amodal representation of locative prepositions that allow for flexible comparisons to either verbal or visual-spatial material.

  15. Sequential Optimal Monitoring Network Design using Iterative Kriging for Identification of Unknown Groundwater Pollution Sources Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, O.; Datta, B.

    2011-12-01

    Identification of unknown groundwater pollution source characteristics, in terms of location, magnitude and activity duration is important for designing an effective pollution remediation strategy. Precise source characterization also becomes very important to ascertain liability, and to recover the cost of remediation from parties responsible for the groundwater pollution. Due to the uncertainties in accurately predicting the aquifer response to source flux injection, generally encountered sparsity of concentration observation data in the field, and the non uniqueness in the aquifer response to the subjected hydraulic and chemical stresses, groundwater pollution source characterization remains a challenging task. A scientifically designed pollutant concentration monitoring network becomes imperative for accurate pollutant source characterization. The efficiency of the unknown source locations identification process is largely determined by locations of monitoring wells where the pollutant concentration is observed. The proposed method combines spatial interpolation of concentration measurements and Simulated Annealing as optimization algorithm to find the optimum locations for monitoring wells. Initially, the observed concentration data at few sparsely and arbitrarily distributed wells are used to interpolate the concentration data for the aquifer study area. The concentration information is passed to the optimization algorithm (decision model) as concentration gradient which in turn finds the optimum locations for implementing the next sequence of monitoring wells. Concentration measurement data from these designed monitoring wells and already implemented monitoring network are iteratively used as feedback information for potential groundwater pollution source locations identification. The potential applicability of the developed methodology is demonstrated for an illustrative study area.

  16. Concurrent and Accurate Short Read Mapping on Multicore Processors.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Héctor; Tárraga, Joaquín; Medina, Ignacio; Barrachina, Sergio; Castillo, Maribel; Dopazo, Joaquín; Quintana-Ortí, Enrique S

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a parallel aligner with a work-flow organization for fast and accurate mapping of RNA sequences on servers equipped with multicore processors. Our software, HPG Aligner SA (HPG Aligner SA is an open-source application. The software is available at http://www.opencb.org, exploits a suffix array to rapidly map a large fraction of the RNA fragments (reads), as well as leverages the accuracy of the Smith-Waterman algorithm to deal with conflictive reads. The aligner is enhanced with a careful strategy to detect splice junctions based on an adaptive division of RNA reads into small segments (or seeds), which are then mapped onto a number of candidate alignment locations, providing crucial information for the successful alignment of the complete reads. The experimental results on a platform with Intel multicore technology report the parallel performance of HPG Aligner SA, on RNA reads of 100-400 nucleotides, which excels in execution time/sensitivity to state-of-the-art aligners such as TopHat 2+Bowtie 2, MapSplice, and STAR.

  17. Location, Location, Location: Where Do Location-Based Services Fit into Your Institution's Social Media Mix?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nekritz, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Foursquare is a location-based social networking service that allows users to share their location with friends. Some college administrators have been thinking about whether and how to take the leap into location-based services, which are also known as geosocial networking services. These platforms, which often incorporate gaming elements like…

  18. Locatives in Kpelle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuha, Mai

    This paper examines the differences between locative expressions in Kpelle and English, based on the dialect of one native speaker of Kpelle. It discusses the crucial role of the reference object in defining the meaning of locatives in Kpelle, in contrast to English, where the characteristics of the object to be located are less important. An…

  19. Determinants of first practice location

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Malathi; Fleisher, William; Downs, Allan; Martin, Bruce; Sandham, J. Dean

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To help understand physician movement out of Manitoba by determining the factors that influence Manitoba medical graduates’ choices about practice locations. Design Cross-sectional, within-stage, mixed-model survey. Setting Manitoba. Participants All University of Manitoba medical graduates from classes 1998 to 2009 for whom we had valid contact information (N = 912 of 943 graduates) were invited in August 2009 to participate in a survey. Main outcome measures Demographic information; ratings, on a 5-point scale, of the importance when choosing first practice locations of 12 practice characteristics, 3 recruitment strategies, and 4 location characteristics listed in the survey; free-text narratives on unlisted factors; and estimates of likely practice location upon completion of training for recent graduates still in residency training. Results Completed surveys were received from 331 (35.1%) graduates of the surveyed classes, 162 (53.3%) of whom chose Manitoba for their first practice location. Multiple regression analyses indicated that graduates choosing Manitoba for their first practice location were significantly more likely to have done their residency training in Manitoba (P < .05), whether or not they gave a high rating to the importance of being near family and friends. Also, graduates choosing Manitoba were significantly more likely to be recent graduates (P = .007) and less likely to be members of a visible minority (P = .018). These associations were robust even when analyses were restricted to responses from practitioners without cause to estimate practice locations. Early self-selection of graduates during entry into specific residency programs, results of the residency match process, and “putting down roots” during residency years were 3 important interrelated themes identified through qualitative analyses. Conclusion Residency education in Manitoba is the overwhelming factor influencing graduates’ choice of Manitoba as

  20. Accurate ab Initio Spin Densities.

    PubMed

    Boguslawski, Katharina; Marti, Konrad H; Legeza, Ors; Reiher, Markus

    2012-06-12

    We present an approach for the calculation of spin density distributions for molecules that require very large active spaces for a qualitatively correct description of their electronic structure. Our approach is based on the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm to calculate the spin density matrix elements as a basic quantity for the spatially resolved spin density distribution. The spin density matrix elements are directly determined from the second-quantized elementary operators optimized by the DMRG algorithm. As an analytic convergence criterion for the spin density distribution, we employ our recently developed sampling-reconstruction scheme [J. Chem. Phys.2011, 134, 224101] to build an accurate complete-active-space configuration-interaction (CASCI) wave function from the optimized matrix product states. The spin density matrix elements can then also be determined as an expectation value employing the reconstructed wave function expansion. Furthermore, the explicit reconstruction of a CASCI-type wave function provides insight into chemically interesting features of the molecule under study such as the distribution of α and β electrons in terms of Slater determinants, CI coefficients, and natural orbitals. The methodology is applied to an iron nitrosyl complex which we have identified as a challenging system for standard approaches [J. Chem. Theory Comput.2011, 7, 2740].

  1. Memory for parking location in large lots.

    PubMed

    Means, L W; Lutz, J; Long, T E; High, K M

    1995-06-01

    The recall of automobile parking location was assessed over five consecutive workdays. Completed data from 36 women and 19 men provided measures of accuracy and a survey of specific strategies. Analysis showed a significant recency effect with memory for the most recent parking locations being superior. Less variation in parking location and shorter distance from parking location to building entrance were associated with better recall. Contrary to prevalent belief, older subjects had more accurate recall. Older subjects parked closer to the entrance and used fewer spaces which were also located closer together. The most frequently reported strategy was "favorite location" which was used more often by older subjects. Whereas laboratory tasks show memory deficits with increasing age, some studies in the natural environment have exhibited less such decline; the current data showed an actual improvement. It may be that older people adopt and practice compensatory strategies in the natural environment while laboratory tasks give little opportunity for establishing or practicing such devices.

  2. An automated technique for locating metal-deficient red giants from objective-prism spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, C.; Morrison, H.L. )

    1990-10-01

    A semi-automated technique designed to locate metal-weak G and K giants from objective-prism spectra in combination with temperature information from direct plates is described. An accurate wavelength calibration of the spectra made it possible to measure abundance using a line-strength index based on Ca II H and K as a function of color. Criteria based on spectral features between 3500 and 5300 A are described which enable metal-weak giant candidates to be isolated from foreground dwarfs. The technique has been used to locate metal-weak giants in several Galactic fields. 39 refs.

  3. Extracting Time-Accurate Acceleration Vectors From Nontrivial Accelerometer Arrangements.

    PubMed

    Franck, Jennifer A; Blume, Janet; Crisco, Joseph J; Franck, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Sports-related concussions are of significant concern in many impact sports, and their detection relies on accurate measurements of the head kinematics during impact. Among the most prevalent recording technologies are videography, and more recently, the use of single-axis accelerometers mounted in a helmet, such as the HIT system. Successful extraction of the linear and angular impact accelerations depends on an accurate analysis methodology governed by the equations of motion. Current algorithms are able to estimate the magnitude of acceleration and hit location, but make assumptions about the hit orientation and are often limited in the position and/or orientation of the accelerometers. The newly formulated algorithm presented in this manuscript accurately extracts the full linear and rotational acceleration vectors from a broad arrangement of six single-axis accelerometers directly from the governing set of kinematic equations. The new formulation linearizes the nonlinear centripetal acceleration term with a finite-difference approximation and provides a fast and accurate solution for all six components of acceleration over long time periods (>250 ms). The approximation of the nonlinear centripetal acceleration term provides an accurate computation of the rotational velocity as a function of time and allows for reconstruction of a multiple-impact signal. Furthermore, the algorithm determines the impact location and orientation and can distinguish between glancing, high rotational velocity impacts, or direct impacts through the center of mass. Results are shown for ten simulated impact locations on a headform geometry computed with three different accelerometer configurations in varying degrees of signal noise. Since the algorithm does not require simplifications of the actual impacted geometry, the impact vector, or a specific arrangement of accelerometer orientations, it can be easily applied to many impact investigations in which accurate kinematics need to

  4. 78 FR 34604 - Submitting Complete and Accurate Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    .... Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is publishing for comment a petition for rulemaking (PRM) filed with... into ADAMS. The Petition The NRC has received a PRM (ADAMS Accession No. ML13113A443) requesting the... been docketed as PRM-50-107. The full text of the incoming petition is available at...

  5. System and Method of Locating Lightning Strikes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A system and method of determining locations of lightning strikes has been described. The system includes multiple receivers located around an area of interest, such as a space center or airport. Each receiver monitors both sound and electric fields. The detection of an electric field pulse and a sound wave are used to calculate an area around each receiver in which the lighting is detected. A processor is coupled to the receivers to accurately determine the location of the lighting strike. The processor can manipulate the receiver data to compensate for environmental variables such as wind, temperature, and humidity. Further, each receiver processor can discriminate between distant and local lightning strikes.

  6. Assessment of User Home Location Geoinference Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Joshua J.; Bell, Eric B.; Corley, Courtney D.; Dowling, Chase P.; Cowell, Andrew J.

    2015-05-29

    This study presents an assessment of multiple approaches to determine the home and/or other important locations to a Twitter user. In this study, we present a unique approach to the problem of geotagged data sparsity in social media when performing geoinferencing tasks. Given the sparsity of explicitly geotagged Twitter data, the ability to perform accurate and reliable user geolocation from a limited number of geotagged posts has proven to be quite useful. In our survey, we have achieved accuracy rates of over 86% in matching Twitter user profile locations with their inferred home locations derived from geotagged posts.

  7. Reversible micromachining locator

    DOEpatents

    Salzer, Leander J.; Foreman, Larry R.

    1999-01-01

    This invention provides a device which includes a locator, a kinematic mount positioned on a conventional tooling machine, a part carrier disposed on the locator and a retainer ring. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls, placed in an equidistant position circumferentially around the locator. The kinematic mount includes a plurality of magnets which are in registry with the steel balls on the locator. In operation, a blank part to be machined is placed between a surface of a locator and the retainer ring (fitting within the part carrier). When the locator (with a blank part to be machined) is coupled to the kinematic mount, the part is thus exposed for the desired machining process. Because the locator is removably attachable to the kinematic mount, it can easily be removed from the mount, reversed, and reinserted onto the mount for additional machining. Further, the locator can likewise be removed from the mount and placed onto another tooling machine having a properly aligned kinematic mount. Because of the unique design and use of magnetic forces of the present invention, positioning errors of less than 0.25 micrometer for each machining process can be achieved.

  8. Reversible micromachining locator

    DOEpatents

    Salzer, L.J.; Foreman, L.R.

    1999-08-31

    This invention provides a device which includes a locator, a kinematic mount positioned on a conventional tooling machine, a part carrier disposed on the locator and a retainer ring. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls, placed in an equidistant position circumferentially around the locator. The kinematic mount includes a plurality of magnets which are in registry with the steel balls on the locator. In operation, a blank part to be machined is placed between a surface of a locator and the retainer ring (fitting within the part carrier). When the locator (with a blank part to be machined) is coupled to the kinematic mount, the part is thus exposed for the desired machining process. Because the locator is removably attachable to the kinematic mount, it can easily be removed from the mount, reversed, and reinserted onto the mount for additional machining. Further, the locator can likewise be removed from the mount and placed onto another tooling machine having a properly aligned kinematic mount. Because of the unique design and use of magnetic forces of the present invention, positioning errors of less than 0.25 micrometer for each machining process can be achieved. 7 figs.

  9. Heterogeneity of nervous system mitochondria: location, location, location!

    PubMed

    Dubinsky, Janet M

    2009-08-01

    Mitochondrial impairments have been associated with many neurological disorders, from inborn errors of metabolism or genetic disorders to age and environmentally linked diseases of aging (DiMauro S., Schon E.A. 2008. Mitochondrial disorders in the nervous system. Annu. Rev., Neurosci. 31, 91-123.). In these disorders, specific nervous system components or brain regions appear to be initially more susceptible to the triggering event or pathological process. Such regional variation in susceptibility to multiple types of stressors raises the possibility that inherent differences in mitochondrial function may mediate some aspect of pathogenesis. Regional differences in the distribution or number of mitochondria, mitochondrial enzyme activities, enzyme expression levels, mitochondrial genes or availability of necessary metabolites become attractive explanations for selective vulnerability of a nervous system structure. While regionally selective mitochondrial vulnerability has been documented, regional variations in other cellular and tissue characteristics may also contribute to metabolic impairment. Such environmental variables include high tonic firing rates, neurotransmitter phenotype, location of mitochondria within a neuron, or the varied tissue perfusion pressure of different cerebral arterial branches. These contextual variables exert regionally distinct regulatory influences on mitochondria to tune their energy production to local demands. Thus to understand variations in mitochondrial functioning and consequent selective vulnerability to injury, the organelle must be placed within the context of its cellular, functional, developmental and neuroanatomical environment.

  10. Accurate method for computing correlated color temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Changjun; Cui, Guihua; Melgosa, Manuel; Ruan, Xiukai; Zhang, Yaoju; Ma, Long; Xiao, Kaida; Luo, M Ronnier

    2016-06-27

    For the correlated color temperature (CCT) of a light source to be estimated, a nonlinear optimization problem must be solved. In all previous methods available to compute CCT, the objective function has only been approximated, and their predictions have achieved limited accuracy. For example, different unacceptable CCT values have been predicted for light sources located on the same isotemperature line. In this paper, we propose to compute CCT using the Newton method, which requires the first and second derivatives of the objective function. Following the current recommendation by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) for the computation of tristimulus values (summations at 1 nm steps from 360 nm to 830 nm), the objective function and its first and second derivatives are explicitly given and used in our computations. Comprehensive tests demonstrate that the proposed method, together with an initial estimation of CCT using Robertson's method [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1528-1535 (1968)], gives highly accurate predictions below 0.0012 K for light sources with CCTs ranging from 500 K to 106 K.

  11. Earthquake location in island arcs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engdahl, E.R.; Dewey, J.W.; Fujita, K.

    1982-01-01

    -velocity lithospheric slab. In application, JHD has the practical advantage that it does not require the specification of a theoretical velocity model for the slab. Considering earthquakes within a 260 km long by 60 km wide section of the Aleutian main thrust zone, our results suggest that the theoretical velocity structure of the slab is presently not sufficiently well known that accurate locations can be obtained independently of locally recorded data. Using a locally recorded earthquake as a calibration event, JHD gave excellent results over the entire section of the main thrust zone here studied, without showing a strong effect that might be attributed to spatially varying source-station anomalies. We also calibrated the ray-tracing method using locally recorded data and obtained results generally similar to those obtained by JHD. ?? 1982.

  12. Accurate On-Line Intervention Practices for Efficient Improvement of Reading Skills in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Minda B.

    2016-01-01

    Lifelong learning is the only way to sustain proficient learning in a rapidly changing world. Knowledge and information are exploding across the globe. We need accurate ways to facilitate the process of drawing external factual information into an internal perceptive advantage from which to interpret and argue new information. Accurate and…

  13. New Location Improves Efficiency | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer The physical proximity of the SAIC-Frederick Intellectual Property (IP) Office to the NCI Technology Transfer Center (NCI-TTC) is one of the many benefits of being at the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF), according to Courtney Silverthorn, Ph.D. Being in one location “has increased the effectiveness of both informal communication and formal meetings. We have already brainstormed solutions for several issues in the hallway during an informal chat,” said Silverthorn, an SAIC-Frederick IP specialist.

  14. Multitask learning for protein subcellular location prediction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Pan, Sinno Jialin; Xue, Hannah Hong; Yang, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Protein subcellular localization is concerned with predicting the location of a protein within a cell using computational methods. The location information can indicate key functionalities of proteins. Thus, accurate prediction of subcellular localizations of proteins can help the prediction of protein functions and genome annotations, as well as the identification of drug targets. Machine learning methods such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs) have been used in the past for the problem of protein subcellular localization, but have been shown to suffer from a lack of annotated training data in each species under study. To overcome this data sparsity problem, we observe that because some of the organisms may be related to each other, there may be some commonalities across different organisms that can be discovered and used to help boost the data in each localization task. In this paper, we formulate protein subcellular localization problem as one of multitask learning across different organisms. We adapt and compare two specializations of the multitask learning algorithms on 20 different organisms. Our experimental results show that multitask learning performs much better than the traditional single-task methods. Among the different multitask learning methods, we found that the multitask kernels and supertype kernels under multitask learning that share parameters perform slightly better than multitask learning by sharing latent features. The most significant improvement in terms of localization accuracy is about 25 percent. We find that if the organisms are very different or are remotely related from a biological point of view, then jointly training the multiple models cannot lead to significant improvement. However, if they are closely related biologically, the multitask learning can do much better than individual learning.

  15. Public directory data sources do not accurately characterize the food environment in two predominantly rural states.

    PubMed

    Longacre, Meghan R; Primack, Brian A; Owens, Peter M; Gibson, Lucinda; Beauregard, Sandy; Mackenzie, Todd A; Dalton, Madeline A

    2011-04-01

    Communities are being encouraged to develop locally based interventions to address environmental risk factors for obesity. Online public directories represent an affordable and easily accessible mechanism for mapping community food environments, but may have limited utility in rural areas. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of public directories vs rigorous onsite field verification to characterize the community food environment in 32 geographically dispersed towns from two rural states covering 1,237.6 square miles. Eight types of food outlets were assessed in 2007, including food markets and eating establishments, first using two publically available online directories followed by onsite field verification by trained coders. χ(2) and univariate binomial regression were used to determine whether the proportion of outlets accurately listed varied by food outlet type or town population. Among 1,340 identified outlets, only 36.9% were accurately listed through public directories; 29.6% were not listed but were located during field observation. Accuracy varied by outlet type, being most accurate for big box stores and least accurate for farm/produce stands. Overall, public directories accurately identified fewer than half of the food outlets. Accuracy was significantly lower for rural and small towns compared to mid-size and urban towns (P<0.001). In this geographic sample, public directories seriously misrepresented the actual distribution of food outlets, particularly for rural and small towns. To inform local obesity-prevention efforts, communities should strongly consider using field verification to characterize the food environment in low-population areas.

  16. Reversible micromachining locator

    SciTech Connect

    Salzer, Leander J.; Foreman, Larry R.

    2002-01-01

    A locator with a part support is used to hold a part onto the kinematic mount of a tooling machine so that the part can be held in or replaced in exactly the same position relative to the cutting tool for machining different surfaces of the part or for performing different machining operations on the same or different surfaces of the part. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls placed at equidistant positions around the planar surface of the locator and the kinematic mount has a plurality of magnets which alternate with grooves which accommodate the portions of the steel balls projecting from the locator. The part support holds the part to be machined securely in place in the locator. The locator can be easily detached from the kinematic mount, turned over, and replaced onto the same kinematic mount or another kinematic mount on another tooling machine without removing the part to be machined from the locator so that there is no need to touch or reposition the part within the locator, thereby assuring exact replication of the position of the part in relation to the cutting tool on the tooling machine for each machining operation on the part.

  17. Automatic vehicle location system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic vehicle detection system is disclosed, in which each vehicle whose location is to be detected carries active means which interact with passive elements at each location to be identified. The passive elements comprise a plurality of passive loops arranged in a sequence along the travel direction. Each of the loops is tuned to a chosen frequency so that the sequence of the frequencies defines the location code. As the vehicle traverses the sequence of the loops as it passes over each loop, signals only at the frequency of the loop being passed over are coupled from a vehicle transmitter to a vehicle receiver. The frequencies of the received signals in the receiver produce outputs which together represent a code of the traversed location. The code location is defined by a painted pattern which reflects light to a vehicle carried detector whose output is used to derive the code defined by the pattern.

  18. Vector map geo-location using GPS tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yuanlu; Xu, Hao; Liu, Zhenan

    2007-06-01

    Geographic Information Systems, especially accurate digital traffic maps, have been becoming widely used in the Intelligent Transportation Systems. The GPS data usually are more accurate than the pre-existing base map data. This paper introduces a new cartography procedure for making digital map from a start-up paper map, which has no geography data (longitude and latitude). Contrary to traditional map-making which is first a precise survey-cartography and follow-on digital controlled mapping, the new procedure is first extracting layer from a raster map and vectorization, follow-on geo-adjusting for pinpointing all nodes on the vector map. There are two key processes in the new digital map-making technique. First, the map layer extraction is controlled by output feedback for optimal recognition of road network. Second, a dynamic topological mapping is developed for geo-location and improving the accuracy of vector traffic map by utilizing some recorded GPS data as the controlled pinpoint samples. Different from those traditional geolocation methods such as affine mapping, and the rubber-streeting with manual point-by-point matching, the new adjusting is decomposed into a series of optimal topological sub-mapping on relative sub-map region. Based on pinpointing one sample point to its accuracy location, the sub-mapping adjusts all nodes within the sub-map region.

  19. Semantic Location Extraction from Crowdsourced Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koswatte, S.; Mcdougall, K.; Liu, X.

    2016-06-01

    Crowdsourced Data (CSD) has recently received increased attention in many application areas including disaster management. Convenience of production and use, data currency and abundancy are some of the key reasons for attracting this high interest. Conversely, quality issues like incompleteness, credibility and relevancy prevent the direct use of such data in important applications like disaster management. Moreover, location information availability of CSD is problematic as it remains very low in many crowd sourced platforms such as Twitter. Also, this recorded location is mostly related to the mobile device or user location and often does not represent the event location. In CSD, event location is discussed descriptively in the comments in addition to the recorded location (which is generated by means of mobile device's GPS or mobile communication network). This study attempts to semantically extract the CSD location information with the help of an ontological Gazetteer and other available resources. 2011 Queensland flood tweets and Ushahidi Crowd Map data were semantically analysed to extract the location information with the support of Queensland Gazetteer which is converted to an ontological gazetteer and a global gazetteer. Some preliminary results show that the use of ontologies and semantics can improve the accuracy of place name identification of CSD and the process of location information extraction.

  20. Back azimuth constrained double-difference seismic location and tomography for downhole microseismic monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yukuan; Zhang, Haijiang; Miao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yinsheng; Liu, Qiang

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a new seismic tomography method, back azimuth constrained double-difference (DD) seismic tomography, which is suitable for downhole microseismic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing. The new method simultaneously locates microseismic events and determines three-dimensional (3D) Vp and Vs models for the fracturing zone using differential arrival times from pairs of events and event back azimuths in addition to absolute arrival times. Compared to the existing DD location and tomography method, our method incorporates back azimuth information to better constrain microseismic event locations in the case of poor spatial station coverage such as the linear downhole seismic array generally used for microseismic monitoring. By incorporating the relative arrival time and back azimuth information of events, the extended DD method can provide better relative event locations, and thus can better characterize the fracture distribution. In addition to microseismic locations, seismic velocity anomalies determined around the fracturing zone may also provide valuable information for fracture development. Due to the existence of fractures and fluids, the seismic velocity is expected to be lower in the fractured zone compared to the surrounding regions. Therefore the area of low seismic velocity anomaly may be used as a proxy for the stimulated reservoir volume. We have applied the new method to a downhole microseismic dataset from shale gas hydraulic fracturing. The microseismic events are more accurately relocated than the conventional grid search location method, and they are generally associated with low velocity anomalies.

  1. Location, location, location: finding a suitable home among the noise

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Jenni A.; Radford, Craig A.; Jeffs, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    While sound is a useful cue for guiding the onshore orientation of larvae because it travels long distances underwater, it also has the potential to convey valuable information about the quality and type of the habitat at the source. Here, we provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence that settlement-stage coastal crab species can interpret and show a strong settlement and metamorphosis response to habitat-related differences in natural underwater sound. Laboratory- and field-based experiments demonstrated that time to metamorphosis in the settlement-stage larvae of common coastal crab species varied in response to different underwater sound signatures produced by different habitat types. The megalopae of five species of both temperate and tropical crabs showed a significant decrease in time to metamorphosis, when exposed to sound from their optimal settlement habitat type compared with other habitat types. These results indicate that sounds emanating from specific underwater habitats may play a major role in determining spatial patterns of recruitment in coastal crab species. PMID:22673354

  2. Sensors Locate Radio Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    After receiving a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center, Soneticom Inc., based in West Melbourne, Florida, created algorithms for time difference of arrival and radio interferometry, which it used in its Lynx Location System (LLS) to locate electromagnetic interference that can disrupt radio communications. Soneticom is collaborating with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to install and test the LLS at its field test center in New Jersey in preparation for deploying the LLS at commercial airports. The software collects data from each sensor in order to compute the location of the interfering emitter.

  3. What input data are needed to accurately model electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations?

    PubMed

    Beekhuizen, Johan; Kromhout, Hans; Bürgi, Alfred; Huss, Anke; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    The increase in mobile communication technology has led to concern about potential health effects of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) from mobile phone base stations. Different RF-EMF prediction models have been applied to assess population exposure to RF-EMF. Our study examines what input data are needed to accurately model RF-EMF, as detailed data are not always available for epidemiological studies. We used NISMap, a 3D radio wave propagation model, to test models with various levels of detail in building and antenna input data. The model outcomes were compared with outdoor measurements taken in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Results showed good agreement between modelled and measured RF-EMF when 3D building data and basic antenna information (location, height, frequency and direction) were used: Spearman correlations were >0.6. Model performance was not sensitive to changes in building damping parameters. Antenna-specific information about down-tilt, type and output power did not significantly improve model performance compared with using average down-tilt and power values, or assuming one standard antenna type. We conclude that 3D radio wave propagation modelling is a feasible approach to predict outdoor RF-EMF levels for ranking exposure levels in epidemiological studies, when 3D building data and information on the antenna height, frequency, location and direction are available.

  4. Electronic apex locators.

    PubMed

    Gordon, M P J; Chandler, N P

    2004-07-01

    Prior to root canal treatment at least one undistorted radiograph is required to assess canal morphology. The apical extent of instrumentation and the final root filling have a role in treatment success, and are primarily determined radiographically. Electronic apex locators reduce the number of radiographs required and assist where radiographic methods create difficulty. They may also indicate cases where the apical foramen is some distance from the radiographic apex. Other roles include the detection of root canal perforation. A review of the literature focussed first on the subject of electronic apex location. A second review used the names of apex location devices. From the combined searches, 113 pertinent articles in English were found. This paper reviews the development, action, use and types of electronic apex locators.

