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Sample records for accurate needle insertion

  1. Precision grid and hand motion for accurate needle insertion in brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    McGill, Carl S.; Schwartz, Jonathon A.; Moore, Jason Z.; McLaughlin, Patrick W.; Shih, Albert J.

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: In prostate brachytherapy, a grid is used to guide a needle tip toward a preplanned location within the tissue. During insertion, the needle deflects en route resulting in target misplacement. In this paper, 18-gauge needle insertion experiments into phantom were performed to test effects of three parameters, which include the clearance between the grid hole and needle, the thickness of the grid, and the needle insertion speed. Measurement apparatus that consisted of two datum surfaces and digital depth gauge was developed to quantify needle deflections. Methods: The gauge repeatability and reproducibility (GR and R) test was performed on the measurement apparatus, and it proved to be capable of measuring a 2 mm tolerance from the target. Replicated experiments were performed on a 2{sup 3} factorial design (three parameters at two levels) and analysis included averages and standard deviation along with an analysis of variance (ANOVA) to find significant single and two-way interaction factors. Results: Results showed that grid with tight clearance hole and slow needle speed increased precision and accuracy of needle insertion. The tight grid was vital to enhance precision and accuracy of needle insertion for both slow and fast insertion speed; additionally, at slow speed the tight, thick grid improved needle precision and accuracy. Conclusions: In summary, the tight grid is important, regardless of speed. The grid design, which shows the capability to reduce the needle deflection in brachytherapy procedures, can potentially be implemented in the brachytherapy procedure.

  2. Frictional insertion kinetics of bone biopsy needles.

    PubMed

    Heiner, A D; Brown, T D; Rossin, V; Buckwalter, J A

    2001-12-01

    Patients undergoing a percutaneous bone biopsy often complain of pain during needle insertion, despite local anesthesia. Bone biopsy needles are typically inserted with combined axial and twisting motions. These motions could cause pain through frictional heating or direct mechanical irritation. The hypothesis of this study is that the insertion energy of bone biopsy needles can be reduced by modifying the insertion kinetics or by adding a friction-lowering coating to the needles. Jamshidi bone biopsy needles were driven into a bone analog model by an MTS materials testing machine operating under axial and rotational displacement control. The load/torque recordings showed that, to significantly decrease insertion energy and peak resistance to needle insertion, axial velocity and angular frequency had to be decreased to one quarter of the baseline, typical-usage parameters. However the increased insertion time may not be acceptable clinically. The majority of the insertion energy was associated with the needle axial thrust rather than with needle twisting. Overcoming friction against the side of the needle consumed much more of the insertion energy than did the process of cutting per se. None of five needle coatings tested succeeded in appreciably lowering the insertion energy, and none achieved a substantial decrease in peak resisting force.

  3. Effects of insertion speed and trocar stiffness on the accuracy of needle position for brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    McGill, Carl S.; Schwartz, Jonathon A.; Moore, Jason Z.; McLaughlin, Patrick W.; Shih, Albert J.

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: In prostate brachytherapy, accurate positioning of the needle tip to place radioactive seeds at its target site is critical for successful radiation treatment. During the procedure, needle deflection leads to seed misplacement and suboptimal radiation dose to cancerous cells. In practice, radiation oncologists commonly use high-speed hand needle insertion to minimize displacement of the prostate as well as the needle deflection. Effects of speed during needle insertion and stiffness of trocar (a solid rod inside the hollow cannula) on needle deflection are studied. Methods: Needle insertion experiments into phantom were performed using a 2{sup 2} factorial design (2 parameters at 2 levels), with each condition having replicates. Analysis of the deflection data included calculating the average, standard deviation, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to find significant single and two-way interaction factors. Results: The stiffer tungsten carbide trocar is effective in reducing the average and standard deviation of needle deflection. The fast insertion speed together with the stiffer trocar generated the smallest average and standard deviation for needle deflection for almost all cases. Conclusions: The combination of stiff tungsten carbide trocar and fast needle insertion speed are important to decreasing needle deflection. The knowledge gained from this study can be used to improve the accuracy of needle insertion during brachytherapy procedures.

  4. Kinematics Analysis of an Aided Robot for Needle Insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Gao, Dedong; Wang, Shan; Bai, Huiquan; Zheng, Haojun

    The kinematic relationship between the needle base and the robot's joints is analyzed. The analysis process is based on the aided needle-insertion robot built by our group. The thinking of needle-inserting procedure is confirming the needle base's posture before the needle inserted into tissue. The method of Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) parameters is used to establish a link robot body-frames with the structural characteristics of the robot. After analysing kinematics, the kinematics equation is presented. The kinematics inverse solutions are obtained with the analytical method and geometry analysis method.

  5. Needle Insertion with Duty-Cycled Rotation into Multiple Media

    PubMed Central

    Lehocky, Craig A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2012-01-01

    Thin, flexible needles can be steered along nonlinear paths to reach deep anatomical structures within the human body. This study builds upon previous work involving steering of bevel-tipped needles by inserting while rotating in a duty-cycled fashion. Here we investigate how needle material and radius, duty cycle, and tissue stiffness affect needle curvature. Needles were inserted into media while rotated at a specified duty cycle and the curvature was measured. A linear relationship between duty cycle and curvature was observed across all needle materials and radii, and tissue stiffnesses. Following these observations, we developed a model that encapsulates needle and tissue parameters in order to predict the duty cycle needed to achieve a desired curvature. PMID:23366042

  6. Towards a realistic in vitro experience of epidural Tuohy needle insertion.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Neil; Dubey, Venketesh N; Wee, Michael Y K; Isaacs, Richard

    2013-07-01

    The amount of pressure exerted on the syringe and the depth of needle insertion are the two key factors for successfully carrying out epidural procedure. The force feedback from the syringe plunger is helpful in judging the loss of pressure, and the depth of the needle insertion is crucial in identifying when the needle is precisely placed in the epidural space. This article presents the development of two novel wireless devices to measure these parameters to precisely guide the needle placement in the epidural space. These techniques can be directly used on patients or implemented in a simulator for improving the safety of procedure. A pilot trial has been conducted to collect depth and pressure data with the devices on a porcine cadaver. These measurements are then combined to accurately configure a haptic device for creating a realistic in vitro experience of epidural needle insertion. PMID:23636758

  7. Minimally disruptive needle insertion: a biologically inspired solution.

    PubMed

    Leibinger, Alexander; Oldfield, Matthew J; Rodriguez Y Baena, Ferdinando

    2016-06-01

    The mobility of soft tissue can cause inaccurate needle insertions. Particularly in steering applications that employ thin and flexible needles, large deviations can occur between pre-operative images of the patient, from which a procedure is planned, and the intra-operative scene, where a procedure is executed. Although many approaches for reducing tissue motion focus on external constraining or manipulation, little attention has been paid to the way the needle is inserted and actuated within soft tissue. Using our biologically inspired steerable needle, we present a method of reducing the disruptiveness of insertions by mimicking the burrowing mechanism of ovipositing wasps. Internal displacements and strains in three dimensions within a soft tissue phantom are measured at the needle interface, using a scanning laser-based image correlation technique. Compared to a conventional insertion method with an equally sized needle, overall displacements and strains in the needle vicinity are reduced by 30% and 41%, respectively. The results show that, for a given net speed, needle insertion can be made significantly less disruptive with respect to its surroundings by employing our biologically inspired solution. This will have significant impact on both the safety and targeting accuracy of percutaneous interventions along both straight and curved trajectories. PMID:27274797

  8. Observations on rotating needle insertions using a brachytherapy robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltsner, M. A.; Ferrier, N. J.; Thomadsen, B. R.

    2007-09-01

    A robot designed for prostate brachytherapy implantations has the potential to greatly improve treatment success. Much of the research in robotic surgery focuses on measuring accuracy. However, there exist many factors that must be optimized before an analysis of needle placement accuracy can be determined. Some of these parameters include choice of the needle type, insertion velocity, usefulness of the rotating needle and rotation speed. These parameters may affect the force at which the needle interacts with the tissue. A reduction in force has been shown to decrease the compression of the prostate and potentially increase the accuracy of seed position. Rotating the needle as it is inserted may reduce frictional forces while increasing accuracy. However, needle rotations are considered to increase tissue damage due to the drilling nature of the insertion. We explore many of the factors involved in optimizing a brachytherapy robot, and the potential effects each parameter may have on the procedure. We also investigate the interaction of rotating needles in gel and suggest the rotate-cannula-only method of conical needle insertion to minimize any tissue damage while still maintaining the benefits of reduced force and increased accuracy.

  9. Simulations of needle insertion by using a Eulerian hydrocode FEM and the experimental validations.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Noda, Shigeho; Yokota, Hideo; Takagi, Shu; Himeno, Ryutaro; Okazawa, Shigenobu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, simulations for needle insertion were performed by using a novel Eulerian hydrocode FEM, which was adaptive for large deformation and tissue fracture. We also performed experiments for the same needle insertion with silicon rubbers and needles, which had conical tips of different angles in order to investigate the accuracy of the simulations. The resistance forces in the simulations accurately followed those in the experiments until the conical portion of the needle was inside the rubbers, and the validation of the Eulerian hydrocode was revealed. However, the present simulation showed that after the conical portion was inside the tissue, the simulated resistance forces became lower than the experimental ones. The proportional increase of the friction forces and the roughly flatness of the tip force along the time were simulated. It was predicted that the tightening force along the needle side was underestimated. PMID:18982649

  10. Learning Ultrasound-Guided Needle Insertion Skills through an Edutainment Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Wing-Yin; Ni, Dong; Pang, Wai-Man; Qin, Jing; Chui, Yim-Pan; Yu, Simon Chun-Ho; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    Ultrasound-guided needle insertion is essential in many of minimally invasive surgeries or procedures, such as biopsy, drug delivery, spinal anaesthesia, etc. Accurate and safe needle insertion is a difficult task due to the high requirement of hand-eye coordination skills. Many proposed virtual reality (VR) based training systems put their emphasis on realistic simulation instead of pedagogical efficiency. The lack of schematic training scenario leads to boredom of repetitive operations. To solve this, we present our novel training system with the integration of game elements in order to retain the trainees' enthusiasm. Task-oriented scenarios, time attack scenarios and performance evaluation are introduced. Besides, some state-of-art technologies are also presented, including ultrasound simulation, needle haptic rendering as well as a mass-spring-based needle-tissue interaction simulation. These works are shown to be effective to keep the trainees up with learning.

  11. Development of Needle Insertion Manipulator for Central Venous Catheterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yo; Hong, Jaesung; Hamano, Ryutaro; Hashizume, Makoto; Okada, Kaoru; Fujie, Masakatsu G.

    Central venous catheterization is a procedure, which a doctor insert a catheter into the patient’s vein for transfusion. Since there are risks of bleeding from arterial puncture or pneumothorax from pleural puncture. Physicians are strictly required to make needle reach up into the vein and to stop the needle in the middle of vein. We proposed a robot system for assisting the venous puncture, which can relieve the difficulties in conventional procedure, and the risks of complication. This paper reports the design structuring and experimental results of needle insertion manipulator. First, we investigated the relationship between insertion force and angle into the vein. The results indicated that the judgment of perforation using the reaction force is possible in case where the needling angle is from 10 to 20 degree. The experiment to evaluate accuracy of the robot also revealed that it has beyond 0.5 mm accuracy. We also evaluated the positioning accuracy in the ultrasound images. The results displays that the accuracy is beyond 1.0 mm and it has enough for venous puncture. We also carried out the venous puncture experiment to the phantom and confirm our manipulator realized to make needle reach up into the vein.

  12. Effects of Rotational Motion in Robotic Needle Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Ramezanpour, H.; Yousefi, H.; Rezaei, M.; Rostami, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Robotic needle insertion in biological tissues has been known as one the most applicable procedures in sampling, robotic injection and different medical therapies and operations. Objective In this paper, we would like to investigate the effects of angular velocity in soft tissue insertion procedure by considering force-displacement diagram. Non-homogenous camel liver can be exploited as a tissue sample under standard compression test with Zwick/Roell device employing 1-D axial load-cell. Methods Effects of rotational motion were studied by running needle insertion experiments in 5, 50 and 200 mm/min in two types of with or without rotational velocity of 50, 150 and 300 rpm. On further steps with deeper penetrations, friction force of the insertion procedure in needle shaft was acquired by a definite thickness of the tissue. Results Designed mechanism of fixture for providing different frequencies of rotational motion is available in this work. Results for comparison of different force graphs were also provided. Conclusion Derived force-displacement graphs showed a significant difference between two procedures; however, tissue bleeding and disorganized micro-structure would be among unavoidable results. PMID:26688800

  13. Dynamics of translational friction in needle-tissue interaction during needle insertion.

    PubMed

    Asadian, Ali; Patel, Rajni V; Kermani, Mehrdad R

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a distributed approach to account for dynamic friction during needle insertion in soft tissue is presented. As is well known, friction is a complex nonlinear phenomenon. It appears that classical or static models are unable to capture some of the observations made in systems subjected to significant frictional effects. In needle insertion, translational friction would be a matter of importance when the needle is very flexible, or a stop-and-rotate motion profile at low insertion velocities is implemented, and thus, the system is repeatedly transitioned from a pre-sliding to a sliding mode and vice versa. In order to characterize friction components, a distributed version of the LuGre model in the state-space representation is adopted. This method also facilitates estimating cutting force in an intra-operative manner. To evaluate the performance of the proposed family of friction models, experiments were conducted on homogeneous artificial phantoms and animal tissue. The results illustrate that our approach enables us to represent the main features of friction which is a major force component in needle-tissue interaction during needle-based interventions.

  14. Disposable patient-mounted geared robot for image-guided needle insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Charles; Kato, Takahisa; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2016-03-01

    Patient-mounted robotic needle guidance is an emerging method of needle insertion in percutaneous ablation therapies. During needle insertion, patient-mounted robots can account for patient body movement, unlike gantry or floor mounted devices, and still increase the accuracy and precision of needle placement. Patient-mounted robots, however, require repeated sterilisation, which is often a difficult process with complex devices; overcoming this challenge is therefore key to the success of a patient mounted robot. To eliminate the need for repeated sterilization, we have developed a disposable patient-mounted robot with two rings as a kinematic structure: an angled upper ring both rotates and revolves about the lower ring. Using this structure, the robot has a clinically suitable range of needle insertion angles with a remote center of motion. To achieve disposability, our structure applies a disposable gear transmission component which detachably interfaces with non-disposable driving motors. With a manually driven prototype of the gear trains, we assessed whether the kinematic structure of the two rings can be operated only by using input pinions locating at outside of the kinematic structure. Our tests confirmed that the input pinions were able to rotate both upper and lower rings independently. We also determined a linear relationship of rotation transmission with the gear trains and determined that the rotation transmission between the pinions and the two rings were within 3 % of error from the designed value. Our robot introduces a novel approach to patient-mounted robots, and has potential to enable sterile and accurate needle guidance in percutaneous ablation therapies.

  15. A Needle-Free Injection System (INJEX™) with lidocaine for epidural needle insertion: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gozdemir, Muhammet; Demircioglu, Ruveyda Irem; Karabayirli, Safinaz; Sert, Huseyin; Muslu, Bunyamin; Usta, Burhanettin; Yazici, Ummugulsum

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Local anesthetic infiltration is also a process of a painful process itself. INJEX™ technology, known as “Needle-free” drug delivery system, was designed for reducing the pain associated with cutaneous procedures. We conducted a prospective, randomized trial to evaluate the application of lidocaine with INJEX™ system and 27-gauge needle. Methods: A total of 60 consecutive patients were allocated to receive either INJEX group or 27-gauge needle group. Local anesthetic infiltration was applied two minutes before epidural needle insertion. Results: Mean VAS, at the time of local anesthetic injection was 0 for group I and 2 for group II. When the effect of epidural needle insertion was compared, the mean VAS score was one versus two for Group-I versus Group-II, respectively. Lidocaine applied with the INJEX™ system before epidural needle insertion significantly reduced the intensity of pain during that procedure and was least effective the lidocaine applied with the 27-gauge needle and patients felt less pain during at the time of local anesthetic injection in Group-I. Conclusion: Needle-free delivery of lidocaine is an effective, easy to-use and noninvasive method of providing local anesthesia for the epidural needle insertion. PMID:27375728

  16. [Acupuncture therapy for regaining consciousness in terms of acupoint location, needle insertion and needle manipulation].

    PubMed

    Meng, Xianggang; Gu, Wenlong; Ma, Fen; Du, Yuzheng; Zhao, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Acupuncture therapy for regaining consciousness activates soreness, numbness, distention, heaviness, radiating and moving, electric shock and ant climbing sensations at the specific acupoints in the stroke patients. Radiating and moving sensations are the summary of needling sensations such as soreness, numbness and twitching presenting during lifting and thrusting manipulation. These sensations are the essential factors of the therapeutic effect of regaining consciousness. Radiating sensation refers to the conduction along meridians and radiation of soreness and numbness. Moving sensation refers to the local muscular twitching at acupoints and the involuntary movement of limbs, joints and the distal. Acupuncture at the specific acupoints achieves radiating and moving sensations for promoting the circulation in meridians, regulating qi and mind and balancing yin and yang in stroke patients. This therapy was introduced in the paper in view of acupoint location, needle insertion and manipulation.

  17. Accurate biopsy-needle depth estimation in limited-angle tomography using multi-view geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Sommen, Fons; Zinger, Sveta; de With, Peter H. N.

    2016-03-01

    Recently, compressed-sensing based algorithms have enabled volume reconstruction from projection images acquired over a relatively small angle (θ < 20°). These methods enable accurate depth estimation of surgical tools with respect to anatomical structures. However, they are computationally expensive and time consuming, rendering them unattractive for image-guided interventions. We propose an alternative approach for depth estimation of biopsy needles during image-guided interventions, in which we split the problem into two parts and solve them independently: needle-depth estimation and volume reconstruction. The complete proposed system consists of the previous two steps, preceded by needle extraction. First, we detect the biopsy needle in the projection images and remove it by interpolation. Next, we exploit epipolar geometry to find point-to-point correspondences in the projection images to triangulate the 3D position of the needle in the volume. Finally, we use the interpolated projection images to reconstruct the local anatomical structures and indicate the position of the needle within this volume. For validation of the algorithm, we have recorded a full CT scan of a phantom with an inserted biopsy needle. The performance of our approach ranges from a median error of 2.94 mm for an distributed viewing angle of 1° down to an error of 0.30 mm for an angle larger than 10°. Based on the results of this initial phantom study, we conclude that multi-view geometry offers an attractive alternative to time-consuming iterative methods for the depth estimation of surgical tools during C-arm-based image-guided interventions.

  18. Automatic identification of needle insertion site in epidural anesthesia with a cascading classifier.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuang; Tan, Kok Kiong; Sng, Ban Leong; Li, Shengjin; Sia, Alex Tiong Heng

    2014-09-01

    Ultrasound imaging was used to detect the anatomic structure of lumbar spine from the transverse view, to facilitate needle insertion in epidural anesthesia. The interspinous images that represent proper needle insertion sites were identified automatically with image processing and pattern recognition techniques. On the basis of ultrasound video streams obtained in pregnant patients, the image processing and identification procedure in a previous work was tested and improved. The test results indicate that the pre-processing algorithm performs well on lumbar spine ultrasound images, whereas the classifier is not flexible enough for pregnant patients. To improve the accuracy of identification, we propose a cascading classifier that successfully located the proper needle insertion site on all of the 36 video streams collected from pregnant patients. The results indicate that the proposed image identification procedure is able to identify the ultrasound images of lumbar spine in an automatic manner, so as to facilitate the anesthetists' work to identify the needle insertion point precisely and effectively.

  19. On the use of discrete steps in robot-aided flexible needle insertion.

    PubMed

    Geraldes, André A; Marinho, Murilo M; Bernardes, Mariana C; Bó, Antonio P L; Borges, Geovany A

    2013-01-01

    Needle steering devices present great potential for improving the safety and accuracy of medical interventions with percutaneous access. Despite significant advances in the field, needle steerability remains an issue to be solved by the scientific community. In this paper, we propose the use of discrete steps in flexible needle insertion, inspired by the manual procedure performed by physicians. Conceptually, the method relies in alternating between two motions: grasp-push and release-retreat. For experimental evaluation, a modified gripper is used along with a 6DOF robotic manipulator to control needle insertion velocity, rotation and grasping. Preliminary results indicate that the use of discrete steps minimizes some negative effects, such as slippage and needle buckling, observed on alternative methods, while preserving their functional advantages.

  20. Accurate Insertion Loss Measurements of the Juno Patch Array Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Neil; Chen, Jacqueline; Hodges, Richard; Demas, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes two independent methods for estimating the insertion loss of patch array antennas that were developed for the Juno Microwave Radiometer instrument. One method is based principally on pattern measurements while the other method is based solely on network analyzer measurements. The methods are accurate to within 0.1 dB for the measured antennas and show good agreement (to within 0.1dB) of separate radiometric measurements.

  1. Robotic system for MRI-guided prostate biopsy: feasibility of teleoperated needle insertion and ex vivo phantom study

    PubMed Central

    Seifabadi, Reza; Song, Sang-Eun; Krieger, Axel; Cho, Nathan Bongjoon; Tokuda, Junichi; Fichtinger, Gabor; Iordachita, Iulian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) combined with robotic assistance has the potential to improve on clinical outcomes of biopsy and local treatment of prostate cancer. Methods We report the workspace optimization and phantom evaluation of a five Degree of Freedom (DOF) parallel pneumatically actuated modular robot for MRI-guided prostate biopsy. To shorten procedure time and consequently increase patient comfort and system accuracy, a prototype of a MRI-compatible master–slave needle driver module using piezo motors was also added to the base robot. Results Variable size workspace was achieved using appropriate link length, compared with the previous design. The 5-DOF targeting accuracy demonstrated an average error of 2.5mm (STD=1.37mm) in a realistic phantom inside a 3T magnet with a bevel-tip 18G needle. The average position tracking error of the master–slave needle driver was always below 0.1mm. Conclusion Phantom experiments showed sufficient accuracy for manual prostate biopsy. Also, the implementation of teleoperated needle insertion was feasible and accurate. These two together suggest the feasibility of accurate fully actuated needle placement into prostate while keeping the clinician supervision over the task. PMID:21698389

  2. The Relationship Between Patients’ Anthropometric Characteristics and Depth of Spinal Needle Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Razavizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Fazel, Mohammad Reza; Mosavi, Mahdi; Sehat, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Background Many surgeries are performed under spinal anesthesia. Inexperienced practitioners may find it difficult to obtain subarachnoid access. Objectives This study aimed to examine the relationship between patients’ anthropometric characteristics and depth of spinal needle insertion to the subarachnoid cavity. Patients and Methods 385 patients with ASA class I – II, aged 18 - 65 years and undergoing elective surgery of the lower abdomen and extremities under spinal anesthesia, were selected for this cross-sectional study. The patients’ demographic characteristics, body mass index (BMI), and anthropometric characteristics (height, weight, waist circumference, and arm circumference) were recorded. Linear regression and t-student tests were used to study the relationship between anthropometric characteristics and BMI, and depth of needle insertion. Results Of the 385 patients studied, 88 were female and 297 were male. There was a strong correlation between the depth of needle insertion and BMI (24.9 ± 3.9), and between depth and weight/height ratio (r = 0.95 and r = 0.92, respectively). There was no significant correlation between depth of needle insertion and weight, height, gender, or arm circumference, when considered separately. The statistical predicting models showed that the following relationship was observed between the needle depth and the weight/height ratio: A: needle depth = 0.69 + (10.1 × weight/height); B: needle depth = 0.56 + (0.18 × BMI). Conclusions The results of this study show that there is a strong relationship between depth of needle insertion and BMI, and between depth and the weight/height ratio; appropriate depths can be determined according to the equations obtained. PMID:27252901

  3. A Novel Actuator for Simulation of Epidural Anesthesia and Other Needle Insertion Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Magill, John C.; Byl, Marten F.; Hinds, Michael F.; Agassounon, William; Pratt, Stephen D.; Hess, Philip E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction When navigating a needle from skin to epidural space, a skilled clinician maintains a mental model of the anatomy and uses the various forms of haptic and visual feedback to track the location of the needle tip. Simulating the procedure requires an actuator that can produce the feel of tissue layers even as the needle direction changes from the ideal path. Methods A new actuator and algorithm architecture simulate forces associated with passing a needle through varying tissue layers. The actuator uses a set of cables to suspend a needle holder. The cables are wound onto spools controlled by brushless motors. An electromagnetic tracker is used to monitor the position of the needle tip. Results Novice and expert clinicians simulated epidural insertion with the simulator. Preliminary depth-time curves show that the user responds to changes in tissue properties as the needle is advanced. Some discrepancy in clinician response indicates that the feel of the simulator is sensitive to technique, thus perfect tissue property simulation has not been achieved. Conclusions The new simulator is able to approximately reproduce properties of complex multilayer tissue structures, including fine-scale texture. Methods for improving fidelity of the simulation are identified. PMID:20651481

  4. Characterization of ultrasound elevation beamwidth artifacts for prostate brachytherapy needle insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Peikari, Mohammad; Chen, Thomas Kuriran; Lasso, Anras; Heffter, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor; Burdette, Everette C.

