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Sample records for accurate mathematical representation

  1. Accurate metacognition for visual sensory memory representations.

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Sligte, Ilja G; Barrett, Adam B; Seth, Anil K; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Lamme, Victor A F

    2014-04-01

    The capacity to attend to multiple objects in the visual field is limited. However, introspectively, people feel that they see the whole visual world at once. Some scholars suggest that this introspective feeling is based on short-lived sensory memory representations, whereas others argue that the feeling of seeing more than can be attended to is illusory. Here, we investigated this phenomenon by combining objective memory performance with subjective confidence ratings during a change-detection task. This allowed us to compute a measure of metacognition--the degree of knowledge that subjects have about the correctness of their decisions--for different stages of memory. We show that subjects store more objects in sensory memory than they can attend to but, at the same time, have similar metacognition for sensory memory and working memory representations. This suggests that these subjective impressions are not an illusion but accurate reflections of the richness of visual perception. PMID:24549293

  2. Characterizing Interaction with Visual Mathematical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedig, Kamran; Sumner, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a characterization of computer-based interactions by which learners can explore and investigate visual mathematical representations (VMRs). VMRs (e.g., geometric structures, graphs, and diagrams) refer to graphical representations that visually encode properties and relationships of mathematical structures and concepts.…

  3. Electromagnetic Concepts in Mathematical Representation of Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albe, Virginie; Venturini, Patrice; Lascours, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the use of mathematics when studying the physics of electromagnetism. Focuses on common electromagnetic concepts and their associated mathematical representation and arithmetical tools. Concludes that most students do not understand the significant aspects of physical situations and have difficulty using relationships and models specific…

  4. Mathematical representations of turbulent mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, R. C.; Audeh, B.

    1973-01-01

    A basic description is given of the mathematical tools and models which are presently used to represent turbulent, free shear layers. Recommendations are included for ways in which current modeling techniques can be improved.

  5. The Microevolution of Mathematical Representations in Children's Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meira, Luciano

    1995-01-01

    Discusses children's design of mathematical representations on paper. Suggests that the design of displays during problem solving shapes one's mathematical activity and sense making in crucial ways, and that knowledge of mathematical representations is not simply recalled and applied to problem solving, but also emerges out of one's interactions…

  6. Multiple Representations as Sites for Teacher Reflection about Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryken, Amy E.

    2009-01-01

    This documentary account situates teacher educator, prospective teacher, and elementary students' mathematical thinking in relation to one another, demonstrating shared challenges to learning mathematics. It highlights an important mathematics reasoning skill--creating and analyzing representations. The author examines responses of prospective…

  7. Investigating Trigonometric Representations in the Transition to College Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This Ontario-based qualitative study examined secondary school and college textbooks' treatment of trigonometric representations in order to identify potential sources of student difficulties in the transition from secondary school to college mathematics. Analysis of networks, comprised of trigonometric representations, identified numerous issues…

  8. An Accurate Projector Calibration Method Based on Polynomial Distortion Representation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Miao; Sun, Changku; Huang, Shujun; Zhang, Zonghua

    2015-01-01

    In structure light measurement systems or 3D printing systems, the errors caused by optical distortion of a digital projector always affect the precision performance and cannot be ignored. Existing methods to calibrate the projection distortion rely on calibration plate and photogrammetry, so the calibration performance is largely affected by the quality of the plate and the imaging system. This paper proposes a new projector calibration approach that makes use of photodiodes to directly detect the light emitted from a digital projector. By analyzing the output sequence of the photoelectric module, the pixel coordinates can be accurately obtained by the curve fitting method. A polynomial distortion representation is employed to reduce the residuals of the traditional distortion representation model. Experimental results and performance evaluation show that the proposed calibration method is able to avoid most of the disadvantages in traditional methods and achieves a higher accuracy. This proposed method is also practically applicable to evaluate the geometric optical performance of other optical projection system. PMID:26492247

  9. Reading Mathematics Representations: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrá, Chiara; Lindström, Paulina; Arzarello, Ferdinando; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Robutti, Ornella; Sabena, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    We use eye tracking as a method to examine how different mathematical representations of the same mathematical object are attended to by students. The results of this study show that there is a meaningful difference in the eye movements between formulas and graphs. This difference can be understood in terms of the cultural and social shaping of…

  10. Mathematical Explorations: Freshwater Scarcity: A Proportional Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Middle school students' mathematical understanding benefits from connecting mathematics to other content areas in the curriculum. This month's activity explores the issue of the scarcity of freshwater, a natural resource (activity sheets are included). This activity concentrates on the critical areas mentioned in the Common Core State…

  11. A Mathematical Representation of the Genetic Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Vanessa J.; Rowlands, Peter

    Algebraic and geometric representations of the genetic code are used to show their functions in coding for amino acids. The algebra is a 64-part vector quaternion combination, and the geometry is based on the structure of the regular icosidodecahedron. An almost perfect pattern suggests that this is a biologically significant way of representing the genetic code.

  12. Mathematics Teachers' Representations of Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, David; Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth

    2014-01-01

    Issues of authority abound in education and schooling but have not been interrogated sufficiently. We describe a tool that we have developed to initiate dialogue with teachers about authority in their classrooms--using a diagram to represent authority in their classrooms. Our analysis of the diagrams mathematics teachers created and discussed in…

  13. Mathematical representations in science: a cognitive-historical case history.

    PubMed

    Tweney, Ryan D

    2009-10-01

    The important role of mathematical representations in scientific thinking has received little attention from cognitive scientists. This study argues that neglect of this issue is unwarranted, given existing cognitive theories and laws, together with promising results from the cognitive historical analysis of several important scientists. In particular, while the mathematical wizardry of James Clerk Maxwell differed dramatically from the experimental approaches favored by Michael Faraday, Maxwell himself recognized Faraday as "in reality a mathematician of a very high order," and his own work as in some respects a re-representation of Faraday's field theory in analytic terms. The implications of the similarities and differences between the two figures open new perspectives on the cognitive role of mathematics as a learned mode of representation in science. PMID:25163456

  14. The Design of Lessons Using Mathematics Analysis Software to Support Multiple Representations in Secondary School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Robyn; Stacey, Kaye; Wander, Roger; Ball, Lynda

    2011-01-01

    Current technologies incorporating sophisticated mathematical analysis software (calculation, graphing, dynamic geometry, tables, and more) provide easy access to multiple representations of mathematical problems. Realising the affordances of such technology for students' learning requires carefully designed lessons. This paper reports on design…

  15. Gender Representation on Journal Editorial Boards in the Mathematical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Topaz, Chad M; Sen, Shilad

    2016-01-01

    We study gender representation on the editorial boards of 435 journals in the mathematical sciences. Women are known to comprise approximately 15% of tenure-stream faculty positions in doctoral-granting mathematical sciences departments in the United States. Compared to this group, we find that 8.9% of the 13067 editorships in our study are held by women. We describe group variations within the editorships by identifying specific journals, subfields, publishers, and countries that significantly exceed or fall short of this average. To enable our study, we develop a semi-automated method for inferring gender that has an estimated accuracy of 97.5%. Our findings provide the first measure of gender distribution on editorial boards in the mathematical sciences, offer insights that suggest future studies in the mathematical sciences, and introduce new methods that enable large-scale studies of gender distribution in other fields. PMID:27536970

  16. Gender Representation on Journal Editorial Boards in the Mathematical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We study gender representation on the editorial boards of 435 journals in the mathematical sciences. Women are known to comprise approximately 15% of tenure-stream faculty positions in doctoral-granting mathematical sciences departments in the United States. Compared to this group, we find that 8.9% of the 13067 editorships in our study are held by women. We describe group variations within the editorships by identifying specific journals, subfields, publishers, and countries that significantly exceed or fall short of this average. To enable our study, we develop a semi-automated method for inferring gender that has an estimated accuracy of 97.5%. Our findings provide the first measure of gender distribution on editorial boards in the mathematical sciences, offer insights that suggest future studies in the mathematical sciences, and introduce new methods that enable large-scale studies of gender distribution in other fields. PMID:27536970

  17. An accurate analytic representation of the water pair potential.

    PubMed

    Cencek, Wojciech; Szalewicz, Krzysztof; Leforestier, Claude; van Harrevelt, Rob; van der Avoird, Ad

    2008-08-28

    The ab initio water dimer interaction energies obtained from coupled cluster calculations and used in the CC-pol water pair potential (Bukowski et al., Science, 2007, 315, 1249) have been refitted to a site-site form containing eight symmetry-independent sites in each monomer and denoted as CC-pol-8s. Initially, the site-site functions were assumed in a B-spline form, which allowed a precise optimization of the positions of the sites. Next, these functions were assumed in the standard exponential plus inverse powers form. The root mean square error of the CC-pol-8s fit with respect to the 2510 ab initio points is 0.10 kcal mol(-1), compared to 0.42 kcal mol(-1) of the CC-pol fit (0.010 kcal mol(-1) compared to 0.089 kcal mol(-1) for points with negative interaction energies). The energies of the stationary points in the CC-pol-8s potential are considerably more accurate than in the case of CC-pol. The water dimer vibration-rotation-tunneling spectrum predicted by the CC-pol-8s potential agrees substantially and systematically better with experiment than the already very accurate spectrum predicted by CC-pol, while specific features that could not be accurately predicted previously now agree very well with experiment. This shows that the uncertainties of the fit were the largest source of error in the previous predictions and that the present potential sets a new standard of accuracy in investigations of the water dimer. PMID:18688514

  18. Interactivity of Visual Mathematical Representations: Factors Affecting Learning and Cognitive Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedig, Kamran; Liang, Hai-Ning

    2006-01-01

    Computer-based mathematical cognitive tools (MCTs) are a category of external aids intended to support and enhance learning and cognitive processes of learners. MCTs often contain interactive visual mathematical representations (VMRs), where VMRs are graphical representations that encode properties and relationships of mathematical concepts. In…

  19. Visual-Spatial Representation in Mathematical Problem Solving by Deaf and Hearing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatto-Vallee, Gary; Kelly, Ronald R.; Gaustad, Martha G.; Porter, Jeffrey; Fonzi, Judith

    2007-01-01

    This research examined the use of visual-spatial representation by deaf and hearing students while solving mathematical problems. The connection between spatial skills and success in mathematics performance has long been established in the literature. This study examined the distinction between visual-spatial "schematic" representations that…

  20. Relations of Different Types of Numerical Magnitude Representations to Each Other and to Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Lisa K.; Bailey, Drew H.; Thompson, Clarissa A.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    We examined relations between symbolic and non-symbolic numerical magnitude representations, between whole number and fraction representations, and between these representations and overall mathematics achievement in fifth graders. Fraction and whole number symbolic and non-symbolic numerical magnitude understandings were measured using both…

  1. Effects of Computer-Based Visual Representation on Mathematics Learning and Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yung, Hsin I.; Paas, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Visual representation has been recognized as a powerful learning tool in many learning domains. Based on the assumption that visual representations can support deeper understanding, we examined the effects of visual representations on learning performance and cognitive load in the domain of mathematics. An experimental condition with visual…

  2. Mathematics Teacher-Candidates' Performance in Solving Problems with Different Representation Styles: The Trigonometry Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dündar, Sefa

    2015-01-01

    Using multiple representations of a problem can reveal the relationship between complex concepts by expressing the same mathematical condition differently and can contribute to the meaningful learning of mathematical concepts. The purpose of this study is to assess the performances of mathematics teacher-candidates on trigonometry problems…

  3. Visual Representations in Mathematics Teaching: An Experiment with Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debrenti, Edith

    2015-01-01

    General problem-solving skills are of central importance in school mathematics achievement. Word problems play an important role not just in mathematical education, but in general education as well. Meaningful learning and understanding are basic aspects of all kinds of learning and it is even more important in the case of learning mathematics. In…

  4. From Number Lines to Graphs in the Coordinate Plane: Investigating Problem Solving across Mathematical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earnest, Darrell

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on students' problem-solving approaches across three representations--number lines, coordinate planes, and function graphs--the axes of which conventional mathematics treats in terms of consistent geometric and numeric coordinations. I consider these representations to be a part of a "hierarchical representational…

  5. Social Representations as Mediators of Practice in Mathematics Classrooms with Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorgorio, Nuria; de Abreu, Guida

    2009-01-01

    This article suggests that a critical perspective of the notion of social representations can offer useful insights into understanding practices of teaching and learning in mathematics classrooms with immigrant students. Drawing on literature using social representations, previous empirical studies are revisited to examine three specific…

  6. The Relationship between Students' Mathematical Thinking Types and Representation Preferences in Definite Integral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevimli, Eyup; Delice, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Students' cognitive differences in problem solving have been the focus of much research. One classification of these differences is related to whether visualisation is used. Like mathematical thinking differences, multiple representation preferences are important when considering individual differences. Choosing an appropriate representation is an…

  7. Dynamically Connected Representations: A Powerful Tool for the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, Douglas A.; St. John, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a vision of student use of dynamically connected representations as they investigate mathematical ideas. Although this article is intended to generate discussion about the potential of dynamically connected representations, we situate the discussion within actual descriptions of its use with students in a newly designed…

  8. Students Preference of Non-Algebraic Representations in Mathematical Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neria, Dorit; Amit, Miriam

    2004-01-01

    This research study deals with the modes of representation that ninth-graders choose in order to communicate their problem solving paths and justifications, and the relation between these modes of representations and achievement level. The findings are based on analysis of 350 answers to problems that demanded communication of reasoning,…

  9. Mathematical Skills in Williams Syndrome: Insight into the Importance of Underlying Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hearn, Kirsten; Luna, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder characterized by relatively spared verbal skills and severe visuospatial deficits. Serious impairments in mathematics have also been reported. This article reviews the evidence on mathematical ability in WS, focusing on the integrity and developmental path of two fundamental representations,…

  10. Investigating the Representational Fluency of Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers in a Modelling Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delice, Ali; Kertil, Mahmut

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study that investigated pre-service mathematics teachers' modelling processes in terms of representational fluency in a modelling activity related to a cassette player. A qualitative approach was used in the data collection process. Students' individual and group written responses to the mathematical modelling…

  11. Refocusing on Oral Language and Rich Representations to Develop the Early Mathematical Understandings of Indigenous Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Susan; Warren, Elizabeth; DeVries, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the nature of oral language and representations used by teachers as they instruct young Indigenous Australian students at the beginning of formal schooling during play-based activities in mathematics. In particular, the use of Standard Australian English (SAE), the mathematical register used, and the interplay with…

  12. Improving of Junior High School Visual Thinking Representation Ability in Mathematical Problem Solving by CTL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surya, Edy; Sabandar, Jozua; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Darhim

    2013-01-01

    The students' difficulty which was found is in the problem of understanding, drawing diagrams, reading the charts correctly, conceptual formal mathematical understanding, and mathematical problem solving. The appropriate problem representation is the basic way in order to understand the problem itself and make a plan to solve it. This research was…

  13. How Young Children View Mathematical Representations: A Study Using Eye-Tracking Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolden, David; Barmby, Patrick; Raine, Stephanie; Gardner, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been shown that mathematical representations can aid children's understanding of mathematical concepts but that children can sometimes have difficulty in interpreting them correctly. New advances in eye-tracking technology can help in this respect because it allows data to be gathered concerning children's focus of…

  14. Middle-Level Preservice Mathematics Teachers' Mental Representations of Classroom Floor Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteson, Shirley M.; Ganesh, Bibi S.; Coward, Fanni L.; Patrick, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the results of an innovative assignment in which preservice teachers' mental representations were examined through drawing floor plans of an "ideal middle-level mathematics classroom." The 41 middle-level mathematics preservice teachers created two floor plans, one at the beginning of the semester and the other for the course…

  15. From Static to Dynamic Mathematics: Historical and Representational Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno-Armella, Luis; Hegedus, Stephen J.; Kaput, James J.

    2008-01-01

    The nature of mathematical reference fields has substantially evolved with the advent of new types of digital technologies enabling students greater access to understanding the use and application of mathematical ideas and procedures. We analyze the evolution of symbolic thinking over time, from static notations to dynamic inscriptions in new…

  16. Functions of Interactive Visual Representations in Interactive Mathematical Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerushalmy, Michal

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores changes in technology that have implications for the teaching and learning of school mathematics. To this end, it examines aspects of interactive mathematical textbooks; specifically it analyzes functions authors may intend to be carried out by embedded interactive diagrams. The paper analyzes theoretical as well as practical…

  17. Limited knowledge of fraction representations differentiates middle school students with mathematics learning disability (dyscalculia) vs. low mathematics achievement

    PubMed Central

    Mazzocco, Michèle M. M.; Myers, Gwen F.; Lewis, Katherine E.; Hanich, Laurie B.; Murphy, Melissa M.

    2014-01-01

    Fractions pose significant challenges for many children, but for some children those challenges persist into high school. Here we administered a fractions magnitude comparison test to 122 children, from Grades 4 to 8, to test whether their knowledge of fractions typically learned early in the sequence of formal math instruction (e.g., fractions equivalent to “one-half,” and fraction pairs with common denominators) differentiates those with mathematical learning disability (MLD) versus low achievement (LA) or typical achievement (TA) in mathematics, and whether long term learning trajectories of this knowledge also differentiate these groups. We confirmed that although 4th graders with LA (n = 18) or TA (n = 93) are more accurate evaluating one-half vs. non-half fractions (until they reach ceiling performance levels on both types of fractions), children with MLD (n=11) do not show a one-half advantage until Grade 7 and do not reach ceiling performance even by Grade 8. Both the MLD and LA groups have early difficulties with fractions, but by Grade 5 the LA group approaches performance levels of the TA group and deviates from the MLD group. All groups showed a visual model advantage over Arabic number representation of fractions, but this advantage was short lived for the TA group (because ceiling level was achieved across formats), slightly more persistent for the LA group, and persisted through Grade 8 for children with MLD. Thus, difficulties with fractions persist through Grade 8 for many students, but the nature and trajectories of those difficulties varies across children with math difficulties (MLD or LA). PMID:23587941

  18. Limited knowledge of fraction representations differentiates middle school students with mathematics learning disability (dyscalculia) versus low mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Myers, Gwen F; Lewis, Katherine E; Hanich, Laurie B; Murphy, Melissa M

    2013-06-01

    Fractions pose significant challenges for many children, but for some children those challenges persist into high school. Here we administered a fractions magnitude comparison test to 122 children, from Grades 4 to 8, to test whether their knowledge of fractions typically learned early in the sequence of formal math instruction (e.g., fractions equivalent to one-half, fraction pairs with common denominators) differentiates those with mathematics learning disability (MLD) versus low achievement (LA) or typical achievement (TA) in mathematics and whether long-term learning trajectories of this knowledge also differentiate these groups. We confirmed that although fourth graders with TA (n=93) were more accurate in evaluating "one-half" fractions than in evaluating "non-half" fractions (until they reached ceiling performance levels on both types of fractions), children with MLD (n=11) did not show a one-half advantage until Grade 7 and did not reach ceiling performance even by Grade 8. Both the MLD and LA groups had early difficulties with fractions, but by Grade 5 the LA group approached performance levels of the TA group and deviated from the MLD group. All groups showed a visual model advantage over Arabic number representation of fractions, but this advantage was short-lived for the TA group (because ceiling level was achieved across formats), whereas it was slightly more persistent for the LA group and persisted through Grade 8 for children with MLD. Thus, difficulties with fractions persist through Grade 8 for many students, but the nature and trajectories of those difficulties vary across children with math difficulties (MLD or LA). PMID:23587941

  19. Students' Use of Mathematical Representations in Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos-Trigo, Manuel

    2002-01-01

    Documents the experiences of 25 first-year university students with regard to the kinds of tasks calculus instructors should design in order to engage students in mathematical practices that often require the use of a graphing calculator. (MM)

  20. A representational approach to developing primary ITT students' confidence in their mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolden, D. S.; Barmby, P.; Harries, T.

    2013-01-01

    Representations of mathematical concepts play an important role in understanding: both in helping learners understand the to-be-learned material and in facilitating teachers' understanding of pedagogical processes which, in turn, are involved in developing learners' understanding. In this paper, we report on work with a cohort of pre-service primary teachers, with the aim of developing their understanding of mathematics, their confidence in their subject knowledge and their confidence in teaching mathematics. This was attempted through the introduction and use of a 'representational approach' to the teaching of the mathematical concepts required of teachers training to teach in primary schools in the UK. We present the results of attitude measures and a follow-up qualitative questionnaire in identifying whether and how the use of this representational approach supported pre-service teachers' understanding and their confidence in teaching mathematics. The results suggest that the representational approach used had a positively significant impact on the attitudes towards studying and teaching mathematics.

  1. Lost in Translation: Examining Translation Errors Associated with Mathematical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Stiff, Lee V.; Bosse, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Translation errors and conceptual misunderstandings made by students translating among graphical, tabular, and symbolic representations of linear functions were examined. The study situated student errors in the context of the "Translation-Verification Model" developed specifically for the purpose of explaining student behavior during the process…

  2. Translations among Mathematical Representations: Teacher Beliefs and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosse, Michael J.; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Cheetham, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    Student ability, teacher expectations, respective degrees of difficulty, and curriculum and instructional practices all work together to provide students experiences leading to differing levels of success in respect to mathematical translations. Herein, we discuss teacher beliefs and instructional practices, investigate why some translations seem…

  3. Mexican high school students' social representations of mathematics, its teaching and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Sierra, Gustavo; Miranda-Tirado, Marisa

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports a qualitative research that identifies Mexican high school students' social representations of mathematics. For this purpose, the social representations of 'mathematics', 'learning mathematics' and 'teaching mathematics' were identified in a group of 50 students. Focus group interviews were carried out in order to obtain the data. The constant comparative style was the strategy used for the data analysis because it allowed the categories to emerge from the data. The students' social representations are: (A) Mathematics is…(1) important for daily life, (2) important for careers and for life, (3) important because it is in everything that surrounds us, (4) a way to solve problems of daily life, (5) calculations and operations with numbers, (6) complex and difficult, (7) exact and (6) a subject that develops thinking skills; (B) To learn mathematics is…(1) to possess knowledge to solve problems, (2) to be able to solve everyday problems, (3) to be able to make calculations and operations, and (4) to think logically to be able to solve problems; and (C) To teach mathematics is…(1) to transmit knowledge, (2) to know to share it, (3) to transmit the reasoning ability, and (4) to show how to solve problems.

  4. Mathematical representation of the incident solar energy as a function of latitude and time

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, P.A.

    1988-07-01

    A simple mathematical representation of the incoming solar radiation as a function of latitude and time is introduced. The expression approximates the total zonally and daily averaged solar energy incident on the earth's surface before any is absorbed. It includes dependence on both the obliquity and the precession of the equinoxes and, with its accuracy limits, the representation is convenient for use in long-term climate modelling. 7 references.

  5. Comparing Student Use of Mathematical and Physical Vector Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Deventer, Joel; Wittmann, Michael C.

    2007-11-01

    Research has shown that students have difficulties with vectors in college introductory physics courses and high school physics courses; furthermore, students have been shown to perform worse on a vector task with a physical context when compared to the same task in a mathematical context. We have used these results to design isomorphic mathematics and physics free-response vector test questions to evaluate student understanding of vectors in both contexts. To validate our test, we carried out task-based interviews with introductory physics students. We used our results to develop a multiple-choice version of the vector test which was then administered to introductory physics students. We report on our test, giving examples of questions and preliminary findings.

  6. The Examination of Representations Used by Classroom Teacher Candidates in Solving Mathematical Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Ayten Pinar

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed according to the mixed research method in which quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in order to identify the challenges confronted by classroom teacher candidates in solving mathematical problems and the factors affecting how they choose these representations. The population of this study consisted of…

  7. Mathematical Understanding and Representation Ability of Public Junior High School in North Sumatra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minarni, Ani; Napitupulu, E. Elvis; Husein, Rahmad

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the result of first phase of the research about the development of students' mathematical understanding and representation ability through Joyful Problem-Based Learning (JPBL) at Public Junior High School in North Sumatra, Indonesia. The population is all of the students of public junior high school (PJHS) in North Sumatra. Samples…

  8. Studying New Forms of Participation and Identity in Mathematics Classrooms with Integrated Communication and Representational Infrastructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegedus, Stephen J.; Penuel, William R.

    2008-01-01

    Wireless networks are fast becoming ubiquitous in all aspects of society and the world economy. We describe a method for studying the impacts of combining such technology with dynamic, representationally-rich mathematics software, particularly on participation, expression and projection of identity from a local to a public, shared workspace. We…

  9. Investigating Mathematics Students' Use of Multiple Representations when Solving Linear Equations with One Unknown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyranevand, Matthew L.

    2010-01-01

    Although it is difficult to find any current literature that does not encourage use of multiple representations in mathematics classrooms, there has been very limited research that compared such practice to student achievement level on standardized tests. This study examined the associations between students' achievement levels and their (a)…

  10. Strategies to Increase Representation of Students with Disabilities in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jeffry L.; Massiha, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    As a nation wrestles with the need to train more professionals, persons with disabilities are undereducated and underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The following project was proposed to increase representation of students with disabilities in the STEM disciplines. The program emphasizes an integrated…

  11. Using Representations, Decomposition, and Approximations of Practices to Support Prospective Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Practice of Organizing Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyminski, Andrew M.; Zambak, V. Serbay; Drake, Corey; Land, Tonia J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a series of instructional activities that provide prospective elementary teachers with an opportunity to engage in one of the more difficult practices to learn within mathematics teaching--organizing a mathematical discussion. Within a mathematics methods course, representations and decomposition of practice built from the Five…

  12. A Flexible Fringe Projection Vision System with Extended Mathematical Model for Accurate Three-Dimensional Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Suzhi; Tao, Wei; Zhao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    In order to acquire an accurate three-dimensional (3D) measurement, the traditional fringe projection technique applies complex and laborious procedures to compensate for the errors that exist in the vision system. However, the error sources in the vision system are very complex, such as lens distortion, lens defocus, and fringe pattern nonsinusoidality. Some errors cannot even be explained or rendered with clear expressions and are difficult to compensate directly as a result. In this paper, an approach is proposed that avoids the complex and laborious compensation procedure for error sources but still promises accurate 3D measurement. It is realized by the mathematical model extension technique. The parameters of the extended mathematical model for the ’phase to 3D coordinates transformation’ are derived using the least-squares parameter estimation algorithm. In addition, a phase-coding method based on a frequency analysis is proposed for the absolute phase map retrieval to spatially isolated objects. The results demonstrate the validity and the accuracy of the proposed flexible fringe projection vision system on spatially continuous and discontinuous objects for 3D measurement. PMID:27136553

  13. A computationally efficient and accurate numerical representation of thermodynamic properties of steam and water for computations of non-equilibrium condensing steam flow in steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrubý, Jan

    2012-04-01

    Mathematical modeling of the non-equilibrium condensing transonic steam flow in the complex 3D geometry of a steam turbine is a demanding problem both concerning the physical concepts and the required computational power. Available accurate formulations of steam properties IAPWS-95 and IAPWS-IF97 require much computation time. For this reason, the modelers often accept the unrealistic ideal-gas behavior. Here we present a computation scheme based on a piecewise, thermodynamically consistent representation of the IAPWS-95 formulation. Density and internal energy are chosen as independent variables to avoid variable transformations and iterations. On the contrary to the previous Tabular Taylor Series Expansion Method, the pressure and temperature are continuous functions of the independent variables, which is a desirable property for the solution of the differential equations of the mass, energy, and momentum conservation for both phases.

  14. Flexible Conceptions of Perspectives and Representations: An Examination of Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannister, Vanessa R. Pitts

    2014-01-01

    The concept of multiple representations of functions and the ability to make translations among representations are important topics in secondary school mathematics curricula (Moschkovich, Schoenfeld, & Arcavi, 1993; NCTM, 2000). Research related to students in this domain is fruitful, while research related to teachers is underdeveloped. This…

  15. Pupils' Visual Representations in Standard and Problematic Problem Solving in Mathematics: Their Role in the Breach of the Didactical Contract

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deliyianni, Eleni; Monoyiou, Annita; Elia, Iliada; Georgiou, Chryso; Zannettou, Eleni

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the modes of representations generated by kindergarteners and first graders while solving standard and problematic problems in mathematics. Furthermore, it examined the influence of pupils' visual representations on the breach of the didactical contract rules in problem solving. The sample of the study consisted of 38…

  16. Using a Technology-Supported Approach to Preservice Teachers' Multirepresentational Fluency: Unifying Mathematical Concepts and Their Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Daniel; Moore-Russo, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    A test project at the University of Puerto Rico in Mayagüez used GeoGebra applets to promote the concept of multirepresentational fluency among high school mathematics preservice teachers. For this study, this fluency was defined as simultaneous awareness of all representations associated with a mathematical concept, as measured by the ability to…

  17. The Mental Representation of Integers: An Abstract-to-Concrete Shift in the Understanding of Mathematical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varma, Sashank; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    Mathematics has a level of structure that transcends untutored intuition. What is the cognitive representation of abstract mathematical concepts that makes them meaningful? We consider this question in the context of the integers, which extend the natural numbers with zero and negative numbers. Participants made greater and lesser judgments of…

  18. Brain Activity Associated with Translation between Graphical and Symbolic Representations of Functions in Generally Gifted and Excelling in Mathematics Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waisman, Ilana; Leikin, Mark; Shaul, Shelley; Leikin, Roza

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine the impact and the interplay of general giftedness (G) and excellence in mathematics (EM) on high school students' mathematical performance associated with translations from graphical to symbolic representations of functions, as reflected in cortical electrical activity (by means of ERP--event-related…

  19. Accurate mathematical models to describe the lactation curve of Lacaune dairy sheep under intensive management.

    PubMed

    Elvira, L; Hernandez, F; Cuesta, P; Cano, S; Gonzalez-Martin, J-V; Astiz, S

    2013-06-01

    Although the intensive production system of Lacaune dairy sheep is the only profitable method for producers outside of the French Roquefort area, little is known about this type of systems. This study evaluated yield records of 3677 Lacaune sheep under intensive management between 2005 and 2010 in order to describe the lactation curve of this breed and to investigate the suitability of different mathematical functions for modeling this curve. A total of 7873 complete lactations during a 40-week lactation period corresponding to 201 281 pieces of weekly yield data were used. First, five mathematical functions were evaluated on the basis of the residual mean square, determination coefficient, Durbin Watson and Runs Test values. The two better models were found to be Pollott Additive and fractional polynomial (FP). In the second part of the study, the milk yield, peak of milk yield, day of peak and persistency of the lactations were calculated with Pollot Additive and FP models and compared with the real data. The results indicate that both models gave an extremely accurate fit to Lacaune lactation curves in order to predict milk yields (P = 0.871), with the FP model being the best choice to provide a good fit to an extensive amount of real data and applicable on farm without specific statistical software. On the other hand, the interpretation of the parameters of the Pollott Additive function helps to understand the biology of the udder of the Lacaune sheep. The characteristics of the Lacaune lactation curve and milk yield are affected by lactation number and length. The lactation curves obtained in the present study allow the early identification of ewes with low milk yield potential, which will help to optimize farm profitability. PMID:23257242

  20. An Investigation of the Nature of the Influences of Item Stem and Option Representation on Student Responses to a Mathematics Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yi-Hung; Wilson, Mark; Cheng, Ching-Lin

    2013-01-01

    In teaching, representations are used as ways to illustrate the concepts underlying a specific topic. For example, use symbols (e.g., 1?+?2?=?3) to express the concept of addition. To compare students' abilities to interpret different representations in mathematics, the symbolic representation (SR) test and the pictorial representation (PR)…

  1. RICO: A New Approach for Fast and Accurate Representation of the Cosmological Recombination History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendt, W. A.; Chluba, J.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Wandelt, B. D.

    2009-04-01

    We present RICO, a code designed to compute the ionization fraction of the universe during the epoch of hydrogen and helium recombination with an unprecedented combination of speed and accuracy. This is accomplished by training the machine learning code PICO on the calculations of a multilevel cosmological recombination code which self-consistently includes several physical processes that were neglected previously. After training, RICO is used to fit the free electron fraction as a function of the cosmological parameters. While, for example, at low redshifts (z lsim 900), much of the net change in the ionization fraction can be captured by lowering the hydrogen fudge factor in RECFAST by about 3%, RICO provides a means of effectively using the accurate ionization history of the full recombination code in the standard cosmological parameter estimation framework without the need to add new or refined fudge factors or functions to a simple recombination model. Within the new approach presented here, it is easy to update RICO whenever a more accurate full recombination code becomes available. Once trained, RICO computes the cosmological ionization history with negligible fitting error in ~10 ms, a speedup of at least 106 over the full recombination code that was used here. Also RICO is able to reproduce the ionization history of the full code to a level well below 0.1%, thereby ensuring that the theoretical power spectra of cosmic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations can be computed to sufficient accuracy and speed for analysis from upcoming CMB experiments like Planck. Furthermore, it will enable cross-checking different recombination codes across cosmological parameter space, a comparison that will be very important in order to assure the accurate interpretation of future CMB data.

  2. Differential-equation-based representation of truncation errors for accurate numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, Robert J.; Johnson, Richard W.

    1991-09-01

    High-order compact finite difference schemes for 2D convection-diffusion-type differential equations with constant and variable convection coefficients are derived. The governing equations are employed to represent leading truncation terms, including cross-derivatives, making the overall O(h super 4) schemes conform to a 3 x 3 stencil. It is shown that the two-dimensional constant coefficient scheme collapses to the optimal scheme for the one-dimensional case wherein the finite difference equation yields nodally exact results. The two-dimensional schemes are tested against standard model problems, including a Navier-Stokes application. Results show that the two schemes are generally more accurate, on comparable grids, than O(h super 2) centered differencing and commonly used O(h) and O(h super 3) upwinding schemes.

  3. The Effect of Dynamic and Interactive Mathematics Learning Environments (DIMLE), Supporting Multiple Representations, on Perceptions of Elementary Mathematics Pre-Service Teachers in Problem Solving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, S.; Reis, Z. Ayvaz

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics is an important discipline, providing crucial tools, such as problem solving, to improve our cognitive abilities. In order to solve a problem, it is better to envision and represent through multiple means. Multiple representations can help a person to redefine a problem with his/her own words in that envisioning process. Dynamic and…

  4. Analysis of continuous oxygen saturation data for accurate representation of retinal exposure to oxygen in the preterm infant.

    PubMed

    Cirelli, Josie; McGregor, Carolyn; Graydon, Brenda; James, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining blood oxygen saturation within the intended target range for preterm infants receiving neonatal intensive care is challenging. Supplemental oxygen is believed to lead to increased risk of retinopathy of prematurity and hence managing the level of oxygen within this population is important within their care. Current quality improvement activities use coarse hourly spot readings to measure supplemental oxygen levels as associated with targeted ranges that vary based on gestational age. In this research we use Artemis, a real-time online healthcare analytics platform to ascertain if the collection of second by second data provides a better representation of retinal exposure to oxygen than an infrequent, intermittent spot reading. We show that Artemis is capable of producing more accurate information from the higher frequency data, as it includes all the episodic events in the activity of the hour, which provides a better understanding of oxygen fluctuation ranges which affect the physiological status of the infant. PMID:23388268

  5. VStops: A Thinking Strategy and Visual Representation Approach in Mathematical Word Problem Solving toward Enhancing STEM Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Nasarudin; Halim, Lilia; Zakaria, Effandi

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of strategic thinking and visual representation approaches (VStops) on the achievement, conceptual knowledge, metacognitive awareness, awareness of problem-solving strategies, and student attitudes toward mathematical word problem solving among primary school students. The experimental group (N = 96)…

  6. Evidence-Based Practices: Applications of Concrete Representational Abstract Framework across Math Concepts for Students with Mathematics Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, Jugnu; Morin, Lisa L.