  5. Smart Location Mapping

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Smart Location Database, Access to Jobs and Workers via Transit, and National Walkability Index tools can help assess indicators related to the built environment, transit accessibility, and walkability.

  6. Lunar Impact Flash Locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. M.; Kupferschmidt, L.; Feldman, J.

    2015-01-01

    A bright impact flash detected by the NASA Lunar Impact Monitoring Program in March 2013 brought into focus the importance of determining the impact flash location. A process for locating the impact flash, and presumably its associated crater, was developed using commercially available software tools. The process was successfully applied to the March 2013 impact flash and put into production on an additional 300 impact flashes. The goal today: provide a description of the geolocation technique developed.

  7. Cancers by Body Location/System

    Cancer.gov

    A list of all cancers, organized by location and/or function in the body. Cancers on the list are linked to information about treatment, supportive care, screening, prevention, clinical trials, and other topics.

  8. Accurate lineshape spectroscopy and the Boltzmann constant

    PubMed Central

    Truong, G.-W.; Anstie, J. D.; May, E. F.; Stace, T. M.; Luiten, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopy has an illustrious history delivering serendipitous discoveries and providing a stringent testbed for new physical predictions, including applications from trace materials detection, to understanding the atmospheres of stars and planets, and even constraining cosmological models. Reaching fundamental-noise limits permits optimal extraction of spectroscopic information from an absorption measurement. Here, we demonstrate a quantum-limited spectrometer that delivers high-precision measurements of the absorption lineshape. These measurements yield a very accurate measurement of the excited-state (6P1/2) hyperfine splitting in Cs, and reveals a breakdown in the well-known Voigt spectral profile. We develop a theoretical model that accounts for this breakdown, explaining the observations to within the shot-noise limit. Our model enables us to infer the thermal velocity dispersion of the Cs vapour with an uncertainty of 35 p.p.m. within an hour. This allows us to determine a value for Boltzmann's constant with a precision of 6 p.p.m., and an uncertainty of 71 p.p.m. PMID:26465085

  9. Accurate, reproducible measurement of blood pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, N R; Chockalingam, A; Fodor, J G; McKay, D W

    1990-01-01

    The diagnosis of mild hypertension and the treatment of hypertension require accurate measurement of blood pressure. Blood pressure readings are altered by various factors that influence the patient, the techniques used and the accuracy of the sphygmomanometer. The variability of readings can be reduced if informed patients prepare in advance by emptying their bladder and bowel, by avoiding over-the-counter vasoactive drugs the day of measurement and by avoiding exposure to cold, caffeine consumption, smoking and physical exertion within half an hour before measurement. The use of standardized techniques to measure blood pressure will help to avoid large systematic errors. Poor technique can account for differences in readings of more than 15 mm Hg and ultimately misdiagnosis. Most of the recommended procedures are simple and, when routinely incorporated into clinical practice, require little additional time. The equipment must be appropriate and in good condition. Physicians should have a suitable selection of cuff sizes readily available; the use of the correct cuff size is essential to minimize systematic errors in blood pressure measurement. Semiannual calibration of aneroid sphygmomanometers and annual inspection of mercury sphygmomanometers and blood pressure cuffs are recommended. We review the methods recommended for measuring blood pressure and discuss the factors known to produce large differences in blood pressure readings. PMID:2192791

  10. Accurate Land Company, Inc., Acadia Subdivision, Plat 1 and Plat 2

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Accurate Land Company, Inc., a business located at 12035 University Ave., Suite 100, Clive, IA 50235, for alleged viola

  11. Accuracy of teleseismic event locations in the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.J.

    1996-12-04

    Seismic characterization at the regional level requires accurate determination of phases and travel times for many combinations of stations and events. An important consideration in the process is the accuracy of event locations. The LLNL Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Research Program is currently working on data from the Middle East and North Africa, where seismic station coverage is relatively sparse and ``ground truth`` seismic source information is practically nonexistent. In this report the investigator use after shock studies as a source of local ground truth. He evaluates teleseismic location accuracy by comparing hypocenters determined by local networks with those determined teleseismically [e.g. the International Seismological Center (ISC) and the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC)]. Epicentral locations, origin times, and depth determinations of events from three aftershocks studies (Algeria, Armenia, and Iran) and one local network study (Iran) are compared with ISC and NEIC locations for the same events. The key parameter for the ISC locations is the number of observations used in the location determination. For more than 40-50 observations, the agreement rapidly diminishes and ISC locations can differ from local determinations by as much as 80 km or more. Events in Iran show a distinct bias of ISC location errors toward the northeast; events in Armenia and Algeria show no directional bias. This study shows that only events with ISC M{sub b} {gt} 4.4-4.5 or NEIS M{sub b} {gt} 4.7-4. should be used for compiling travel time information from teleseismic bulletins in the Middle East/North Africa region when locations from the NEIC and ISC bulletins are used.

  12. Location Privacy in RFID Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza; Visconti, Ivan; Wachsmann, Christian

    RFID-enabled systems allow fully automatic wireless identification of objects and are rapidly becoming a pervasive technology with various applications. However, despite their benefits, RFID-based systems also pose challenging risks, in particular concerning user privacy. Indeed, improvident use of RFID can disclose sensitive information about users and their locations allowing detailed user profiles. Hence, it is crucial to identify and to enforce appropriate security and privacy requirements of RFID applications (that are also compliant to legislation). This chapter first discusses security and privacy requirements for RFID-enabled systems, focusing in particular on location privacy issues. Then it explores the advances in RFID applications, stressing the security and privacy shortcomings of existing proposals. Finally, it presents new promising directions for privacy-preserving RFID systems, where as a case study we focus electronic tickets (e-tickets) for public transportation.

  13. Integrating Subcellular Location for Improving Machine Learning Models of Remote Homology Detection in Eukaryotic Organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Anuj R.; Oehmen, Chris S.; Harper, Jill K.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.

    2007-02-23

    Motivation: At the center of bioinformatics, genomics, and pro-teomics is the need for highly accurate genome annotations. Producing high-quality reliable annotations depends on identifying sequences which are related evolutionarily (homologs) on which to infer function. Homology detection is one of the oldest tasks in bioinformatics, however most approaches still fail when presented with sequences that have low residue similarity despite a distant evolutionary relationship (remote homology). Recently, discriminative approaches, such as support vector machines (SVMs) have demonstrated a vast improvement in sensitivity for remote homology detection. These methods however have only focused on one aspect of the sequence at a time, e.g., sequence similarity or motif based scores. However, supplementary information, such as the sub-cellular location of a protein within the cell would give further clues as to possible homologous pairs, additionally eliminating false relationships due to simple functional roles that cannot exist due to location. We have developed a method, SVM-SimLoc that integrates sub-cellular location with sequence similarity information into a pro-tein family classifier and compared it to one of the most accurate sequence based SVM approaches, SVM-Pairwise. Results: The SCOP 1.53 benchmark data set was utilized to assess the performance of SVM-SimLoc. As cellular location prediction is dependent upon the type of sequence, eukaryotic or prokaryotic, the analysis is restricted to the 2630 eukaryotic sequences in the benchmark dataset, evaluating a total of 27 protein families. We demonstrate that the integration of sequence similarity and sub-cellular location yields notably more accurate results than using sequence similarity independently at a significance level of 0.006.

  14. Short range radio locator system

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-12-31

    A radio location system comprises a wireless transmitter that outputs two megahertz period bursts of two gigahertz radar carrier signals. A receiver system determines the position of the transmitter by the relative arrival of the radar bursts at several component receivers set up to have a favorable geometry and each one having a known location. One receiver provides a synchronizing gating pulse to itself and all the other receivers. The rate of the synchronizing gating pulse is slightly offset from the rate of the radar bursts themselves, so that each sample collects one finely-detailed piece of information about the time-of-flight of the radar pulse to each receiver each pulse period. Thousands of sequential pulse periods provide corresponding thousand of pieces of information about the time-of-flight of the radar pulse to each receiver, in expanded, not real time. Therefore the signal processing can be done with relatively low-frequency, inexpensive components. A conventional microcomputer is then used to find the position of the transmitter by geometric triangulation based on the relative time-of-flight information. 5 figs.

  15. Short range radio locator system

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A radio location system comprises a wireless transmitter that outputs two megahertz period bursts of two gigahertz radar carrier signals. A receiver system determines the position of the transmitter by the relative arrival of the radar bursts at several component receivers set up to have a favorable geometry and each one having a known location. One receiver provides a synchronizing gating pulse to itself and all the other receivers to sample the ether for the radar pulse. The rate of the synchronizing gating pulse is slightly offset from the rate of the radar bursts themselves, so that each sample collects one finely-detailed piece of information about the time-of-flight of the radar pulse to each receiver each pulse period. Thousands of sequential pulse periods provide corresponding thousand of pieces of information about the time-of-flight of the radar pulse to each receiver, in expanded, not real time. Therefore the signal processing can be done with relatively low-frequency, inexpensive components. A conventional microcomputer is then used to find the position of the transmitter by geometric triangulation based on the relative time-of-flight information.

  16. RFI emitter location techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. L. J.

    1973-01-01

    The possibility is discussed of using Doppler techniques for determining the location of ground based emitters causing radio frequency interference with low orbiting satellites. An error analysis indicates that it is possible to find the emitter location within an error range of 2 n.mi. The parameters which determine the required satellite receiver characteristic are discussed briefly along with the non-real time signal processing which may by used in obtaining the Doppler curve. Finally, the required characteristics of the satellite antenna are analyzed.

  17. Marine cable location system

    SciTech Connect

    Zachariadis, R.G.

    1984-05-01

    An acoustic positioning system locates a marine cable at an exploration site, such cable employing a plurality of hydrophones at spaced-apart positions along the cable. A marine vessel measures water depth to the cable as the vessel passes over the cable and interrogates the hydrophones with sonar pulses along a slant range as the vessel travels in a parallel and horizontally offset path to the cable. The location of the hydrophones is determined from the recordings of water depth and slant range.

  18. Uranium Location Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A GIS compiled locational database in Microsoft Access of ~15,000 mines with uranium occurrence or production, primarily in the western United States. The metadata was cooperatively compiled from Federal and State agency data sets and enables the user to conduct geographic and analytical studies on mine impacts on the public and environment.

  19. Optimal Facility-Location.

    PubMed

    Goldman, A J

    2006-01-01

    Dr. Christoph Witzgall, the honoree of this Symposium, can count among his many contributions to applied mathematics and mathematical operations research a body of widely-recognized work on the optimal location of facilities. The present paper offers to non-specialists a sketch of that field and its evolution, with emphasis on areas most closely related to Witzgall's research at NBS/NIST.

  20. Particle impact location detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, S. O.

    1974-01-01

    Detector includes delay lines connected to each detector surface strip. When several particles strike different strips simultaneously, pulses generated by each strip are time delayed by certain intervals. Delay time for each strip is known. By observing time delay in pulse, it is possible to locate strip that is struck by particle.

  1. LOCATING AREAS OF CONCERN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple method to locate changes in vegetation cover, which can be used to identify areas under stress. The method only requires inexpensive NDVI data. The use of remotely sensed data is far more cost-effective than field studies and can be performed more quickly. Local knowledg...

  2. Locating gravitational potential energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeports, David

    2017-01-01

    Where does gravitational potential energy reside when a ball is in the air? The perfectly correct answer is that it is located in the ball-Earth system. Still, mechanical energy conservation problems are routinely solved by assigning a potential energy to the ball alone. Provided here is a proof that such an assignment introduces only an entirely undetectable error.

  3. VA Health Care Facilities Locator

    MedlinePlus

    ... VA » Locations » Find Locations Locations Find Locations The javascript used here is for validation purpose only. Your browser doesn't seem to support javascript or has it disabled. This site is a ...

  4. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in New Mexico, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, James B.; Fancher, Tammy; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Latysh, Natalie; Leib, Kenneth J.; Matherne, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    This dataset represents an update to U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 596. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in New Mexico, 2009 (available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/596/).This updated New Mexico wind turbine Data Series provides geospatial data for all 562 wind turbines established within the State of New Mexico as of June 2011, an increase of 155 wind turbines from 2009. Attributes specific to each turbine include: turbine location, manufacturer and model, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, potential megawatt output, land ownership, county, and development status of wind turbine. Wind energy facility data for each turbine include: facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, and year the facility went online. The locations of turbines are derived from 1-meter true-color aerial photographs produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP); the photographs have a positional accuracy of about ±5 meters. The locations of turbines constructed during or prior to August 2009 are based on August 2009 NAIP imagery and turbine locations constructed after August 2009 were based June 2011 NAIP imagery. The location of turbines under construction during June 2011 likely will be less accurate than the location of existing turbines. This data series contributes to an Online Interactive Energy Atlas developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (http://my.usgs.gov/eerma/). The Energy Atlas synthesizes data on existing and potential energy development in Colorado and New Mexico and includes additional natural resource data layers. This information may be used by decisionmakers to evaluate and compare the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with different energy development strategies or scenarios. Interactive maps, downloadable data layers, comprehensive metadata, and decision-support tools also are included in the Energy Atlas. The format of the Energy

  5. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Fancher, Tammy; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Latysh, Natalie; Leib, Kenneth J.; Matherne, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    This dataset represents an update to U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 597. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2009 (available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/597/). This updated Colorado wind turbine Data Series provides geospatial data for all 1,204 wind turbines established within the State of Colorado as of September 2011, an increase of 297 wind turbines from 2009. Attributes specific to each turbine include: turbine location, manufacturer and model, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, potential megawatt output, land ownership, county, and development status of the wind turbine. Wind energy facility data for each turbine include: facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, and year the facility went online. The locations of turbines are derived from 1-meter true-color aerial photographs produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP); the photographs have a positional accuracy of about ±5 meters. Locations of turbines constructed during or prior to August 2009 are based on August 2009 NAIP imagery and turbine locations constructed after August 2009 were based on September 2011 NAIP imagery. The location of turbines under construction during September 2011 likely will be less accurate than the location of existing turbines. This data series contributes to an Online Interactive Energy Atlas developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (http://my.usgs.gov/eerma/). The Energy Atlas synthesizes data on existing and potential energy development in Colorado and New Mexico and includes additional natural resource data layers. This information may be used by decisionmakers to evaluate and compare the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with different energy development strategies or scenarios. Interactive maps, downloadable data layers, comprehensive metadata, and decision-support tools also are included in the Energy Atlas. The format of

  6. Development of double-pair double difference earthquake location algorithm for improving earthquake locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hao; Zhang, Haijiang

    2017-01-01

    Event-pair double-difference (DD) earthquake location method, as incorporated in hypoDD, has been widely used to improve relative earthquake locations by using event-pair differential arrival times from pairs of events to common stations because some common path anomalies outside the source region can be cancelled out due to similar ray paths. Similarly, station-pair differential arrival times from one event to pairs of stations can also be used to improve earthquake locations by cancelling out the event origin time and some path anomalies inside the source region. To utilize advantages of both DD location methods, we have developed a new double-pair DD location method to use differential times constructed from pairs of events to pairs of stations to determine higher-precision relative earthquake locations. Compared to the event-pair and station-pair DD location methods, the new method can remove event origin times and station correction terms from the inversion system and cancel out path anomalies both outside and inside the source region at the same time. The new method is tested on earthquakes around the San Andreas Fault, California to validate its performance. From earthquake relocations it is demonstrated that the double-pair DD location method is able to better sharpen the images of seismicity with smaller relative location uncertainties compared to the event-pair DD location method and thus to reveal more fine-scale structures. In comparison, among three DD location methods, station-pair DD location method can better improve the absolute earthquake locations. For this reason, we further propose a hybrid double-pair DD location method combining station-pair and double-pair differential times to determine accurate absolute and relative locations at the same time, which is validated by both synthetic and real data sets.

  7. Location capability of a sparse regional network (RSTN) using a multi-phase earthquake location algorithm (REGLOC)

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L.

    1994-01-01

    The Regional Seismic Test Network (RSTN) was deployed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine whether data recorded by a regional network could be used to detect and accurately locate seismic events that might be clandestine nuclear tests. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the location capability of the RSTN. A major part of this project was the development of the location algorithm REGLOC and application of Basian a prior statistics for determining the accuracy of the location estimates. REGLOC utilizes all identifiable phases, including backazimuth, in the location. Ninty-four events, distributed throughout the network area, detected by both the RSTN and located by local networks were used in the study. The location capability of the RSTN was evaluated by estimating the location accuracy, error ellipse accuracy, and the percentage of events that could be located, as a function of magnitude. The location accuracy was verified by comparing the RSTN results for the 94 events with published locations based on data from the local networks. The error ellipse accuracy was evaluated by determining whether the error ellipse includes the actual location. The percentage of events located was assessed by combining detection capability with location capability to determine the percentage of events that could be located within the study area. Events were located with both an average crustal model for the entire region, and with regional velocity models along with station corrections obtained from master events. Most events with a magnitude <3.0 can only be located with arrivals from one station. Their average location errors are 453 and 414 km for the average- and regional-velocity model locations, respectively. Single station locations are very unreliable because they depend on accurate backazimuth estimates, and backazimuth proved to be a very unreliable computation.

  8. Locating the reference point of symphysis pubis in axial CT images.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jiyong; Jung, Dae Chul; Choi, Chong-Ho

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we present an effective method to determine the reference point of symphysis pubis (SP) in an axial stack of CT images to facilitate image registration for pelvic cancer treatment. In order to reduce the computational time, the proposed method consists of two detection parts, the coarse detector, and the fine detector. The detectors check each image patch whether it contains the characteristic structure of SP. The coarse detector roughly determines the location of the reference point of SP using three types of information, which are the location and intensity of an image patch, the SP appearance, and the geometrical structure of SP. The fine detector examines around the location found by the coarse detection to refine the location of the reference point of SP. In the experiment, the average location error of the propose method was 2.23 mm, which was about the side length of two pixels. Considering that the average location error by a radiologist is 0.77 mm, the proposed method finds the reference point quite accurately. Since it takes about 10 s to locate the reference point from a stack of CT images, it is fast enough to use in real time to facilitate image registration of CT images for pelvic cancer treatment.

  9. Aquatic Nuisance Species Locator

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Data in this map has been collected by the United States Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species program located in Gainesville, Florida (http://nas.er.usgs.gov/default.aspx). This dataset may have some inaccuracies and is only current to June 15, 2012. The species identified in this dataset are not inclusive of all aquatic nuisance species, but rather a subset identified to be at risk for transport by recreational activities such as boating and angling. Additionally, the locations where organisims have been identified are also not inclusive and should be treated as a guide. Organisms are limited to the following: American bullfrog, Asian clam, Asian shore crab, Asian tunicate, Australian spotted jellyfish, Chinese mitten crab, New Zealand mudsnail, Colonial sea squirt, Alewife, Bighead carp, Black carp, Flathead catfish, Grass carp, Green crab, Lionfish, Northern snakehead, Quagga mussel, Round Goby, Ruffe, Rusty crayfish, Sea lamprey, Silver carp, Spiny water flea, Veined rapa whelk, Zebra mussel

  10. Electric current locator

    DOEpatents

    King, Paul E [Corvallis, OR; Woodside, Charles Rigel [Corvallis, OR

    2012-02-07

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  11. The application of fuzzy neural network in distribution center location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongpan; Liu, Yong

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the establishment of the fuzzy neural network model for logistics distribution center location applied the fuzzy method to the input value of BP algorithm and took the experts' evaluation value as the expected output. At the same time, using the network learning to get the optimized selection and furthermore get a more accurate evaluation to the programs of location.

  12. Coso MT Site Locations

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2011-05-04

    This data includes the locations of the MT data collected in and around the Coso Geothermal field that covered the West Flank area. These are the data that the 3D MT models were created from that were discussed in Phase 1 of the West Flank FORGE project. The projected coordinate system is NAD 1927 State Plane California IV FIPS 0404 and the Projection is Lambert Conformal Conic. Units are in feet.

  13. Magnetic Location Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegman, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Ferrofluidic device indicates point of highest magnetic-flux density in workspace. Consists of bubble of ferrofluid in immiscible liquid carrier in clear plastic case. Used in flat block or tube. Axes of centering circle on flat-block version used to mark location of maximum flux density when bubble in circle. Device used to find point on wall corresponding to known point on opposite side of wall.

  14. Ammonia Leak Locator Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Franklin T.; Wuest, Martin P.; Deffenbaugh, Danny M.

    1995-01-01

    The thermal control system of International Space Station Alpha will use liquid ammonia as the heat exchange fluid. It is expected that small leaks (of the order perhaps of one pound of ammonia per day) may develop in the lines transporting the ammonia to the various facilities as well as in the heat exchange equipment. Such leaks must be detected and located before the supply of ammonia becomes critically low. For that reason, NASA-JSC has a program underway to evaluate instruments that can detect and locate ultra-small concentrations of ammonia in a high vacuum environment. To be useful, the instrument must be portable and small enough that an astronaut can easily handle it during extravehicular activity. An additional complication in the design of the instrument is that the environment immediately surrounding ISSA will contain small concentrations of many other gases from venting of onboard experiments as well as from other kinds of leaks. These other vapors include water, cabin air, CO2, CO, argon, N2, and ethylene glycol. Altogether, this local environment might have a pressure of the order of 10(exp -7) to 10(exp -6) torr. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) was contracted by NASA-JSC to provide support to NASA-JSC and its prime contractors in evaluating ammonia-location instruments and to make a preliminary trade study of the advantages and limitations of potential instruments. The present effort builds upon an earlier SwRI study to evaluate ammonia leak detection instruments [Jolly and Deffenbaugh]. The objectives of the present effort include: (1) Estimate the characteristics of representative ammonia leaks; (2) Evaluate the baseline instrument in the light of the estimated ammonia leak characteristics; (3) Propose alternative instrument concepts; and (4) Conduct a trade study of the proposed alternative concepts and recommend promising instruments. The baseline leak-location instrument selected by NASA-JSC was an ion gauge.

  15. 45 CFR 302.35 - State parent locator service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... location attempts if locate efforts fail to find the individual sought unless a new request is submitted... purposes for requests and scope of information provided. The State PLS shall obtain location information... this section and the privacy safeguards required under section 454(26) of the Act and the...

  16. 47 CFR 0.401 - Location of Commission offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of Commission offices. 0.401 Section 0... Information General § 0.401 Location of Commission offices. The Commission maintains several offices and... locations. (1) The main office of the Commission is located at 445 12th Street, SW., Washington, DC...

  17. Accurate adjoint design sensitivities for nano metal optics.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Paul; Hesselink, Lambertus

    2015-09-07

    We present a method for obtaining accurate numerical design sensitivities for metal-optical nanostructures. Adjoint design sensitivity analysis, long used in fluid mechanics and mechanical engineering for both optimization and structural analysis, is beginning to be used for nano-optics design, but it fails for sharp-cornered metal structures because the numerical error in electromagnetic simulations of metal structures is highest at sharp corners. These locations feature strong field enhancement and contribute strongly to design sensitivities. By using high-accuracy FEM calculations and rounding sharp features to a finite radius of curvature we obtain highly-accurate design sensitivities for 3D metal devices. To provide a bridge to the existing literature on adjoint methods in other fields, we derive the sensitivity equations for Maxwell's equations in the PDE framework widely used in fluid mechanics.

  18. Machine tool locator

    DOEpatents

    Hanlon, John A.; Gill, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    Machine tools can be accurately measured and positioned on manufacturing machines within very small tolerances by use of an autocollimator on a 3-axis mount on a manufacturing machine and positioned so as to focus on a reference tooling ball or a machine tool, a digital camera connected to the viewing end of the autocollimator, and a marker and measure generator for receiving digital images from the camera, then displaying or measuring distances between the projection reticle and the reference reticle on the monitoring screen, and relating the distances to the actual position of the autocollimator relative to the reference tooling ball. The images and measurements are used to set the position of the machine tool and to measure the size and shape of the machine tool tip, and examine cutting edge wear. patent

  19. Mill profiler machines soft materials accurately

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1966-01-01

    Mill profiler machines bevels, slots, and grooves in soft materials, such as styrofoam phenolic-filled cores, to any desired thickness. A single operator can accurately control cutting depths in contour or straight line work.

  20. Locating waterfowl observations on aerial surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, W.I.; Hodges, J.I.; Stehn, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    We modified standard aerial survey data collection to obtain the geographic location for each waterfowl observation on surveys in Alaska during 1987-1993. Using transect navigation with CPS (global positioning system), data recording on continuously running tapes, and a computer data input program, we located observations with an average deviation along transects of 214 m. The method provided flexibility in survey design and data analysis. Although developed for geese nesting near the coast of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, the methods are widely applicable and were used on other waterfowl surveys in Alaska to map distribution and relative abundance of waterfowl. Accurate location data with GIS analysis and display may improve precision and usefulness of data from any aerial transect survey.

  1. Computational Time-Accurate Body Movement: Methodology, Validation, and Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-10-01

    used that had a leading-edge sweep angle of 45 deg and a NACA 64A010 symmetrical airfoil section. A cross section of the pylon is a symmetrical...25 2. Information Flow for the Time-Accurate Store Trajectory Prediction Process . . . . . . . . . 26 3. Pitch Rates for NACA -0012 Airfoil...section are comparisons of the computational results to data for a NACA -0012 airfoil following a predefined pitching motion. Validation of the

  2. Sonar Locator Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    An underwater locator device called a Pinger is attached to an airplane's flight recorder for recovery in case of a crash. Burnett Electronics Pinger Model 512 resulted from a Burnett Electronics Laboratory, Inc./Langley Research Center contract for development of a search system for underwater mines. The Pinger's battery-powered transmitter is activated when immersed in water, and sends multidirectional signals for up to 500 hours. When a surface receiver picks up the signal, a diver can retrieve the pinger and the attached airplane flight recorder. Other pingers are used to track whales, mark underwater discoveries and assist oil drilling vessels.

  3. Location of Planet X

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, R.S.

    1988-10-01

    Observed positions of Uranus and Neptune along with residuals in right ascension and declination are used to constrain the location of a postulated tenth planet. The residuals are converted into residuals in ecliptic longitude and latitude. The results are then combined into seasonal normal points, producing average geocentric residuals spaced slightly more than a year apart that are assumed to represent the equivalent heliocentric average residuals for the observed oppositions. Such a planet is found to most likely reside in the region of Scorpius, with considerably less likelihood that it is in Taurus. 8 references.