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: Ultrasound elevation beamwidth leads to image artifacts and uncertainties in localizing objects (such as a surgical needle) in ultrasound images. The authors examined the clinical significance of errors caused by elevation beamwidth artifacts and imaging parameters in needle insertion procedures. Methods: Beveled prostate brachytherapy needles were inserted through all holes of a grid template under real-time transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance. The needle tip position as indicated by the TRUS image was compared to their observed physical location. A new device was developed to measure the ultrasound elevation beamwidth. Results: Imaging parameters of the TRUS scanner have direct impact on the localization error ranging from 0.5 up to 4 mm. The smallest localization error was observed laterally close to the center of the grid template and axially within the beam's focal zone. Largest localization error occurs laterally around both sides of the grid template and axially within the beam's far field. The authors also found that the localization errors vary with both lateral and elevation offsets. Conclusions: The authors found properly adjusting the TRUS imaging settings to lower the ultrasound gain and power effectively minimized the appearance of elevation beamwidth artifacts and in turn reduced the localization errors of the needle tip.

  5. Videos in clinical medicine. Insertion of an intraosseous needle in adults.

    PubMed

    Dev, Shelly P; Stefan, Raluca A; Saun, Tomas; Lee, Shirley

    2014-06-12

    Intraosseous needle insertion is used as a temporary measure when intravascular access cannot be achieved through peripheral or central venous routes. The intraosseous needle may remain in situ for 72 to 96 hours, but it is best removed within 6 to 12 hours, as soon as an alternative site of intravascular access has been established. The intraosseous route provides fast and reliable vascular access in emergency medical situations. The use of the appropriate technique will ensure that the procedure is performed as safely and effectively as possible. PMID:24918394

  6. Improved targeting device and computer navigation for accurate placement of brachytherapy needles

    SciTech Connect

    Pappas, Ion P.I.; Ryan, Paul; Cossmann, Peter; Kowal, Jens; Borgeson, Blake; Caversaccio, Marco

    2005-06-15

    Successful treatment of skull base tumors with interstitial brachytherapy requires high targeting accuracy for the brachytherapy needles to avoid harming vital anatomical structures. To enable safe placement of the needles in this area, we developed an image-based planning and navigation system for brachytherapy, which includes a custom-made mechanical positioning arm that allows rough and fine adjustment of the needle position. The fine-adjustment mechanism consists of an XYZ microstage at the base of the arm and a needle holder with two fine-adjustable inclinations. The rotation axes of the inclinations cross at the tip of the needle so that the inclinational adjustments do not interfere with the translational adjustments. A vacuum cushion and a noninvasive fixation frame are used for the head immobilization. To avoid mechanical bending of the needles due to the weight of attached tracking markers, which would be detrimental for targeting accuracy, only a single LED marker on the tail of the needle is used. An experimental phantom-based targeting study with this setup demonstrated that a positioning accuracy of 1.4 mm (rms) can be achieved. The study showed that the proposed setup allows brachytherapy needles to be easily aligned and inserted with high targeting accuracy according to a preliminary plan. The achievable accuracy is higher than if the needles are inserted manually. The proposed system can be linked to a standard afterloader and standard dosimetry planning module. The associated additional effort is reasonable for the clinical practice and therefore the proposed procedure provides a promising tool for the safe treatment of tumors in the skull base area.

  7. Integrating Haptics with Augmented Reality in a Femoral Palpation and Needle Insertion Training Simulation.

    PubMed

    Coles, T R; John, N W; Gould, Derek A; Caldwell, D G

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a virtual environment for training femoral palpation and needle insertion, the opening steps of many interventional radiology procedures. A novel augmented reality simulation called PalpSim has been developed that allows the trainees to feel a virtual patient using their own hands. The palpation step requires both force and tactile feedback. For the palpation haptics effect, two off-the-shelf force feedback devices have been linked together to provide a hybrid device that gives five degrees of force feedback. This is combined with a custom built hydraulic interface to provide a pulse like tactile effect. The needle interface is based on a modified PHANTOM Omni end effector that allows a real interventional radiology needle to be mounted and used during simulation. While using the virtual environment, the haptics hardware is masked from view using chroma-key techniques. The trainee sees a computer generated patient and needle, and interacts using their own hands. This simulation provides a high level of face validity and is one of the first medical simulation devices to integrate haptics with augmented reality.

  8. Fully automated image-guided needle insertion: application to small animal biopsies.

    PubMed

    Ayadi, A; Bour, G; Aprahamian, M; Bayle, B; Graebling, P; Gangloff, J; Soler, L; Egly, J M; Marescaux, J

    2007-01-01

    The study of biological process evolution in small animals requires time-consuming and expansive analyses of a large population of animals. Serial analyses of the same animal is potentially a great alternative. However non-invasive procedures must be set up, to retrieve valuable tissue samples from precisely defined areas in living animals. Taking advantage of the high resolution level of in vivo molecular imaging, we defined a procedure to perform image-guided needle insertion and automated biopsy using a micro CT-scan, a robot and a vision system. Workspace limitations in the scanner require the animal to be removed and laid in front of the robot. A vision system composed of a grid projector and a camera is used to register the designed animal-bed with to respect to the robot and to calibrate automatically the needle position and orientation. Automated biopsy is then synchronised with respiration and performed with a pneumatic translation device, at high velocity, to minimize organ deformation. We have experimentally tested our biopsy system with different needles.

  9. Effects of Axial Vibration on Needle Insertion into the Tail Veins of Rats and Subsequent Serial Blood Corticosterone Levels.

    PubMed

    Clement, Ryan S; Unger, Erica L; Ocón-Grove, Olga M; Cronin, Thomas L; Mulvihill, Maureen L

    2016-03-01

    Blood collection is commonplace in biomedical research. Obtaining sufficient sample while minimizing animal stress requires significant skill and practice. Repeated needle punctures can cause discomfort and lead to variable release of stress hormones, potentially confounding analysis. We designed a handheld device to reduce the force necessary for needle insertion by using low-frequency, axial (forward and backward) micromotions (that is, vibration) delivered to the needle during venipuncture. Tests with cadaver rat-tail segments (n = 18) confirmed that peak insertion forces were reduced by 73% on average with needle vibration. A serial blood-sampling study was then conducted by using Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 2 groups based on needle condition used to cause bleeds: vibration on (n = 10) and vibration off (n = 9). On 3 days (1 wk apart), 3 tail-vein blood collections were performed in each subject at 1-h intervals. To evaluate associated stress levels, plasma corticosterone concentration was quantified by radioimmunoassay and behavior (that is, movement and vocalization) was scored by blinded review of blood-sampling videos. After the initial trial, average corticosterone was lower (46% difference), the mean intrasubject variance trended lower (72%), and behavioral indications of stress were rated lower for the vibration-on group compared with the vibration-off group. Adding controlled vibrations to needles during insertion may decrease the stress associated with blood sampling from rats--an important methodologic advance for investigators studying and assessing stress processes and a refinement over current blood sampling techniques. PMID:27025813

  10. Effects of Axial Vibration on Needle Insertion into the Tail Veins of Rats and Subsequent Serial Blood Corticosterone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Ryan S; Unger, Erica L; Ocón-Grove, Olga M; Cronin, Thomas L; Mulvihill, Maureen L

    2016-01-01

    Blood collection is commonplace in biomedical research. Obtaining sufficient sample while minimizing animal stress requires significant skill and practice. Repeated needle punctures can cause discomfort and lead to variable release of stress hormones, potentially confounding analysis. We designed a handheld device to reduce the force necessary for needle insertion by using low-frequency, axial (forward and backward) micromotions (that is, vibration) delivered to the needle during venipuncture. Tests with cadaver rat-tail segments (n = 18) confirmed that peak insertion forces were reduced by 73% on average with needle vibration. A serial blood-sampling study was then conducted by using Sprague–Dawley rats divided into 2 groups based on needle condition used to cause bleeds: vibration on (n = 10) and vibration off (n = 9). On 3 days (1 wk apart), 3 tail-vein blood collections were performed in each subject at 1-h intervals. To evaluate associated stress levels, plasma corticosterone concentration was quantified by radioimmunoassay and behavior (that is, movement and vocalization) was scored by blinded review of blood-sampling videos. After the initial trial, average corticosterone was lower (46% difference), the mean intrasubject variance trended lower (72%), and behavioral indications of stress were rated lower for the vibration-on group compared with the vibration-off group. Adding controlled vibrations to needles during insertion may decrease the stress associated with blood sampling from rats—an important methodologic advance for investigators studying and assessing stress processes and a refinement over current blood sampling techniques. PMID:27025813

  11. Evaluation of the friction coefficient, the radial stress, and the damage work during needle insertions into agarose gels.

    PubMed

    Urrea, Fabián A; Casanova, Fernando; Orozco, Gustavo A; García, José J

    2016-03-01

    Agarose hydrogels have been extensively used as a phantom material to mimic the mechanical behavior of soft biological tissues, e.g. in studies aimed to analyze needle insertions into the organs producing tissue damage. To better predict the radial stress and damage during needle insertions, this study was aimed to determine the friction coefficient between the material of commercial catheters and hydrogels. The friction coefficient, the tissue damage and the radial stress were evaluated at 0.2, 1.8, and 10mm/s velocities for 28, 30, and 32 gauge needles of outer diameters equal to 0.36, 0.31, and 0.23mm, respectively. Force measurements during needle insertions and retractions on agarose gel samples were used to analyze damage and radial stress. The static friction coefficient (0.295±0.056) was significantly higher than the dynamic (0.255±0.086). The static and dynamic friction coefficients were significantly smaller for the 0.2mm/s velocity compared to those for the other two velocities, and there was no significant difference between the friction coefficients for 1.8 and 10mm/s. Radial stress averages were 131.2±54.1, 248.3±64.2, and 804.9±164.3Pa for the insertion velocity of 0.2, 1.8, and 10mm/s, respectively. The radial stress presented a tendency to increase at higher insertion velocities and needle size, which is consistent with other studies. However, the damage work did not show to be a good predictor of tissue damage, which appears to be due to simplifications in the analytical model. Differently to other approaches, the method proposed here based on radial stress may be extended in future studies to quantity tissue damage in vivo along the entire needle track.

  12. Evaluation of the friction coefficient, the radial stress, and the damage work during needle insertions into agarose gels.

    PubMed

    Urrea, Fabián A; Casanova, Fernando; Orozco, Gustavo A; García, José J

    2016-03-01

    Agarose hydrogels have been extensively used as a phantom material to mimic the mechanical behavior of soft biological tissues, e.g. in studies aimed to analyze needle insertions into the organs producing tissue damage. To better predict the radial stress and damage during needle insertions, this study was aimed to determine the friction coefficient between the material of commercial catheters and hydrogels. The friction coefficient, the tissue damage and the radial stress were evaluated at 0.2, 1.8, and 10mm/s velocities for 28, 30, and 32 gauge needles of outer diameters equal to 0.36, 0.31, and 0.23mm, respectively. Force measurements during needle insertions and retractions on agarose gel samples were used to analyze damage and radial stress. The static friction coefficient (0.295±0.056) was significantly higher than the dynamic (0.255±0.086). The static and dynamic friction coefficients were significantly smaller for the 0.2mm/s velocity compared to those for the other two velocities, and there was no significant difference between the friction coefficients for 1.8 and 10mm/s. Radial stress averages were 131.2±54.1, 248.3±64.2, and 804.9±164.3Pa for the insertion velocity of 0.2, 1.8, and 10mm/s, respectively. The radial stress presented a tendency to increase at higher insertion velocities and needle size, which is consistent with other studies. However, the damage work did not show to be a good predictor of tissue damage, which appears to be due to simplifications in the analytical model. Differently to other approaches, the method proposed here based on radial stress may be extended in future studies to quantity tissue damage in vivo along the entire needle track. PMID:26700572

  13. Optimal point of insertion of the needle in neuraxial blockade using a midline approach: study in a geometrical model

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Mark; van Gerwen, Dennis J; van den Dobbelsteen, John J; Hagenaars, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Performance of neuraxial blockade using a midline approach can be technically difficult. It is therefore important to optimize factors that are under the influence of the clinician performing the procedure. One of these factors might be the chosen point of insertion of the needle. Surprisingly few data exist on where between the tips of two adjacent spinous processes the needle should be introduced. A geometrical model was adopted to gain more insight into this issue. Spinous processes were represented by parallelograms. The length, the steepness relative to the skin, and the distance between the parallelograms were varied. The influence of the chosen point of insertion of the needle on the range of angles at which the epidural and subarachnoid space could be reached was studied. The optimal point of insertion was defined as the point where this range is the widest. The geometrical model clearly demonstrated, that the range of angles at which the epidural or subarachnoid space can be reached, is dependent on the point of insertion between the tips of the adjacent spinous processes. The steeper the spinous processes run, the more cranial the point of insertion should be. Assuming that the model is representative for patients, the performance of neuraxial blockade using a midline approach might be improved by choosing the optimal point of insertion. PMID:27570462

  14. Detailed finite element modelling of deep needle insertions into a soft tissue phantom using a cohesive approach.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Matthew; Dini, Daniele; Giordano, Gianpaolo; Rodriguez Y Baena, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    Detailed finite element modelling of needle insertions into soft tissue phantoms encounters difficulties of large deformations, high friction, contact loading and material failure. This paper demonstrates the use of cohesive elements in high-resolution finite element models to overcome some of the issues associated with these factors. Experiments are presented enabling extraction of the strain energy release rate during crack formation. Using data from these experiments, cohesive elements are calibrated and then implemented in models for validation of the needle insertion process. Successful modelling enables direct comparison of finite element and experimental force-displacement plots and energy distributions. Regions of crack creation, relaxation, cutting and full penetration are identified. By closing the loop between experiments and detailed finite element modelling, a methodology is established which will enable design modifications of a soft tissue probe that steers through complex mechanical interactions with the surrounding material. PMID:22229447

  15. Teleoperation System with Hybrid Pneumatic-Piezoelectric Actuation for MRI-Guided Needle Insertion with Haptic Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Weijian; Su, Hao; Li, Gang; Fischer, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a surgical master-slave tele-operation system for percutaneous interventional procedures under continuous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. This system consists of a piezoelectrically actuated slave robot for needle placement with integrated fiber optic force sensor utilizing Fabry-Perot interferometry (FPI) sensing principle. The sensor flexure is optimized and embedded to the slave robot for measuring needle insertion force. A novel, compact opto-mechanical FPI sensor interface is integrated into an MRI robot control system. By leveraging the complementary features of pneumatic and piezoelectric actuation, a pneumatically actuated haptic master robot is also developed to render force associated with needle placement interventions to the clinician. An aluminum load cell is implemented and calibrated to close the impedance control loop of the master robot. A force-position control algorithm is developed to control the hybrid actuated system. Teleoperated needle insertion is demonstrated under live MR imaging, where the slave robot resides in the scanner bore and the user manipulates the master beside the patient outside the bore. Force and position tracking results of the master-slave robot are demonstrated to validate the tracking performance of the integrated system. It has a position tracking error of 0.318mm and sine wave force tracking error of 2.227N. PMID:25126446

  16. Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of Osteoid Osteomas with Use of Real-Time Needle Guidance for Accurate Needle Placement: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Busser, Wendy M. H. Hoogeveen, Yvonne L.; Veth, Rene P. H.; Schreuder, H. W. Bart; Balguid, Angelique; Renema, W. KlaasJan; SchultzeKool, Leo J.

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy and technical success of positioning a radiofrequency ablation (RFA) electrode in osteoid osteomas by use of a new real-time needle guidance technology combining cone-beam computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopy. Materials and Methods: Percutaneous RFA of osteoid osteomas was performed in five patients (median age 18 years), under general anesthesia, with the use of cone-beam CT and fluoroscopic guidance for electrode positioning. The outcome parameters were technical success, meaning correct needle placement in the nidus; accuracy defined as the deviation (in mm) from the center of the nidus; and clinical outcome at follow-up. Results: In all five cases, positioning was possible within 3 mm of the determined target location (median nidus size 6.8 mm; range 5-10.2 mm). All procedures were technically successful. All patients were free of pain at clinical follow-up. No complications were observed. Conclusion: Real-time fluoroscopy needle guidance based on cone-beam CT is a useful tool to accurately position radiofrequency needles for minimally invasive treatment of osteoid osteomas.

  17. Effect of needle insertion speed on tissue injury, stress, and backflow distribution for convection-enhanced delivery in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Fernando; Carney, Paul R; Sarntinoranont, Malisa

    2014-01-01

    Flow back along a needle track (backflow) can be a problem during direct infusion, e.g. convection-enhanced delivery (CED), of drugs into soft tissues such as brain. In this study, the effect of needle insertion speed on local tissue injury and backflow was evaluated in vivo in the rat brain. Needles were introduced at three insertion speeds (0.2, 2, and 10 mm/s) followed by CED of Evans blue albumin (EBA) tracer. Holes left in tissue slices were used to reconstruct penetration damage. These measurements were also input into a hyperelastic model to estimate radial stress at the needle-tissue interface (pre-stress) before infusion. Fast insertion speeds were found to produce more tissue bleeding and disruption; average hole area at 10 mm/s was 1.87-fold the area at 0.2 mm/s. Hole measurements also differed at two fixation time points after needle retraction, 10 and 25 min, indicating that pre-stresses are influenced by time-dependent tissue swelling. Calculated pre-stresses were compressive (0 to 485 Pa) and varied along the length of the needle with smaller average values within white matter (116 Pa) than gray matter (301 Pa) regions. Average pre-stress at 0.2 mm/s (351.7 Pa) was calculated to be 1.46-fold the value at 10 mm/s. For CED backflow experiments (0.5, 1, and 2 µL/min), measured EBA backflow increased as much as 2.46-fold between 10 and 0.2 mm/s insertion speeds. Thus, insertion rate-dependent damage and changes in pre-stress were found to directly contribute to the extent of backflow, with slower insertion resulting in less damage and improved targeting.

  18. Effect of needle insertion speed on tissue injury, stress, and backflow distribution for convection-enhanced delivery in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Fernando; Carney, Paul R; Sarntinoranont, Malisa

    2014-01-01

    Flow back along a needle track (backflow) can be a problem during direct infusion, e.g. convection-enhanced delivery (CED), of drugs into soft tissues such as brain. In this study, the effect of needle insertion speed on local tissue injury and backflow was evaluated in vivo in the rat brain. Needles were introduced at three insertion speeds (0.2, 2, and 10 mm/s) followed by CED of Evans blue albumin (EBA) tracer. Holes left in tissue slices were used to reconstruct penetration damage. These measurements were also input into a hyperelastic model to estimate radial stress at the needle-tissue interface (pre-stress) before infusion. Fast insertion speeds were found to produce more tissue bleeding and disruption; average hole area at 10 mm/s was 1.87-fold the area at 0.2 mm/s. Hole measurements also differed at two fixation time points after needle retraction, 10 and 25 min, indicating that pre-stresses are influenced by time-dependent tissue swelling. Calculated pre-stresses were compressive (0 to 485 Pa) and varied along the length of the needle with smaller average values within white matter (116 Pa) than gray matter (301 Pa) regions. Average pre-stress at 0.2 mm/s (351.7 Pa) was calculated to be 1.46-fold the value at 10 mm/s. For CED backflow experiments (0.5, 1, and 2 µL/min), measured EBA backflow increased as much as 2.46-fold between 10 and 0.2 mm/s insertion speeds. Thus, insertion rate-dependent damage and changes in pre-stress were found to directly contribute to the extent of backflow, with slower insertion resulting in less damage and improved targeting. PMID:24776986

  19. Effect of Needle Insertion Speed on Tissue Injury, Stress, and Backflow Distribution for Convection-Enhanced Delivery in the Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Fernando; Carney, Paul R.; Sarntinoranont, Malisa

    2014-01-01

    Flow back along a needle track (backflow) can be a problem during direct infusion, e.g. convection-enhanced delivery (CED), of drugs into soft tissues such as brain. In this study, the effect of needle insertion speed on local tissue injury and backflow was evaluated in vivo in the rat brain. Needles were introduced at three insertion speeds (0.2, 2, and 10 mm/s) followed by CED of Evans blue albumin (EBA) tracer. Holes left in tissue slices were used to reconstruct penetration damage. These measurements were also input into a hyperelastic model to estimate radial stress at the needle-tissue interface (pre-stress) before infusion. Fast insertion speeds were found to produce more tissue bleeding and disruption; average hole area at 10 mm/s was 1.87-fold the area at 0.2 mm/s. Hole measurements also differed at two fixation time points after needle retraction, 10 and 25 min, indicating that pre-stresses are influenced by time-dependent tissue swelling. Calculated pre-stresses were compressive (0 to 485 Pa) and varied along the length of the needle with smaller average values within white matter (116 Pa) than gray matter (301 Pa) regions. Average pre-stress at 0.2 mm/s (351.7 Pa) was calculated to be 1.46-fold the value at 10 mm/s. For CED backflow experiments (0.5, 1, and 2 µL/min), measured EBA backflow increased as much as 2.46-fold between 10 and 0.2 mm/s insertion speeds. Thus, insertion rate-dependent damage and changes in pre-stress were found to directly contribute to the extent of backflow, with slower insertion resulting in less damage and improved targeting. PMID:24776986

  20. Quantification of prostate deformation due to needle insertion during TRUS-guided biopsy: comparison of hand-held and mechanically stabilized systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Silva, Tharindu; Bax, Jeffrey; Fenster, Aaron; Samarabandu, Jagath; Ward, Aaron D.

    2011-03-01

    Prostate biopsy is the clinical standard for the definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. To overcome the limitations of 2D TRUS-guided biopsy systems when targeting pre-planned locations, systems have been developed with 3D guidance to improve the accuracy of cancer detection. Prostate deformation due to needle insertion and biopsy gun firing is a potential source of error that can cause target misalignments during biopsies. We use non-rigid registration of 2D TRUS images to quantify the deformation during the needle insertion and the biopsy gun firing procedure, and compare this effect in biopsies performed using a handheld TRUS probe with those performed using a mechanically assisted 3D TRUS guided biopsy system. Although the mechanically assisted biopsy system had a mean deformation approximately 0.2 mm greater than that of the handheld approach, it yielded a lower relative increase of deformation near the needle axis during the needle insertion stage and greater deformational stability of the prostate during the biopsy gun firing stage. We also analyzed the axial and lateral components of the tissue motion; our results indicated that the motion is weakly biased in the direction orthogonal to the needle, which is less than ideal from a targeting standpoint given the long, narrow cylindrical shape of the biopsy core.

  1. Modeling and Control of Needles with Torsional Friction

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Kyle B.; Okamura, Allison M.; Cowan, Noah J.