    2016-01-01

    Students with mathematics disabilities (MD) experience difficulties with both conceptual and procedural knowledge of different math concepts across grade levels. Research shows that concrete representational abstract framework of instruction helps to bridge this gap for students with MD. In this article, we provide an overview of this strategy…

  7. Developing Representational Ability in Mathematics for Students with Learning Disabilities: A Content Analysis of Grades 6 and 7 Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Garderen, Delinda; Scheuermann, Amy; Jackson, Christa

    2012-01-01

    This study was an examination of the extent to which sixth- and seventh-grade mathematics textbooks incorporated recommended instructional practices for students with learning disabilities to help develop representational ability. Results indicated that the textbooks (a) provided very little explicit instructional information about representations…

  8. Analysis of Student Understanding of Science Concepts Including Mathematical Representations: Ph Values and the Relative Differences of pH Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Eun-Jung; Choi, Kyunghee

    2013-01-01

    In general, mathematical representations such as formulae, numbers, and graphs are the inseparable components in science used to better describe or explain scientific phenomena or knowledge. Regardless of their necessity and benefit, science seems to be difficult for some students, as a result of the mathematical representations and problem…

  9. Mathematization of experience in a grade 8 open-inquiry environment: An introduction to the representational practices of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Bowen, G. Michael

    The purpose of this classroom study was to investigate the use of mathematical representations in three Grade 8 general science classes that engaged in a 10-week open inquiry about the correlations between biological and physical variables in the environment. A constructivist perspective was used to design the study and to assemble the data sources. These data sources included videotapes of students in their work, audiotapes of teacher-student interactions and teacher interviews, the transcripts of these tapes, the students' field notebooks, field reports, special problem assignments, examinations, and the teachers' curriculum guides, field notes, and reflective journal. An interpretive method was used to construct assertions and the supporting data. In the setting provided, students increasingly used mathematical representations such as graphs and data tables to support their claims in a convincing manner; the use of abstract equations and percent calculations did not change over the course of the study. Representations such as graphs, maps, averages, and equations were not only useful as inscriptions (representations in some permanent medium, usually paper), but also as conscription devices in the construction of, and through which, students engaged each other to collaboratively construct meaning. This study demonstrates the use of representations as conscription devices, and illustrates how the use and understanding of inscriptions changes over time. Understanding representations as inscription and conscription devices focuses on the social aspects of knowing, which has important implications for teachers' conceptualization of learning and their organization of science classrooms.

  10. Mathematical model accurately predicts protein release from an affinity-based delivery system.

    PubMed

    Vulic, Katarina; Pakulska, Malgosia M; Sonthalia, Rohit; Ramachandran, Arun; Shoichet, Molly S

    2015-01-10

    Affinity-based controlled release modulates the delivery of protein or small molecule therapeutics through transient dissociation/association. To understand which parameters can be used to tune release, we used a mathematical model based on simple binding kinetics. A comprehensive asymptotic analysis revealed three characteristic regimes for therapeutic release from affinity-based systems. These regimes can be controlled by diffusion or unbinding kinetics, and can exhibit release over either a single stage or two stages. This analysis fundamentally changes the way we think of controlling release from affinity-based systems and thereby explains some of the discrepancies in the literature on which parameters influence affinity-based release. The rate of protein release from affinity-based systems is determined by the balance of diffusion of the therapeutic agent through the hydrogel and the dissociation kinetics of the affinity pair. Equations for tuning protein release rate by altering the strength (KD) of the affinity interaction, the concentration of binding ligand in the system, the rate of dissociation (koff) of the complex, and the hydrogel size and geometry, are provided. We validated our model by collapsing the model simulations and the experimental data from a recently described affinity release system, to a single master curve. Importantly, this mathematical analysis can be applied to any single species affinity-based system to determine the parameters required for a desired release profile. PMID:25449806

  11. Towards an accurate representation of electrostatics in classical force fields: Efficient implementation of multipolar interactions in biomolecular simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagui, Celeste; Pedersen, Lee G.; Darden, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    The accurate simulation of biologically active macromolecules faces serious limitations that originate in the treatment of electrostatics in the empirical force fields. The current use of "partial charges" is a significant source of errors, since these vary widely with different conformations. By contrast, the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) obtained through the use of a distributed multipole moment description, has been shown to converge to the quantum MEP outside the van der Waals surface, when higher order multipoles are used. However, in spite of the considerable improvement to the representation of the electronic cloud, higher order multipoles are not part of current classical biomolecular force fields due to the excessive computational cost. In this paper we present an efficient formalism for the treatment of higher order multipoles in Cartesian tensor formalism. The Ewald "direct sum" is evaluated through a McMurchie-Davidson formalism [L. McMurchie and E. Davidson, J. Comput. Phys. 26, 218 (1978)]. The "reciprocal sum" has been implemented in three different ways: using an Ewald scheme, a particle mesh Ewald (PME) method, and a multigrid-based approach. We find that even though the use of the McMurchie-Davidson formalism considerably reduces the cost of the calculation with respect to the standard matrix implementation of multipole interactions, the calculation in direct space remains expensive. When most of the calculation is moved to reciprocal space via the PME method, the cost of a calculation where all multipolar interactions (up to hexadecapole-hexadecapole) are included is only about 8.5 times more expensive than a regular AMBER 7 [D. A. Pearlman et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 91, 1 (1995)] implementation with only charge-charge interactions. The multigrid implementation is slower but shows very promising results for parallelization. It provides a natural way to interface with continuous, Gaussian-based electrostatics in the future. It is

  12. Accurate state estimation from uncertain data and models: an application of data assimilation to mathematical models of human brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Data assimilation refers to methods for updating the state vector (initial condition) of a complex spatiotemporal model (such as a numerical weather model) by combining new observations with one or more prior forecasts. We consider the potential feasibility of this approach for making short-term (60-day) forecasts of the growth and spread of a malignant brain cancer (glioblastoma multiforme) in individual patient cases, where the observations are synthetic magnetic resonance images of a hypothetical tumor. Results We apply a modern state estimation algorithm (the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter), previously developed for numerical weather prediction, to two different mathematical models of glioblastoma, taking into account likely errors in model parameters and measurement uncertainties in magnetic resonance imaging. The filter can accurately shadow the growth of a representative synthetic tumor for 360 days (six 60-day forecast/update cycles) in the presence of a moderate degree of systematic model error and measurement noise. Conclusions The mathematical methodology described here may prove useful for other modeling efforts in biology and oncology. An accurate forecast system for glioblastoma may prove useful in clinical settings for treatment planning and patient counseling. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Anthony Almudevar, Tomas Radivoyevitch, and Kristin Swanson (nominated by Georg Luebeck). PMID:22185645

  13. Les Representations Graphiques Dans La Resolution De Problemes: Une Experience D'Entrainement D'Etudiants Dans Un Club Mathematique (Graphic Representations in Problem Solving: A Training Program for Students in a Mathematical Club).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callejo, Maria Luz

    1994-01-01

    Reports, in French, an investigation on the use of graphic representations in problem-solving tasks of the type in Spanish Mathematical Olympiads. Analysis showed that the choice and interpretation of the first graphic representation played a decisive role in the discovery of the solution. (34 references) (Author/MKR)

  14. Investigating the Complexity of Middle Grade Students' Understandings of Mathematical Constructs: An Example from Graphic Representation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capraro, Robert M.; Kulm, Gerald; Capraro, Mary Margaret

    This study explored a model for students development of the understandings and skills that are involved in being able to construct graphical representations of data and to interpret these graphs. The study examined four components of prior understanding required for graphic representation that were adapted from a learning map from the Atlas of…

  15. Mathematics Teacher Candidates' Skills of Using Multiple Representations for Division of Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biber, Abdullah Çagri

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal teacher candidates' preference regarding uses of verbal, symbolic, number line, and/or model representations of fraction divisions, and to investigate their skill of transferring from one representation type to the others. Case study was used as the research method in this study. The case that is examined…

  16. The Clock Project: Gears as Visual-Tangible Representations for Mathematical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    As we have noticed from our own classroom experiences, children often find it difficult to identify the adequate operations learned in mathematics class when they are solving mechanical-operators problems in Technology class. We wanted to design a project that exploits the idea of a hands-on relationship between mathematics and technology to teach…

  17. Primary Teachers' Representations of Division: Assessing Mathematical Knowledge that Has Pedagogical Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Anne; Clarke, Doug M.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a study that was conducted with 378 primary teachers from Catholic schools in Victoria who participated in the first year of a 2-year research and professional learning program in mathematics. One aim of the program was to enhance teacher knowledge in mathematics in its many forms. As part of the larger study, the teachers…

  18. Connecting Dynamic Representations of Simple Mathematical Objects with the Construction and Exploration of Conic Sections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos-Trigo, Manuel; Espinosa-Perez, Hugo; Reyes-Rodriguez, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    Different technological artefacts may offer distinct opportunities for students to develop resources and strategies to formulate, comprehend and solve mathematical problems. In particular, the use of dynamic software becomes relevant to assemble geometric configurations that may help students reconstruct and examine mathematical relationships. In…

  19. Accurate combined-hyperbolic-inverse-power-representation of ab initio potential energy surface for the hydroperoxyl radical and dynamics study of O + OH reaction.

    PubMed

    Varandas, A J C

    2013-04-01

    The Combined-Hyperbolic-Inverse-Power-Representation method, which treats evenly both short- and long-range interactions, is used to fit an extensive set of ab initio points for HO2 previously utilized [Xu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 122, 244305 (2005)] to develop a spline interpolant. The novel form is shown to perform accurately when compared with others, while quasiclassical trajectory calculations of the O + OH reaction clearly pinpoint the role of long-range forces at low temperatures. PMID:23574218

  20. Numerical Magnitude Representation in Children With Mathematical Difficulties With or Without Reading Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Tobia, Valentina; Fasola, Anna; Lupieri, Alice; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the spatial numerical association of response codes (SNARC), the flanker, and the numerical distance effects in children with mathematical difficulties. From a sample of 720 third, fourth, and fifth graders, 60 children were selected and divided into the following three groups: typically developing children (TD; n = 29), children with mathematical difficulties only (MD only; n = 21), and children with mathematical and reading difficulties (MD+RD; n = 10). Children were tested with a numerical Eriksen task that was built to assess SNARC, numerical distance, and flanker (first and second order congruency) effects. Children with MD only showed stronger SNARC and second order congruency effects than did TD children, whereas the numerical distance effects were similar across the three groups. Finally, the first order congruency effect was associated with reading difficulties. These results showed that children with mathematical difficulties with or without reading difficulties were globally more impaired when spatial incompatibilities were presented. PMID:24737662

  1. Learning with Multiple Representations: An Example of a Revision Lesson in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Darren; Poo, Sng Peng; Hock, Ng Eng; Kang, Wee Loo

    2011-01-01

    We describe an example of learning with multiple representations in an A-level revision lesson on mechanics. The context of the problem involved the motion of a ball thrown vertically upwards in air and studying how the associated physical quantities changed during its flight. Different groups of students were assigned to look at the ball's motion…

  2. First-Graders' Spatial-Mathematical Reasoning about Plane and Solid Shapes and Their Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallowell, David A.; Okamoto, Yukari; Romo, Laura F.; La Joy, Jonna R.

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of the study was to explore first-grade children's reasoning about plane and solid shapes across various kinds of geometric representations. Children were individually interviewed while completing a shape-matching task developed for this study. This task required children to compose and decompose geometric figures to identify…

  3. Beyond Conceptual Change: Using Representations to Integrate Domain-Specific Structural Models in Learning Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Florence Mihaela

    2007-01-01

    Effective teaching should focus on representational change, which is fundamental to learning and education, rather than conceptual change, which involves transformation of theories in science rather than the gradual building of knowledge that occurs in students. This article addresses the question about how to develop more efficient strategies for…

  4. Using Virtual Manipulatives with Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers to Create Representational Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    In mathematics education, physical manipulatives such as algebra tiles, pattern blocks, and two-colour counters are commonly used to provide concrete models of abstract concepts. With these traditional manipulatives, people can communicate with the tools only in one another's presence. This limitation poses difficulties concerning assessment and…

  5. Mathematical Thinking Process of Autistic Students in Terms of Representational Gesture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustafa, Sriyanti; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Irawati, Santi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the mathematical thinking process of autistic students in terms of gesture, using a qualitative approach. Data collecting is conducted by using 3 (three) audio-visual cameras. During the learning process, both teacher and students' activity are recorded using handy cam and digital camera (full HD capacity).…

  6. Middle School Students' Understanding of Mathematical Patterns and Their Symbolic Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Joyce Wolfer

    This study explores seventh- and eighth-grade students' thinking about mathematical patterns. Interviews were conducted in which students solved problems about sequential perimeter and area problems modeled with pattern blocks and tiles, generalized the relationships related to the patterns and represented the relationships symbolically,…

  7. Representation of Problem-Solving Procedures: A Comparative Look at China, Singapore, and US Mathematics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Lianghuo; Zhu, Yan

    2007-01-01

    This study examined how selected school mathematics textbooks in China, Singapore, and USA at the lower secondary grade level represent problem-solving procedures. The analysis of problem-solving procedures was carried out in two layers--general strategies, which adopted Polya's four-stage problem-solving model, and specific strategies, which…

  8. Children's Cognitive Representation of the Mathematical Number Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Geary, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Learning of the mathematical number line has been hypothesized to be dependent on an inherent sense of approximate quantity. Children's number line placements are predicted to conform to the underlying properties of this system; specifically, placements are exaggerated for small numerals and compressed for larger ones. Alternative hypotheses…

  9. Numerical Magnitude Representation in Children with Mathematical Difficulties with or without Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobia, Valentina; Fasola, Anna; Lupieri, Alice; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the spatial numerical association of response codes (SNARC), the flanker, and the numerical distance effects in children with mathematical difficulties. From a sample of 720 third, fourth, and fifth graders, 60 children were selected and divided into the following three groups: typically developing children (TD; n =…

  10. A mathematical recursive model for accurate description of the phase behavior in the near-critical region by Generalized van der Waals Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jibeom; Jeon, Joonhyeon

    2015-01-01

    Recently, related studies on Equation Of State (EOS) have reported that generalized van der Waals (GvdW) shows poor representations in the near critical region for non-polar and non-sphere molecules. Hence, there are still remains a problem of GvdW parameters to minimize loss in describing saturated vapor densities and vice versa. This paper describes a recursive model GvdW (rGvdW) for an accurate representation of pure fluid materials in the near critical region. For the performance evaluation of rGvdW in the near critical region, other EOS models are also applied together with two pure molecule group: alkane and amine. The comparison results show rGvdW provides much more accurate and reliable predictions of pressure than the others. The calculating model of EOS through this approach gives an additional insight into the physical significance of accurate prediction of pressure in the nearcritical region.

  11. Accurate combined-hyperbolic-inverse-power-representation of ab initio potential energy surface for the hydroperoxyl radical and dynamics study of O+OH reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varandas, A. J. C.

    2013-04-01

    The Combined-Hyperbolic-Inverse-Power-Representation method, which treats evenly both short- and long-range interactions, is used to fit an extensive set of ab initio points for HO2 previously utilized [Xu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 122, 244305 (2005), 10.1063/1.1944290] to develop a spline interpolant. The novel form is shown to perform accurately when compared with others, while quasiclassical trajectory calculations of the O + OH reaction clearly pinpoint the role of long-range forces at low temperatures.

  12. A mathematical representation of the development of Mycobacterium tuberculosis active, latent and dormant stages.

    PubMed

    Magombedze, Gesham; Mulder, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    The majority of individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) bacilli develop latent infection. Mtb becomes dormant and phenotypically drug resistant when it encounters multiple stresses within the host, and expresses a set of genes, known as the dormancy regulon, in vivo. These genes are expressed in vitro in response to nitric oxide (NO), hypoxia (oxygen deprivation), and nutrient starvation. The occurrence and reactivation of latent tuberculosis (TB) is not clearly understood. The ability of the pathogen to enter and exit from different states is associated with its ability to cause persistent infection. During infection it is not known whether the organism is in a persistent slow replicating state or a dormant non-replicating state, with the latter ultimately causing a latent infection with the potential to reactivate to active disease. We collected gene expression data for Mtb bacilli under different stress conditions that simulate latency or dormancy. Time course experiments were selected and differentially expressed gene profiles were determined at each time point. A mathematical model was then developed to show the dynamics of Mtb latency based on the profile of differentially expressed genes. Analysis of the time course data show the dynamics of latency occurrence in vitro and the mathematical model reveals all possible scenarios of Mtb latency development with respect to the different conditions that may be produced by the immune response in vivo. The mathematical model provides a biological explanation of how Mtb latency occurs based on observed gene expression changes in in vitro latency models. PMID:21968442

  13. A mathematical representation of an advanced helicopter for piloted simulator investigations of control system and display variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiken, E. W.

    1980-01-01

    A mathematical model of an advanced helicopter is described. The model is suitable for use in control/display research involving piloted simulation. The general design approach for the six degree of freedom equations of motion is to use the full set of nonlinear gravitational and inertial terms of the equations and to express the aerodynamic forces and moments as the reference values and first order terms of a Taylor series expansion about a reference trajectory defined as a function of longitudinal airspeed. Provisions for several different specific and generic flight control systems are included in the model. The logic required to drive various flight control and weapon delivery symbols on a pilot's electronic display is also provided. Finally, the model includes a simplified representation of low altitude wind and turbulence effects. This model was used in a piloted simulator investigation of the effects of control system and display variations for an attack helicopter mission.

  14. Quantum reactive scattering in three dimensions using hyperspherical (APH) coordinates. IV. Discrete variable representation (DVR) basis functions and the analysis of accurate results for F+H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bačić, Z.; Kress, J. D.; Parker, G. A.; Pack, R. T.

    1990-02-01

    Accurate 3D coupled channel calculations for total angular momentum J=0 for the reaction F+H2→HF+H using a realistic potential energy surface are analyzed. The reactive scattering is formulated using the hyperspherical (APH) coordinates of Pack and Parker. The adiabatic basis functions are generated quite efficiently using the discrete variable representation method. Reaction probabilities for relative collision energies of up to 17.4 kcal/mol are presented. To aid in the interpretation of the resonances and quantum structure observed in the calculated reaction probabilities, we analyze the phases of the S matrix transition elements, Argand diagrams, time delays and eigenlifetimes of the collision lifetime matrix. Collinear (1D) and reduced dimensional 3D bending corrected rotating linear model (BCRLM) calculations are presented and compared with the accurate 3D calculations.

  15. Mathematical models for accurate prediction of atmospheric visibility with particular reference to the seasonal and environmental patterns in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Mui, K W; Wong, L T; Chung, L Y

    2009-11-01

    Atmospheric visibility impairment has gained increasing concern as it is associated with the existence of a number of aerosols as well as common air pollutants and produces unfavorable conditions for observation, dispersion, and transportation. This study analyzed the atmospheric visibility data measured in urban and suburban Hong Kong (two selected stations) with respect to time-matched mass concentrations of common air pollutants including nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), nitrogen monoxide (NO), respirable suspended particulates (PM(10)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), and meteorological parameters including air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed. No significant difference in atmospheric visibility was reported between the two measurement locations (p > or = 0.6, t test); and good atmospheric visibility was observed more frequently in summer and autumn than in winter and spring (p < 0.01, t test). It was also found that atmospheric visibility increased with temperature but decreased with the concentrations of SO(2), CO, PM(10), NO, and NO(2). The results showed that atmospheric visibility was season dependent and would have significant correlations with temperature, the mass concentrations of PM(10) and NO(2), and the air pollution index API (correlation coefficients mid R: R mid R: > or = 0.7, p < or = 0.0001, t test). Mathematical expressions catering to the seasonal variations of atmospheric visibility were thus proposed. By comparison, the proposed visibility prediction models were more accurate than some existing regional models. In addition to improving visibility prediction accuracy, this study would be useful for understanding the context of low atmospheric visibility, exploring possible remedial measures, and evaluating the impact of air pollution and atmospheric visibility impairment in this region. PMID:18951139

  16. A homotopy-based sparse representation for fast and accurate shape prior modeling in liver surgical planning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guotai; Zhang, Shaoting; Xie, Hongzhi; Metaxas, Dimitris N; Gu, Lixu

    2015-01-01

    Shape prior plays an important role in accurate and robust liver segmentation. However, liver shapes have complex variations and accurate modeling of liver shapes is challenging. Using large-scale training data can improve the accuracy but it limits the computational efficiency. In order to obtain accurate liver shape priors without sacrificing the efficiency when dealing with large-scale training data, we investigate effective and scalable shape prior modeling method that is more applicable in clinical liver surgical planning system. We employed the Sparse Shape Composition (SSC) to represent liver shapes by an optimized sparse combination of shapes in the repository, without any assumptions on parametric distributions of liver shapes. To leverage large-scale training data and improve the computational efficiency of SSC, we also introduced a homotopy-based method to quickly solve the L1-norm optimization problem in SSC. This method takes advantage of the sparsity of shape modeling, and solves the original optimization problem in SSC by continuously transforming it into a series of simplified problems whose solution is fast to compute. When new training shapes arrive gradually, the homotopy strategy updates the optimal solution on the fly and avoids re-computing it from scratch. Experiments showed that SSC had a high accuracy and efficiency in dealing with complex liver shape variations, excluding gross errors and preserving local details on the input liver shape. The homotopy-based SSC had a high computational efficiency, and its runtime increased very slowly when repository's capacity and vertex number rose to a large degree. When repository's capacity was 10,000, with 2000 vertices on each shape, homotopy method cost merely about 11.29 s to solve the optimization problem in SSC, nearly 2000 times faster than interior point method. The dice similarity coefficient (DSC), average symmetric surface distance (ASD), and maximum symmetric surface distance measurement

  17. Effect of the Presence of External Representations on Accuracy and Reaction Time in Solving Mathematical Double-Choice Problems by Students of Different Levels of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leikin, Roza; Leikin, Mark; Waisman, Ilana; Shaul, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the effects of the "presence of external representations of a mathematical object" (ERs) on problem solving performance associated with short double-choice problems. The problems were borrowed from secondary school algebra and geometry, and the ERs were either formulas, graphs of functions, or drawings of geometric…

  18. Reading Visual Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, Rheta N.; Thompson, Denisse R.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics is rich in visual representations. Such visual representations are the means by which mathematical patterns "are recorded and analyzed." With respect to "vocabulary" and "symbols," numerous educators have focused on issues inherent in the language of mathematics that influence students' success with mathematics communication.…

  19. Accurate Calculation of Solvation Free Energies in Supercritical Fluids by Fully Atomistic Simulations: Probing the Theory of Solutions in Energy Representation.

    PubMed

    Frolov, Andrey I

    2015-05-12

    Accurate calculation of solvation free energies (SFEs) is a fundamental problem of theoretical chemistry. In this work we perform a careful validation of the theory of solutions in energy representation (ER method) developed by Matubayasi et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 2000, 113, 6070-6081] for SFE calculations in supercritical solvents. This method can be seen as a bridge between the molecular simulations and the classical (not quantum) density functional theory (DFT) formulated in energy representation. We performed extensive calculations of SFEs of organic molecules of different chemical natures in pure supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2) and in sc-CO2 with addition of 6 mol % of ethanol, acetone, and n-hexane as cosolvents. We show that the ER method reproduces SFE data calculated by a method free of theoretical approximations (the Bennett's acceptance ratio) with the mean absolute error of only 0.05 kcal/mol. However, the ER method requires by an order less computational resources. Also, we show that the quality of ER calculations should be carefully monitored since the lack of sampling can result into a considerable bias in predictions. The present calculations reproduce the trends in the cosolvent-induced solubility enhancement factors observed in experimental data. Thus, we think that molecular simulations coupled with the ER method can be used for quick calculations of the effect of variation of temperature, pressure, and cosolvent concentration on SFE and hence solubility of bioactive compounds in supercritical fluids. This should dramatically reduce the burden of experimental work on optimizing solvency of supercritical solvents. PMID:26574423

  20. Reading Students' Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diezmann, Carmel M.; McCosker, Natalie T.

    2011-01-01

    Representations play a key role in mathematical thinking: They offer "a medium" to express mathematical knowledge or organize mathematical information and to discern mathematical relationships (e.g., relative household expenditures on a pie chart) using text, symbols, or graphics. They also furnish "tools" for mathematical processes (e.g., use of…

  1. A mathematical framework for combining decisions of multiple experts toward accurate and remote diagnosis of malaria using tele-microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mavandadi, Sam; Feng, Steve; Yu, Frank; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Prescott, William R; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-01-01

    We propose a methodology for digitally fusing diagnostic decisions made by multiple medical experts in order to improve accuracy of diagnosis. Toward this goal, we report an experimental study involving nine experts, where each one was given more than 8,000 digital microscopic images of individual human red blood cells and asked to identify malaria infected cells. The results of this experiment reveal that even highly trained medical experts are not always self-consistent in their diagnostic decisions and that there exists a fair level of disagreement among experts, even for binary decisions (i.e., infected vs. uninfected). To tackle this general medical diagnosis problem, we propose a probabilistic algorithm to fuse the decisions made by trained medical experts to robustly achieve higher levels of accuracy when compared to individual experts making such decisions. By modelling the decisions of experts as a three component mixture model and solving for the underlying parameters using the Expectation Maximisation algorithm, we demonstrate the efficacy of our approach which significantly improves the overall diagnostic accuracy of malaria infected cells. Additionally, we present a mathematical framework for performing 'slide-level' diagnosis by using individual 'cell-level' diagnosis data, shedding more light on the statistical rules that should govern the routine practice in examination of e.g., thin blood smear samples. This framework could be generalized for various other tele-pathology needs, and can be used by trained experts within an efficient tele-medicine platform. PMID:23071544

  2. A Mathematical Framework for Combining Decisions of Multiple Experts toward Accurate and Remote Diagnosis of Malaria Using Tele-Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mavandadi, Sam; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Prescott, William R.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-01-01

    We propose a methodology for digitally fusing diagnostic decisions made by multiple medical experts in order to improve accuracy of diagnosis. Toward this goal, we report an experimental study involving nine experts, where each one was given more than 8,000 digital microscopic images of individual human red blood cells and asked to identify malaria infected cells. The results of this experiment reveal that even highly trained medical experts are not always self-consistent in their diagnostic decisions and that there exists a fair level of disagreement among experts, even for binary decisions (i.e., infected vs. uninfected). To tackle this general medical diagnosis problem, we propose a probabilistic algorithm to fuse the decisions made by trained medical experts to robustly achieve higher levels of accuracy when compared to individual experts making such decisions. By modelling the decisions of experts as a three component mixture model and solving for the underlying parameters using the Expectation Maximisation algorithm, we demonstrate the efficacy of our approach which significantly improves the overall diagnostic accuracy of malaria infected cells. Additionally, we present a mathematical framework for performing ‘slide-level’ diagnosis by using individual ‘cell-level’ diagnosis data, shedding more light on the statistical rules that should govern the routine practice in examination of e.g., thin blood smear samples. This framework could be generalized for various other tele-pathology needs, and can be used by trained experts within an efficient tele-medicine platform. PMID:23071544

  3. The visualizable, the representable and the inconceivable: realist and non-realist mathematical models in physics and beyond.

    PubMed

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2016-01-13

    The project of this article is twofold. First, it aims to offer a new perspective on, and a new argument concerning, realist and non-realist mathematical models, and differences and affinities between them, using physics as a paradigmatic field of mathematical modelling in science. Most of the article is devoted to this topic. Second, the article aims to explore the implications of this argument for mathematical modelling in other fields, in particular in cognitive psychology and economics. PMID:26621990

  4. Grade 4-6 Student Conceptions and Utilization of Informal and Formal Variable Representations across Mathematically Equivalent Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Switzer, Matt

    2011-01-01

    This study reports how 24 grade 4-6 students in one elementary and middle school interpreted formal and informal representations of variables. While interpretations for variables represented as letters (e.g., x and y) have been well established for students in algebra classes and beyond, little research into elementary school students'…

  5. The Cognitive Roots of Scientific and Mathematical Ability and Discussant Reaction: Alternative Representations: A Key to Academic Talent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, D. N.; Simmons, Rebecca

    This paper examines the cognitive structures and processes that mediate mathematical and scientific ability. Ability is divided into achieved abilities and precursor abilities. Identified concepts in the area of achieved ability include expertise, understanding, and problem-solving. Other abilities can be seen as precursors to such achieved…

  6. The Representational Value of Hats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.; Fitzallen, Noleine E.; Wilson, Karen G.; Creed, Julie F.

    2008-01-01

    The literature that is available on the topic of representations in mathematics is vast. One commonly discussed item is graphical representations. From the history of mathematics to modern uses of technology, a variety of graphical forms are available for middle school students to use to represent mathematical ideas. The ideas range from algebraic…

  7. INCREASING ACHIEVEMENT AND HIGHER-EDUCATION REPRESENTATION OF UNDER-REPRESENTED GROUPS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS FIELDS: A REVIEW OF CURRENT K-12 INTERVENTION PROGRAMS.

    PubMed

    Valla, Jeffrey M; Williams, Wendy M

    2012-01-01

    The under-representation of women and ethnic minorities in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and professions has resulted in a loss of human capital for the US scientific workforce and spurred the development of myriad STEM educational intervention programs. Increased allocation of resources to such programs begs for a critical, prescriptive, evidence-based review that will enable researchers to develop optimal interventions and administrators to maximize investments. We begin by providing a theoretical backdrop for K-12 STEM programs by reviewing current data on under-representation and developmental research describing individual-level social factors undergirding these data. Next, we review prototypical designs of these programs, highlighting specific programs in the literature as examples of program structures and components currently in use. We then evaluate these interventions in terms of overall effectiveness, as a function of how well they address age-, ethnicity-, or gender-specific factors, suggesting improvements in program design based on these critiques. Finally, program evaluation methods are briefly reviewed and discussed in terms of how their empirical soundness can either enable or limit our ability to delineate effective program components. "Now more than ever, the nation's changing demographics demand that we include all of our citizens in science and engineering education and careers. For the U.S. to benefit from the diverse talents of all its citizens, we must grow the pipeline of qualified, underrepresented minority engineers and scientists to fill positions in industry and academia."-Irving P. McPhail.. PMID:22942637

  8. Promoting Decimal Number Sense and Representational Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Jennifer M.; Johnston, Chris; Jamieson, Spencer; Mills, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The abstract nature of mathematics requires the communication of mathematical ideas through multiple representations, such as words, symbols, pictures, objects, or actions. Building representational fluency involves using mathematical representations flexibly and being able to interpret and translate among these different models and mathematical…

  9. INCREASING ACHIEVEMENT AND HIGHER-EDUCATION REPRESENTATION OF UNDER-REPRESENTED GROUPS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS FIELDS: A REVIEW OF CURRENT K-12 INTERVENTION PROGRAMS

    PubMed Central

    Valla, Jeffrey M.; Williams, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    The under-representation of women and ethnic minorities in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and professions has resulted in a loss of human capital for the US scientific workforce and spurred the development of myriad STEM educational intervention programs. Increased allocation of resources to such programs begs for a critical, prescriptive, evidence-based review that will enable researchers to develop optimal interventions and administrators to maximize investments. We begin by providing a theoretical backdrop for K-12 STEM programs by reviewing current data on under-representation and developmental research describing individual-level social factors undergirding these data. Next, we review prototypical designs of these programs, highlighting specific programs in the literature as examples of program structures and components currently in use. We then evaluate these interventions in terms of overall effectiveness, as a function of how well they address age-, ethnicity-, or gender-specific factors, suggesting improvements in program design based on these critiques. Finally, program evaluation methods are briefly reviewed and discussed in terms of how their empirical soundness can either enable or limit our ability to delineate effective program components. “Now more than ever, the nation’s changing demographics demand that we include all of our citizens in science and engineering education and careers. For the U.S. to benefit from the diverse talents of all its citizens, we must grow the pipeline of qualified, underrepresented minority engineers and scientists to fill positions in industry and academia.”—Irving P. McPhail.. PMID:22942637

  10. Connected Representations: From Proportion to Linear Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltus, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Mathematics may be inconceivable without its diagrams and symbols--its representations. Mathematical representations help individuals organize their thinking; they bring a visual component to abstract ideas and serve as templates for computation with understanding. But the inevitability of representations is no guarantee that they are used…

  11. Inscriptions Becoming Representations in Representational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Richard; Suthers, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the interaction of 3 students working on mathematics problems over several days in a virtual math team. Our analysis traces out how successful collaboration in a later session is contingent upon the work of prior sessions and shows how the development of representational practices is an important aspect of these participants' problem…

  12. Development of a mechanism and an accurate and simple mathematical model for the description of drug release: Application to a relevant example of acetazolamide-controlled release from a bio-inspired elastin-based hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Colino, A; Bermudez, J M; Arias, F J; Quinteros, D; Gonzo, E

    2016-04-01

    Transversality between mathematical modeling, pharmacology, and materials science is essential in order to achieve controlled-release systems with advanced properties. In this regard, the area of biomaterials provides a platform for the development of depots that are able to achieve controlled release of a drug, whereas pharmacology strives to find new therapeutic molecules and mathematical models have a connecting function, providing a rational understanding by modeling the parameters that influence the release observed. Herein we present a mechanism which, based on reasonable assumptions, explains the experimental data obtained very well. In addition, we have developed a simple and accurate “lumped” kinetics model to correctly fit the experimentally observed drug-release behavior. This lumped model allows us to have simple analytic solutions for the mass and rate of drug release as a function of time without limitations of time or mass of drug released, which represents an important step-forward in the area of in vitro drug delivery when compared to the current state of the art in mathematical modeling. As an example, we applied the mechanism and model to the release data for acetazolamide from a recombinant polymer. Both materials were selected because of a need to develop a suitable ophthalmic formulation for the treatment of glaucoma. The in vitro release model proposed herein provides a valuable predictive tool for ensuring product performance and batch-to-batch reproducibility, thus paving the way for the development of further pharmaceutical devices. PMID:26838852

  13. Middle-Grade Students' Misconceptions about the Graphical Representation of Simple Fractions: An Assessment from the Eliciting Mathematical Misconceptions Project (EM[superscript 2])

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Peggy; Buffington, Pamela; Tobey, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Rational number concepts underpin many topics in advanced mathematics and understanding these concepts is a prerequisite for students' success in high-school level courses. Students with rational number misconceptions that are not diagnosed and remediated in the middle grades are likely to encounter difficulty in high-school mathematics courses.…

  14. Standard model of knowledge representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  15. Symbolic Representation of Probabilistic Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic representation of environmental variables is a ubiquitous and often debated component of cognitive science. Yet notwithstanding centuries of philosophical discussion, the efficacy, scope, and validity of such representation has rarely been given direct consideration from a mathematical point of view. This paper introduces a quantitative…

  16. Using Representations of Practice to Elicit Mathematics Teachers' Tacit Knowledge of Practice: A Comparison of Responses to Animations and Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Patricio; Kosko, Karl W.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared conversations among groups of teachers of high school geometry that had been elicited by a representation of instruction (either a video or an animation) and facilitated with an open-ended agenda. All artifacts used represented instruction scenarios that departed from what, according to prior work, had been hypothesized as…

  17. Who Will Do Science? Trends, and Their Causes in Minority and Female Representation among Holders of Advanced Degrees in Science and Mathematics. A Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Sue E.