  4. Calibration Techniques for Accurate Measurements by Underwater Camera Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shortis, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Calibration of a camera system is essential to ensure that image measurements result in accurate estimates of locations and dimensions within the object space. In the underwater environment, the calibration must implicitly or explicitly model and compensate for the refractive effects of waterproof housings and the water medium. This paper reviews the different approaches to the calibration of underwater camera systems in theoretical and practical terms. The accuracy, reliability, validation and stability of underwater camera system calibration are also discussed. Samples of results from published reports are provided to demonstrate the range of possible accuracies for the measurements produced by underwater camera systems. PMID:26690172

  5. Calibration Techniques for Accurate Measurements by Underwater Camera Systems.

    PubMed

    Shortis, Mark

    2015-12-07

    Calibration of a camera system is essential to ensure that image measurements result in accurate estimates of locations and dimensions within the object space. In the underwater environment, the calibration must implicitly or explicitly model and compensate for the refractive effects of waterproof housings and the water medium. This paper reviews the different approaches to the calibration of underwater camera systems in theoretical and practical terms. The accuracy, reliability, validation and stability of underwater camera system calibration are also discussed. Samples of results from published reports are provided to demonstrate the range of possible accuracies for the measurements produced by underwater camera systems.

  6. METHOD OF LOCATING GROUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Macleish, K.G.

    1958-02-11

    ABS>This patent presents a method for locating a ground in a d-c circult having a number of parallel branches connected across a d-c source or generator. The complete method comprises the steps of locating the ground with reference to the mildpoint of the parallel branches by connecting a potentiometer across the terminals of the circuit and connecting the slider of the potentiometer to ground through a current indicating instrument, adjusting the slider to right or left of the mildpoint so as to cause the instrument to indicate zero, connecting the terminal of the network which is farthest from the ground as thus indicated by the potentiometer to ground through a condenser, impressing a ripple voltage on the circuit, and then measuring the ripple voltage at the midpoint of each parallel branch to find the branch in which is the lowest value of ripple voltage, and then measuring the distribution of the ripple voltage along this branch to determine the point at which the ripple voltage drops off to zero or substantially zero due to the existence of a ground. The invention has particular application where a circuit ground is present which will disappear if the normal circuit voltage is removed.

  7. gitter: a robust and accurate method for quantification of colony sizes from plate images.

    PubMed

    Wagih, Omar; Parts, Leopold

    2014-03-20

    Colony-based screens that quantify the fitness of clonal populations on solid agar plates are perhaps the most important source of genome-scale functional information in microorganisms. The images of ordered arrays of mutants produced by such experiments can be difficult to process because of laboratory-specific plate features, morphed colonies, plate edges, noise, and other artifacts. Most of the tools developed to address this problem are optimized to handle a single setup and do not work out of the box in other settings. We present gitter, an image analysis tool for robust and accurate processing of images from colony-based screens. gitter works by first finding the grid of colonies from a preprocessed image and then locating the bounds of each colony separately. We show that gitter produces comparable colony sizes to other tools in simple cases but outperforms them by being able to handle a wider variety of screens and more accurately quantify colony sizes from difficult images. gitter is freely available as an R package from http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/gitter under the LGPL. Tutorials and demos can be found at http://omarwagih.github.io/gitter.

  8. Map learning with indistinguishable locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basye, Kenneth; Dean, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Nearly all spatial reasoning problems involve uncertainty of one sort or another. Uncertainty arises due to the inaccuracies of sensors used in measuring distances and angels. This is inferred as directional uncertainty. Uncertainty also arises in combining spatial information when one location is mistakenly identified with another. This is referred to as recognition uncertainty. Most problems in constructing spatial representations (maps) for the purpose of navigation involve both directional and recognition uncertainty. It is shown that a particular class of spatial reasoning problems involving the construction of representations of large-scale space can be solved efficiently even in the presence of directional and recognition uncertainty. Particular attention is paid to the problems that arise due to recognition uncertainty. The results described are applicable to the construction of global maps from satellite data as well as the construction of local navigation maps from measurements made by a rover in exploring a planetary surface.

  9. Protection of Location Privacy Based on Distributed Collaborative Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Jian-Pei

    2016-01-01

    In the existing centralized location services system structure, the server is easily attracted and be the communication bottleneck. It caused the disclosure of users’ location. For this, we presented a new distributed collaborative recommendation strategy that is based on the distributed system. In this strategy, each node establishes profiles of their own location information. When requests for location services appear, the user can obtain the corresponding location services according to the recommendation of the neighboring users’ location information profiles. If no suitable recommended location service results are obtained, then the user can send a service request to the server according to the construction of a k-anonymous data set with a centroid position of the neighbors. In this strategy, we designed a new model of distributed collaborative recommendation location service based on the users’ location information profiles and used generalization and encryption to ensure the safety of the user’s location information privacy. Finally, we used the real location data set to make theoretical and experimental analysis. And the results show that the strategy proposed in this paper is capable of reducing the frequency of access to the location server, providing better location services and protecting better the user’s location privacy. PMID:27649308

  10. Protection of Location Privacy Based on Distributed Collaborative Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Jian-Pei

    2016-01-01

    In the existing centralized location services system structure, the server is easily attracted and be the communication bottleneck. It caused the disclosure of users' location. For this, we presented a new distributed collaborative recommendation strategy that is based on the distributed system. In this strategy, each node establishes profiles of their own location information. When requests for location services appear, the user can obtain the corresponding location services according to the recommendation of the neighboring users' location information profiles. If no suitable recommended location service results are obtained, then the user can send a service request to the server according to the construction of a k-anonymous data set with a centroid position of the neighbors. In this strategy, we designed a new model of distributed collaborative recommendation location service based on the users' location information profiles and used generalization and encryption to ensure the safety of the user's location information privacy. Finally, we used the real location data set to make theoretical and experimental analysis. And the results show that the strategy proposed in this paper is capable of reducing the frequency of access to the location server, providing better location services and protecting better the user's location privacy.

  11. Estimating location without external cues.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Allen

    2014-10-01

    The ability to determine one's location is fundamental to spatial navigation. Here, it is shown that localization is theoretically possible without the use of external cues, and without knowledge of initial position or orientation. With only error-prone self-motion estimates as input, a fully disoriented agent can, in principle, determine its location in familiar spaces with 1-fold rotational symmetry. Surprisingly, localization does not require the sensing of any external cue, including the boundary. The combination of self-motion estimates and an internal map of the arena provide enough information for localization. This stands in conflict with the supposition that 2D arenas are analogous to open fields. Using a rodent error model, it is shown that the localization performance which can be achieved is enough to initiate and maintain stable firing patterns like those of grid cells, starting from full disorientation. Successful localization was achieved when the rotational asymmetry was due to the external boundary, an interior barrier or a void space within an arena. Optimal localization performance was found to depend on arena shape, arena size, local and global rotational asymmetry, and the structure of the path taken during localization. Since allothetic cues including visual and boundary contact cues were not present, localization necessarily relied on the fusion of idiothetic self-motion cues and memory of the boundary. Implications for spatial navigation mechanisms are discussed, including possible relationships with place field overdispersion and hippocampal reverse replay. Based on these results, experiments are suggested to identify if and where information fusion occurs in the mammalian spatial memory system.

  12. Method and apparatus for accurately manipulating an object during microelectrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Parvin, Bahram A.; Maestre, Marcos F.; Fish, Richard H.; Johnston, William E.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus using electrophoresis provides accurate manipulation of an object on a microscope stage for further manipulations add reactions. The present invention also provides an inexpensive and easily accessible means to move an object without damage to the object. A plurality of electrodes are coupled to the stage in an array whereby the electrode array allows for distinct manipulations of the electric field for accurate manipulations of the object. There is an electrode array control coupled to the plurality of electrodes for manipulating the electric field. In an alternative embodiment, a chamber is provided on the stage to hold the object. The plurality of electrodes are positioned in the chamber, and the chamber is filled with fluid. The system can be automated using visual servoing, which manipulates the control parameters, i.e., x, y stage, applying the field, etc., after extracting the significant features directly from image data. Visual servoing includes an imaging device and computer system to determine the location of the object. A second stage having a plurality of tubes positioned on top of the second stage, can be accurately positioned by visual servoing so that one end of one of the plurality of tubes surrounds at least part of the object on the first stage.

  13. Method and apparatus for accurately manipulating an object during microelectrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Parvin, B.A.; Maestre, M.F.; Fish, R.H.; Johnston, W.E.

    1997-09-23

    An apparatus using electrophoresis provides accurate manipulation of an object on a microscope stage for further manipulations and reactions. The present invention also provides an inexpensive and easily accessible means to move an object without damage to the object. A plurality of electrodes are coupled to the stage in an array whereby the electrode array allows for distinct manipulations of the electric field for accurate manipulations of the object. There is an electrode array control coupled to the plurality of electrodes for manipulating the electric field. In an alternative embodiment, a chamber is provided on the stage to hold the object. The plurality of electrodes are positioned in the chamber, and the chamber is filled with fluid. The system can be automated using visual servoing, which manipulates the control parameters, i.e., x, y stage, applying the field, etc., after extracting the significant features directly from image data. Visual servoing includes an imaging device and computer system to determine the location of the object. A second stage having a plurality of tubes positioned on top of the second stage, can be accurately positioned by visual servoing so that one end of one of the plurality of tubes surrounds at least part of the object on the first stage. 11 figs.

  14. Object Locating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A portable system is provided that is operational for determining, with three dimensional resolution, the position of a buried object or approximately positioned object that may move in space or air or gas. The system has a plurality of receivers for detecting the signal front a target antenna and measuring the phase thereof with respect to a reference signal. The relative permittivity and conductivity of the medium in which the object is located is used along with the measured phase signal to determine a distance between the object and each of the plurality of receivers. Knowing these distances. an iteration technique is provided for solving equations simultaneously to provide position coordinates. The system may also be used for tracking movement of an object within close range of the system by sampling and recording subsequent position of the object. A dipole target antenna. when positioned adjacent to a buried object, may be energized using a separate transmitter which couples energy to the target antenna through the medium. The target antenna then preferably resonates at a different frequency, such as a second harmonic of the transmitter frequency.

  15. AOTV bow shock location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desautel, D.

    1985-01-01

    Hypersonic bow-shock location and geometry are of central importance to the aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTVs), but they are difficult to predict for a given vehicle configuration. This paper reports experimental measurements of shock standoff distance for the 70 deg cone AOTV configuration in shock-tunnel-test flows at Mach numbers of 3.8 to 7.9 and for angles of attack from 0 deg to 20 deg. The controlling parameter for hypersonic bow-shock standoff distance (for a given forebody shape) is the mean normal-shock density ratio. Values for this parameter in the tests reported are in the same range as those of the drag-brake AOTV perigee regime. Results for standoff distance are compared with those previously reported in the literature for this AOTV configuration. It is concluded that the AOTV shock standoff distance for the conical configuration, based on frustrum (base) radius, is equivalent to that of a sphere with a radius about 35 percent greater than that of the cone; the distance is, therefore, much less than reported in previous studies. Some reasons for the discrepancies between the present and previous are advanced. The smaller standoff distance determined here implies there will be less radiative heat transfer than was previously expected.

  16. Early prediction of eruption site using lightning location data: Estimates of accuracy during past eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Arason, Þórður; Bjornsson, Halldór

    2013-04-01

    Eruption of subglacial volcanoes may lead to catastrophic floods and therefore early determination of the exact eruption site may be critical to civil protection evacuation plans. Poor visibility due to weather or darkness often inhibit positive identification of exact eruption location for many hours. However, because of the proximity and abundance of water in powerful subglacial volcanic eruptions, they are probably always accompanied by early lightning activity in the volcanic column. Lightning location systems, designed for weather thunderstorm monitoring, based on remote detection of electromagnetic waves from lightning, can provide valuable real-time information on location of eruption site. Important aspect of such remote detection is its independence of weather, apart from thunderstorms close to the volcano. Individual lightning strikes can be 5-10 km in length and are sometimes tilted and to the side of the volcanic column. This adds to the lightning location uncertainty, which is often a few km. Furthermore, the volcanic column may be swayed by the local wind to one side. Therefore, location of a single lightning can be misleading but by calculating average location of many lightning strikes and applying wind correction a more accurate eruption site location can be obtained. In an effort to assess the expected accuracy, the average lightning locations during the past five volcanic eruptions in Iceland (1998-2011) were compared to the exact site of the eruption vent. Simultaneous weather thunderstorms might have complicated this analysis, but there were no signs of ordinary thunderstorms in Iceland during these eruptions. To identify a suitable wind correction, the vector wind at the 500 hPa pressure level (5-6 km altitude) was compared to mean lightning locations during the eruptions. The essential elements of a system, which predicts the eruption site during the first hour(s) of an eruption, will be described.

  17. Accurate pointing of tungsten welding electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegelmeier, P.

    1971-01-01

    Thoriated-tungsten is pointed accurately and quickly by using sodium nitrite. Point produced is smooth and no effort is necessary to hold the tungsten rod concentric. The chemically produced point can be used several times longer than ground points. This method reduces time and cost of preparing tungsten electrodes.

  18. Error Properties of Argos Satellite Telemetry Locations Using Least Squares and Kalman Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Janice D.; Brightsmith, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    Study of animal movements is key for understanding their ecology and facilitating their conservation. The Argos satellite system is a valuable tool for tracking species which move long distances, inhabit remote areas, and are otherwise difficult to track with traditional VHF telemetry and are not suitable for GPS systems. Previous research has raised doubts about the magnitude of position errors quoted by the satellite service provider CLS. In addition, no peer-reviewed publications have evaluated the usefulness of the CLS supplied error ellipses nor the accuracy of the new Kalman filtering (KF) processing method. Using transmitters hung from towers and trees in southeastern Peru, we show the Argos error ellipses generally contain <25% of the true locations and therefore do not adequately describe the true location errors. We also find that KF processing does not significantly increase location accuracy. The errors for both LS and KF processing methods were found to be lognormally distributed, which has important repercussions for error calculation, statistical analysis, and data interpretation. In brief, “good” positions (location codes 3, 2, 1, A) are accurate to about 2 km, while 0 and B locations are accurate to about 5–10 km. However, due to the lognormal distribution of the errors, larger outliers are to be expected in all location codes and need to be accounted for in the user’s data processing. We evaluate five different empirical error estimates and find that 68% lognormal error ellipses provided the most useful error estimates. Longitude errors are larger than latitude errors by a factor of 2 to 3, supporting the use of elliptical error ellipses. Numerous studies over the past 15 years have also found fault with the CLS-claimed error estimates yet CLS has failed to correct their misleading information. We hope this will be reversed in the near future. PMID:23690980

  19. Error properties of Argos satellite telemetry locations using least squares and Kalman filtering.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Janice D; Brightsmith, Donald J

    2013-01-01

    Study of animal movements is key for understanding their ecology and facilitating their conservation. The Argos satellite system is a valuable tool for tracking species which move long distances, inhabit remote areas, and are otherwise difficult to track with traditional VHF telemetry and are not suitable for GPS systems. Previous research has raised doubts about the magnitude of position errors quoted by the satellite service provider CLS. In addition, no peer-reviewed publications have evaluated the usefulness of the CLS supplied error ellipses nor the accuracy of the new Kalman filtering (KF) processing method. Using transmitters hung from towers and trees in southeastern Peru, we show the Argos error ellipses generally contain <25% of the true locations and therefore do not adequately describe the true location errors. We also find that KF processing does not significantly increase location accuracy. The errors for both LS and KF processing methods were found to be lognormally distributed, which has important repercussions for error calculation, statistical analysis, and data interpretation. In brief, "good" positions (location codes 3, 2, 1, A) are accurate to about 2 km, while 0 and B locations are accurate to about 5-10 km. However, due to the lognormal distribution of the errors, larger outliers are to be expected in all location codes and need to be accounted for in the user's data processing. We evaluate five different empirical error estimates and find that 68% lognormal error ellipses provided the most useful error estimates. Longitude errors are larger than latitude errors by a factor of 2 to 3, supporting the use of elliptical error ellipses. Numerous studies over the past 15 years have also found fault with the CLS-claimed error estimates yet CLS has failed to correct their misleading information. We hope this will be reversed in the near future.

  20. Light Field Imaging Based Accurate Image Specular Highlight Removal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haoqian; Xu, Chenxue; Wang, Xingzheng; Zhang, Yongbing; Peng, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Specular reflection removal is indispensable to many computer vision tasks. However, most existing methods fail or degrade in complex real scenarios for their individual drawbacks. Benefiting from the light field imaging technology, this paper proposes a novel and accurate approach to remove specularity and improve image quality. We first capture images with specularity by the light field camera (Lytro ILLUM). After accurately estimating the image depth, a simple and concise threshold strategy is adopted to cluster the specular pixels into “unsaturated” and “saturated” category. Finally, a color variance analysis of multiple views and a local color refinement are individually conducted on the two categories to recover diffuse color information. Experimental evaluation by comparison with existed methods based on our light field dataset together with Stanford light field archive verifies the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm. PMID:27253083

  1. Accurate Development of Thermal Neutron Scattering Cross Section Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Hawari, Ayman; Dunn, Michael

    2014-06-10

    The objective of this project is to develop a holistic (fundamental and accurate) approach for generating thermal neutron scattering cross section libraries for a collection of important enutron moderators and reflectors. The primary components of this approach are the physcial accuracy and completeness of the generated data libraries. Consequently, for the first time, thermal neutron scattering cross section data libraries will be generated that are based on accurate theoretical models, that are carefully benchmarked against experimental and computational data, and that contain complete covariance information that can be used in propagating the data uncertainties through the various components of the nuclear design and execution process. To achieve this objective, computational and experimental investigations will be performed on a carefully selected subset of materials that play a key role in all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  2. Low-cost asset tracking using location-aware camera phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, David; Tsai, Sam; Kim, Kyu-Han; Hsu, Cheng-Hsin; Singh, Jatinder Pal; Girod, Bernd

    2010-08-01

    Maintaining an accurate and up-to-date inventory of one's assets is a labor-intensive, tedious, and costly operation. To ease this difficult but important task, we design and implement a mobile asset tracking system for automatically generating an inventory by snapping photos of the assets with a smartphone. Since smartphones are becoming ubiquitous, construction and deployment of our inventory management solution is simple and costeffective. Automatic asset recognition is achieved by first segmenting individual assets out of the query photo and then performing bag-of-visual-features (BoVF) image matching on the segmented regions. The smartphone's sensor readings, such as digital compass and accelerometer measurements, can be used to determine the location of each asset, and this location information is stored in the inventory for each recognized asset. As a special case study, we demonstrate a mobile book tracking system, where users snap photos of books stacked on bookshelves to generate a location-aware book inventory. It is shown that segmenting the book spines is very important for accurate feature-based image matching into a database of book spines. Segmentation also provides the exact orientation of each book spine, so more discriminative upright local features can be employed for improved recognition. This system's mobile client has been implemented for smartphones running the Symbian or Android operating systems. The client enables a user to snap a picture of a bookshelf and to subsequently view the recognized spines in the smartphone's viewfinder. Two different pose estimates, one from BoVF geometric matching and the other from segmentation boundaries, are both utilized to accurately draw the boundary of each spine in the viewfinder for easy visualization. The BoVF representation also allows matching each photo of a bookshelf rack against a photo of the entire bookshelf, and the resulting feature matches are used in conjunction with the smartphone

  3. Continuous wavelet transform analysis and modal location analysis acoustic emission source location for nuclear piping crack growth monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Mohd, Shukri; Holford, Karen M.; Pullin, Rhys

    2014-02-12

    Source location is an important feature of acoustic emission (AE) damage monitoring in nuclear piping. The ability to accurately locate sources can assist in source characterisation and early warning of failure. This paper describe the development of a novelAE source location technique termed 'Wavelet Transform analysis and Modal Location (WTML)' based on Lamb wave theory and time-frequency analysis that can be used for global monitoring of plate like steel structures. Source location was performed on a steel pipe of 1500 mm long and 220 mm outer diameter with nominal thickness of 5 mm under a planar location test setup using H-N sources. The accuracy of the new technique was compared with other AE source location methods such as the time of arrival (TOA) techniqueand DeltaTlocation. Theresults of the study show that the WTML method produces more accurate location resultscompared with TOA and triple point filtering location methods. The accuracy of the WTML approach is comparable with the deltaT location method but requires no initial acoustic calibration of the structure.

  4. Privacy-Preserving Location-Based Query Using Location Indexes and Parallel Searching in Distributed Networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Zhao, Jing

    2014-01-01

    An efficient location-based query algorithm of protecting the privacy of the user in the distributed networks is given. This algorithm utilizes the location indexes of the users and multiple parallel threads to search and select quickly all the candidate anonymous sets with more users and their location information with more uniform distribution to accelerate the execution of the temporal-spatial anonymous operations, and it allows the users to configure their custom-made privacy-preserving location query requests. The simulated experiment results show that the proposed algorithm can offer simultaneously the location query services for more users and improve the performance of the anonymous server and satisfy the anonymous location requests of the users. PMID:24790579

  5. Privacy-preserving location-based query using location indexes and parallel searching in distributed networks.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Cheng; Liu, Lei; Zhao, Jing

    2014-01-01

    An efficient location-based query algorithm of protecting the privacy of the user in the distributed networks is given. This algorithm utilizes the location indexes of the users and multiple parallel threads to search and select quickly all the candidate anonymous sets with more users and their location information with more uniform distribution to accelerate the execution of the temporal-spatial anonymous operations, and it allows the users to configure their custom-made privacy-preserving location query requests. The simulated experiment results show that the proposed algorithm can offer simultaneously the location query services for more users and improve the performance of the anonymous server and satisfy the anonymous location requests of the users.

  6. 36 CFR 1202.26 - Who will make sure that my record is accurate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTING THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Collecting Information § 1202.26 Who will make sure that my record is accurate? The system manager ensures that...

  7. Feedback about More Accurate versus Less Accurate Trials: Differential Effects on Self-Confidence and Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badami, Rokhsareh; VaezMousavi, Mohammad; Wulf, Gabriele; Namazizadeh, Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-confidence or anxiety would be differentially affected by feedback from more accurate rather than less accurate trials. The second purpose was to determine whether arousal variations (activation) would predict performance. On Day 1, participants performed a golf putting task under one of…

  8. Inferring the location of buried UXO using a support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Juan Pablo; Sun, Keli; Barrowes, Benjamin; O'Neill, Kevin; Shamatava, Irma; Shubitidze, Fridon; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2007-04-01

    The identification of unexploded ordnance (UXO) using electromagnetic-induction (EMI) sensors involves two essentially independent steps: Each anomaly detected by the sensor has to be located fairly accurately, and its orientation determined, before one can try to find size/shape/composition properties that identify the object uniquely. The dependence on the latter parameters is linear, and can be solved for efficiently using for example the Normalized Surface Magnetic Charge model. The location and orientation, on the other hand, have a nonlinear effect on the measurable scattered field, making their determination much more time-consuming and thus hampering the ability to carry out discrimination in real time. In particular, it is difficult to resolve for depth when one has measurements taken at only one instrument elevation. In view of the difficulties posed by direct inversion, we propose using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) to infer the location and orientation of buried UXO. SVMs are a method of supervised machine learning: the user can train a computer program by feeding it features of representative examples, and the machine, in turn, can generalize this information by finding underlying patterns and using them to classify or regress unseen instances. In this work we train an SVM using measured-field information, for both synthetic and experimental data, and evaluate its ability to predict the location of different buried objects to reasonable accuracy. We explore various combinations of input data and learning parameters in search of an optimal predictive configuration.

  9. New method for lightning location using optical ground wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhaoyu; Cheng, Zhaogu; Zhang, Zhiping; Zhu, Jianqiang; Li, Feng

    2006-12-01

    A new technology of lightning location is described, which is based on detecting the state of polarization (SOP) fluctuation of the laser light in the optic ground wire (OPGW). Compared with the conventional lightning location method, the new method is more accurate, more stable, and cheaper. Theories of Stokes parameters and Poincare sphere are introduced to analyze the SOP at the lightning strike point. It can be concluded that although the initial points of SOP on the Poincare sphere are random, the SOP fluctuation generated by lightning strike can still be accurately identified by detecting the velocity of polarization motion. A new algorithm to quantify the velocity is also introduced.

  10. Global positioning automatic vehicle location system

    SciTech Connect

    Papatheofanis, B.J.; Hasenack, M.L.; Teller, R.T.; Ramsey, G.F.

    1997-03-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is a unique facility covering over 43 square miles. The Emergency Management and Response Office (EM&R) is required to respond, provide Incident Command (IC), and coordination for all Laboratory emergencies. This requires IC`s and support staff to respond to the actual scene of the incident. Since the IC is under numerous constraints and stress, the office wanted the capability of locating the EM&R vehicles on an electronic map. An automated vehicle location (AVL) system was required for the additional safety of the emergency response personal. The requirements for the AVL system include total automatic tracking and low cost. After careful consideration, it was determined that the most efficient and cost effective system would be based on packet radio technology as the transmission media. The location is determined by the Department of Defense Global Positioning System (GPS). The system that was designed and constructed required four components to be interfaced and communicate with each other. The first component was a GPS receiver which actually provides the location information, equipped with a digital interface to communicate location information remotely. The second component is a modem that interfaces the GPS digital interface information to a radio. The third component is the radio itself which allows for the actual information transfer from the remote GPS receiver and modem. The fourth component is the software package that provides moving maps and displays the vehicle location on that map. The equipment was all commercial off-the-shelf that only required proper integration and packaging for the AVL application. This paper describes the steps taken in the integration of the equipment into the AVL package.

  11. Accurate Guitar Tuning by Cochlear Implant Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task. PMID:24651081

  12. New model accurately predicts reformate composition

    SciTech Connect

    Ancheyta-Juarez, J.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. )

    1994-01-31

    Although naphtha reforming is a well-known process, the evolution of catalyst formulation, as well as new trends in gasoline specifications, have led to rapid evolution of the process, including: reactor design, regeneration mode, and operating conditions. Mathematical modeling of the reforming process is an increasingly important tool. It is fundamental to the proper design of new reactors and revamp of existing ones. Modeling can be used to optimize operating conditions, analyze the effects of process variables, and enhance unit performance. Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo has developed a model of the catalytic reforming process that accurately predicts reformate composition at the higher-severity conditions at which new reformers are being designed. The new AA model is more accurate than previous proposals because it takes into account the effects of temperature and pressure on the rate constants of each chemical reaction.

  13. Accurate colorimetric feedback for RGB LED clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Kwong; Ashdown, Ian

    2006-08-01

    We present an empirical model of LED emission spectra that is applicable to both InGaN and AlInGaP high-flux LEDs, and which accurately predicts their relative spectral power distributions over a wide range of LED junction temperatures. We further demonstrate with laboratory measurements that changes in LED spectral power distribution with temperature can be accurately predicted with first- or second-order equations. This provides the basis for a real-time colorimetric feedback system for RGB LED clusters that can maintain the chromaticity of white light at constant intensity to within +/-0.003 Δuv over a range of 45 degrees Celsius, and to within 0.01 Δuv when dimmed over an intensity range of 10:1.

  14. Accurate guitar tuning by cochlear implant musicians.

    PubMed

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼ 30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task.