    2010-01-01

    A flexible needle can be accurately steered by robotically controlling the bevel tip orientation as the needle is inserted into tissue. Friction between the long, flexible needle shaft and the tissue can cause a significant discrepancy between the orientation of the needle tip and the orientation of the base where the needle angle is controlled. Our experiments show that several common phantom tissues used in needle steering experiments impart substantial friction forces to the needle shaft, resulting in a lag of over 45° for a 10 cm insertion depth in some phantoms; clinical studies report torques large enough to cause similar errors during needle insertions. Such angle discrepancies will result in poor performance or failure of path planners and image-guided controllers, since the needles used in percutaneous procedures are too small for state-of-the-art imaging to accurately measure the tip angle. To compensate for the angle discrepancy, we develop an estimator using a mechanics-based model of the rotational dynamics of a needle being inserted into tissue. Compared to controllers that assume a rigid needle in a frictionless environment, our estimator-based controller improves the tip angle convergence time by nearly 50% and reduces the path deviation of the needle by 70%. PMID:19695979

  2. Guidance of Block Needle Insertion by Electrical Nerve Stimulation: A Pilot Study of the Resulting Distribution of Injected Solution in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Rigaud, Marcel; Filip, Patrick; Lirk, Philipp; Fuchs, Andreas; Gemes, Geza; Hogan, Quinn

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the final needle tip location when various intensities of nerve stimulation are used to guide block needle insertion. Therefore, in control and hyperglycemic dogs, the authors examined whether lower-intensity stimulation results in injection closer to the sciatic nerve than higher-threshold stimulation. Methods During anesthesia, the sciatic nerve was approached with an insulated nerve block needle emitting either 1 mA (high-current group, n = 9) or 0.5 mA (low-current group, n = 9 in control dogs and n = 6 in hyperglycemic dogs). After positioning to obtain a distal motor response, the lowest current producing a response was identified, and ink (0.5 ml) was injected. Frozen sections of the tissue revealed whether the ink was in contact with the epineurium of the nerve, distant to it, or within it. Results In control dogs, the patterns of distribution using high-threshold (final current 0.99 ± 0.03 mA, mean ± SD) and low-threshold (final current 0.33 ± 0.08 mA) stimulation equally showed ink that was in contact with the epineurium or distant to it. One needle placement in the high-threshold group resulted in intraneural injection. In hyperglycemic dogs, all needle insertions used a low-threshold technique (n = 6, final threshold 0.35 ± 0.08 mA), and all resulted in intraneural injections. Conclusions In normal dogs, current stimulation levels in the range of 0.33–1.0 mA result in needle placement comparably close to the sciatic nerve but do not correlate with distance from the target nerve. In this experimental design, low-threshold electrical stimulation does not offer satisfactory protection against intraneural injection in the presence of hyperglycemia. PMID:18719445

  3. Can problematic fibroepithelial lesions be accurately classified on core needle biopsies?

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Sudeshna; Barak, Stephanie; Hayek, Kinda; Thomas, Sumi; Saeed, Haleema; Beydoun, Rafic; Shi, Dongping; Arabi, Haitham; Ruterbusch, Julie; Cote, Michele; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba

    2016-01-01

    Fibroepithelial lesions (FEL) of the breast are notoriously difficult to classify on core needle biopsies. The goal of this study was to evaluate interobserver variability and accuracy of subclassifying difficult FELs into fibroadenoma (FA) and phyllodes tumors (PTs). We identified 50 breast core needle biopsies, initially diagnosed generically as FEL, with subsequent excision and final diagnosis of either FA or benign PT. Five surgical pathologists from one institution independently reviewed these in 3 rounds. The pathologists were blinded to the final excisional diagnosis. Two diagnostic categories were allowed: FA and PT. A set of histologic criteria was provided including the presence of subepithelial condensation, stromal heterogeneity, overgrowth, pleomorphism, fragmentation, cellularity, adipose tissue entrapment, and mitotic count and asked to review the slides for the second round. A third round of interpretations was conducted after each criterion was defined. Interobserver agreement for the diagnosis and each criterion was evaluated using the κ level of agreement. Accuracy of ratings to final diagnosis was calculated using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. κ Values for interobserver agreement were fair for the first and second rounds varying from 0.20 to 0.22, respectively. This increased to 0.27 in round 3. When considering each category, the κ value varied from 0.26 to 0.29 for FA and 0.28 to 0.14 for PT. Overall, there was fair agreement between the pathologists in all categories. The rate of correctly diagnosed cases ranged from 40% in the first round, to 48% in the second round, to 67% in round 3. Overall the pathologists performed better in identifying FA than PT. The accuracy of interpretations was significantly different between the first (40%), second (48%), and third rounds (67%). PMID:26521710

  4. Mechanics of Flexible Needles Robotically Steered through Soft Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Misra, S.; Reed, K. B.; Schafer, B. W.; Ramesh, K. T.; Okamura, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The tip asymmetry of a bevel-tip needle results in the needle naturally bending when it is inserted into soft tissue. This enables robotic needle steering, which can be used in medical procedures to reach subsurface targets inaccessible by straight-line trajectories. However, accurate path planning and control of needle steering requires models of needle-tissue interaction. Previous kinematic models required empirical observations of each needle and tissue combination in order to fit model parameters. This study describes a mechanics-based model of robotic needle steering, which can be used to predict needle behavior and optimize system design based on fundamental mechanical and geometrical properties of the needle and tissue. We first present an analytical model for the loads developed at the tip, based on the geometry of the bevel edge and material properties of soft-tissue simulants (gels). We then present a mechanics-based model that calculates the deflection of a bevel-tipped needle inserted through a soft elastic medium. The model design is guided by microscopic observations of needle-gel interactions. The energy-based formulation incorporates tissue-specific parameters, and the geometry and material properties of the needle. Simulation results follow similar trends (deflection and radius of curvature) to those observed in experimental studies of robotic needle insertion. PMID:21170164

  5. Collagen, type XI, alpha 1: an accurate marker for differential diagnosis of breast carcinoma invasiveness in core needle biopsies.

    PubMed

    Freire, Javier; Domínguez-Hormaetxe, Saioa; Pereda, Saray; De Juan, Ana; Vega, Alfonso; Simón, Laureano; Gómez-Román, Javier

    2014-12-01

    Accurate diagnosis of invasive breast lesions, when analyzed by Core Needle Biopsy, may suppose a major challenge for the pathologist. Various markers of invasiveness such as laminin, S-100 protein, P63 or calponin have been described; however, none of them is completely reliable. The use of a specific marker of the infiltrating tumor microenvironment seems vital to support the diagnosis of invasive against in situ lesions. At this point, Collagen, type XI, alpha 1 (COL11A1), might be helpful since it has been described to be associated to cancer associated fibroblasts in other tumors such as lung, pancreas or colorectal. This paper aims to analyze the role of COL11A1 as a marker of invasiveness in breast tumor lesions. Two hundred and one breast Core Needle Biopsy samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry against pro-COL11A1. The results show a significant difference (p < 0.0001) when comparing the expression in infiltrative tumors (93%) versus immunostaining of non-invasive lesions (4%). Forty cases of underestimated DCIS were also stained for COL11A1, presenting a sensitivity of 90% when compared with p63 and calponin which not tagged invasion. In conclusion, pro-COL11A1 expression is a promising marker of invasive breast lesions, and may be included in immunohistochemical panels aiming at identifying infiltration in problematic breast lesions.

  6. Arctigenin Treatment Protects against Brain Damage through an Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Apoptotic Mechanism after Needle Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jie; Li, Na; Xia, Yang; Gao, Zhong; Zou, Sa-feng; Kong, Liang; Yao, Ying-Jia; Jiao, Ya-Nan; Yan, Yu-Hui; Li, Shao-Heng; Tao, Zhen-Yu; Lian, Guan; Yang, Jing-Xian; Kang, Ting-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Convection enhanced delivery (CED) infuses drugs directly into brain tissue. Needle insertion is required and results in a stab wound injury (SWI). Subsequent secondary injury involves the release of inflammatory and apoptotic cytokines, which have dramatic consequences on the integrity of damaged tissue, leading to the evolution of a pericontusional-damaged area minutes to days after in the initial injury. The present study investigated the capacity for arctigenin (ARC) to prevent secondary brain injury and the determination of the underlying mechanism of action in a mouse model of SWI that mimics the process of CED. After CED, mice received a gavage of ARC from 30 min to 14 days. Neurological severity scores (NSS) and wound closure degree were assessed after the injury. Histological analysis and immunocytochemistry were used to evaluated the extent of brain damage and neuroinflammation. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) was used to detect universal apoptosis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) was used to test the inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) content. Gene levels of inflammation (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10) and apoptosis (Caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2) were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Using these, we analyzed ARC’s efficacy and mechanism of action. Results: ARC treatment improved neurological function by reducing brain water content and hematoma and accelerating wound closure relative to untreated mice. ARC treatment reduced the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and the number of allograft inflammatory factor (IBA)- and myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive cells and increased the levels of IL-10. ARC-treated mice had fewer TUNEL+ apoptotic neurons and activated caspase-3-positive neurons surrounding the lesion than controls, indicating increased neuronal survival. Conclusions: ARC treatment confers

  7. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid nodule fine needle aspirate biopsy; Biopsy - thyroid - skinny-needle; Skinny-needle thyroid biopsy ... cleaned. A thin needle is inserted into the thyroid, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

  8. Automatic Multiple-Needle Surgical Planning of Robotic-Assisted Microwave Coagulation in Large Liver Tumor Therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaoli; Xia, Zeyang; Liu, Jianhua; Xu, Jing; Ren, He; Lu, Tong; Yang, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    The "robotic-assisted liver tumor coagulation therapy" (RALTCT) system is a promising candidate for large liver tumor treatment in terms of accuracy and speed. A prerequisite for effective therapy is accurate surgical planning. However, it is difficult for the surgeon to perform surgical planning manually due to the difficulties associated with robot-assisted large liver tumor therapy. These main difficulties include the following aspects: (1) multiple needles are needed to destroy the entire tumor, (2) the insertion trajectories of the needles should avoid the ribs, blood vessels, and other tissues and organs in the abdominal cavity, (3) the placement of multiple needles should avoid interference with each other, (4) an inserted needle will cause some deformation of liver, which will result in changes in subsequently inserted needles' operating environment, and (5) the multiple needle-insertion trajectories should be consistent with the needle-driven robot's movement characteristics. Thus, an effective multiple-needle surgical planning procedure is needed. To overcome these problems, we present an automatic multiple-needle surgical planning of optimal insertion trajectories to the targets, based on a mathematical description of all relevant structure surfaces. The method determines the analytical expression of boundaries of every needle "collision-free reachable workspace" (CFRW), which are the feasible insertion zones based on several constraints. Then, the optimal needle insertion trajectory within the optimization criteria will be chosen in the needle CFRW automatically. Also, the results can be visualized with our navigation system. In the simulation experiment, three needle-insertion trajectories were obtained successfully. In the in vitro experiment, the robot successfully achieved insertion of multiple needles. The proposed automatic multiple-needle surgical planning can improve the efficiency and safety of robot-assisted large liver tumor therapy

  9. Accurate identification of a preference for insertive versus receptive intercourse from static facial cues of gay men.

    PubMed

    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Rule, Nicholas O

    2013-10-01

    In intercourse between men, one of the partners typically assumes the role of an insertive partner (top) while the other assumes a receptive role (bottom). Although some research suggests that the perceptions of potential partners' sexual roles in gay men's relationships can affect whether a man will adopt the role of top or bottom during sexual intercourse, it remains unclear whether sexual roles could be perceived accurately by naïve observers. In Study 1, we found that naïve observers were able to discern men's sexual roles from photos of their faces with accuracy that was significantly greater than chance guessing. Moreover, in Study 2, we determined that the relationship between men's perceived and actual sexual roles was mediated by perceived masculinity. Together, these results suggest that people rely on perceptions of characteristics relevant to stereotypical male-female gender roles and heterosexual relationships to accurately infer sexual roles in same-sex relationships. Thus, same-sex relationships and sexual behavior may be perceptually framed, understood, and possibly structured in ways similar to stereotypes about opposite-sex relationships, suggesting that people may rely on these inferences to form accurate perceptions.

  10. Automatic Multiple-Needle Surgical Planning of Robotic-Assisted Microwave Coagulation in Large Liver Tumor Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaoli; Xia, Zeyang; Liu, Jianhua; Xu, Jing; Ren, He; Lu, Tong; Yang, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    The “robotic-assisted liver tumor coagulation therapy” (RALTCT) system is a promising candidate for large liver tumor treatment in terms of accuracy and speed. A prerequisite for effective therapy is accurate surgical planning. However, it is difficult for the surgeon to perform surgical planning manually due to the difficulties associated with robot-assisted large liver tumor therapy. These main difficulties include the following aspects: (1) multiple needles are needed to destroy the entire tumor, (2) the insertion trajectories of the needles should avoid the ribs, blood vessels, and other tissues and organs in the abdominal cavity, (3) the placement of multiple needles should avoid interference with each other, (4) an inserted needle will cause some deformation of liver, which will result in changes in subsequently inserted needles’ operating environment, and (5) the multiple needle-insertion trajectories should be consistent with the needle-driven robot’s movement characteristics. Thus, an effective multiple-needle surgical planning procedure is needed. To overcome these problems, we present an automatic multiple-needle surgical planning of optimal insertion trajectories to the targets, based on a mathematical description of all relevant structure surfaces. The method determines the analytical expression of boundaries of every needle “collision-free reachable workspace” (CFRW), which are the feasible insertion zones based on several constraints. Then, the optimal needle insertion trajectory within the optimization criteria will be chosen in the needle CFRW automatically. Also, the results can be visualized with our navigation system. In the simulation experiment, three needle-insertion trajectories were obtained successfully. In the in vitro experiment, the robot successfully achieved insertion of multiple needles. The proposed automatic multiple-needle surgical planning can improve the efficiency and safety of robot-assisted large liver tumor

  11. Needle path planning and steering in a three-dimensional non-static environment using two-dimensional ultrasound images

    PubMed Central

    Vrooijink, Gustaaf J.; Abayazid, Momen; Patil, Sachin; Alterovitz, Ron; Misra, Sarthak

    2015-01-01

    Needle insertion is commonly performed in minimally invasive medical procedures such as biopsy and radiation cancer treatment. During such procedures, accurate needle tip placement is critical for correct diagnosis or successful treatment. Accurate placement of the needle tip inside tissue is challenging, especially when the target moves and anatomical obstacles must be avoided. We develop a needle steering system capable of autonomously and accurately guiding a steerable needle using two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound images. The needle is steered to a moving target while avoiding moving obstacles in a three-dimensional (3D) non-static environment. Using a 2D ultrasound imaging device, our system accurately tracks the needle tip motion in 3D space in order to estimate the tip pose. The needle tip pose is used by a rapidly exploring random tree-based motion planner to compute a feasible needle path to the target. The motion planner is sufficiently fast such that replanning can be performed repeatedly in a closed-loop manner. This enables the system to correct for perturbations in needle motion, and movement in obstacle and target locations. Our needle steering experiments in a soft-tissue phantom achieves maximum targeting errors of 0.86 ± 0.35 mm (without obstacles) and 2.16 ± 0.88 mm (with a moving obstacle). PMID:26279600

  12. Secure Container For Discarded Hypodermic Needles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Angelene M.

    1992-01-01

    Container designed for safe retention of discarded blood-collecting hypodermic needles and similar sharp objects used in life-science experiments aboard spacecraft. Needles inserted through self-closing lid and retained magnetically. They are inserted, sharp end first, through spring-loaded flap. Long needles and needles on syringes cannot turn around in container. Can be emptied, cleaned, and reused. Used on Earth to provide unusually secure containment of sharp objects.

  13. Brachytherapy needle deflection evaluation and correction

    SciTech Connect

    Wan Gang; Wei Zhouping; Gardi, Lori; Downey, Donal B.; Fenster, Aaron

    2005-04-01

    In prostate brachytherapy, an 18-gauge needle is used to implant radioactive seeds. This thin needle can be deflected from the preplanned trajectory in the prostate, potentially resulting in a suboptimum dose pattern and at times requiring repeated needle insertion to achieve optimal dosimetry. In this paper, we report on the evaluation of brachytherapy needle deflection and bending in test phantoms and two approaches to overcome the problem. First we tested the relationship between needle deflection and insertion depth as well as whether needle bending occurred. Targeting accuracy was tested by inserting a brachytherapy needle to target 16 points in chicken tissue phantoms. By implanting dummy seeds into chicken tissue phantoms under 3D ultrasound guidance, the overall accuracy of seed implantation was determined. We evaluated methods to overcome brachytherapy needle deflection with three different insertion methods: constant orientation, constant rotation, and orientation reversal at half of the insertion depth. Our results showed that needle deflection is linear with needle insertion depth, and that no noticeable bending occurs with needle insertion into the tissue and agar phantoms. A 3D principal component analysis was performed to obtain the population distribution of needle tip and seed position relative to the target positions. Our results showed that with the constant orientation insertion method, the mean needle targeting error was 2.8 mm and the mean seed implantation error was 2.9 mm. Using the constant rotation and orientation reversal at half insertion depth methods, the deflection error was reduced. The mean needle targeting errors were 0.8 and 1.2 mm for the constant rotation and orientation reversal methods, respectively, and the seed implantation errors were 0.9 and 1.5 mm for constant rotation insertion and orientation reversal methods, respectively.

  14. Optical Flow-Based Tracking of Needles and Needle-Tip Localization Using Circular Hough Transform in Ultrasound Images

    PubMed Central

    Ayvali, Elif; Desai, Jaydev P.

    2014-01-01

    Image-guided interventions have become the standard of care for needle-based procedures. The success of the image-guided procedures depends on the ability to precisely locate and track the needle. This work is primarily focused on 2D ultrasound-based tracking of a hollow needle (cannula) that is composed of straight segments connected by shape memory alloy actuators. An in-plane tracking algorithm based on optical flow was proposed to track the cannula configuration in real-time. Optical flow is a robust tracking algorithm that can easily run on a CPU. However, the algorithm does not perform well when it is applied to the ultrasound images directly due to the intensity variation in the images. The method presented in this work enables using the optical flow algorithm on ultrasound images to track features of the needle. By taking advantage of the bevel tip, Circular Hough transform was used to accurately locate the needle tip when the imaging is out-of-plane. Through experiments inside tissue phantom and ex-vivo experiments in bovine kidney, the success of the proposed tracking methods were demonstrated. Using the methods presented in this work, quantitative information about the needle configuration is obtained in real-time which is crucial for generating control inputs for the needle and automating the needle insertion. PMID:25503523

  15. Adaptive planning strategy for high dose rate prostate brachytherapy—a simulation study on needle positioning errors.

    PubMed

    Borot de Battisti, M; Denis de Senneville, B; Maenhout, M; Hautvast, G; Binnekamp, D; Lagendijk, J J W; van Vulpen, M; Moerland, M A

    2016-03-01

    The development of magnetic resonance (MR) guided high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for prostate cancer has gained increasing interest for delivering a high tumor dose safely in a single fraction. To support needle placement in the limited workspace inside the closed-bore MRI, a single-needle MR-compatible robot is currently under development at the University Medical Center Utrecht (UMCU). This robotic device taps the needle in a divergent way from a single rotation point into the prostate. With this setup, it is warranted to deliver the irradiation dose by successive insertions of the needle. Although robot-assisted needle placement is expected to be more accurate than manual template-guided insertion, needle positioning errors may occur and are likely to modify the pre-planned dose distribution.In this paper, we propose a dose plan adaptation strategy for HDR prostate brachytherapy with feedback on the needle position: a dose plan is made at the beginning of the interventional procedure and updated after each needle insertion in order to compensate for possible needle positioning errors. The introduced procedure can be used with the single needle MR-compatible robot developed at the UMCU. The proposed feedback strategy was tested by simulating complete HDR procedures with and without feedback on eight patients with different numbers of needle insertions (varying from 4 to 12). In of the cases tested, the number of clinically acceptable plans obtained at the end of the procedure was larger with feedback compared to the situation without feedback. Furthermore, the computation time of the feedback between each insertion was below 100 s which makes it eligible for intra-operative use.

  16. Does Needle Rotation Improve Lesion Targeting?

    PubMed Central

    Badaan, Shadi; Petrisor, Doru; Kim, Chunwoo; Mozer, Pierre; Mazilu, Dumitru; Gruionu, Lucian; Patriciu, Alex; Cleary, Kevin; Stoianovici, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Background Image-guided robots are manipulators that operate based on medical images. Perhaps the most common class of image-guided robots are robots for needle interventions. Typically, these robots actively position and/or orient a needle guide, but needle insertion is still done by the physician. While this arrangement may have safety advantages and keep the physician in control of needle insertion, actuated needle drivers can incorporate other useful features. Methods We first present a new needle driver that can actively insert and rotate a needle. With this device we investigate the use of needle rotation in controlled in-vitro experiments performed with a specially developed revolving needle driver. Results These experiments show that needle rotation can improve targeting and may reduce errors by as much as 70%. Conclusion The new needle driver provides a unique kinematic architecture that enables insertion with a compact mechanism. Perhaps the most interesting conclusion of the study is that lesions of soft tissue organs may not be perfectly targeted with a needle without using special techniques, either manually or with a robotic device. The results of this study show that needle rotation may be an effective method of reducing targeting errors. PMID:21360796

  17. In-plane ultrasonic needle tracking using a fiber-optic hydrophone

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Wenfeng Desjardins, Adrien E.; Mari, Jean Martial; West, Simeon J.; Ginsberg, Yuval; David, Anna L.; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Accurate and efficient guidance of needles to procedural targets is critically important during percutaneous interventional procedures. Ultrasound imaging is widely used for real-time image guidance in a variety of clinical contexts, but with this modality, uncertainties about the location of the needle tip within the image plane lead to significant complications. Whilst several methods have been proposed to improve the visibility of the needle, achieving accuracy and compatibility with current clinical practice is an ongoing challenge. In this paper, the authors present a method for directly visualizing the needle tip using an integrated fiber-optic ultrasound receiver in conjunction with the imaging probe used to acquire B-mode ultrasound images. Methods: Needle visualization and ultrasound imaging were performed with a clinical ultrasound imaging system. A miniature fiber-optic ultrasound hydrophone was integrated into a 20 gauge injection needle tip to receive transmissions from individual transducer elements of the ultrasound imaging probe. The received signals were reconstructed to create an image of the needle tip. Ultrasound B-mode imaging was interleaved with needle tip imaging. A first set of measurements was acquired in water and tissue ex vivo with a wide range of insertion angles (15°–68°) to study the accuracy and sensitivity of the tracking method. A second set was acquired in an in vivo swine model, with needle insertions to the brachial plexus. A third set was acquired in an in vivo ovine model for fetal interventions, with insertions to different locations within the uterine cavity. Two linear ultrasound imaging probes were used: a 14–5 MHz probe for the first and second sets, and a 9–4 MHz probe for the third. Results: During insertions in tissue ex vivo and in vivo, the imaged needle tip had submillimeter axial and lateral dimensions. The signal-to-noise (SNR) of the needle tip was found to depend on the insertion angle. With

  18. A Prototype Body-Mounted MRI-Compatible Robot for Needle Guidance in Shoulder Arthrography.

    PubMed

    Monfaredi, R; Seifabadi, R; Iordachita, I; Sze, R; Safdar, N M; Sharma, K; Fricke, S; Krieger, A; Cleary, K

    2014-08-01

    A novel compact and lightweight patient-mounted MRI-compatible robot has been designed for MRI image-guided interventions. This robot is intended to enable MRI-guided needle placement as done in shoulder arthrography. The robot could make needle placement more accurate and simplify the current workflow by converting the traditional two-stage arthrography procedure (fluoroscopy-guided needle insertion followed by a diagnostic MRI scan) to a one-stage procedure (streamlined workflow all in MRI suite). The robot has 4 degrees of freedom (DOF), two for orientation of the needle and two for needle positioning. The mechanical design was based on several criteria including rigidity, MRI compatibility, compact design, sterilizability, and adjustability. The proposed workflow is discussed and initial MRI compatibility experiments are presented. The results show that artifacts in the region of interest are minimal and that MRI images of the shoulder were not adversely affected by placing the robot on a human volunteer. PMID:25473653

  19. A Prototype Body-Mounted MRI-Compatible Robot for Needle Guidance in Shoulder Arthrography

    PubMed Central

    Monfaredi, R.; Seifabadi, R.; Iordachita, I.; Sze, R.; Safdar, N. M.; Sharma, K.; Fricke, S.; Krieger, A.; Cleary, K.

    2014-01-01

    A novel compact and lightweight patient-mounted MRI-compatible robot has been designed for MRI image-guided interventions. This robot is intended to enable MRI-guided needle placement as done in shoulder arthrography. The robot could make needle placement more accurate and simplify the current workflow by converting the traditional two-stage arthrography procedure (fluoroscopy-guided needle insertion followed by a diagnostic MRI scan) to a one-stage procedure (streamlined workflow all in MRI suite). The robot has 4 degrees of freedom (DOF), two for orientation of the needle and two for needle positioning. The mechanical design was based on several criteria including rigidity, MRI compatibility, compact design, sterilizability, and adjustability. The proposed workflow is discussed and initial MRI compatibility experiments are presented. The results show that artifacts in the region of interest are minimal and that MRI images of the shoulder were not adversely affected by placing the robot on a human volunteer. PMID:25473653

  20. Benchmarking of state-of-the-art needle detection algorithms in 3D ultrasound data volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourtaherian, Arash; Zinger, Svitlana; de With, Peter H. N.; Korsten, Hendrikus H. M.; Mihajlovic, Nenad

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound-guided needle interventions are widely practiced in medical diagnostics and therapy, i.e. for biopsy guidance, regional anesthesia or for brachytherapy. Needle guidance using 2D ultrasound can be very challenging due to the poor needle visibility and the limited field of view. Since 3D ultrasound transducers are becoming more widely used, needle guidance can be improved and simplified with appropriate computer-aided analyses. In this paper, we compare two state-of-the-art 3D needle detection techniques: a technique based on line filtering from literature and a system employing Gabor transformation. Both algorithms utilize supervised classification to pre-select candidate needle voxels in the volume and then fit a model of the needle on the selected voxels. The major differences between the two approaches are in extracting the feature vectors for classification and selecting the criterion for fitting. We evaluate the performance of the two techniques using manually-annotated ground truth in several ex-vivo situations of different complexities, containing three different needle types with various insertion angles. This extensive evaluation provides better understanding on the limitations and advantages of each technique under different acquisition conditions, which is leading to the development of improved techniques for more reliable and accurate localization. Benchmarking results that the Gabor features are better capable of distinguishing the needle voxels in all datasets. Moreover, it is shown that the complete processing chain of the Gabor-based method outperforms the line filtering in accuracy and stability of the detection results.