    This paper describes trends in and causes of minority and female representation among holders of advanced science and math degrees. The minority groups studied are Blacks, Hispanic Americans, American Indians, and Asian Americans, all of whom are compared with Whites. The degrees looked at include those in math, the computer sciences, physical…

  18. Mathematics in the Mende Culture: Its General Implication for Mathematics Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockarie, Alex

    1993-01-01

    Mathematics that exists in the Mende culture, an African tribe in Sierra Leone, includes counting, computation, ratios, fractions, forecasting games, and mathematical applications. Presents The Mende representations of these concepts and discusses implications of their integration into mathematics teaching. (MDH)

  19. Preservice Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Development of Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching and Their Use of Knowledge in Their Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Kyunghee

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how preservice secondary mathematics teachers developed mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) around representations and big ideas through mathematics and mathematics education courses. The importance of big ideas and representations in mathematics has been emphasized in national standards as well as in literature. Yet,…

  20. The Impacts of Mathematical Representations Developed through Webquest and Spreadsheet Activities on the Motivation of Pre-Service Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halat, Erdogan; Peker, Murat

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of instruction using WebQuest activities with the influence of an instruction using spreadsheet activities on the motivation of pre-service elementary school teachers in mathematics teaching course. There were a total of 70 pre-service elementary school teachers involved in this study. Thirty…

  1. Control of thermal balance by a liquid circulating garment based on a mathematical representation of the human thermoregulatory system. Ph.D. Thesis - California Univ., Berkeley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetz, L. H.

    1976-01-01

    Test data and a mathematical model of the human thermoregulatory system were used to investigate control of thermal balance by means of a liquid circulating garment (LCG). The test data were derived from five series of experiments in which environmental and metabolic conditions were varied parametrically as a function of several independent variables, including LCG flowrate, LCG inlet temperature, net environmental heat exchange, surrounding gas ventilation rate, ambient pressure, metabolic rate, and subjective/obligatory cooling control. The resultant data were used to relate skin temperature to LCG water temperature and flowrate, to assess a thermal comfort band, to demonstrate the relationship between metabolic rate and LCG heat dissipation, and so forth. The usefulness of the mathematical model as a tool for data interpretation and for generation of trends and relationships among the various physiological parameters was also investigated and verified.

  2. Advanced techniques for the storage and use of very large, heterogeneous spatial databases. The representation of geographic knowledge: Toward a universal framework. [relations (mathematics)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peuquet, Donna J.

    1987-01-01

    A new approach to building geographic data models that is based on the fundamental characteristics of the data is presented. An overall theoretical framework for representing geographic data is proposed. An example of utilizing this framework in a Geographic Information System (GIS) context by combining artificial intelligence techniques with recent developments in spatial data processing techniques is given. Elements of data representation discussed include hierarchical structure, separation of locational and conceptual views, and the ability to store knowledge at variable levels of completeness and precision.

  3. Why Representations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, James E.; Waters, Michael S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses representations in the context of solving a system of linear equations. Views representations (concrete, tables, graphs, algebraic, matrices) from perspectives of understanding, technology, generalization, exact versus approximate solution, and learning style. (KHR)

  4. Flawed Mathematical Conceptualizations: Marlon's Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Lauretta

    2013-01-01

    Adult developmental mathematics students often work under great pressure to complete the mathematics sequences designed to help them achieve success (Bryk & Treisman, 2010). Results of a teaching experiment demonstrate how the ability to reason can be impeded by flaws in students' mental representations of mathematics. The earnestness of the…

  5. STEM Gives Meaning to Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hefty, Lukas J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' (NCTM's) "Principles and Standards for School Mathematics" (2000) outlines fi ve Process Standards that are essential for developing deep understanding of mathematics: (1) Problem Solving; (2) Reasoning and Proof; (3) Communication; (4) Connections; and (5) Representation. The Common Core…

  6. Quantity Cognition: Numbers, Numerosity, Zero and Mathematics.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ben M

    2016-05-23

    Physical quantities differ from abstract numbers and mathematics, but recent results are revealing the neural representation of both: a new study demonstrates how an absence of quantity is transformed into a representation of zero as a number. PMID:27218850

  7. Mathematical Models and the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, James E

    2006-01-01

    The use of mathematical models in the experimental analysis of behavior has increased over the years, and they offer several advantages. Mathematical models require theorists to be precise and unambiguous, often allowing comparisons of competing theories that sound similar when stated in words. Sometimes different mathematical models may make equally accurate predictions for a large body of data. In such cases, it is important to find and investigate situations for which the competing models make different predictions because, unless two models are actually mathematically equivalent, they are based on different assumptions about the psychological processes that underlie an observed behavior. Mathematical models developed in basic behavioral research have been used to predict and control behavior in applied settings, and they have guided research in other areas of psychology. A good mathematical model can provide a common framework for understanding what might otherwise appear to be diverse and unrelated behavioral phenomena. Because psychologists vary in their quantitative skills and in their tolerance for mathematical equations, it is important for those who develop mathematical models of behavior to find ways (such as verbal analogies, pictorial representations, or concrete examples) to communicate the key premises of their models to nonspecialists. PMID:16673829

  8. The Transition to Formal Thinking in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tall, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the changes in thinking involved in the transition from school mathematics to formal proof in pure mathematics at university. School mathematics is seen as a combination of visual representations, including geometry and graphs, together with symbolic calculations and manipulations. Pure mathematics in university shifts…

  9. Student Nurses and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutton, B. Meriel

    For the safety of the public, it is essential that nurses are competent at least in the mathematics that enables them to calculate medications accurately. From a survey by G. Hek (1994), it is apparent that mathematics is not universally included in the nursing curricula, nor asked for as a pre-requisite to entry. Changes in the profile of the…

  10. Discipline-Based Remediation: Bridging the Mathematics Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenner, Jennifer M.; Baer, Eric M.; Burn, Helen E.

    2013-10-01

    Geoscience relies on numbers, data, equations, graphical representations, and other quantitative skills; therefore, introductory geoscience courses need to accurately portray the science as quantitative [e.g., Wenner et al., 2009]. However, up to 57% of students arrive at college underprepared to perform mathematics at the level necessary to succeed in introductory courses [ACT, 2011]. Although some institutions have turned to prerequisites as a way to ensure appropriate preparation, these extra courses can place undue financial, temporal, and academic burdens on interested students, keeping them from enrolling in science courses that may interest them. As an alternative to mathematics prerequisites, geoscience faculty at the University of Wisconsin Oshkosh and Highline Community College in Des Moines, Wash., funded by the National Science Foundation, developed a model of successful integration of discipline-based mathematics remediation into an introductory geoscience course: The Math You Need, When You Need It (TMYN; http://serc.carleton.edu/mathyouneed/).

  11. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1990-02-19

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation, computation, and display of surfaces interpolating to information in three or more dimensions. If the given information is located on another surface, then the problem is to construct a surface defined on a surface''. Sometimes properties of an already defined surface are desired, which is geometry processing''. Visualization of multivariate surfaces is possible by means of contouring higher dimensional surfaces. These problems and more are discussed below. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through computational algorithms to computer graphics illustrations is utilized in this research. The breadth and depth of this research activity makes this research project unique.

  12. The Development of Numerical Estimation: Evidence against a Representational Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Hilary C.; Paladino, Annie M.

    2011-01-01

    How do our mental representations of number change over development? The dominant view holds that children (and adults) possess multiple representations of number, and that age and experience lead to a shift from greater reliance upon logarithmically organized number representations to greater reliance upon more accurate, linear representations.…

  13. Representation is representation of similarities.

    PubMed

    Edelman, S

    1998-08-01

    Advanced perceptual systems are faced with the problem of securing a principled (ideally, veridical) relationship between the world and its internal representation. I propose a unified approach to visual representation, addressing the need for superordinate and basic-level categorization and for the identification of specific instances of familiar categories. According to the proposed theory, a shape is represented internally by the responses of a small number of tuned modules, each broadly selective for some reference shape, whose similarity to the stimulus it measures. This amounts to embedding the stimulus in a low-dimensional proximal shape space spanned by the outputs of the active modules. This shape space supports representations of distal shape similarities that are veridical as Shepard's (1968) second-order isomorphisms (i.e., correspondence between distal and proximal similarities among shapes, rather than between distal shapes and their proximal representations). Representation in terms of similarities to reference shapes supports processing (e.g., discrimination) of shapes that are radically different from the reference ones, without the need for the computationally problematic decomposition into parts required by other theories. Furthermore, a general expression for similarity between two stimuli, based on comparisons to reference shapes, can be used to derive models of perceived similarity ranging from continuous, symmetric, and hierarchical ones, as in multidimensional scaling (Shepard 1980), to discrete and nonhierarchical ones, as in the general contrast models (Shepard & Arabie 1979; Tversky 1977). PMID:10097019

  14. Representing Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Aaron M.

    2010-01-01

    What can be known and how to render what we know are perpetual quandaries met by qualitative research, complicated further by the understanding that the everyday discourses influencing our representations are often tacit, unspoken or heard so often that they seem to warrant little reflection. In this article, I offer analytic memos as a means for…

  15. Masculinities in Mathematics. Educating Boys, Learning Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendick, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This book illuminates what studying mathematics means for both students and teachers and offers a broad range of insights into students' views and practices. In addition to the words of young people learning mathematics, the masculinity of mathematics is explored through historical material and cinematic representations. The author discusses the…

  16. Mathematical Approaches to the Composing Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Dennis R.

    Rhetoric and mathematics have much in common that can help explain the composing process. Common elements of rhetoric and mathematics important to the teaching of writing are (1) relationships between syntax and semantics, (2) practices of representation, and (3) focus on problem solving. Recent emphasis on "repair processes" in mathematics is…

  17. Squeezing, Striking, and Vocalizing: Is Number Representation Fundamentally Spatial?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Rafael; Doan, D.; Nikoulina, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Numbers are fundamental entities in mathematics, but their cognitive bases are unclear. Abundant research points to linear space as a natural grounding for number representation. But, is number representation fundamentally spatial? We disentangle number representation from standard number-to-line reporting methods, and compare numerical…

  18. Technology Focus: Multi-Representational Approaches to Equation Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garofalo, Joe; Trinter, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Most mathematical functions can be represented in numerous ways. The main representations typically addressed in school, often referred to as "the big three," are graphical, algebraic, and numerical representations, but there are others as well (e.g., diagrams, words, simulations). These different types of representations "often illuminate…

  19. External Representations for Data Distributions: In Search of Cognitive Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghana, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Data distributions can be represented using different external representations, such as histograms and boxplots. Although the role of external representations has been extensively studied in mathematics, this is less the case in statistics. This study helps to fill this gap by systematically varying the representation that accompanies a task…

  20. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1991-04-02

    Modern computing resources permit the generation of large amounts of numerical data. These large data sets, if left in numerical form, can be overwhelming. Such large data sets are usually discrete points from some underlying physical phenomenon. Because we need to evaluate the phenomenon at places where we don't have data, a continuous representation (a surface'') is required. A simple example is a weather map obtained from a discrete set of weather stations. (For more examples including multi-dimensional ones, see the article by Dr. Rosemary Chang in the enclosed IRIS Universe). In order to create a scientific structure encompassing the data, we construct an interpolating mathematical surface which can evaluate at arbitrary locations. We can also display and analyze the results via interactive computer graphics. In our research we construct a very wide variety of surfaces for applied geometry problems that have sound theoretical foundations. However, our surfaces have the distinguishing feature that they are constructed to solve short or long term practical problems. This DOE-funded project has developed the premiere research team in the subject of constructing surfaces (3D and higher dimensional) that provide smooth representations of real scientific and engineering information, including state of the art computer graphics visualizations. However, our main contribution is in the development of fundamental constructive mathematical methods and visualization techniques which can be incorporated into a wide variety of applications. This project combines constructive mathematics, algorithms, and computer graphics, all applied to real problems. The project is a unique resource, considered by our peers to be a de facto national center for this type of research.

  1. Mathematics Underground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luther, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of groundwater flow is a topic at the intersection of mathematics and geohydrology and is rarely encountered in undergraduate mathematics. However, this subject is full of interesting and meaningful examples of truly "applied" mathematics accessible to undergraduates, from the pre-calculus to advanced mathematics levels. This…

  2. Abstraction in mathematics.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Pier Luigi

    2003-07-29

    Some current interpretations of abstraction in mathematical settings are examined from different perspectives, including history and learning. It is argued that abstraction is a complex concept and that it cannot be reduced to generalization or decontextualization only. In particular, the links between abstraction processes and the emergence of new objects are shown. The role that representations have in abstraction is discussed, taking into account both the historical and the educational perspectives. As languages play a major role in mathematics, some ideas from functional linguistics are applied to explain to what extent mathematical notations are to be considered abstract. Finally, abstraction is examined from the perspective of mathematics education, to show that the teaching ideas resulting from one-dimensional interpretations of abstraction have proved utterly unsuccessful. PMID:12903658

  3. Building Mathematical Models of Simple Harmonic and Damped Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    By developing a sequence of mathematical models of harmonic motion, shows that mathematical models are not right or wrong, but instead are better or poorer representations of the problem situation. (MKR)

  4. On Blocks, Stairs, and beyond: Learning about the Significance of Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubel, Laurie H.; Zolkower, Betina A.

    2007-01-01

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2000) recommends that students at all grade levels be provided with instructional programs that enable them to "create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas; select, apply, and translate among mathematical representations to solve problems; and use…

  5. 16 CFR 322.3 - Prohibited representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and relies upon competent and reliable evidence that substantiates that the representation is true. For the purposes of this paragraph, “competent and reliable evidence” means tests, analyses, research... accepted in the profession to yield accurate and reliable results....

  6. 16 CFR 322.3 - Prohibited representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and relies upon competent and reliable evidence that substantiates that the representation is true. For the purposes of this paragraph, “competent and reliable evidence” means tests, analyses, research... accepted in the profession to yield accurate and reliable results....

  7. Value and Limitations of Analogs in Teaching Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halford, Graeme S.; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.

    Analogical reasoning is frequently used in acquisition of mathematical concepts. Concrete representations used to teach mathematics are essentially analogs of mathematical concepts, and it is argued that analogies enter into mathematical concept acquisition in numerous other ways as well. According to Gentner's theory, analogies entail a…

  8. Manipulating Representations.

    PubMed

    Recchia-Luciani, Angelo N M

    2012-04-01

    The present paper proposes a definition for the complex polysemic concepts of consciousness and awareness (in humans as well as in other species), and puts forward the idea of a progressive ontological development of consciousness from a state of 'childhood' awareness, in order to explain that humans are not only able to manipulate objects, but also their mental representations. The paper builds on the idea of qualia intended as entities posing regular invariant requests to neural processes, trough the permanence of different properties. The concept of semantic differential introduces the properties of metaphorical qualia as an exclusively human ability. Furthermore this paper proposes a classification of qualia, according to the models-with different levels of abstraction-they are implied in, in a taxonomic perspective. This, in turn, becomes a source of categorization of divergent representations, sign systems, and forms of intentionality, relying always on biological criteria. New emerging image-of-the-world-devices are proposed, whose qualia are likely to be only accessible to humans: emotional qualia, where emotion accounts for the invariant and dominant property; and the qualic self where continuity, combined with the oneness of the self, accounts for the invariant and dominant property. The concept of congruence between different domains in a metaphor introduces the possibility of a general evaluation of truth and falsity of all kinds of metaphorical constructs, while the work of Matte Blanco enables us to classify conscious versus unconscious metaphors, both in individuals and in social organizations. PMID:22347988

  9. Efficient radiometrically accurate synthetic representation of IR scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Patrick C.; Gover, Robert E.

    2003-08-01

    A technique is developed for synthesizing a high spectral resolution IR ship signature image, for use in an imaging IR Anti-Ship Cruise Missile (ASCM) model, from an IR scene database provided by the ship signature model NTCS/ShipIR. This synthesized IR ship image is generated for use over ranges representative of an ASCM engagement. The technique presented focuses on the application of in-band averaged transmittance to the source ship signature as a means of reducing the spectral calculations required by the cruise missile model. In order to achieve this reduction in computation, while preserving the fidelity of the apparent ship signature, the idea of sub-banding is introduced. Sub-banding describes the manner in which the IR band is partitioned into smaller bandwidths, such that the error produced in the ship's average contrast radiance due to the use of in-band averaged transmittance is minimized over range. The difference between the average contrast radiance of an IR ship image generated using in-band averaging and the average contrast radiance of a spectrally generated IR ship image is the metric for this minimization. This choice is based on measured data collected from the recent NATO SIMVEX trial, which used high quality IR measurements of the CFAV Quest in an effort to refine the NTCS/ShipIR model. The technique is general and applicable to any band(s) of interest. Results are presented which verify that the use of in-band averaged transmittance over an IR band (3.5-5.0 μm), partitioned using three optimal sub-bands, produces an IR ship image with an average contrast radiance within the desired error bar of a spectrally generated ship image's average contrast radiance.

  10. Formal representation of 3D structural geological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Yang, Hongjun; Du, Qunle

    2016-05-01

    The development and widespread application of geological modeling methods has increased demands for the integration and sharing services of three dimensional (3D) geological data. However, theoretical research in the field of geological information sciences is limited despite the widespread use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in geology. In particular, fundamental research on the formal representations and standardized spatial descriptions of 3D structural models is required. This is necessary for accurate understanding and further applications of geological data in 3D space. In this paper, we propose a formal representation method for 3D structural models using the theory of point set topology, which produces a mathematical definition for the major types of geological objects. The spatial relationships between geologic boundaries, structures, and units are explained in detail using the 9-intersection model. Reasonable conditions for describing the topological space of 3D structural models are also provided. The results from this study can be used as potential support for the standardized representation and spatial quality evaluation of 3D structural models, as well as for specific needs related to model-based management, query, and analysis.

  11. Mathematics, Anyone?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reys, Robert; Reys, Rustin

    2011-01-01

    In their dual roles as mathematics teachers and tennis coaches, the authors have worked with tennis players who have never thought about how a knowledge of mathematics might help them become "better" tennis players. They have also worked with many mathematics students who have never considered how much mathematics is associated with tennis. This…

  12. Audio representations of multi-channel EEG: a new tool for diagnosis of brain disorders

    PubMed Central

    Vialatte, François B; Dauwels, Justin; Musha, Toshimitsu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this paper is to develop audio representations of electroencephalographic (EEG) multichannel signals, useful for medical practitioners and neuroscientists. The fundamental question explored in this paper is whether clinically valuable information contained in the EEG, not available from the conventional graphical EEG representation, might become apparent through audio representations. Methods and Materials: Music scores are generated from sparse time-frequency maps of EEG signals. Specifically, EEG signals of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and (healthy) control subjects are considered. Statistical differences in the audio representations of MCI patients and control subjects are assessed through mathematical complexity indexes as well as a perception test; in the latter, participants try to distinguish between audio sequences from MCI patients and control subjects. Results: Several characteristics of the audio sequences, including sample entropy, number of notes, and synchrony, are significantly different in MCI patients and control subjects (Mann-Whitney p < 0.01). Moreover, the participants of the perception test were able to accurately classify the audio sequences (89% correctly classified). Conclusions: The proposed audio representation of multi-channel EEG signals helps to understand the complex structure of EEG. Promising results were obtained on a clinical EEG data set. PMID:23383399

  13. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas A.

    1983-01-01

    Mathematical techniques used to solve geological problems are briefly discussed (including comments on use of geostatistics). Highlights of conferences/meetings and conference papers in mathematical geology are also provided. (JN)

  14. Mathematic Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanh, Vu Duc, Ed.

    This document gives a listing of mathematical terminology in both the English and Vietnamese languages. Vocabulary used in algebra and geometry is included along with a translation of mathematical symbols. (DT)

  15. Mathematics disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001534.htm Mathematics disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's ...

  16. Representational Translation with Concrete Models in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stull, Andrew T.; Hegarty, Mary; Dixon, Bonnie; Stieff, Mike

    2012-01-01

    In representation-rich domains such as organic chemistry, students must be facile and accurate when translating between different 2D representations, such as diagrams. We hypothesized that translating between organic chemistry diagrams would be more accurate when concrete models were used because difficult mental processes could be augmented by…

  17. Spreadsheets as a Transparent Resource for Learning the Mathematics of Annuities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pournara, Craig

    2009-01-01

    The ability of mathematics teachers to decompress mathematics and to move between representations are two key features of mathematical knowledge that is usable for teaching. This article reports on four pre-service secondary mathematics teachers learning the mathematics of annuities. In working with spreadsheets students began to make sense of…

  18. Rainforest Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the contested way that ethnomathematics has sometimes been received by mathematicians and others and what that disagreement might suggest about issues in mathematics education; namely, (a) the relation of ethnomathematics to academic mathematics; (b) recent efforts to reform secondary school mathematics so that it prepares…

  19. An Emergent Framework: Views of Mathematical Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Wendy B.; Lischka, Alyson E.; Edenfield, Kelly W.; Gammill, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The findings reported in this paper were generated from a case study of teacher leaders at a state-level mathematics conference. Investigation focused on how participants viewed the mathematical processes of communication, connections, representations, problem solving, and reasoning and proof. Purposeful sampling was employed to select nine…

  20. A Reflective Protocol for Mathematics Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzer, Cathy Jeanne; Virag, Lisa; Morales, Sara

    2011-01-01

    How can a teacher use the practice of reflection to create rich mathematical learning environments that are engaging to students? In such environments, one can hear and see a seamless integration of Problem Solving, Reasoning and Proof, Communication, making mathematical Connections, and Representation (the NCTM Process Standards) through Number…

  1. Beauty as Fit: A Metaphor in Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Manya; Öhman, Lars-Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Beauty, which plays a central role in the practice of mathematics (Sinclair 2002), is almost absent in discussions of school mathematics (Dreyfus and Eisenberg 1986). This is problematic, because students will decide whether or not to continue their studies in mathematics without having an accurate picture of what the subject is about. In order to…

  2. Basic mathematical cognition.

    PubMed

    Gaber, David; Schlimm, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is a powerful tool for describing and developing our knowledge of the physical world. It informs our understanding of subjects as diverse as music, games, science, economics, communications protocols, and visual arts. Mathematical thinking has its roots in the adaptive behavior of living creatures: animals must employ judgments about quantities and magnitudes in the assessment of both threats (how many foes) and opportunities (how much food) in order to make effective decisions, and use geometric information in the environment for recognizing landmarks and navigating environments. Correspondingly, cognitive systems that are dedicated to the processing of distinctly mathematical information have developed. In particular, there is evidence that certain core systems for understanding different aspects of arithmetic as well as geometry are employed by humans and many other animals. They become active early in life and, particularly in the case of humans, develop through maturation. Although these core systems individually appear to be quite limited in application, in combination they allow for the recognition of mathematical properties and the formation of appropriate inferences based upon those properties. In this overview, the core systems, their roles, their limitations, and their interaction with external representations are discussed, as well as possibilities for how they can be employed together to allow us to reason about more complex mathematical domains. PMID:26263425

  3. Understanding Linear Functions and Their Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Linear functions are an important part of the middle school mathematics curriculum. Students in the middle grades gain fluency by working with linear functions in a variety of representations (NCTM 2001). Presented in this article is an activity that was used with five eighth-grade classes at three different schools. The activity contains 15 cards…

  4. Structural stability augmentation system design using BODEDIRECT: A quick and accurate approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goslin, T. J.; Ho, J. K.

    1989-01-01

    A methodology is presented for a modal suppression control law design using flight test data instead of mathematical models to obtain the required gain and phase information about the flexible airplane. This approach is referred to as BODEDIRECT. The purpose of the BODEDIRECT program is to provide a method of analyzing the modal phase relationships measured directly from the airplane. These measurements can be achieved with a frequency sweep at the control surface input while measuring the outputs of interest. The measured Bode-models can be used directly for analysis in the frequency domain, and for control law design. Besides providing a more accurate representation for the system inputs and outputs of interest, this method is quick and relatively inexpensive. To date, the BODEDIRECT program has been tested and verified for computational integrity. Its capabilities include calculation of series, parallel and loop closure connections between Bode-model representations. System PSD, together with gain and phase margins of stability may be calculated for successive loop closures of multi-input/multi-output systems. Current plans include extensive flight testing to obtain a Bode-model representation of a commercial aircraft for design of a structural stability augmentation system.

  5. Mathematical Modeling and Pure Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiskin, Zalman

    2015-01-01

    Common situations, like planning air travel, can become grist for mathematical modeling and can promote the mathematical ideas of variables, formulas, algebraic expressions, functions, and statistics. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how the mathematical modeling that is present in everyday situations can be naturally embedded in…

  6. Third Graders' Mathematical Thinking of Place Value through the Use of Concrete and Virtual Manipulatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burris, Justin T.

    2010-01-01

    As one research priority for mathematics education is "to research how mathematical meanings are structured by tools available," the present study examined mathematical representations more closely by investigating instructional modes of representation (Noss, Healy & Hoyles, 1997). The study compared two modes of instruction of place value with…

  7. Making Implicit Multivariable Calculus Representations Explicit: A Clinical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Daniel; Moore-Russo, Deborah; Martinez-Planell, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing numerous textbooks, we found that in both differential and integral calculus textbooks the authors commonly assume that: (i) students can generalize associations between representations in two dimensions to associations between representations of the same mathematical concept in three dimensions on their own; and (ii) explicit…

  8. Integrating Formal and Grounded Representations in Combinatorics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, David W.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    The terms "concreteness fading" and "progressive formalization" have been used to describe instructional approaches to science and mathematics that use grounded representations to introduce concepts and later transition to more formal representations of the same concepts. There are both theoretical and empirical reasons to…

  9. Multiple Representations and Connections with the Sierpinski Triangle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirwan, J. Vince; Tobias, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    To understand multiple representations in algebra, students must be able to describe relationships through a variety of formats, such as graphs, tables, pictures, and equations. NCTM indicates that varied representations are "essential elements in supporting students' understanding of mathematical concepts and relationships" (NCTM…

  10. Developing Students' Representational Fluency Using Virtual and Physical Algebra Balances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Jennifer; Moyer, Patricia S.

    2007-01-01

    Both virtual and physical manipulatives are reported as effective learning tools when used with different groups of students in a variety of contexts to learn mathematical content. The use of multiple representations and the flexibility to translate among those representational forms facilitates students' learning and has the potential to deepen…

  11. SNARC Hunting: Examining Number Representation in Deaf Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, R.; Marschark, M.; Blatto-Vallee, G.

    2005-01-01

    Many deaf children and adults show lags in mathematical abilities. The current study examines the basic number representations that allow individuals to perform higher-level arithmetical procedures. These representations are normally present in the earliest stages of development, but they may be affected by cultural, developmental, and educational…

  12. Conceptions and Representations: The Circle as an Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janvier, Claude

    This paper, which addresses the issue of representation as an internal construct corresponding to an external abstract configuration, attempts to extend A. A. DiSessa's phenomenological primitives to mathematics (particularly to the notion of circle). Various acceptations of the word representation are examined, using the notion of a circle as an…

  13. Theoretical Mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöltzner, Michael

    Answering to the double-faced influence of string theory on mathematical practice and rigour, the mathematical physicists Arthur Jaffe and Frank Quinn have contemplated the idea that there exists a `theoretical' mathematics (alongside `theoretical' physics) whose basic structures and results still require independent corroboration by mathematical proof. In this paper, I shall take the Jaffe-Quinn debate mainly as a problem of mathematical ontology and analyse it against the backdrop of two philosophical views that are appreciative towards informal mathematical development and conjectural results: Lakatos's methodology of proofs and refutations and John von Neumann's opportunistic reading of Hilbert's axiomatic method. The comparison of both approaches shows that mitigating Lakatos's falsificationism makes his insights about mathematical quasi-ontology more relevant to 20th century mathematics in which new structures are introduced by axiomatisation and not necessarily motivated by informal ancestors. The final section discusses the consequences of string theorists' claim to finality for the theory's mathematical make-up. I argue that ontological reductionism as advocated by particle physicists and the quest for mathematically deeper axioms do not necessarily lead to identical results.

  14. Fraction Representation: The Not-So-Common Denominator among Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Thomas E.; Cady, JoAnn; Collins, Lee

    2008-01-01

    Three widely used sixth-grade textbooks were studied to see how fraction concepts were represented. The textbooks selected were "Connected Mathematics," "Middle Grades MathThematics," and Glencoe's "Mathematics: Applications and Concepts Course 1." Three specific areas were examined: representation mode, model, and problem context. Results of…

  15. Basic and Advanced Numerical Performances Relate to Mathematical Expertise but Are Fully Mediated by Visuospatial Skills

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the potential role of basic numerical processing in the acquisition of numerical and mathematical competences. However, it is debated whether high-level numerical skills and mathematics depends specifically on basic numerical representations. In this study mathematicians and nonmathematicians performed a basic number line task, which required mapping positive and negative numbers on a physical horizontal line, and has been shown to correlate with more advanced numerical abilities and mathematical achievement. We found that mathematicians were more accurate compared with nonmathematicians when mapping positive, but not negative numbers, which are considered numerical primitives and cultural artifacts, respectively. Moreover, performance on positive number mapping could predict whether one is a mathematician or not, and was mediated by more advanced mathematical skills. This finding might suggest a link between basic and advanced mathematical skills. However, when we included visuospatial skills, as measured by block design subtest, the mediation analysis revealed that the relation between the performance in the number line task and the group membership was explained by non-numerical visuospatial skills. These results demonstrate that relation between basic, even specific, numerical skills and advanced mathematical achievement can be artifactual and explained by visuospatial processing. PMID:26913930

  16. Mathematics for Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Michael; Goldbart, Paul

    2009-07-01

    Preface; 1. Calculus of variations; 2. Function spaces; 3. Linear ordinary differential equations; 4. Linear differential operators; 5. Green functions; 6. Partial differential equations; 7. The mathematics of real waves; 8. Special functions; 9. Integral equations; 10. Vectors and tensors; 11. Differential calculus on manifolds; 12. Integration on manifolds; 13. An introduction to differential topology; 14. Group and group representations; 15. Lie groups; 16. The geometry of fibre bundles; 17. Complex analysis I; 18. Applications of complex variables; 19. Special functions and complex variables; Appendixes; Reference; Index.

  17. Experimental Mathematics and Mathematical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Broadhurst, David; Zudilin, Wadim

    2009-06-26

    One of the most effective techniques of experimental mathematics is to compute mathematical entities such as integrals, series or limits to high precision, then attempt to recognize the resulting numerical values. Recently these techniques have been applied with great success to problems in mathematical physics. Notable among these applications are the identification of some key multi-dimensional integrals that arise in Ising theory, quantum field theory and in magnetic spin theory.

  18. A Study of Visualization for Mathematics Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Sarah C.

    2008-01-01

    Graphical representations such as figures, illustrations, and diagrams play a critical role in mathematics and they are equally important in mathematics education. However, graphical representations in mathematics textbooks are static, Le. they are used to illustrate only a specific example or a limited set. of examples. By using computer software to visualize mathematical principles, virtually there is no limit to the number of specific cases and examples that can be demonstrated. However, we have not seen widespread adoption of visualization software in mathematics education. There are currently a number of software packages that provide visualization of mathematics for research and also software packages specifically developed for mathematics education. We conducted a survey of mathematics visualization software packages, summarized their features and user bases, and analyzed their limitations. In this survey, we focused on evaluating the software packages for their use with mathematical subjects adopted by institutions of secondary education in the United States (middle schools and high schools), including algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus. We found that cost, complexity, and lack of flexibility are the major factors that hinder the widespread use of mathematics visualization software in education.

  19. Mathematics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langbort, Carol, Ed.; Curtis, Deborah, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    The focus of this special issue is mathematics education. All articles were written by graduates of the new masters Degree program in which students earn a Master of Arts degree in Education with a concentration in Mathematics Education at San Francisco State University. Articles include: (1) "Developing Teacher-Leaders in a Masters Degree Program…

  20. Technical Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Carol A.

    This manuscript provides information and problems for teaching mathematics to vocational education students. Problems reflect applications of mathematical concepts to specific technical areas. The materials are organized into six chapters. Chapter 1 covers basic arithmetic, including fractions, decimals, ratio and proportions, percentages, and…

  1. Innovative Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siskiyou County Superintendent of Schools, Yreka, CA.

    The purpose of this project was to raise the mathematics skills of 100 mathematically retarded students in grades one through eight by one year through the development of an inservice strategy prepared by four teacher specialists. Also used in the study was a control group of 100 students chosen from the median range of stanines on pretest scores…

  2. Mathematics Scrapbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochazka, Helen

    2004-01-01

    One section of this "scrapbook" section describes Pythagoras' belief in the connections between music and mathematics -- that everything in the universe was a series of harmonies and regulated by music. Another section explains why Phythagoras felt it important for women to be encouraged to learn mathematics. At least 28 women were involved in his…

  3. Influence of TFT-LCD pixel structure on holographic representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongjun; Wang, Zhao; Tian, Ailing; Liu, Bingcai

    2008-09-01

    As a new holographic display device, TFT-LCD (Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Displays) is key technical component of holographic representation for easy controlled by computer. With the development of exquisite processing technology, that it instead of the traditional holographic plate become historical necessity and would be the development direction of holographic optics. Based on principles of holography and display character of LCD, the property which the LCD was used as a holographic plate was analyzed. The emphasis on discuss influence of LCD black matrix on holographic representation. First, analyzed on LCD pixel structure, the LCD pixel structure mathematical model was established. LCD was character representation by pixel structure parameters. Then, the influence of LCD pixels structure on holographic representation was analyzed by computer simulation. Meanwhile, the SONY LCX023 was chosen for holographic plate, the He-Ne laser which the wavelength is 0.6328um was holographic representation light source. The holographic representation system was established for test influence of LCD on holographic representation. Final, compared between computer simulations and optical experimental results, the mathematical model of LCD was proved to be true. When aperture ratio is 0.625, the holographic representation wouldn't be distinguished between representation images. At the same time, some useful results was acquired for improve application effects of LCD in holographic representation.

  4. Spatially variant morphological restoration and skeleton representation.

    PubMed

    Bouaynaya, Nidhal; Charif-Chefchaouni, Mohammed; Schonfeld, Dan

    2006-11-01

    The theory of spatially variant (SV) mathematical morphology is used to extend and analyze two important image processing applications: morphological image restoration and skeleton representation of binary images. For morphological image restoration, we propose the SV alternating sequential filters and SV median filters. We establish the relation of SV median filters to the basic SV morphological operators (i.e., SV erosions and SV dilations). For skeleton representation, we present a general framework for the SV morphological skeleton representation of binary images. We study the properties of the SV morphological skeleton representation and derive conditions for its invertibility. We also develop an algorithm for the implementation of the SV morphological skeleton representation of binary images. The latter algorithm is based on the optimal construction of the SV structuring element mapping designed to minimize the cardinality of the SV morphological skeleton representation. Experimental results show the dramatic improvement in the performance of the SV morphological restoration and SV morphological skeleton representation algorithms in comparison to their translation-invariant counterparts. PMID:17076415

  5. Grading More Accurately

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rom, Mark Carl

    2011-01-01

    Grades matter. College grading systems, however, are often ad hoc and prone to mistakes. This essay focuses on one factor that contributes to high-quality grading systems: grading accuracy (or "efficiency"). I proceed in several steps. First, I discuss the elements of "efficient" (i.e., accurate) grading. Next, I present analytical results…

  6. Ephemeris representations for communications satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proulx, R. J.; Cefola, P. J.; McClain, W. D.

    1984-08-01

    Large orbit determination (OD) centers are the primary source of artificial satellite ephemeris data. The ephemeris message of the OD facility contains implicitly the predicted satellite trajectory. The user can recover ephemeris data on the basis of two conceptual approaches. The current investigation is concerned with an alternative solution to the ephemeris representation problem. According to the procedure employed in this case, the mean equinoctial element time histories corresponding to the predicted satellite trajectory generated by the OD facility are approximated by low degree Legendre polynomials to represent their secular behavior and by trigonometric terms to represent their mean periodic behavior. This approach provides a simple, low cost, and accurate ephemeris representation, which satisfies the potential autonomy requirements for Military Satellite Communications.