  15. Saccade execution suppresses discrimination at distractor locations rather than enhancing the saccade goal location.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aarlenne Z; Blohm, Gunnar; Pisella, Laure; Munoz, Douglas P

    2015-06-01

    As we have limited processing abilities with respect to the plethora of visual information entering our brain, spatial selection mechanisms are crucial. These mechanisms result in both enhancing processing at a location of interest and in suppressing processing at other locations; together, they enable successful further processing of locations of interest. It has been suggested that saccade planning modulates these spatial selection mechanisms; however, the precise influence of saccades on the distribution of spatial resources underlying selection remains unclear. To this end, we compared discrimination performance at different locations (six) within a work space during different saccade tasks. We used visual discrimination performance as a behavioral measure of enhancement and suppression at the different locations. A total of 14 participants performed a dual discrimination/saccade countermanding task, which allowed us to specifically isolate the consequences of saccade execution. When a saccade was executed, discrimination performance at the cued location was never better than when fixation was maintained, suggesting that saccade execution did not enhance processing at a location more than knowing the likelihood of its appearance. However, discrimination was consistently lower at distractor (uncued) locations in all cases where a saccade was executed compared with when fixation was maintained. Based on these results, we suggest that saccade execution specifically suppresses distractor locations, whereas attention shifts (with or without an accompanying saccade) are involved in enhancing perceptual processing at the goal location.

  16. An Accurate, Simplified Model Intrabeam Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, Karl LF

    2002-05-23

    Beginning with the general Bjorken-Mtingwa solution for intrabeam scattering (IBS) we derive an accurate, greatly simplified model of IBS, valid for high energy beams in normal storage ring lattices. In addition, we show that, under the same conditions, a modified version of Piwinski's IBS formulation (where {eta}{sub x,y}{sup 2}/{beta}{sub x,y} has been replaced by {Eta}{sub x,y}) asymptotically approaches the result of Bjorken-Mtingwa.

  17. An accurate registration technique for distorted images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delapena, Michele; Shaw, Richard A.; Linde, Peter; Dravins, Dainis

    1990-01-01

    Accurate registration of International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) images is crucial because the variability of the geometrical distortions that are introduced by the SEC-Vidicon cameras ensures that raw science images are never perfectly aligned with the Intensity Transfer Functions (ITFs) (i.e., graded floodlamp exposures that are used to linearize and normalize the camera response). A technique for precisely registering IUE images which uses a cross correlation of the fixed pattern that exists in all raw IUE images is described.

  18. On accurate determination of contact angle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.

    1992-01-01

    Methods are proposed that exploit a microgravity environment to obtain highly accurate measurement of contact angle. These methods, which are based on our earlier mathematical results, do not require detailed measurement of a liquid free-surface, as they incorporate discontinuous or nearly-discontinuous behavior of the liquid bulk in certain container geometries. Physical testing is planned in the forthcoming IML-2 space flight and in related preparatory ground-based experiments.

  19. 7 CFR 400.122 - Attempts to locate debtor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attempts to locate debtor. 400.122 Section 400.122... Succeeding Crop Years § 400.122 Attempts to locate debtor. Before disclosing delinquent debt information to a credit reporting agency, FCIC shall take reasonable action to locate a debtor for whom FCIC does not...

  20. 7 CFR 400.122 - Attempts to locate debtor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attempts to locate debtor. 400.122 Section 400.122... Succeeding Crop Years § 400.122 Attempts to locate debtor. Before disclosing delinquent debt information to a credit reporting agency, FCIC shall take reasonable action to locate a debtor for whom FCIC does not...

  1. 45 CFR 303.3 - Location of noncustodial parents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of noncustodial parents. 303.3 Section... SERVICES STANDARDS FOR PROGRAM OPERATIONS § 303.3 Location of noncustodial parents. (a) Definition. Location means information concerning the physical whereabouts of the noncustodial parent, or...

  2. Ground moving target geo-location from monocular camera mounted on a micro air vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Li; Ang, Haisong; Zheng, Xiangming

    2011-08-01

    The usual approaches to unmanned air vehicle(UAV)-to-ground target geo-location impose some severe constraints to the system, such as stationary objects, accurate geo-reference terrain database, or ground plane assumption. Micro air vehicle(MAV) works with characteristics including low altitude flight, limited payload and onboard sensors' low accuracy. According to these characteristics, a method is developed to determine the location of ground moving target which imaged from the air using monocular camera equipped on MAV. This method eliminates the requirements for terrain database (elevation maps) and altimeters that can provide MAV's and target's altitude. Instead, the proposed method only requires MAV flight status provided by its inherent onboard navigation system which includes inertial measurement unit(IMU) and global position system(GPS). The key is to get accurate information on the altitude of the ground moving target. First, Optical flow method extracts background static feature points. Setting a local region around the target in the current image, The features which are on the same plane with the target in this region are extracted, and are retained as aided features. Then, inverse-velocity method calculates the location of these points by integrated with aircraft status. The altitude of object, which is calculated by using position information of these aided features, combining with aircraft status and image coordinates, geo-locate the target. Meanwhile, a framework with Bayesian estimator is employed to eliminate noise caused by camera, IMU and GPS. Firstly, an extended Kalman filter(EKF) provides a simultaneous localization and mapping solution for the estimation of aircraft states and aided features location which defines the moving target local environment. Secondly, an unscented transformation(UT) method determines the estimated mean and covariance of target location from aircraft states and aided features location, and then exports them for the

  3. An algorithm for LQ optimal actuator location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darivandi, Neda; Morris, Kirsten; Khajepour, Amir

    2013-03-01

    The locations of the control hardware are typically a design variable in controller design for distributed parameter systems. In order to obtain the most efficient control system, the locations of control hardware as well as the feedback gain should be optimized. These optimization problems are generally non-convex. In addition, the models for these systems typically have a large number of degrees of freedom. Consequently, existing optimization schemes for optimal actuator placement may be inaccurate or computationally impractical. In this paper, the feedback control is chosen to be an optimal linear quadratic regulator. The optimal actuator location problem is reformulated as a convex optimization problem. A subgradient-based optimization scheme which leads to the global solution of the problem is used to optimize actuator locations. The optimization algorithm is applied to optimize the placement of piezoelectric actuators in vibration control of flexible structures. This method is compared with a genetic algorithm, and is observed to be faster and more accurate. Experiments are performed to verify the efficacy of optimal actuator placement.

  4. Accurate documentation, correct coding, and compliance: it's your best defense!

    PubMed

    Coles, T S; Babb, E F

    1999-07-01

    This article focuses on the need for physicians to maintain an awareness of regulatory policy and the law impacting the federal government's medical insurance programs, and to internalize and apply this knowledge in their practices. Basic information concerning selected fraud and abuse statutes and the civil monetary penalties and sanctions for noncompliance is discussed. The application of accurate documentation and correct coding principles, as well as the rationale for implementating an effective compliance plan in order to prevent fraud and abuse and/or minimize disciplinary action from government regulatory agencies, are emphasized.

  5. 40 CFR 146.14 - Information to be considered by the Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... information listed below which are current and accurate in the file. For a newly drilled Class I well, the..., construction, date drilled, location, depth, record of plugging and/or completion, and any additional... the fluid to be injected; (ii) Average and maximum injection pressure; and (iii) Source and...

  6. High Frequency QRS ECG Accurately Detects Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Arenare, Brian; Poulin, Gregory; Moser, Daniel R.; Delgado, Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    High frequency (HF, 150-250 Hz) analysis over the entire QRS interval of the ECG is more sensitive than conventional ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia. However, the accuracy of HF QRS ECG for detecting cardiomyopathy is unknown. We obtained simultaneous resting conventional and HF QRS 12-lead ECGs in 66 patients with cardiomyopathy (EF = 23.2 plus or minus 6.l%, mean plus or minus SD) and in 66 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using PC-based ECG software recently developed at NASA. The single most accurate ECG parameter for detecting cardiomyopathy was an HF QRS morphological score that takes into consideration the total number and severity of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present plus the clustering of RAZs together in contiguous leads. This RAZ score had an area under the receiver operator curve (ROC) of 0.91, and was 88% sensitive, 82% specific and 85% accurate for identifying cardiomyopathy at optimum score cut-off of 140 points. Although conventional ECG parameters such as the QRS and QTc intervals were also significantly longer in patients than controls (P less than 0.001, BBBs excluded), these conventional parameters were less accurate (area under the ROC = 0.77 and 0.77, respectively) than HF QRS morphological parameters for identifying underlying cardiomyopathy. The total amplitude of the HF QRS complexes, as measured by summed root mean square voltages (RMSVs), also differed between patients and controls (33.8 plus or minus 11.5 vs. 41.5 plus or minus 13.6 mV, respectively, P less than 0.003), but this parameter was even less accurate in distinguishing the two groups (area under ROC = 0.67) than the HF QRS morphologic and conventional ECG parameters. Diagnostic accuracy was optimal (86%) when the RAZ score from the HF QRS ECG and the QTc interval from the conventional ECG were used simultaneously with cut-offs of greater than or equal to 40 points and greater than or equal to 445 ms, respectively. In conclusion 12-lead HF QRS ECG employing

  7. Location invariance in masked repetition priming of letters and words.

    PubMed

    Marzouki, Yousri; Meeter, Martijn; Grainger, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Earlier studies have suggested that information from a prime stimulus can be integrated with target information even when the two stimuli appear at different spatial locations. Here, we examined such location invariance in a masked repetition priming paradigm with single letter and word stimuli. In order to neutralize effects of acuity and spatial attention on prime processing, subliminal prime stimuli always appeared on fixation. Target location varied randomly from trial to trial along the horizontal meridian at one of seven possible locations for letter stimuli (-7° to +7°) and three positions for word stimuli (-4°, 0°, +4°). Speed of responding to letter and word targets was affected by target location, and by priming, but the size of repetition priming effects did not vary as a function of target location. These results suggest that masked repetition priming is mediated by representations that integrate information about object identity independently of object location.

  8. 45 CFR 302.35 - State parent locator service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... subpart 2 of part B or under part E. (d) The State PLS shall, subject to the privacy safeguards required... to another State IV-D agency. (iii) The State PLS need not make subsequent location attempts if... information provided. The State PLS shall obtain location information under this section only for the...

  9. Impact-Locator Sensor Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Byers, Terry; Gibbons, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Electronic sensor systems for detecting and locating impacts of rapidly moving particles on spacecraft have been invented. Systems of this type could also be useful on Earth in settings in which the occurrence of impacts and/or the locations of impacts are not immediately obvious and there are requirements to detect and quickly locate impacts to prevent or minimize damage.

  10. DIORAMA Location Type User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, James Russell

    2015-01-29

    The purpose of this report is to present the current design and implementation of the DIORAMA location type object (LocationType) and to provide examples and use cases. The LocationType object is included in the diorama-app package in the diorama::types namespace. Abstractly, the object is intended to capture the full time history of the location of an object or reference point. For example, a location may be speci ed as a near-Earth orbit in terms of a two-line element set, in which case the location type is capable of propagating the orbit both forward and backward in time to provide a location for any given time. Alternatively, the location may be speci ed as a xed set of geodetic coordinates (latitude, longitude, and altitude), in which case the geodetic location of the object is expected to remain constant for all time. From an implementation perspective, the location type is de ned as a union of multiple independent objects defi ned in the DIORAMA tle library. Types presently included in the union are listed and described in subsections below, and all conversions or transformation between these location types are handled by utilities provided by the tle library with the exception of the \\special-values" location type.

  11. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, Todd A.; White, James P.

    1998-01-01

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece.

  12. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, T.A.; White, J.P.

    1998-03-03

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece. 5 figs.

  13. Accurate thermoelastic tensor and acoustic velocities of NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcondes, Michel L.; Shukla, Gaurav; da Silveira, Pedro; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the importance of thermoelastic properties of minerals in geology and geophysics, their measurement at high pressures and temperatures are still challenging. Thus, ab initio calculations are an essential tool for predicting these properties at extreme conditions. Owing to the approximate description of the exchange-correlation energy, approximations used in calculations of vibrational effects, and numerical/methodological approximations, these methods produce systematic deviations. Hybrid schemes combining experimental data and theoretical results have emerged as a way to reconcile available information and offer more reliable predictions at experimentally inaccessible thermodynamics conditions. Here we introduce a method to improve the calculated thermoelastic tensor by using highly accurate thermal equation of state (EoS). The corrective scheme is general, applicable to crystalline solids with any symmetry, and can produce accurate results at conditions where experimental data may not exist. We apply it to rock-salt-type NaCl, a material whose structural properties have been challenging to describe accurately by standard ab initio methods and whose acoustic/seismic properties are important for the gas and oil industry.

  14. Accurate thermoelastic tensor and acoustic velocities of NaCl

    SciTech Connect

    Marcondes, Michel L.; Shukla, Gaurav; Silveira, Pedro da; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.

    2015-12-15

    Despite the importance of thermoelastic properties of minerals in geology and geophysics, their measurement at high pressures and temperatures are still challenging. Thus, ab initio calculations are an essential tool for predicting these properties at extreme conditions. Owing to the approximate description of the exchange-correlation energy, approximations used in calculations of vibrational effects, and numerical/methodological approximations, these methods produce systematic deviations. Hybrid schemes combining experimental data and theoretical results have emerged as a way to reconcile available information and offer more reliable predictions at experimentally inaccessible thermodynamics conditions. Here we introduce a method to improve the calculated thermoelastic tensor by using highly accurate thermal equation of state (EoS). The corrective scheme is general, applicable to crystalline solids with any symmetry, and can produce accurate results at conditions where experimental data may not exist. We apply it to rock-salt-type NaCl, a material whose structural properties have been challenging to describe accurately by standard ab initio methods and whose acoustic/seismic properties are important for the gas and oil industry.

  15. Interpolating for the location of remote sensor data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puccinelli, E. F.; Kornfield, J.

    1981-01-01

    An interpolation algorithm is presented as a practical alternative to common interpolation and approximation methods when applied to the problem of determining the location of remote sensor data. This algorithm is based upon knowledge of the geometry of the problem and is shown to be inherently more accurate than common interpolation schemes which may be applied to all types of data. A practical location problem is used to demonstrate its accuracy and computational cost.

  16. Locating influential nodes via dynamics-sensitive centrality.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2016-02-24

    With great theoretical and practical significance, locating influential nodes of complex networks is a promising issue. In this paper, we present a dynamics-sensitive (DS) centrality by integrating topological features and dynamical properties. The DS centrality can be directly applied in locating influential spreaders. According to the empirical results on four real networks for both susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) and susceptible-infected (SI) spreading models, the DS centrality is more accurate than degree, k-shell index and eigenvector centrality.

  17. Automated Detection and Location of Indications in Eddy Current Signals

    SciTech Connect

    Brudnoy, David M.; Oppenlander, Jane E.; Levy, Arthur J.

    1998-06-30

    A computer implemented information extraction process that locates and identifies eddy current signal features in digital point-ordered signals, said signals representing data from inspection of test materials, by enhancing the signal features relative to signal noise, detecting features of the signals, verifying the location of the signal features that can be known in advance, and outputting information about the identity and location of all detected signal features.

  18. Automated detection and location of indications in eddy current signals

    DOEpatents

    Brudnoy, David M.; Oppenlander, Jane E.; Levy, Arthur J.

    2000-01-01

    A computer implemented information extraction process that locates and identifies eddy current signal features in digital point-ordered signals, signals representing data from inspection of test materials, by enhancing the signal features relative to signal noise, detecting features of the signals, verifying the location of the signal features that can be known in advance, and outputting information about the identity and location of all detected signal features.

  19. Instrument accurately measures weld angle and offset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, W. G.

    1967-01-01

    Weld angle is measured to the nearest arc minute and offset to one thousandth of an inch by an instrument designed to use a reference plane at two locations on a test coupon. A special table for computation has been prepared for use with the instrument.

  20. Accurate superimposition of perimetry data onto fundus photographs.

    PubMed

    Bek, T; Lund-Andersen, H

    1990-02-01

    A technique for accurate superimposition of computerized perimetry data onto the corresponding retinal locations seen on fundus photographs was developed. The technique was designed to take into account: 1) that the photographic field of view of the fundus camera varies with ametropia-dependent camera focusing 2) possible distortion by the fundus camera, and 3) that corrective lenses employed during perimetry magnify or minify the visual field. The technique allowed an overlay of perimetry data of the central 60 degrees of the visual field onto fundus photographs with an accuracy of 0.5 degree. The correlation of localized retinal morphology to localized retinal function was therefore limited by the spatial resolution of the computerized perimetry, which was 2.5 degrees in the Dicon AP-2500 perimeter employed for this study. The theoretical assumptions of the technique were confirmed by comparing visual field records to fundus photographs from patients with morphologically well-defined non-functioning lesions in the retina.

  1. Robust and Accurate Seismic(acoustic) Ray Tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debski, W.; Ando, M.

    Recent development of high resolution seismic tomography as well as a need for a high precision seismic (acoustic) source locations calls for robust and very precise numeri- cal methods of an estimation of seismic (acoustic) travel times and ray paths. Here we present a method based on a parametrisation of the ray path by a series of the Cheby- shev polynomials. This pseudo-spectral method, combined with the accurate Gauss- Lobbato integration procedure allows to reach a very high relative travel time accu- racy t/t 10-7. At the same time use of the Genetic Algorithm based optimizer (Evolutionary Algorithm) assures an extreme robustness which allows the method to be used in complicated 3D geological structures like multi-fault areas, mines, or real engineering applications, constructions, etc.

  2. Accurate upwind methods for the Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1993-01-01

    A new class of piecewise linear methods for the numerical solution of the one-dimensional Euler equations of gas dynamics is presented. These methods are uniformly second-order accurate, and can be considered as extensions of Godunov's scheme. With an appropriate definition of monotonicity preservation for the case of linear convection, it can be shown that they preserve monotonicity. Similar to Van Leer's MUSCL scheme, they consist of two key steps: a reconstruction step followed by an upwind step. For the reconstruction step, a monotonicity constraint that preserves uniform second-order accuracy is introduced. Computational efficiency is enhanced by devising a criterion that detects the 'smooth' part of the data where the constraint is redundant. The concept and coding of the constraint are simplified by the use of the median function. A slope steepening technique, which has no effect at smooth regions and can resolve a contact discontinuity in four cells, is described. As for the upwind step, existing and new methods are applied in a manner slightly different from those in the literature. These methods are derived by approximating the Euler equations via linearization and diagonalization. At a 'smooth' interface, Harten, Lax, and Van Leer's one intermediate state model is employed. A modification for this model that can resolve contact discontinuities is presented. Near a discontinuity, either this modified model or a more accurate one, namely, Roe's flux-difference splitting. is used. The current presentation of Roe's method, via the conceptually simple flux-vector splitting, not only establishes a connection between the two splittings, but also leads to an admissibility correction with no conditional statement, and an efficient approximation to Osher's approximate Riemann solver. These reconstruction and upwind steps result in schemes that are uniformly second-order accurate and economical at smooth regions, and yield high resolution at discontinuities.

  3. The first accurate description of an aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    2006-12-01

    As technology has advanced, the scientific study of auroral phenomena has increased by leaps and bounds. A look back at the earliest descriptions of aurorae offers an interesting look into how medieval scholars viewed the subjects that we study.Although there are earlier fragmentary references in the literature, the first accurate description of the aurora borealis appears to be that published by the German Catholic scholar Konrad von Megenberg (1309-1374) in his book Das Buch der Natur (The Book of Nature). The book was written between 1349 and 1350.

  4. Determining accurate distances to nearby galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanos, Alceste Zoe

    2005-11-01

    Determining accurate distances to nearby or distant galaxies is a very simple conceptually, yet complicated in practice, task. Presently, distances to nearby galaxies are only known to an accuracy of 10-15%. The current anchor galaxy of the extragalactic distance scale is the Large Magellanic Cloud, which has large (10-15%) systematic uncertainties associated with it, because of its morphology, its non-uniform reddening and the unknown metallicity dependence of the Cepheid period-luminosity relation. This work aims to determine accurate distances to some nearby galaxies, and subsequently help reduce the error in the extragalactic distance scale and the Hubble constant H 0 . In particular, this work presents the first distance determination of the DIRECT Project to M33 with detached eclipsing binaries. DIRECT aims to obtain a new anchor galaxy for the extragalactic distance scale by measuring direct, accurate (to 5%) distances to two Local Group galaxies, M31 and M33, with detached eclipsing binaries. It involves a massive variability survey of these galaxies and subsequent photometric and spectroscopic follow-up of the detached binaries discovered. In this work, I also present a catalog of variable stars discovered in one of the DIRECT fields, M31Y, which includes 41 eclipsing binaries. Additionally, we derive the distance to the Draco Dwarf Spheroidal galaxy, with ~100 RR Lyrae found in our first CCD variability study of this galaxy. A "hybrid" method of discovering Cepheids with ground-based telescopes is described next. It involves applying the image subtraction technique on the images obtained from ground-based telescopes and then following them up with the Hubble Space Telescope to derive Cepheid period-luminosity distances. By re-analyzing ESO Very Large Telescope data on M83 (NGC 5236), we demonstrate that this method is much more powerful for detecting variability, especially in crowded fields. I finally present photometry for the Wolf-Rayet binary WR 20a

  5. Accurate 3D quantification of the bronchial parameters in MDCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saragaglia, A.; Fetita, C.; Preteux, F.; Brillet, P. Y.; Grenier, P. A.

    2005-08-01

    The assessment of bronchial reactivity and wall remodeling in asthma plays a crucial role in better understanding such a disease and evaluating therapeutic responses. Today, multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) makes it possible to perform an accurate estimation of bronchial parameters (lumen and wall areas) by allowing a quantitative analysis in a cross-section plane orthogonal to the bronchus axis. This paper provides the tools for such an analysis by developing a 3D investigation method which relies on 3D reconstruction of bronchial lumen and central axis computation. Cross-section images at bronchial locations interactively selected along the central axis are generated at appropriate spatial resolution. An automated approach is then developed for accurately segmenting the inner and outer bronchi contours on the cross-section images. It combines mathematical morphology operators, such as "connection cost", and energy-controlled propagation in order to overcome the difficulties raised by vessel adjacencies and wall irregularities. The segmentation accuracy was validated with respect to a 3D mathematically-modeled phantom of a pair bronchus-vessel which mimics the characteristics of real data in terms of gray-level distribution, caliber and orientation. When applying the developed quantification approach to such a model with calibers ranging from 3 to 10 mm diameter, the lumen area relative errors varied from 3.7% to 0.15%, while the bronchus area was estimated with a relative error less than 5.1%.

  6. Accurate interlaminar stress recovery from finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tessler, Alexander; Riggs, H. Ronald

    1994-01-01

    The accuracy and robustness of a two-dimensional smoothing methodology is examined for the problem of recovering accurate interlaminar shear stress distributions in laminated composite and sandwich plates. The smoothing methodology is based on a variational formulation which combines discrete least-squares and penalty-constraint functionals in a single variational form. The smoothing analysis utilizes optimal strains computed at discrete locations in a finite element analysis. These discrete strain data are smoothed with a smoothing element discretization, producing superior accuracy strains and their first gradients. The approach enables the resulting smooth strain field to be practically C1-continuous throughout the domain of smoothing, exhibiting superconvergent properties of the smoothed quantity. The continuous strain gradients are also obtained directly from the solution. The recovered strain gradients are subsequently employed in the integration o equilibrium equations to obtain accurate interlaminar shear stresses. The problem is a simply-supported rectangular plate under a doubly sinusoidal load. The problem has an exact analytic solution which serves as a measure of goodness of the recovered interlaminar shear stresses. The method has the versatility of being applicable to the analysis of rather general and complex structures built of distinct components and materials, such as found in aircraft design. For these types of structures, the smoothing is achieved with 'patches', each patch covering the domain in which the smoothed quantity is physically continuous.

  7. Universal Health Coverage’s evolving location in the post-2015 development agenda: Key informant perspectives within multilateral and related agencies during the first phase of post-2015 negotiations

    PubMed Central

    Brolan, Claire E; Hill, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    In 2001, technocrats from four multilateral organizations selected the Millennium Development Goals mainly from the previous decade of United Nations (UN) summits and conferences. Few accounts are available of that significant yet cloistered synthesis process: none contemporaneous. In contrast, this study examines health’s evolving location in the first-phase of the next iteration of global development goal negotiation for the post-2015 era, through the synchronous perspectives of representatives of key multilateral and related organizations. As part of the Go4Health Project, in-depth interviews were conducted in mid-2013 with 57 professionals working on health and the post-2015 agenda within multilaterals and related agencies. Using discourse analysis, this article reports the results and analysis of a Universal Health Coverage (UHC) theme: contextualizing UHC’s positioning within the post-2015 agenda-setting process immediately after the Global Thematic Consultation on Health and High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda (High-Level Panel) released their post-2015 health and development goal aspirations in April and May 2013, respectively. After the findings from the interview data analysis are presented, the Results will be discussed drawing on Shiffman and Smith (Generation of political priority for global health initiatives: a framework and case study of maternal mortality. The Lancet 2007; 370: 1370–79) agenda-setting analytical framework (examining ideas, issues, actors and political context), modified by Benzian et al. (2011). Although more participants support the High-Level Panel’s May 2013 report’s proposal—‘Ensure Healthy Lives’—as the next umbrella health goal, they nevertheless still emphasize the need for UHC to achieve this and thus be incorporated as part of its trajectory. Despite UHC’s conceptual ambiguity and cursory mention in the High-Level Panel report, its proponents suggest its re

  8. Accurate colon residue detection algorithm with partial volume segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Liang, Zhengrong; Zhang, PengPeng; Kutcher, Gerald J.

    2004-05-01

    Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Earlier detection and removal of polyps can dramatically reduce the chance of developing malignant tumor. Due to some limitations of optical colonoscopy used in clinic, many researchers have developed virtual colonoscopy as an alternative technique, in which accurate colon segmentation is crucial. However, partial volume effect and existence of residue make it very challenging. The electronic colon cleaning technique proposed by Chen et al is a very attractive method, which is also kind of hard segmentation method. As mentioned in their paper, some artifacts were produced, which might affect the accurate colon reconstruction. In our paper, instead of labeling each voxel with a unique label or tissue type, the percentage of different tissues within each voxel, which we call a mixture, was considered in establishing a maximum a posterior probability (MAP) image-segmentation framework. A Markov random field (MRF) model was developed to reflect the spatial information for the tissue mixtures. The spatial information based on hard segmentation was used to determine which tissue types are in the specific voxel. Parameters of each tissue class were estimated by the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm during the MAP tissue-mixture segmentation. Real CT experimental results demonstrated that the partial volume effects between four tissue types have been precisely detected. Meanwhile, the residue has been electronically removed and very smooth and clean interface along the colon wall has been obtained.

  9. The use of harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and geographic information system (GIS) methods to characterize distribution and locate spatial clusters of Borrelia burgdorferi and its vector Ixodes scapularis in Indiana.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Lisa M; Moro, Manuel H; Vinasco, Javier; Hill, Catherine; Wu, Ching C; Raizman, Eran A

    2009-12-01

    Ixodes scapularis (Say) is the vector for Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) the causative agent of Lyme disease (LD). The increased number and presence of ticks in the environment pose a significant health risk to people and many domestic animals including dogs, cats, and horses. This study characterized the distribution and expansion of I. scapularis and Bb and identified areas of increased risk of LD transmission in Indiana using geographical information systems (GIS) and spatial analysis. A cross-sectional sampling was performed for 3 consecutive years (2005-2007). A total of 3,412 harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were searched for ticks at Department of Natural Resources manned deer check-in stations. Hunters were asked for verbal permission to search the deer and to indicate on a road atlas where the deer was killed. All deer points were digitized into a GIS database. Identification of clustering in space and time for these organisms was performed using geostatistical software. Multiple spatial clusters of I. scapularis-infested deer were identified in western Indiana. B. burgdorferi was isolated from tick pools in 11 counties. In addition to the I. scapularis clusters, one spatial cluster of Bb-infected ticks was identified. Our current survey results and cluster analysis indicate that the western geographic regions of Indiana should be considered by the healthcare community to be at increased risk of LD compared with the rest of Indiana.