  1. A comparison of needle tip localization accuracy using 2D and 3D trans-rectal ultrasound for high-dose-rate prostate cancer brachytherapy treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrinivich, W. Thomas; Hoover, Douglas A.; Surry, Kathleen; Edirisinghe, Chandima; Montreuil, Jacques; D'Souza, David; Fenster, Aaron; Wong, Eugene

    2016-03-01

    Background: High-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) is a prostate cancer treatment option involving the insertion of hollow needles into the gland through the perineum to deliver a radioactive source. Conventional needle imaging involves indexing a trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe in the superior/inferior (S/I) direction, using the axial transducer to produce an image set for organ segmentation. These images have limited resolution in the needle insertion direction (S/I), so the sagittal transducer is used to identify needle tips, requiring a manual registration with the axial view. This registration introduces a source of uncertainty in the final segmentations and subsequent treatment plan. Our lab has developed a device enabling 3D-TRUS guided insertions with high S/I spatial resolution, eliminating the need to align axial and sagittal views. Purpose: To compare HDR-BT needle tip localization accuracy between 2D and 3D-TRUS. Methods: 5 prostate cancer patients underwent conventional 2D TRUS guided HDR-BT, during which 3D images were also acquired for post-operative registration and segmentation. Needle end-length measurements were taken, providing a gold standard for insertion depths. Results: 73 needles were analyzed from all 5 patients. Needle tip position differences between imaging techniques was found to be largest in the S/I direction with mean+/-SD of -2.5+/-4.0 mm. End-length measurements indicated that 3D TRUS provided statistically significantly lower mean+/-SD insertion depth error of -0.2+/-3.4 mm versus 2.3+/-3.7 mm with 2D guidance (p < .001). Conclusions: 3D TRUS may provide more accurate HDR-BT needle localization than conventional 2D TRUS guidance for the majority of HDR-BT needles.

  2. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... needle electrode is a monopolar or bipolar needle intended to be inserted into muscle or nerve tissue to... electromyography (recording the intrinsic electrical properties of skeletal muscle). (b) Classification. Class...

  3. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... needle electrode is a monopolar or bipolar needle intended to be inserted into muscle or nerve tissue to... electromyography (recording the intrinsic electrical properties of skeletal muscle). (b) Classification. Class...

  4. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... needle electrode is a monopolar or bipolar needle intended to be inserted into muscle or nerve tissue to... electromyography (recording the intrinsic electrical properties of skeletal muscle). (b) Classification. Class...

  5. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... needle electrode is a monopolar or bipolar needle intended to be inserted into muscle or nerve tissue to... electromyography (recording the intrinsic electrical properties of skeletal muscle). (b) Classification. Class...

  6. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... needle electrode is a monopolar or bipolar needle intended to be inserted into muscle or nerve tissue to... electromyography (recording the intrinsic electrical properties of skeletal muscle). (b) Classification. Class...

  7. [Acupoint position and manipulation of needle knife treating shoulder bi syndrome].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Guo, Changqing

    2016-03-01

    With Jianyu (LI 15), Jianliao (TE 14) and Jianzhen (SI 9) for instance, the three acupoints used to treat shoulder bi syndrome by needle knife, and through traceability and researching constant structure, the acupoint position, insertion trace, manipulation and clinical significance of needle knife medicine were discussed. Accurate position is one of the characteristics of acupoints selection of needle knife medicine. As for the acupoints selection method, the mean of body surface localization is always used. The phanerous or palpable bone processes, muscles and tendons are taken as positioning marks; pressing areas where appear sour, numb, or distensible and other sensations is considered as the principle of press positioning. So acupoints position method is the combination of observation and palpation. Different insertion methods can effectively relieve the accretive bursae synovialis, tendon, joint capsule and the compressed nerve, so that shoulder bi syndrome is relieved. PMID:27344840

  8. Needle localization using a moving stylet/catheter in ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beigi, Parmida; Rohling, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Despite the wide range and long history of ultrasound guided needle insertions, an unresolved issue in many cases is clear needle visibility. A well-known ad hoc technique to detect the needle is to move the stylet and look for changes in the needle appearance. We present a new method to automatically locate a moving stylet/catheter within a stationary cannula using motion detection. We then use this information to detect the needle trajectory and the tip. The differences between the current frame and the previous frame are detected and localized, to minimize the influence of tissue global motions. A polynomial fit based on the detected needle axis determines the estimated stylet shaft trajectory, and the extent of the differences along the needle axis represents the tip. Over a few periodic movements of the stylet including its full insertion into the cannula to the tip, a combination of polynomial fits determines the needle trajectory and the last detected point represents the needle tip. Experiments are conducted in water bath and bovine muscle tissue for several stylet/catheter materials. Results show that a plastic stylet has the best needle shaft and tip localization accuracy in the water bath with RMSE = 0:16 mm and RMSE = 0:51 mm, respectively. In the bovine tissue, the needle tip was best localized with the plastic catheter with RMSE = 0:33 mm. The stylet tip localization was most accurate with the steel stylet, with RMSE = 2:81 mm and the shaft was best localized with the plastic catheter, with RMSE = 0:32 mm.

  9. [Needling technique of Professor Li Yan-Fang].

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Experiences of needling techniques of Professor LI Ya- fang is introduced in this article. Gentle and superficial insertion is adopted by Professor LI in clinic. Emphases are put on the qi regulation function, needling sensation to the affected region and insertion with both hands, especially the function of the left hand as pressing hand. The gentle and superficial insertion should be done as the follows: hold the needle with the right hand, press gently along the running course of meridians with the left hand to promote qi circulation, hard pressing should be applied at acupoints to disperse the local qi and blood, insert the needle gently and quickly into the subcutaneous region with the right hand, and stop the insertion when patient has the needling sensation. While the fast needling is characterized with shallow insertion and swift manipulation: the left hand of the manipulator should press first along the running course of the meridian, and fix the local skin, hold the needle with the right hand and insert the needle quickly into the acupoint. Withdrawal of the needle should be done immediately after the reinforcing and reducing manipulations. Professor LI is accomplished in qi regulation. It is held by him that regulating qi circulation is essence of acupuncture, letting the patient get the needling sensation is the most important task of needling. Lifting, thrusting and rotation manipulations should be applied to do reinforcing or reducing. The tissue around the tip of the needle should not be too contracted or too relaxed, and the resistance should not be too strong or too weak. The feeling of the insertion hand of the practitioner should not be too smooth or too hesitant. Needle should be inserted into the skin quickly at the moment of hard pressing by the left hand. And then, slow rotation and gentle lifting and thrusting can be applied to promote the needling sensation like electric current pass through and to reach the affected region along the

  10. Comparing ease of intraosseous needle placement: Jamshidi versus cook.

    PubMed

    Halm, B; Yamamoto, L G

    1998-07-01

    In a sample of 34 study subjects, Cook and Jamshidi intraosseous (IO) needles were compared for ease of insertion into turkey bones. The averaged lapsed time of insertion was significantly shorter using the Jamshidi needle (25.5 v 56.2 seconds, P < .0001). The mean difficulty of insertion score was lower using the Jamshidi needle (3.0 v 7.1 on a 10-cm visual analog scale, P < .0001). The less costly Jamshidi needle is easier to use in IO insertion in this turkey bone model.

  11. Needle segmentation using 3D Hough transform in 3D TRUS guided prostate transperineal therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Wu; Yuchi Ming; Ding Mingyue; Tessier, David; Fenster, Aaron

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Prostate adenocarcinoma is the most common noncutaneous malignancy in American men with over 200 000 new cases diagnosed each year. Prostate interventional therapy, such as cryotherapy and brachytherapy, is an effective treatment for prostate cancer. Its success relies on the correct needle implant position. This paper proposes a robust and efficient needle segmentation method, which acts as an aid to localize the needle in three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate therapy. Methods: The procedure of locating the needle in a 3D TRUS image is a three-step process. First, the original 3D ultrasound image containing a needle is cropped; the cropped image is then converted to a binary format based on its histogram. Second, a 3D Hough transform based needle segmentation method is applied to the 3D binary image in order to locate the needle axis. The position of the needle endpoint is finally determined by an optimal threshold based analysis of the intensity probability distribution. The overall efficiency is improved through implementing a coarse-fine searching strategy. The proposed method was validated in tissue-mimicking agar phantoms, chicken breast phantoms, and 3D TRUS patient images from prostate brachytherapy and cryotherapy procedures by comparison to the manual segmentation. The robustness of the proposed approach was tested by means of varying parameters such as needle insertion angle, needle insertion length, binarization threshold level, and cropping size. Results: The validation results indicate that the proposed Hough transform based method is accurate and robust, with an achieved endpoint localization accuracy of 0.5 mm for agar phantom images, 0.7 mm for chicken breast phantom images, and 1 mm for in vivo patient cryotherapy and brachytherapy images. The mean execution time of needle segmentation algorithm was 2 s for a 3D TRUS image with size of 264 Multiplication-Sign 376 Multiplication-Sign 630 voxels. Conclusions

  12. Design of a Teleoperated Needle Steering System for MRI-guided Prostate Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Seifabadi, Reza; Iordachita, Iulian; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2013-01-01

    Accurate needle placement plays a key role in success of prostate biopsy and brachytherapy. During percutaneous interventions, the prostate gland rotates and deforms which may cause significant target displacement. In these cases straight needle trajectory is not sufficient for precise targeting. Although needle spinning and fast insertion may be helpful, they do not entirely resolve the issue. We propose robot-assisted bevel-tip needle steering under MRI guidance as a potential solution to compensate for the target displacement. MRI is chosen for its superior soft tissue contrast in prostate imaging. Due to the confined workspace of the MRI scanner and the requirement for the clinician to be present inside the MRI room during the procedure, we designed a MRI-compatible 2-DOF haptic device to command the needle steering slave robot which operates inside the scanner. The needle steering slave robot was designed to be integrated with a previously developed pneumatically actuated transperineal robot for MRI-guided prostate needle placement. We describe design challenges and present the conceptual design of the master and slave robots and the associated controller. PMID:24649480

  13. Characterization of optically actuated MRI-compatible active needles for medical interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Richard J.; Ryu, Seokchang; Moslehi, Behzad; Costa, Joannes M.

    2014-03-01

    The development of a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) compatible optically-actuated active needle for guided percutaneous surgery and biopsy procedures is described. Electrically passive MRI-compatible actuation in the small diameter needle is provided by non-magnetic materials including a shape memory alloy (SMA) subject to precise fiber laser operation that can be from a remote (e.g., MRI control room) location. Characterization and optimization of the needle is facilitated using optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensors arrays. Active bending of the needle during insertion allows the needle to be accurately guided to even relatively small targets in an organ while avoiding obstacles and overcoming undesirable deviations away from the planned path due to unforeseen or unknowable tissue interactions. This feature makes the needle especially suitable for use in image-guided surgical procedures (ranging from MRI to CT and ultrasound) when accurate targeting is imperative for good treatment outcomes. Such interventions include reaching small tumors in biopsies, delineating freezing areas in, for example, cryosurgery and improving the accuracy of seed placement in brachytherapy. Particularly relevant are prostate procedures, which may be subject to pubic arch interference. Combining diagnostic imaging and actuation assisted biopsy into one treatment can obviate the need for a second exam for guided biopsy, shorten overall procedure times (thus increasing operating room efficiencies), address healthcare reimbursement constraints and, most importantly, improve patient comfort and clinical outcomes.

  14. Nozzle insert for mixed mode fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, Keith E.

    2006-11-21

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by first and second needle valve members. The homogeneous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by a nozzle insert that is attached to an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The nozzle insert is a one piece metallic component with a large diameter segment separated from a small diameter segment by an annular engagement surface. One of the needle valve members is guided on an outer surface of the nozzle insert, and the nozzle insert has an interference fit attachment to the injector body.

  15. How Y-Family DNA polymerase IV is more accurate than Dpo4 at dCTP insertion opposite an N2-dG adduct of benzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed

    Sholder, Gabriel; Creech, Amanda; Loechler, Edward L

    2015-11-01

    To bypass DNA damage, cells have Y-Family DNA polymerases (DNAPs). One Y-Family-class includes DNAP κ and DNAP IV, which accurately insert dCTP opposite N(2)-dG adducts, including from the carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BP). Another class includes DNAP η and DNAP V, which insert accurately opposite UV-damage, but inaccurately opposite BP-N(2)-dG. To investigate structural differences between Y-Family-classes, regions are swapped between DNAP IV (a κ/IV-class-member) and Dpo4 (a η/V-class-member); the kinetic consequences are evaluated via primer-extension studies with a BP-N(2)-dG-containing template. Four key structural elements are revealed. (1) Y-Family DNAPs have discreet non-covalent contacts between their little finger-domain (LF-Domain) and their catalytic core-domain (CC-Domain), which we call "non-covalent bridges" (NCBs). Arg37 and Arg38 in DNAP IV's CC-Domain near the active site form a non-covalent bridge (AS-NCB) by interacting with Glu251 and Asp252, respectively, in DNAP IV's LF-Domain. Without these interactions dATP/dGTP/dTTP misinsertions increase. DNAP IV's AS-NCB suppresses misinsertions better than Dpo4's equivalent AS-NCB. (2) DNAP IV also suppresses dATP/dGTP/dTTP misinsertions via a second non-covalent bridge, which is ∼8Å from the active site (Distal-NCB). Dpo4 has no Distal-NCB, rendering it inferior at dATP/dGTP/dTTP suppression. (3) dCTP insertion is facilitated by the larger minor groove opening near the active site in DNAP IV versus Dpo4, which is sensible given that Watson/Crick-like [dCTP:BP-N(2)-dG] pairing requires the BP-moiety to be in the minor groove. (4) Compared to Dpo4, DNAP IV has a smaller major groove opening, which suppresses dGTP misinsertion, implying BP-N(2)-dG bulk in the major groove during Hoogsteen syn-adduct-dG:dGTP pairing. In summary, DNAP IV has a large minor groove opening to enhance dCTP insertion, a plugged major groove opening to suppress dGTP misinsertion, and two non-covalent bridges (near and distal

  16. Methods for segmenting curved needles in ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Okazawa, Stephen H; Ebrahimi, Richelle; Chuang, Jason; Rohling, Robert N; Salcudean, Septimiu E

    2006-06-01

    Ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle insertions are widely used techniques in current clinical practice. Some of these procedures have a high degree of difficulty because of poor observability of the needle in the ultrasound image. There have been recent efforts to improve guidance by computer assisted needle detection. These software techniques are often limited by not representing needle curvature. We present two methods to detect the needle in 2D ultrasound that specifically address needle curvature. Firstly, we demonstrate a real-time needle segmentation algorithm based on the Hough transform which detects the needle and represents its curved shape. Secondly, we demonstrate how a new coordinate transformation can transform detection of a curved needle to a linear fit. These methods are demonstrated on ultrasound and photographic images.

  17. Verification of a standardized method for inserting intramuscular electromyography electrodes into teres minor using ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Sangeeta; Zacharias, Anita; Green, Rodney A

    2015-09-01

    The close proximity of the infraspinatus to the teres minor and their functional similarity in producing external rotation of the glenohumeral joint make accurate insertion of electromyographic (EMG) electrodes into the teres minor difficult and questionable even when published guidelines are followed. The primary aim of this study was to examine the anatomical support for the current guidelines for inserting intramuscular EMG electrodes into the teres minor muscle. The secondary aim was to provide a technical description for ultrasound-guided electrode insertion into the teres minor. Intramuscular electrodes were inserted into four cadaveric shoulders using markings based on the current guidelines. EMG electrodes were also inserted into the teres minor of four healthy male participants using real-time ultrasound (RTUS) guidance. Systematic dissections of the cadaver specimens revealed that the electrode had been successfully inserted into the teres minor muscle in only one out of the four. In the remaining three specimens, the needle lodged in the infraspinatus muscle belly at distances ranging from 3 to 17 mm medial to the teres minor. Using RTUS guidance, the electrodes were successfully inserted into the teres minor in all participants, as confirmed by visual inspection with RTUS. This study confirms that the current EMG electrode insertion guidelines for the teres minor are not accurate and RTUS ensures the placement of electrodes into the teres minor rather than the adjacent infraspinatus muscle.

  18. Verification of a standardized method for inserting intramuscular electromyography electrodes into teres minor using ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Sangeeta; Zacharias, Anita; Green, Rodney A

    2015-09-01

    The close proximity of the infraspinatus to the teres minor and their functional similarity in producing external rotation of the glenohumeral joint make accurate insertion of electromyographic (EMG) electrodes into the teres minor difficult and questionable even when published guidelines are followed. The primary aim of this study was to examine the anatomical support for the current guidelines for inserting intramuscular EMG electrodes into the teres minor muscle. The secondary aim was to provide a technical description for ultrasound-guided electrode insertion into the teres minor. Intramuscular electrodes were inserted into four cadaveric shoulders using markings based on the current guidelines. EMG electrodes were also inserted into the teres minor of four healthy male participants using real-time ultrasound (RTUS) guidance. Systematic dissections of the cadaver specimens revealed that the electrode had been successfully inserted into the teres minor muscle in only one out of the four. In the remaining three specimens, the needle lodged in the infraspinatus muscle belly at distances ranging from 3 to 17 mm medial to the teres minor. Using RTUS guidance, the electrodes were successfully inserted into the teres minor in all participants, as confirmed by visual inspection with RTUS. This study confirms that the current EMG electrode insertion guidelines for the teres minor are not accurate and RTUS ensures the placement of electrodes into the teres minor rather than the adjacent infraspinatus muscle. PMID:25974129

  19. Transcaval migration of an acupuncture needle from the abdominal cavity to the heart.

    PubMed

    Neely, David; Jeganathan, Reubendra; Campalani, Gianfranco

    2010-11-01

    We report the case of a patient who was noted to have inserted an acupuncture needle into his abdomen. The needle migrated to the heart and was removed from the right ventricle using cardiopulmonary bypass.

  20. Needle Phobia.

    PubMed

    Cook, Lynda S

    2016-01-01

    Venipuncture is generally associated with some degree of pain, discomfort, and/or apprehension. Yet most patients accept it with tolerance, even nonchalance. A few, not only pediatric patients, exhibit a higher degree of anxiety and face the procedure with tears, tension, and a variety of bargaining techniques (ie, stick on the count of 3; use only this vein). But for 1 group of people, venipuncture is associated with such fear that avoidance of the procedure is practiced. The end results are detrimental to the patient and may have an impact on society as well. These are patients the American Psychiatric Association classifies as needle phobic. What can a nurse with no training in psychiatry do to assist these patients? To form an appropriate professional response, it's beneficial for practitioners to recognize the different pathways that lead to needle phobia and the issues related to the disorder. PMID:27598066

  1. Development and evaluation of optical needle depth sensor for percutaneous diagnosis and therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Keryn; Alelyunas, David; McCann, Connor; Yoshimitsu, Kitaro; Kato, Takahisa; Song, Sang-Eun; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2014-03-01

    Current methods of needle insertion during percutaneous CT and MRI guided procedures lack precision in needle depth sensing. The depth of the needle insertion is currently monitored through depth markers drawn on the needle and later confirmed by intra-procedural imaging; until this confirmation, the physicians' judgment that the target is reached is solely based on the depth markers, which are not always clearly visible. We have therefore designed an optical sensing device which provides continuous feedback of needle insertion depth and degree of rotation throughout insertion. An optical mouse sensor was used in conjunction with a microcontroller board, Arduino Due, to acquire needle position information. The device is designed to be attached to a needle guidance robot developed for MRI-guided prostate biopsy in order to aid the manual insertion. An LCD screen and three LEDs were employed with the Arduino Due to form a hand-held device displaying needle depth and rotation. Accuracy of the device was tested to evaluate the impact of insertion speed and rotation. Unlike single dimensional needle depth sensing developed by other researchers, this two dimensional sensing device can also detect the rotation around the needle axis. The combination of depth and rotation sensing would be greatly beneficial for the needle steering approaches that require both depth and rotation information. Our preliminary results indicate that this sensing device can be useful in detecting needle motion when using an appropriate speed and range of motion.

  2. Needle-Tissue Interaction Forces for Bevel-Tip Steerable Needles

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Sarthak; Reed, Kyle B.; Douglas, Andrew S.; Ramesh, K. T.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetry of a bevel-tip needle results in the needle naturally bending when it is inserted into soft tissue. As a first step toward modeling the mechanics of deflection of the needle, we determine the forces at the bevel tip. In order to find the forces acting at the needle tip, we measure rupture toughness and nonlinear material elasticity parameters of several soft tissue simulant gels and chicken tissue. We incorporate these physical parameters into a finite element model that includes both contact and cohesive zone models to simulate tissue cleavage. We investigate the sensitivity of the tip forces to tissue rupture toughness, linear and nonlinear tissue elasticity, and needle tip bevel angle. The model shows that the tip forces are sensitive to the rupture toughness. The results from these studies contribute to a mechanics-based model of bevel-tip needle steering, extending previous work on kinematic models. PMID:22020139

  3. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) Imaging-Based Needle Visualization

    PubMed Central

    Rotemberg, Veronica; Palmeri, Mark; Rosenzweig, Stephen; Grant, Stuart; Macleod, David; Nightingale, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided needle placement is widely used in the clinical setting, particularly for central venous catheter placement, tissue biopsy and regional anesthesia. Difficulties with ultrasound guidance in these areas often result from steep needle insertion angles and spatial offsets between the imaging plane and the needle. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging leads to improved needle visualization because it uses a standard diagnostic scanner to perform radiation force based elasticity imaging, creating a displacement map that displays tissue stiffness variations. The needle visualization in ARFI images is independent of needle-insertion angle and also extends needle visibility out of plane. Although ARFI images portray needles well, they often do not contain the usual B-mode landmarks. Therefore, a three-step segmentation algorithm has been developed to identify a needle in an ARFI image and overlay the needle prediction on a coregistered B-mode image. The steps are: (1) contrast enhancement by median filtration and Laplacian operator filtration, (2) noise suppression through displacement estimate correlation coefficient thresholding and (3) smoothing by removal of outliers and best-fit line prediction. The algorithm was applied to data sets from horizontal 18, 21 and 25 gauge needles between 0–4 mm offset in elevation from the transducer imaging plane and to 18G needles on the transducer axis (in plane) between 10° and 35° from the horizontal. Needle tips were visualized within 2 mm of their actual position for both horizontal needle orientations up to 1.5 mm off set in elevation from the transducer imaging plane and on-axis angled needles between 10°–35° above the horizontal orientation. We conclude that segmented ARFI images overlaid on matched B-mode images hold promise for improved needle visibility in many clinical applications. PMID:21608445

  4. Hollow needle used to cut metal honeycomb structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, E. A.

    1966-01-01

    Hollow needle tool cuts metal honeycomb structures without damaging adjacent material. The hollow needle combines an electrostatic discharge and a stream of oxygen at a common point to effect rapid, accurate metal cutting. The tool design can be varied to use the hollow needle principle for cutting a variety of shapes.

  5. Pleural needle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... lungs and chest wall (pleural membrane). A larger, hollow needle is then placed gently through the skin ... the needle. A smaller cutting needle inside the hollow one is used to collect tissue samples. During ...

  6. Past, present, and future for surgical needles and needle holders.

    PubMed

    Edlich, R F; Thacker, J G; McGregor, W; Rodeheaver, G T

    1993-11-01

    During the last two decades, major advances in surgical needle and needle holder technology have markedly improved surgical wound repair. These advances include quantitative tests for surgical needle and needle holders performance, high nickel maraging stainless steels, compound curved needles, needle sharpening methods, laser-drilled holes for swages, needle:suture ratios of 1:1, and the atraumatic needle holder.