  7. Representation in Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumelhart, David E.; Norman, Donald A.

    This paper reviews work on the representation of knowledge from within psychology and artificial intelligence. The work covers the nature of representation, the distinction between the represented world and the representing world, and significant issues concerned with propositional, analogical, and superpositional representations. Specific topics…

  8. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCammon, Richard B.

    1979-01-01

    The year 1978 marked a continued trend toward practical applications in mathematical geology. Developments included work in interactive computer graphics, factor analysis, the vanishing tons problem, universal kriging, and resource estimating. (BB)

  9. Mathematics disorder

    MedlinePlus

    The child may have problems in school, including behavior problems and loss of self-esteem. Some children with mathematics disorder become anxious or afraid when given math problems, making the problem even worse.

  10. Mathematics Detective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jerry

    1997-01-01

    Presents 12 questions related to a given real-life situation about a man shaving and the number of hairs in his beard in order to help students see the connection between mathematics and the world around them. (ASK)

  11. Mathematical Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Martin

    1978-01-01

    Describes the life and work of Charles Peirce, U.S. mathematician and philosopher. His accomplishments include contributions to logic, the foundations of mathematics and scientific method, and decision theory and probability theory. (MA)

  12. Accurate monotone cubic interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1991-01-01

    Monotone piecewise cubic interpolants are simple and effective. They are generally third-order accurate, except near strict local extrema where accuracy degenerates to second-order due to the monotonicity constraint. Algorithms for piecewise cubic interpolants, which preserve monotonicity as well as uniform third and fourth-order accuracy are presented. The gain of accuracy is obtained by relaxing the monotonicity constraint in a geometric framework in which the median function plays a crucial role.

  13. Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.

  14. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1989-02-09

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a surface defined on a surface,'' which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such geometry processing'' is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.

  15. On Mathematical Proving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefaneas, Petros; Vandoulakis, Ioannis M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper outlines a logical representation of certain aspects of the process of mathematical proving that are important from the point of view of Artificial Intelligence. Our starting-point is the concept of proof-event or proving, introduced by Goguen, instead of the traditional concept of mathematical proof. The reason behind this choice is that in contrast to the traditional static concept of mathematical proof, proof-events are understood as processes, which enables their use in Artificial Intelligence in such contexts, in which problem-solving procedures and strategies are studied. We represent proof-events as problem-centered spatio-temporal processes by means of the language of the calculus of events, which captures adequately certain temporal aspects of proof-events (i.e. that they have history and form sequences of proof-events evolving in time). Further, we suggest a "loose" semantics for the proof-events, by means of Kolmogorov's calculus of problems. Finally, we expose the intented interpretations for our logical model from the fields of automated theorem-proving and Web-based collective proving.

  16. Mathematical vistas

    SciTech Connect

    Malkevitch, J. ); McCarthy, D. )

    1990-01-01

    The papers in this volume represent talks given at the monthly meetings of the Mathematics Section of the New York Academy of Sciences. They reflect the operating philosophy of the Section in its efforts to make a meaningful contribution to the mathematical life of a community that is exceedingly rich in cultural resources and intellectual opportunities. Each week during the academic year a dazzling abundance of mathematical seminars and colloquia is available in the New York metropolitan area. Most of these offer highly technical treatments intended for specialists. At the New York Academy we try to provide a forum of a different sort, where interesting ideas are presented in a congenial atmosphere to a broad mathematical audience. Many of the Section talks contain substantial specialized material, but we ask our speakers to include a strong expository component aimed at working mathematicians presumed to have no expert knowledge of the topic at hand. We urge speakers to try to provide the motivating interest they themselves would like to find in an introduction to a field other than their own. The same advice has been given to the authors of the present papers, with the goal of producing a collection that will be both accessible and stimulating to mathematical minds at large. We have tried to provide variety in the mathematical vistas offered; both pure and applied mathematics are well represented. Since the papers are presented alphabetically by author, some guidance seems appropriate as to what sorts of topics are treated, and where. There are three papers in analysis: those by Engber, Narici and Beckenstein, and Todd. Engber's deals with complex analysis on compact Riemann surfaces; Narici and Beckenstein provide an introduction to analysis on non-Archimendean fields; Todd surveys an area of contemporary functional analysis.

  17. Mathematical Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Glimm, J.

    2009-10-14

    Progress for the past decade or so has been extraordinary. The solution of Fermat's Last Theorem [11] and of the Poincare Conjecture [1] have resolved two of the most outstanding challenges to mathematics. For both cases, deep and advanced theories and whole subfields of mathematics came into play and were developed further as part of the solutions. And still the future is wide open. Six of the original seven problems from the Clay Foundation challenge remain open, the 23 DARPA challenge problems are open. Entire new branches of mathematics have been developed, including financial mathematics and the connection between geometry and string theory, proposed to solve the problems of quantized gravity. New solutions of the Einstein equations, inspired by shock wave theory, suggest a cosmology model which fits accelerating expansion of the universe possibly eliminating assumptions of 'dark matter'. Intellectual challenges and opportunities for mathematics are greater than ever. The role of mathematics in society continues to grow; with this growth comes new opportunities and some growing pains; each will be analyzed here. We see a broadening of the intellectual and professional opportunities and responsibilities for mathematicians. These trends are also occuring across all of science. The response can be at the level of the professional societies, which can work to deepen their interactions, not only within the mathematical sciences, but also with other scientific societies. At a deeper level, the choices to be made will come from individual mathematicians. Here, of course, the individual choices will be varied, and we argue for respect and support for this diversity of responses. In such a manner, we hope to preserve the best of the present while welcoming the best of the new.

  18. Reevaluating the two-representation model of numerical magnitude processing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ting; Zhang, Wenfeng; Wen, Wen; Zhu, Haiting; Du, Han; Zhu, Xiangru; Gao, Xuefei; Zhang, Hongchuan; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chuansheng

    2016-01-01

    One debate in mathematical cognition centers on the single-representation model versus the two-representation model. Using an improved number Stroop paradigm (i.e., systematically manipulating physical size distance), in the present study we tested the predictions of the two models for number magnitude processing. The results supported the single-representation model and, more importantly, explained how a design problem (failure to manipulate physical size distance) and an analytical problem (failure to consider the interaction between congruity and task-irrelevant numerical distance) might have contributed to the evidence used to support the two-representation model. This study, therefore, can help settle the debate between the single-representation and two-representation models. PMID:26268066

  19. Enhancing Mathematical Communication: "Bag of Tricks" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patahuddin, Sitti Maesuri; Ramful, Ajay; Greenlees, Jane

    2015-01-01

    An engaging activity which prompts students to listen, talk, reason and write about geometrical properties. The "Bag of Tricks" encourages students to clarify their thoughts and communicate precisely using accurate mathematical language.

  20. Quantum measurement in coherence-vector representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tao

    2016-04-01

    We consider the quantum measurements on a finite quantum system in coherence-vector representation. In this representation, all the density operators of an N-level ( N ⩾ 2) quantum system constitute a convex set M (N) embedded in an ( N 2 - 1)-dimensional Euclidean space R^{N^2 - 1}, and we find that an orthogonal measurement is an ( N - 1)-dimensional projector operator on R^{N^2 - 1}. The states unchanged by an orthogonal measurement form an ( N - 1)-dimensional simplex, and in the case when N is prime or power of prime, the space of the density operator is a direct sum of ( N + 1) such simplices. The mathematical description of quantum measurement is plain in this representation, and this may have further applications in quantum information processing.

  1. Compact internal representation as a protocognitive scheme for robots in dynamic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villacorta-Atienza, Jose A.; Salas, Luis; Alba, Luis; Velarde, Manuel G.; Makarov, Valeri A.

    2011-05-01

    Animals for surviving have developed cognitive abilities allowing them an abstract representation of the environment. This Internal Representation (IR) could contain a huge amount of information concerning the evolution and interactions of the elements in their surroundings. The complexity of this information should be enough to ensure the maximum fidelity in the representation of those aspects of the environment critical for the agent, but not so high to prevent the management of the IR in terms of neural processes, i.e. storing, retrieving, etc. One of the most subtle points is the inclusion of temporal information, necessary in IRs of dynamic environments. This temporal information basically introduces the environmental information for each moment, so the information required to generate the IR would eventually be increased dramatically. The inclusion of this temporal information in biological neural processes remains an open question. In this work we propose a new IR, the Compact Internal Representation (CIR), based on the compaction of spatiotemporal information into only space, leading to a stable structure (with no temporal dimension) suitable to be the base for complex cognitive processes, as memory or learning. The Compact Internal Representation is especially appropriate for be implemented in autonomous robots because it provides global strategies for the interaction with real environments (roving robots, manipulators, etc.). This paper presents the mathematical basis of CIR hardware implementation in the context of navigation in dynamic environments. The aim of such implementation is the obtaining of free-collision trajectories under the requirements of an optimal performance by means of a fast and accurate process.

  2. Children's mapping between symbolic and nonsymbolic representations of number.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Eleanor; Gilmore, Camilla K

    2009-08-01

    When children learn to count and acquire a symbolic system for representing numbers, they map these symbols onto a preexisting system involving approximate nonsymbolic representations of quantity. Little is known about this mapping process, how it develops, and its role in the performance of formal mathematics. Using a novel task to assess children's mapping ability, we show that children can map in both directions between symbolic and nonsymbolic numerical representations and that this ability develops between 6 and 8 years of age. Moreover, we reveal that children's mapping ability is related to their achievement on tests of school mathematics over and above the variance accounted for by standard symbolic and nonsymbolic numerical tasks. These findings support the proposal that underlying nonsymbolic representations play a role in children's mathematical development. PMID:19327782

  3. Accurate measurement of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itano, Wayne M.; Ramsey, Norman F.

    1993-07-01

    The paper discusses current methods for accurate measurements of time by conventional atomic clocks, with particular attention given to the principles of operation of atomic-beam frequency standards, atomic hydrogen masers, and atomic fountain and to the potential use of strings of trapped mercury ions as a time device more stable than conventional atomic clocks. The areas of application of the ultraprecise and ultrastable time-measuring devices that tax the capacity of modern atomic clocks include radio astronomy and tests of relativity. The paper also discusses practical applications of ultraprecise clocks, such as navigation of space vehicles and pinpointing the exact position of ships and other objects on earth using the GPS.

  4. Accurate quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.

  5. XML-BASED REPRESENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    R. KELSEY

    2001-02-01

    For focused applications with limited user and use application communities, XML can be the right choice for representation. It is easy to use, maintain, and extend and enjoys wide support in commercial and research sectors. When the knowledge and information to be represented is object-based and use of that knowledge and information is a high priority, then XML-based representation should be considered. This paper discusses some of the issues involved in using XML-based representation and presents an example application that successfully uses an XML-based representation.

  6. Mathematical Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogness, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Advances in computer graphics have provided mathematicians with the ability to create stunning visualizations, both to gain insight and to help demonstrate the beauty of mathematics to others. As educators these tools can be particularly important as we search for ways to work with students raised with constant visual stimulation, from video games…

  7. Learning Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapointe, Archie E.; And Others

    In 1990-91, 20 countries (Brazil, Canada, China, England, France, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Korea, Mozambique, Portugal, Scotland, Slovenia, Soviet Union, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, and the United States) surveyed the mathematics and science performance of 13-year-old students (and 14 countries also assessed 9-year-olds in the same…

  8. Underground Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadlock, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    The movement of groundwater in underground aquifers is an ideal physical example of many important themes in mathematical modeling, ranging from general principles (like Occam's Razor) to specific techniques (such as geometry, linear equations, and the calculus). This article gives a self-contained introduction to groundwater modeling with…

  9. Relevant Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catterton, Gene; And Others

    This material was developed to be used with the non college-bound student in the senior high school. It provides the student with everyday problems and experiences in which practical mathematical applications are made. The package includes worksheets pertaining to letterhead invoices, sales slips, payroll sheets, inventory sheets, carpentry and…

  10. Representing the Electromagnetic Field: How Maxwell's Mathematics Empowered Faraday's Field Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweney, Ryan D.

    2011-01-01

    James Clerk Maxwell "translated" Michael Faraday's experimentally-based field theory into the mathematical representation now known as "Maxwell's Equations." Working with a variety of mathematical representations and physical models Maxwell extended the reach of Faraday's theory and brought it into consistency with other results in the physics of…

  11. An Examination of Connections in Mathematical Processes in Students' Problem Solving: Connections between Representing and Justifying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianou, Despina A.

    2013-01-01

    Representation and justification are two central "mathematical practices". In the past, each has been examined to gain insights in the functions that they have in students' mathematical problem solving. Here, we examine the ways that representation and justification interact and influence the development of one another. We focus on the…

  12. A representation of Jacchia's thermospheric models in spherical harmonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, P.; Harris, I.

    1973-01-01

    The Jacchia models are represented in terms of spherical harmonic functions. This representation has the advantages of ease of comparison with theoretical and other observational models and data, mathematical analyticity and relative simplicity. The symmetry properties of the models are emphasized by this representation and some physical characteristics like the increase of the amplitude of the diurnal density variation with decreasing solar activity become more apparent.

  13. Graphical representation of the process of solving problems in statics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Carlos

    2011-03-01

    It is presented a method of construction to a graphical representation technique of knowledge called Conceptual Chains. Especially, this tool has been focused to the representation of processes and applied to solving problems in physics, mathematics and engineering. The method is described in ten steps and is illustrated with its development in a particular topic of statics. Various possible didactic applications of this technique are showed.

  14. On volume-source representations based on the representation theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Mie; Kusakabe, Tetsuya; Kame, Nobuki; Kumagai, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    We discuss different ways to characterize a moment tensor associated with an actual volume change of ΔV C , which has been represented in terms of either the stress glut or the corresponding stress-free volume change ΔV T . Eshelby's virtual operation provides a conceptual model relating ΔV C to ΔV T and the stress glut, where non-elastic processes such as phase transitions allow ΔV T to be introduced and subsequent elastic deformation of - ΔV T is assumed to produce the stress glut. While it is true that ΔV T correctly represents the moment tensor of an actual volume source with volume change ΔV C , an explanation as to why such an operation relating ΔV C to ΔV T exists has not previously been given. This study presents a comprehensive explanation of the relationship between ΔV C and ΔV T based on the representation theorem. The displacement field is represented using Green's function, which consists of two integrals over the source surface: one for displacement and the other for traction. Both integrals are necessary for representing volumetric sources, whereas the representation of seismic faults includes only the first term, as the second integral over the two adjacent fault surfaces, across which the traction balances, always vanishes. Therefore, in a seismological framework, the contribution from the second term should be included as an additional surface displacement. We show that the seismic moment tensor of a volume source is directly obtained from the actual state of the displacement and stress at the source without considering any virtual non-elastic operations. A purely mathematical procedure based on the representation theorem enables us to specify the additional imaginary displacement necessary for representing a volume source only by the displacement term, which links ΔV C to ΔV T . It also specifies the additional imaginary stress necessary for representing a moment tensor solely by the traction term, which gives the "stress glut." The

  15. New model accurately predicts reformate composition

    SciTech Connect

    Ancheyta-Juarez, J.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. )

    1994-01-31

    Although naphtha reforming is a well-known process, the evolution of catalyst formulation, as well as new trends in gasoline specifications, have led to rapid evolution of the process, including: reactor design, regeneration mode, and operating conditions. Mathematical modeling of the reforming process is an increasingly important tool. It is fundamental to the proper design of new reactors and revamp of existing ones. Modeling can be used to optimize operating conditions, analyze the effects of process variables, and enhance unit performance. Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo has developed a model of the catalytic reforming process that accurately predicts reformate composition at the higher-severity conditions at which new reformers are being designed. The new AA model is more accurate than previous proposals because it takes into account the effects of temperature and pressure on the rate constants of each chemical reaction.

  16. The interaction of representation and reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Bundy, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Automated reasoning is an enabling technology for many applications of informatics. These applications include verifying that a computer program meets its specification; enabling a robot to form a plan to achieve a task and answering questions by combining information from diverse sources, e.g. on the Internet, etc. How is automated reasoning possible? Firstly, knowledge of a domain must be stored in a computer, usually in the form of logical formulae. This knowledge might, for instance, have been entered manually, retrieved from the Internet or perceived in the environment via sensors, such as cameras. Secondly, rules of inference are applied to old knowledge to derive new knowledge. Automated reasoning techniques have been adapted from logic, a branch of mathematics that was originally designed to formalize the reasoning of humans, especially mathematicians. My special interest is in the way that representation and reasoning interact. Successful reasoning is dependent on appropriate representation of both knowledge and successful methods of reasoning. Failures of reasoning can suggest changes of representation. This process of representational change can also be automated. We will illustrate the automation of representational change by drawing on recent work in my research group. PMID:24062623

  17. Mathematics Curriculum Guide. Mathematics IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary City Public School System, IN.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade 12. SUBJECT MATTER: Mathematics. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The subject matter is presented in four columns: major areas, significant outcomes, observations and suggestions, and films and references. The topics include: sets-relations-functions, circular functions, graphs of circular functions, inverses of circular…

  18. For a Learnable Mathematics in the Digital Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noss, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the changed roles of mathematics and novel representations that emerge from the ubiquity of computational models. Considers the implications for learning mathematics. Contends that a central component of knowledge required in modern societies involves the development of a meta-epistemological stance. Maps out implications for the design…

  19. Women in Mathematics: Scaling the Heights. MAA Notes Number 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Deborah, Ed.

    Women and mathematics have been thought of as two totally separate subjects for decades. In July, 1994 a group of mathematicians from around the country gathered in Berkeley, CA for three days to discuss ways to increase the representation of women in Ph.D. programs in the mathematical sciences. The primary goal of this conference was to broaden…

  20. iSTEM: Promoting Fifth Graders' Mathematical Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanik, H. Bahadir; Karabas, Celil

    2014-01-01

    Modeling requires that people develop representations or procedures to address particular problem situations (Lesh et al. 2000). Mathematical modeling is used to describe essential characteristics of a phenomenon or a situation that one intends to study in the real world through building mathematical objects. This article describes how fifth-grade…

  1. Using Mental Computation Training to Improve Complex Mathematical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Allison S.; Kallai, Arava Y.; Schunn, Christian D.; Fiez, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical fluency is important for academic and mathematical success. Fluency training programs have typically focused on fostering retrieval, which leads to math performance that does not reliably transfer to non-trained problems. More recent studies have focused on training number understanding and representational precision, but few have…

  2. Integrating Concrete and Virtual Manipulatives in Early Childhood Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Dina; Hoffman, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Early childhood teachers around the country and the world guide children's mathematical learning through the use of manipulatives--pattern blocks, base blocks, geoboards, Unifx cubes, Cuisenaire rods, coins, clocks, and so on. Manipulatives allow concrete, hands-on exploration and representation of mathematical concepts. In the past few years,…

  3. Poverty: Teaching Mathematics and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents three mathematics lessons in a social justice setting of learning about poverty. Student activities include budgeting, graphic data representation, and linear regression, all in the context of connecting, communicating, and reasoning about poverty. (Contains 1 table, 5 figures and 6 online resources.)

  4. Field Dependency and Performance in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwumere, Onyebuchi; Reid, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics is an important school subject but one which often poses problems for learners. It has been found that learners do not possess the cognitive capacity to handle understanding procedures, representations, concepts, and applications at the same time. while the extent of field dependency may hold the key to one way by which the working…

  5. Negotiating the Boundaries between Mathematics and Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radtka, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines physics and mathematics textbooks published in France at the end of the 1950s and at the beginning of the 1960s for children aged 11-15 years old. It argues that at this "middle school" level, textbooks contributed to shape cultural representations of both disciplines and their mutual boundaries through their contents…

  6. Mathematical Metaphors: Problem Reformulation and Analysis Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the critical need for the development of intelligent or assisting software tools for the scientist who is working in the initial problem formulation and mathematical model representation stage of research. In particular, examples of that representation in fluid dynamics and instability theory are discussed. The creation of a mathematical model that is ready for application of certain solution strategies requires extensive symbolic manipulation of the original mathematical model. These manipulations can be as simple as term reordering or as complicated as discovery of various symmetry groups embodied in the equations, whereby Backlund-type transformations create new determining equations and integrability conditions or create differential Grobner bases that are then solved in place of the original nonlinear PDEs. Several examples are presented of the kinds of problem formulations and transforms that can be frequently encountered in model representation for fluids problems. The capability of intelligently automating these types of transforms, available prior to actual mathematical solution, is advocated. Physical meaning and assumption-understanding can then be propagated through the mathematical transformations, allowing for explicit strategy development.

  7. Mathematical models in biology: from molecules to life

    PubMed Central

    Kaznessis, Yiannis N.

    2011-01-01

    A vexing question in the biological sciences is the following: can biological phenotypes be explained with mathematical models of molecules that interact according to physical laws? At the crux of the matter lies the doubt that humans can develop physically faithful mathematical representations of living organisms. We discuss advantages that synthetic biological systems confer that may help us describe life’s distinctiveness with tractable mathematics that are grounded on universal laws of thermodynamics and molecular biology. PMID:21472998

  8. Facilitating Students' Problem Solving across Multiple Representations in Introductory Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Gire, Elizabeth; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2010-10-01

    Solving problems presented in multiple representations is an important skill for future physicists and engineers. However, such a task is not easy for most students taking introductory physics courses. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a first-semester calculus-based physics course on several topics in introductory mechanics. These interviews helped identify the common difficulties students encountered when solving physics problems posed in multiple representations as well as the hints that help students overcome those difficulties. We found that most representational difficulties arise due to the lack of students' ability to associate physics knowledge with corresponding mathematical knowledge. Based on those findings, we developed, tested and refined a set of problem-solving exercises to help students learn to solve problems in graphical and equational representations. We present our findings on students' common difficulties with graphical and equational representations, the problem-solving exercises and their impact on students' problem solving abilities.

  9. [Mathematical models of hysteresis

    SciTech Connect

    Mayergoyz, I.D.

    1991-01-01

    The research described in this proposal is currently being supported by the US Department of Energy under the contract Mathematical Models of Hysteresis''. Thus, before discussing the proposed research in detail, it is worthwhile to describe and summarize the main results achieved in the course of our work under the above contract. Our ongoing research has largely been focused on the development of mathematical models of hysteretic nonlinearities with nonlocal memories''. The distinct feature of these nonlinearities is that their current states depend on past histories of input variations. It turns out that memories of hysteretic nonlinearities are quite selective. Indeed, experiments show that only some past input extrema leave their marks upon future states of hysteretic nonlinearities. Thus special mathematical tools are needed in order to describe nonlocal selective memories of hysteretic nonlinearities. Our research has been primarily concerned with Preisach-type models of hysteresis. All these models have a common generic feature; they are constructed as superpositions of simplest hysteretic nonlinearities-rectangular loops. Our study has by and large been centered around the following topics: various generalizations and extensions of the classical Preisach model, finding of necessary and sufficient conditions for the representation of actual hysteretic nonlinearities by various Preisach type models, solution of identification problems for these models, numerical implementation and experimental testing of Preisach type models. Although the study of Preisach type models has constituted the main direction of the research, some effort has also been made to establish some interesting connections between these models and such topics as: the critical state model for superconducting hysteresis, the classical Stoner-Wohlfarth model of vector magnetic hysteresis, thermal activation type models for viscosity, magnetostrictive hysteresis and neural networks.

  10. Three essays in mathematical finance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruming

    This dissertation uses mathematical techniques to solve three problems in mathematical finance. The first two problems are on model-independent pricing and hedging of financial derivatives. We use asymptotic expansions to express derivative prices and implied volatilities. Then just by using the first few terms in the expansions, we get simple and accurate formulas, which can also help us find connections between different products. The last problem is on optimal trading strategies in a limit order book. Under a very general setup, we solve explicitly for a dynamic decision problem involving choosing between limit order and market order.

  11. Mathematical Models of Gene Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, Michael C.

    2004-03-01

    This talk will focus on examples of mathematical models for the regulation of repressible operons (e.g. the tryptophan operon), inducible operons (e.g. the lactose operon), and the lysis/lysogeny switch in phage λ. These ``simple" gene regulatory elements can display characteristics experimentally of rapid response to perturbations and bistability, and biologically accurate mathematical models capture these aspects of the dynamics. The models, if realistic, are always nonlinear and contain significant time delays due to transcriptional and translational delays that pose substantial problems for the analysis of the possible ranges of dynamics.

  12. Quaternionic representation of the genetic code.

    PubMed

    Carlevaro, C Manuel; Irastorza, Ramiro M; Vericat, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    A heuristic diagram of the evolution of the standard genetic code is presented. It incorporates, in a way that resembles the energy levels of an atom, the physical notion of broken symmetry and it is consistent with original ideas by Crick on the origin and evolution of the code as well as with the chronological order of appearance of the amino acids along the evolution as inferred from work that mixtures known experimental results with theoretical speculations. Suggested by the diagram we propose a Hamilton quaternions based mathematical representation of the code as it stands now-a-days. The central object in the description is a codon function that assigns to each amino acid an integer quaternion in such a way that the observed code degeneration is preserved. We emphasize the advantages of a quaternionic representation of amino acids taking as an example the folding of proteins. With this aim we propose an algorithm to go from the quaternions sequence to the protein three dimensional structure which can be compared with the corresponding experimental one stored at the Protein Data Bank. In our criterion the mathematical representation of the genetic code in terms of quaternions merits to be taken into account because it describes not only most of the known properties of the genetic code but also opens new perspectives that are mainly derived from the close relationship between quaternions and rotations. PMID:26751396

  13. Preschoolers' Nonsymbolic Arithmetic with Large Sets: Is Addition More Accurate than Subtraction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinskey, Jeanne L.; Chan, Cindy Ho-man; Coleman, Rhea; Moxom, Lauren; Yamamoto, Eri

    2009-01-01

    Adult and developing humans share with other animals analog magnitude representations of number that support nonsymbolic arithmetic with large sets. This experiment tested the hypothesis that such representations may be more accurate for addition than for subtraction in children as young as 3 1/2 years of age. In these tasks, the experimenter hid…

  14. Contributions from specific and general factors to unique deficits: two cases of mathematics learning difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Vitor G.; Júlio-Costa, Annelise; Lopes-Silva, Júlia B.; Starling-Alves, Isabella; Antunes, Andressa M.; Pinheiro-Chagas, Pedro; Wood, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics learning difficulties are a highly comorbid and heterogeneous set of disorders linked to several dissociable mechanisms and endophenotypes. Two of these endophenotypes consist of primary deficits in number sense and verbal numerical representations. However, currently acknowledged endophenotypes are underspecified regarding the role of automatic vs. controlled information processing, and their description should be complemented. Two children with specific deficits in number sense and verbal numerical representations and normal or above-normal intelligence and preserved visuospatial cognition illustrate this point. Child H.V. exhibited deficits in number sense and fact retrieval. Child G.A. presented severe deficits in orally presented problems and transcoding tasks. A partial confirmation of the two endophenotypes that relate to the number sense and verbal processing was obtained, but a much more clear differentiation between the deficits presented by H.V. and G.A. can be reached by looking at differential impairments in modes of processing. H.V. is notably competent in the use of controlled processing but has problems with more automatic processes, such as nonsymbolic magnitude processing, speeded counting and fact retrieval. In contrast, G.A. can retrieve facts and process nonsymbolic magnitudes but exhibits severe impairment in recruiting executive functions and the concentration that is necessary to accomplish transcoding tasks and word problem solving. These results indicate that typical endophenotypes might be insufficient to describe accurately the deficits that are observed in children with mathematics learning abilities. However, by incorporating domain-specificity and modes of processing into the assessment of the endophenotypes, individual deficit profiles can be much more accurately described. This process calls for further specification of the endophenotypes in mathematics learning difficulties. PMID:24592243

  15. Teaching Mathematical Modeling in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxena, Ritu; Shrivastava, Keerty; Bhardwaj, Ramakant

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics is not only a subject but it is also a language consisting of many different symbols and relations. Taught as a compulsory subject up the 10th class, students are then able to choose whether or not to study mathematics as a main subject. The present paper discusses mathematical modeling in mathematics education. The article provides…

  16. Acuity of mental representations of pitch.

    PubMed

    Janata, Petr

    2012-04-01

    Singing in one's mind or forming expectations about upcoming notes both require that mental images of one or more pitches will be generated. As with other musical abilities, the acuity with which such images are formed might be expected to vary across individuals and may depend on musical training. Results from several behavioral tasks involving intonation judgments indicate that multiple memory systems contribute to the formation of accurate mental images for pitch, and that the functionality of each is affected by musical training. Electrophysiological measures indicate that the ability to form accurate mental images is associated with greater engagement of auditory areas and associated error-detection circuitry when listeners imagine ascending scales and make intonation judgments about target notes. A view of auditory mental images is espoused in which unified mental image representations are distributed across multiple brain areas. Each brain area helps shape the acuity of the unified representation based on current behavioral demands and past experience. PMID:22524362

  17. Mathematizing Darwin.

    PubMed

    Edwards, A W F

    2011-03-01

    Ernst Mayr called the first part of the evolutionary synthesis the 'Fisherian synthesis' on account of the dominant role played by R.A. Fisher in forging a mathematical theory of natural selection together with J.B.S. Haldane and Sewall Wright in the decade 1922-1932. It is here argued that Fisher's contribution relied on a close reading of Darwin's work to a much greater extent than did the contributions of Haldane and Wright, that it was synthetic in contrast to their analytic approach and that it was greatly influenced by his friendship with the Darwin family, particularly with Charles's son Leonard. PMID:21423339

  18. Accurate calculation of diffraction-limited encircled and ensquared energy.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Torben B

    2015-09-01

    Mathematical properties of the encircled and ensquared energy functions for the diffraction-limited point-spread function (PSF) are presented. These include power series and a set of linear differential equations that facilitate the accurate calculation of these functions. Asymptotic expressions are derived that provide very accurate estimates for the relative amount of energy in the diffraction PSF that fall outside a square or rectangular large detector. Tables with accurate values of the encircled and ensquared energy functions are also presented. PMID:26368873

  19. Good Mathematics Teaching from Mexican High School Students' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Sierra, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a qualitative research that identifies the characteristics of good mathematics teaching from the perspective of Mexican high school students. For this purpose, the social representations of a good mathematics teacher and a good mathematics class were identified in a group of 67 students. In order to obtain information, a…

  20. Reading and Mathematics Bound Together: Creating a Home Environment for Preschool Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Amber J.; Rupley, William H.; Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary Margaret

    2016-01-01

    The combination of mathematics and reading in family reading time can positively impact children's ability to make sense of representations in both mathematics and reading. Four families volunteered to participate in this field based inquiry to learn how to integrate mathematics and reading in parent-supported activities. Four parents and their…

  1. Science Modelling in Pre-Calculus: How to Make Mathematics Problems Contextually Meaningful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Andrzej; Yalvac, Bugrahan; Loving, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    "Use of mathematical representations to model and interpret physical phenomena and solve problems is one of the major teaching objectives in high school math curriculum" [National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), "Principles and Standards for School Mathematics", NCTM, Reston, VA, 2000]. Commonly used pre-calculus textbooks provide a…

  2. How Syntactic Reasoners Can Develop Understanding, Evaluate Conjectures, and Generate Counterexamples in Advanced Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of a highly successful student whose exploration of an advanced mathematical concept relies predominantly on syntactic reasoning, such as developing formal representations of mathematical ideas and making logical deductions. This student is observed as he learns a new mathematical concept and then completes…

  3. Sex Differences in the Spatial Representation of Number

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Rebecca; Cleland, Alexandra A.; Mitchell, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    There is a large body of accumulated evidence from behavioral and neuroimaging studies regarding how and where in the brain we represent basic numerical information. A number of these studies have considered how numerical representations may differ between individuals according to their age or level of mathematical ability, but one issue rarely…

  4. Mental Arithmetic Activates Analogic Representations of Internally Generated Sums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallai, Arava Y.; Schunn, Christian D.; Fiez, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    The internal representation of numbers generated during calculation has received little attention. Much of the mathematics learning literature focuses on symbolic retrieval of math facts; in contrast, we critically test the hypothesis that internally generated numbers are represented analogically, using an approximate number system. In an fMRI…

  5. Constructing Mental Representations of Complex Three-Dimensional Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aust, Ronald

    This exploratory study investigated whether there are differences between males and females in the strategies used to construct mental representations from three-dimensional objects in a dimensional travel display. A Silicon Graphics IRIS computer was used to create the travel displays and mathematical models were created for each of the objects…

  6. New Representational Infrastructures: Broadening the Focus on Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagrange, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    For more than 10 years, I had the honour and pleasure to work with Celia Hoyles and Richard Noss. We share a common concern for more learnable mathematics, especially in algebra, and for the need to build new representational infrastructures taking advantage of technology. Beyond this common concern, my choice to work in the French institutional…

  7. Use of Multiple Representations in Technology Rich Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkoç, Hatice; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2013-01-01

    This study presents part of a research project that aims to develop prospective mathematics teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK). The project considers various TPCK components. This report focuses on a particular component, namely the "knowledge of using multiple representations (MRs) with technology". A course…

  8. Using Multiple Representations To Improve Conceptions of Average Speed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Stephen K.; Jazo, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Discusses improving mathematical reasoning through the design of computer microworlds and evaluates a computer-based learning environment that uses multiple representations to improve undergraduate students' conception of average speed. Describes improvement of students' estimates of average speed by using visual feedback from a simulation.…

  9. Coordinating Multiple Representations in a Reform Calculus Textbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Briana L.; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Tran, Nhi

    2015-01-01

    Coordination of multiple representations (CMR) is widely recognized as a critical skill in mathematics and is frequently demanded in reform calculus textbooks. However, little is known about the prevalence of coordination tasks in such textbooks. We coded 707 instances of CMR in a widely used reform calculus textbook and analyzed the distributions…

  10. Sense-able Combinatorics: Student's Use of Personal Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarlow, Lynn D.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a mathematics session in which students explored a challenging combinatorics task, a topic shown to be difficult for students when taught traditionally. The students developed a progression of personal representations, increasingly symbolic and abstract, which they used to find a solution and justification. (Contains 8…

  11. Contacts de langues et representations (Language Contacts and Representations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthey, Marinette, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Essays on language contact and the image of language, entirely in French, include: "Representations 'du' contexte et representations 'en' contexte? Eleves et enseignants face a l'apprentissage de la langue" ("Representations 'of' Context or Representations 'in' Context? Students and Teachers Facing Language Learning" (Laurent Gajo); "Le crepuscule…

  12. Students' Development and Use of Internal Representations When Solving Algebraic Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Laban J.

    2013-01-01

    The difficulty in observing, recording, and examining internal representations has been well documented (Goldin & Shteingold, 2001). However, the important role that these internal representations play in the learning and understanding of mathematical concepts has been noted (Yackel, 2000). This study sought to develop a framework for…

  13. Calculus Students' Representation Use in Group-Work and Individual Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zazkis, Dov

    2013-01-01

    The study of student representation use and specifically the distinction between analytic and visual representations has fueled a long line of mathematics education literature that began more than 35 years ago. This literature can be partitioned into two bodies of work, one that is primarily cognitive and one that is primarily social. In spite of…

  14. Solving Additive Problems at Pre-Elementary School Level with the Support of Graphical Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selva, Ana Coelho Vieira; Falcao, Jorge Tarcisio da Rocha; Nunes, Terezinha

    2005-01-01

    This research offers empirical evidence of the importance of supplying diverse symbolic representations in order to support concept development in mathematics. Graphical representation can be a helpful symbolic tool for concept development in the conceptual field of additive structures. Nevertheless, this symbolic tool has specific difficulties…

  15. Mathematical Modelling with Technology: The Role of Dynamic Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arzarello, Ferdinando; Ferrara, Francesca; Robutti, Ornella

    2012-01-01

    In this research we present the use of some technologies in problem solving activities (at different secondary school grades), aimed at finding a model for a geometric configuration, and representing this model in various ways: through a construction, through a Cartesian graph, etc. The task is part of a teaching experiment, in which students used…

  16. Information Technology and Mathematics: Opening New Representational Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaput, James J.