  10. Detecting Carbon in Carbon: Exploiting Differential Charging to Obtain Information on the Chemical Identity and Spatial Location of Carbon Nanotube Aggregates in Composites by Imaging X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gorham, Justin M.; Osborn, William A.; Woodcock, Jeremiah W.; Scott, Keana C. K.; Heddleston, John M.; Walker, Angela R. Hight; Gilman, Jeffrey W

    2016-01-01

    To better assess risks associated with nano-enabled products including multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) within polymer matrices, it is important to understand how MWCNT are dispersed throughout the composite. The current study presents a method which employs imaging X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to chemically detect spatially segregated MWCNT rich regions at an epoxy composites surface by exploiting differential charging. MWCNT do not charge due to high conductivity and have previously been shown to energetically separate from their insulating surroundings when characterized by XPS. XPS in imaging mode revealed that these conductive regions were spatially separated due to micrometer-scale MWCNT aggregation and poor dispersion during the formation of the composite. Three MWCNT concentrations were studied; (1, 4 and 5) % by mass MWCNT within an epoxy matrix. Images acquired in periodic energy intervals were processed using custom algorithms designed to efficiently extract spectra from regions of interest. As a result, chemical and electrical information on aggregate and non-aggregate portions of the composite was extracted. Raman imaging and scanning electron microscopy were employed as orthogonal techniques for validating this XPS-based methodology. Results demonstrate that XPS imaging of differentially charging MWCNT composite samples is an effective means for assessing dispersion quality. PMID:27765956

  11. Accurate taxonomic assignment of short pyrosequencing reads.

    PubMed

    Clemente, José C; Jansson, Jesper; Valiente, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Ambiguities in the taxonomy dependent assignment of pyrosequencing reads are usually resolved by mapping each read to the lowest common ancestor in a reference taxonomy of all those sequences that match the read. This conservative approach has the drawback of mapping a read to a possibly large clade that may also contain many sequences not matching the read. A more accurate taxonomic assignment of short reads can be made by mapping each read to the node in the reference taxonomy that provides the best precision and recall. We show that given a suffix array for the sequences in the reference taxonomy, a short read can be mapped to the node of the reference taxonomy with the best combined value of precision and recall in time linear in the size of the taxonomy subtree rooted at the lowest common ancestor of the matching sequences. An accurate taxonomic assignment of short reads can thus be made with about the same efficiency as when mapping each read to the lowest common ancestor of all matching sequences in a reference taxonomy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on several metagenomic datasets of marine and gut microbiota.

  12. Accurate shear measurement with faint sources

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun; Foucaud, Sebastien; Luo, Wentao E-mail: walt@shao.ac.cn

    2015-01-01

    For cosmic shear to become an accurate cosmological probe, systematic errors in the shear measurement method must be unambiguously identified and corrected for. Previous work of this series has demonstrated that cosmic shears can be measured accurately in Fourier space in the presence of background noise and finite pixel size, without assumptions on the morphologies of galaxy and PSF. The remaining major source of error is source Poisson noise, due to the finiteness of source photon number. This problem is particularly important for faint galaxies in space-based weak lensing measurements, and for ground-based images of short exposure times. In this work, we propose a simple and rigorous way of removing the shear bias from the source Poisson noise. Our noise treatment can be generalized for images made of multiple exposures through MultiDrizzle. This is demonstrated with the SDSS and COSMOS/ACS data. With a large ensemble of mock galaxy images of unrestricted morphologies, we show that our shear measurement method can achieve sub-percent level accuracy even for images of signal-to-noise ratio less than 5 in general, making it the most promising technique for cosmic shear measurement in the ongoing and upcoming large scale galaxy surveys.

  13. Accurate pose estimation for forensic identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merckx, Gert; Hermans, Jeroen; Vandermeulen, Dirk

    2010-04-01

    In forensic authentication, one aims to identify the perpetrator among a series of suspects or distractors. A fundamental problem in any recognition system that aims for identification of subjects in a natural scene is the lack of constrains on viewing and imaging conditions. In forensic applications, identification proves even more challenging, since most surveillance footage is of abysmal quality. In this context, robust methods for pose estimation are paramount. In this paper we will therefore present a new pose estimation strategy for very low quality footage. Our approach uses 3D-2D registration of a textured 3D face model with the surveillance image to obtain accurate far field pose alignment. Starting from an inaccurate initial estimate, the technique uses novel similarity measures based on the monogenic signal to guide a pose optimization process. We will illustrate the descriptive strength of the introduced similarity measures by using them directly as a recognition metric. Through validation, using both real and synthetic surveillance footage, our pose estimation method is shown to be accurate, and robust to lighting changes and image degradation.

  14. Sparse and accurate high resolution SAR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Duc; Zhao, Kexin; Rowe, William; Li, Jian

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the usage of an adaptive method, the Iterative Adaptive Approach (IAA), in combination with a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate to reconstruct high resolution SAR images that are both sparse and accurate. IAA is a nonparametric weighted least squares algorithm that is robust and user parameter-free. IAA has been shown to reconstruct SAR images with excellent side lobes suppression and high resolution enhancement. We first reconstruct the SAR images using IAA, and then we enforce sparsity by using MAP with a sparsity inducing prior. By coupling these two methods, we can produce a sparse and accurate high resolution image that are conducive for feature extractions and target classification applications. In addition, we show how IAA can be made computationally efficient without sacrificing accuracies, a desirable property for SAR applications where the size of the problems is quite large. We demonstrate the success of our approach using the Air Force Research Lab's "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set Version 1.0" challenge dataset. Via the widely used FFT, individual vehicles contained in the scene are barely recognizable due to the poor resolution and high side lobe nature of FFT. However with our approach clear edges, boundaries, and textures of the vehicles are obtained.

  15. Accurate basis set truncation for wavefunction embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Taylor A.; Goodpaster, Jason D.; Manby, Frederick R.; Miller, Thomas F.

    2013-07-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) provides a formally exact framework for performing embedded subsystem electronic structure calculations, including DFT-in-DFT and wavefunction theory-in-DFT descriptions. In the interest of efficiency, it is desirable to truncate the atomic orbital basis set in which the subsystem calculation is performed, thus avoiding high-order scaling with respect to the size of the MO virtual space. In this study, we extend a recently introduced projection-based embedding method [F. R. Manby, M. Stella, J. D. Goodpaster, and T. F. Miller III, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 8, 2564 (2012)], 10.1021/ct300544e to allow for the systematic and accurate truncation of the embedded subsystem basis set. The approach is applied to both covalently and non-covalently bound test cases, including water clusters and polypeptide chains, and it is demonstrated that errors associated with basis set truncation are controllable to well within chemical accuracy. Furthermore, we show that this approach allows for switching between accurate projection-based embedding and DFT embedding with approximate kinetic energy (KE) functionals; in this sense, the approach provides a means of systematically improving upon the use of approximate KE functionals in DFT embedding.

  16. Location, Location, Location: Management Uses of Marine Benthic Biogeographical Information in Coastal Waters of the Northeastern USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecosystem-based management practices, along with coastal and marine spatial planning, have been adopted as foundational principles for ocean management in the United States. The success of these practices depends in large measure on a solid foundation of biogeographical informati...

  17. LOCAT - A Data Retrieval Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    STANDARSIA1 3 -A Suznn Y4Sl ’ś’. Doc 0 006 U m Nalionai Deftense U’" Defence nationale LOCAT -A DATA RETRIEVAL PROGRAM by Suzanne Y. Slinn SA RSA T Project...2.1 DESIGN PHILOSOPHY...................2 2.2 SATELLITE AND LOCATION SOFT KEY DISPLAY .. .. ........ 3 2.3...LOCAT -Calling Sequence .. .. ...... ........ 2 FIGURE 2: SAT/LOC Soft Key Display .. .. ...... ..... 3 FIGURE 3 : Frequency Soft Key Display

  18. Locating articular cartilage in MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folkesson, Jenny; Dam, Erik; Pettersen, Paola; Olsen, Ole F.; Nielsen, Mads; Christiansen, Claus

    2005-04-01

    Accurate computation of the thickness of the articular cartilage is of great importance when diagnosing and monitoring the progress of joint diseases such as osteoarthritis. A fully automated cartilage assessment method is preferable compared to methods using manual interaction in order to avoid inter- and intra-observer variability. As a first step in the cartilage assessment, we present an automatic method for locating articular cartilage in knee MRI using supervised learning. The next step will be to fit a variable shape model to the cartilage, initiated at the location found using the method presented in this paper. From the model, disease markers will be extracted for the quantitative evaluation of the cartilage. The cartilage is located using an ANN-classifier, where every voxel is classified as cartilage or non-cartilage based on prior knowledge of the cartilage structure. The classifier is tested using leave-one-out-evaluation, and we found the average sensitivity and specificity to be 91.0% and 99.4%, respectively. The center of mass calculated from voxels classified as cartilage are similar to the corresponding values calculated from manual segmentations, which confirms that this method can find a good initial position for a shape model.

  19. Arizona Law Enforcement Biometrics Identification and Information Sharing Technology Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    accurate systems were from NEC of Japan, SAGEM of France and Cogent, an American company (Bulman, 2004). The performance of these three systems was...into a docking station attached to a laptop in a patrol car or a docking station attached to a PC at a remote location. The image can also be...transmitted using Bluetooth communications to the laptop in the patrol car. Figure 1 illustrates how images are transmitted and information received by an

  20. Coding location: the view from toddler studies.

    PubMed

    Huttenlocher, Janellen

    2008-11-01

    The ability to locate objects in the environment is adaptively important for mobile organisms. Research on location coding reveals that even toddlers have considerable spatial skill. Important information has been obtained using a disorientation task in which children watch a target object being hidden and are then blindfolded and rotated so they cannot track their changing relation to the target. Even toddlers under two years of age search successfully for the hidden object, which shows that they can use geometric features of the spatial environment to determine object location. It has been claimed that these results show innate geometric abilities, but there is evidence that these early spatial skills are not simply geometric. The article presents an overview of experimental findings that provide the basis for a different interpretation of spatial development.

  1. Image Location Estimation by Salient Region Matching.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xueming; Zhao, Yisi; Han, Junwei

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, locations of images have been widely used in many application scenarios for large geo-tagged image corpora. As to images which are not geographically tagged, we estimate their locations with the help of the large geo-tagged image set by content-based image retrieval. In this paper, we exploit spatial information of useful visual words to improve image location estimation (or content-based image retrieval performances). We proposed to generate visual word groups by mean-shift clustering. To improve the retrieval performance, spatial constraint is utilized to code the relative position of visual words. We proposed to generate a position descriptor for each visual word and build fast indexing structure for visual word groups. Experiments show the effectiveness of our proposed approach.

  2. Locating bomb factories by detecting hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Connell, Samantha; Ferrari, Carlotta; Suarez, Guillaume; Sauvain, Jean-Jacques; Hopf, Nancy B

    2016-11-01

    The analytical capability to detect hydrogen peroxide vapour can play a key role in localizing a site where a H2O2 based Improvised Explosive (IE) is manufactured. In security activities it is very important to obtain information in a short time. For this reason, an analytical method to be used in security activity needs portable devices. The authors have developed the first analytical method based on a portable luminometer, specifically designed and validated to locate IE manufacturing sites using quantitative on-site vapour analysis for H2O2. The method was tested both indoor and outdoor. The results demonstrate that the detection of H2O2 vapours could allow police forces to locate the site, while terrorists are preparing an attack. The collected data are also very important in developing new sensors, able to give an early alarm if located at a proper distance from a site where an H2O2 based IE is prepared.

  3. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Smith, D.D.

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  4. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Douglas D.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperaes in the range of about 1800.degree. to 2700.degree. C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  5. LSM: perceptually accurate line segment merging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Naila; Khan, Nazar

    2016-11-01

    Existing line segment detectors tend to break up perceptually distinct line segments into multiple segments. We propose an algorithm for merging such broken segments to recover the original perceptually accurate line segments. The algorithm proceeds by grouping line segments on the basis of angular and spatial proximity. Then those line segment pairs within each group that satisfy unique, adaptive mergeability criteria are successively merged to form a single line segment. This process is repeated until no more line segments can be merged. We also propose a method for quantitative comparison of line segment detection algorithms. Results on the York Urban dataset show that our merged line segments are closer to human-marked ground-truth line segments compared to state-of-the-art line segment detection algorithms.

  6. Highly accurate articulated coordinate measuring machine

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Jokiel, Jr., Bernhard; Ensz, Mark T.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-12-30

    Disclosed is a highly accurate articulated coordinate measuring machine, comprising a revolute joint, comprising a circular encoder wheel, having an axis of rotation; a plurality of marks disposed around at least a portion of the circumference of the encoder wheel; bearing means for supporting the encoder wheel, while permitting free rotation of the encoder wheel about the wheel's axis of rotation; and a sensor, rigidly attached to the bearing means, for detecting the motion of at least some of the marks as the encoder wheel rotates; a probe arm, having a proximal end rigidly attached to the encoder wheel, and having a distal end with a probe tip attached thereto; and coordinate processing means, operatively connected to the sensor, for converting the output of the sensor into a set of cylindrical coordinates representing the position of the probe tip relative to a reference cylindrical coordinate system.

  7. Practical aspects of spatially high accurate methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfrey, Andrew G.; Mitchell, Curtis R.; Walters, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The computational qualities of high order spatially accurate methods for the finite volume solution of the Euler equations are presented. Two dimensional essentially non-oscillatory (ENO), k-exact, and 'dimension by dimension' ENO reconstruction operators are discussed and compared in terms of reconstruction and solution accuracy, computational cost and oscillatory behavior in supersonic flows with shocks. Inherent steady state convergence difficulties are demonstrated for adaptive stencil algorithms. An exact solution to the heat equation is used to determine reconstruction error, and the computational intensity is reflected in operation counts. Standard MUSCL differencing is included for comparison. Numerical experiments presented include the Ringleb flow for numerical accuracy and a shock reflection problem. A vortex-shock interaction demonstrates the ability of the ENO scheme to excel in simulating unsteady high-frequency flow physics.

  8. Toward Accurate and Quantitative Comparative Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Nayfach, Stephen; Pollard, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    Shotgun metagenomics and computational analysis are used to compare the taxonomic and functional profiles of microbial communities. Leveraging this approach to understand roles of microbes in human biology and other environments requires quantitative data summaries whose values are comparable across samples and studies. Comparability is currently hampered by the use of abundance statistics that do not estimate a meaningful parameter of the microbial community and biases introduced by experimental protocols and data-cleaning approaches. Addressing these challenges, along with improving study design, data access, metadata standardization, and analysis tools, will enable accurate comparative metagenomics. We envision a future in which microbiome studies are replicable and new metagenomes are easily and rapidly integrated with existing data. Only then can the potential of metagenomics for predictive ecological modeling, well-powered association studies, and effective microbiome medicine be fully realized. PMID:27565341

  9. Obtaining accurate translations from expressed sequence tags.

    PubMed

    Wasmuth, James; Blaxter, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The genomes of an increasing number of species are being investigated through the generation of expressed sequence tags (ESTs). However, ESTs are prone to sequencing errors and typically define incomplete transcripts, making downstream annotation difficult. Annotation would be greatly improved with robust polypeptide translations. Many current solutions for EST translation require a large number of full-length gene sequences for training purposes, a resource that is not available for the majority of EST projects. As part of our ongoing EST programs investigating these "neglected" genomes, we have developed a polypeptide prediction pipeline, prot4EST. It incorporates freely available software to produce final translations that are more accurate than those derived from any single method. We describe how this integrated approach goes a long way to overcoming the deficit in training data.

  10. Micron Accurate Absolute Ranging System: Range Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Larry L.; Smith, Kely L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate Fresnel diffraction as a means of obtaining absolute distance measurements with micron or greater accuracy. It is believed that such a system would prove useful to the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as a non-intrusive, non-contact measuring system for use with secondary concentrator station-keeping systems. The present research attempts to validate past experiments and develop ways to apply the phenomena of Fresnel diffraction to micron accurate measurement. This report discusses past research on the phenomena, and the basis of the use Fresnel diffraction distance metrology. The apparatus used in the recent investigations, experimental procedures used, preliminary results are discussed in detail. Continued research and equipment requirements on the extension of the effective range of the Fresnel diffraction systems is also described.

  11. Accurate radio positions with the Tidbinbilla interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batty, M. J.; Gulkis, S.; Jauncey, D. L.; Rayner, P. T.

    1979-01-01

    The Tidbinbilla interferometer (Batty et al., 1977) is designed specifically to provide accurate radio position measurements of compact radio sources in the Southern Hemisphere with high sensitivity. The interferometer uses the 26-m and 64-m antennas of the Deep Space Network at Tidbinbilla, near Canberra. The two antennas are separated by 200 m on a north-south baseline. By utilizing the existing antennas and the low-noise traveling-wave masers at 2.29 GHz, it has been possible to produce a high-sensitivity instrument with a minimum of capital expenditure. The north-south baseline ensures that a good range of UV coverage is obtained, so that sources lying in the declination range between about -80 and +30 deg may be observed with nearly orthogonal projected baselines of no less than about 1000 lambda. The instrument also provides high-accuracy flux density measurements for compact radio sources.

  12. Central Chemoreceptors: Locations and Functions

    PubMed Central

    Nattie, Eugene; Li, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    Central chemoreception traditionally refers to a change in ventilation attributable to changes in CO2/H+ detected within the brain. Interest in central chemoreception has grown substantially since the previous Handbook of Physiology published in 1986. Initially, central chemoreception was localized to areas on the ventral medullary surface, a hypothesis complemented by the recent identification of neurons with specific phenotypes near one of these areas as putative chemoreceptor cells. However, there is substantial evidence that many sites participate in central chemoreception some located at a distance from the ventral medulla. Functionally, central chemoreception, via the sensing of brain interstitial fluid H+, serves to detect and integrate information on 1) alveolar ventilation (arterial PCO2), 2) brain blood flow and metabolism and 3) acid-base balance, and, in response, can affect breathing, airway resistance, blood pressure (sympathetic tone) and arousal. In addition, central chemoreception provides a tonic ‘drive’ (source of excitation) at the normal, baseline PCO2 level that maintains a degree of functional connectivity among brainstem respiratory neurons necessary to produce eupneic breathing. Central chemoreception responds to small variations in PCO2 to regulate normal gas exchange and to large changes in PCO2 to minimize acid-base changes. Central chemoreceptor sites vary in function with sex and with development. From an evolutionary perspective, central chemoreception grew out of the demands posed by air vs. water breathing, homeothermy, sleep, optimization of the work of breathing with the ‘ideal’ arterial PCO2, and the maintenance of the appropriate pH at 37°C for optimal protein structure and function. PMID:23728974

  13. Influence of pansharpening techniques in obtaining accurate vegetation thematic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarrola-Ulzurrun, Edurne; Gonzalo-Martin, Consuelo; Marcello-Ruiz, Javier

    2016-10-01

    In last decades, there have been a decline in natural resources, becoming important to develop reliable methodologies for their management. The appearance of very high resolution sensors has offered a practical and cost-effective means for a good environmental management. In this context, improvements are needed for obtaining higher quality of the information available in order to get reliable classified images. Thus, pansharpening enhances the spatial resolution of the multispectral band by incorporating information from the panchromatic image. The main goal in the study is to implement pixel and object-based classification techniques applied to the fused imagery using different pansharpening algorithms and the evaluation of thematic maps generated that serve to obtain accurate information for the conservation of natural resources. A vulnerable heterogenic ecosystem from Canary Islands (Spain) was chosen, Teide National Park, and Worldview-2 high resolution imagery was employed. The classes considered of interest were set by the National Park conservation managers. 7 pansharpening techniques (GS, FIHS, HCS, MTF based, Wavelet `à trous' and Weighted Wavelet `à trous' through Fractal Dimension Maps) were chosen in order to improve the data quality with the goal to analyze the vegetation classes. Next, different classification algorithms were applied at pixel-based and object-based approach, moreover, an accuracy assessment of the different thematic maps obtained were performed. The highest classification accuracy was obtained applying Support Vector Machine classifier at object-based approach in the Weighted Wavelet `à trous' through Fractal Dimension Maps fused image. Finally, highlight the difficulty of the classification in Teide ecosystem due to the heterogeneity and the small size of the species. Thus, it is important to obtain accurate thematic maps for further studies in the management and conservation of natural resources.

  14. Location-assured, multifactor authentication on smartphones via LTE communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuseler, Torben; Lami, Ihsan A.; Al-Assam, Hisham

    2013-05-01

    With the added security provided by LTE, geographical location has become an important factor for authentication to enhance the security of remote client authentication during mCommerce applications using Smartphones. Tight combination of geographical location with classic authentication factors like PINs/Biometrics in a real-time, remote verification scheme over the LTE layer connection assures the authenticator about the client itself (via PIN/biometric) as well as the client's current location, thus defines the important aspects of "who", "when", and "where" of the authentication attempt without eaves dropping or man on the middle attacks. To securely integrate location as an authentication factor into the remote authentication scheme, client's location must be verified independently, i.e. the authenticator should not solely rely on the location determined on and reported by the client's Smartphone. The latest wireless data communication technology for mobile phones (4G LTE, Long-Term Evolution), recently being rolled out in various networks, can be employed to enhance this location-factor requirement of independent location verification. LTE's Control Plane LBS provisions, when integrated with user-based authentication and independent source of localisation factors ensures secure efficient, continuous location tracking of the Smartphone. This feature can be performed during normal operation of the LTE-based communication between client and network operator resulting in the authenticator being able to verify the client's claimed location more securely and accurately. Trials and experiments show that such algorithm implementation is viable for nowadays Smartphone-based banking via LTE communication.

  15. Perception of 3-D location based on vision, touch, and extended touch.

    PubMed

    Giudice, Nicholas A; Klatzky, Roberta L; Bennett, Christopher R; Loomis, Jack M

    2013-01-01

    Perception of the near environment gives rise to spatial images in working memory that continue to represent the spatial layout even after cessation of sensory input. As the observer moves, these spatial images are continuously updated. This research is concerned with (1) whether spatial images of targets are formed when they are sensed using extended touch (i.e., using a probe to extend the reach of the arm) and (2) the accuracy with which such targets are perceived. In Experiment 1, participants perceived the 3-D locations of individual targets from a fixed origin and were then tested with an updating task involving blindfolded walking followed by placement of the hand at the remembered target location. Twenty-four target locations, representing all combinations of two distances, two heights, and six azimuths, were perceived by vision or by blindfolded exploration with the bare hand, a 1-m probe, or a 2-m probe. Systematic errors in azimuth were observed for all targets, reflecting errors in representing the target locations and updating. Overall, updating after visual perception was best, but the quantitative differences between conditions were small. Experiment 2 demonstrated that auditory information signifying contact with the target was not a factor. Overall, the results indicate that 3-D spatial images can be formed of targets sensed by extended touch and that perception by extended touch, even out to 1.75 m, is surprisingly accurate.

  16. Lunar Impact Flash Locations from NASA's Lunar Impact Monitoring Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. M.; Kupferschmidt, L.; Feldman, J.

    2015-01-01

    Meteoroids are small, natural bodies traveling through space, fragments from comets, asteroids, and impact debris from planets. Unlike the Earth, which has an atmosphere that slows, ablates, and disintegrates most meteoroids before they reach the ground, the Moon has little-to-no atmosphere to prevent meteoroids from impacting the lunar surface. Upon impact, the meteoroid's kinetic energy is partitioned into crater excavation, seismic wave production, and the generation of a debris plume. A flash of light associated with the plume is detectable by instruments on Earth. Following the initial observation of a probable Taurid impact flash on the Moon in November 2005,1 the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) began a routine monitoring program to observe the Moon for meteoroid impact flashes in early 2006, resulting in the observation of over 330 impacts to date. The main objective of the MEO is to characterize the meteoroid environment for application to spacecraft engineering and operations. The Lunar Impact Monitoring Program provides information about the meteoroid flux in near-Earth space in a size range-tens of grams to a few kilograms-difficult to measure with statistical significance by other means. A bright impact flash detected by the program in March 2013 brought into focus the importance of determining the impact flash location. Prior to this time, the location was estimated to the nearest half-degree by visually comparing the impact imagery to maps of the Moon. Better accuracy was not needed because meteoroid flux calculations did not require high-accuracy impact locations. But such a bright event was thought to have produced a fresh crater detectable from lunar orbit by the NASA spacecraft Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The idea of linking the observation of an impact flash with its crater was an appealing one, as it would validate NASA photometric calculations and crater scaling laws developed from hypervelocity gun testing. This idea was

  17. Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

  18. Educational Attainment and Residential Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, William

    2006-01-01

    The effects of residential location at age 16 and current residential location on measures of educational attainment are estimated. Particular attention is given to the effects of migration and family background on educational outcomes. It is shown that central cities and suburbs of large metropolitan areas in the United States have significantly…

  19. Locative Terms and Warlpiri Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavin, Edith L.

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on the influence of language specific properties in the acquisition of locative expressions. Some of the claims from literature on the acquisition of locative expressions are discussed and data from the acquisition of Warlpiri are presented and discussed in terms of these claims. (Author/CB)

  20. Precision zero-home locator

    DOEpatents

    Stone, William J.

    1986-01-01

    A zero-home locator includes a fixed phototransistor switch and a moveable actuator including two symmetrical, opposed wedges, each wedge defining a point at which switching occurs. The zero-home location is the average of the positions of the points defined by the wedges.

  1. Precision zero-home locator

    DOEpatents

    Stone, W.J.

    1983-10-31

    A zero-home locator includes a fixed phototransistor switch and a moveable actuator including two symmetrical, opposed wedges, each wedge defining a point at which switching occurs. The zero-home location is the average of the positions of the points defined by the wedges.

  2. Higher order accurate partial implicitization: An unconditionally stable fourth-order-accurate explicit numerical technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, R. A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The previously obtained second-order-accurate partial implicitization numerical technique used in the solution of fluid dynamic problems was modified with little complication to achieve fourth-order accuracy. The Von Neumann stability analysis demonstrated the unconditional linear stability of the technique. The order of the truncation error was deduced from the Taylor series expansions of the linearized difference equations and was verified by numerical solutions to Burger's equation. For comparison, results were also obtained for Burger's equation using a second-order-accurate partial-implicitization scheme, as well as the fourth-order scheme of Kreiss.