  7. In vivo motion and force measurement of surgical needle intervention during prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Podder, Tarun; Clark, Douglas; Sherman, Jason; Fuller, Dave; Messing, Edward; Rubens, Deborah; Strang, John; Brasacchio, Ralph; Liao, Lydia; Ng, W.-S.; Yu Yan

    2006-08-15

    In this paper, we present needle insertion forces and motion trajectories measured during actual brachytherapy needle insertion while implanting radioactive seeds in the prostate glands of 20 different patients. The needle motion was captured using ultrasound images and a 6 degree-of-freedom electromagnetic-based position sensor. Needle velocity was computed from the position information and the corresponding time stamps. From in vivo data we found the maximum needle insertion forces to be about 15.6 and 8.9 N for 17 gauge (1.47 mm) and 18 gauge (1.27 mm) needles, respectively. Part of this difference in insertion forces is due to the needle size difference (17G and 18G) and the other part is due to the difference in tissue properties that are specific to the individual patient. Some transverse forces were observed, which are attributed to several factors such as tissue heterogeneity, organ movement, human factors in surgery, and the interaction between the template and the needle. However, theses insertion forces are significantly responsible for needle deviation from the desired trajectory and target movement. Therefore, a proper selection of needle and modulated velocity (translational and rotational) may reduce the tissue deformation and target movement by reducing insertion forces and thereby improve the seed delivery accuracy. The knowledge gleaned from this study promises to be useful for not only designing mechanical/robotic systems but also developing a predictive deformation model of the prostate and real-time adaptive controlling of the needle.

  8. Remote Electromagnetic Vibration of Steerable Needles for Imaging in Power Doppler Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Cabreros, Sarah S.; Jimenez, Nina M.; Greer, Joseph D.; Adebar, Troy K.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2015-01-01

    Robotic needle steering systems for minimally invasive medical procedures require complementary medical imaging systems to track the needles in real time. Ultrasound is a promising imaging modality because it offers relatively low-cost, real-time imaging of the needle. Previous methods applied vibration to the base of the needle using a voice coil actuator, in order to make the needle visible in power Doppler ultrasound. We propose a new method for needle tip vibration, using electromagnetic actuation of small permanent magnets placed inside the needle to improve needle tip visibility in power Doppler imaging. Robotic needle insertion experiments using artificial tissue and ex vivo porcine liver showed that the electromagnetic tip vibration method can generate a stronger Doppler response compared to the previous base vibration method, resulting in better imaging at greater needle depth in tissue. It also eliminates previous issues with vibration damping along the shaft of the needle. PMID:26413379

  9. Surface-blended texturing of medical needles for friction reduction using a picosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingsheng; Han, Peidong; Kang, Min; Ehmann, Kornel

    2016-04-01

    The success of percutaneous procedures depends on the accuracy of the medical needle insertion. Reducing the insertion force and using better needle visualization during needle insertion can reduce needle placement errors. Surface texturing is frequently used to create micro-features on medical needle's tip portion to improve the visibility in ultrasound-guided percutaneous procedures. However, these micro-features usually increase the friction between the needle and tissue because of stress concentrations. This paper explores a method for creating micro-features with blended edges on echogenic needles and studies the friction behavior between textured echogenic needles and phantom tissue to identify blended texture patterns that would minimize the friction during needle insertion. Laser surface texturing was used to create regular micro-circumferential channels and micro-corner-cube-like dimples along the needle's axial direction. Variations of the overlap in the feed direction were used to blend the edges of micro-channels and micro-dimples with different fillet radii. Both needles with regular and blended surface textures were experimentally investigated through needle extraction experiments from phantom tissue. It was found that the blended textured needles with large fillet radii exhibit a much better friction behavior.

  10. Paraesthesia during the needle-through-needle and the double segment technique for combined spinal epidural anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ahn, H J; Choi, D H; Kim, C S

    2006-07-01

    Paraesthesia during regional anaesthesia is an unpleasant sensation for patients and, more importantly, in some cases it is related to neurological injury. Relatively few studies have been conducted on the frequency of paraesthesia during combined spinal epidural anaesthesia. We compared two combined spinal epidural anaesthesia techniques: the needle-through-needle technique and the double segment technique in this respect. We randomly allocated 116 parturients undergoing elective Caesarean section to receive anaesthesia using one of these techniques. Both techniques were performed using a 27G pencil point needle, an 18G Tuohy needle, and a 20G multiport epidural catheter from the same manufacturer. The overall frequency of paraesthesia was higher in the needle-through-needle technique group (56.9% vs. 31.6%, p = 0.011). The frequency of paraesthesia at spinal needle insertion was 20.7% in the needle-through-needle technique group and 8.8% in the double segment technique group; whereas the frequency of paraesthesia at epidural catheter insertion was 46.6% in the needle-through-needle technique group and 24.6% in the double segment technique group.

  11. Peripherally inserted central catheter - insertion

    MedlinePlus

    PICC - insertion ... A PICC is a long, thin tube (called a catheter) that goes into your body through a vein in ... into a large vein near your heart. The PICC helps carry nutrients and medicines into your body. ...

  12. Spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section: comparison of 22-gauge and 25-gauge Whitacre needles with 26-gauge Quincke needles.

    PubMed

    Shutt, L E; Valentine, S J; Wee, M Y; Page, R J; Prosser, A; Thomas, T A

    1992-12-01

    We have studied 150 women undergoing elective Caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia. They were allocated randomly to have a 22-gauge Whitacre, a 25-gauge Whitacre or a 26-gauge Quincke needle inserted into the lumbar subarachnoid space. The groups were compared for ease of insertion, number of attempted needle insertions before identification of cerebrospinal fluid, quality of subsequent analgesia and incidence of postoperative complications. There were differences between groups, but they did not reach statistical significance. Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) was experienced by one mother in the 22-gauge Whitacre group, none in the 25-gauge Whitacre group and five in the 26-gauge Quincke group. Five of the six PDPH occurred after a single successful needle insertion. Seven of the 15 mothers in whom more than two needle insertions were made experienced backache, compared with 12 of the 129 receiving two or less (P < 0.001). We conclude that the use of 22- and 25-gauge Whitacre needles in elective Caesarean section patients is associated with a low incidence of PDPH and that postoperative backache is more likely when more than two attempts are made to insert a spinal needle.

  13. Spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section: comparison of 22-gauge and 25-gauge Whitacre needles with 26-gauge Quincke needles.

    PubMed

    Shutt, L E; Valentine, S J; Wee, M Y; Page, R J; Prosser, A; Thomas, T A

    1992-12-01

    We have studied 150 women undergoing elective Caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia. They were allocated randomly to have a 22-gauge Whitacre, a 25-gauge Whitacre or a 26-gauge Quincke needle inserted into the lumbar subarachnoid space. The groups were compared for ease of insertion, number of attempted needle insertions before identification of cerebrospinal fluid, quality of subsequent analgesia and incidence of postoperative complications. There were differences between groups, but they did not reach statistical significance. Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) was experienced by one mother in the 22-gauge Whitacre group, none in the 25-gauge Whitacre group and five in the 26-gauge Quincke group. Five of the six PDPH occurred after a single successful needle insertion. Seven of the 15 mothers in whom more than two needle insertions were made experienced backache, compared with 12 of the 129 receiving two or less (P < 0.001). We conclude that the use of 22- and 25-gauge Whitacre needles in elective Caesarean section patients is associated with a low incidence of PDPH and that postoperative backache is more likely when more than two attempts are made to insert a spinal needle. PMID:1467102

  14. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube insertion; G-tube insertion; PEG tube insertion; Stomach tube insertion; Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube insertion ... and down the esophagus, which leads to the stomach. After the endoscopy tube is inserted, the skin ...

  15. Sliding Mode Control of Steerable Needles

    PubMed Central

    Rucker, D. Caleb; Das, Jadav; Gilbert, Hunter B.; Swaney, Philip J.; Miga, Michael I.; Sarkar, Nilanjan; Webster, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Steerable needles can potentially increase the accuracy of needle-based diagnosis and therapy delivery, provided they can be adequately controlled based on medical image information. We propose a novel sliding mode control law that can be used to deliver the tip of a flexible asymmetric-tipped needle to a desired point, or to track a desired trajectory within tissue. The proposed control strategy requires no a priori knowledge of model parameters, has bounded input speeds, and requires little computational resources. We show that if the standard nonholonomic model for tip-steered needles holds, then the control law will converge to desired targets in a reachable workspace, within a tolerance that can be defined by the control parameters. Experimental results validate the control law for target points and trajectory following in phantom tissue and ex vivo liver. Experiments with targets that move during insertion illustrate robustness to disturbances caused by tissue deformation. PMID:25400527

  16. Sliding Mode Control of Steerable Needles.

    PubMed

    Rucker, D Caleb; Das, Jadav; Gilbert, Hunter B; Swaney, Philip J; Miga, Michael I; Sarkar, Nilanjan; Webster, Robert J

    2013-10-01

    Steerable needles can potentially increase the accuracy of needle-based diagnosis and therapy delivery, provided they can be adequately controlled based on medical image information. We propose a novel sliding mode control law that can be used to deliver the tip of a flexible asymmetric-tipped needle to a desired point, or to track a desired trajectory within tissue. The proposed control strategy requires no a priori knowledge of model parameters, has bounded input speeds, and requires little computational resources. We show that if the standard nonholonomic model for tip-steered needles holds, then the control law will converge to desired targets in a reachable workspace, within a tolerance that can be defined by the control parameters. Experimental results validate the control law for target points and trajectory following in phantom tissue and ex vivo liver. Experiments with targets that move during insertion illustrate robustness to disturbances caused by tissue deformation.

  17. [Discussion on needling sensation, arrival of qi and needling response (Deqi)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Wang, Hong-Du

    2012-12-01

    The current appointed teaching material of Science of Acupuncture and Moxibustion holds that there is no difference among the needling sensation, arrival of qi and needling response. However, the author has a different understanding. Therefore, Neijing (Internal Classic), its annotation, exposition and understandings of ancient and modern famous experts are cited to analyze their meanings. And the result indicates that the needling sensation is subjective feelings and perceived responses of doctors and patients. Arrival of qi is the healing process of the organ through activating the anti-pathogenic qi to expel the pathogens. The needling response is the final aim of acupuncture therapy. Thus, the meaning of needling sensation, arrival of qi, and needling response are different. And an accurate understanding can better guide acupuncture treatment.

  18. Optimizing prostate needle biopsy through 3D simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jianchao; Kaplan, Charles; Xuan, Jian Hua; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Lynch, John H.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

    1998-06-01

    Prostate needle biopsy is used for the detection of prostate cancer. The protocol of needle biopsy that is currently routinely used in the clinical environment is the systematic sextant technique, which defines six symmetric locations on the prostate surface for needle insertion. However, this protocol has been developed based on the long-term observation and experience of urologists. Little quantitative or scientific evidence supports the use of this biopsy technique. In this research, we aim at developing a statistically optimized new prostate needle biopsy protocol to improve the quality of diagnosis of prostate cancer. This new protocol will be developed by using a three-dimensional (3-D) computer- based probability map of prostate cancer. For this purpose, we have developed a computer-based 3-D visualization and simulation system with prostate models constructed from the digitized prostate specimens, in which the process of prostate needle biopsy can be simulated automatically by the computer. In this paper, we first develop an interactive biopsy simulation mode in the system, and evaluate the performance of the automatic biopsy simulation with the sextant biopsy protocol by comparing the results by the urologist using the interactive simulation mode with respect to 53 prostate models. This is required to confirm that the automatic simulation is accurate and reliable enough for the simulation with respect to a large number of prostate models. Then we compare the performance of the existing protocols using the automatic biopsy simulation system with respect to 107 prostate models, which will statistically identify if one protocol is better than another. Since the estimation of tumor volume is extremely important in determining the significance of a tumor and in deciding appropriate treatment methods, we further investigate correlation between the tumor volume and the positive core volume with 89 prostate models. This is done in order to develop a method to

  19. Three-dimensional needle-tip localization by electric field potential and camera hybridization for needle electromyography exam robotic simulator.

    PubMed

    He, Siyu; Gomez-Tames, Jose; Yu, Wenwei

    2016-01-01

    As one of neurological tests, needle electromygraphy exam (NEE) plays an important role to evaluate the conditions of nerves and muscles. Neurology interns and novice medical staff need repetitive training to improve their skills in performing the exam. However, no training systems are able to reproduce multiple pathological conditions to simulate real needle electromyogram exam. For the development of a robotic simulator, three components need to be realized: physical modeling of upper limb morphological features, position-dependent electromyogram generation, and needle localization; the latter is the focus of this study. Our idea is to couple two types of sensing mechanism in order to acquire the needle-tip position with high accuracy. One is to segment the needle from camera images and calculate its insertion point on the skin surface by a top-hat transform algorithm. The other is voltage-based depth measurement, in which a conductive tissue-like phantom was used to realize both needle-tip localization and physical sense of needle insertion. For that, a pair of electrodes was designed to generate a near-linear voltage distribution along the depth direction of the tissue-like phantom. The accuracy of the needle-tip position was investigated by the electric field potential and camera hybridization. The results showed that the needle tip could be detected with an accuracy of 1.05±0.57 mm. PMID:27382339

  20. Three-dimensional needle-tip localization by electric field potential and camera hybridization for needle electromyography exam robotic simulator

    PubMed Central

    He, Siyu; Gomez-Tames, Jose; Yu, Wenwei

    2016-01-01

    As one of neurological tests, needle electromygraphy exam (NEE) plays an important role to evaluate the conditions of nerves and muscles. Neurology interns and novice medical staff need repetitive training to improve their skills in performing the exam. However, no training systems are able to reproduce multiple pathological conditions to simulate real needle electromyogram exam. For the development of a robotic simulator, three components need to be realized: physical modeling of upper limb morphological features, position-dependent electromyogram generation, and needle localization; the latter is the focus of this study. Our idea is to couple two types of sensing mechanism in order to acquire the needle-tip position with high accuracy. One is to segment the needle from camera images and calculate its insertion point on the skin surface by a top-hat transform algorithm. The other is voltage-based depth measurement, in which a conductive tissue-like phantom was used to realize both needle-tip localization and physical sense of needle insertion. For that, a pair of electrodes was designed to generate a near-linear voltage distribution along the depth direction of the tissue-like phantom. The accuracy of the needle-tip position was investigated by the electric field potential and camera hybridization. The results showed that the needle tip could be detected with an accuracy of 1.05±0.57 mm. PMID:27382339

  1. The research of knitting needle status monitoring setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lu; Liao, Xiao-qing; Zhu, Yong-kang; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Pei; Zhao, Yong-kai; Huang, Hui-jie

    2013-09-01

    In textile production, quality control and testing is the key to ensure the process and improve the efficiency. Defect of the knitting needles is the main factor affecting the quality of the appearance of textiles. Defect detection method based on machine vision and image processing technology is universal. This approach does not effectively identify the defect generated by damaged knitting needles and raise the alarm. We developed a knitting needle status monitoring setup using optical imaging, photoelectric detection and weak signal processing technology to achieve real-time monitoring of weaving needles' position. Depending on the shape of the knitting needle, we designed a kind of Glass Optical Fiber (GOF) light guides with a rectangular port used for transmission of the signal light. To be able to capture the signal of knitting needles accurately, we adopt a optical 4F system which has better imaging quality and simple structure and there is a rectangle image on the focal plane after the system. When a knitting needle passes through position of the rectangle image, the reflected light from needle surface will back to the GOF light guides along the same optical system. According to the intensity of signals, the computer control unit distinguish that the knitting needle is broken or curving. The experimental results show that this system can accurately detect the broken needles and the curving needles on the knitting machine in operating condition.

  2. Oblique needle segmentation and tracking for 3D TRUS guided prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Zhouping; Gardi, Lori; Downey, Donal B.; Fenster, Aaron

    2005-09-15

    An algorithm was developed in order to segment and track brachytherapy needles inserted along oblique trajectories. Three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images of the rigid rod simulating the needle inserted into the tissue-mimicking agar and chicken breast phantoms were obtained to test the accuracy of the algorithm under ideal conditions. Because the robot possesses high positioning and angulation accuracies, we used the robot as a ''gold standard,'' and compared the results of algorithm segmentation to the values measured by the robot. Our testing results showed that the accuracy of the needle segmentation algorithm depends on the needle insertion distance into the 3D TRUS image and the angulations with respect to the TRUS transducer, e.g., at a 10 deg. insertion anglulation in agar phantoms, the error of the algorithm in determining the needle tip position was less than 1 mm when the insertion distance was greater than 15 mm. Near real-time needle tracking was achieved by scanning a small volume containing the needle. Our tests also showed that, the segmentation time was less than 60 ms, and the scanning time was less than 1.2 s, when the insertion distance into the 3D TRUS image was less than 55 mm. In our needle tracking tests in chicken breast phantoms, the errors in determining the needle orientation were less than 2 deg. in robot yaw and 0.7 deg. in robot pitch orientations, for up to 20 deg. needle insertion angles with the TRUS transducer in the horizontal plane when the needle insertion distance was greater than 15 mm.

  3. Target motion predictions for pre-operative planning during needle-based interventions.

    PubMed

    op den Buijs, Jorn; Abayazid, Momen; de Korte, Chris L; Misra, Sarthak

    2011-01-01

    During biopsies, breast tissue is subjected to displacement upon needle indentation, puncture, and penetration. Thus, accurate needle placement requires pre-operative predictions of the target motions. In this paper, we used ultrasound elastography measurements to non-invasively predict elastic properties of breast tissue phantoms. These properties were used in finite element (FE) models of indentation of breast soft tissue phantoms. To validate the model predictions of target motion, experimental measurements were carried out. Breast tissue phantoms with cubic and hemispherical geometries were manufactured and included materials with different elastic properties to represent skin, adipose tissue, and lesions. Ultrasound was used to track the displacement of the target (i.e., the simulated lesion) during indentation. The FE model predictions were compared with ultrasound measurements for cases with different boundary conditions and phantom geometry. Maximum errors between measured and predicted target motions were 12% and 3% for the fully supported and partially supported cubic phantoms at 6.0 mm indentation, respectively. Further, FE-based parameter sensitivity analysis indicated that increasing skin elastic modulus and reducing the target depth location increased the target motion. Our results indicate that with a priori knowledge about the geometry, boundary conditions, and linear elastic properties, indentation of breast tissue phantoms can be accurately predicted with FE models. FE models for pre-operative planning in combination with robotic needle insertions, could play a key role in improving lesion targeting for breast biopsies. PMID:22255554

  4. Examination of surface conditions and other physical properties of commonly used stainless steel acupuncture needles

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yi Min; Xu, Shanqing; Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present work examined the surface conditions and various other physical properties of sterilised single-use stainless steel acupuncture needles from two of the most popular brands widely used in many countries. Methods Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were taken for 10 randomly chosen needles from each brand. Further SEM images were taken after each of these needles underwent a standard manipulation with an acupuncture needling practice gel. A comparison of forces and torques during the needling process was also carried out. Results The SEM images revealed significant surface irregularities and inconsistencies at the needle tips, especially for needles from one of the two brands. Metallic lumps and small, loosely attached pieces of material were observed on the surfaces of some needles. Some of the lumps and pieces of material seen on the needle surfaces disappeared after the acupuncture manipulation. If these needles had been used on patients, the metallic lumps and small pieces of material could have been deposited in human tissues, which could have caused adverse events such as dermatitis. Malformed needle tips might also cause other adverse effects including bleeding, haematoma/bruising, or strong pain during needling. An off-centre needle tip could result in the needle altering its direction during insertion and consequently failing to reach the intended acupuncture point or damaging adjacent tissues. Conclusions These findings highlight the need for improved quality control of acupuncture needles, with a view to further enhancing the safety and comfort of acupuncture users. PMID:24522003

  5. Insertion Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Mahillon, Jacques; Chandler, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Insertion sequences (ISs) constitute an important component of most bacterial genomes. Over 500 individual ISs have been described in the literature to date, and many more are being discovered in the ongoing prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome-sequencing projects. The last 10 years have also seen some striking advances in our understanding of the transposition process itself. Not least of these has been the development of various in vitro transposition systems for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic elements and, for several of these, a detailed understanding of the transposition process at the chemical level. This review presents a general overview of the organization and function of insertion sequences of eubacterial, archaebacterial, and eukaryotic origins with particular emphasis on bacterial elements and on different aspects of the transposition mechanism. It also attempts to provide a framework for classification of these elements by assigning them to various families or groups. A total of 443 members of the collection have been grouped in 17 families based on combinations of the following criteria: (i) similarities in genetic organization (arrangement of open reading frames); (ii) marked identities or similarities in the enzymes which mediate the transposition reactions, the recombinases/transposases (Tpases); (iii) similar features of their ends (terminal IRs); and (iv) fate of the nucleotide sequence of their target sites (generation of a direct target duplication of determined length). A brief description of the mechanism(s) involved in the mobility of individual ISs in each family and of the structure-function relationships of the individual Tpases is included where available. PMID:9729608

  6. Pacemaker insertion

    PubMed Central

    Kotsakou, Maria; Kioumis, Ioannis; Lazaridis, George; Pitsiou, Georgia; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    A pacemaker (PM) (or artificial PM, so as not to be confused with the heart’s natural PM) is a medical device that uses electrical impulses, delivered by electrodes contracting the heart muscles, to regulate the beating of the heart. The primary purpose of this device is to maintain an adequate heart rate, either because the heart’s natural PM is not fast enough, or there is a block in the heart’s electrical conduction system. Modern PMs are externally programmable and allow the cardiologist to select the optimum pacing modes for individual patients. Some combine a PM and defibrillator in a single implantable device. PMs can be temporary or permanent. Temporary PMs are used to treat short-term heart problems, such as a slow heartbeat that’s caused by a heart attack, heart surgery, or an overdose of medicine. Permanent PMs are used to control long-term heart rhythm problems. A PM can relieve some arrhythmia symptoms, such as fatigue and fainting. A PM also can help a person who has abnormal HRs resume a more active lifestyle. In the current mini review we will focus on the insertion of a PM and the possible pneumothorax that can be caused. PMID:25815303

  7. Development of Micro Lancet Needle Made of Biodegradable Polymer for Medical Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyagi, Seiji; Izumi, Hayato; Aoki, Toshiro; Fukuda, Mitsuo

    The aim of this paper is development of micro lancet needle made of biodegradable polymer (Poly Lactic Acid, called as PLA). This device is applicable to a blood test system for diabetics. Since PLA naturally degrades itself in tissues, this material is safe for human body. To achieve the purpose of this study, we focused on wet chemical anisotropic etching process of silicon negative groove, and micromolding process of PLA. Resistance force during inserting a fabricated needle to an artificial skin of silicone rubber is investigated experimentally. The effects of thinning needle, sharpening tip, vibrating it during insertion, pitching out the inserted object surface, etc., for decreasing the resistance force are confirmed.

  8. [Intrapulmonary Sewing Needle].

    PubMed

    Hisama, Naoya; Tsunemitsu, Nobumasa; Yasumasu, Tetsuo; Yamasaki, Takashi; Uchida, Takahisa

    2016-06-01

    Intrapulmonary aberrant needles are rarely encountered in clinical practice. A 82-year-old woman, though she was asymptomatic, was referred to our department due to an abnormal shadow on a chest X-ray. Chest X-ray and chest computed tomography showed a foreign body suspected to be a sewing needle in the left upper lobe. The needle was successfully removed by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. PMID:27246130

  9. Needle-tissue interaction forces--a survey of experimental data.

    PubMed

    van Gerwen, Dennis J; Dankelman, Jenny; van den Dobbelsteen, John J

    2012-07-01

    The development of needles, needle-insertion simulators, and needle-wielding robots for use in a clinical environment depends on a thorough understanding of the mechanics of needle-tissue interaction. It stands to reason that the forces arising from this interaction are influenced by numerous factors, such as needle type, insertion speed, and tissue characteristics. However, exactly how these factors influence the force is not clear. For this reason, the influence of various factors on needle insertion-force was investigated by searching literature for experimental data. This resulted in a comprehensive overview of experimental insertion-force data available in the literature, grouped by factor for quick reference. In total, 99 papers presenting such force data were found, with typical peak forces in the order of 1-10N. The data suggest, for example, that higher velocity tends to decrease puncture force and increase friction. Furthermore, increased needle diameter was found to increase peak forces, and conical needles were found to create higher peak forces than beveled needles. However, many questions remain open for investigation, especially those concerning the influence of tissue characteristics.