    Higher order thinking skills are inevitably developed or exercised relative to some discipline. The discipline may be formal or informal, may or may not be represented in a school curriculum, or relate to a wide variety of domains. Moreover, the development or exercise of thinking skills may take place at differing levels of generality. This paper…

  17. Quantum Non-Locality and the Mathematical Representation of Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fano, Vincenzo

    2006-06-01

    Four possible solutions of the Kantian problem "how the mathematisation of experience is possible?" are presented: Platonism, critical materialism, operationism and empiricism. Then the experimental violation of Bell's inequality is discussed. To avoid the proof of Bell's inequality, it is possible to deny different conditions, but experiments support only the refutation of factorizability as a whole. It is argued that this implies a confirmation of the empiricist's point of view.

  18. A Multifaceted Mathematical Approach for Complex Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, F.; Anitescu, M.; Bell, J.; Brown, D.; Ferris, M.; Luskin, M.; Mehrotra, S.; Moser, B.; Pinar, A.; Tartakovsky, A.; Willcox, K.; Wright, S.; Zavala, V.

    2012-03-07

    Applied mathematics has an important role to play in developing the tools needed for the analysis, simulation, and optimization of complex problems. These efforts require the development of the mathematical foundations for scientific discovery, engineering design, and risk analysis based on a sound integrated approach for the understanding of complex systems. However, maximizing the impact of applied mathematics on these challenges requires a novel perspective on approaching the mathematical enterprise. Previous reports that have surveyed the DOE's research needs in applied mathematics have played a key role in defining research directions with the community. Although these reports have had significant impact, accurately assessing current research needs requires an evaluation of today's challenges against the backdrop of recent advances in applied mathematics and computing. To address these needs, the DOE Applied Mathematics Program sponsored a Workshop for Mathematics for the Analysis, Simulation and Optimization of Complex Systems on September 13-14, 2011. The workshop had approximately 50 participants from both the national labs and academia. The goal of the workshop was to identify new research areas in applied mathematics that will complement and enhance the existing DOE ASCR Applied Mathematics Program efforts that are needed to address problems associated with complex systems. This report describes recommendations from the workshop and subsequent analysis of the workshop findings by the organizing committee.

  19. Representations and particles of orthosymplectic supersymmetry generalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salom, Igor

    2014-12-01

    Orthosymplectic osp(1|2 n) supersymmetry (alternative names: Generalized conformal supersymmetry with tensorial central charges, conformal M-algebra, parabose algebra) has been considered as an alternative to d-dimensional conformal superalgebra. Due to mathematical difficulties, even classification of its unitary irreducible representations (UIR's) have not been entirely accomplished. We give this classification for n = 4 case (corresponding to four dimensional space-time) and then show how the discrete subset of these UIR's can be constructed in a Clifford algebra variation of the Green's ansatz.

  20. Shear representations of beam transfer matrices.

    PubMed

    Başkal, S; Kim, Y S

    2001-05-01

    The beam transfer matrix, often called the ABCD matrix, is one of the essential mathematical instruments in optics. It is a unimodular matrix whose determinant is 1. If all the elements are real with three independent parameters, this matrix is a 2 x 2 representation of the group Sp(2). It is shown that a real ABCD matrix can be generated by two shear transformations. It is then noted that, in para-axial lens optics, the lens and translation matrices constitute two shear transformations. It is shown that a system with an arbitrary number of lenses can be reduced to a system consisting of three lenses. PMID:11415030

  1. Grassmannian sparse representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azary, Sherif; Savakis, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    We present Grassmannian sparse representations (GSR), a sparse representation Grassmann learning framework for efficient classification. Sparse representation classification offers a powerful approach for recognition in a variety of contexts. However, a major drawback of sparse representation methods is their computational performance and memory utilization for high-dimensional data. A Grassmann manifold is a space that promotes smooth surfaces where points represent subspaces and the relationship between points is defined by the mapping of an orthogonal matrix. Grassmann manifolds are well suited for computer vision problems because they promote high between-class discrimination and within-class clustering, while offering computational advantages by mapping each subspace onto a single point. The GSR framework combines Grassmannian kernels and sparse representations, including regularized least squares and least angle regression, to improve high accuracy recognition while overcoming the drawbacks of performance and dependencies on high dimensional data distributions. The effectiveness of GSR is demonstrated on computationally intensive multiview action sequences, three-dimensional action sequences, and face recognition datasets.

  2. Numerical Magnitude Representations and Individual Differences in Children's Arithmetic Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanbinst, Kiran; Ghesquiere, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2012-01-01

    Against the background of neuroimaging studies on how the brain processes numbers, there is now converging evidence that numerical magnitude representations are crucial for successful mathematics achievement. One major drawback of this research is that it mainly investigated mathematics performance as measured through general standardized…

  3. Transition from Concrete to Abstract Representations: The Distributive Property in a Chinese Textbook Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Meixia; Li, Xiaobao

    2014-01-01

    Through examining a representative Chinese textbook series' presentation of the distributive property, this study explores how mathematics curriculum may structure representations in ways that facilitate the transition from concrete to abstract so as to support students' learning of mathematical principles. A total of 319 instances of…

  4. The Invisible Link: Using State Space Representations to Investigate the Connection between Variables and Their Referents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    The ability to represent numerical quantities in symbolic form is a necessary foundation for mathematical competence. Variables are particularly important symbolic representations for learning algebra and succeeding in higher mathematics, but the mechanisms of how students link a variable to what it represents are not well understood. Research…

  5. Examining Classroom Interactions & Mathematical Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Melva R.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examined interactions in three classrooms to determine how they influenced Discourses related to mathematics learning and teaching. Mathematics education literature suggests that effective mathematics instruction includes mathematical Discourses. However, effective mathematical Discourses within mathematics classrooms vary…

  6. Authenticity of Mathematical Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Dung; Dougherty, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Some students leave high school never quite sure of the relevancy of the mathematics they have learned. They fail to see links between school mathematics and the mathematics of everyday life that requires thoughtful decision making and often complex problem solving. Is it possible to bridge the gap between school mathematics and the mathematics in…

  7. Accurate finite difference methods for time-harmonic wave propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harari, Isaac; Turkel, Eli

    1994-01-01

    Finite difference methods for solving problems of time-harmonic acoustics are developed and analyzed. Multidimensional inhomogeneous problems with variable, possibly discontinuous, coefficients are considered, accounting for the effects of employing nonuniform grids. A weighted-average representation is less sensitive to transition in wave resolution (due to variable wave numbers or nonuniform grids) than the standard pointwise representation. Further enhancement in method performance is obtained by basing the stencils on generalizations of Pade approximation, or generalized definitions of the derivative, reducing spurious dispersion, anisotropy and reflection, and by improving the representation of source terms. The resulting schemes have fourth-order accurate local truncation error on uniform grids and third order in the nonuniform case. Guidelines for discretization pertaining to grid orientation and resolution are presented.

  8. Spacecraft Attitude Representations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    1999-01-01

    The direction cosine matrix or attitude matrix is the most fundamental representation of the attitude, but it is very inefficient: It has six redundant parameters, it is difficult to enforce the six (orthogonality) constraints. the four-component quaternion representation is very convenient: it has only one redundant parameter, it is easy to enforce the normalization constraint, the attitude matrix is a homogeneous quadratic function of q, quaternion kinematics are bilinear in q and m. Euler angles are extensively used: they often have a physical interpretation, they provide a natural description of some spacecraft motions (COBE, MAP), but kinematics and attitude matrix involve trigonometric functions, "gimbal lock" for certain values of the angles. Other minimum (three-parameter) representations: Gibbs vector is infinite for 180 deg rotations, but useful for analysis, Modified Rodrigues Parameters are nonsingular, no trig functions, Rotation vector phi is nonsingular, but requires trig functions.

  9. Absolute value equations - what can we learn from their graphical representation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupel, Moshe; Ben-Chaim, David

    2014-08-01

    Understanding graphical representations of algebraic equations, particularly graphical representations of absolute value equations, significantly improves students' mathematical comprehension and ignites within them an appreciation of the beauty and aesthetics of mathematics. In this paper, we focus on absolute value equations of linear and quadratic expressions, by examining various cases, presenting different methods of solving them by graphical representation, exhibiting the advantage of using dynamic software such as GeoGebra in solving them, and illustrating some examples of interesting graphical solutions. We recommend that teachers take advantage of the rapid development in technology to help learners tangibly visualize the solutions of absolute value equations before proceeding to the analytical solutions.

  10. Umbra's system representation.

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Michael James

    2005-07-01

    This document describes the Umbra System representation. Umbra System representation, initially developed in the spring of 2003, is implemented in Incr/Tcl using concepts borrowed from Carnegie Mellon University's Architecture Description Language (ADL) called Acme. In the spring of 2004 through January 2005, System was converted to Umbra 4, extended slightly, and adopted as the underlying software system for a variety of Umbra applications that support Complex Systems Engineering (CSE) and Complex Adaptive Systems Engineering (CASE). System is now a standard part Of Umbra 4. While Umbra 4 also includes an XML parser for System, the XML parser and Schema are not described in this document.

  11. Space-by-time manifold representation of dynamic facial expressions for emotion categorization

    PubMed Central

    Delis, Ioannis; Chen, Chaona; Jack, Rachael E.; Garrod, Oliver G. B.; Panzeri, Stefano; Schyns, Philippe G.

    2016-01-01

    Visual categorization is the brain computation that reduces high-dimensional information in the visual environment into a smaller set of meaningful categories. An important problem in visual neuroscience is to identify the visual information that the brain must represent and then use to categorize visual inputs. Here we introduce a new mathematical formalism—termed space-by-time manifold decomposition—that describes this information as a low-dimensional manifold separable in space and time. We use this decomposition to characterize the representations used by observers to categorize the six classic facial expressions of emotion (happy, surprise, fear, disgust, anger, and sad). By means of a Generative Face Grammar, we presented random dynamic facial movements on each experimental trial and used subjective human perception to identify the facial movements that correlate with each emotion category. When the random movements projected onto the categorization manifold region corresponding to one of the emotion categories, observers categorized the stimulus accordingly; otherwise they selected “other.” Using this information, we determined both the Action Unit and temporal components whose linear combinations lead to reliable categorization of each emotion. In a validation experiment, we confirmed the psychological validity of the resulting space-by-time manifold representation. Finally, we demonstrated the importance of temporal sequencing for accurate emotion categorization and identified the temporal dynamics of Action Unit components that cause typical confusions between specific emotions (e.g., fear and surprise) as well as those resolving these confusions. PMID:27305521

  12. Space-by-time manifold representation of dynamic facial expressions for emotion categorization.

    PubMed

    Delis, Ioannis; Chen, Chaona; Jack, Rachael E; Garrod, Oliver G B; Panzeri, Stefano; Schyns, Philippe G

    2016-06-01

    Visual categorization is the brain computation that reduces high-dimensional information in the visual environment into a smaller set of meaningful categories. An important problem in visual neuroscience is to identify the visual information that the brain must represent and then use to categorize visual inputs. Here we introduce a new mathematical formalism-termed space-by-time manifold decomposition-that describes this information as a low-dimensional manifold separable in space and time. We use this decomposition to characterize the representations used by observers to categorize the six classic facial expressions of emotion (happy, surprise, fear, disgust, anger, and sad). By means of a Generative Face Grammar, we presented random dynamic facial movements on each experimental trial and used subjective human perception to identify the facial movements that correlate with each emotion category. When the random movements projected onto the categorization manifold region corresponding to one of the emotion categories, observers categorized the stimulus accordingly; otherwise they selected "other." Using this information, we determined both the Action Unit and temporal components whose linear combinations lead to reliable categorization of each emotion. In a validation experiment, we confirmed the psychological validity of the resulting space-by-time manifold representation. Finally, we demonstrated the importance of temporal sequencing for accurate emotion categorization and identified the temporal dynamics of Action Unit components that cause typical confusions between specific emotions (e.g., fear and surprise) as well as those resolving these confusions. PMID:27305521

  13. On the representation of many-body interactions in water

    SciTech Connect

    Medders, Gregory; Gotz, Andreas; Morales, Miguel A.; Bajaj, Pushp; Paesani, Francesco

    2015-09-09

    Recent work has shown that the many-body expansion of the interaction energy can be used to develop analytical representations of global potential energy surfaces (PESs) for water. In this study, the role of short- and long-range interactions at different orders is investigated by analyzing water potentials that treat the leading terms of the many-body expansion through implicit (i.e., TTM3-F and TTM4-F PESs) and explicit (i.e., WHBB and MB-pol PESs) representations. It is found that explicit short-range representations of 2-body and 3-body interactions along with a physically correct incorporation of short- and long-range contributions are necessary for an accurate representation of the water interactions from the gas to the condensed phase. Similarly, a complete many-body representation of the dipole moment surface is found to be crucial to reproducing the correct intensities of the infrared spectrum of liquid water.

  14. On the representation of many-body interactions in water

    SciTech Connect

    Medders, Gregory R.; Gotz, Andreas W.; Morales, Miguel A.; Bajaj, Pushp; Paesani, Francesco

    2015-09-09

    Our recent work has shown that the many-body expansion of the interactionenergy can be used to develop analytical representations of global potential energy surfaces (PESs) for water. In this study, the role of short- and long-range interactions at different orders is investigated by analyzing water potentials that treat the leading terms of the many-body expansion through implicit (i.e., TTM3-F and TTM4-F PESs) and explicit (i.e., WHBB and MB-pol PESs) representations. Moreover, it is found that explicit short-range representations of 2-body and 3-body interactions along with a physically correct incorporation of short- and long-range contributions are necessary for an accurate representation of the waterinteractions from the gas to the condensed phase. Likewise, a complete many-body representation of the dipole moment surface is found to be crucial to reproducing the correct intensities of the infrared spectrum of liquid water.

  15. Mathematics and Cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasturirangan, Rajesh

    2014-07-01

    Mathematics is a human pursuit. Whether the truths of mathematics lie outside the human mind or emerge out of it, the actual practice of mathematics is conducted by human beings. In other words, human mathematics is the only kind of mathematics that we can pursue and human mathematics has to be built on top of cognitive capacities that are possessed by all human beings. Another way of stating the same claim is that mathematics is experienced by human beings using their cognitive capacities. This paper argues that exploring the experience of mathematics is a useful way to make headway on the foundations of mathematics. Focusing on the experience of mathematics is an empirical approach to the study of mathematics that sidesteps some of the thorniest debates from an earlier era about Platonism and Formalism in the foundations of mathematics.

  16. The representation of knowledge within model-based control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Weygand, D.P.; Koul, R.

    1987-01-01

    Representation of knowledge in artificially intelligent systems is discussed. Types of knowledge that might need to be represented in AI systems are listed, and include knowledge about objects, events, knowledge about how to do things, and knowledge about what human beings know (meta-knowledge). The use of knowledge in AI systems is discussed in terms of acquiring and retrieving knowledge and reasoning about known facts. Different kinds of reasonings or representations are ghen described with some examples given. These include formal reasoning or logical representation, which is related to mathematical logic, production systems, which are based on the idea of condition-action pairs (production), procedural reasoning, which uses pre-formed plans to solve problems, frames, which provide a structure for representing knowledge in an organized manner, direct analogical representations, which represent knowledge in such a manner that permits some observation without deduction. (LEW)

  17. Representations and uses of light distribution functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalonde, Paul Albert

    1998-11-01

    small error in the reconstructed signal. The representation can be used to evaluate efficiently some integrals that appear in shading computation which allows fast, accurate computation of local shading. The representation can be used to represent light fields and is used to reconstruct views of environments interactively from a precomputed set of views. The representation of the BRDF also allows the efficient generation of reflected directions for Monte Carlo array tracing applications. The method can be integrated into many different global illumination algorithms, including ray tracers and wavelet radiosity systems.

  18. Discrete Mathematics and the Secondary Mathematics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dossey, John

    Discrete mathematics, the mathematics of decision making for finite settings, is a topic of great interest in mathematics education at all levels. Attention is being focused on resolving the diversity of opinion concerning the exact nature of the subject, what content the curriculum should contain, who should study that material, and how that…

  19. Mathematical Language and Advanced Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Pier Luigi

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the role of language in mathematics learning at college level. Its main aim is to provide a perspective on mathematical language appropriate to effectively interpret students' linguistic behaviors in mathematics and to suggest new teaching ideas. Examples are given to show that the explanation of students' behaviors…

  20. Mathematical Modelling Approach in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arseven, Ayla

    2015-01-01

    The topic of models and modeling has come to be important for science and mathematics education in recent years. The topic of "Modeling" topic is especially important for examinations such as PISA which is conducted at an international level and measures a student's success in mathematics. Mathematical modeling can be defined as using…

  1. Mathematics for Life: Sustainable Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renert, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Ecological sustainability has not been a major focus of mathematics education research, even though it has attracted considerable attention in other areas of educational research in the past decade. The connections between mathematics education and ecological sustainability are not readily apparent. This paper explores how mathematics educators…

  2. Mathematical Story: A Metaphor for Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietiker, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework for interpreting the content found in mathematics curriculum in order to offer teachers and other mathematics educators comprehensive conceptual tools with which to make curricular decisions. More specifically, it describes a metaphor of "mathematics curriculum as story" and defines and…

  3. The Problem of Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tervo, Juuso

    2012-01-01

    In "Postphysical Vision: Art Education's Challenge in an Age of Globalized Aesthetics (AMondofesto)" (2008) and "Beyond Aesthetics: Returning Force and Truth to Art and Its Education" (2009), jan jagodzinski argued for politics that go "beyond" representation--a project that radically questions visual culture…

  4. Reformulation of Density Functional Theory for N-Representable Densities and the Resolution of the v-Representability Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Gonis, A.; Zhang, X. G.; Stocks, G. M.; Nicholson, D. M.

    2015-10-23

    Density functional theory for the case of general, N-representable densities is reformulated in terms of density functional derivatives of expectation values of operators evaluated with wave functions leading to a density, making no reference to the concept of potential. The developments provide a complete solution of the v-representability problem by establishing a mathematical procedure that determines whether a density is v-representable and in the case of an affirmative answer determines the potential (within an additive constant) as a derivative with respect to the density of a constrained search functional. It also establishes the existence of an energy functional of the density that, for v-representable densities, assumes its minimum value at the density describing the ground state of an interacting many-particle system. The theorems of Hohenberg and Kohn emerge as special cases of the formalism.

  5. Reformulation of Density Functional Theory for N-Representable Densities and the Resolution of the v-Representability Problem

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gonis, A.; Zhang, X. G.; Stocks, G. M.; Nicholson, D. M.

    2015-10-23

    Density functional theory for the case of general, N-representable densities is reformulated in terms of density functional derivatives of expectation values of operators evaluated with wave functions leading to a density, making no reference to the concept of potential. The developments provide a complete solution of the v-representability problem by establishing a mathematical procedure that determines whether a density is v-representable and in the case of an affirmative answer determines the potential (within an additive constant) as a derivative with respect to the density of a constrained search functional. It also establishes the existence of an energy functional of themore » density that, for v-representable densities, assumes its minimum value at the density describing the ground state of an interacting many-particle system. The theorems of Hohenberg and Kohn emerge as special cases of the formalism.« less

  6. [Time perceptions and representations].

    PubMed

    Tordjman, S

    2015-09-01

    Representations of time and time measurements depend on subjective constructs that vary according to changes in our concepts, beliefs, societal needs and technical advances. Similarly, the past, the future and the present are subjective representations that depend on each individual's psychic time and biological time. Therefore, there is no single, one-size-fits-all time for everyone, but rather a different, subjective time for each individual. We need to acknowledge the existence of different inter-individual times but also intra-individual times, to which different functions and different rhythms are attached, depending on the system of reference. However, the construction of these time perceptions and representations is influenced by objective factors (physiological, physical and cognitive) related to neuroscience which will be presented and discussed in this article. Thus, studying representation and perception of time lies at the crossroads between neuroscience, human sciences and philosophy. Furthermore, it is possible to identify several constants among the many and various representations of time and their corresponding measures, regardless of the system of time reference. These include the notion of movements repeated in a stable rhythmic pattern involving the recurrence of the same interval of time, which enables us to define units of time of equal and invariable duration. This rhythmicity is also found at a physiological level and contributes through circadian rhythms, in particular the melatonin rhythm, to the existence of a biological time. Alterations of temporality in mental disorders will be also discussed in this article illustrated by certain developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders. In particular, the hypothesis will be developed that children with autism would need to create discontinuity out of continuity through stereotyped behaviors and/or interests. This discontinuity repeated at regular intervals could have been

  7. NNLOPS accurate associated HW production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astill, William; Bizon, Wojciech; Re, Emanuele; Zanderighi, Giulia

    2016-06-01

    We present a next-to-next-to-leading order accurate description of associated HW production consistently matched to a parton shower. The method is based on reweighting events obtained with the HW plus one jet NLO accurate calculation implemented in POWHEG, extended with the MiNLO procedure, to reproduce NNLO accurate Born distributions. Since the Born kinematics is more complex than the cases treated before, we use a parametrization of the Collins-Soper angles to reduce the number of variables required for the reweighting. We present phenomenological results at 13 TeV, with cuts suggested by the Higgs Cross section Working Group.

  8. Updating representations of temporal intervals.

    PubMed

    Danckert, James; Anderson, Britt

    2015-12-01

    Effectively engaging with the world depends on accurate representations of the regularities that make up that world-what we call mental models. The success of any mental model depends on the ability to adapt to changes-to 'update' the model. In prior work, we have shown that damage to the right hemisphere of the brain impairs the ability to update mental models across a range of tasks. Given the disparate nature of the tasks we have employed in this prior work (i.e. statistical learning, language acquisition, position priming, perceptual ambiguity, strategic game play), we propose that a cognitive module important for updating mental representations should be generic, in the sense that it is invoked across multiple cognitive and perceptual domains. To date, the majority of our tasks have been visual in nature. Given the ubiquity and import of temporal information in sensory experience, we examined the ability to build and update mental models of time. We had healthy individuals complete a temporal prediction task in which intervals were initially drawn from one temporal range before an unannounced switch to a different range of intervals. Separate groups had the second range of intervals switch to one that contained either longer or shorter intervals than the first range. Both groups showed significant positive correlations between perceptual and prediction accuracy. While each group updated mental models of temporal intervals, those exposed to shorter intervals did so more efficiently. Our results support the notion of generic capacity to update regularities in the environment-in this instance based on temporal information. The task developed here is well suited to investigations in neurological patients and in neuroimaging settings. PMID:26303026

  9. Computing with scale-invariant neural representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Marc; Shankar, Karthik

    The Weber-Fechner law is perhaps the oldest quantitative relationship in psychology. Consider the problem of the brain representing a function f (x) . Different neurons have receptive fields that support different parts of the range, such that the ith neuron has a receptive field at xi. Weber-Fechner scaling refers to the finding that the width of the receptive field scales with xi as does the difference between the centers of adjacent receptive fields. Weber-Fechner scaling is exponentially resource-conserving. Neurophysiological evidence suggests that neural representations obey Weber-Fechner scaling in the visual system and perhaps other systems as well. We describe an optimality constraint that is solved by Weber-Fechner scaling, providing an information-theoretic rationale for this principle of neural coding. Weber-Fechner scaling can be generated within a mathematical framework using the Laplace transform. Within this framework, simple computations such as translation, correlation and cross-correlation can be accomplished. This framework can in principle be extended to provide a general computational language for brain-inspired cognitive computation on scale-invariant representations. Supported by NSF PHY 1444389 and the BU Initiative for the Physics and Mathematics of Neural Systems,.

  10. How Training on Exact or Approximate Mental Representations of Number Can Enhance First-Grade Students' Basic Number Processing and Arithmetic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obersteiner, Andreas; Reiss, Kristina; Ufer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Theories of psychology and mathematics education recommend two instructional approaches to develop students' mental representations of number: The "exact" approach focuses on the development of exact representations of organized dot patterns; the "approximate" approach focuses on the approximate representation of analogue magnitudes. This study…

  11. How to accurately bypass damage

    PubMed Central

    Broyde, Suse; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation can cause cancer through DNA damage — specifically, by linking adjacent thymine bases. Crystal structures show how the enzyme DNA polymerase η accurately bypasses such lesions, offering protection. PMID:20577203

  12. Accurate Evaluation of Quantum Integrals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galant, David C.; Goorvitch, D.

    1994-01-01

    Combining an appropriate finite difference method with Richardson's extrapolation results in a simple, highly accurate numerical method for solving a Schr\\"{o}dinger's equation. Important results are that error estimates are provided, and that one can extrapolate expectation values rather than the wavefunctions to obtain highly accurate expectation values. We discuss the eigenvalues, the error growth in repeated Richardson's extrapolation, and show that the expectation values calculated on a crude mesh can be extrapolated to obtain expectation values of high accuracy.

  13. Representing the Electromagnetic Field: How Maxwell's Mathematics Empowered Faraday's Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tweney, Ryan D.

    2011-07-01

    James Clerk Maxwell `translated' Michael Faraday's experimentally-based field theory into the mathematical representation now known as `Maxwell's Equations.' Working with a variety of mathematical representations and physical models Maxwell extended the reach of Faraday's theory and brought it into consistency with other results in the physics of electricity and magnetism. Examination of Maxwell's procedures opens many issues about the role of mathematical representation in physics and the learning background required for its success. Specifically, Maxwell's training in `Cambridge University' mathematical physics emphasized the use of analogous equations across fields of physics and the repeated solving of extremely difficult problems in physics. Such training develops an array of overlearned mathematical representations supported by highly sophisticated cognitive mechanisms for the retrieval of relevant information from long term memory. For Maxwell, mathematics constituted a new form of representation in physics, enhancing the formal derivational and calculational role of mathematics and opening a cognitive means for the conduct of `experiments in the mind' and for sophisticated representations of theory.

  14. Representations in Simulated Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Schaik, Martijn; Terwel, Jan; van Oers, Bert

    2014-01-01

    In vocational education students are to be prepared to participate in communities of practice. Hence they need technical skills as well as content knowledge e.g. science and mathematics. Research has shown that the instructional strategy of guided co-construction may lead to deeper understandings within a practice. The research questions in this…

  15. The Functions of Multiple Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Shaaron

    1999-01-01

    Discusses multiple representations and multimedia learning environments; describes a functional taxonomy of MERs (multiple external representations); and considers how MERs are used to support cognitive processes in learning and problem solving with computers. (Contains 41 references.) (Author/LRW)

  16. Transforming Primary Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askew, Mike

    2011-01-01

    What is good mathematics teaching? What is mathematics teaching good for? Who is mathematics teaching for? These are just some of the questions addressed in "Transforming Primary Mathematics", a highly timely new resource for teachers which accessibly sets out the key theories and latest research in primary maths today. Under-pinned by findings…

  17. Mathematical Epistemologies at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noss, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Investigates young people's expression of mathematical ideas with a computer, the nature of mathematical practices, and the problem of mathematical meaning from cognitive and socio-cultural perspectives. Describes a mathematical activity system designed for learning and the role of digital technologies in helping to understand and reshape the…

  18. It's all just mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegmark, Max

    2014-02-01

    The world can be described using mathematical equations and numbers, but why does maths do it so well? In his new book Our Mathematical Universe, a section of which is abridged and edited here, Max Tegmark makes the radical proposal that our reality isn't just described by mathematics - it is mathematics.

  19. Students as Mathematics Consultants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    If students are going to develop reasoning and thinking skills, use their mathematical knowledge, and recognize the relevance of mathematics in their lives, they need to experience mathematics in meaningful ways. Only then will their mathematical skills be transferrable to all other parts of their lives. To promote such flexible mathematical…

  20. Functioning Mathematically: 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, David

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the first part of the closing address given by the author to the 2007 Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) Easter conference at Loughborough. In his closing address, the author focuses on functioning mathematically as opposed to functional mathematics. His view of functional mathematics is that the focus is on someone…

  1. Mathematics Lessons without ...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Kath; Hibbs, John

    2006-01-01

    In the Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) Easter conference, 2006, the authors presented a list of important aspects of mathematics lessons, recommended for students to have a positive attitude to mathematics and for teachers to acquire effective teaching. The following are discussed in detail: (1) Mathematics lessons without good…

  2. Water wave model with accurate dispersion and vertical vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokhove, Onno

    2010-05-01

    Cotter and Bokhove (Journal of Engineering Mathematics 2010) derived a variational water wave model with accurate dispersion and vertical vorticity. In one limit, it leads to Luke's variational principle for potential flow water waves. In the another limit it leads to the depth-averaged shallow water equations including vertical vorticity. Presently, focus will be put on the Hamiltonian formulation of the variational model and its boundary conditions.

  3. Representation in incremental learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Work focused on two areas in machine learning: representation for inductive learning and how to apply concept learning techniques to learning state preferences, which can represent search control knowledge for problem solving. Specifically, in the first area the issues of the effect of representation on learning, on how learning formalisms are biased, and how concept learning can benefit from the use of a hybrid formalism are addressed. In the second area, the issues of developing an agent to learn search control knowledge from the relative values of states, of the source of that qualitative information, and of the ability to use both quantitative and qualitative information in order to develop an effective problem-solving policy are examined.

  4. Naturalising Representational Content

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out a view about the explanatory role of representational content and advocates one approach to naturalising content – to giving a naturalistic account of what makes an entity a representation and in virtue of what it has the content it does. It argues for pluralism about the metaphysics of content and suggests that a good strategy is to ask the content question with respect to a variety of predictively successful information processing models in experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience; and hence that data from psychology and cognitive neuroscience should play a greater role in theorising about the nature of content. Finally, the contours of the view are illustrated by drawing out and defending a surprising consequence: that individuation of vehicles of content is partly externalist. PMID:24563661

  5. Gabor representation with oversampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibulski, Meir; Zeevi, Yehoshua Y.

    1992-11-01

    An approach for characterizing the properties of the basis functions of the Gabor representation in the context of oversampling is presented. The approach is based on the concept of frames and utilizes the Piecewise Zak Transform (PZT). The frame operator associated with the Gabor-type frame, the so-called Weyl-Heisenberg frame, is examined for a rational oversampling rate by representing the frame operator as a matrix-valued function in the PZT domain. Completeness and frame properties of the Gabor representation functions are examined in relation to the properties of the matrix-valued function. The frame bounds are calculated by means of the eigenvalues of the matrix-valued function, and the dual-frame, which is used in calculation of the expansion coefficients, is expressed by means of the inverse matrix.

  6. Naturalising Representational Content.

    PubMed

    Shea, Nicholas

    2013-05-01

    This paper sets out a view about the explanatory role of representational content and advocates one approach to naturalising content - to giving a naturalistic account of what makes an entity a representation and in virtue of what it has the content it does. It argues for pluralism about the metaphysics of content and suggests that a good strategy is to ask the content question with respect to a variety of predictively successful information processing models in experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience; and hence that data from psychology and cognitive neuroscience should play a greater role in theorising about the nature of content. Finally, the contours of the view are illustrated by drawing out and defending a surprising consequence: that individuation of vehicles of content is partly externalist. PMID:24563661

  7. Supramodal representation of emotions.

    PubMed

    Klasen, Martin; Kenworthy, Charles A; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Kircher, Tilo T J; Mathiak, Klaus

    2011-09-21

    Supramodal representation of emotion and its neural substrates have recently attracted attention as a marker of social cognition. However, the question whether perceptual integration of facial and vocal emotions takes place in primary sensory areas, multimodal cortices, or in affective structures remains unanswered yet. Using novel computer-generated stimuli, we combined emotional faces and voices in congruent and incongruent ways and assessed functional brain data (fMRI) during an emotional classification task. Both congruent and incongruent audiovisual stimuli evoked larger responses in thalamus and superior temporal regions compared with unimodal conditions. Congruent emotions were characterized by activation in amygdala, insula, ventral posterior cingulate (vPCC), temporo-occipital, and auditory cortices; incongruent emotions activated a frontoparietal network and bilateral caudate nucleus, indicating a greater processing load in working memory and emotion-encoding areas. The vPCC alone exhibited differential reactions to congruency and incongruency for all emotion categories and can thus be considered a central structure for supramodal representation of complex emotional information. Moreover, the left amygdala reflected supramodal representation of happy stimuli. These findings document that emotional information does not merge at the perceptual audiovisual integration level in unimodal or multimodal areas, but in vPCC and amygdala. PMID:21940454

  8. Spatial representation of soundscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boubezari, Mohammed; Bento Coelho, Jos-Luis

    2001-05-01

    For the last 30 years the concept of soundscape has been largely adopted in many scientific disciplines and by the urban experts for the benefit of a better comprehension and management of the sound environment. However, the spatial representation of the soundscape as a simple tool for the description, management or composition of sound environment is always needed. In this article a method is presented for the spatial sound representation with differentiated sources. The first results are shown. This method gives an account of the soundscape as close as possible to the way it can be perceived by the listener in each location. This method generates qualitative sound maps in a reduced urban scale, based on in situ measurements and on the implication of the measuring subject perception. The maps are sufficient enough to isolate many sound sources of the overall sound field. In this manner, sound quality refers to the sound attribute of a perceived object. It is neither an aesthetic judgment nor traditional psychoacoustics criteria. Concrete examples of application to squares in the city of Lisbon will be shown and discussed. The limits and the prospects of such a qualitative representation will also be presented and discussed.

  9. Mental Representations of Weekdays

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, David A.; Wiseman, Richard; Jenkins, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Keeping social appointments involves keeping track of what day it is. In practice, mismatches between apparent day and actual day are common. For example, a person might think the current day is Wednesday when in fact it is Thursday. Here we show that such mismatches are highly systematic, and can be traced to specific properties of their mental representations. In Study 1, mismatches between apparent day and actual day occurred more frequently on midweek days (Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday) than on other days, and were mainly due to intrusions from immediately neighboring days. In Study 2, reaction times to report the current day were fastest on Monday and Friday, and slowest midweek. In Study 3, participants generated fewer semantic associations for “Tuesday”, “Wednesday” and “Thursday” than for other weekday names. Similarly, Google searches found fewer occurrences of midweek days in webpages and books. Analysis of affective norms revealed that participants’ associations were strongly negative for Monday, strongly positive for Friday, and graded over the intervening days. Midweek days are confusable because their mental representations are sparse and similar. Mondays and Fridays are less confusable because their mental representations are rich and distinctive, forming two extremes along a continuum of change. PMID:26288194

  10. Translation between representation languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanbaalen, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    A capability for translating between representation languages is critical for effective knowledge base reuse. A translation technology for knowledge representation languages based on the use of an interlingua for communicating knowledge is described. The interlingua-based translation process consists of three major steps: translation from the source language into a subset of the interlingua, translation between subsets of the interlingua, and translation from a subset of the interlingua into the target language. The first translation step into the interlingua can typically be specified in the form of a grammar that describes how each top-level form in the source language translates into the interlingua. In cases where the source language does not have a declarative semantics, such a grammar is also a specification of a declarative semantics for the language. A methodology for building translators that is currently under development is described. A 'translator shell' based on this methodology is also under development. The shell has been used to build translators for multiple representation languages and those translators have successfully translated nontrivial knowledge bases.