  3. Cues indicating location in pigeon navigation.

    PubMed

    Beason, Robert C; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Domesticated Rock Pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) have been selected for returning home after being displaced. They appear to use many of the physical cue sources available in the natural environment for Map-and-Compass navigation. Two compass mechanisms that have been well documented in pigeons are a time-compensated sun compass and a magnetic inclination compass. Location-finding, or map, mechanisms have been more elusive. Visual landmarks, magnetic fields, odors, gravity and now also infrasound have been proposed as sources of information on location. Even in highly familiar locations, pigeons appear to neither use nor need landmarks and can even return to the loft while wearing frosted lenses. Direct and indirect evidence indicates magnetic field information influences pigeon navigation in ways that are consistent with magnetic map components. The role of odors is unclear; it might be motivational in nature rather than navigational. The influence of gravity must be further analyzed. Experiments with infrasound have been interpreted in the sense that they provide information on the home direction, but this hypothesis is inconsistent with the Map-and-Compass Model. All these factors appear to be components of a multifactorial system, with the pigeons being opportunistic, preferring those cues that prove most suitable in their home region. This has made understanding the roles of individual cues challenging.

  4. Household location choices: implications for biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Peterson, M Nils; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-08-01

    Successful conservation efforts require understanding human behaviors that directly affect biodiversity. Choice of household location represents an observable behavior that has direct effects on biodiversity conservation, but no one has examined the sociocultural predictors of this choice relative to its environmental impacts. We conducted a case study of the Teton Valley of Idaho and Wyoming (U.S.A.) that (1) explored relationships between sociodemographic variables, environmental attitudes, and the environmental impact of household location choices, (2) assessed the potential for small household sizes in natural areas to multiply the environmental impacts of household location decisions, and (3) evaluated how length of residency predicted the environmental attitudes of people living in natural areas. We collected sociodemographic data, spatial coordinates, and land-cover information in a survey of 416 households drawn from a random sample of Teton Valley residents (95% compliance rate). Immigrants (respondents not born in the study area) with the lowest education levels and least environmentally oriented attitudes lived in previously established residential areas in disproportionately high numbers, and older and more educated immigrants with the most environmentally oriented attitudes lived in natural areas in disproportionately high numbers. Income was not a significant predictor of household location decisions. Those living in natural areas had more environmental impact per person because of the location and because small households (<3 people/household) were 4 times as likely in natural areas as large households. Longer residency in natural areas predicted less environmentally oriented attitudes, suggesting that living in natural areas does not foster more concern for nature. Because populaces are rapidly aging, growing more educated, and potentially growing more environmentally oriented, these patterns are troubling for biodiversity conservation. Our results

  5. Development and Validation of a Multidisciplinary Tool for Accurate and Efficient Rotorcraft Noise Prediction (MUTE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yi; Anusonti-Inthra, Phuriwat; Diskin, Boris

    2011-01-01

    A physics-based, systematically coupled, multidisciplinary prediction tool (MUTE) for rotorcraft noise was developed and validated with a wide range of flight configurations and conditions. MUTE is an aggregation of multidisciplinary computational tools that accurately and efficiently model the physics of the source of rotorcraft noise, and predict the noise at far-field observer locations. It uses systematic coupling approaches among multiple disciplines including Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD), and high fidelity acoustics. Within MUTE, advanced high-order CFD tools are used around the rotor blade to predict the transonic flow (shock wave) effects, which generate the high-speed impulsive noise. Predictions of the blade-vortex interaction noise in low speed flight are also improved by using the Particle Vortex Transport Method (PVTM), which preserves the wake flow details required for blade/wake and fuselage/wake interactions. The accuracy of the source noise prediction is further improved by utilizing a coupling approach between CFD and CSD, so that the effects of key structural dynamics, elastic blade deformations, and trim solutions are correctly represented in the analysis. The blade loading information and/or the flow field parameters around the rotor blade predicted by the CFD/CSD coupling approach are used to predict the acoustic signatures at far-field observer locations with a high-fidelity noise propagation code (WOPWOP3). The predicted results from the MUTE tool for rotor blade aerodynamic loading and far-field acoustic signatures are compared and validated with a variation of experimental data sets, such as UH60-A data, DNW test data and HART II test data.

  6. Optimization of preventive health care facility locations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Preventive health care programs can save lives and contribute to a better quality of life by diagnosing serious medical conditions early. The Preventive Health Care Facility Location (PHCFL) problem is to identify optimal locations for preventive health care facilities so as to maximize participation. When identifying locations for preventive health care facilities, we need to consider the characteristics of the preventive health care services. First, people should have more flexibility to select service locations. Second, each preventive health care facility needs to have a minimum number of clients in order to retain accreditation. Results This paper presents a new methodology for solving the PHCFL problem. In order to capture the characteristics of preventive health care services, we define a new accessibility measurement that combines the two-step floating catchment area method, distance factor, and the Huff-based competitive model. We assume that the accessibility of preventive health care services is a major determinant for participation in the service. Based on the new accessibility measurement, the PHCFL problem is formalized as a bi-objective model based on efficiency and coverage. The bi-objective model is solved using the Interchange algorithm. In order to accelerate the solving process, we implement the Interchange algorithm by building two new data structures, which captures the spatial structure of the PHCFL problem. In addition, in order to measure the spatial barrier between clients and preventive health care facilities accurately and dynamically, this paper estimates travelling distance and travelling time by calling the Google Maps Application Programming Interface (API). Conclusions Experiments based on a real application for the Alberta breast cancer screening program show that our work can increase the accessibility of breast cancer screening services in the province. PMID:20298608

  7. Ground truth seismic events and location capability at Degelen mountain, Kazakhstan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trabant, C.; Thurber, C.; Leith, W.

    2002-01-01

    We utilized nuclear explosions from the Degelen Mountain sub-region of the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS), Kazakhstan, to assess seismic location capability directly. Excellent ground truth information for these events was either known or was estimated from maps of the Degelen Mountain adit complex. Origin times were refined for events for which absolute origin time information was unknown using catalog arrival times, our ground truth location estimates, and a time baseline provided by fixing known origin times during a joint hypocenter determination (JHD). Precise arrival time picks were determined using a waveform cross-correlation process applied to the available digital data. These data were used in a JHD analysis. We found that very accurate locations were possible when high precision, waveform cross-correlation arrival times were combined with JHD. Relocation with our full digital data set resulted in a mean mislocation of 2 km and a mean 95% confidence ellipse (CE) area of 6.6 km2 (90% CE: 5.1 km2), however, only 5 of the 18 computed error ellipses actually covered the associated ground truth location estimate. To test a more realistic nuclear test monitoring scenario, we applied our JHD analysis to a set of seven events (one fixed) using data only from seismic stations within 40?? epicentral distance. Relocation with these data resulted in a mean mislocation of 7.4 km, with four of the 95% error ellipses covering less than 570 km2 (90% CE: 438 km2), and the other two covering 1730 and 8869 km2 (90% CE: 1331 and 6822 km2). Location uncertainties calculated using JHD often underestimated the true error, but a circular region with a radius equal to the mislocation covered less than 1000 km2 for all events having more than three observations. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantifying geocode location error using GIS methods

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Matthew J; Siffel, Csaba; Gardner, Bennett R; Berzen, Alissa K; Correa, Adolfo

    2007-01-01

    Background The Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP) collects maternal address information at the time of delivery for infants and fetuses with birth defects. These addresses have been geocoded by two independent agencies: (1) the Georgia Division of Public Health Office of Health Information and Policy (OHIP) and (2) a commercial vendor. Geographic information system (GIS) methods were used to quantify uncertainty in the two sets of geocodes using orthoimagery and tax parcel datasets. Methods We sampled 599 infants and fetuses with birth defects delivered during 1994–2002 with maternal residence in either Fulton or Gwinnett County. Tax parcel datasets were obtained from the tax assessor's offices of Fulton and Gwinnett County. High-resolution orthoimagery for these counties was acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey. For each of the 599 addresses we attempted to locate the tax parcel corresponding to the maternal address. If the tax parcel was identified the distance and the angle between the geocode and the residence were calculated. We used simulated data to characterize the impact of geocode location error. In each county 5,000 geocodes were generated and assigned their corresponding Census 2000 tract. Each geocode was then displaced at a random angle by a random distance drawn from the distribution of observed geocode location errors. The census tract of the displaced geocode was determined. We repeated this process 5,000 times and report the percentage of geocodes that resolved into incorrect census tracts. Results Median location error was less than 100 meters for both OHIP and commercial vendor geocodes; the distribution of angles appeared uniform. Median location error was approximately 35% larger in Gwinnett (a suburban county) relative to Fulton (a county with urban and suburban areas). Location error occasionally caused the simulated geocodes to be displaced into incorrect census tracts; the median percentage of geocodes resolving

  9. Locator continuously records pipeline depth readings

    SciTech Connect

    Fedde, P.A.; Patterson, C.

    1988-08-29

    Texas Gas Transmission Corp., Owensboro, Ky., has helped develop and test a pipeline-depth locator which is accurate to +-1.5 in. for lines buried as deep as 6 ft. It also continuously records pipeline depth. Development of the instrument came in response to regulations issued by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS), which require pipeline companies to maintain adequate cover over their buried lines and equipment. The result is that frequent surveys must determine if construction, terracing, or land-leveling activity has removed cover from the pipelines. With the instrument, a three-man crew can survey approximately 6 miles of pipeline/10-hr. working day.

  10. Kalman/Map filtering-aided fast normalized cross correlation-based Wi-Fi fingerprinting location sensing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongliang; Xu, Yubin; Li, Cheng; Ma, Lin

    2013-11-13

    A Kalman/map filtering (KMF)-aided fast normalized cross correlation (FNCC)-based Wi-Fi fingerprinting location sensing system is proposed in this paper. Compared with conventional neighbor selection algorithms that calculate localization results with received signal strength (RSS) mean samples, the proposed FNCC algorithm makes use of all the on-line RSS samples and reference point RSS variations to achieve higher fingerprinting accuracy. The FNCC computes efficiently while maintaining the same accuracy as the basic normalized cross correlation. Additionally, a KMF is also proposed to process fingerprinting localization results. It employs a new map matching algorithm to nonlinearize the linear location prediction process of Kalman filtering (KF) that takes advantage of spatial proximities of consecutive localization results. With a calibration model integrated into an indoor map, the map matching algorithm corrects unreasonable prediction locations of the KF according to the building interior structure. Thus, more accurate prediction locations are obtained. Using these locations, the KMF considerably improves fingerprinting algorithm performance. Experimental results demonstrate that the FNCC algorithm with reduced computational complexity outperforms other neighbor selection algorithms and the KMF effectively improves location sensing accuracy by using indoor map information and spatial proximities of consecutive localization results.

  11. Sampling designs matching species biology produce accurate and affordable abundance indices

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Sean; Russell, Gareth J.; Butler, Matthew J.; Selinger, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife biologists often use grid-based designs to sample animals and generate abundance estimates. Although sampling in grids is theoretically sound, in application, the method can be logistically difficult and expensive when sampling elusive species inhabiting extensive areas. These factors make it challenging to sample animals and meet the statistical assumption of all individuals having an equal probability of capture. Violating this assumption biases results. Does an alternative exist? Perhaps by sampling only where resources attract animals (i.e., targeted sampling), it would provide accurate abundance estimates more efficiently and affordably. However, biases from this approach would also arise if individuals have an unequal probability of capture, especially if some failed to visit the sampling area. Since most biological programs are resource limited, and acquiring abundance data drives many conservation and management applications, it becomes imperative to identify economical and informative sampling designs. Therefore, we evaluated abundance estimates generated from grid and targeted sampling designs using simulations based on geographic positioning system (GPS) data from 42 Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos). Migratory salmon drew brown bears from the wider landscape, concentrating them at anadromous streams. This provided a scenario for testing the targeted approach. Grid and targeted sampling varied by trap amount, location (traps placed randomly, systematically or by expert opinion), and traps stationary or moved between capture sessions. We began by identifying when to sample, and if bears had equal probability of capture. We compared abundance estimates against seven criteria: bias, precision, accuracy, effort, plus encounter rates, and probabilities of capture and recapture. One grid (49 km2 cells) and one targeted configuration provided the most accurate results. Both placed traps by expert opinion and moved traps between capture sessions, which

  12. Field validation of food service listings: a comparison of commercial and online geographic information system databases.

    PubMed

    Seliske, Laura; Pickett, William; Bates, Rebecca; Janssen, Ian

    2012-08-01

    Many studies examining the food retail environment rely on geographic information system (GIS) databases for location information. The purpose of this study was to validate information provided by two GIS databases, comparing the positional accuracy of food service places within a 1 km circular buffer surrounding 34 schools in Ontario, Canada. A commercial database (InfoCanada) and an online database (Yellow Pages) provided the addresses of food service places. Actual locations were measured using a global positioning system (GPS) device. The InfoCanada and Yellow Pages GIS databases provided the locations for 973 and 675 food service places, respectively. Overall, 749 (77.1%) and 595 (88.2%) of these were located in the field. The online database had a higher proportion of food service places found in the field. The GIS locations of 25% of the food service places were located within approximately 15 m of their actual location, 50% were within 25 m, and 75% were within 50 m. This validation study provided a detailed assessment of errors in the measurement of the location of food service places in the two databases. The location information was more accurate for the online database, however, when matching criteria were more conservative, there were no observed differences in error between the databases.

  13. Does a pneumotach accurately characterize voice function?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Gage; Krane, Michael

    2016-11-01

    A study is presented which addresses how a pneumotach might adversely affect clinical measurements of voice function. A pneumotach is a device, typically a mask, worn over the mouth, in order to measure time-varying glottal volume flow. By measuring the time-varying difference in pressure across a known aerodynamic resistance element in the mask, the glottal volume flow waveform is estimated. Because it adds aerodynamic resistance to the vocal system, there is some concern that using a pneumotach may not accurately portray the behavior of the voice. To test this hypothesis, experiments were performed in a simplified airway model with the principal dimensions of an adult human upper airway. A compliant constriction, fabricated from silicone rubber, modeled the vocal folds. Variations of transglottal pressure, time-averaged volume flow, model vocal fold vibration amplitude, and radiated sound with subglottal pressure were performed, with and without the pneumotach in place, and differences noted. Acknowledge support of NIH Grant 2R01DC005642-10A1.

  14. Accurate thermoplasmonic simulation of metallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Da-Miao; Liu, Yan-Nan; Tian, Fa-Lin; Pan, Xiao-Min; Sheng, Xin-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Thermoplasmonics leads to enhanced heat generation due to the localized surface plasmon resonances. The measurement of heat generation is fundamentally a complicated task, which necessitates the development of theoretical simulation techniques. In this paper, an efficient and accurate numerical scheme is proposed for applications with complex metallic nanostructures. Light absorption and temperature increase are, respectively, obtained by solving the volume integral equation (VIE) and the steady-state heat diffusion equation through the method of moments (MoM). Previously, methods based on surface integral equations (SIEs) were utilized to obtain light absorption. However, computing light absorption from the equivalent current is as expensive as O(NsNv), where Ns and Nv, respectively, denote the number of surface and volumetric unknowns. Our approach reduces the cost to O(Nv) by using VIE. The accuracy, efficiency and capability of the proposed scheme are validated by multiple simulations. The simulations show that our proposed method is more efficient than the approach based on SIEs under comparable accuracy, especially for the case where many incidents are of interest. The simulations also indicate that the temperature profile can be tuned by several factors, such as the geometry configuration of array, beam direction, and light wavelength.

  15. Accurate Theoretical Thermochemistry for Fluoroethyl Radicals.

    PubMed

    Ganyecz, Ádám; Kállay, Mihály; Csontos, József

    2017-02-09

    An accurate coupled-cluster (CC) based model chemistry was applied to calculate reliable thermochemical quantities for hydrofluorocarbon derivatives including radicals 1-fluoroethyl (CH3-CHF), 1,1-difluoroethyl (CH3-CF2), 2-fluoroethyl (CH2F-CH2), 1,2-difluoroethyl (CH2F-CHF), 2,2-difluoroethyl (CHF2-CH2), 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl (CF3-CH2), 1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl (CF3-CHF), and pentafluoroethyl (CF3-CF2). The model chemistry used contains iterative triple and perturbative quadruple excitations in CC theory, as well as scalar relativistic and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections. To obtain heat of formation values with better than chemical accuracy perturbative quadruple excitations and scalar relativistic corrections were inevitable. Their contributions to the heats of formation steadily increase with the number of fluorine atoms in the radical reaching 10 kJ/mol for CF3-CF2. When discrepancies were found between the experimental and our values it was always possible to resolve the issue by recalculating the experimental result with currently recommended auxiliary data. For each radical studied here this study delivers the best heat of formation as well as entropy data.

  16. Accurate methods for large molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Mark S; Mullin, Jonathan M; Pruitt, Spencer R; Roskop, Luke B; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V; Boatz, Jerry A

    2009-07-23

    Three exciting new methods that address the accurate prediction of processes and properties of large molecular systems are discussed. The systematic fragmentation method (SFM) and the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method both decompose a large molecular system (e.g., protein, liquid, zeolite) into small subunits (fragments) in very different ways that are designed to both retain the high accuracy of the chosen quantum mechanical level of theory while greatly reducing the demands on computational time and resources. Each of these methods is inherently scalable and is therefore eminently capable of taking advantage of massively parallel computer hardware while retaining the accuracy of the corresponding electronic structure method from which it is derived. The effective fragment potential (EFP) method is a sophisticated approach for the prediction of nonbonded and intermolecular interactions. Therefore, the EFP method provides a way to further reduce the computational effort while retaining accuracy by treating the far-field interactions in place of the full electronic structure method. The performance of the methods is demonstrated using applications to several systems, including benzene dimer, small organic species, pieces of the alpha helix, water, and ionic liquids.

  17. Accurate equilibrium structures for piperidine and cyclohexane.

    PubMed

    Demaison, Jean; Craig, Norman C; Groner, Peter; Écija, Patricia; Cocinero, Emilio J; Lesarri, Alberto; Rudolph, Heinz Dieter

    2015-03-05

    Extended and improved microwave (MW) measurements are reported for the isotopologues of piperidine. New ground state (GS) rotational constants are fitted to MW transitions with quartic centrifugal distortion constants taken from ab initio calculations. Predicate values for the geometric parameters of piperidine and cyclohexane are found from a high level of ab initio theory including adjustments for basis set dependence and for correlation of the core electrons. Equilibrium rotational constants are obtained from GS rotational constants corrected for vibration-rotation interactions and electronic contributions. Equilibrium structures for piperidine and cyclohexane are fitted by the mixed estimation method. In this method, structural parameters are fitted concurrently to predicate parameters (with appropriate uncertainties) and moments of inertia (with uncertainties). The new structures are regarded as being accurate to 0.001 Å and 0.2°. Comparisons are made between bond parameters in equatorial piperidine and cyclohexane. Another interesting result of this study is that a structure determination is an effective way to check the accuracy of the ground state experimental rotational constants.

  18. Noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring: how accurate is enough?

    PubMed

    Rice, Mark J; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Morey, Timothy E

    2013-10-01

    Evaluating the accuracy of medical devices has traditionally been a blend of statistical analyses, at times without contextualizing the clinical application. There have been a number of recent publications on the accuracy of a continuous noninvasive hemoglobin measurement device, the Masimo Radical-7 Pulse Co-oximeter, focusing on the traditional statistical metrics of bias and precision. In this review, which contains material presented at the Innovations and Applications of Monitoring Perfusion, Oxygenation, and Ventilation (IAMPOV) Symposium at Yale University in 2012, we critically investigated these metrics as applied to the new technology, exploring what is required of a noninvasive hemoglobin monitor and whether the conventional statistics adequately answer our questions about clinical accuracy. We discuss the glucose error grid, well known in the glucose monitoring literature, and describe an analogous version for hemoglobin monitoring. This hemoglobin error grid can be used to evaluate the required clinical accuracy (±g/dL) of a hemoglobin measurement device to provide more conclusive evidence on whether to transfuse an individual patient. The important decision to transfuse a patient usually requires both an accurate hemoglobin measurement and a physiologic reason to elect transfusion. It is our opinion that the published accuracy data of the Masimo Radical-7 is not good enough to make the transfusion decision.

  19. Fast and accurate exhaled breath ammonia measurement.

    PubMed

    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew L; Spacek, Lisa A; Risby, Terence H

    2014-06-11

    This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Together with the quick response time of the monitor, this system is capable of accurately measuring exhaled breath ammonia representative of deep lung systemic levels. Because the system is easy to use and produces real time results, it has enabled experiments to identify factors that influence measurements. For example, mouth rinse and oral pH reproducibly and significantly affect results and therefore must be controlled. Temperature and mode of breathing are other examples. As our understanding of these factors evolves, error is reduced, and clinical studies become more meaningful. This system is very reliable and individual measurements are inexpensive. The sampler is relatively inexpensive and quite portable, but the monitor is neither. This limits options for some clinical studies and provides rational for future innovations.

  20. Accurate Fission Data for Nuclear Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solders, A.; Gorelov, D.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Lantz, M.; Mattera, A.; Penttilä, H.; Pomp, S.; Rakopoulos, V.; Rinta-Antila, S.

    2014-05-01

    The Accurate fission data for nuclear safety (AlFONS) project aims at high precision measurements of fission yields, using the renewed IGISOL mass separator facility in combination with a new high current light ion cyclotron at the University of Jyväskylä. The 30 MeV proton beam will be used to create fast and thermal neutron spectra for the study of neutron induced fission yields. Thanks to a series of mass separating elements, culminating with the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, it is possible to achieve a mass resolving power in the order of a few hundred thousands. In this paper we present the experimental setup and the design of a neutron converter target for IGISOL. The goal is to have a flexible design. For studies of exotic nuclei far from stability a high neutron flux (1012 neutrons/s) at energies 1 - 30 MeV is desired while for reactor applications neutron spectra that resembles those of thermal and fast nuclear reactors are preferred. It is also desirable to be able to produce (semi-)monoenergetic neutrons for benchmarking and to study the energy dependence of fission yields. The scientific program is extensive and is planed to start in 2013 with a measurement of isomeric yield ratios of proton induced fission in uranium. This will be followed by studies of independent yields of thermal and fast neutron induced fission of various actinides.

  1. The leak location package for assessment of the time-frequency correlation method for leak location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faerman, V. A.; Cheremnov, A. G.; Avramchuk, V. S.; Shepetovsky, D. V.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes the simplest implementation of a software and hardware package for acoustic correlation leak location and results of its performance assessment for location of water leaks from a metallic pipe in laboratory conditions. A distinctive feature of this leak locator is the use of the software based on the time-frequency correlation analysis of signals, which was proposed in our previous papers. Comparative analysis results are given for the information content of classical and time-frequency cross-correlation functions as obtained during processing of experimental data. The results obtained justify comparatively higher efficiency of a time-frequency cross correlation method to solve the leak location task. Improved efficiency is determined by bandpass filtration embedded into the time-frequency cross-correlation function calculation.

  2. A new and accurate continuum description of moving fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, S. T.; Baker, R. E.; Simpson, M. J.

    2017-03-01

    Processes that involve moving fronts of populations are prevalent in ecology and cell biology. A common approach to describe these processes is a lattice-based random walk model, which can include mechanisms such as crowding, birth, death, movement and agent–agent adhesion. However, these models are generally analytically intractable and it is computationally expensive to perform sufficiently many realisations of the model to obtain an estimate of average behaviour that is not dominated by random fluctuations. To avoid these issues, both mean-field (MF) and corrected mean-field (CMF) continuum descriptions of random walk models have been proposed. However, both continuum descriptions are inaccurate outside of limited parameter regimes, and CMF descriptions cannot be employed to describe moving fronts. Here we present an alternative description in terms of the dynamics of groups of contiguous occupied lattice sites and contiguous vacant lattice sites. Our description provides an accurate prediction of the average random walk behaviour in all parameter regimes. Critically, our description accurately predicts the persistence or extinction of the population in situations where previous continuum descriptions predict the opposite outcome. Furthermore, unlike traditional MF models, our approach provides information about the spatial clustering within the population and, subsequently, the moving front.

  3. Accurate three-dimensional documentation of distinct sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mahesh K.; Dutta, Ashish; Subramanian, Venkatesh K.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most critical aspects of documenting distinct sites is acquiring detailed and accurate range information. Several three-dimensional (3-D) acquisition techniques are available, but each has its own limitations. This paper presents a range data fusion method with the aim to enhance the descriptive contents of the entire 3-D reconstructed model. A kernel function is introduced for supervised classification of the range data using a kernelized support vector machine. The classification method is based on the local saliency features of the acquired range data. The range data acquired from heterogeneous range sensors are transformed into a defined common reference frame. Based on the segmentation criterion, the fusion of range data is performed by integrating finer regions of range data acquired from a laser range scanner with the coarser region of Kinect's range data. After fusion, the Delaunay triangulation algorithm is applied to generate the highly accurate, realistic 3-D model of the scene. Finally, experimental results show the robustness of the proposed approach.

  4. Mouse models of human AML accurately predict chemotherapy response

    PubMed Central

    Zuber, Johannes; Radtke, Ina; Pardee, Timothy S.; Zhao, Zhen; Rappaport, Amy R.; Luo, Weijun; McCurrach, Mila E.; Yang, Miao-Miao; Dolan, M. Eileen; Kogan, Scott C.; Downing, James R.; Lowe, Scott W.

    2009-01-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of cancer influences the trajectory of tumor progression and may underlie clinical variation in therapy response. To model such heterogeneity, we produced genetically and pathologically accurate mouse models of common forms of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and developed methods to mimic standard induction chemotherapy and efficiently monitor therapy response. We see that murine AMLs harboring two common human AML genotypes show remarkably diverse responses to conventional therapy that mirror clinical experience. Specifically, murine leukemias expressing the AML1/ETO fusion oncoprotein, associated with a favorable prognosis in patients, show a dramatic response to induction chemotherapy owing to robust activation of the p53 tumor suppressor network. Conversely, murine leukemias expressing MLL fusion proteins, associated with a dismal prognosis in patients, are drug-resistant due to an attenuated p53 response. Our studies highlight the importance of genetic information in guiding the treatment of human AML, functionally establish the p53 network as a central determinant of chemotherapy response in AML, and demonstrate that genetically engineered mouse models of human cancer can accurately predict therapy response in patients. PMID:19339691

  5. Mouse models of human AML accurately predict chemotherapy response.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Johannes; Radtke, Ina; Pardee, Timothy S; Zhao, Zhen; Rappaport, Amy R; Luo, Weijun; McCurrach, Mila E; Yang, Miao-Miao; Dolan, M Eileen; Kogan, Scott C; Downing, James R; Lowe, Scott W

    2009-04-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of cancer influences the trajectory of tumor progression and may underlie clinical variation in therapy response. To model such heterogeneity, we produced genetically and pathologically accurate mouse models of common forms of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and developed methods to mimic standard induction chemotherapy and efficiently monitor therapy response. We see that murine AMLs harboring two common human AML genotypes show remarkably diverse responses to conventional therapy that mirror clinical experience. Specifically, murine leukemias expressing the AML1/ETO fusion oncoprotein, associated with a favorable prognosis in patients, show a dramatic response to induction chemotherapy owing to robust activation of the p53 tumor suppressor network. Conversely, murine leukemias expressing MLL fusion proteins, associated with a dismal prognosis in patients, are drug-resistant due to an attenuated p53 response. Our studies highlight the importance of genetic information in guiding the treatment of human AML, functionally establish the p53 network as a central determinant of chemotherapy response in AML, and demonstrate that genetically engineered mouse models of human cancer can accurately predict therapy response in patients.