  10. Optical Coherence Tomography in a Needle Format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenser, Dirk; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Sampson, David D.

    In this chapter, we review the technology and applications of needle probes for optical coherence tomography (OCT). Needle probes are miniaturized fiber-optic probes that can be mounted inside hypodermic needles, allowing them to be inserted deep into the body during OCT imaging. This overcomes the very limited imaging depth of OCT of only 2-3 mm in biological tissue, enabling access to deep-tissue locations that are beyond the reach of free-space optical scan heads or catheters. This chapter provides an in-depth review of the current state-of-the art in needle probe technology, including optical design and fabrication, scan mechanisms (including three-dimensional scanning), and integration into OCT systems. It also provides an overview of emerging applications of this fascinating new imaging tool in areas such as cancer diagnosis, pulmonary imaging, imaging of the eye and imaging of the brain. Finally, two case studies are presented, illustrating needle-based OCT imaging in breast cancer and lungs.

  11. Precessing Ferromagnetic Needle Magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Jackson Kimball, Derek F; Sushkov, Alexander O; Budker, Dmitry

    2016-05-13

    A ferromagnetic needle is predicted to precess about the magnetic field axis at a Larmor frequency Ω under conditions where its intrinsic spin dominates over its rotational angular momentum, Nℏ≫IΩ (I is the moment of inertia of the needle about the precession axis and N is the number of polarized spins in the needle). In this regime the needle behaves as a gyroscope with spin Nℏ maintained along the easy axis of the needle by the crystalline and shape anisotropy. A precessing ferromagnetic needle is a correlated system of N spins which can be used to measure magnetic fields for long times. In principle, by taking advantage of rapid averaging of quantum uncertainty, the sensitivity of a precessing needle magnetometer can far surpass that of magnetometers based on spin precession of atoms in the gas phase. Under conditions where noise from coupling to the environment is subdominant, the scaling with measurement time t of the quantum- and detection-limited magnetometric sensitivity is t^{-3/2}. The phenomenon of ferromagnetic needle precession may be of particular interest for precision measurements testing fundamental physics. PMID:27232012

  12. Precessing Ferromagnetic Needle Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson Kimball, Derek F.; Sushkov, Alexander O.; Budker, Dmitry

    2016-05-01

    A ferromagnetic needle is predicted to precess about the magnetic field axis at a Larmor frequency Ω under conditions where its intrinsic spin dominates over its rotational angular momentum, N ℏ≫I Ω (I is the moment of inertia of the needle about the precession axis and N is the number of polarized spins in the needle). In this regime the needle behaves as a gyroscope with spin N ℏ maintained along the easy axis of the needle by the crystalline and shape anisotropy. A precessing ferromagnetic needle is a correlated system of N spins which can be used to measure magnetic fields for long times. In principle, by taking advantage of rapid averaging of quantum uncertainty, the sensitivity of a precessing needle magnetometer can far surpass that of magnetometers based on spin precession of atoms in the gas phase. Under conditions where noise from coupling to the environment is subdominant, the scaling with measurement time t of the quantum- and detection-limited magnetometric sensitivity is t-3 /2. The phenomenon of ferromagnetic needle precession may be of particular interest for precision measurements testing fundamental physics.

  13. Precessing Ferromagnetic Needle Magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Jackson Kimball, Derek F; Sushkov, Alexander O; Budker, Dmitry

    2016-05-13

    A ferromagnetic needle is predicted to precess about the magnetic field axis at a Larmor frequency Ω under conditions where its intrinsic spin dominates over its rotational angular momentum, Nℏ≫IΩ (I is the moment of inertia of the needle about the precession axis and N is the number of polarized spins in the needle). In this regime the needle behaves as a gyroscope with spin Nℏ maintained along the easy axis of the needle by the crystalline and shape anisotropy. A precessing ferromagnetic needle is a correlated system of N spins which can be used to measure magnetic fields for long times. In principle, by taking advantage of rapid averaging of quantum uncertainty, the sensitivity of a precessing needle magnetometer can far surpass that of magnetometers based on spin precession of atoms in the gas phase. Under conditions where noise from coupling to the environment is subdominant, the scaling with measurement time t of the quantum- and detection-limited magnetometric sensitivity is t^{-3/2}. The phenomenon of ferromagnetic needle precession may be of particular interest for precision measurements testing fundamental physics.

  14. Toward a miniaturized needle steering system with path planning for obstacle avoidance.

    PubMed

    Ko, Seong Young; Rodriguez y Baena, Ferdinando

    2013-04-01

    Percutaneous intervention is among the preferred diagnostic and treatment options in surgery today. Recently, a biologically inspired needle steering system was proposed, where a novel "programmable bevel" is employed to control the tip angle as a function of the offset between interlocked needle segments. The new device, codenamed soft tissue intervention and neurosurgical guide (STING), can steer along arbitrary curvilinear trajectories within a compliant medium, and be controlled by means of an embedded position sensor. In this study, we provide details of our latest attempt to miniaturize the STING, with the design and manufacture of a 4-mm outer diameter (OD) two-part prototype that includes unique features, such as a bespoke trocar and insertion mechanism, which ensure that the segments do not come apart or buckle during the insertion process. It is shown that this prototype can steer around tight bends (down to a radius of curvature of ~70 mm), a performance which is comparable to the best systems in this class. With the need to comply with the specific mechanical constraints of STING, this paper also introduces a novel path planner with obstacle avoidance, which can produce a differentiable trajectory that satisfies constraints on both the maximum curvature of the final trajectory and its derivative. In vitro results in gelatin for the integrated prototype and path planner demonstrate accurate 2-D trajectory following (0.1 mm tracking error, with 0.64 mm standard deviation), with significant scope for future improvements. PMID:23193445

  15. Robot-assisted needle insertion for venous catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Pasternak, Jacyr

    2015-01-01

    Vein access can be challenging for a variety of patients. The development of robots-assisted central or peripheral veins puncture would facilitate life of health professionals and patients. New robots are under development for this purpose and probably they will become available for practical use in the near future. These techniques may decrease significantly the cost of medicine, which currently uses less informatics resources than other industries. PMID:26313434

  16. Robot-assisted needle insertion for venous catheterization.

    PubMed

    Pasternak, Jacyr

    2015-01-01

    Vein access can be challenging for a variety of patients. The development of robots-assisted central or peripheral veins puncture would facilitate life of health professionals and patients. New robots are under development for this purpose and probably they will become available for practical use in the near future. These techniques may decrease significantly the cost of medicine, which currently uses less informatics resources than other industries. PMID:26313434

  17. Dihalocarbene Insertion Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, S. H.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the insertion reaction using the insertion of carbenes into carbon-hydrogen bonds as an example. Outlines an experiment that will illustrate dihalocarbene insertions into diisopropyl ether. (GS)

  18. Chest tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    Chest drainage tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... When your chest tube is inserted, you will lie on your side or sit partly upright, with one arm over your head. Sometimes, ...

  19. NPIP: A skew line needle configuration optimization system for HDR brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Siauw, Timmy; Cunha, Adam; Berenson, Dmitry; Atamtuerk, Alper; Hsu, I-Chow; Goldberg, Ken; Pouliot, Jean

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: In this study, the authors introduce skew line needle configurations for high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy and needle planning by integer program (NPIP), a computational method for generating these configurations. NPIP generates needle configurations that are specific to the anatomy of the patient, avoid critical structures near the penile bulb and other healthy structures, and avoid needle collisions inside the body. Methods: NPIP consisted of three major components: a method for generating a set of candidate needles, a needle selection component that chose a candidate needle subset to be inserted, and a dose planner for verifying that the final needle configuration could meet dose objectives. NPIP was used to compute needle configurations for prostate cancer data sets from patients previously treated at our clinic. NPIP took two user-parameters: a number of candidate needles, and needle coverage radius, {delta}. The candidate needle set consisted of 5000 needles, and a range of {delta} values was used to compute different needle configurations for each patient. Dose plans were computed for each needle configuration. The number of needles generated and dosimetry were analyzed and compared to the physician implant. Results: NPIP computed at least one needle configuration for every patient that met dose objectives, avoided healthy structures and needle collisions, and used as many or fewer needles than standard practice. These needle configurations corresponded to a narrow range of {delta} values, which could be used as default values if this system is used in practice. The average end-to-end runtime for this implementation of NPIP was 286 s, but there was a wide variation from case to case. Conclusions: The authors have shown that NPIP can automatically generate skew line needle configurations with the aforementioned properties, and that given the correct input parameters, NPIP can generate needle configurations which meet dose objectives and use as many

  20. Epidural insertion simulator of higher insertion resistance & drop rate after puncture.

    PubMed

    Naemura, K; Sakai, A; Hayashi, T; Saito, H

    2008-01-01

    Accidents such as dural puncture remain one of the problems of epidural anesthesia, and unskilled doctors can repeat such accidents. The purpose of the current research was to provide a new simulator for epidural insertion training. No reference data regarding the resistance force used when inserting a needle into patients have been reported. A comparative study was conducted to aid in the development of a new simulator. Pork loin (n=5) were employed as a substitute for patients. Thickness was set at 2 cm so as to improve the reproducibility. The authors took the conventional simulator apart, and picked a block as an analogue of muscle and ligamentum flavum. A new simulator was made of a melamine foam resin block and a latex rubber sheet. An epidural needle fixed on a motorized stage was inserted at the speed of 2 mm per second. The reaction force was measured while the needle was inserted into each specimen. Waveform of the pork loin exhibited two slopes of different inclines up to peaks and then falls after puncture. The conventional simulator showed a simple increase up to peak and a slow fall after puncture. In contrast, the new simulator showed two slopes up to peak and then a sudden fall after puncture. The insertion resistances were 2.5 N/s for the porcine, 0.8 N/s for the conventional and 2.1 N/s for the new simulator. The drop rates were 5 N/s for the porcine, 0.6 N/s for the conventional and 24 N/s for the new simulator. The higher insertion resistance and drop rate for the new simulator than the conventional simulator will be suitable for epidural insertion training.

  1. Toward robotic needle steering in lung biopsy: a tendon-actuated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratchman, Louis B.; Rahman, Mohammed M.; Saunders, Justin R.; Swaney, Philip J.; Webster, Robert J., III

    2011-03-01

    Needle tip dexterity is advantageous for transthoracic lung biopsies, which are typically performed with rigid, straight biopsy needles. By providing intraoperative compensation for trajectory error and lesion motion, tendon-driven biopsy needles may reach smaller or deeper nodules in fewer attempts, thereby reducing trauma. An image-guided robotic system that uses these needles also has the potential to reduce radiation exposure to the patient and physician. In this paper, we discuss the design, workflow, kinematic modeling, and control of both the needle and a compact and inexpensive robotic prototype that can actuate the tendon-driven needle for transthoracic lung biopsy. The system is designed to insert and steer the needle under Computed Tomography (CT) guidance. In a free-space targeting experiment using a discrete proportional control law with digital camera feedback, we show a position error of less than 1 mm achieved using an average of 8.3 images (n=3).

  2. The Path-of-Probability Algorithm for Steering and Feedback Control of Flexible Needles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Wooram; Wang, Yunfeng; Chirikjian, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we develop a new framework for path planning of flexible needles with bevel tips. Based on a stochastic model of needle steering, the probability density function for the needle tip pose is approximated as a Gaussian. The means and covariances are estimated using an error propagation algorithm which has second order accuracy. Then we adapt the path-of-probability (POP) algorithm to path planning of flexible needles with bevel tips. We demonstrate how our planning algorithm can be used for feedback control of flexible needles. We also derive a closed-form solution for the port placement problem for finding good insertion locations for flexible needles in the case when there are no obstacles. Furthermore, we propose a new method using reference splines with the POP algorithm to solve the path planning problem for flexible needles in more general cases that include obstacles. PMID:21151708

  3. Needle breakage: incidence and prevention.

    PubMed

    Malamed, Stanley F; Reed, Kenneth; Poorsattar, Susan

    2010-10-01

    Since the introduction of nonreusable, stainless steel dental local anesthetic needles, needle breakage has become an extremely rare complication of dental local anesthetic injections. But although rare, dental needle breakage can, and does, occur. Review of the literature and personal experience brings into focus several commonalities which, when avoided, can minimize the risk of needle breakage with the fragment being retained from occurring.

  4. Closed-loop asymmetric-tip needle steering under continuous intraoperative MRI guidance.

    PubMed

    Patel, Niravkumar A; van Katwijk, Tim; Li, Gang; Moreira, Pedro; Shang, Weijian; Misra, Sarthak; Fischer, Gregory S

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides excellent image contrast for various types of tissues, making it a suitable choice over other imaging modalities for various image-guided needle interventions. Furthermore, robot-assistance is maturing for surgical procedures such as percutaneous prostate and brain interventions. Although MRI-guided, robot-assisted needle interventions are approaching clinical usage, they are still typically open-loop in nature due to the lack of continuous intraoperative needle tracking. Closed-loop needle-based procedures can improve the accuracy of needle tip placement by correcting the needle trajectory during insertion. This paper proposes a system for robot-assisted, flexible asymmetric-tipped needle interventions under continuous intraoperative MRI guidance. A flexible needle's insertion depth and rotation angle are manipulated by an MRI-compatible robot in the bore of the MRI scanner during continuous multi-planar image acquisition to reach a desired target location. Experiments are performed on gelatin phantoms to assess the accuracy of needle placement into the target location. The system was able to successfully utilize live MR imaging to guide the path of the needle, and results show an average total targeting error of 2.5±0.47mm, with an average in-plane error of 2.09±0.33mm. PMID:26737384

  5. Experiments with needle bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferretti, Pericle

    1933-01-01

    Experiments and results are presented in testing needle bearings, especially in comparison with roller bearings. Reduction in coefficient of friction is discussed as well as experimental methods and recording devices.

  6. Surgical Removal of an Unrecognized Tapestry Needle from the Urethra.

    PubMed

    Temiz, Mustafa Zafer; Yuruk, Emrah; Teberik, Kutlu; Kandirali, Engin

    2015-04-24

    The variety of intraurethral foreign bodies has been reported in literature. Most of them tend to be self-inserted because of sexual or erotic reasons. We report a 23-year old male patient who had tapestry needle into his urethra, which was not self-inserted. The patient was referred to our institution with dysuria and hematuria. There was microscopic hematuria in urine analysis and no pathologic sign in sonography. The needle was detected in proximal urethra in pelvic X-ray and endoscopic visualization revealed that it was trapped in mucosa. The needle was successfully removed by open surgery. Main treatment for the removal of urethral foreign bodies is usually endoscopic but open surgery may be required in some cases especially cutting foreign bodies. PMID:26236453

  7. Surgical Removal of an Unrecognized Tapestry Needle from the Urethra

    PubMed Central

    Temiz, Mustafa Zafer; Yuruk, Emrah; Teberik, Kutlu; Kandirali, Engin

    2015-01-01

    The variety of intraurethral foreign bodies has been reported in literature. Most of them tend to be self-inserted because of sexual or erotic reasons. We report a 23-year old male patient who had tapestry needle into his urethra, which was not self-inserted. The patient was referred to our institution with dysuria and hematuria. There was microscopic hematuria in urine analysis and no pathologic sign in sonography. The needle was detected in proximal urethra in pelvic X-ray and endoscopic visualization revealed that it was trapped in mucosa. The needle was successfully removed by open surgery. Main treatment for the removal of urethral foreign bodies is usually endoscopic but open surgery may be required in some cases especially cutting foreign bodies. PMID:26236453

  8. 21 CFR 878.5350 - Needle-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... hair by applying electric current at the tip of a fine needle that has been inserted close to the hair shaft, under the skin, and into the dermal papilla. The electric current may be high-frequency AC current, high-frequency AC combined with DC current, or DC current only. (b) Classification. Class...

  9. 21 CFR 878.5350 - Needle-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... hair by applying electric current at the tip of a fine needle that has been inserted close to the hair shaft, under the skin, and into the dermal papilla. The electric current may be high-frequency AC current, high-frequency AC combined with DC current, or DC current only. (b) Classification. Class...

  10. 21 CFR 878.5350 - Needle-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... hair by applying electric current at the tip of a fine needle that has been inserted close to the hair shaft, under the skin, and into the dermal papilla. The electric current may be high-frequency AC current, high-frequency AC combined with DC current, or DC current only. (b) Classification. Class...

  11. 21 CFR 878.5350 - Needle-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... hair by applying electric current at the tip of a fine needle that has been inserted close to the hair shaft, under the skin, and into the dermal papilla. The electric current may be high-frequency AC current, high-frequency AC combined with DC current, or DC current only. (b) Classification. Class...

  12. 21 CFR 878.5350 - Needle-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... hair by applying electric current at the tip of a fine needle that has been inserted close to the hair shaft, under the skin, and into the dermal papilla. The electric current may be high-frequency AC current, high-frequency AC combined with DC current, or DC current only. (b) Classification. Class...

  13. Susuks: charm needles in facial soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Shanmuhasuntharam, P; Ghani, S H

    1991-04-20

    Susuks or charm needles are a form of talisman inserted and worn subcutaneously, in the face and other parts of the body, in the belief that they will enhance or preserve the wearer's beauty, youth, charisma, strength or health, or bring success in business. This mystic practice is found among some south-east Asian people, especially Malayan and Muslim females. Most susuk wearers are secretive about their hidden talismans, but these gold or silver needles are being discovered with increasing frequency now that radiographs are used more widely. An understanding of this practice and an awareness of its existence is important to avoid misdiagnosis and mismanagement of these patients. The practice of susuk wearing and its relevance to dentistry is discussed. Nine cases of facial susuk wearers are presented and previous reports are reviewed.

  14. Navigational transbronchial needle aspiration, percutaneous needle aspiration and its future

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Sixto; Yarmus, Lonny

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral lung nodule evaluation represents a clinical challenge. Given that many nodules will be incidentally found with lung cancer screening following the publication of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), the goal is to find an accurate, safe and minimally-invasive diagnostic modality to biopsy the concerning lesions. Unfortunately, conventional bronchoscopic techniques provide a poor diagnostic yield of 18–62%. In recent years advances in technology have led to the introduction of electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB) as a tool to guide sampling of peripheral lung nodules. The same principle has also recently been expanded and applied to the transthoracic needle biopsy, referred to as electromagnetic transthoracic needle aspiration (E-TTNA). An improved diagnostic yield has afforded this technology a recommendation by the 2013 3rd Edition ACCP Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Lung Cancer which state that “in patients with peripheral lung lesions difficult to reach with conventional bronchoscopy, ENB is recommended if the equipment and the expertise are available (Grade 1C)”. In this review we will discuss the technology, devices that are available, techniques and protocols, diagnostic yield, safety, cost effectiveness and more. PMID:26807280

  15. Phoenix Conductivity Probe Inserted into Martian Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander inserted the four needles of its thermal and conductivity probe into Martian soil during the 98th Martian day, or sol, of the mission and left it in place until Sol 99 (Sept. 4, 2008).

    The Robotic Arm Camera on Phoenix took this image on the morning of Sol 99 while the probe's needles were in the ground. The science team informally named this soil target 'Gandalf.'

    The thermal and conductivity probe measures how fast heat and electricity move from one needle to an adjacent one through the soil or air between the needles. Conductivity readings can be indicators about water vapor, water ice and liquid water.

    The probe is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Clarification of the characteristics of needle-tip movement during vacuum venipuncture to improve safety

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Chieko

    2013-01-01

    Background Complications resulting from venipuncture include vein and nerve damage, hematoma, and neuropathic pain. Although the basic procedures are understood, few analyses of actual data exist. It is important to improve the safety standards of this technique during venipuncture. This study aimed to obtain data on actual needle movement during vacuum venipuncture in order to develop appropriate educational procedures. Methods Six experienced nurses were recruited to collect blood samples from 64 subjects. These procedures were recorded using a digital camera. Software was then used to track and analyze motion without the use of a marker in order to maintain the sterility of the needle. Movement along the X- and Y-axes during blood sampling was examined. Results Approximately 2.5 cm of the needle was inserted into the body, of which 6 mm resulted from advancing or moving the needle following puncture. The mean calculated puncture angle was 15.2°. Given the hazards posed by attaching and removing the blood collection tube, as well as by manipulating the needle to fix its position, the needle became unstable whether it was fixed or not fixed. Conclusion This study examined venipuncture procedures and showed that the method was influenced by increased needle movement. Focusing on skills for puncturing the skin, inserting the needle into the vein, and changing hands while being conscious of needle-tip stability may be essential for improving the safety of venipuncture. PMID:23901281

  17. Needle Federated Search Engine

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has combined a number of technologies, tools, and resources to accomplish a new means of federating search results. The resulting product is a search engine called Needle, an open-source-based tool that the INL uses internally for researching across a wide variety of information repositories. Needle has a flexible search interface that allows end users to point at any available data source. A user can select multiple sources such as commercial databases (Web of Science, Engineering Index), external resources (WorldCat, Google Scholar), and internal corporate resources (email, document management system, library collections) in a single interface with one search query. In the future, INL hopes to offer this open-source engine to the public. This session will outline the development processes for making Needle™s search interface and simplifying the federation of internal and external data sources.

  18. Needle Federated Search Engine

    2009-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has combined a number of technologies, tools, and resources to accomplish a new means of federating search results. The resulting product is a search engine called Needle, an open-source-based tool that the INL uses internally for researching across a wide variety of information repositories. Needle has a flexible search interface that allows end users to point at any available data source. A user can select multiple sources such as commercialmore » databases (Web of Science, Engineering Index), external resources (WorldCat, Google Scholar), and internal corporate resources (email, document management system, library collections) in a single interface with one search query. In the future, INL hopes to offer this open-source engine to the public. This session will outline the development processes for making Needle™s search interface and simplifying the federation of internal and external data sources.« less

  19. Fluoroscopically guided transforaminal epidural dry needling for lumbar spinal stenosis using a specially designed needle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This report describes the methodological approach and clinical application of a minimally invasive intervention to treat lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Methods Thirty-four patients with LSS underwent fluoroscopically guided transforaminal epidural dry needling using a specially designed flexed Round Needle. The needle was inserted 8-12 cm lateral to the midline at the level of the stenosis and advanced to a position between the anterior side of the facet joint and pedicle up to the outer-third of the pedicle. The needle was advanced medially and backed laterally within a few millimetres along the canal side of the inferior articular process between the facet joint and pedicle. The procedure was completed when a marked reduction in resistance was felt at the tip of the needle. The procedure was performed bilaterally at the level of the stenosis. Results The average follow-up period was 12.9 ± 1.1 months. The visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score was reduced from 7.3 ± 2.0 to 4.6 ± 2.5 points, the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score decreased from 41.4 ± 17.2 to 25.5 ± 12.6% and the average self-rated improvement was 52.6 ± 33.1%. The VAS scores indicated that 14 (41.2%) patients reported a "good" to "excellent" treatment response, while 11 (32.4%) had a "good" to "excellent" treatment response on the ODI and 22 (64.7%) had a "good" to "excellent" treatment response on the self-rated improvement scale. Conclusions These results suggest that fluoroscopically guided transforaminal epidural dry needling is effective for managing LSS. PMID:20698999

  20. The Missing Needles: A Smooth Extension of Buffon's Needle Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivney, Raymond J., Jr.; Pollino, Benedict

    1989-01-01

    Describes the "Buffon's Needle" problem, which is calculating the probability that a needle will cross one of two separated lines. Calculates the probability when the length of the needle is greater than the space of the two lines. Provides an analytic solution and the results of a computer simulation. (YP)

  1. A Precessing Ferromagnetic Needle Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson Kimball, Derek; Sushkov, Alexander; Budker, Dmitry

    2016-05-01

    A ferromagnetic needle is predicted to precess about the magnetic field axis at a Larmor frequency Ω when IΩ << Nℏ , where I is the moment of inertia of the needle about the precession axis and N is the number of polarized spins in the needle. In this regime the needle behaves as a gyroscope with spin Nℏ maintained along the easy axis of the needle by the crystalline and shape anisotropy. A precessing ferromagnetic needle is a correlated system of N spins which can be used to measure magnetic fields for long times. In principle, the sensitivity of a precessing needle magnetometer can far surpass that of magnetometers based on spin precession of atoms in the gas phase. The phenomenon of ferromagnetic needle precession may be of particular interest for precision measurements testing fundamental physics. Supported by the Heising-Simons Foundation, Simons Foundation, and the National Science Foundation.