  11. Concept Maps Provide a Window onto Preservice Elementary Teachers' Knowledge in the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chichekian, Tanya; Shore, Bruce M.

    2013-01-01

    This collaborative concept-mapping exercise was conducted in a second-year mathematics methods course. Teachers' visual representations of their mathematical content and pedagogical knowledge provided insight into their understanding of how students learn mathematics. We collected 28 preservice student teachers' concept maps and analyzed them by…

  12. Relationships between the Process Standards: Process Elicited through Letter Writing between Preservice Teachers and High School Mathematics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosko, Karl Wesley; Norton, Anderson

    2012-01-01

    The current body of literature suggests an interactive relationship between several of the process standards advocated by National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Verbal and written mathematical communication has often been described as an alternative to typical mathematical representations (e.g., charts and graphs). Therefore, the…

  13. Strategies That Help Learning-Disabled Students Solve Verbal Mathematical Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Gerard

    1990-01-01

    Strategies are presented for dealing with factors that can be responsible for failure in mathematical problem solving. The suggestions include personalization of verbal problems, thematic strands based on student interests, visual representation, a laboratory approach, and paraphrasing. (JDD)

  14. MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE SELECTIVE DEPOSITION OF INHALED PHARMACEUTICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To accurately assess the potential therapeutic effects of airborne drugs, the deposition sites of inhaled particles must be known. erein, an original theory is presented for physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling and related prophylaxis of airway diseases. he mathematical...

  15. Technology in Mathematics Education: Proceedings of the 19th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (MERGA) (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, June 30-July 3, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Philip C., Ed.

    This document contains papers presented at the 19th annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia. Topics of the presentations include learning research, mathematical representations, problem solving, strategic learning behaviors, algebraic thinking and learning environments, teaching and learning of algebra,…

  16. Improvement of Word Problem Solving and Basic Mathematics Competencies in Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Mathematical Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Castro, Paloma; Cueli, Marisol; Areces, Débora; Rodríguez, Celestino; Sideridis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Problem solving represents a salient deficit in students with mathematical learning difficulties (MLD) primarily caused by difficulties with informal and formal mathematical competencies. This study proposes a computerized intervention tool, the integrated dynamic representation (IDR), for enhancing the early learning of basic mathematical…

  17. Representation of probabilistic scientific knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The theory of probability is widely used in biomedical research for data analysis and modelling. In previous work the probabilities of the research hypotheses have been recorded as experimental metadata. The ontology HELO is designed to support probabilistic reasoning, and provides semantic descriptors for reporting on research that involves operations with probabilities. HELO explicitly links research statements such as hypotheses, models, laws, conclusions, etc. to the associated probabilities of these statements being true. HELO enables the explicit semantic representation and accurate recording of probabilities in hypotheses, as well as the inference methods used to generate and update those hypotheses. We demonstrate the utility of HELO on three worked examples: changes in the probability of the hypothesis that sirtuins regulate human life span; changes in the probability of hypotheses about gene functions in the S. cerevisiae aromatic amino acid pathway; and the use of active learning in drug design (quantitative structure activity relation learning), where a strategy for the selection of compounds with the highest probability of improving on the best known compound was used. HELO is open source and available at https://github.com/larisa-soldatova/HELO PMID:23734675

  18. An ellipsoidal representation of human hand anthropometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchholz, Bryan; Armstrong, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Anthropometric data concerning the heometry of the hand's surface are presently modeled as a function of gross external hand measurements; an effort is made to evaluate the accuracy with which ellipsoids describe the geometry of the hand segments. Graphical comparisons indicate that differences between the ellipsoidal approximations and the breadth and depth measurements were greatest near the joints. On the bases of the present data, a set of overlapping ellipsoids could furnish a more accurate representation of hand geometry for adaptation to ellipsoid segment-geometry employing biomechanical models.

  19. Negotiating the Boundaries Between Mathematics and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radtka, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    This paper examines physics and mathematics textbooks published in France at the end of the 1950s and at the beginning of the 1960s for children aged 11-15 years old. It argues that at this "middle school" level, textbooks contributed to shape cultural representations of both disciplines and their mutual boundaries through their contents and their material aspect. Further, this paper argues that far from presenting clearly delimited subjects, late 1950s textbooks offered possible connections between mathematics and physics. It highlights that such connections depended upon the type of schools the textbooks aimed at, at a time when educational organization still differentiated pupils of this age. It thus stresses how the audience and its projected aptitudes and needs, as well as the cultural teaching traditions of the teachers in charge, were inseparable from the diverse conceptions of mathematics and physics and their relationships promoted through textbooks of the time.

  20. Social Work Scholars' Representation of Rawls: A Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Mahasweta M.

    2011-01-01

    Although Rawls is the most cited social justice theorist in social work, he is not always accurately represented in the literature. To clarify this claim, the author reviews social work scholars' views about social justice, shows social work scholars' representation of Rawls, and highlights aspects of Rawls' theory of social justice. The author's…

  1. 48 CFR 52.219-1 - Small Business Program Representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... as defined in 13 CFR 124.1002. (3) (Complete only if the offeror represented itself as a small... accordance with 13 CFR part 126; and (ii) It is, is not a joint venture that complies with the requirements of 13 CFR part 126, and the representation in paragraph (b)(6)(i) of this provision is accurate...

  2. 48 CFR 52.219-1 - Small Business Program Representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... as defined in 13 CFR 124.1002. (3) (Complete only if the offeror represented itself as a small...; and (ii) It * is, * is not a joint venture that complies with the requirements of 13 CFR part 127, and... 13 CFR part 127, and the representation in paragraph (b)(5)(i) of this provision is accurate...

  3. Mathematics of Information Processing and the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    The mathematics of information processing and the Internet can be organized around four fundamental themes: (1) access (finding information easily); (2) security (keeping information confidential); (3) accuracy (ensuring accurate information); and (4) efficiency (data compression). In this article, the author discusses each theme with reference to…

  4. With Age Comes Representational Wisdom in Social Signals

    PubMed Central

    van Rijsbergen, Nicola; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Rousselet, Guillaume A.; Schyns, Philippe G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary In an increasingly aging society, age has become a foundational dimension of social grouping broadly targeted by advertising and governmental policies. However, perception of old age induces mainly strong negative social biases [1–3]. To characterize their cognitive and perceptual foundations, we modeled the mental representations of faces associated with three age groups (young age, middle age, and old age), in younger and older participants. We then validated the accuracy of each mental representation of age with independent validators. Using statistical image processing, we identified the features of mental representations that predict perceived age. Here, we show that whereas younger people mentally dichotomize aging into two groups, themselves (younger) and others (older), older participants faithfully represent the features of young age, middle age, and old age, with richer representations of all considered ages. Our results demonstrate that, contrary to popular public belief, older minds depict socially relevant information more accurately than their younger counterparts. Video Abstract PMID:25455036

  5. With age comes representational wisdom in social signals.

    PubMed

    van Rijsbergen, Nicola; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Schyns, Philippe G

    2014-12-01

    In an increasingly aging society, age has become a foundational dimension of social grouping broadly targeted by advertising and governmental policies. However, perception of old age induces mainly strong negative social biases. To characterize their cognitive and perceptual foundations, we modeled the mental representations of faces associated with three age groups (young age, middle age, and old age), in younger and older participants. We then validated the accuracy of each mental representation of age with independent validators. Using statistical image processing, we identified the features of mental representations that predict perceived age. Here, we show that whereas younger people mentally dichotomize aging into two groups, themselves (younger) and others (older), older participants faithfully represent the features of young age, middle age, and old age, with richer representations of all considered ages. Our results demonstrate that, contrary to popular public belief, older minds depict socially relevant information more accurately than their younger counterparts. PMID:25455036

  6. The link between mental rotation ability and basic numerical representations

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Jacqueline M.; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Moeller, Korbinian; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2013-01-01

    Mental rotation and number representation have both been studied widely, but although mental rotation has been linked to higher-level mathematical skills, to date it has not been shown whether mental rotation ability is linked to the most basic mental representation and processing of numbers. To investigate the possible connection between mental rotation abilities and numerical representation, 43 participants completed four tasks: 1) a standard pen-and-paper mental rotation task; 2) a multi-digit number magnitude comparison task assessing the compatibility effect, which indicates separate processing of decade and unit digits; 3) a number-line mapping task, which measures precision of number magnitude representation; and 4) a random number generation task, which yields measures both of executive control and of spatial number representations. Results show that mental rotation ability correlated significantly with both size of the compatibility effect and with number mapping accuracy, but not with any measures from the random number generation task. Together, these results suggest that higher mental rotation abilities are linked to more developed number representation, and also provide further evidence for the connection between spatial and numerical abilities. PMID:23933002

  7. Development of common neural representations for distinct numerical problems

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ting-Ting; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Metcalfe, Arron W. S.; Chen, Tianwen; Menon, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    How the brain develops representations for abstract cognitive problems is a major unaddressed question in neuroscience. Here we tackle this fundamental question using arithmetic problem solving, a cognitive domain important for the development of mathematical reasoning. We first examined whether adults demonstrate common neural representations for addition and subtraction problems, two complementary arithmetic operations that manipulate the same quantities. We then examined how the common neural representations for the two problem types change with development. Whole-brain multivoxel representational similarity (MRS) analysis was conducted to examine common coding of addition and subtraction problems in children and adults. We found that adults exhibited significant levels of MRS between the two problem types, not only in the intra-parietal sulcus (IPS) region of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), but also in ventral temporal-occipital, anterior temporal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Relative to adults, children showed significantly reduced levels of MRS in these same regions. In contrast, no brain areas showed significantly greater MRS between problem types in children. Our findings provide novel evidence that the emergence of arithmetic problem solving skills from childhood to adulthood is characterized by maturation of common neural representations between distinct numerical operations, and involve distributed brain regions important for representing and manipulating numerical quantity. More broadly, our findings demonstrate that representational analysis provides a powerful approach for uncovering fundamental mechanisms by which children develop proficiencies that are a hallmark of human cognition. PMID:26160287

  8. An Exploration of the Role Natural Language and Idiosyncratic Representations in Teaching How to Convert among Fractions, Decimals, and Percents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muzheve, Michael T.; Capraro, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Using qualitative data collection and analyses techniques, we examined mathematical representations used by sixteen (N=16) teachers while teaching the concepts of converting among fractions, decimals, and percents. We also studied representational choices by their students (N=581). In addition to using geometric figures and manipulatives, teachers…

  9. Changing Mental Representations Using Related Physical Models: The Effects of Analyzing Number Lines on Learner Internal Scale of Numerical Magnitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengtson, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the linear relationship of numbers is essential for doing practical and abstract mathematics throughout education and everyday life. There is evidence that number line activities increase learners' number sense, improving the linearity of mental number line representations (Siegler & Ramani, 2009). Mental representations of…

  10. Characterizing and Supporting Change in Algebra Students' Representational Fluency in a CAS/Paper-and-Pencil Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonger, Nicole L.

    2012-01-01

    Representational fluency (RF) includes an ability to interpret, create, move within and among, and connect tool-based representations of mathematical objects. Taken as an indicator of conceptual understanding, there is a need to better support school algebra students' RF in learning environments that utilize both computer algebra systems…

  11. Mathematical Modeling of Photochemical Air Pollution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McRae, Gregory John

    is presented that provides a means for estimating removal rates as a function of atmospheric stability. The model satisfactorily reproduces measured deposition velocities for reactive materials. In addition it is shown how computational cell size influences the representation of surface removal. Chemical interactions between twenty nine chemical species are described by a 52 step kinetic mechanism. The atmospheric hydrocarbon chemistry is modeled by the reactions of six lumped classes: alkanes, ethylene, other olefins, aromatics, formaldehyde and other aldehydes; a grouping that enables representation of a wide range of smog chamber experiments and atmospheric conditions. Chemical lumping minimizes the number of species while maintaining a high degree of detail for the inorganic reactions. Variations in rate data, stoichiometric coefficients and initial conditions have been studied using the Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test. The wide variation in time scales, non-linearity of the chemistry and differences in transport processes complicates selection of numerical algorithms. Operator splitting techniques are used to decompose the governing equation into elemental steps of transport and chemistry. Each transport operator is further split into advective and diffusive components so that linear finite element and compact finite difference schemes can be applied to their best advantage. Because most of the computer time is consumed by the chemical kinetics those species that could be accurately described by pseudo-steady state approximations were identified reducing the number of species, described by differential equations, to 15. While the mathematical formulation of the complete system contains no regional or area specific information, performance evaluation studies were carried out using data measured in the South Coast Air Basin of Southern California. Detailed emissions and meteorological information were assembled for the period 26-28 June 1974. A comparison

  12. Multiple multiresolution representation of functions and calculus for fast computation

    SciTech Connect

    Fann, George I; Harrison, Robert J; Hill, Judith C; Jia, Jun; Galindo, Diego A

    2010-01-01

    We describe the mathematical representations, data structure and the implementation of the numerical calculus of functions in the software environment multiresolution analysis environment for scientific simulations, MADNESS. In MADNESS, each smooth function is represented using an adaptive pseudo-spectral expansion using the multiwavelet basis to a arbitrary but finite precision. This is an extension of the capabilities of most of the existing net, mesh and spectral based methods where the discretization is based on a single adaptive mesh, or expansions.

  13. Mathematical Modelling: A New Approach to Teaching Applied Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burghes, D. N.; Borrie, M. S.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the advantages of mathematical modeling approach in teaching applied mathematics and gives many suggestions for suitable material which illustrates the links between real problems and mathematics. (GA)

  14. The Acquisition of Mental Orthographic Representations for Reading and Spelling Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apel, Kenn

    2009-01-01

    Word-level reading and spelling skills support reading comprehension and writing composition. Accurate and fluent word-level reading and spelling are facilitated when individuals have clear mental orthographic representations (MOR) that permit them to quickly recognize and recall the visual representation of a word, freeing up memory and…

  15. Diagrammatic Representational Constraints of Spatial Scale in Earth-Moon System Astronomy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Roger S.; Grundstrom, Erika D.

    2011-01-01

    Given that astronomy heavily relies on visual representations it is especially likely for individuals to assume that instructional materials, such as visual representations of the Earth-Moon system (EMS), would be relatively accurate. However, in our research, we found that images in middle-school textbooks and educational webpages were commonly…

  16. Machine learning of user profiles: Representational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Bloedorn, E.; Mani, I.; MacMillan, T.R.

    1996-12-31

    As more information becomes available electronically, tools for finding information of interest to users becomes increasingly important. The goal of the research described here is to build a system for generating comprehensible user profiles that accurately capture user interest with minimum user interaction. The research described here focuses on the importance of a suitable generalization hierarchy and representation for learning profiles which are predictively accurate and comprehensible. In our experiments we evaluated both traditional features based on weighted term vectors as well as subject features corresponding to categories which could be drawn from a thesaurus. Our experiments, conducted in the context of a content-based profiling system for on-line newspapers on the World Wide Web (the IDD News Browser), demonstrate the importance of a generalization hierarchy and the promise of combining natural language processing techniques with machine learning (ML) to address an information retrieval (ER) problem.

  17. Combination of direct matching and collaborative representation for face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chongyang

    2013-06-01

    It has been proved that representation-based classification (RBC) can achieve high accuracy in face recognition. However, conventional RBC has a very high computational cost. Collaborative representation proposed in [1] not only has the advantages of RBC but also is computationally very efficient. In this paper, a combination of direct matching of images and collaborative representation is proposed for face recognition. Experimental results show that the proposed method can always classify more accurately than collaborative representation! The underlying reason is that direct matching of images and collaborative representation use different ways to calculate the dissimilarity between the test sample and training sample. As a result, the score obtained using direct matching of images is very complementary to the score obtained using collaborative representation. Actually, the analysis shows that the matching scores generated from direct matching of images and collaborative representation always have a low correlation. This allows the proposed method to exploit more information for face recognition and to produce a better result.

  18. An exploration of alternative approaches to the representation of uncertainty in model predictions.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Oberkampf, William Louis; Helton, Jon Craig

    2003-06-01

    Several simple test problems are used to explore the following approaches to the representation of the uncertainty in model predictions that derives from uncertainty in model inputs: probability theory, evidence theory, possibility theory, and interval analysis. Each of the test problems has rather diffuse characterizations of the uncertainty in model inputs obtained from one or more equally credible sources. These given uncertainty characterizations are translated into the mathematical structure associated with each of the indicated approaches to the representation of uncertainty and then propagated through the model with Monte Carlo techniques to obtain the corresponding representation of the uncertainty in one or more model predictions. The different approaches to the representation of uncertainty can lead to very different appearing representations of the uncertainty in model predictions even though the starting information is exactly the same for each approach. To avoid misunderstandings and, potentially, bad decisions, these representations must be interpreted in the context of the theory/procedure from which they derive.

  19. Mathematics Coursework Regulates Growth in Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), we examined the extent to which students' mathematics coursework regulates (influences) the rate of growth in mathematics achievement during middle and high school. Graphical analysis showed that students who started middle school with higher achievement took individual mathematics…

  20. Preparatory Mathematics Programs in Departments of Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Karl

    This paper reports on a survey of remedial mathematics programs offered at the college level. The paper is divided into five sections. Section I describes the sampling procedures used in the study. In Section II, the occurrence of remedial mathematics programs in the various types of institutions and some general characteristics of these programs…

  1. Negotiation of Mathematical Meaning and Learning Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voigt, Jorg

    1994-01-01

    Presents a case study of a first-grade class and their teacher who were observed as they ascribed mathematical meanings of numbers and of numerical operations to empirical phenomena. Differences in ascriptions led to negotiation of meanings. Discusses some indirect relations between social interaction and mathematics learning. (Contains 60…

  2. On the Spontaneous Discovery of a Mathematical Relation during Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, James A.; Bangert, Ashley S.

    2004-01-01

    People spontaneously discover new representations during problem solving. Discovery of a mathematical representation is of special interest, because it shows that the underlying structure of the problem has been extracted. In the current study, participants solved gear-system problems as part of a game. Although none of the participants initially…

  3. Spatial Representations Are Specific to Different Domains of Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Beecham, Rowena; Reeve, Robert A.; Wilson, Sarah J.

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that many abstract concepts are represented cognitively in a spatial format. However, it is unknown whether similar spatial processes are employed in different knowledge domains, or whether individuals exhibit similar spatial profiles within and across domains. This research investigated similarities in spatial representation in two knowledge domains – mathematics and music. Sixty-one adults completed analogous number magnitude and pitch discrimination tasks: the Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes and Spatial-Musical Association of Response Codes tasks. Subgroups of individuals with different response patterns were identified through cluster analyses. For both the mathematical and musical tasks, approximately half of the participants showed the expected spatial judgment effect when explicitly cued to focus on the spatial properties of the stimuli. Despite this, performances on the two tasks were largely independent. Consistent with previous research, the study provides evidence for the spatial representation of number and pitch in the majority of individuals. However, there was little evidence to support the claim that the same spatial representation processes underpin mathematical and musical judgments. PMID:19461994

  4. Sparse representation with kernels.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shenghua; Tsang, Ivor Wai-Hung; Chia, Liang-Tien

    2013-02-01

    Recent research has shown the initial success of sparse coding (Sc) in solving many computer vision tasks. Motivated by the fact that kernel trick can capture the nonlinear similarity of features, which helps in finding a sparse representation of nonlinear features, we propose kernel sparse representation (KSR). Essentially, KSR is a sparse coding technique in a high dimensional feature space mapped by an implicit mapping function. We apply KSR to feature coding in image classification, face recognition, and kernel matrix approximation. More specifically, by incorporating KSR into spatial pyramid matching (SPM), we develop KSRSPM, which achieves a good performance for image classification. Moreover, KSR-based feature coding can be shown as a generalization of efficient match kernel and an extension of Sc-based SPM. We further show that our proposed KSR using a histogram intersection kernel (HIK) can be considered a soft assignment extension of HIK-based feature quantization in the feature coding process. Besides feature coding, comparing with sparse coding, KSR can learn more discriminative sparse codes and achieve higher accuracy for face recognition. Moreover, KSR can also be applied to kernel matrix approximation in large scale learning tasks, and it demonstrates its robustness to kernel matrix approximation, especially when a small fraction of the data is used. Extensive experimental results demonstrate promising results of KSR in image classification, face recognition, and kernel matrix approximation. All these applications prove the effectiveness of KSR in computer vision and machine learning tasks. PMID:23014744

  5. Sensori-motor spatial training of number magnitude representation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Ursula; Moeller, Korbinian; Bientzle, Martina; Cress, Ulrike; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2011-02-01

    An adequately developed spatial representation of number magnitude is associated with children's general arithmetic achievement. Therefore, a new spatial-numerical training program for kindergarten children was developed in which presentation and response were associated with a congruent spatial numerical representation. In particular, children responded by a full-body spatial movement on a digital dance mat in a magnitude comparison task. This spatial-numerical training was more effective than a non-spatial control training in enhancing children's performance on a number line estimation task and a subtest of a standardized mathematical achievement battery (TEDI-MATH). A mediation analysis suggested that these improvements were driven by an improvement of children's mental number line representation and not only by unspecific factors such as attention or motivation. These results suggest a benefit of spatial numerical associations. Rather than being a merely associated covariate, they work as an independently manipulated variable which is functional for numerical development. PMID:21327351

  6. Bag of Lines (BoL) for Improved Aerial Scene Representation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sridharan, Harini; Cheriyadat, Anil M.

    2014-09-22

    Feature representation is a key step in automated visual content interpretation. In this letter, we present a robust feature representation technique, referred to as bag of lines (BoL), for high-resolution aerial scenes. The proposed technique involves extracting and compactly representing low-level line primitives from the scene. The compact scene representation is generated by counting the different types of lines representing various linear structures in the scene. Through extensive experiments, we show that the proposed scene representation is invariant to scale changes and scene conditions and can discriminate urban scene categories accurately. We compare the BoL representation with the popular scalemore » invariant feature transform (SIFT) and Gabor wavelets for their classification and clustering performance on an aerial scene database consisting of images acquired by sensors with different spatial resolutions. The proposed BoL representation outperforms the SIFT- and Gabor-based representations.« less

  7. Bag of Lines (BoL) for Improved Aerial Scene Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Sridharan, Harini; Cheriyadat, Anil M.

    2014-09-22

    Feature representation is a key step in automated visual content interpretation. In this letter, we present a robust feature representation technique, referred to as bag of lines (BoL), for high-resolution aerial scenes. The proposed technique involves extracting and compactly representing low-level line primitives from the scene. The compact scene representation is generated by counting the different types of lines representing various linear structures in the scene. Through extensive experiments, we show that the proposed scene representation is invariant to scale changes and scene conditions and can discriminate urban scene categories accurately. We compare the BoL representation with the popular scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) and Gabor wavelets for their classification and clustering performance on an aerial scene database consisting of images acquired by sensors with different spatial resolutions. The proposed BoL representation outperforms the SIFT- and Gabor-based representations.

  8. Aerial Scene Recognition using Efficient Sparse Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2012-01-01

    Advanced scene recognition systems for processing large volumes of high-resolution aerial image data are in great demand today. However, automated scene recognition remains a challenging problem. Efficient encoding and representation of spatial and structural patterns in the imagery are key in developing automated scene recognition algorithms. We describe an image representation approach that uses simple and computationally efficient sparse code computation to generate accurate features capable of producing excellent classification performance using linear SVM kernels. Our method exploits unlabeled low-level image feature measurements to learn a set of basis vectors. We project the low-level features onto the basis vectors and use simple soft threshold activation function to derive the sparse features. The proposed technique generates sparse features at a significantly lower computational cost than other methods~\\cite{Yang10, newsam11}, yet it produces comparable or better classification accuracy. We apply our technique to high-resolution aerial image datasets to quantify the aerial scene classification performance. We demonstrate that the dense feature extraction and representation methods are highly effective for automatic large-facility detection on wide area high-resolution aerial imagery.

  9. Incidental statistical summary representation over time.

    PubMed

    Oriet, Chris; Hozempa, Kadie

    2016-01-01

    Information taken in by the human visual system allows individuals to form statistical representations of sets of items. One's knowledge of natural categories includes statistical information, such as average size of category members and the upper and lower boundaries of the set. Previous research suggests that when subjects attend to a particular dimension of a set of items presented over an extended duration, they quickly learn about the central tendency of the set. However, it is unclear whether such learning can occur incidentally, when subjects are not attending to the relevant dimension of the set. The present study explored whether subjects could reproduce global statistical properties of a set presented over an extended duration when oriented to task-irrelevant properties of the set. Subjects were tested for their memory of its mean, its smallest and largest exemplars, the direction of its skew, and the relative distribution of the items. Subjects were able to accurately recall the average size circle, as well as the upper and lower boundaries of a set of 4,200 circles displayed over an extended period. This suggests that even without intending to do so, they were encoding and updating a statistical summary representation of a task-irrelevant attribute of the circles over time. Such incidental encoding of statistical properties of sets is thus a plausible mechanism for establishing a representation of typicality in category membership. PMID:26830709

  10. Mathematical and statistical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, A. Glen

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the mathematical and statistical analysis component of RICIS is to research, develop, and evaluate mathematical and statistical techniques for aerospace technology applications. Specific research areas of interest include modeling, simulation, experiment design, reliability assessment, and numerical analysis.

  11. Quantum-like Representation of Bayesian Updating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Masanari; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Khrennikov, Andrei; Basieva, Irina

    2011-03-01

    Recently, applications of quantum mechanics to coginitive psychology have been discussed, see [1]-[11]. It was known that statistical data obtained in some experiments of cognitive psychology cannot be described by classical probability model (Kolmogorov's model) [12]-[15]. Quantum probability is one of the most advanced mathematical models for non-classical probability. In the paper of [11], we proposed a quantum-like model describing decision-making process in a two-player game, where we used the generalized quantum formalism based on lifting of density operators [16]. In this paper, we discuss the quantum-like representation of Bayesian inference, which has been used to calculate probabilities for decision making under uncertainty. The uncertainty is described in the form of quantum superposition, and Bayesian updating is explained as a reduction of state by quantum measurement.

  12. Rural Mathematics Educator, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Mathematics Educator, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This document contains the two issues of "Rural Mathematics Educator" published in 2002. This newsletter of the Appalachian Collaborative Center for Learning, Assessment, and Instruction in Mathematics (ACCLAIM) includes articles on rural mathematics education, as well as information and descriptions of professional development opportunities for…

  13. Mathematics. [SITE 2001 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Michael L., Ed.; Lowery, Norene Vail, Ed.; Harnisch, Delwyn L., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on mathematics from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2001 conference: "Secondary Mathematics Methods Course with Technology Units: Encouraging Pre-Service Teachers To Use Technology" (Rajee Amarasinghe); "Competency Exams in College Mathematics" (Kathy R. Autrey and Leigh…

  14. Making Mathematics Culturally Relevant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Examines three strands of elementary mathematics--numerals and counting, recording and calculating, and mathematics exploration and play--and provides ways to integrate culture and mathematics experiences in each area. Specific topics include Egyptian methods for multiplication, the abacus, and the words for the numbers 1-10 in seven different…

  15. Creating Words in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galligan, Linda

    2016-01-01

    A "National Numeracy Report" and the Australian Curriculum (2014) have recognised the importance of language in mathematics. The general capabilities contained within the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" (2014) highlight literacy as an important tool in the teaching and learning of mathematics, from the interpretation of…

  16. Mathematics for Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Joseph R.; Nery, Karen P.

    This set of 20 modules was designed for use primarily to help teach and reinforce the basic mathematics skills in electronics classes. The modules are based on electronics competencies that require mathematics skills, as determined by a panel of high school electronics and mathematics teachers. Each module consists of one or two pages of basic…

  17. Mathematics Teaching Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Tami S.; Speer, William R.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes features, consistent messages, and new components of "Mathematics Teaching Today: Improving Practice, Improving Student Learning" (NCTM 2007), an updated edition of "Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics" (NCTM 1991). The new book describes aspects of high-quality mathematics teaching; offers a model for observing,…

  18. Mathematics and mysticism.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Ralph

    2015-12-01

    Is there a world of mathematics above and beyond ordinary reality, as Plato proposed? Or is mathematics a cultural construct? In this short article we speculate on the place of mathematical reality from the perspective of the mystical cosmologies of the ancient traditions of meditation, psychedelics, and divination. PMID:26278644

  19. Making Mathematics Phenomenal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics is often portrayed as an "abstract" cerebral subject, beyond the reach of many. In response, research with digital technology has led to innovative design in which mathematics can be experienced much like everyday phenomena. This lecture examines how careful design can "phenomenalise" mathematics and support not only engagement but…

  20. Applying Mathematical Processes (AMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kathotia, Vinay

    2011-01-01

    This article provides insights into the "Applying Mathematical Processes" resources, developed by the Nuffield Foundation. It features Nuffield AMP activities--and related ones from Bowland Maths--that were designed to support the teaching and assessment of key processes in mathematics--representing a situation mathematically, analysing,…

  1. Mathematical Epistemologies at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noss, Richard

    In this paper, I draw together a corpus of findings derived from two sources: studies of students using computers to learn mathematics, and research into the use of mathematics in professional practice. Using this as a basis, I map some elements of a theoretical framework for understanding the nature of mathematical knowledge in use, and how it is…

  2. Revisiting Mathematics Manipulative Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Paul; Marshall, Linda

    2010-01-01

    It is over 12 years since "APMC" published Bob Perry and Peter Howard's research on the use of mathematics manipulative materials in primary mathematics classrooms. Since then the availability of virtual manipulatives and associated access to computers and interactive whiteboards have caused educators to rethink the use of mathematics manipulative…

  3. Mathematics in Masons' Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Darlinda; Pardal, Eugénia

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents masons' professional practices, which are related to mathematics. It aims to contribute to the area of adult mathematics education and to enlarge knowledge about how mathematics is used at the workplace. Methodologically it was followed an ethnographic approach. The key informants of the study were four masons aged between 40…

  4. Latinos and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz-Franco, Luis

    An historical perspective reveals that sophisticated mathematical activity has been going on in the Latino culture for thousands of years. This paper provides a general definition of the area of mathematics education that deals with issues of culture and mathematics (ethnomathematics) and defines what is meant by the term Latino in this essay.…

  5. Mathenger Hunt: Mathematics Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falba, Christy J.; Weiss, Maria J.

    1991-01-01

    Presented is an activity which shows how mathematics is used in real life and helps to establish a need for mathematics in students' futures. Adapted from a scavenger-hunt idea, this activity helps students to discover that almost every career makes use of mathematics. (KR)

  6. Mathematics and Global Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Richard H.

    This resource was written to provide students with an awareness of critical issues facing the world today. In courses for college students, it can motivate their study of mathematics, teach them how to solve mathematical problems related to current global issues, provide coherence to mathematical studies through a focus on issues of human…

  7. Who Can Know Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshaw, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores contemporary thinking about learning mathematics, and within that, social justice within mathematics education. The discussion first looks at mechanisms offered by conventional explanations on the emancipatory project and then moves towards more recent insights developed within mathematics education. Synergies are drawn between…

  8. Contrasts in Mathematical Challenges in A-Level Mathematics and Further Mathematics, and Undergraduate Mathematics Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Ellie

    2014-01-01

    This article describes part of a study which investigated the role of questions in students' approaches to learning mathematics at the secondary-tertiary interface, focussing on the enculturation of students at the University of Oxford. Use of the Mathematical Assessment Task Hierarchy taxonomy revealed A-level Mathematics and Further Mathematics…

  9. Applied Vocational Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    Developed for use in teaching a two-semester, one-unit course, this course guide is intended to aid the high school instructor in teaching mathematical problem-solving and computational skills to vocational education students. The state-adopted textbook for general mathematics III, "Applied General Mathematics" serves as the major resource…

  10. A "Mathematics Background Check"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubisz, John

    2009-01-01

    Early in my career someone else reported that the best indicator of success in calculus-based physics (CBP) at our school was whether students had taken mathematics in a certain region of New Brunswick. I sat down with a very longtime mathematics teacher and asked him what he thought students should know in mathematics after high school to succeed…

  11. Mathematics and Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Steven

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between mathematics and music has been investigated for thousands of years. Presented are the mathematical features of music through a study of melody, harmony, and rhythm, and the musical features of mathematics through a study of pattern, ratio, modular arithmetic, Pythagorean triples, and number sequences. (MDH)

  12. The Creative Mathematics Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The creative mathematics teacher who has love and enthusiasm for mathematics as a curriculum area should be in great demand in all schools. This paper discusses the characteristics of creative mathematics teachers, including those who guide students to engage in divergent thinking; have learners do much creative writing; and integrate creative…

  13. Mathematics and Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayed, Fayez

    2015-01-01

    The wide range of Mathematical Apps targeting different mathematical concepts and the various types of mobile devices available present a demanding and challenging problem to the teaching and learning in the field of mathematics. In an attempt to address this issue, a few Apps were selected, implemented and tested in this work. [For complete…

  14. Topics in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey, Johnsie Jo, Ed.; And Others

    This manual is a collection of materials and teaching strategies to motivate the development of mathematical ideas in secondary school mathematics programs or in beginning college mathematics programs. The unit is written for the instructor with step-by-step procedures including lists of needed materials. The exercises in this unit also appear in…

  15. Mathematics and Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallian, Joseph A., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Mathematics and Sports", edited by Joseph A. Gallian, gathers 25 articles that illuminate the power and role of mathematics in the worlds of professional and recreational play. Divided into sections by the kind of sports, the book offers source materials for classroom use and student projects. Readers will encounter mathematical ideas from an…

  16. Mathematical Friends and Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomalin, Jo

    2012-01-01

    The Institute of Mathematical pedagogy meets annually--the theme for 2010 was: "Mathematical Friends & Relations: Recognising Structural Relationships". Here one participant documents her reflections on the experience of working with a group of mathematics educators at the Institute. The challenges, the responses--both the predictable and the…

  17. Action-Based Digital Tools: Mathematics Learning in 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejonckheere, Peter J. N.; Desoete, Annemie; Fonck, Nathalie; Roderiguez, Dave; Six, Leen; Vermeersch, Tine; Vermeulen, Lies

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the present study we used a metaphorical representation in order to stimulate the numerical competences of six-year-olds. It was expected that when properties of physical action are used for mathematical thinking or when abstract mathematical thinking is grounded in sensorimotor processes, learning gains should be more pronounced…

  18. Improving Pupils' Mathematical Communication Abilities through Computer-Supported Reciprocal Peer Tutoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Euphony F. Y.; Chang, Ben; Cheng, Hercy N. H.; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how to foster pupils' mathematical communication abilities by using tablet PCs. Students were encouraged to generate math creations (including mathematical representation, solution, and solution explanation of word problems) as their teaching materials and reciprocally tutor classmates to increase opportunities for mathematical…

  19. Supporting English Second-Language Learners in Disadvantaged Contexts: Learning Approaches That Promote Success in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Elizabeth; Miller, Jodie

    2015-01-01

    In the Australian context, children living in disadvantaged circumstances, whose second language is English, are one of the groups at risk of failing in mathematics. This paper explores the impact purposely developed learning activities (Representations, Oral Language and Engagement in Mathematics Learning activities) have on pupils' mathematics…

  20. The Graphing Skills of Students in Mathematics and Science Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgun-Koca, S. Asli

    Graphical representations play an important role in both science and mathematics education. Graphs can summarize very complex information or relationships very effectively. Although graphs are explicitly taught in mathematics classrooms as an end in themselves, many subject areas such as science or social studies utilize graphs to represent and…

  1. Evolving Polygons and Spreadsheets: Connecting Mathematics across Grade Levels in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramovich, Sergei; Brouwer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This paper was prepared in response to the Conference Board of Mathematical Sciences recommendations for the preparation of secondary teachers. It shows how using trigonometry as a conceptual tool in spreadsheet-based applications enables one to develop mathematical understanding in the context of constructing geometric representations of unit…

  2. Mathematical Formulation of Multilayer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Domenico, Manlio; Solé-Ribalta, Albert; Cozzo, Emanuele; Kivelä, Mikko; Moreno, Yamir; Porter, Mason A.; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2013-10-01

    A network representation is useful for describing the structure of a large variety of complex systems. However, most real and engineered systems have multiple subsystems and layers of connectivity, and the data produced by such systems are very rich. Achieving a deep understanding of such systems necessitates generalizing “traditional” network theory, and the newfound deluge of data now makes it possible to test increasingly general frameworks for the study of networks. In particular, although adjacency matrices are useful to describe traditional single-layer networks, such a representation is insufficient for the analysis and description of multiplex and time-dependent networks. One must therefore develop a more general mathematical framework to cope with the challenges posed by multilayer complex systems. In this paper, we introduce a tensorial framework to study multilayer networks, and we discuss the generalization of several important network descriptors and dynamical processes—including degree centrality, clustering coefficients, eigenvector centrality, modularity, von Neumann entropy, and diffusion—for this framework. We examine the impact of different choices in constructing these generalizations, and we illustrate how to obtain known results for the special cases of single-layer and multiplex networks. Our tensorial approach will be helpful for tackling pressing problems in multilayer complex systems, such as inferring who is influencing whom (and by which media) in multichannel social networks and developing routing techniques for multimodal transportation systems.