  6. Process Mining Methodology for Health Process Tracking Using Real-Time Indoor Location Systems.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Lizondo, Aroa; Monton, Eduardo; Benedi, Jose-Miguel; Traver, Vicente

    2015-11-30

    The definition of efficient and accurate health processes in hospitals is crucial for ensuring an adequate quality of service. Knowing and improving the behavior of the surgical processes in a hospital can improve the number of patients that can be operated on using the same resources. However, the measure of this process is usually made in an obtrusive way, forcing nurses to get information and time data, affecting the proper process and generating inaccurate data due to human errors during the stressful journey of health staff in the operating theater. The use of indoor location systems can take time information about the process in an unobtrusive way, freeing nurses, allowing them to engage in purely welfare work. However, it is necessary to present these data in a understandable way for health professionals, who cannot deal with large amounts of historical localization log data. The use of process mining techniques can deal with this problem, offering an easily understandable view of the process. In this paper, we present a tool and a process mining-based methodology that, using indoor location systems, enables health staff not only to represent the process, but to know precise information about the deployment of the process in an unobtrusive and transparent way. We have successfully tested this tool in a real surgical area with 3613 patients during February, March and April of 2015.

  7. Process Mining Methodology for Health Process Tracking Using Real-Time Indoor Location Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Lizondo, Aroa; Monton, Eduardo; Benedi, Jose-Miguel; Traver, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The definition of efficient and accurate health processes in hospitals is crucial for ensuring an adequate quality of service. Knowing and improving the behavior of the surgical processes in a hospital can improve the number of patients that can be operated on using the same resources. However, the measure of this process is usually made in an obtrusive way, forcing nurses to get information and time data, affecting the proper process and generating inaccurate data due to human errors during the stressful journey of health staff in the operating theater. The use of indoor location systems can take time information about the process in an unobtrusive way, freeing nurses, allowing them to engage in purely welfare work. However, it is necessary to present these data in a understandable way for health professionals, who cannot deal with large amounts of historical localization log data. The use of process mining techniques can deal with this problem, offering an easily understandable view of the process. In this paper, we present a tool and a process mining-based methodology that, using indoor location systems, enables health staff not only to represent the process, but to know precise information about the deployment of the process in an unobtrusive and transparent way. We have successfully tested this tool in a real surgical area with 3613 patients during February, March and April of 2015. PMID:26633395

  8. Determination of the Best Ground Penetrating Radar Source Signal Type for the Accurate Location of Underground Utilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    of RF modulation used by the GPR. :n essence , this is a key performance criterion of any GPR system. 3.3 DESIGNLNG THE GPR SYSTEM This section...emulsion of oil , water, and salt to achieve the required properties of the model dielectric. Dr. Glenn Smith of the Georgia Institute of Technology has...emulsion created for use in the liquid tank could be made to model selected soil dielectrics. Dr. Smith uses a high-grade, light mineral oil , water, and

  9. Identifying the number and location of body worn sensors to accurately classify walking, transferring and sedentary activities.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Omar; Robinovitch, Stephen N; Park, Edward J

    2016-08-01

    In order to perform fall risk assessments using wearable inertial sensors in older adults in their natural settings where falls are likely to occur, a first step is to automatically segment and classify sensor signals of human movements into the known `activities of interest'. Sensor data from such activities can later be used through quantitative and qualitative analysis for differentiating fallers from non-fallers. In this study, ten young adults participated in experimental trials involving several variations of walking, transferring and sedentary activities. Data from tri-axial accelerometers and gyroscopes were used to classify the aforementioned three categories using a multiclass support vector machine algorithm. Our results showed 100% accuracy in distinguishing walking, transferring and sedentary activities using data from a three-sensor combination of sternum and both ankles.

  10. Accurate Memory for Object Location by Individuals with Intellectual Disability: Absolute Spatial Tagging Instead of Configural Processing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliani, Fabienne; Favrod, Jerome; Grasset, Francois; Schenk, Francoise

    2011-01-01

    Using head-mounted eye tracker material, we assessed spatial recognition abilities (e.g., reaction to object permutation, removal or replacement with a new object) in participants with intellectual disabilities. The "Intellectual Disabilities (ID)" group (n = 40) obtained a score totalling a 93.7% success rate, whereas the "Normal Control" group…

  11. Fast and accurate automated cell boundary determination for fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arce, Stephen Hugo; Wu, Pei-Hsun; Tseng, Yiider

    2013-07-01

    Detailed measurement of cell phenotype information from digital fluorescence images has the potential to greatly advance biomedicine in various disciplines such as patient diagnostics or drug screening. Yet, the complexity of cell conformations presents a major barrier preventing effective determination of cell boundaries, and introduces measurement error that propagates throughout subsequent assessment of cellular parameters and statistical analysis. State-of-the-art image segmentation techniques that require user-interaction, prolonged computation time and specialized training cannot adequately provide the support for high content platforms, which often sacrifice resolution to foster the speedy collection of massive amounts of cellular data. This work introduces a strategy that allows us to rapidly obtain accurate cell boundaries from digital fluorescent images in an automated format. Hence, this new method has broad applicability to promote biotechnology.

  12. Photoacoustic computed tomography without accurate ultrasonic transducer responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Qiwei; Wang, Kun; Xia, Jun; Zhu, Liren; Wang, Lihong V.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2015-03-01

    Conventional photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) image reconstruction methods assume that the object and surrounding medium are described by a constant speed-of-sound (SOS) value. In order to accurately recover fine structures, SOS heterogeneities should be quantified and compensated for during PACT reconstruction. To address this problem, several groups have proposed hybrid systems that combine PACT with ultrasound computed tomography (USCT). In such systems, a SOS map is reconstructed first via USCT. Consequently, this SOS map is employed to inform the PACT reconstruction method. Additionally, the SOS map can provide structural information regarding tissue, which is complementary to the functional information from the PACT image. We propose a paradigm shift in the way that images are reconstructed in hybrid PACT-USCT imaging. Inspired by our observation that information about the SOS distribution is encoded in PACT measurements, we propose to jointly reconstruct the absorbed optical energy density and SOS distributions from a combined set of USCT and PACT measurements, thereby reducing the two reconstruction problems into one. This innovative approach has several advantages over conventional approaches in which PACT and USCT images are reconstructed independently: (1) Variations in the SOS will automatically be accounted for, optimizing PACT image quality; (2) The reconstructed PACT and USCT images will possess minimal systematic artifacts because errors in the imaging models will be optimally balanced during the joint reconstruction; (3) Due to the exploitation of information regarding the SOS distribution in the full-view PACT data, our approach will permit high-resolution reconstruction of the SOS distribution from sparse array data.

  13. Improved phase arrival estimate and location for local earthquakes in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, E. A.; Rowe, C. A.; Begnaud, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    The Korean Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and the Korean Meteorological Agency (KMA) regularly report local (distance < ~1200 km) seismicity recorded with their networks; we obtain preliminary event location estimates as well as waveform data, but no phase arrivals are reported, so the data are not immediately useful for earthquake location. Our goal is to identify seismic events that are sufficiently well-located to provide accurate seismic travel-time information for events within the KIGAM and KMA networks, and also recorded by some regional stations. Toward that end, we are using a combination of manual phase identification and arrival-time picking, with waveform cross-correlation, to cluster events that have occurred in close proximity to one another, which allows for improved phase identification by comparing the highly correlating waveforms. We cross-correlate the known events with one another on 5 seismic stations and cluster events that correlate above a correlation coefficient threshold of 0.7, which reveals few clusters containing few events each. The small number of repeating events suggests that the online catalogs have had mining and quarry blasts removed before publication, as these can contribute significantly to repeating seismic sources in relatively aseismic regions such as South Korea. The dispersed source locations in our catalog, however, are ideal for seismic velocity modeling by providing superior sampling through the dense seismic station arrangement, which produces favorable event-to-station ray path coverage. Following careful manual phase picking on 104 events chosen to provide adequate ray coverage, we re-locate the events to obtain improved source coordinates. The re-located events are used with Thurber's Simul2000 pseudo-bending local tomography code to estimate the crustal structure on the Korean Peninsula, which is an important contribution to ongoing calibration for events of interest in the region.

  14. A Technique Using Calibrated Photography and Photoshop for Accurate Shade Analysis and Communication.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Edward A; Figueira, Johan; Goldstein, Ronald E

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews the critical aspects of controlling the shade-taking environment and discusses various modalities introduced throughout the years to acquire and communicate shade information. Demonstrating a highly calibrated digital photographic technique for capturing shade information, this article shows how to use Photoshop® to standardize images and extract color information from the tooth and shade tab for use by a ceramist for an accurate shade-matching restoration.

  15. INFORMS Section on Location Analysis Dissertation Award Submission

    SciTech Connect

    Waddell, Lucas

    2016-09-30

    This research effort can be summarized by two main thrusts, each of which has a chapter of the dissertation dedicated to it. First, I pose a novel polyhedral approach for identifying polynomially solvable in- stances of the QAP based on an application of the reformulation-linearization technique (RLT), a general procedure for constructing mixed 0-1 linear reformulations of 0-1 pro- grams. The feasible region to the continuous relaxation of the level-1 RLT form is a polytope having a highly specialized structure. Every binary solution to the QAP is associated with an extreme point of this polytope, and the objective function value is preserved at each such point. However, there exist extreme points that do not correspond to binary solutions. The key insight is a previously unnoticed and unexpected relationship between the polyhedral structure of the continuous relaxation of the level-1 RLT representation and various classes of readily solvable instances. Specifically, we show that a variety of apparently unrelated solvable cases of the QAP can all be categorized in the following sense: each such case has an objective function which ensures that an optimal solution to the continuous relaxation of the level-1 RLT form occurs at a binary extreme point. Interestingly, there exist instances that are solvable by the level-1 RLT form which do not satisfy the conditions of these cases, so that the level-1 form theoretically identifies a richer family of solvable instances. Second, I focus on instances of the QAP known in the literature as linearizable. An instance of the QAP is defined to be linearizable if and only if the problem can be equivalently written as a linear assignment problem that preserves the objective function value at all feasible solutions. I provide an entirely new polyheral-based perspective on the concept of linearizable by showing that an instance of the QAP is linearizable if and only if a relaxed version of the continuous relaxation of the level-1 RLT form is bounded. We also shows that the level-1 RLT form can identify a richer family of solvable instances than those deemed linearizable by demonstrating that the continuous relaxation of the level-1 RLT form can have an optimal binary solution for instances that are not linearizable. As a byproduct, I use this theoretical framework to explicity, in closed form, characterize the dimensions of the level-1 RLT form and various other problem relaxations.

  16. Computer Cache. Diseases: Locating Helpful Information on the Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byerly, Greg; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    According to the American Heritage Dictionary, disease is "a pathological condition of a part, organ, or system of an organism resulting from various causes, such as infection, genetic defect, or environmental stress, and characterized by an identifiable group of signs or symptoms" (2000). Students in upper elementary school and in middle school…

  17. Robust Sensor Placements at Informative and Communication-efficient Locations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    tree T ∗ with cost `∗, spanning a setA∗. Then PSPIEL can find a tree T with costO (r dim(V,E))×`∗, spanning a setAwith expected sensing quality F (A...V, E), s, t ∈ V and an (r, γ)-local monotone submodular function F , PSPIEL will find an s− t path P with costO (r dim(V,E))× `∗, spanning a setA with

  18. Accurate orbit propagation with planetary close encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baù, Giulio; Milani Comparetti, Andrea; Guerra, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    We tackle the problem of accurately propagating the motion of those small bodies that undergo close approaches with a planet. The literature is lacking on this topic and the reliability of the numerical results is not sufficiently discussed. The high-frequency components of the perturbation generated by a close encounter makes the propagation particularly challenging both from the point of view of the dynamical stability of the formulation and the numerical stability of the integrator. In our approach a fixed step-size and order multistep integrator is combined with a regularized formulation of the perturbed two-body problem. When the propagated object enters the region of influence of a celestial body, the latter becomes the new primary body of attraction. Moreover, the formulation and the step-size will also be changed if necessary. We present: 1) the restarter procedure applied to the multistep integrator whenever the primary body is changed; 2) new analytical formulae for setting the step-size (given the order of the multistep, formulation and initial osculating orbit) in order to control the accumulation of the local truncation error and guarantee the numerical stability during the propagation; 3) a new definition of the region of influence in the phase space. We test the propagator with some real asteroids subject to the gravitational attraction of the planets, the Yarkovsky and relativistic perturbations. Our goal is to show that the proposed approach improves the performance of both the propagator implemented in the OrbFit software package (which is currently used by the NEODyS service) and of the propagator represented by a variable step-size and order multistep method combined with Cowell's formulation (i.e. direct integration of position and velocity in either the physical or a fictitious time).

  19. Important Nearby Galaxies without Accurate Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuinn, Kristen

    2014-10-01

    The Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) and its offspring programs (e.g., THINGS, HERACLES, KINGFISH) have resulted in a fundamental change in our view of star formation and the ISM in galaxies, and together they represent the most complete multi-wavelength data set yet assembled for a large sample of nearby galaxies. These great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the goal of understanding the interstellar medium, the star formation process, and, more generally, galactic evolution at the present epoch. Nearby galaxies provide the basis for which we interpret the distant universe, and the SINGS sample represents the best studied nearby galaxies.Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of galaxies. Surprisingly, many of the SINGS spiral galaxies have numerous distance estimates resulting in confusion. We can rectify this situation for 8 of the SINGS spiral galaxies within 10 Mpc at a very low cost through measurements of the tip of the red giant branch. The proposed observations will provide an accuracy of better than 0.1 in distance modulus. Our sample includes such well known galaxies as M51 (the Whirlpool), M63 (the Sunflower), M104 (the Sombrero), and M74 (the archetypal grand design spiral).We are also proposing coordinated parallel WFC3 UV observations of the central regions of the galaxies, rich with high-mass UV-bright stars. As a secondary science goal we will compare the resolved UV stellar populations with integrated UV emission measurements used in calibrating star formation rates. Our observations will complement the growing HST UV atlas of high resolution images of nearby galaxies.

  20. Accurate paleointensities - the multi-method approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groot, Lennart

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy of models describing rapid changes in the geomagnetic field over the past millennia critically depends on the availability of reliable paleointensity estimates. Over the past decade methods to derive paleointensities from lavas (the only recorder of the geomagnetic field that is available all over the globe and through geologic times) have seen significant improvements and various alternative techniques were proposed. The 'classical' Thellier-style approach was optimized and selection criteria were defined in the 'Standard Paleointensity Definitions' (Paterson et al, 2014). The Multispecimen approach was validated and the importance of additional tests and criteria to assess Multispecimen results must be emphasized. Recently, a non-heating, relative paleointensity technique was proposed -the pseudo-Thellier protocol- which shows great potential in both accuracy and efficiency, but currently lacks a solid theoretical underpinning. Here I present work using all three of the aforementioned paleointensity methods on suites of young lavas taken from the volcanic islands of Hawaii, La Palma, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, and Terceira. Many of the sampled cooling units are <100 years old, the actual field strength at the time of cooling is therefore reasonably well known. Rather intuitively, flows that produce coherent results from two or more different paleointensity methods yield the most accurate estimates of the paleofield. Furthermore, the results for some flows pass the selection criteria for one method, but fail in other techniques. Scrutinizing and combing all acceptable results yielded reliable paleointensity estimates for 60-70% of all sampled cooling units - an exceptionally high success rate. This 'multi-method paleointensity approach' therefore has high potential to provide the much-needed paleointensities to improve geomagnetic field models for the Holocene.

  1. Accurate glucose detection in a small etalon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Joerg; Kuebler, Sebastian; Recht, Michael; Torres, Francisco; Roe, Jeffrey; Kiesel, Peter; Bruce, Richard

    2010-02-01

    We are developing a continuous glucose monitor for subcutaneous long-term implantation. This detector contains a double chamber Fabry-Perot-etalon that measures the differential refractive index (RI) between a reference and a measurement chamber at 850 nm. The etalon chambers have wavelength dependent transmission maxima which dependent linearly on the RI of their contents. An RI difference of ▵n=1.5.10-6 changes the spectral position of a transmission maximum by 1pm in our measurement. By sweeping the wavelength of a single-mode Vertical-Cavity-Surface-Emitting-Laser (VCSEL) linearly in time and detecting the maximum transmission peaks of the etalon we are able to measure the RI of a liquid. We have demonstrated accuracy of ▵n=+/-3.5.10-6 over a ▵n-range of 0 to 1.75.10-4 and an accuracy of 2% over a ▵nrange of 1.75.10-4 to 9.8.10-4. The accuracy is primarily limited by the reference measurement. The RI difference between the etalon chambers is made specific to glucose by the competitive, reversible release of Concanavalin A (ConA) from an immobilized dextran matrix. The matrix and ConA bound to it, is positioned outside the optical detection path. ConA is released from the matrix by reacting with glucose and diffuses into the optical path to change the RI in the etalon. Factors such as temperature affect the RI in measurement and detection chamber equally but do not affect the differential measurement. A typical standard deviation in RI is +/-1.4.10-6 over the range 32°C to 42°C. The detector enables an accurate glucose specific concentration measurement.

  2. Accurate Biomass Estimation via Bayesian Adaptive Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, K.; Knuth, K.; Castle, P.

    2005-12-01

    and IKONOS imagery and the 3-D volume estimates. The combination of these then allow for a rapid and hopefully very accurate estimation of biomass.

  3. How flatbed scanners upset accurate film dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Battum, L. J.; Huizenga, H.; Verdaasdonk, R. M.; Heukelom, S.

    2016-01-01

    Film is an excellent dosimeter for verification of dose distributions due to its high spatial resolution. Irradiated film can be digitized with low-cost, transmission, flatbed scanners. However, a disadvantage is their lateral scan effect (LSE): a scanner readout change over its lateral scan axis. Although anisotropic light scattering was presented as the origin of the LSE, this paper presents an alternative cause. Hereto, LSE for two flatbed scanners (Epson 1680 Expression Pro and Epson 10000XL), and Gafchromic film (EBT, EBT2, EBT3) was investigated, focused on three effects: cross talk, optical path length and polarization. Cross talk was examined using triangular sheets of various optical densities. The optical path length effect was studied using absorptive and reflective neutral density filters with well-defined optical characteristics (OD range 0.2-2.0). Linear polarizer sheets were used to investigate light polarization on the CCD signal in absence and presence of (un)irradiated Gafchromic film. Film dose values ranged between 0.2 to 9 Gy, i.e. an optical density range between 0.25 to 1.1. Measurements were performed in the scanner’s transmission mode, with red-green-blue channels. LSE was found to depend on scanner construction and film type. Its magnitude depends on dose: for 9 Gy increasing up to 14% at maximum lateral position. Cross talk was only significant in high contrast regions, up to 2% for very small fields. The optical path length effect introduced by film on the scanner causes 3% for pixels in the extreme lateral position. Light polarization due to film and the scanner’s optical mirror system is the main contributor, different in magnitude for the red, green and blue channel. We concluded that any Gafchromic EBT type film scanned with a flatbed scanner will face these optical effects. Accurate dosimetry requires correction of LSE, therefore, determination of the LSE per color channel and dose delivered to the film.

  4. Towards Accurate Application Characterization for Exascale (APEX)

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, Simon David

    2015-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has been engaged in hardware and software codesign activities for a number of years, indeed, it might be argued that prototyping of clusters as far back as the CPLANT machines and many large capability resources including ASCI Red and RedStorm were examples of codesigned solutions. As the research supporting our codesign activities has moved closer to investigating on-node runtime behavior a nature hunger has grown for detailed analysis of both hardware and algorithm performance from the perspective of low-level operations. The Application Characterization for Exascale (APEX) LDRD was a project concieved of addressing some of these concerns. Primarily the research was to intended to focus on generating accurate and reproducible low-level performance metrics using tools that could scale to production-class code bases. Along side this research was an advocacy and analysis role associated with evaluating tools for production use, working with leading industry vendors to develop and refine solutions required by our code teams and to directly engage with production code developers to form a context for the application analysis and a bridge to the research community within Sandia. On each of these accounts significant progress has been made, particularly, as this report will cover, in the low-level analysis of operations for important classes of algorithms. This report summarizes the development of a collection of tools under the APEX research program and leaves to other SAND and L2 milestone reports the description of codesign progress with Sandia’s production users/developers.

  5. Locative inferences in medical texts.

    PubMed

    Mayer, P S; Bailey, G H; Mayer, R J; Hillis, A; Dvoracek, J E

    1987-06-01

    Medical research relies on epidemiological studies conducted on a large set of clinical records that have been collected from physicians recording individual patient observations. These clinical records are recorded for the purpose of individual care of the patient with little consideration for their use by a biostatistician interested in studying a disease over a large population. Natural language processing of clinical records for epidemiological studies must deal with temporal, locative, and conceptual issues. This makes text understanding and data extraction of clinical records an excellent area for applied research. While much has been done in making temporal or conceptual inferences in medical texts, parallel work in locative inferences has not been done. This paper examines the locative inferences as well as the integration of temporal, locative, and conceptual issues in the clinical record understanding domain by presenting an application that utilizes two key concepts in its parsing strategy--a knowledge-based parsing strategy and a minimal lexicon.

  6. Method of fan sound mode structure determination computer program user's manual: Microphone location program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, G. F.; Wells, R. A.; Love, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A computer user's manual describing the operation and the essential features of the microphone location program is presented. The Microphone Location Program determines microphone locations that ensure accurate and stable results from the equation system used to calculate modal structures. As part of the computational procedure for the Microphone Location Program, a first-order measure of the stability of the equation system was indicated by a matrix 'conditioning' number.

  7. Locative terms and Warlpiri acquisition.

    PubMed

    Bavin, E L

    1990-02-01

    Cognitive complexity and complexity of linguistic structure have been found to influence the order of acquisition of locatives. In Warlpiri, locative terms are nominals and they are used in combination with a locative case marker on the reference object; directional affixes may be added to them. Data from a series of tests of Warlpiri children's comprehension and production of the Warlpiri expressions that may be translated as 'in', 'on', 'under', 'in front of', 'behind' and 'between' indicate that the locative case forms are used first without the more specific locative nominals; young children distinguish an 'up-down' dimension but not 'in', and the reference object influences how the locative term is interpreted; kamparru-pirdangirli ('front-behind') is not one dimension for children aged four to five years; kulkurru 'between' is understood before kamparru 'front' and pirdangirli 'behind'; the use of features on a reference object for orientation develops at around six, but the orientation of the reference object, as well as features on the placed object may affect interpretation.

  8. Locating influential nodes in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malliaros, Fragkiskos D.; Rossi, Maria-Evgenia G.; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and controlling spreading processes in networks is an important topic with many diverse applications, including information dissemination, disease propagation and viral marketing. It is of crucial importance to identify which entities act as influential spreaders that can propagate information to a large portion of the network, in order to ensure efficient information diffusion, optimize available resources or even control the spreading. In this work, we capitalize on the properties of the K-truss decomposition, a triangle-based extension of the core decomposition of graphs, to locate individual influential nodes. Our analysis on real networks indicates that the nodes belonging to the maximal K-truss subgraph show better spreading behavior compared to previously used importance criteria, including node degree and k-core index, leading to faster and wider epidemic spreading. We further show that nodes belonging to such dense subgraphs, dominate the small set of nodes that achieve the optimal spreading in the network.

  9. Locating influential nodes in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Malliaros, Fragkiskos D.; Rossi, Maria-Evgenia G.; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and controlling spreading processes in networks is an important topic with many diverse applications, including information dissemination, disease propagation and viral marketing. It is of crucial importance to identify which entities act as influential spreaders that can propagate information to a large portion of the network, in order to ensure efficient information diffusion, optimize available resources or even control the spreading. In this work, we capitalize on the properties of the K-truss decomposition, a triangle-based extension of the core decomposition of graphs, to locate individual influential nodes. Our analysis on real networks indicates that the nodes belonging to the maximal K-truss subgraph show better spreading behavior compared to previously used importance criteria, including node degree and k-core index, leading to faster and wider epidemic spreading. We further show that nodes belonging to such dense subgraphs, dominate the small set of nodes that achieve the optimal spreading in the network. PMID:26776455

  10. Catheter tracking with phase information in a magnetic resonance scanner.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kevan J T; Scott, Greig C; Wright, Graham A

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe a new active technique for accurately determining both the position and orientation of the tip of a catheter during magnetic resonance (MR)-guided percutaneous cardiovascular procedures. The technique utilizes phase information introduced into the MR signal from a small receive coil located on the distal tip of the catheter. Phase patterns around a small receive coil are rich in information that is directly related to position and orientation. This information can be collected over a large spherical volume with a diameter several times that of the receive coil. The high degree of redundancy yields the potential for an accurate and robust method of catheter tracking. A tracking algorithm is presented that performs catheter tip localization using phase images acquired in two orthogonal planes without any a priori knowledge of catheter position. Associated experimentation demonstrating feasibility is also presented.

  11. Automated construction of highly accurate meiotic mapping panels for human chromosome 7 using BINS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.; Helms, C.; Dutchik, J.

    1994-09-01

    Development of a set of highly accurate meiotic breakpoint panels for the human genome based on CEPH reference pedigree genotypes and highly informative microsatellite markers will provide a valuable resource for the efficient mapping of new markers and will promote the rapid integration of physical and genetic map information. Key to the development of such a panel is the availability of a reliable set of genotypic data and automated methods for panel construction and verification. We have recently completed construction of comprehensive, microsatellite, and index linkage maps for human chromosome 7 using CEPH pedigree genotypes and CRI-MAP (with odds for marker order of 1000:1). A subset of markers used to build these maps that were typed on 40 CEPH families and rigorously checked for errors (e.g. using the Chrompics option of CRI-MAP) were selected for use to develop a set of meiotic breakpoint panels. The BINS programs has been developed to determine the locations of reliable crossovers using primary genotype data for every individual of each pedigree with the aim of creating crossover mapping panels. BINS utilizes a set of algorithms that parses out reliable and consistent data and uses these data to construct a crossover-based map. BINS has been utilized to construct a primary meiotic mapping panel for human chromosome 7. A graphical display of the breakpoint data provides an easily interpretable image and specifically highlights possible data inconsistencies (e.g. questionable double crossovers). We have used BINS and the CEPH genotypes to construct a preliminary set of panels for chromosome 7. Refinement of the panels is in progress.