  2. Randomized interventions for needle procedures in children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Hedén, L; VON Essen, L; Ljungman, G

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether children experience less fear, distress and pain connected to a routine needle insertion in an intravenous port when subjected to an intervention: blowing soap bubbles or having a heated pillow vs. standard care. Twenty-eight children, 2-7 years, cared for at a paediatric oncology unit, undergoing a routine needle insertion in an intravenous port were included consecutively. All children were subjected to two needle insertions; at the first they received standard care, and at the second standard care + a randomized intervention. Parents and nurses assessed children's fear, distress and pain on 0-100 mm visual analogue scales. According to parents' report, children experienced less fear when subjected to intervention vs. standard care reported by parents (P < 0.001). Children also experienced less fear (P < 0.05) and distress (P < 0.05) when subjected to standard care + blowing soap bubbles vs. standard care (n = 14), and less fear when subjected to standard care + heated pillow vs. standard care (P < 0.05). Nurses' reports did not show any differences for standard care + intervention vs. standard care. Blowing soap bubbles or having a heated pillow is more effective than standard care in reducing children's fear and distress in needle procedures, according to parents' report. PMID:19040458

  3. Randomized interventions for needle procedures in children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Hedén, L; VON Essen, L; Ljungman, G

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether children experience less fear, distress and pain connected to a routine needle insertion in an intravenous port when subjected to an intervention: blowing soap bubbles or having a heated pillow vs. standard care. Twenty-eight children, 2-7 years, cared for at a paediatric oncology unit, undergoing a routine needle insertion in an intravenous port were included consecutively. All children were subjected to two needle insertions; at the first they received standard care, and at the second standard care + a randomized intervention. Parents and nurses assessed children's fear, distress and pain on 0-100 mm visual analogue scales. According to parents' report, children experienced less fear when subjected to intervention vs. standard care reported by parents (P < 0.001). Children also experienced less fear (P < 0.05) and distress (P < 0.05) when subjected to standard care + blowing soap bubbles vs. standard care (n = 14), and less fear when subjected to standard care + heated pillow vs. standard care (P < 0.05). Nurses' reports did not show any differences for standard care + intervention vs. standard care. Blowing soap bubbles or having a heated pillow is more effective than standard care in reducing children's fear and distress in needle procedures, according to parents' report.

  4. Fireplace stove insert

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, R.A.

    1983-09-27

    The present invention is directed to the provision of an improved stove insert for a fireplace opening, having means associated therewith for precisely controlling draft, thereby enabling the stove insert to be used for coal as well as wood.

  5. Buffon's Needle--A Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Derek; Roberts, Tony

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a computer simulation of Buffon's needle problem. The problem considers the probability that a needle will cross a line when the needle is thrown in a random way onto the parallel lines a certain distance apart. The paper provides the algorithm and computer program. (YP)

  6. Development of 3D ultrasound needle guidance for high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy of gynaecological cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, J.; Tessier, D.; D'Souza, D.; Leung, E.; Hajdok, G.; Fenster, A.

    2016-04-01

    High-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy is often included in standard-of-care for gynaecological cancers. Needles are currently inserted through a perineal template without any standard real-time imaging modality to assist needle guidance, causing physicians to rely on pre-operative imaging, clinical examination, and experience. While two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound (US) is sometimes used for real-time guidance, visualization of needle placement and depth is difficult and subject to variability and inaccuracy in 2D images. The close proximity to critical organs, in particular the rectum and bladder, can lead to serious complications. We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) transrectal US system and are investigating its use for intra-operative visualization of needle positions used in HDR gynaecological brachytherapy. As a proof-of-concept, four patients were imaged with post-insertion 3D US and x-ray CT. Using software developed in our laboratory, manual rigid registration of the two modalities was performed based on the perineal template's vaginal cylinder. The needle tip and a second point along the needle path were identified for each needle visible in US. The difference between modalities in the needle trajectory and needle tip position was calculated for each identified needle. For the 60 needles placed, the mean trajectory difference was 3.23 +/- 1.65° across the 53 visible needle paths and the mean difference in needle tip position was 3.89 +/- 1.92 mm across the 48 visible needles tips. Based on the preliminary results, 3D transrectal US shows potential for the development of a 3D US-based needle guidance system for interstitial gynaecological brachytherapy.

  7. Needle ban vetoed.

    PubMed

    1999-10-15

    An appropriations bill with seven provisions, one of which barred the District of Columbia from spending money on needle-exchange programs, was vetoed by President Clinton. He called it objectionable and disruptive to the District's preventions efforts. The bill previously passed the House by a slim margin. Republicans objected to a contentious provision of the bill dealing with medicinal marijuana.

  8. NEEDLE TRADES, MATHEMATICS - I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COLICCHIO, ANTOINETTE J.

    THE NEEDLE TRADES INDUSTRY CONSISTS OF THREE TYPES OF ESTABLISHMENTS -- THE REGULAR MANUFACTURERS, THE APPAREL JOBBERS, AND THE CONTRACTORS. THE FUNCTIONS INCLUDED COVER A WIDE SCOPE FROM BUYING OF RAW MATERIAL TO SELLING OF THE FINISHED APPAREL. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY GUIDE IS TO FURNISH BASIC KNOWLEDGE IN MATHEMATICS AND DEVELOP SKILL IN…

  9. Neuromuscular Damage and Repair after Dry Needling in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Domingo, Ares; Mayoral, Orlando; Monterde, Sonia; Santafé, Manel M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Some dry needling treatments involve repetitive and rapid needle insertions into myofascial trigger points. This type of treatment causes muscle injury and can also damage nerve fibers. The aim of this study is to determine the injury caused by 15 repetitive punctures in the muscle and the intramuscular nerves in healthy mouse muscle and its ulterior regeneration. Methods. We repeatedly needled the levator auris longus muscle of mice, and then the muscles were processed with immunohistochemistry, methylene blue, and electron microscopy techniques. Results. Three hours after the dry needling procedure, the muscle fibers showed some signs of an inflammatory response, which progressed to greater intensity 24 hours after the procedure. Some inflammatory cells could still be seen when the muscle regeneration was almost complete seven days after the treatment. One day after the treatment, some changes in the distribution of receptors could be observed in the denervated postsynaptic component. Reinnervation was complete by the third day after the dry needling procedure. We also saw very fine axonal branches reinnervating all the postsynaptic components and some residual sprouts the same day. Conclusion. Repeated dry needling punctures in muscle do not perturb the different stages of muscle regeneration and reinnervation. PMID:23662122

  10. A method to accurately quantitate intensities of (32)P-DNA bands when multiple bands appear in a single lane of a gel is used to study dNTP insertion opposite a benzo[a]pyrene-dG adduct by Sulfolobus DNA polymerases Dpo4 and Dbh.

    PubMed

    Sholder, Gabriel; Loechler, Edward L

    2015-01-01

    Quantitating relative (32)P-band intensity in gels is desired, e.g., to study primer-extension kinetics of DNA polymerases (DNAPs). Following imaging, multiple (32)P-bands are often present in lanes. Though individual bands appear by eye to be simple and well-resolved, scanning reveals they are actually skewed-Gaussian in shape and neighboring bands are overlapping, which complicates quantitation, because slower migrating bands often have considerable contributions from the trailing edges of faster migrating bands. A method is described to accurately quantitate adjacent (32)P-bands, which relies on having a standard: a simple skewed-Gaussian curve from an analogous pure, single-component band (e.g., primer alone). This single-component scan/curve is superimposed on its corresponding band in an experimentally determined scan/curve containing multiple bands (e.g., generated in a primer-extension reaction); intensity exceeding the single-component scan/curve is attributed to other components (e.g., insertion products). Relative areas/intensities are determined via pixel analysis, from which relative molarity of components is computed. Common software is used. Commonly used alternative methods (e.g., drawing boxes around bands) are shown to be less accurate. Our method was used to study kinetics of dNTP primer-extension opposite a benzo[a]pyrene-N(2)-dG-adduct with four DNAPs, including Sulfolobus solfataricus Dpo4 and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius Dbh. Vmax/Km is similar for correct dCTP insertion with Dpo4 and Dbh. Compared to Dpo4, Dbh misinsertion is slower for dATP (∼20-fold), dGTP (∼110-fold) and dTTP (∼6-fold), due to decreases in Vmax. These findings provide support that Dbh is in the same Y-Family DNAP class as eukaryotic DNAP κ and bacterial DNAP IV, which accurately bypass N(2)-dG adducts, as well as establish the scan-method described herein as an accurate method to quantitate relative intensity of overlapping bands in a single lane, whether generated

  11. A method to accurately quantitate intensities of (32)P-DNA bands when multiple bands appear in a single lane of a gel is used to study dNTP insertion opposite a benzo[a]pyrene-dG adduct by Sulfolobus DNA polymerases Dpo4 and Dbh.

    PubMed

    Sholder, Gabriel; Loechler, Edward L

    2015-01-01

    Quantitating relative (32)P-band intensity in gels is desired, e.g., to study primer-extension kinetics of DNA polymerases (DNAPs). Following imaging, multiple (32)P-bands are often present in lanes. Though individual bands appear by eye to be simple and well-resolved, scanning reveals they are actually skewed-Gaussian in shape and neighboring bands are overlapping, which complicates quantitation, because slower migrating bands often have considerable contributions from the trailing edges of faster migrating bands. A method is described to accurately quantitate adjacent (32)P-bands, which relies on having a standard: a simple skewed-Gaussian curve from an analogous pure, single-component band (e.g., primer alone). This single-component scan/curve is superimposed on its corresponding band in an experimentally determined scan/curve containing multiple bands (e.g., generated in a primer-extension reaction); intensity exceeding the single-component scan/curve is attributed to other components (e.g., insertion products). Relative areas/intensities are determined via pixel analysis, from which relative molarity of components is computed. Common software is used. Commonly used alternative methods (e.g., drawing boxes around bands) are shown to be less accurate. Our method was used to study kinetics of dNTP primer-extension opposite a benzo[a]pyrene-N(2)-dG-adduct with four DNAPs, including Sulfolobus solfataricus Dpo4 and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius Dbh. Vmax/Km is similar for correct dCTP insertion with Dpo4 and Dbh. Compared to Dpo4, Dbh misinsertion is slower for dATP (∼20-fold), dGTP (∼110-fold) and dTTP (∼6-fold), due to decreases in Vmax. These findings provide support that Dbh is in the same Y-Family DNAP class as eukaryotic DNAP κ and bacterial DNAP IV, which accurately bypass N(2)-dG adducts, as well as establish the scan-method described herein as an accurate method to quantitate relative intensity of overlapping bands in a single lane, whether generated

  12. Cone beam CT guidance provides superior accuracy for complex needle paths compared with CT guidance

    PubMed Central

    Braak, S J; Fütterer, J J; van Strijen, M J L; Hoogeveen, Y L; de Lange, F; Schultze Kool, L J

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of cone beam CT (CBCT) guidance and CT guidance in reaching small targets in relation to needle path complexity in a phantom. Methods: CBCT guidance combines three-dimensional CBCT imaging with fluoroscopy overlay and needle planning software to provide real-time needle guidance. The accuracy of needle positioning, quantified as deviation from a target, was assessed for inplane, angulated and double angulated needle paths. Four interventional radiologists reached four targets along the three paths using CBCT and CT guidance. Accuracies were compared between CBCT and CT for each needle path and between the three approaches within both modalities. The effect of user experience in CBCT guidance was also assessed. Results: Accuracies for CBCT were significantly better than CT for the double angulated needle path (2.2 vs 6.7 mm, p<0.001) for all radiologists. CBCT guidance showed no significant differences between the three approaches. For CT, deviations increased with increasing needle path complexity from 3.3 mm for the inplane placements to 4.4 mm (p=0.007) and 6.7 mm (p<0.001) for the angulated and double angulated CT-guided needle placements, respectively. For double angulated needle paths, experienced CBCT users showed consistently higher accuracies than trained users [1.8 mm (range 1.2–2.2) vs 3.3 mm (range 2.1–7.2) deviation from target, respectively; p=0.003]. Conclusion: In terms of accuracy, CBCT is the preferred modality, irrespective of the level of user experience, for more difficult guidance procedures requiring double angulated needle paths as in oncological interventions. Advances in knowledge: Accuracy of CBCT guidance has not been discussed before. CBCT guidance allows accurate needle placement irrespective of needle path complexity. For angulated and double-angulated needle paths, CBCT is more accurate than CT guidance. PMID:23913308

  13. Vancouver's needle exchange program.

    PubMed

    Bardsley, J; Turvey, J; Blatherwick, J

    1990-01-01

    To stem the spread of HIV among intravenous drug users, and between them and their sexual partners and offspring, Vancouver initiated a multifaceted "ways and means" needle exchange program in March of 1989. As of the end of October, over 2,600 users have registered. The needle exchange rate has increased steadily, reaching a peak of 98% in November. Increases have also been noted in the number of regular users, and requests for referral to addition, medical, social and HIV-related services. Outreach services, especially using a van, have expanded program availability. Success in terms of clientele response is accredited primarily to the nonjudgemental, nonintrusive approach. The main problems have been the lack of addiction treatment services, financial and personnel constraints created by the large enrollment, and difficulties with Federal/Provincial funding. Funding for evaluation has been requested.

  14. Preclinical evaluation of an MRI-compatible pneumatic robot for angulated needle placement in transperineal prostate interventions

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Junichi; Song, Sang-Eun; Fischer, Gregory S.; Iordachita, Iulian; Seifabadi, Reza; Cho, Bong Joon; Tuncali, Kemal; Fichtinger, Gabor; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the targeting accuracy of a small profile MRI-compatible pneumatic robot for needle placement that can angulate a needle insertion path into a large accessible target volume. Methods We extended our MRI-compatible pneumatic robot for needle placement to utilize its four degrees-of-freedom (4-DOF) mechanism with two parallel triangular structures and support transperineal prostate biopsies in a closed-bore magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. The robot is designed to guide a needle towards a lesion so that a radiologist can manually insert it in the bore. The robot is integrated with navigation software that allows an operator to plan angulated needle insertion by selecting a target and an entry point. The targeting error was evaluated while the angle between the needle insertion path and the static magnetic field was between −5.7° and 5.7° horizontally and between −5.7° and 4.3° vertically in the MRI scanner after sterilizing and draping the device. Results The robot positioned the needle for angulated insertion as specified on the navigation software with overall targeting error of 0.8 ± 0.5 mm along the horizontal axis and 0.8 ± 0.8 mm along the vertical axis. The two-dimensional root-mean-square targeting error on the axial slices as containing the targets was 1.4 mm. Conclusions Our preclinical evaluation demonstrated that the MRI-compatible pneumatic robot for needle placement with the capability to angulate the needle insertion path provides targeting accuracy feasible for clinical MRI-guided prostate interventions. The clinical feasibility has to be established in a clinical study. PMID:22678723

  15. Lung needle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... not improve, a chest tube is inserted to expand your lung. In rare cases, pneumothorax can be ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 197. Silvestri GA, Jett JR. Clinical aspects of lung cancer. In: ...

  16. Percutaneously inserted central catheter - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... the PICC through the needle into a larger (central) vein, putting its tip near (but not in) the heart. Take an x-ray to place the needle. Remove the needle after the catheter is placed. WHAT ARE THE RISKS OF HAVING ...

  17. Device to enhance visibility of needle or catheter tip at color Doppler US.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, J F; Cosgrove, D O

    1995-05-01

    The authors tested a device that allows the tip of a needle to be visualized at color Doppler ultrasonography. The device directs an oscillating air column through a 0.016-inch inner-diameter hollow stylet, creating movement at only the needle tip. The movement is reliably and accurately displayed as a beacon of color at depths of 15 cm in vitro.

  18. Failed needle decompression of bilateral spontaneous tension pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Bach, P T; Sølling, C

    2015-07-01

    This case report presents a young male admitted with primary bilateral spontaneous tension pneumothorax and severe respiratory distress. This is an extremely rare condition. The patient was on the verge of hypoxic cardiac arrest and the attempted needle thoracocentesis was unsuccessful. Needle thoracocentesis in the midclavicular line of the second intercostal space is widely used and recommended as first-line treatment of tension pneumothorax. Reviewing the literature, the procedure is not based on solid evidence. It has high failure rates and potentially serious complications. Alternatives to this approach are perhaps more appropriate. Correctly done, needle thoracocentesis has its place in the presence of a diagnosed or suspected tension pneumothorax when no other options are available. If needle thoracocentesis is chosen, then insertion in the mid-anterior axillary line of the 3rd-5th intercostal space is an appropriate alternative site. Otherwise, lateral thoracostomy, with or without chest tube insertion, is a safe procedure with a high success rate. It should be considered as the first-line treatment of tension pneumothorax, particularly in the unstable patient.

  19. An automated optimization tool for high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy with divergent needle pattern.

    PubMed

    Borot de Battisti, M; Maenhout, M; Denis de Senneville, B; Hautvast, G; Binnekamp, D; Lagendijk, J J W; van Vulpen, M; Moerland, M A

    2015-10-01

    Focal high-dose-rate (HDR) for prostate cancer has gained increasing interest as an alternative to whole gland therapy as it may contribute to the reduction of treatment related toxicity. For focal treatment, optimal needle guidance and placement is warranted. This can be achieved under MR guidance. However, MR-guided needle placement is currently not possible due to space restrictions in the closed MR bore. To overcome this problem, a MR-compatible, single-divergent needle-implant robotic device is under development at the University Medical Centre, Utrecht: placed between the legs of the patient inside the MR bore, this robot will tap the needle in a divergent pattern from a single rotation point into the tissue. This rotation point is just beneath the perineal skin to have access to the focal prostate tumor lesion. Currently, there is no treatment planning system commercially available which allows optimization of the dose distribution with such needle arrangement. The aim of this work is to develop an automatic inverse dose planning optimization tool for focal HDR prostate brachytherapy with needle insertions in a divergent configuration. A complete optimizer workflow is proposed which includes the determination of (1) the position of the center of rotation, (2) the needle angulations and (3) the dwell times. Unlike most currently used optimizers, no prior selection or adjustment of input parameters such as minimum or maximum dose or weight coefficients for treatment region and organs at risk is required. To test this optimizer, a planning study was performed on ten patients (treatment volumes ranged from 8.5 cm(3)to 23.3 cm(3)) by using 2-14 needle insertions. The total computation time of the optimizer workflow was below 20 min and a clinically acceptable plan was reached on average using only four needle insertions. PMID:26378657

  20. An automated optimization tool for high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy with divergent needle pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borot de Battisti, M.; Maenhout, M.; de Senneville, B. Denis; Hautvast, G.; Binnekamp, D.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; van Vulpen, M.; Moerland, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    Focal high-dose-rate (HDR) for prostate cancer has gained increasing interest as an alternative to whole gland therapy as it may contribute to the reduction of treatment related toxicity. For focal treatment, optimal needle guidance and placement is warranted. This can be achieved under MR guidance. However, MR-guided needle placement is currently not possible due to space restrictions in the closed MR bore. To overcome this problem, a MR-compatible, single-divergent needle-implant robotic device is under development at the University Medical Centre, Utrecht: placed between the legs of the patient inside the MR bore, this robot will tap the needle in a divergent pattern from a single rotation point into the tissue. This rotation point is just beneath the perineal skin to have access to the focal prostate tumor lesion. Currently, there is no treatment planning system commercially available which allows optimization of the dose distribution with such needle arrangement. The aim of this work is to develop an automatic inverse dose planning optimization tool for focal HDR prostate brachytherapy with needle insertions in a divergent configuration. A complete optimizer workflow is proposed which includes the determination of (1) the position of the center of rotation, (2) the needle angulations and (3) the dwell times. Unlike most currently used optimizers, no prior selection or adjustment of input parameters such as minimum or maximum dose or weight coefficients for treatment region and organs at risk is required. To test this optimizer, a planning study was performed on ten patients (treatment volumes ranged from 8.5 cm3to 23.3 cm3) by using 2-14 needle insertions. The total computation time of the optimizer workflow was below 20 min and a clinically acceptable plan was reached on average using only four needle insertions.

  1. Needle bar for warp knitting machines

    DOEpatents

    Hagel, Adolf; Thumling, Manfred

    1979-01-01

    Needle bar for warp knitting machines with a number of needles individually set into slits of the bar and having shafts cranked to such an extent that the head section of each needle is in alignment with the shaft section accommodated by the slit. Slackening of the needles will thus not influence the needle spacing.

  2. [Suprapubic catheter insertion].

    PubMed

    Neumann, Eva; Schwentner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The suprapubic catheter enables a percutaneous drainage of urine. The insertion is made superior of the pubic bone through the abdominal wall into the bladder. It allows a permanent drainage of urine bypassing the urethra. The insertion of a suprapubic catheter requires knowledge and expertise. This paper summarizes the basic background and allows to follow the practical application step by step.

  3. [Suprapubic catheter insertion].

    PubMed

    Neumann, Eva; Schwentner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The suprapubic catheter enables a percutaneous drainage of urine. The insertion is made superior of the pubic bone through the abdominal wall into the bladder. It allows a permanent drainage of urine bypassing the urethra. The insertion of a suprapubic catheter requires knowledge and expertise. This paper summarizes the basic background and allows to follow the practical application step by step. PMID:26800072

  4. Retained needle after cement injection during vertebral augmentation and its management strategy.

    PubMed

    Kosse, Angelika; Nakhla, Jonathan Pishoi; Yassari, Reza; Abramowicz, Apolonia Elisabeth; Brook, Allan

    2016-01-01

    A middle aged patient with multiple myeloma resulting in numerous pathological fractures underwent an L2, L3, and L5 vertebral cement augmentation for pain relief. After injection, the trocar at L2, the final level, could not be withdrawn despite several attempts of needle rotation, a second needle inserted to distract on, and rocking the needle on the pedicle. After a neurosurgical consultation, the patient was transferred to the operating room for open removal. As the needle protruded approximately 3 inches from the patient's back, the patient could not be positioned supine, and was anesthetized and intubated in the right semi-prone position prior to being placed prone on the operating room table. The needle was surgically exposed, cut off at the pedicular bone edge, and its free component was removed. PMID:26891698

  5. Real-Time Estimation of 3-D Needle Shape and Deflection for MRI-Guided Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Lae; Elayaperumal, Santhi; Daniel, Bruce; Ryu, Seok Chang; Shin, Mihye; Savall, Joan; Black, Richard J.; Moslehi, Behzad; Cutkosky, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a MRI-compatible biopsy needle instrumented with optical fiber Bragg gratings for measuring bending deflections of the needle as it is inserted into tissues. During procedures, such as diagnostic biopsies and localized treatments, it is useful to track any tool deviation from the planned trajectory to minimize positioning errors and procedural complications. The goal is to display tool deflections in real time, with greater bandwidth and accuracy than when viewing the tool in MR images. A standard 18 ga × 15 cm inner needle is prepared using a fixture, and 350-μm-deep grooves are created along its length. Optical fibers are embedded in the grooves. Two sets of sensors, located at different points along the needle, provide an estimate of the bent profile, as well as temperature compensation. Tests of the needle in a water bath showed that it produced no adverse imaging artifacts when used with the MR scanner. PMID:26405428

  6. Robot-assisted needle placement in open MRI: system architecture, integration and validation.

    PubMed

    DiMaio, S P; Pieper, S; Chinzei, K; Hata, N; Haker, S J; Kacher, D F; Fichtinger, G; Tempany, C M; Kikinis, R

    2007-01-01

    In prostate cancer treatment, there is a move toward targeted interventions for biopsy and therapy, which has precipitated the need for precise image-guided methods for needle placement. This paper describes an integrated system for planning and performing percutaneous procedures with robotic assistance under MRI guidance. A graphical planning interface allows the physician to specify the set of desired needle trajectories, based on anatomical structures and lesions observed in the patient's registered pre-operative and pre-procedural MR images, immediately prior to the intervention in an open-bore MRI scanner. All image-space coordinates are automatically computed, and are used to position a needle guide by means of an MRI-compatible robotic manipulator, thus avoiding the limitations of the traditional fixed needle template. Automatic alignment of real-time intra-operative images aids visualization of the needle as it is manually inserted through the guide. Results from in-scanner phantom experiments are provided. PMID:17364655

  7. Thermoelectric needle probe for temperature measurements in biological materials.

    PubMed

    Korn, U; Rav-Noy, Z; Shtrikman, S; Zafrir, M

    1980-04-01

    In certain biological and medical applications it is important to measure and follow temperature changes inside a body or tissue. Any probe inserted into a tissue causes damage to tissue and distortion to the initial temperature distribution. To minimize this interference, a fine probe is needed. Thus, thin film technology is advantageous and was utilized by us to produce sensitive probes for these applications. The resulting probe is a small thermocouple at the tip of a thin needle (acupuncture stainless steel needle, approximately 0.26 mm in diameter and length in the range 5-10 cm was used). The junction was produced at the needle's tip by coating the needle with thin layers of insulating and thermoelectric materials. The first layer is an insulating one and is composed of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and polymide produced by plasma polymerization and dip-coating respectively. This layer covers all the needle except the tip. The second layer is a vacuum deposited thermoelectric thin layer of Bi-5% Sb alloy coating also the tip. The third layer is for insulation and protection and is composed of PAN and polyimide. In this arrangement the junction is at the needle's tip, the needle is one conductor, the thermoelectric layer is the other and they are isolated by the plastic layer. The probe is handy and mechanically sturdy. The sensitivity is typically 77 microV/degrees C at room temperature and is constant to within 2% up to 90 degrees C. The response is fast (less than 1 sec) the noise is small, (less than 0.05 degrees C) and because of the small dimension, damage to tissue and disturbance to the measured temperature field are minimal. PMID:7382928

  8. A needle guidance system for biopsy and therapy using two-dimensional ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Bluvol, Nathan; Sheikh, Allison; Kornecki, Anat; Del Rey Fernandez, David; Downey, Donal; Fenster, Aaron

    2008-02-15

    Image-guided needle biopsies are currently used to provide a definitive diagnosis of breast cancer; however, difficulties in tumor targeting exist as the ultrasound (United States) scan plane and biopsy needle must remain coplanar throughout the procedure to display the actual needle tip position. The additional time associated with aligning and maintaining this coplanar relationship results in increased patient discomfort. Biopsy procedural efficiency is further hindered since needle pathway interpretation is often difficult, especially for needle insertions at large depths that usually require multiple reinsertions. The authors developed a system that would increase the speed and accuracy of current breast biopsy procedures using readily available two-dimensional (2D) US technology. This system is composed of a passive articulated mechanical arm that attaches to a 2D US transducer. The arm is connected to a computer through custom electronics and software, which were developed as an interface for tracking the positioning of the mechanical components in real time. The arm couples to the biopsy needle and provides visual guidance for the physician performing the procedure in the form of a real-time projected needle pathway overlay on an US image of the breast. An agar test phantom, with stainless steel targets interspersed randomly throughout, was used to validate needle trajectory positioning accuracy. The biopsy needle was guided by both the software and hardware components to the targets. The phantom, with the needle inserted and device decoupled, was placed in an x-ray stereotactic mammography (SM) machine. The needle trajectory and bead target locations were determined in three dimensions from the SM images. Results indicated a mean needle trajectory accuracy error of 0.75{+-}0.42 mm. This is adequate to sample lesions that are <2 mm in diameter. Chicken tissue test phantoms were used to compare core needle biopsy procedure times between experienced

  9. Performance of needle valves.

    PubMed

    Hutton, P; Boaden, R W

    1986-08-01

    The pressure-flow characteristics of needle valves used on anaesthetic equipment were investigated. It was found that, under normal conditions of use, the valves behaved in a manner similar to convergent nozzles with sonic velocity at the throat. This means that, once the valve has been set, the mass flow rate of gas is effectively independent of the downstream changes in resistance and compliance encountered in normal anaesthetic practice. The error in a preset flow induced by the permissible variations in the upstream pipeline pressure was measured.