  3. Affect in Mathematics Education--Exploring Theoretical Frameworks. Research Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannula, Markku; Evans, Jeff; Philippou, George; Zan, Rosetta

    2004-01-01

    This document brings into a dialogue some of the theoretical frameworks used to study affect in mathematics education. It presents affect as a representational system, affect as one regulator of the dynamic self, affect in a socio-constructivist framework, and affect as embodied. It also evaluates these frameworks from different perspectives:…

  4. Expanding Notions of "Learning Trajectories" in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Eric; Walkington, Candace; McGalliard, William

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 years learning trajectories and learning progressions have gained prominence in mathematics and science education research. However, use of these representations ranges widely in breadth and depth, often depending on from what discipline they emerge and the type of learning they intend to characterize. Learning trajectories…

  5. Association between Basic Numerical Abilities and Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasanguie, Delphine; De Smedt, Bert; Defever, Emmy; Reynvoet, Bert

    2012-01-01

    Various measures have been used to investigate number processing in children, including a number comparison or a number line estimation task. The present study aimed to examine whether and to which extent these different measures of number representation are related to performance on a curriculum-based standardized mathematics achievement test in…

  6. The Sequence of Development of Some Early Mathematics Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Margaret C.; And Others

    This study sought to determine whether a number of specific counting and numeration behaviors emerge within children in a fixed developmental sequence; at what point in the development of mathematical behavior the use of numerical representations normally appears; and what relationship holds between development of counting skills and development…

  7. Geographic representation in spatial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Harvey J.

    Spatial analysis mostly developed in an era when data was scarce and computational power was expensive. Consequently, traditional spatial analysis greatly simplifies its representations of geography. The rise of geographic information science (GISci) and the changing nature of scientific questions at the end of the 20th century suggest a comprehensive re-examination of geographic representation in spatial analysis. This paper reviews the potential for improved representations of geography in spatial analysis. Existing tools in spatial analysis and new tools available from GISci have tremendous potential for bringing more sophisticated representations of geography to the forefront of spatial analysis theory and application.

  8. Correlation properties of the vector signal representation for speckle pattern.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Shun; Ma, Ning

    2014-04-01

    In one-dimensional (1D) signal analysis, the complex analytic signal built from a real-valued signal and its Hilbert transform is an important tool providing a mathematical foundation for 1D statistical analysis. For a natural extension beyond 1D signal, Riesz transform has been applied to high-dimensional signal processing as a generalized Hilbert transform to construct a vector signal representation and therefore, to enlarge the traditional analytic signal concept. In this paper, we introduce the vector correlations as new mathematical tools for vector calculus for statistical speckle analysis. Based on vector correlations of a real-valued speckle pattern, we present the associated correlation properties, which can be regarded as mathematical foundation for the vector analysis in speckle metrology. PMID:24787197

  9. Resource representation in COMPASS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Barry R.

    1991-01-01

    A set of viewgraphs on resource representation in COMPASS is given. COMPASS is an incremental, interactive, non-chronological scheduler written in Ada with an X-windows user interface. Beginning with an empty schedule, activities are added to the schedule one at a time, taking into consideration the placement of the activities already on the timeline and the resources that have been reserved for them. The order that the activities are added to the timeline and their location on the timeline are controlled by selection and placement commands invoked by the user. The order that activities are added to the timeline and their location are independent. The COMPASS code library is a cost effective platform for the development of new scheduling applications. It can be effectively used off the shelf for compatible scheduling applications or it can be used as a parts library for the development of custom scheduling systems.

  10. Parental representations of transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Parker, G; Barr, R

    1982-06-01

    The parental representations of 30 male-to-female transsexuals were rated using a measure of fundamental parental dimensions and shown to be of acceptable validity as a measure both of perceived and actual parental characteristics. Scores on that measure were compared separately against scores returned by matched male and female controls. The transsexuals did not differ from the male controls in their scoring of their mothers but did score their fathers as less caring and more overprotective. These differences were weaker for the comparisons made against the female controls. Item analyses suggested that the greater paternal "overprotection" experienced by transsexuals was due to their fathers being perceived as offering less encouragement to their sons' independence and autonomy. Several interpretations of the findings are considered. PMID:7138296

  11. Intentionality, Representation, and Anticipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Preester, Helena

    2002-09-01

    Both Brentano and Merleau-Ponty have developed an account of intentionality, which nevertheless differ profoundly in the following respect. According to Brentano, intentionality mainly is a matter of mental presentations. This marks the beginning of phenomenology's difficult relation with the nature of the intentional reference. Merleau-Ponty, on the other hand, has situated intentionality on the level of the body, a turn which has important implications for the nature of intentionality. Intentionality no longer is primarily based on having (re)presentations, but is rooted in the dynamics of the living body. To contrast those approaches enables us to make clear in what way intentionality is studied nowadays. On the one hand, intentionality is conceived of as a matter of formal-syntactical causality in cognitive science, and in particular in classical-computational theory. On the other hand, a interactivist approach offers a more Merleau-Ponty-like point of view, in which autonomy, embodiment and interaction are stressed.

  12. Age Differences in Symbolic Representation: Fluidity in Representational Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reifel, Stuart

    This paper reports a cross-sectional, developmental study of the fluidity of children's mental functioning (representational skills) in contexts involving the representational use of blocks. Data were collected from a sample of 40 children from a laboratory school: 20 four-year-olds and 20 seven-year-olds, with an equal number of boys and girls in…

  13. Mathematical textbook of deformable neuroanatomies.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M I; Christensen, G E; Amit, Y; Grenander, U

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical techniques are presented for the transformation of digital anatomical textbooks from the ideal to the individual, allowing for the representation of the variabilities manifest in normal human anatomies. The ideal textbook is constructed on a fixed coordinate system to contain all of the information currently available about the physical properties of neuroanatomies. This information is obtained via sensor probes such as magnetic resonance, as well as computed axial and emission tomography, along with symbolic information such as white- and gray-matter tracts, nuclei, etc. Human variability associated with individuals is accommodated by defining probabilistic transformations on the textbook coordinate system, the transformations forming mathematical translation groups of high dimension. The ideal is applied to the individual patient by finding the transformation which is consistent with physical properties of deformable elastic solids and which brings the coordinate system of the textbook to that of the patient. Registration, segmentation, and fusion all result automatically because the textbook carries symbolic values as well as multisensor features. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8265653

  14. Mathematical textbook of deformable neuroanatomies.

    PubMed

    Miller, M I; Christensen, G E; Amit, Y; Grenander, U

    1993-12-15

    Mathematical techniques are presented for the transformation of digital anatomical textbooks from the ideal to the individual, allowing for the representation of the variabilities manifest in normal human anatomies. The ideal textbook is constructed on a fixed coordinate system to contain all of the information currently available about the physical properties of neuroanatomies. This information is obtained via sensor probes such as magnetic resonance, as well as computed axial and emission tomography, along with symbolic information such as white- and gray-matter tracts, nuclei, etc. Human variability associated with individuals is accommodated by defining probabilistic transformations on the textbook coordinate system, the transformations forming mathematical translation groups of high dimension. The ideal is applied to the individual patient by finding the transformation which is consistent with physical properties of deformable elastic solids and which brings the coordinate system of the textbook to that of the patient. Registration, segmentation, and fusion all result automatically because the textbook carries symbolic values as well as multisensor features. PMID:8265653

  15. Mathematical models of diabetes progression.

    PubMed

    De Gaetano, Andrea; Hardy, Thomas; Beck, Benoit; Abu-Raddad, Eyas; Palumbo, Pasquale; Bue-Valleskey, Juliana; Pørksen, Niels

    2008-12-01

    Few attempts have been made to model mathematically the progression of type 2 diabetes. A realistic representation of the long-term physiological adaptation to developing insulin resistance is necessary for effectively designing clinical trials and evaluating diabetes prevention or disease modification therapies. Writing a good model for diabetes progression is difficult because the long time span of the disease makes experimental verification of modeling hypotheses extremely awkward. In this context, it is of primary importance that the assumptions underlying the model equations properly reflect established physiology and that the mathematical formulation of the model give rise only to physically plausible behavior of the solutions. In the present work, a model of the pancreatic islet compensation is formulated, its physiological assumptions are presented, some fundamental qualitative characteristics of its solutions are established, the numerical values assigned to its parameters are extensively discussed (also with reference to available cross-sectional epidemiologic data), and its performance over the span of a lifetime is simulated under various conditions, including worsening insulin resistance and primary replication defects. The differences with respect to two previously proposed models of diabetes progression are highlighted, and therefore, the model is proposed as a realistic, robust description of the evolution of the compensation of the glucose-insulin system in healthy and diabetic individuals. Model simulations can be run from the authors' web page. PMID:18780774

  16. Constructions of Mathematicians in Popular Culture and Learners' Narratives: A Study of Mathematical and Non-Mathematical Subjectivities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, Marie-Pierre; Mendick, Heather; Epstein, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, based on a project funded by the UK Economic and Social Research Council considering how people position themselves in relation to popular representations of mathematics and mathematicians, we explore constructions of mathematicians in popular culture and the ways learners make meanings from these. Drawing on an analysis of popular…

  17. Neuronal foundations of human numerical representations.

    PubMed

    Eger, E

    2016-01-01

    The human species has developed complex mathematical skills which likely emerge from a combination of multiple foundational abilities. One of them seems to be a preverbal capacity to extract and manipulate the numerosity of sets of objects which is shared with other species and in humans is thought to be integrated with symbolic knowledge to result in a more abstract representation of numerical concepts. For what concerns the functional neuroanatomy of this capacity, neuropsychology and functional imaging have localized key substrates of numerical processing in parietal and frontal cortex. However, traditional fMRI mapping relying on a simple subtraction approach to compare numerical and nonnumerical conditions is limited to tackle with sufficient precision and detail the issue of the underlying code for number, a question which more easily lends itself to investigation by methods with higher spatial resolution, such as neurophysiology. In recent years, progress has been made through the introduction of approaches sensitive to within-category discrimination in combination with fMRI (adaptation and multivariate pattern recognition), and the present review summarizes what these have revealed so far about the neural coding of individual numbers in the human brain, the format of these representations and parallels between human and monkey neurophysiology findings. PMID:27339006

  18. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R E

    1987-11-01

    The aims of this research are the creation of new surface forms and the determination of geometric and physical properties of surfaces. The full sweep from constructive mathematics through the implementation of algorithms and the interactive computer graphics display of surfaces is utilized. Both three-dimensional and multi- dimensional surfaces are considered. Particular emphasis is given to the scientific computing solution of Department of Energy problems. The methods that we have developed and that we are proposing to develop allow applications such as: Producing smooth contour maps from measured data, such as weather maps. Modeling the heat distribution inside a furnace from sample measurements. Terrain modeling based on satellite pictures. The investigation of new surface forms includes the topics of triangular interpolants, multivariate interpolation, surfaces defined on surfaces and monotone and/or convex surfaces. The geometric and physical properties considered include contours, the intersection of surfaces, curvatures as a interrogation tool, and numerical integration.

  19. Knowledge Representation: A Brief Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickery, B. C.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews different structures and techniques of knowledge representation: structure of database records and files, data structures in computer programming, syntatic and semantic structure of natural language, knowledge representation in artificial intelligence, and models of human memory. A prototype expert system that makes use of some of these…

  20. A Philosophical Discussion of Representation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Sandra E.; Kenney, Keith

    One of the most basic theoretical areas in the study of visual communication and visual literacy is the nature of representation. Some of the important research in this area is reviewed in this paper, and a model of representation is developed that satisfies many of the philosophical concerns. The paper begins with a discussion on the relationship…

  1. Analytical Grid Generation for accurate representation of clearances in CFD for Screw Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rane, S.; Kovačević, A.; Stošić, N.

    2015-08-01

    One of the major factors affecting the performance prediction of twin screw compressors by use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the accuracy with which the leakage gaps are captured by the discretization methods. The accuracy of mapping leakage flows can be improved by increasing the number of grid points on the profile. However, this method faces limitations when it comes to the complex deforming domains of a twin screw compressor because the computational time increases tremendously. In order to address this problem, an analytical grid distribution procedure is formulated that can independently refine the region of high importance for leakage flows in the interlobe space. This paper describes the procedure of analytical grid generation with the refined mesh in the interlobe area and presents a test case to show the influence of the mesh refinement in that area on the performance prediction. It is shown that by using this method, the flow domains in the vicinity of the interlobe gap and the blowhole area are refined which improves accuracy of leakage flow predictions.

  2. Seeking Accurate Cultural Representation: Mahjong, World War II, and Ethnic Chinese in Multicultural Youth Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Minjie

    2009-01-01

    The sheer amount of American children's and young adult literature, boasting an outpouring of 5,000 titles every year, often amazes a person who is new to this field. Not only is a large proportion of these books of high printing and binding quality, but, at a quick glance, among them is also a pleasant diversity of genre, format, targeted age…

  3. The language of mathematics: investigating the ways language counts for children's mathematical development.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Rose K; Lesaux, Nonie K

    2013-06-01

    This longitudinal study examined how language ability relates to mathematical development in a linguistically and ethnically diverse sample of children from 6 to 9 years of age. Study participants were 75 native English speakers and 92 language minority learners followed from first to fourth grades. Autoregression in a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework was used to evaluate the relation between children's language ability and gains in different domains of mathematical cognition (i.e., arithmetic, data analysis/probability, algebra, and geometry). The results showed that language ability predicts gains in data analysis/probability and geometry, but not in arithmetic or algebra, after controlling for visual-spatial working memory, reading ability, and sex. The effect of language on gains in mathematical cognition did not differ between language minority learners and native English speakers. These findings suggest that language influences how children make meaning of mathematics but is not involved in complex arithmetical procedures whether presented with Arabic symbols as in arithmetic or with abstract symbols as in algebraic reasoning. The findings further indicate that early language experiences are important for later mathematical development regardless of language background, denoting the need for intensive and targeted language opportunities for language minority and native English learners to develop mathematical concepts and representations. PMID:23563157

  4. Revealing children's implicit spelling representations.

    PubMed

    Critten, Sarah; Pine, Karen J; Messer, David J

    2013-06-01

    Conceptualizing the underlying representations and cognitive mechanisms of children's spelling development is a key challenge for literacy researchers. Using the Representational Redescription model (Karmiloff-Smith), Critten, Pine and Steffler (2007) demonstrated that the acquisition of phonological and morphological knowledge may be underpinned by increasingly explicit levels of spelling representation. However, their proposal that implicit representations may underlie early 'visually based' spelling remains unresolved. Children (N = 101, aged 4-6 years) were given a recognition task (Critten et al., 2007) and a novel production task, both involving verbal justifications of why spellings are correct/incorrect, strategy use and word pattern similarity. Results for both tasks supported an implicit level of spelling characterized by the ability to correctly recognize/produce words but the inability to explain operational strategies or generalize knowledge. Explicit levels and multiple representations were also in evidence across the two tasks. Implications for cognitive mechanisms underlying spelling development are discussed. PMID:23659891

  5. A generalized wavelet extrema representation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jian; Lades, M.

    1995-10-01

    The wavelet extrema representation originated by Stephane Mallat is a unique framework for low-level and intermediate-level (feature) processing. In this paper, we present a new form of wavelet extrema representation generalizing Mallat`s original work. The generalized wavelet extrema representation is a feature-based multiscale representation. For a particular choice of wavelet, our scheme can be interpreted as representing a signal or image by its edges, and peaks and valleys at multiple scales. Such a representation is shown to be stable -- the original signal or image can be reconstructed with very good quality. It is further shown that a signal or image can be modeled as piecewise monotonic, with all turning points between monotonic segments given by the wavelet extrema. A new projection operator is introduced to enforce piecewise inonotonicity of a signal in its reconstruction. This leads to an enhancement to previously developed algorithms in preventing artifacts in reconstructed signal.

  6. Predict amine solution properties accurately

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, S.; Meisen, A.; Chakma, A.

    1996-02-01

    Improved process design begins with using accurate physical property data. Especially in the preliminary design stage, physical property data such as density viscosity, thermal conductivity and specific heat can affect the overall performance of absorbers, heat exchangers, reboilers and pump. These properties can also influence temperature profiles in heat transfer equipment and thus control or affect the rate of amine breakdown. Aqueous-amine solution physical property data are available in graphical form. However, it is not convenient to use with computer-based calculations. Developed equations allow improved correlations of derived physical property estimates with published data. Expressions are given which can be used to estimate physical properties of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), monoethanolamine (MEA) and diglycolamine (DGA) solutions.

  7. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, Cameron J.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Stapleton, Andrew J.; Shapter, Joseph G.; Gibson, Christopher T.

    2016-03-01

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

  8. Stable face representations

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Rob; Burton, A. Mike

    2011-01-01

    Photographs are often used to establish the identity of an individual or to verify that they are who they claim to be. Yet, recent research shows that it is surprisingly difficult to match a photo to a face. Neither humans nor machines can perform this task reliably. Although human perceivers are good at matching familiar faces, performance with unfamiliar faces is strikingly poor. The situation is no better for automatic face recognition systems. In practical settings, automatic systems have been consistently disappointing. In this review, we suggest that failure to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar face processing has led to unrealistic expectations about face identification in applied settings. We also argue that a photograph is not necessarily a reliable indicator of facial appearance, and develop our proposal that summary statistics can provide more stable face representations. In particular, we show that image averaging stabilizes facial appearance by diluting aspects of the image that vary between snapshots of the same person. We review evidence that the resulting images can outperform photographs in both behavioural experiments and computer simulations, and outline promising directions for future research. PMID:21536553

  9. Archival Representation in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the representation systems of three digitized archival collections using the traditional archival representation framework of provenance, order, and content. The results of the study reveal a prominent role of provenance representation, a compromised role of order representation, and an active role of content representation in…

  10. Ycasd – a tool for capturing and scaling data from graphical representations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mathematical modelling of biological processes often requires a large variety of different data sets for parameter estimation and validation. It is common practice that clinical data are not available in raw formats but are provided as graphical representations. Hence, in order to include these data into environments used for model simulations and statistical analyses, it is necessary to extract them from their presentations in the literature. For this purpose, we developed the freely available open source tool ycasd. After establishing a coordinate system by simple axes definitions, it supports convenient retrieval of data points from arbitrary figures. Results After describing the general functionality and providing an overview of the programme interface, we demonstrate on an example how to use ycasd. A major advantage of ycasd is that it does not require a certain input file format to open and process figures. All options of ycasd are accessible through a single window which eases handling and speeds up data extraction. For subsequent processing of extracted data points, results can be formatted as a Matlab or an R matrix. We extensively compare the functionality and other features of ycasd with other publically available tools. Finally, we provide a short summary of our experiences with ycasd in the context of modelling. Conclusions We conclude that our tool is suitable for convenient and accurate data retrievals from graphical representations such as papers. Comparison of tools reveals that ycasd is a good compromise between easy and quick capturing of scientific data from publications and complexity. Our tool is routinely applied in the context of biological modelling, where numerous time series data are required to develop models. The software can also be useful for other kinds of analyses for which published data are required but are not available in raw formats such as systematic reviews and meta-analyses. PMID:24965054

  11. Locally Refined Splines Representation for Geospatial Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokken, T.; Skytt, V.; Barrowclough, O.

    2015-08-01

    When viewed from distance, large parts of the topography of landmasses and the bathymetry of the sea and ocean floor can be regarded as a smooth background with local features. Consequently a digital elevation model combining a compact smooth representation of the background with locally added features has the potential of providing a compact and accurate representation for topography and bathymetry. The recent introduction of Locally Refined B-Splines (LR B-splines) allows the granularity of spline representations to be locally adapted to the complexity of the smooth shape approximated. This allows few degrees of freedom to be used in areas with little variation, while adding extra degrees of freedom in areas in need of more modelling flexibility. In the EU fp7 Integrating Project IQmulus we exploit LR B-splines for approximating large point clouds representing bathymetry of the smooth sea and ocean floor. A drastic reduction is demonstrated in the bulk of the data representation compared to the size of input point clouds. The representation is very well suited for exploiting the power of GPUs for visualization as the spline format is transferred to the GPU and the triangulation needed for the visualization is generated on the GPU according to the viewing parameters. The LR B-splines are interoperable with other elevation model representations such as LIDAR data, raster representations and triangulated irregular networks as these can be used as input to the LR B-spline approximation algorithms. Output to these formats can be generated from the LR B-spline applications according to the resolution criteria required. The spline models are well suited for change detection as new sensor data can efficiently be compared to the compact LR B-spline representation.

  12. Mathematical Ties That Bind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Peggy A.

    1994-01-01

    Describes some mathematical investigations of the necktie which includes applications of geometry, statistics, data analysis, sampling, probability, symmetry, proportion, problem solving, and business. (MKR)

  13. Philosophy and mathematics: interactions.

    PubMed

    Rashed, Roshdi

    From Plato to the beginnings of the last century, mathematics provided philosophers with methods of exposition, procedures of demonstration, and instruments of analysis. The unprecedented development of mathematics on the one hand, and the mathematicians' appropriation of Logic from the philosophers on the other hand, have given rise to two problems with which the philosophers have to contend: (1) Is there still a place for the philosophy of mathematics? and (2) To what extent is a philosophy of mathematics still possible? This article offers some reflections on these questions, which have preoccupied a good many philosophers and continue to do so. PMID:25029825

  14. Amorphous computing: examples, mathematics and theory.

    PubMed

    Stark, W Richard

    2013-01-01

    The cellular automata model was described by John von Neumann and his friends in the 1950s as a representation of information processing in multicellular tissue. With crystalline arrays of cells and synchronous activity, it missed the mark (Stark and Hughes, BioSystems 55:107-117, 2000). Recently, amorphous computing, a valid model for morphogenesis in multicellular information processing, has begun to fill the void. Through simple examples and elementary mathematics, this paper begins a computation theory for this important new direction. PMID:23946719

  15. Accurate ab Initio Spin Densities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We present an approach for the calculation of spin density distributions for molecules that require very large active spaces for a qualitatively correct description of their electronic structure. Our approach is based on the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm to calculate the spin density matrix elements as a basic quantity for the spatially resolved spin density distribution. The spin density matrix elements are directly determined from the second-quantized elementary operators optimized by the DMRG algorithm. As an analytic convergence criterion for the spin density distribution, we employ our recently developed sampling-reconstruction scheme [J. Chem. Phys.2011, 134, 224101] to build an accurate complete-active-space configuration-interaction (CASCI) wave function from the optimized matrix product states. The spin density matrix elements can then also be determined as an expectation value employing the reconstructed wave function expansion. Furthermore, the explicit reconstruction of a CASCI-type wave function provides insight into chemically interesting features of the molecule under study such as the distribution of α and β electrons in terms of Slater determinants, CI coefficients, and natural orbitals. The methodology is applied to an iron nitrosyl complex which we have identified as a challenging system for standard approaches [J. Chem. Theory Comput.2011, 7, 2740]. PMID:22707921

  16. Representations of mechanical assembly sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homem de Mello, Luiz S.; Sanderson, Arthur C.

    1991-04-01

    Five types of representations for assembly sequences are reviewed: the directed graph of feasible assembly sequences, the AND/OR graph of feasible assembly sequences, the set of establishment conditions, and two types of sets of precedence relationships. (precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection between parts and the establishment of another connection, and precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection and states of the assembly process). The mappings of one representation into the others are established. The correctness and completeness of these representations are established. The results presented are needed in the proof of correctness and completeness of algorithms for the generation of mechanical assembly sequences.

  17. Attitude Representations for Kalman Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The four-component quaternion has the lowest dimensionality possible for a globally nonsingular attitude representation, it represents the attitude matrix as a homogeneous quadratic function, and its dynamic propagation equation is bilinear in the quaternion and the angular velocity. The quaternion is required to obey a unit norm constraint, though, so Kalman filters often employ a quaternion for the global attitude estimate and a three-component representation for small errors about the estimate. We consider these mixed attitude representations for both a first-order Extended Kalman filter and a second-order filter, as well for quaternion-norm-preserving attitude propagation.

  18. Representations of mechanical assembly sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homem De Mello, Luiz S.; Sanderson, Arthur C.

    1991-01-01

    Five types of representations for assembly sequences are reviewed: the directed graph of feasible assembly sequences, the AND/OR graph of feasible assembly sequences, the set of establishment conditions, and two types of sets of precedence relationships. (precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection between parts and the establishment of another connection, and precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection and states of the assembly process). The mappings of one representation into the others are established. The correctness and completeness of these representations are established. The results presented are needed in the proof of correctness and completeness of algorithms for the generation of mechanical assembly sequences.

  19. Identifying the borders of mathematical knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento Silva, Filipi; Travençolo, Bruno A. N.; Viana, Matheus P.; da Fontoura Costa, Luciano

    2010-08-01

    Based on a divide and conquer approach, knowledge about nature has been organized into a set of interrelated facts, allowing a natural representation in terms of graphs: each 'chunk' of knowledge corresponds to a node, while relationships between such chunks are expressed as edges. This organization becomes particularly clear in the case of mathematical theorems, with their intense cross-implications and relationships. We have derived a web of mathematical theorems from Wikipedia and, thanks to the powerful concept of entropy, identified its more central and frontier elements. Our results also suggest that the central nodes are the oldest theorems, while the frontier nodes are those recently added to the network. The network communities have also been identified, allowing further insights about the organization of this network, such as its highly modular structure.

  20. [Mathematical anatomy: muscles according to Stensen].

    PubMed

    Andrault, Raphaële

    2010-01-01

    In his Elementorum Myologiae Specimen, Steno geometrizes "the new fabric of muscles" and their movement of contraction, so as to refute the main contemporary hypothesis about the functioning of the muscles. This physiological refutation relies on an abstract representation of the muscular fibre as a parallelepiped of flesh transversally linked to the tendons. Those two features have been comprehensively studied. But the method used by Steno, as well as the way he has chosen to present his physiological results, have so far been neglected. Yet, Steno's work follows a true synthetic order, which he conceives as a tool to separate uncertain anatomical "elements" from the certain ones. We will show that the true understanding of this "more geometrico" order is the only way to avoid frequent misconceptions of the scientific aim pursued by Steno, which is neither to give a mathematical explanation of the functioning of the muscles, nor to reduce the muscles to some mathematical shapes. PMID:21469295

  1. Ensemble polarimetric SAR image classification based on contextual sparse representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lamei; Wang, Xiao; Zou, Bin; Qiao, Zhijun

    2016-05-01

    Polarimetric SAR image interpretation has become one of the most interesting topics, in which the construction of the reasonable and effective technique of image classification is of key importance. Sparse representation represents the data using the most succinct sparse atoms of the over-complete dictionary and the advantages of sparse representation also have been confirmed in the field of PolSAR classification. However, it is not perfect, like the ordinary classifier, at different aspects. So ensemble learning is introduced to improve the issue, which makes a plurality of different learners training and obtained the integrated results by combining the individual learner to get more accurate and ideal learning results. Therefore, this paper presents a polarimetric SAR image classification method based on the ensemble learning of sparse representation to achieve the optimal classification.

  2. Using Mathematics Literature with Prospective Secondary Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jett, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Literature in mathematics has been found to foster positive improvements in mathematics learning. This manuscript reports on a mathematics teacher educator's use of literature via literature circles with 11 prospective secondary mathematics teachers in a mathematics content course. Using survey and reflection data, the author found that…

  3. A Capstone Mathematics Course for Prospective Secondary Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artzt, Alice F.; Sultan, Alan; Curcio, Frances R.; Gurl, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an innovative capstone mathematics course that links college mathematics with school mathematics and pedagogy. It describes how college juniors in a secondary mathematics teacher preparation program engage in leadership experiences that enable them to learn mathematics for teaching while developing student-centered…

  4. Mathematics for Teaching: A Form of Applied Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianides, Gabriel J.; Stylianides, Andreas J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we elaborate a conceptualisation of "mathematics for teaching" as a form of applied mathematics (using Bass's idea of characterising mathematics education as a form of applied mathematics) and we examine implications of this conceptualisation for the mathematical preparation of teachers. Specifically, we focus on issues of design…

  5. Finite Mathematics and Discrete Mathematics: Is There a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marvin L.

    Discrete mathematics and finite mathematics differ in a number of ways. First, finite mathematics has a longer history and is therefore more stable in terms of course content. Finite mathematics courses emphasize certain particular mathematical tools which are useful in solving the problems of business and the social sciences. Discrete mathematics…

  6. Hands-On Mathematics: Two Cases from Ancient Chinese Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Youjun

    2009-01-01

    In modern mathematical teaching, it has become increasingly emphasized that mathematical knowledge should be taught by problem-solving, hands-on activities, and interactive learning experiences. Comparing the ideas of modern mathematical education with the development of ancient Chinese mathematics, we find that the history of mathematics in…

  7. Dictionary Learning Algorithms for Sparse Representation

    PubMed Central

    Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth; Murray, Joseph F.; Rao, Bhaskar D.; Engan, Kjersti; Lee, Te-Won; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    Algorithms for data-driven learning of domain-specific overcomplete dictionaries are developed to obtain maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori dictionary estimates based on the use of Bayesian models with concave/Schur-concave (CSC) negative log priors. Such priors are appropriate for obtaining sparse representations of environmental signals within an appropriately chosen (environmentally matched) dictionary. The elements of the dictionary can be interpreted as concepts, features, or words capable of succinct expression of events encountered in the environment (the source of the measured signals). This is a generalization of vector quantization in that one is interested in a description involving a few dictionary entries (the proverbial “25 words or less”), but not necessarily as succinct as one entry. To learn an environmentally adapted dictionary capable of concise expression of signals generated by the environment, we develop algorithms that iterate between a representative set of sparse representations found by variants of FOCUSS and an update of the dictionary using these sparse representations. Experiments were performed using synthetic data and natural images. For complete dictionaries, we demonstrate that our algorithms have improved performance over other independent component analysis (ICA) methods, measured in terms of signal-to-noise ratios of separated sources. In the overcomplete case, we show that the true underlying dictionary and sparse sources can be accurately recovered. In tests with natural images, learned overcomplete dictionaries are shown to have higher coding efficiency than complete dictionaries; that is, images encoded with an over-complete dictionary have both higher compression (fewer bits per pixel) and higher accuracy (lower mean square error). PMID:12590811

  8. Computer representation of molecular surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.L.

    1981-07-06

    This review article surveys recent work on computer representation of molecular surfaces. Several different algorithms are discussed for producing vector or raster drawings of space-filling models formed as the union of spheres. Other smoother surfaces are also considered.

  9. Vietnamese Document Representation and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Giang-Son; Gao, Xiaoying; Andreae, Peter

    Vietnamese is very different from English and little research has been done on Vietnamese document classification, or indeed, on any kind of Vietnamese language processing, and only a few small corpora are available for research. We created a large Vietnamese text corpus with about 18000 documents, and manually classified them based on different criteria such as topics and styles, giving several classification tasks of different difficulty levels. This paper introduces a new syllable-based document representation at the morphological level of the language for efficient classification. We tested the representation on our corpus with different classification tasks using six classification algorithms and two feature selection techniques. Our experiments show that the new representation is effective for Vietnamese categorization, and suggest that best performance can be achieved using syllable-pair document representation, an SVM with a polynomial kernel as the learning algorithm, and using Information gain and an external dictionary for feature selection.

  10. Texture Representations Using Subspace Embeddings

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaodong; Tian, YingLi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a texture representation framework to map local texture patches into a low-dimensional texture subspace. In natural texture images, textons are entangled with multiple factors, such as rotation, scaling, viewpoint variation, illumination change, and non-rigid surface deformation. Mapping local texture patches into a low-dimensional subspace can alleviate or eliminate these undesired variation factors resulting from both geometric and photometric transformations. We observe that texture representations based on subspace embeddings have strong resistance to image deformations, meanwhile, are more distinctive and more compact than traditional representations. We investigate both linear and non-linear embedding methods including Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), and Locality Preserving Projections (LPP) to compute the essential texture subspace. The experiments in the context of texture classification on benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed subspace embedding representations achieve the state-of-the-art results while with much fewer feature dimensions. PMID:23710105

  11. Texture Representations Using Subspace Embeddings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaodong; Tian, Yingli

    2013-07-15

    In this paper, we propose a texture representation framework to map local texture patches into a low-dimensional texture subspace. In natural texture images, textons are entangled with multiple factors, such as rotation, scaling, viewpoint variation, illumination change, and non-rigid surface deformation. Mapping local texture patches into a low-dimensional subspace can alleviate or eliminate these undesired variation factors resulting from both geometric and photometric transformations. We observe that texture representations based on subspace embeddings have strong resistance to image deformations, meanwhile, are more distinctive and more compact than traditional representations. We investigate both linear and non-linear embedding methods including Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), and Locality Preserving Projections (LPP) to compute the essential texture subspace. The experiments in the context of texture classification on benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed subspace embedding representations achieve the state-of-the-art results while with much fewer feature dimensions. PMID:23710105

  12. A numerical study of thin flame representations

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.A.; Pindera, M.Z.

    1989-08-11

    In studies of reacting flows, the flame may be viewed as a moving discontinuity endowed with certain properties; notably, it acts as a source of velocity and vorticity. Asymptotic analysis shows this to be justified provided that the flame curvature is small compared to the flame thickness. Such an approach is useful when one is interested in the hydrodynamic effects of the flame on the surrounding flowfield. In numerical models of this kind it is customary to treat the discontinuity as a collection of discrete velocity blobs. In this study, we show that the velocities associated with such a representation can be very non-smooth, particularly very near to the flame surface. As an alternative, we propose the use of a finite line source as the basic flame element. Comparisons of the two flame representations are made for several simple test cases as well as for a flame propagating through an enclosure forming the tulip shape. The results show that the use of line sources eliminates spurious fluctuations in nearfield velocities thus allowing for a more accurate calculation of flame propagation and flame-flowfield interactions. 7 refs., 15 figs.