  12. Modeling and locating underground water pipe leak with microseismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Jiangping; Liu, Hao; Tian, Zhijian; Cheng, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Traditional pipeline leak locating methods require that geophones have to be placed on the pipe wall. While if the exact location of the pipeline is unknown, the leaks may not be identified accurately. To solve this problem, considering the characteristics of pipeline leak, a continuous random seismic source model is proposed and geological models are established. Based on the two dimensional (2D) viscoacoustic equations and the staggered grid finite-difference (FD) algorithm, the microseismic wave field generated by a leaking pipe is modeled. Cross-correlation analysis and the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm are employed to obtain the time difference and the leak location. Analysis and discussions of the effects of number of recorded traces, survey layout, and offset and trace interval on the accuracy of the estimated location are also conducted. Simulation and data field experiment results indicate that: (1) A continuous random source can realistically represent the leak microseismic wave field in a simulation using 2D viscoacoustic equations and staggered grid FD algorithm. (2) For the leak microseismic wave field, the cross-correlation method is effective for calculating time difference of the direct wave relative to the reference trace. However, outside the refraction blind zone, accuracy of the time difference is reduced by the effects of refracted wave. (3) The SA algorithm based upon time difference, helps to identify the leak location effectively, even in the presence of noise. Estimation of the horizontal distance is more accurate than that of the depth, and the locating errors increase with increasing number of traces and offset. Moreover, in the refraction blind zone, trace interval has almost no impact on the accuracy of the location estimate. And the symmetrical array provides a higher estimate accuracy than the asymmetrical array. (4) The acquisition method of time difference based on the microseismic theory and SA algorithm has a great potential

  13. Radio System for Locating Emergency Workers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William; Medelius, Pedro; Starr, Stan; Bedette, Guy; Taylor, John; Moerk, Steve

    2003-01-01

    A system based on low-power radio transponders and associated analog and digital electronic circuitry has been developed for locating firefighters and other emergency workers deployed in a building or other structure. The system has obvious potential for saving lives and reducing the risk of injuries. The system includes (1) a central station equipped with a computer and a transceiver; (2) active radio-frequency (RF) identification tags, each placed in a different room or region of the structure; and (3) transponder units worn by the emergency workers. The RF identification tags can be installed in a new building as built-in components of standard fire-detection devices or ground-fault electrical outlets or can be attached to such devices in a previously constructed building, without need for rewiring the building. Each RF identification tag contains information that uniquely identifies it. When each tag is installed, information on its location and identity are reported to, and stored at, the central station. In an emergency, if a building has not been prewired with RF identification tags, leading emergency workers could drop sequentially numbered portable tags in the rooms of the building, reporting the tag numbers and locations by radio to the central station as they proceed.

  14. Early Limits on the Verbal Updating of an Object's Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganea, Patricia A.; Harris, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown that by 30 months of age, children can successfully update their representation of an absent object's location on the basis of new verbal information, whereas 23-month-olds often return to the object's prior location. The current results show that this updating failure persisted even when (a) toddlers received visual and…

  15. How Many Locations Can Be Selected at Once?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franconeri, Steven L.; Alvarez, George A.; Enns, James T.

    2007-01-01

    The visual system uses several tools to select only the most relevant visual information for further processing, including selection by location. In the present study, the authors explored how many locations can be selected at once. Although past evidence from several visual tasks suggests that the visual system can operate on a fixed number of 4…

  16. Locating the LCROSS Impact Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, William; Shirley, Mark; Moratto, Zachary; Colaprete, Anthony; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Hensley, Scott; Wilson, Barbara; Slade, Martin; Kennedy, Brian; Gurrola, Eric; Harcke, Leif

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar CRater Observations and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission impacted a spent Centaur rocket stage into a permanently shadowed region near the lunar south pole. The Sheperding Spacecraft (SSC) separated approx. 9 hours before impact and performed a small braking maneuver in order to observe the Centaur impact plume, looking for evidence of water and other volatiles, before impacting itself. This paper describes the registration of imagery of the LCROSS impact region from the mid- and near-infrared cameras onboard the SSC, as well as from the Goldstone radar. We compare the Centaur impact features, positively identified in the first two, and with a consistent feature in the third, which are interpreted as a 20 m diameter crater surrounded by a 160 m diameter ejecta region. The images are registered to Lunar Reconnaisance Orbiter (LRO) topographical data which allows determination of the impact location. This location is compared with the impact location derived from ground-based tracking and propagation of the spacecraft's trajectory and with locations derived from two hybrid imagery/trajectory methods. The four methods give a weighted average Centaur impact location of -84.6796 deg, -48.7093 deg, with a 1s uncertainty of 115 m along latitude, and 44 m along longitude, just 146 m from the target impact site. Meanwhile, the trajectory-derived SSC impact location is -84.719 deg, -49.61 deg, with a 1 alpha uncertainty of 3 m along the Earth vector and 75 m orthogonal to that, 766 m from the target location and 2.803 km south-west of the Centaur impact. We also detail the Centaur impact angle and SSC instrument pointing errors. Six high-level LCROSS mission requirements are shown to be met by wide margins. We hope that these results facilitate further analyses of the LCROSS experiment data and follow-up observations of the impact region

  17. An Efficient Location Verification Scheme for Static Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, In-hwan; Kim, Bo-sung; Song, JooSeok

    2017-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), the accuracy of location information is vital to support many interesting applications. Unfortunately, sensors have difficulty in estimating their location when malicious sensors attack the location estimation process. Even though secure localization schemes have been proposed to protect location estimation process from attacks, they are not enough to eliminate the wrong location estimations in some situations. The location verification can be the solution to the situations or be the second-line defense. The problem of most of the location verifications is the explicit involvement of many sensors in the verification process and requirements, such as special hardware, a dedicated verifier and the trusted third party, which causes more communication and computation overhead. In this paper, we propose an efficient location verification scheme for static WSN called mutually-shared region-based location verification (MSRLV), which reduces those overheads by utilizing the implicit involvement of sensors and eliminating several requirements. In order to achieve this, we use the mutually-shared region between location claimant and verifier for the location verification. The analysis shows that MSRLV reduces communication overhead by 77% and computation overhead by 92% on average, when compared with the other location verification schemes, in a single sensor verification. In addition, simulation results for the verification of the whole network show that MSRLV can detect the malicious sensors by over 90% when sensors in the network have five or more neighbors. PMID:28125007

  18. An Efficient Location Verification Scheme for Static Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Hwan; Kim, Bo-Sung; Song, JooSeok

    2017-01-24

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), the accuracy of location information is vital to support many interesting applications. Unfortunately, sensors have difficulty in estimating their location when malicious sensors attack the location estimation process. Even though secure localization schemes have been proposed to protect location estimation process from attacks, they are not enough to eliminate the wrong location estimations in some situations. The location verification can be the solution to the situations or be the second-line defense. The problem of most of the location verifications is the explicit involvement of many sensors in the verification process and requirements, such as special hardware, a dedicated verifier and the trusted third party, which causes more communication and computation overhead. In this paper, we propose an efficient location verification scheme for static WSN called mutually-shared region-based location verification (MSRLV), which reduces those overheads by utilizing the implicit involvement of sensors and eliminating several requirements. In order to achieve this, we use the mutually-shared region between location claimant and verifier for the location verification. The analysis shows that MSRLV reduces communication overhead by 77% and computation overhead by 92% on average, when compared with the other location verification schemes, in a single sensor verification. In addition, simulation results for the verification of the whole network show that MSRLV can detect the malicious sensors by over 90% when sensors in the network have five or more neighbors.

  19. Seismic Waves, 4th order accurate

    SciTech Connect

    2013-08-16

    SW4 is a program for simulating seismic wave propagation on parallel computers. SW4 colves the seismic wave equations in Cartesian corrdinates. It is therefore appropriate for regional simulations, where the curvature of the earth can be neglected. SW4 implements a free surface boundary condition on a realistic topography, absorbing super-grid conditions on the far-field boundaries, and a kinematic source model consisting of point force and/or point moment tensor source terms. SW4 supports a fully 3-D heterogeneous material model that can be specified in several formats. SW4 can output synthetic seismograms in an ASCII test format, or in the SAC finary format. It can also present simulation information as GMT scripts, whixh can be used to create annotated maps. Furthermore, SW4 can output the solution as well as the material model along 2-D grid planes.

  20. The locator system for wandering individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Shayla

    1992-01-01

    Configurations and operation strategies are described for a wanderer locator system based on wireless radio frequency communication designed to monitor elderly patients who may wander beyond safe perimeters in the home or in an institutional setting. The modular components of this wandering notification system are (1) portable transmitter/receivers to be worn or carried by the patient and the caretaker, (2) detectors to be mounted in doorways or other perimeters of a safe area, (3) programmable central processing units to control, communicate with, and/or trace the portable and remote devices, and (4) a cathode ray tube that can display information on patient location or system status. Photographs of all system components and illustrations of operations concepts are included.

  1. URLs: Uniform Resource Locators or Unreliable Resource Locators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Carol Anne

    2000-01-01

    This research studies the accessibility of 64 URLs (Uniform Resource Locators) cited in 31 academic journal articles. Discusses the role of citations as scholarly links and examines results of this longitudinal study that found an increasing decline in the availability of URL citations to World Wide Web sties. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/LRW)

  2. Accurate albedos of the brightest regions on Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonelli, D. P.; Veverka, J.

    1985-04-01

    The brightest, coldest areas on Io, the white regions, may act as cold traps for SO2 gas, and thus have an important role in governing the pressure, diurnal variation, and flow of the satellite's tenuous SO2 atmosphere. Therefore, it is essential to derive accurate albedos for the brightest regions, where the necessary albedos are those in the energy balance equation of the surface used to compute temperatures. Forty-one of the brightest of the white areas, each 60 to 120 km on a side were studied. The simplest way to estimate the required energy balance albedo for each region is to determine the Bond slbedo of a planet covered with that type of material. This process is outlined and resulting albedos are given. with the exception of several darker regions on the poorly-resolved post eclipse face of Io, typical albedos are 0.6 to 0.7. The brightest areas studied are located in the cluster of white regions east of Prometheus (longitudes 90 to 40 deg W). It is possible using Voyager data and fits to Hapke's equation to derive albedos for the bright regions without making any assumptions about the phase integrals.

  3. Very Fast and Accurate Azimuth Disambiguation of Vector Magnetograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, G. V.; Anfinogentov, S. A.

    2014-05-01

    We present a method for fast and accurate azimuth disambiguation of vector magnetogram data regardless of the location of the analyzed region on the solar disk. The direction of the transverse field is determined with the principle of minimum deviation of the field from the reference (potential) field. The new disambiguation (NDA) code is examined on the well-known models of Metcalf et al. ( Solar Phys. 237, 267, 2006) and Leka et al. ( Solar Phys. 260, 83, 2009), and on an artificial model based on the observed magnetic field of AR 10930 (Rudenko, Myshyakov, and Anfinogentov, Astron. Rep. 57, 622, 2013). We compare Hinode/SOT-SP vector magnetograms of AR 10930 disambiguated with three codes: the NDA code, the nonpotential magnetic-field calculation (NPFC: Georgoulis, Astrophys. J. Lett. 629, L69, 2005), and the spherical minimum-energy method (Rudenko, Myshyakov, and Anfinogentov, Astron. Rep. 57, 622, 2013). We then illustrate the performance of NDA on SDO/HMI full-disk magnetic-field observations. We show that our new algorithm is more than four times faster than the fastest algorithm that provides the disambiguation with a satisfactory accuracy (NPFC). At the same time, its accuracy is similar to that of the minimum-energy method (a very slow algorithm). In contrast to other codes, the NDA code maintains high accuracy when the region to be analyzed is very close to the limb.

  4. Accurate Reading with Sequential Presentation of Single Letters

    PubMed Central

    Price, Nicholas S. C.; Edwards, Gemma L.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid, accurate reading is possible when isolated, single words from a sentence are sequentially presented at a fixed spatial location. We investigated if reading of words and sentences is possible when single letters are rapidly presented at the fovea under user-controlled or automatically controlled rates. When tested with complete sentences, trained participants achieved reading rates of over 60 wpm and accuracies of over 90% with the single letter reading (SLR) method and naive participants achieved average reading rates over 30 wpm with greater than 90% accuracy. Accuracy declined as individual letters were presented for shorter periods of time, even when the overall reading rate was maintained by increasing the duration of spaces between words. Words in the lexicon that occur more frequently were identified with higher accuracy and more quickly, demonstrating that trained participants have lexical access. In combination, our data strongly suggest that comprehension is possible and that SLR is a practicable form of reading under conditions in which normal scanning of text is not possible, or for scenarios with limited spatial and temporal resolution such as patients with low vision or prostheses. PMID:23115548

  5. Accurate reading with sequential presentation of single letters.

    PubMed

    Price, Nicholas S C; Edwards, Gemma L

    2012-01-01

    Rapid, accurate reading is possible when isolated, single words from a sentence are sequentially presented at a fixed spatial location. We investigated if reading of words and sentences is possible when single letters are rapidly presented at the fovea under user-controlled or automatically controlled rates. When tested with complete sentences, trained participants achieved reading rates of over 60 wpm and accuracies of over 90% with the single letter reading (SLR) method and naive participants achieved average reading rates over 30 wpm with greater than 90% accuracy. Accuracy declined as individual letters were presented for shorter periods of time, even when the overall reading rate was maintained by increasing the duration of spaces between words. Words in the lexicon that occur more frequently were identified with higher accuracy and more quickly, demonstrating that trained participants have lexical access. In combination, our data strongly suggest that comprehension is possible and that SLR is a practicable form of reading under conditions in which normal scanning of text is not possible, or for scenarios with limited spatial and temporal resolution such as patients with low vision or prostheses.

  6. Locating the source of spreading in temporal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qiangjuan; Zhao, Chengli; Zhang, Xue; Yi, Dongyun

    2017-02-01

    The topological structure of many real networks changes with time. Thus, locating the sources of a temporal network is a creative and challenging problem, as the enormous size of many real networks makes it unfeasible to observe the state of all nodes. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to solve this problem, named the backward temporal diffusion process. The proposed algorithm calculates the shortest temporal distance to locate the transmission source. We assume that the spreading process can be modeled as a simple diffusion process and by consensus dynamics. To improve the location accuracy, we also adopt four strategies to select which nodes should be observed by ranking their importance in the temporal network. Our paper proposes a highly accurate method for locating the source in temporal networks and is, to the best of our knowledge, a frontier work in this field. Moreover, our framework has important significance for controlling the transmission of diseases or rumors and formulating immediate immunization strategies.

  7. Dissociation between location and shape in visual space

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, Jack M.; Philbeck, John W.; Zahorik, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    There are often large perceptual distortions of shapes lying on the ground plane, even in well-lit environments. These distortions occur under conditions for which the perception of location is accurate. Four hypotheses are considered for reconciling these seemingly paradoxical results, after which 2 experiments are reported that lend further support to one of them–that perception of shape and perception of location are sometimes dissociable. The 2 experiments show that whereas perception of location does not depend on whether viewing is monocular or binocular (when other distance cues are abundant), perception of shape becomes more veridical when viewing is binocular. This means that perception of shape is not fully constrained by the perceived locations of the vertices that define the shape. PMID:12421065

  8. Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-18

    ABCLAT was built to help any model user with spatially explicit Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Carbon Dioxide nutrient flux information, and solar resource information evaluate algal cultivation potential. Initial applications of this modeling framework include Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool Canada and Australia. The Canadian application was copyrighted November 29th 2011 as the Algae Biofuels Co-Location Assessment Tool for Canada. This copyright assertion is for the general framework from which any country or region with the requisite data could create a regionally specific application. The ABCLAT model framework developed by SNL looks at the growth potential in a given region as a function of available nutrients from wastewater and other sources, carbon dioxide from power plants, available solar potential, and if available, land cover and use information. The model framework evaluates the biomass potential, fixed carbon dioxide, potential algal biocrude and required land area for nutrient sources. ABCLAT is built with an object-oriented software program that can provide an easy to use interface for exploring questions related to aigal biomass production.

  9. Wireless Damage Location Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant Douglas (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A wireless damage location sensing system uses a geometric-patterned wireless sensor that resonates in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field to generate a harmonic response that will experience a change when the sensor experiences a change in its geometric pattern. The sensing system also includes a magnetic field response recorder for wirelessly transmitting the time-varying magnetic field and for wirelessly detecting the harmonic response. The sensing system compares the actual harmonic response to a plurality of predetermined harmonic responses. Each predetermined harmonic response is associated with a severing of the sensor at a corresponding known location thereof so that a match between the actual harmonic response and one of the predetermined harmonic responses defines the known location of the severing that is associated therewith.

  10. NASA space geodesy program: Catalogue of site information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, M. A.; Noll, C. E.

    1993-01-01

    This is the first edition of the NASA Space Geodesy Program: Catalogue of Site Information. This catalogue supersedes all previous versions of the Crustal Dynamics Project: Catalogue of Site Information, last published in May 1989. This document is prepared under the direction of the Space Geodesy and Altimetry Projects Office (SGAPO), Code 920.1, Goddard Space Flight Center. SGAPO has assumed the responsibilities of the Crustal Dynamics Project, which officially ended December 31, 1991. The catalog contains information on all NASA supported sites as well as sites from cooperating international partners. This catalog is designed to provde descriptions and occupation histories of high-accuracy geodetic measuring sites employing space-related techniques. The emphasis of the catalog has been in the past, and continues to be with this edition, station information for facilities and remote locations utilizing the Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) techniques. With the proliferation of high-quality Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) transponders, many co-located at established SLR and VLBI observatories, the requirement for accurate station and localized survey information for an ever broadening base of scientists and engineers has been recognized. It is our objective to provide accurate station information to scientific groups interested in these facilities.

  11. Neuroanatomical correlates of locative prepositions.

    PubMed

    Tranel, Daniel; Kemmerer, David

    2004-10-01

    Very little research has explored which neural systems may be important for retrieving the meanings of locative prepositions (e.g., in, on, around). To begin to address this knowledge gap, we conducted a lesion study in which we tested the hypothesis that processing the meanings of locative prepositions depends on neural structures in the left inferior prefrontal cortex and left inferior parietal cortex. Seventy-eight subjects with focal, stable lesions to various parts of the telencephalon and a comparison group of 60 normal participants were studied with tasks that require production, comprehension, and semantic analysis of locative prepositions. In support of our hypothesis, we found that in subjects with impaired knowledge of locative prepositions, the highest region of lesion overlap was in the left frontal operculum and the left supramarginal gyrus, and in the white matter subjacent to these two areas. In a second study, focused on six subjects who had pervasive defects for locative preposition knowledge, we confirmed that such defects were associated specifically with damage to the posterior left frontal operculum, white matter subjacent to this region, and white matter underneath the inferior parietal operculum. These subjects did not have basic impairments in spatial processing or working memory, and they had relatively well-preserved processing of conceptual knowledge for actions and various categories of concrete entities (e.g., persons, animals, tools). All six subjects, however, had defects in naming actions, and some of them also had defective naming of some categories of concrete entities. Overall, the findings converge nicely with recent results from functional imaging approaches, and with classic studies from the aphasia-based literature, and suggest that the left inferior prefrontal and left inferior parietal regions have crucial-albeit not exclusive-roles in processing knowledge associated with locative prepositions.

  12. Comparison of hypocenters and their uncertainties determined by three location methods: A case study on hydro-fracturing microseismic events recorded at a dense sub-surface array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, J. U.; Rhie, J.; Kim, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    The hypocenters of microseismic events induced by hydro-fracturing for developing shale gas provide important information on the characteristics of the fracture networks. This information is crucial to evaluate the production rate and also make a plan for efficient hydro-fracturing design. Therefore, the accurate hypocenter determination of microseismic events is very important from the economic point of view and the tolerable location error should be only dozens of meters for this purpose. In this study, we test three methods, which are widely used for locating earthquakes in seismology, to determine the hypocenters of microseismic events generated during the commercial shale gas development and recorded at a dense sub-surface array. We selected 1-hour time window and applied automatic picking algorithm to identify events and measure P and S arrival times of them. Our automatic picking algorithm identified 84 events in given time window and 73 of them are reliably located by all three methods. The first method is based on linear and iterative inversion and locates individual events separately. The second method simultaneously locates clustered events and reduces location errors due to incorrect velocity model by introducing the station terms. The third method locates only relative rather than absolute locations of clustered events using double difference algorithm. 1D P and S-wave velocity models are constructed based on well-logging data. Automatically measured P and S arrival times are used for determining absolute locations and relative arrival times measured by waveform cross-correlation are utilized for relative locations. Our preliminary result indicates that double difference method combined with waveform cross-correlations is more applicable than other two methods in that it satisfies the required accuracy for the microseismic monitoring.

  13. Learning accurate very fast decision trees from uncertain data streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chunquan; Zhang, Yang; Shi, Peng; Hu, Zhengguo

    2015-12-01

    Most existing works on data stream classification assume the streaming data is precise and definite. Such assumption, however, does not always hold in practice, since data uncertainty is ubiquitous in data stream applications due to imprecise measurement, missing values, privacy protection, etc. The goal of this paper is to learn accurate decision tree models from uncertain data streams for classification analysis. On the basis of very fast decision tree (VFDT) algorithms, we proposed an algorithm for constructing an uncertain VFDT tree with classifiers at tree leaves (uVFDTc). The uVFDTc algorithm can exploit uncertain information effectively and efficiently in both the learning and the classification phases. In the learning phase, it uses Hoeffding bound theory to learn from uncertain data streams and yield fast and reasonable decision trees. In the classification phase, at tree leaves it uses uncertain naive Bayes (UNB) classifiers to improve the classification performance. Experimental results on both synthetic and real-life datasets demonstrate the strong ability of uVFDTc to classify uncertain data streams. The use of UNB at tree leaves has improved the performance of uVFDTc, especially the any-time property, the benefit of exploiting uncertain information, and the robustness against uncertainty.

  14. Accurate Satellite-Derived Estimates of Tropospheric Ozone Radiative Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, Joanna; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Vasilkov, Alexander P.; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Platnick, Steven; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Levelt, Pieternel F.

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of the radiative forcing due to anthropogenically-produced tropospheric O3 are derived primarily from models. Here, we use tropospheric ozone and cloud data from several instruments in the A-train constellation of satellites as well as information from the GEOS-5 Data Assimilation System to accurately estimate the instantaneous radiative forcing from tropospheric O3 for January and July 2005. We improve upon previous estimates of tropospheric ozone mixing ratios from a residual approach using the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) by incorporating cloud pressure information from OMI. Since we cannot distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources with the satellite data, our estimates reflect the total forcing due to tropospheric O3. We focus specifically on the magnitude and spatial structure of the cloud effect on both the shortand long-wave radiative forcing. The estimates presented here can be used to validate present day O3 radiative forcing produced by models.

  15. Personalized Orthodontic Accurate Tooth Arrangement System with Complete Teeth Model.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng; Cheng, Xiaosheng; Dai, Ning; Liu, Yi; Fan, Qilei; Hou, Yulin; Jiang, Xiaotong

    2015-09-01

    The accuracy, validity and lack of relation information between dental root and jaw in tooth arrangement are key problems in tooth arrangement technology. This paper aims to describe a newly developed virtual, personalized and accurate tooth arrangement system based on complete information about dental root and skull. Firstly, a feature constraint database of a 3D teeth model is established. Secondly, for computed simulation of tooth movement, the reference planes and lines are defined by the anatomical reference points. The matching mathematical model of teeth pattern and the principle of the specific pose transformation of rigid body are fully utilized. The relation of position between dental root and alveolar bone is considered during the design process. Finally, the relative pose relationships among various teeth are optimized using the object mover, and a personalized therapeutic schedule is formulated. Experimental results show that the virtual tooth arrangement system can arrange abnormal teeth very well and is sufficiently flexible. The relation of position between root and jaw is favorable. This newly developed system is characterized by high-speed processing and quantitative evaluation of the amount of 3D movement of an individual tooth.

  16. Combining heterogeneous data sources for accurate functional annotation of proteins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Combining heterogeneous sources of data is essential for accurate prediction of protein function. The task is complicated by the fact that while sequence-based features can be readily compared across species, most other data are species-specific. In this paper, we present a multi-view extension to GOstruct, a structured-output framework for function annotation of proteins. The extended framework can learn from disparate data sources, with each data source provided to the framework in the form of a kernel. Our empirical results demonstrate that the multi-view framework is able to utilize all available information, yielding better performance than sequence-based models trained across species and models trained from collections of data within a given species. This version of GOstruct participated in the recent Critical Assessment of Functional Annotations (CAFA) challenge; since then we have significantly improved the natural language processing component of the method, which now provides performance that is on par with that provided by sequence information. The GOstruct framework is available for download at http://strut.sourceforge.net. PMID:23514123

  17. Location Technologies for Apparel Assembly

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    LOCATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR - APPAREL ASSEMBLY! *AD-A241 60 𔃿U iI iI ll I / ! II!’I ’II IBy: Wayne C. Tincher Douglas M. Moore Wayne Daley GEORGIA...lassifi cation) Location Technologies for Apparel Assembly 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S( Tincher, Wayne C.; MOore, Douglas M..; Daley, Wzyne 13a TYPE OF...COSATi CODES 18 SIBJECT TERMS (Continue on rev’erse if neceisary and todentify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP 13 08 Apparel , AtmioMachine Vision

  18. Design of a TDOA location engine and development of a location system based on chirp spread spectrum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Rong; Yu, Xiao-Qing; Zheng, Shu-Wang; Ye, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Location based services (LBS) provided by wireless sensor networks have garnered a great deal of attention from researchers and developers in recent years. Chirp spread spectrum (CSS) signaling formatting with time difference of arrival (TDOA) ranging technology is an effective LBS technique in regards to positioning accuracy, cost, and power consumption. The design and implementation of the location engine and location management based on TDOA location algorithms were the focus of this study; as the core of the system, the location engine was designed as a series of location algorithms and smoothing algorithms. To enhance the location accuracy, a Kalman filter algorithm and moving weighted average technique were respectively applied to smooth the TDOA range measurements and location results, which are calculated by the cooperation of a Kalman TDOA algorithm and a Taylor TDOA algorithm. The location management server, the information center of the system, was designed with Data Server and Mclient. To evaluate the performance of the location algorithms and the stability of the system software, we used a Nanotron nanoLOC Development Kit 3.0 to conduct indoor and outdoor location experiments. The results indicated that the location system runs stably with high accuracy at absolute error below 0.6 m.

  19. 77 FR 3800 - Accurate NDE & Inspection, LLC; Confirmatory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Accurate NDE & Inspection, LLC; Confirmatory Order In the Matter of Accurate NDE & Docket: 150... request ADR with the NRC in an attempt to resolve issues associated with this matter. In response, on August 9, 2011, Accurate NDE requested ADR to resolve this matter with the NRC. On September 28,...

  20. An evaluation of root ZX and elements diagnostic apex locators.

    PubMed

    Tselnik, Marat; Baumgartner, J Craig; Marshall, J Gordon

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the Root ZX and Elements Diagnostic electronic apex locators under clinical conditions. Thirty-six teeth planned for extraction were used. Each tooth was decoronated, coronally flared with Orifice Shapers, and irrigated with 2.6% sodium hypochlorite. Working lengths were measured with K-files using both electronic apex locators. The files were cemented at the last measured working length and the teeth were extracted. The apical 4-mm of each canal were exposed and photographed under 15x and 30x magnification. Images of each apex were projected and the distance from the file tip to the minor diameter was determined. The mean distances from the file tip to the minor diameter were 0.346 mm for the Elements Diagnostic and 0.410-mm for the Root ZX beyond the minor constriction. In locating the minor constriction the Root ZX was accurate 75% of the time to +/-0.5 mm, 83.3% +/-0.75 mm, and 88.9% to +/-1 mm. The Elements Diagnostic was accurate 75% of the time to +/-0.5 mm, 88.9% to +/-0.75 mm, and 91.7% to +/-1 mm. There was no statistically significant difference between the accuracy of the two electronic apex locators in locating the minor diameter (p < 0.05).