  13. Competition and Cooperation among Relational Memory Representations.

    PubMed

    Schwarb, Hillary; Watson, Patrick D; Campbell, Kelsey; Shander, Christopher L; Monti, Jim M; Cooke, Gillian E; Wang, Jane X; Kramer, Arthur F; Cohen, Neal J

    2015-01-01

    Mnemonic processing engages multiple systems that cooperate and compete to support task performance. Exploring these systems' interaction requires memory tasks that produce rich data with multiple patterns of performance sensitive to different processing sub-components. Here we present a novel context-dependent relational memory paradigm designed to engage multiple learning and memory systems. In this task, participants learned unique face-room associations in two distinct contexts (i.e., different colored buildings). Faces occupied rooms as determined by an implicit gender-by-side rule structure (e.g., male faces on the left and female faces on the right) and all faces were seen in both contexts. In two experiments, we use behavioral and eye-tracking measures to investigate interactions among different memory representations in both younger and older adult populations; furthermore we link these representations to volumetric variations in hippocampus and ventromedial PFC among older adults. Overall, performance was very accurate. Successful face placement into a studied room systematically varied with hippocampal volume. Selecting the studied room in the wrong context was the most typical error. The proportion of these errors to correct responses positively correlated with ventromedial prefrontal volume. This novel task provides a powerful tool for investigating both the unique and interacting contributions of these systems in support of relational memory. PMID:26619203

  14. Competition and Cooperation among Relational Memory Representations

    PubMed Central

    Schwarb, Hillary; Watson, Patrick D.; Campbell, Kelsey; Shander, Christopher L.; Monti, Jim M.; Cooke, Gillian E.; Wang, Jane X.; Kramer, Arthur F.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2015-01-01

    Mnemonic processing engages multiple systems that cooperate and compete to support task performance. Exploring these systems’ interaction requires memory tasks that produce rich data with multiple patterns of performance sensitive to different processing sub-components. Here we present a novel context-dependent relational memory paradigm designed to engage multiple learning and memory systems. In this task, participants learned unique face-room associations in two distinct contexts (i.e., different colored buildings). Faces occupied rooms as determined by an implicit gender-by-side rule structure (e.g., male faces on the left and female faces on the right) and all faces were seen in both contexts. In two experiments, we use behavioral and eye-tracking measures to investigate interactions among different memory representations in both younger and older adult populations; furthermore we link these representations to volumetric variations in hippocampus and ventromedial PFC among older adults. Overall, performance was very accurate. Successful face placement into a studied room systematically varied with hippocampal volume. Selecting the studied room in the wrong context was the most typical error. The proportion of these errors to correct responses positively correlated with ventromedial prefrontal volume. This novel task provides a powerful tool for investigating both the unique and interacting contributions of these systems in support of relational memory. PMID:26619203

  15. Remedial Mathematics for Quantum Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopman, Lodewijk; Brouwer, Natasa; Heck, Andre; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2008-01-01

    Proper mathematical skills are important for every science course and mathematics-intensive chemistry courses rely on a sound mathematical pre-knowledge. In the first-year quantum chemistry course at this university, it was noticed that many students lack basic mathematical knowledge. To tackle the mathematics problem, a remedial mathematics…

  16. Experimenting with Mathematical Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanft, Rebecca; Walter, Anne

    2016-01-01

    St. Olaf College recently added a Mathematical Biology concentration to its curriculum. The core course, Mathematics of Biology, was redesigned to include a wet laboratory. The lab classes required students to collect data and implement the essential modeling techniques of formulation, implementation, validation, and analysis. The four labs…

  17. The Relativity of Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiner, Israel; Avital, Shmuel

    1984-01-01

    The development of the idea that "The essence of mathematics lies in its freedom," a quotation from Cantor, is discussed. Several examples are given of relative truth, and the problem of consistency is discussed. Mathematics and its relationship to the physical world is also explored. (MNS)

  18. The Applied Mathematics Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Martha J.

    This report describes the Applied Mathematics Laboratory (AML) operated by the Department of Mathematics at Towson State University, Maryland. AML is actually a course offered to selected undergraduates who are given the opportunity to apply their skills in investigating industrial and governmental problems. By agreement with sponsoring…

  19. Mathematics on the Threshold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Andre; Van Gastel, Leendert

    2006-01-01

    Lowering the dropout rate of incoming mathematics and science students, and enhancing the provision of mathematics support for freshmen are two important aims of the University of Amsterdam. The approach recently adopted to support first year students is to set up a diagnostic pretest and posttest and use these tests to identify students being at…

  20. Mathematics in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallenberg, Harvey

    1995-01-01

    Presents ideas for creating mathematical classroom activities associated with the history of mathematics: calculating sums and products the way ancient Greeks did it, using an abacus or moving stones on a sanded floor, and engaging elementary students through role playing specific mathematicians. Suggests that through such techniques, mathematics…

  1. Designing Assessment for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depka, Eileen

    2007-01-01

    Teaching mathematics in today's world requires practices and procedures integrated with performance tasks that actively involve students. In this second edition of Designing Rubrics for Mathematics, Eileen Depka clarifies the purpose of rubrics in math instruction and illustrates the relationship between assessment, rubrics, and the National…

  2. Modularizing Remedial Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    As remedial mathematics education has become an increasingly important topic of conversation in higher education. Mathematics departments have been put under increased pressure to change their programs to increase the student success rate. A number of models have been introduced over the last decade that represent a wide range of new ideas and…

  3. Quality Teaching in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2012-01-01

    The best teaching possible needs to accrue in the mathematics curriculum. Pupils also need to become proficient in using mathematics in every day situations in life. Individuals buy goods and services. They pay for these in different ways, including cash. Here, persons need to be able to compute the total cost of items purchased and then pay for…

  4. Mathematics. [SITE 2002 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Michael L., Ed.; Lowery, Norene Vail, Ed.; Harnisch, Delwyn L., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on mathematics from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference: (1) "Teachers' Learning of Mathematics in the Presence of Technology: Participatory Cognitive Apprenticeship" (Mara Alagic); (2) "A Fractal Is a Pattern in Your Neighborhood" (Craig N. Bach); (3)…

  5. Is This Mathematical?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author reports on the findings of her research on what her Year 10 students consider to be "mathematical." The class contains thirteen students who will all sit the higher tier IGCSE next year. The author found out that the students considered things she told them to have a higher mathematical status than work they did…

  6. Mathematics: The Universal Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Sharon B.

    2009-01-01

    Mathematics is considered the universal language, but students who speak languages other than English have difficulty doing mathematics in English. For instance, because of a lack of familiarity with the problem's context, many have trouble understanding exactly what operations to perform. In the United States, approximately one in seven students…

  7. Elementary Mathematics Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennell, Francis; Kobett, Beth McCord; Wray, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Elementary school mathematics leaders often come to the realization that their position, however titled and determined, although dedicated to addressing needs in math teaching and learning, also entails and directly involves leadership. Elementary school math specialists/instructional leaders (referenced here as elementary mathematics leaders, or…

  8. Skill Games for Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corle, Clyde G.

    This guide is to assist teachers with motivational ideas for teaching elementary school mathematics. The items included are a wide variety of games (paper and pencil, verbal, and physical), jingles, contests, teaching devices, and thought provoking exercises. Suggestions for selection of mathematical games are offered. The devices are used to…

  9. Solving Common Mathematical Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

  10. Mathematical Graphic Organizers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zollman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    As part of a math-science partnership, a university mathematics educator and ten elementary school teachers developed a novel approach to mathematical problem solving derived from research on reading and writing pedagogy. Specifically, research indicates that students who use graphic organizers to arrange their ideas improve their comprehension…

  11. Learning Mathematics while Black

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Danny Bernard

    2012-01-01

    While research by scholars has contributed greatly to an emerging knowledge base on Black children and mathematics, there continues to be a dire need for insightful research that de-centers longstanding accounts that have contributed to the construction of Black children as mathematically illiterate and as less than ideal learners relative to…

  12. Counting on Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Lynn T.

    2000-01-01

    Parents can help ensure that their children are well-equipped with the necessary mathematical skills and understanding for the future by: having high expectations for their children's learning; helping their children see mathematical connections and applications in the world; being curious about their children's thinking; and being enthusiastic…

  13. See a Different Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallings, L. Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes four strategies for posing mathematics problems that raise the cognitive demands of the tasks given to students. Each strategy is illustrated with three common middle school mathematics examples: finding the greatest common factor, finding area or perimeter, and finding the equation of a line. Posing these types of problems…

  14. [Collected Papers on Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Michael L., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on issues related to mathematics in technology and teacher education: "A Case for Strong Conceptualization in Technology Enhanced Mathematics Instruction" (Michael L. Connell and Delwyn L. Harnisch); "Faculty/Student Collaboration in Education and Math--Using the Web To Improve Student Learning and…

  15. Astronomy and Mathematics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    There are many European countries where Astronomy does not appear as a specific course on the secondary school. In these cases Astronomy content can be introduced by means of other subjects. There are some astronomical topics within the subject of Physics but this talk concerns introducing Astronomy in Mathematics classes. Teaching Astronomy through Mathematics would result in more exposure than through Physics as Mathematics is more prevalent in the curriculum. Generally it is not easy to motivate students in Mathematics but they are motivated to find out more about the universe and Astronomy current events than appears in the media. This situation can be an excellent introduction to several mathematics topics. The teachers in secondary and high school can use this idea in order to present more attractive mathematics courses. In particular some different examples will be offered regarding * Angles and spherical coordinates considering star traces * Logarithms and visual magnitudes * Plane trigonometry related orbital movements * Spherical trigonometry in connection with ecliptic obliquity * Conic curves related to sundial at several latitudes Some students do not enjoy studying Mathematics but they can be attracted by practical situations using Applied Mathematics: Astronomy is always very attractive to teenagers.

  16. Mathematics and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennema, Elizabeth, Ed.; Leder, Gilah C., Ed.

    This book reports on various studies that have increased our understanding of why females and males learn different kinds and amounts of mathematics. In particular, this book explicates the Autonomous Learning Behavior model, proposed by Fennema and Peterson, which is a possible explanation of the development of gender differences in mathematics.…

  17. Business Mathematics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

    This curriculum guide for teaching business mathematics in the Connecticut Vocational-Technical School System is based on the latest thinking of instructors in the field, suggestions from mathematics authorities, and current instructional approaches in education. The curriculum guide consists of six sections: (1) career relationships and…

  18. Strengthen Your Mathematical Muscles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlhuter, Kay A.; Breyfogle, M. Lynn; McDuffie, Amy Roth

    2010-01-01

    Developing deep knowledge and understanding of mathematics is a lifelong process, and building the foundation for teachers' development must begin in preservice preparation and continue throughout one's professional life. While teaching mathematics content courses and methods courses, the authors have found that preservice elementary school…

  19. Mathematics and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, John

    2012-01-01

    This relationship is omnipresent to those who appreciate the shared attributes of these two areas of creativity. The dynamic nature of media, and further study, enable mathematicians and artists to present new and exciting manifestations of the "mathematics in art", and the "art in mathematics". The illustrative images of the relationship--that…

  20. Genders, Mathematics, and Feminisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damarin, Suzanne

    Historical studies reveal that mathematics has been claimed as a private domain by men, while studies of the popular press document that women and girls are considered incompetent in that field. The study of gender and mathematics as viewed through feminism can create a new reading which exposes hidden assumptions, unwarranted conclusions, and…

  1. Why physics needs mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrlich, Fritz

    2011-12-01

    Classical and the quantum mechanical sciences are in essential need of mathematics. Only thus can the laws of nature be formulated quantitatively permitting quantitative predictions. Mathematics also facilitates extrapolations. But classical and quantum sciences differ in essential ways: they follow different laws of logic, Aristotelian and non-Aristotelian logics, respectively. These are explicated.

  2. Mathematics Projects Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Adrien L.

    This handbook is designed as a guide for teachers and students in choosing and developing mathematics projects, from simple demonstrations of mathematical problems or principles that the teacher has assigned as classroom learning experiences to complex, sophisticated exhibits, intended for entrance in fairs and competitions. The use of projects to…

  3. Developing Mathematical Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Susie

    2012-01-01

    It has long been recognised that successful mathematical learning comprises much more than just knowledge of skills and procedures. For example, Skemp (1976) identified the advantages of teaching mathematics for what he referred to as "relational" rather than "instrumental" understanding. More recently, Kilpatrick, Swafford and Findell (2001)…

  4. Mathematics, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The first of three volumes of a mathematics training course for Navy personnel, this document covers a wide range of basic mathematics. The text begins with number systems, signed numbers, fractions, decimals, and percentages and continues into algebra with exponents, polynomials, and linear equations. Early chapters were designed to give insight…

  5. Issues in Teaching Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author states that there are selected issues in mathematics instruction that educators should be well aware of when planning lessons and units of study. These issues provide a basis for thought and discussion when assisting pupils to attain more optimally. Purposeful studying of issues guides mathematics teachers in…

  6. Teaching Mathematics Using Steplets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringslid, Odd; Norstein, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This article evaluates online mathematical content used for teaching mathematics in engineering classes and in distance education for teacher training students. In the EU projects Xmath and dMath online computer algebra modules (Steplets) for undergraduate students assembled in the Xmath eBook have been designed. Two questionnaires, a compulsory…

  7. Dyslexia, Dyspraxia and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Dorian

    This book explores how primary school children with dyslexia or dyspraxia and difficulty in math can learn math and provides practical support and detailed teaching suggestions. It considers cognitive features that underlie difficulty with mathematics generally or with specific aspects of mathematics. It outlines the ways in which children usually…

  8. Mathematical thinking and origami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wares, Arsalan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the mathematics that emanates from the construction of an origami box. We first construct a simple origami box from a rectangular sheet and then discuss some of the mathematical questions that arise in the context of geometry and calculus.

  9. Mathematics Education in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varsavsky, Cristina; Anaya, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the state of mathematics education in Argentina across all levels, in the regional and world contexts. Statistics are drawn from Mercosur and UNESCO data bases, World Education Indicators and various national time-series government reports. Mathematics results in national testing programmes, Programme for…

  10. The Language of Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldfield, Christine

    1996-01-01

    Describes aspects of learning the language of mathematics including vocabulary and grammar, the origins of the vocabulary, the pronunciation problem, and translation of English phrases and sentences into mathematical language accompanied by conceptual understanding of the process being described. Gives suggestions for teachers in class and…

  11. Developing Mathematically Promising Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Linda Jensen, Ed.

    This book, written on the recommendation of the Task Force on Mathematically Promising Students, investigates issues involving the development of promising mathematics students. Recommendations are made concerning topics such as the definition of promising students; the identification of such students; appropriate curriculum, instruction, and…

  12. Mathematical techniques: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Articles on theoretical and applied mathematics are introduced. The articles cover information that might be of interest to workers in statistics and information theory, computational aids that could be used by scientists and engineers, and mathematical techniques for design and control.

  13. Encouraging Good Mathematical Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a report on an attempt to teach students in their first and second year of university how to write mathematics. The problems faced by these students are outlined and the system devised to emphasize the importance of communicating mathematics is explained.

  14. What Is Discrete Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Karen Tobey

    This paper cites information received from a number of sources, e.g., mathematics teachers in two-year colleges, publishers, and convention speakers, about the nature of discrete mathematics and about what topics a course in this subject should contain. Note is taken of the book edited by Ralston and Young which discusses the future of college…

  15. Supporting Students in Learning with Multiple Representation to Improve Student Mental Models on Atomic Structure Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunyono; Yuanita, L.; Ibrahim, M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is identify the effectiveness of a multiple representation-based learning model, which builds a mental model within the concept of atomic structure. The research sample of 108 students in 3 classes is obtained randomly from among students of Mathematics and Science Education Studies using a stratified random sampling…

  16. Negative Numbers in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Phenomenology and Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maz-Machado, Alexander; Rico-Romero, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a categorization of the phenomena and representations used to introduce negative numbers in mathematics books published in Spain during the 18th and 19th centuries. Through a content analysis of fourteen texts which were selected for the study, we distinguished four phenomena typologies: physical, accounting, temporal and…

  17. Learning New Problem-Solving Strategies Leads to Changes in Problem Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alibali, Martha W.; Phillips, Karin M. O.; Fischer, Allison D.

    2009-01-01

    Children sometimes solve problems incorrectly because they fail to represent key features of the problems. One potential source of improvements in children's problem representations is learning new problem-solving strategies. Ninety-one 3rd- and 4th-grade students solved mathematical equivalence problems (e.g., 3+4+6=3+__) and completed a…

  18. Relativistic dynamics of quasistable states. II. Differentiable representations of the causal Poincare semigroup

    SciTech Connect

    Wickramasekara, S.

    2009-07-15

    We construct two rigged Hilbert spaces that furnish differentiable representations of the causal Poincare semigroup. These rigged Hilbert spaces provide the mathematical foundation for a theory of relativistic quasistable states that synthesizes the S-matrix description of resonance scattering with the Bakamjian-Thomas construction for interacting relativistic quantum systems.

  19. Subitizing, Magnitude Representation, and Magnitude Retrieval in Deaf and Hearing Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Rebecca; Blatto-Vallee, Gary; Fabich, Megan

    2006-01-01

    This study examines basic number processing (subitizing, automaticity, and magnitude representation) as the possible underpinning of mathematical difficulties often evidenced in deaf adults. Hearing and deaf participants completed tasks to assess the automaticity with which magnitude information was activated and retrieved from long-term memory…

  20. Beneath the Tip of the Iceberg: Using Representations to Support Student Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, David C.; Boswinkel, Nina; Dekker, Truus

    2008-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the "iceberg model," developed by the Freudenthal Institute, has been used to support teacher identification of informal and preformal representations that build students' understanding of formal mathematics. This article offers suggestions on how this model can be used to support professional development, collaborative…

  1. Pedagogical Representations to Teach Linear Relations in Chinese and U.S. Classrooms: Parallel or Hierarchical?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Rongjin; Cai, Jinfa

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates Chinese and U.S. teachers' construction and use of pedagogical representations surrounding implementation of mathematical tasks. It does this by analyzing video-taped lessons from the Learner's Perspective Study, involving 15 Chinese and 10 U.S. consecutive lessons on the topic of linear equations/linear relations. We…

  2. Generating and Analyzing Visual Representations of Conic Sections with the Use of Technological Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos-Trigo, Manuel; Espinosa-Perez, Hugo; Reyes-Rodriguez, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Technological tools have the potential to offer students the possibility to represent information and relationships embedded in problems and concepts in ways that involve numerical, algebraic, geometric, and visual approaches. In this paper, the authors present and discuss an example in which an initial representation of a mathematical object…

  3. Accurate 3D quantification of the bronchial parameters in MDCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saragaglia, A.; Fetita, C.; Preteux, F.; Brillet, P. Y.; Grenier, P. A.

    2005-08-01

    The assessment of bronchial reactivity and wall remodeling in asthma plays a crucial role in better understanding such a disease and evaluating therapeutic responses. Today, multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) makes it possible to perform an accurate estimation of bronchial parameters (lumen and wall areas) by allowing a quantitative analysis in a cross-section plane orthogonal to the bronchus axis. This paper provides the tools for such an analysis by developing a 3D investigation method which relies on 3D reconstruction of bronchial lumen and central axis computation. Cross-section images at bronchial locations interactively selected along the central axis are generated at appropriate spatial resolution. An automated approach is then developed for accurately segmenting the inner and outer bronchi contours on the cross-section images. It combines mathematical morphology operators, such as "connection cost", and energy-controlled propagation in order to overcome the difficulties raised by vessel adjacencies and wall irregularities. The segmentation accuracy was validated with respect to a 3D mathematically-modeled phantom of a pair bronchus-vessel which mimics the characteristics of real data in terms of gray-level distribution, caliber and orientation. When applying the developed quantification approach to such a model with calibers ranging from 3 to 10 mm diameter, the lumen area relative errors varied from 3.7% to 0.15%, while the bronchus area was estimated with a relative error less than 5.1%.

  4. Role of multiple representations in physics problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maries, Alexandru

    This thesis explores the role of multiple representations in introductory physics students' problem solving performance through several investigations. Representations can help students focus on the conceptual aspects of physics and play a major role in effective problem solving. Diagrammatic representations can play a particularly important role in the initial stages of conceptual analysis and planning of the problem solution. Findings suggest that students who draw productive diagrams are more successful problem solvers even if their approach is primarily mathematical. Furthermore, students provided with a diagram of the physical situation presented in a problem sometimes exhibited deteriorated performance. Think-aloud interviews suggest that this deteriorated performance is in part due to reduced conceptual planning time which caused students to jump to the implementation stage without fully understanding the problem and planning problem solution. Another study investigated two interventions aimed at improving introductory students' representational consistency between mathematical and graphical representations and revealed that excessive scaffolding can have a detrimental effect. The detrimental effect was partly due to increased cognitive load brought on by the additional steps and instructions. Moreover, students who exhibited representational consistency also showed improved problem solving performance. The final investigation is centered on a problem solving task designed to provide information about the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of graduate student teaching assistants (TAs). In particular, the TAs identified what they considered to be the most common difficulties of introductory physics students related to graphical representations of kinematics concepts as they occur in the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K). As an extension, the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was also used to assess this aspect of PCK related to knowledge of

  5. Technical Mathematics: Restructure of Technical Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Carol A.

    Designed to accompany a series of videotapes, this textbook provides information, examples, problems, and solutions relating to mathematics and its applications in technical fields. Chapter I deals with basic arithmetic, providing information on fractions, decimals, ratios, proportions, percentages, and order of operations. Chapter II focuses on…

  6. Teacher-Student Interaction in Joint Word Problem Solving. The Role of Situational and Mathematical Knowledge in Mainstream Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosales, Javier; Vicente, Santiago; Chamoso, Jose M.; Munez, David; Orrantia, Josetxu

    2012-01-01

    Word problem solving involves the construction of two different mental representations, namely, mathematical and situational. Although educational research in word problem solving has documented different kinds of instruction at these levels, less is known about how both representational levels are evoked during word problem solving in day-to-day…

  7. Students' Competencies in Working with Functions in Secondary Mathematics Education-Empirical Examination of a Competence Structure Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitsch, Renate; Fredebohm, Anneke; Bruder, Regina; Kelava, Augustin; Naccarella, Dominik; Leuders, Timo; Wirtz, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In the subject matter of functional relationships, a student's ability to translate from one form of representation to another is seen as a central competence. In the course of the HEUREKO project (heuristic work with representations of functional relationships and the diagnosis of mathematical competencies of students), a theoretical competence…

  8. Investigating graphical representations of slope and derivative without a physics context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Warren M.; Thompson, John R.

    2012-12-01

    By analysis of student use of mathematics in responses to conceptual physics questions, as well as analogous math questions stripped of physical meaning, we have previously found evidence that students often enter upper-level physics courses lacking the assumed prerequisite mathematics knowledge and/or the ability to apply it productively in a physics context. As an extension from this work on students’ mathematical competency at the upper level in physics, we report on a preliminary investigation of mathematical understanding of fundamental concepts of slope and derivative among students in a third-semester multivariable calculus course. Among the first published findings of physics education research are investigations on students’ understanding of kinematics, with particular attention to graphical representations of position-, velocity-, and acceleration-versus-time graphs. Underlying these physical quantities are relationships that depend on derivatives and slopes. We report on our findings as we attempt to isolate students’ understanding of these mathematical concepts.

  9. On the representation of many-body interactions in water

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Medders, Gregory; Gotz, Andreas; Morales, Miguel A.; Bajaj, Pushp; Paesani, Francesco

    2015-09-09

    Recent work has shown that the many-body expansion of the interaction energy can be used to develop analytical representations of global potential energy surfaces (PESs) for water. In this study, the role of short- and long-range interactions at different orders is investigated by analyzing water potentials that treat the leading terms of the many-body expansion through implicit (i.e., TTM3-F and TTM4-F PESs) and explicit (i.e., WHBB and MB-pol PESs) representations. It is found that explicit short-range representations of 2-body and 3-body interactions along with a physically correct incorporation of short- and long-range contributions are necessary for an accurate representation ofmore » the water interactions from the gas to the condensed phase. Similarly, a complete many-body representation of the dipole moment surface is found to be crucial to reproducing the correct intensities of the infrared spectrum of liquid water.« less

  10. A new protein structure representation for efficient protein function prediction.

    PubMed

    Maghawry, Huda A; Mostafa, Mostafa G M; Gharib, Tarek F

    2014-12-01

    One of the challenging problems in bioinformatics is the prediction of protein function. Protein function is the main key that can be used to classify different proteins. Protein function can be inferred experimentally with very small throughput or computationally with very high throughput. Computational methods are sequence based or structure based. Structure-based methods produce more accurate protein function prediction. In this article, we propose a new protein structure representation for efficient protein function prediction. The representation is based on three-dimensional patterns of protein residues. In the analysis, we used protein function based on enzyme activity through six mechanistically diverse enzyme superfamilies: amidohydrolase, crotonase, haloacid dehalogenase, isoprenoid synthase type I, and vicinal oxygen chelate. We applied three different classification methods, naïve Bayes, k-nearest neighbors, and random forest, to predict the enzyme superfamily of a given protein. The prediction accuracy using the proposed representation outperforms a recently introduced representation method that is based only on the distance patterns. The results show that the proposed representation achieved prediction accuracy up to 98%, with improvement of about 10% on average. PMID:25343279

  11. NEQR: a novel enhanced quantum representation of digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Lu, Kai; Gao, Yinghui; Wang, Mo

    2013-08-01

    Quantum computation is becoming an important and effective tool to overcome the high real-time computational requirements of classical digital image processing. In this paper, based on analysis of existing quantum image representations, a novel enhanced quantum representation (NEQR) for digital images is proposed, which improves the latest flexible representation of quantum images (FRQI). The newly proposed quantum image representation uses the basis state of a qubit sequence to store the gray-scale value of each pixel in the image for the first time, instead of the probability amplitude of a qubit, as in FRQI. Because different basis states of qubit sequence are orthogonal, different gray scales in the NEQR quantum image can be distinguished. Performance comparisons with FRQI reveal that NEQR can achieve a quadratic speedup in quantum image preparation, increase the compression ratio of quantum images by approximately 1.5X, and retrieve digital images from quantum images accurately. Meanwhile, more quantum image operations related to gray-scale information in the image can be performed conveniently based on NEQR, for example partial color operations and statistical color operations. Therefore, the proposed NEQR quantum image model is more flexible and better suited for quantum image representation than other models in the literature.

  12. The Effects of Self-Explanation and Metacognitive Instruction on Undergraduate Students' Learning of Statistics Materials Containing Multiple External Representations in a Web-Based Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Yu-Chang

    2009-01-01

    Students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields are confronted with multiple external representations (MERs) in their learning materials. The ability to learn from and communicate with these MERs requires not only that students comprehend each representation individually but also that students recognize how the…

  13. On representations for joint moments using a joint coordinate system.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Oliver M; Sena, Mark P; Feeley, Brian T; Lotz, Jeffrey C

    2013-11-01

    In studies of the biomechanics of joints, the representation of moments using the joint coordinate system has been discussed by several authors. The primary purpose of this technical brief is to emphasize that there are two distinct, albeit related, representations for moment vectors using the joint coordinate system. These distinct representations are illuminated by exploring connections between the Euler and dual Euler bases, the "nonorthogonal projections" presented in a recent paper by Desroches et al. (2010, "Expression of Joint Moment in the Joint Coordinate System," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 132(11), p. 11450) and seminal works by Grood and Suntay (Grood and Suntay, 1983, "A Joint Coordinate System for the Clinical Description of Three-Dimensional Motions: Application to the Knee," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 105(2), pp. 136-144) and Fujie et al. (1996, "Forces and Moment in Six-DOF at the Human Knee Joint: Mathematical Description for Control," Journal of Biomechanics, 29(12), pp. 1577-1585) on the knee joint. It is also shown how the representation using the dual Euler basis leads to straightforward definition of joint stiffnesses. PMID:24008987

  14. Multisensory decisions provide support for probabilistic number representations.

    PubMed

    Kanitscheider, Ingmar; Brown, Amanda; Pouget, Alexandre; Churchland, Anne K

    2015-06-01

    A large body of evidence suggests that an approximate number sense allows humans to estimate numerosity in sensory scenes. This ability is widely observed in humans, including those without formal mathematical training. Despite this, many outstanding questions remain about the nature of the numerosity representation in the brain. Specifically, it is not known whether approximate numbers are represented as scalar estimates of numerosity or, alternatively, as probability distributions over numerosity. In the present study, we used a multisensory decision task to distinguish these possibilities. We trained human subjects to decide whether a test stimulus had a larger or smaller numerosity compared with a fixed reference. Depending on the trial, the numerosity was presented as either a sequence of visual flashes or a sequence of auditory tones, or both. To test for a probabilistic representation, we varied the reliability of the stimulus by adding noise to the visual stimuli. In accordance with a probabilistic representation, we observed a significant improvement in multisensory compared with unisensory trials. Furthermore, a trial-by-trial analysis revealed that although individual subjects showed strategic differences in how they leveraged auditory and visual information, all subjects exploited the reliability of unisensory cues. An alternative, nonprobabilistic model, in which subjects combined cues without regard for reliability, was not able to account for these trial-by-trial choices. These findings provide evidence that the brain relies on a probabilistic representation for numerosity decisions. PMID:25744886

  15. Evaluation of Representations and Response Models for Polarizable Force Fields

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    For classical simulations of condensed-phase systems, such as organic liquids and biomolecules, to achieve high accuracy, they will probably need to incorporate an accurate, efficient model of conformation-dependent electronic polarization. Thus, it is of interest to understand what determines the accuracy of a polarizable electrostatics model. This study approaches this problem by breaking polarization models down into two main components: the representation of electronic polarization and the response model used for mapping from an inducing field to the polarization within the chosen representation. Among the most common polarization representations are redistribution of atom-centered charges, such as those used in the fluctuating charge model, and atom-centered point dipoles, such as those used in a number of different polarization models. Each of these representations has been combined with one or more response models. The response model of fluctuating charge, for example, is based on the idea of electronegativity equalization in the context of changing electrostatic potentials (ESPs), whereas point-dipole representations typically use a response model based on point polarizabilities whose induced dipoles are computed based on interaction with other charges and dipoles. Here, we decouple polarization representations from their typical response models to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of various polarization approximations. First, we compare the maximal possible accuracies achievable by the charge redistribution and point-dipole model representations, by testing their ability to replicate quantum mechanical (QM) ESPs around small molecules polarized by external inducing charges. Perhaps not surprisingly, the atom-centered dipole model can yield higher accuracy. Next, we test two of the most commonly used response functions used for the point-dipole representations, self-consistent and direct (or first-order) inducible point polarizabilities, where the

  16. Chemical structure representations and applications in computational toxicity.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Vyas, Renu

    2012-01-01

    Efficient storage and retrieval of chemical structures is one of the most important prerequisite for solving any computational-based problem in life sciences. Several resources including research publications, text books, and articles are available on chemical structure representation. Chemical substances that have same molecular formula but several structural formulae, conformations, and skeleton framework/scaffold/functional groups of the molecule convey various characteristics of the molecule. Today with the aid of sophisticated mathematical models and informatics tools, it is possible to design a molecule of interest with specified characteristics based on their applications in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, biotechnology, nanomaterials, petrochemicals, and polymers. This chapter discusses both traditional and current state of art representation of chemical structures and their applications in chemical information management, bioactivity- and toxicity-based predictive studies. PMID:23007430

  17. Graphical representation for thermal equilibrium when transition temperatures are present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We propose the use of graphics in order to get a quick insight of the thermal equilibrium of two bodies, when a transition temperature is present in the interval between both initial temperatures. We have found two convenient variables in order to represent the mathematical condition for the partial or complete transition of each component. In mixing hot water and cold ice, the proposed graphical representation exhibits straight lines separating four regions corresponding to different equilibrium states, going from one containing just ice up to the other containing just water, and two states in between with increased ice or increased water. This graphical representation helps to avoid typical student errors in learning elementary physics.

  18. Representations of space, time, and number in neonates.

    PubMed

    de Hevia, Maria Dolores; Izard, Véronique; Coubart, Aurélie; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Streri, Arlette

    2014-04-01

    A rich concept of magnitude--in its numerical, spatial, and temporal forms--is a central foundation of mathematics, science, and technology, but the origins and developmental relations among the abstract concepts of number, space, and time are debated. Are the representations of these dimensions and their links tuned by extensive experience, or are they readily available from birth? Here, we show that, at the beginning of postnatal life, 0- to 3-d-old neonates reacted to a simultaneous increase (or decrease) in spatial extent and in duration or numerical quantity, but they did not react when the magnitudes varied in opposite directions. The findings provide evidence that representations of space, time, and number are systematically interrelated at the start of postnatal life, before acquisition of language and cultural metaphors, and before extensive experience with the natural correlations between these dimensions. PMID:24639511

  19. Mathematical model for gyroscope effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usubamatov, Ryspek

    2015-05-01

    Gyroscope effects are used in many engineering calculations of rotating parts, and a gyroscope is the basic unit of numerous devices and instruments used in aviation, space, marine and other industries. The primary attribute of a gyroscope is a spinning rotor that persists in maintaining its plane of rotation, creating gyroscope effects. Numerous publications represent the gyroscope theory using mathematical models based on the law of kinetic energy conservation and the rate of change in angular momentum of a spinning rotor. Gyroscope theory still attracts many researchers who continue to discover new properties of gyroscopic devices. In reality, gyroscope effects are more complex and known mathematical models do not accurately reflect the actual motions. Analysis of forces acting on a gyroscope shows that four dynamic components act simultaneously: the centrifugal, inertial and Coriolis forces and the rate of change in angular momentum of the spinning rotor. The spinning rotor generates a rotating plane of centrifugal and Coriols forces that resist the twisting of the spinning rotor with external torque applied. The forced inclination of the spinning rotor generates inertial forces, resulting in precession torque of a gyroscope. The rate of change of the angular momentum creates resisting and precession torques which are not primary one in gyroscope effects. The new mathematical model for the gyroscope motions under the action of the external torque applied can be as base for new gyroscope theory. At the request of the author of the paper, this corrigendum was issued on 24 May 2016 to correct an incomplete Table 1 and errors in Eq. (47) and Eq. (48).

  20. Mathematical algorithms for approximate reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, John H.; Chay, Seung C.; Downs, Mary M.

    1988-01-01

    Most state of the art expert system environments contain a single and often ad hoc strategy for approximate reasoning. Some environments provide facilities to program the approximate reasoning algorithms. However, the next generation of expert systems should have an environment which contain a choice of several mathematical algorithms for approximate reasoning. To meet the need for validatable and verifiable coding, the expert system environment must no longer depend upon ad hoc reasoning techniques but instead must include mathematically rigorous techniques for approximate reasoning. Popular approximate reasoning techniques are reviewed, including: certainty factors, belief measures, Bayesian probabilities, fuzzy logic, and Shafer-Dempster techniques for reasoning. A group of mathematically rigorous algorithms for approximate reasoning are focused on that could form the basis of a next generation expert system environment. These algorithms are based upon the axioms of set theory and probability theory. To separate these algorithms for approximate reasoning various conditions of mutual exclusivity and independence are imposed upon the assertions. Approximate reasoning algorithms presented include: reasoning with statistically independent assertions, reasoning with mutually exclusive assertions, reasoning with assertions that exhibit minimum overlay within the state space, reasoning with assertions that exhibit maximum overlay within the state space (i.e. fuzzy logic), pessimistic reasoning (i.e. worst case analysis), optimistic reasoning (i.e. best case analysis), and reasoning with assertions with absolutely no knowledge of the possible dependency among the assertions. A robust environment for expert system construction should include the two modes of inference: modus ponens and modus tollens. Modus ponens inference is based upon reasoning towards the conclusion in a statement of logical implication, whereas modus tollens inference is based upon reasoning away