  10. Fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed Central

    Lever, J V; Trott, P A; Webb, A J

    1985-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology is an inexpensive, atraumatic technique for the diagnosis of disease sites. This paper describes the technique and illustrates how it may be applied to the management of tumours throughout the body. The limitations of the method, the dangers of false positive reports, and the inevitability of false negative diagnoses are emphasised. In a clinical context the method has much to offer by saving patients from inappropriate operations and investigations and allowing surgeons to plan quickly and more rationally. It is an economically valuable technique and deserves greater recognition. Images PMID:2578481

  11. Ban on needle swaps.

    PubMed

    1999-10-01

    A District of Columbia appropriations bill banning spending for needle-exchange programs will be going to President Clinton for signature. The House voted to approve the bill, and the Senate voted to accept it. Politicians from both parties are lobbying the President about the bill. Clinton's budget director, Jacob J. Lew, and D.C. Del. Eleanor Holmes Norton, argue against signing the bill. Rep. Thomas M. Davis warns a veto would scuttle legislation that funds education reforms and cleanup of the Anacostia River.

  12. Percutaneously inserted long-term central venous catheters in pigs of different sizes.

    PubMed

    Larsson, N; Claesson Lingehall, H; Al Zaidi, N; Claesson, J; Jensen-Waern, M; Lehtipalo, S

    2015-07-01

    Pigs are used for long-term biomedical experiments requiring repeated injections, infusions and collections of blood samples. Thus, it is necessary for vascular catheters to be indwelling to avoid undue stress to the animals and the use of restraints. We propose a refined model of percutaneous insertion of long-term central venous catheters to minimize the surgical trauma and postoperative complications associated with catheter insertion. Different sizes of needles (18 Ga versus 21 Ga) for initial puncture of the veins were compared. In conventional pigs weighing less than 30 kg, catheter insertion may be facilitated by using a microintroducer set with a 21 Ga needle. In pigs weighing 50 kg, a standard 18 Ga needle may be preferable.

  13. Plastic pipe insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Diskin, J.

    1987-05-01

    In March 1987 KPL changed all that when the utility inserted 1,000 ft of 16-in. SDR 15.5 Phillips Driscopipe 8000 pipe with a wall thickness of 1.032-in., into an abandoned 24-in. cast-iron line in downtown Kansas City. This is believed to be the largest diameter insert removal job ever done for gas distribution in the U.S. For KPL it was a natural progression from the smaller sizes used earlier. The procedure is the same, and the operation was quick and comparatively simple. Lower construction costs were the bottom line because with insert renewal there is no need to cut up the streets, a major expense in any urban pipeline work. There are other significant costs savings as well because the insert renewal construction process is faster than other techniques.

  14. Ear tube insertion - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100045.htm Ear tube insertion - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... 4 Overview The eardrum (tympanic membrane) separates the ear canal from the middle ear. Update Date 8/ ...

  15. Ultrasound-guided three-dimensional needle steering in biological tissue with curved surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Abayazid, Momen; Moreira, Pedro; Shahriari, Navid; Patil, Sachin; Alterovitz, Ron; Misra, Sarthak

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a system capable of automatically steering a bevel-tipped flexible needle under ultrasound guidance toward a physical target while avoiding a physical obstacle embedded in gelatin phantoms and biological tissue with curved surfaces. An ultrasound pre-operative scan is performed for three-dimensional (3D) target localization and shape reconstruction. A controller based on implicit force control is developed to align the transducer with curved surfaces to assure the maximum contact area, and thus obtain an image of sufficient quality. We experimentally investigate the effect of needle insertion system parameters such as insertion speed, needle diameter and bevel angle on target motion to adjust the parameters that minimize the target motion during insertion. A fast sampling-based path planner is used to compute and periodically update a feasible path to the target that avoids obstacles. We present experimental results for target reconstruction and needle insertion procedures in gelatin-based phantoms and biological tissue. Mean targeting errors of 1.46 ± 0.37 mm, 1.29 ± 0.29 mm and 1.82 ± 0.58 mm are obtained for phantoms with inclined, curved and combined (inclined and curved) surfaces, respectively, for insertion distance of 86–103 mm. The achieved targeting errors suggest that our approach is sufficient for targeting lesions of 3 mm radius that can be detected using clinical ultrasound imaging systems. PMID:25455165

  16. Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a Motorized Needle Guide Template for MRI-guided Targeted Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sang-Eun; Tokuda, Junichi; Tuncali, Kemal; Tempany, Clare; Zhang, Elizabeth; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2013-01-01

    To overcome the problems of limited needle insertion accuracy and human error in the use of a conventional needle guide template in MRI-guided prostate intervention, we developed a motorized MRI-compatible needle guide template that resembles a TRUS-guided prostate template. The motorized template allows automated, gapless needle guidance in a 3T MRI scanner with minimal changes in the current clinical procedure. To evaluate the impact of the motorized template on MRI, signal-to-noise ratio and distortion were measured under various system configurations. A maximum of 44% signal-to-noise ratio decrease was found when the ultrasonic motors were running, and a maximum of 0.4% image distortion was observed due to the presence of the motorized template. To measure needle insertion accuracy, we performed four sets of five random target needle insertions mimicking four biopsy procedures, which resulted in an average in-plane targeting error of 0.94 mm with a standard deviation of 0.34 mm. The evaluation studies indicated that the presence and operation of the motorized template in the MRI bore creates insignificant image degradation, and provides submillimeter targeting accuracy. The automated needle guide that is directly controlled by navigation software eliminates human error so that the safety of the procedure can be improved. PMID:23335658

  17. Dry needling: a literature review with implications for clinical practice guidelines1

    PubMed Central

    Dunning, James; Butts, Raymond; Mourad, Firas; Young, Ian; Flannagan, Sean; Perreault, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Wet needling uses hollow-bore needles to deliver corticosteroids, anesthetics, sclerosants, botulinum toxins, or other agents. In contrast, dry needling requires the insertion of thin monofilament needles, as used in the practice of acupuncture, without the use of injectate into muscles, ligaments, tendons, subcutaneous fascia, and scar tissue. Dry needles may also be inserted in the vicinity of peripheral nerves and/or neurovascular bundles in order to manage a variety of neuromusculoskeletal pain syndromes. Nevertheless, some position statements by several US State Boards of Physical Therapy have narrowly defined dry needling as an ‘intramuscular’ procedure involving the isolated treatment of ‘myofascial trigger points’ (MTrPs). Objectives: To operationalize an appropriate definition for dry needling based on the existing literature and to further investigate the optimal frequency, duration, and intensity of dry needling for both spinal and extremity neuromusculoskeletal conditions. Major findings: According to recent findings in the literature, the needle tip touches, taps, or pricks tiny nerve endings or neural tissue (i.e. ‘sensitive loci’ or ‘nociceptors’) when it is inserted into a MTrP. To date, there is a paucity of high-quality evidence to underpin the use of direct dry needling into MTrPs for the purpose of short and long-term pain and disability reduction in patients with musculoskeletal pain syndromes. Furthermore, there is a lack of robust evidence validating the clinical diagnostic criteria for trigger point identification or diagnosis. High-quality studies have also demonstrated that manual examination for the identification and localization of a trigger point is neither valid nor reliable between-examiners. Conclusions: Several studies have demonstrated immediate or short-term improvements in pain and/or disability by targeting trigger points (TrPs) using in-and-out techniques such as ‘pistoning’ or

  18. 3-D ultrasound-guided robotic needle steering in biological tissue.

    PubMed

    Adebar, Troy K; Fletcher, Ashley E; Okamura, Allison M

    2014-12-01

    Robotic needle steering systems have the potential to greatly improve medical interventions, but they require new methods for medical image guidance. Three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound is a widely available, low-cost imaging modality that may be used to provide real-time feedback to needle steering robots. Unfortunately, the poor visibility of steerable needles in standard grayscale ultrasound makes automatic segmentation of the needles impractical. A new imaging approach is proposed, in which high-frequency vibration of a steerable needle makes it visible in ultrasound Doppler images. Experiments demonstrate that segmentation from this Doppler data is accurate to within 1-2 mm. An image-guided control algorithm that incorporates the segmentation data as feedback is also described. In experimental tests in ex vivo bovine liver tissue, a robotic needle steering system implementing this control scheme was able to consistently steer a needle tip to a simulated target with an average error of 1.57 mm. Implementation of 3-D ultrasound-guided needle steering in biological tissue represents a significant step toward the clinical application of robotic needle steering.

  19. Multi-resolution Gabor wavelet feature extraction for needle detection in 3D ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourtaherian, Arash; Zinger, Svitlana; Mihajlovic, Nenad; de With, Peter H. N.; Huang, Jinfeng; Ng, Gary C.; Korsten, Hendrikus H. M.

    2015-12-01

    Ultrasound imaging is employed for needle guidance in various minimally invasive procedures such as biopsy guidance, regional anesthesia and brachytherapy. Unfortunately, a needle guidance using 2D ultrasound is very challenging, due to a poor needle visibility and a limited field of view. Nowadays, 3D ultrasound systems are available and more widely used. Consequently, with an appropriate 3D image-based needle detection technique, needle guidance and interventions may significantly be improved and simplified. In this paper, we present a multi-resolution Gabor transformation for an automated and reliable extraction of the needle-like structures in a 3D ultrasound volume. We study and identify the best combination of the Gabor wavelet frequencies. High precision in detecting the needle voxels leads to a robust and accurate localization of the needle for the intervention support. Evaluation in several ex-vivo cases shows that the multi-resolution analysis significantly improves the precision of the needle voxel detection from 0.23 to 0.32 at a high recall rate of 0.75 (gain 40%), where a better robustness and confidence were confirmed in the practical experiments.

  20. Autonomous Real-Time Interventional Scan Plane Control With a 3-D Shape-Sensing Needle

    PubMed Central

    Plata, Juan Camilo; Holbrook, Andrew B.; Park, Yong-Lae; Pauly, Kim Butts; Daniel, Bruce L.; Cutkosky, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates real-time scan plane control dependent on three-dimensional needle bending, as measured from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible optical strain sensors. A biopsy needle with embedded fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors to measure surface strains is used to estimate its full 3-D shape and control the imaging plane of an MR scanner in real-time, based on the needle’s estimated profile. The needle and scanner coordinate frames are registered to each other via miniature radio-frequency (RF) tracking coils, and the scan planes autonomously track the needle as it is deflected, keeping its tip in view. A 3-D needle annotation is superimposed over MR-images presented in a 3-D environment with the scanner’s frame of reference. Scan planes calculated based on the FBG sensors successfully follow the tip of the needle. Experiments using the FBG sensors and RF coils to track the needle shape and location in real-time had an average root mean square error of 4.2 mm when comparing the estimated shape to the needle profile as seen in high resolution MR images. This positional variance is less than the image artifact caused by the needle in high resolution SPGR (spoiled gradient recalled) images. Optical fiber strain sensors can estimate a needle’s profile in real-time and be used for MRI scan plane control to potentially enable faster and more accurate physician response. PMID:24968093

  1. Needle catheter duodenostomy: a technique for duodenal alimentation of birds.

    PubMed

    Goring, R L; Goldman, A; Kaufman, K J; Roberts, C; Quesenberry, K E; Kollias, G V

    1986-11-01

    A technique for duodenal alimentation (needle catheter duodenostomy) of birds was developed, using the domestic pigeon (Columba livia) as the experimental model. A needle catheter was inserted into the descending duodenum of 5 pigeons and was secured to the body wall and dorsum of each bird. A liquid diet was administered daily (in equal amounts of 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 hours) for 14 days without adverse effects. On day 15, the catheters were removed, and the birds immediately resumed normal consumption of a pigeon ration and water diet. Although 4 of the 5 birds had minor weight loss, dietary alterations probably could be used on an individual basis to alleviate this problem. After oral alimentation was resumed, the 5 birds exceeded their initial body weight within 7 days. Four weeks after catheter removal, positive-contrast radiographic evaluations indicated that the duodenum of each pigeon appeared normal. Needle catheter duodenostomy was a viable method of alimentation in the domestic pigeon. This technique should be applicable for other avian species requiring bypass of the upper gastrointestinal tract proximal to the region of catheter insertion in the duodenum.

  2. Experimental Evaluation of Ultrasound-Guided 3D Needle Steering in Biological Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Abayazid, Momen; Vrooijink, Gustaaf J.; Patil, Sachin; Alterovitz, Ron; Misra, Sarthak

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In this paper, we present a system capable of automatically steering bevel-tip flexible needles under ultrasound guidance towards stationary and moving targets in gelatin phantoms and biological tissue while avoiding stationary and moving obstacles. We use three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound to track the needle tip during the procedure. Methods Our system uses a fast sampling-based path planner to compute and periodically update a feasible path to the target that avoids obstacles. We then use a novel control algorithm to steer the needle along the path in a manner that reduces the number of needle rotations, thus reducing tissue damage. We present experimental results for needle insertion procedures for both stationary and moving targets and obstacles for up to 90 mm of needle insertion. Results We obtained a mean targeting error of 0.32 ± 0.10 mm and 0.38 ± 0.19 mm in gelatin-based phantom and biological tissue, respectively. Conclusions The achieved submillimeter accuracy suggests that our approach is sufficient to target the smallest lesions (ϕ2 mm) that can be detected using state-of-the-art ultrasound imaging systems. PMID:24562744

  3. Experimental platform for intra-uterine needle placement procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madjidi, Yashar; Haidegger, Tamás.; Ptacek, Wolfgang; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian; Kronreif, Gernot; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2013-03-01

    A framework has been investigated to enable a variety of comparative studies in the context of needle-based gynaecological brachytherapy. Our aim was to create an anthropomorphic phantom-based platform. The three main elements of the platform are the organ model, needle guide, and needle drive. These have been studied and designed to replicate the close environment of brachytherapy treatment for cervical cancer. Key features were created with the help of collaborating interventional radio-oncologists and the observations made in the operating room. A phantom box, representing the uterus model, has been developed considering available surgical analogies and operational limitations, such as organs at risk. A modular phantom-based platform has been designed and prototyped with the capability of providing various boundary conditions for the target organ. By mimicking the female pelvic floor, this framework has been used to compare a variety of needle insertion techniques and configurations for cervical and uterine interventions. The results showed that the proposed methodology is useful for the investigation of quantifiable experiments in the intraabdominal and pelvic regions.

  4. Physiologic effects of dry needling.

    PubMed

    Cagnie, Barbara; Dewitte, Vincent; Barbe, Tom; Timmermans, Frank; Delrue, Nicolas; Meeus, Mira

    2013-08-01

    During the past decades, worldwide clinical and scientific interest in dry needling (DN) therapy has grown exponentially. Various clinical effects have been credited to dry needling, but rigorous evidence about its potential physiological mechanisms of actions and effects is still lacking. Research identifying these exact mechanisms of dry needling action is sparse and studies performed in an acupuncture setting do not necessarily apply to DN. The studies of potential effects of DN are reviewed in reference to the different aspects involved in the pathophysiology of myofascial triggerpoints: the taut band, local ischemia and hypoxia, peripheral and central sensitization. This article aims to provide the physiotherapist with a greater understanding of the contemporary data available: what effects could be attributed to dry needling and what are their potential underlying mechanisms of action, and also indicate some directions at which future research could be aimed to fill current voids.

  5. Performance and suitability assessment of a real-time 3D electromagnetic needle tracking system for interstitial brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Boutaleb, Samir; Fillion, Olivier; Bonillas, Antonio; Hautvast, Gilion; Binnekamp, Dirk; Beaulieu, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Accurate insertion and overall needle positioning are key requirements for effective brachytherapy treatments. This work aims at demonstrating the accuracy performance and the suitability of the Aurora® V1 Planar Field Generator (PFG) electromagnetic tracking system (EMTS) for real-time treatment assistance in interstitial brachytherapy procedures. Material and methods The system's performance was characterized in two distinct studies. First, in an environment free of EM disturbance, the boundaries of the detection volume of the EMTS were characterized and a tracking error analysis was performed. Secondly, a distortion analysis was conducted as a means of assessing the tracking accuracy performance of the system in the presence of potential EM disturbance generated by the proximity of standard brachytherapy components. Results The tracking accuracy experiments showed that positional errors were typically 2 ± 1 mm in a zone restricted to the first 30 cm of the detection volume. However, at the edges of the detection volume, sensor position errors of up to 16 mm were recorded. On the other hand, orientation errors remained low at ± 2° for most of the measurements. The EM distortion analysis showed that the presence of typical brachytherapy components in vicinity of the EMTS had little influence on tracking accuracy. Position errors of less than 1 mm were recorded with all components except with a metallic arm support, which induced a mean absolute error of approximately 1.4 mm when located 10 cm away from the needle sensor. Conclusions The Aurora® V1 PFG EMTS possesses a great potential for real-time treatment assistance in general interstitial brachytherapy. In view of our experimental results, we however recommend that the needle axis remains as parallel as possible to the generator surface during treatment and that the tracking zone be restricted to the first 30 cm from the generator surface. PMID:26622231

  6. Electrochemical Process Makes Fine Needles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Electrochemical process makes fine tungsten needles for use as microscopic probes or field-emission cathodes. Etching vessel filled with dense, inert lower liquid covered by less-dense, caustic etching solution. Newly formed needle breaks off upper part of wire in etchant and falls into can in inert liquid below. Improved process does not require close monitoring and left unattended for an indefinite time.

  7. Mechanical performance of disposable surgical needle holders.

    PubMed

    Francis, E H; Towler, M A; Moody, F P; McGregor, W; Himel, H N; Rodeheaver, G T; Edlich, R F

    1992-01-01

    The mechanical performance of disposable Webster surgical needle holders supplied by three different surgical instrument companies was determined by recording the forces (clamping moment) applied by the different needle holder jaws to curved surgical needles. This investigation demonstrated that there was a large variability in the mechanical performance of the disposable needle holders supplied by each surgical instrument company. In addition, the mechanical performance of the disposable needle holder of each surgical instrument company was distinctly different.

  8. Smart surgical needle actuated by shape memory alloys for percutaneous procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konh, Bardia

    Background: Majority of cancer interventions today are performed percutaneously using needle-based procedures, i.e. through the skin and soft tissue. Insufficient accuracy using conventional surgical needles motivated researchers to provide actuation forces to the needle's body for compensating the possible errors of surgeons/physicians. Therefore, active needles were proposed recently where actuation forces provided by shape memory alloys (SMAs) are utilized to assist the maneuverability and accuracy of surgical needles. This work also aims to introduce a novel needle insertion simulation to predict the deflection of a bevel tip needle inside the tissue. Methods: In this work first, the actuation capability of a single SMA wire was studied. The complex response of SMAs was investigated via a MATLAB implementation of the Brinson model and verified via experimental tests. The material characteristics of SMAs were simulated by defining multilinear elastic isothermal stress-strain curves. Rigorous experiments with SMA wires were performed to determine the material properties as well as to show the capability of the code to predict a stabilized SMA transformation behavior with sufficient accuracy. The isothermal stress-strain curves of SMAs were simulated and defined as a material model for the Finite Element Analysis of the active needle. In the second part of this work, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of the active steerable needle was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of using SMA wires as actuators to bend the surgical needle. In the FE model, birth and death method of defining boundary conditions, available in ANSYS, was used to achieve the pre-strain condition on SMA wire prior to actuation. This numerical model was validated with needle deflection experiments with developed prototypes of the active needle. The third part of this work describes the design optimization of the active using genetic algorithm aiming for its maximum flexibility

  9. Insertion in Persian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambuziya, Aliyeh Kord-e Zafaranlu; Dehghan, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates epenthesis process in Persian to catch some results in relating to vowel and consonant insertion in Persian lexicon. This survey has a close relationship to the description of epenthetic consonants and the conditions in which these consonants are used. Since no word in Persian may begin with a vowel, so that hiatus can't be…

  10. Fabrication of tungsten wire needles

    SciTech Connect

    Roder, A.

    1983-02-01

    Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading.

  11. Atrial fibrillation and pneumothorax after transthoracic needle lung biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Alexander; Southern, Iain; Nicol, Edward

    2012-01-01

    An obese 65-year-old male smoker with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease developed an iatrogenic pneumothorax with pulmonary haemorrhage during an elective transthoracic needle biopsy of a pulmonary lesion. Successful re-inflation was achieved with a chest drain which was then removed before transfer to the medical ward. He later developed persistent atrial fibrillation with breathlessness and haemoptysis. He was treated empirically for a pulmonary embolus, which was subsequently ruled out with CT pulmonary angiogram. Serial chest radiographs demonstrated recurrence of his pneumothorax and a chest drain was re-inserted. His atrial fibrillation was erroneously managed as supraventricular tachycardia, which was resistant to vagal manoeuvres and adenosine but later responded to intravenous amiodarone before a further relapse. Upon successful management of the pneumothorax, his atrial fibrillation terminated. This case highlighted the persistent and serious nature of complications posttransthoracic needle biopsy. PMID:22665868

  12. Scientific basis for selecting surgical needles and needle holders for wound closure.

    PubMed

    Edlich, R F; Towler, M A; Rodeheaver, G T; Becker, D G; Lombardi, S A; Thacker, J G

    1990-07-01

    Standardized reproducible tests have been devised to determine surgical needle sharpness, resistance to bending, and ductility. Three comparable groups of reverse cutting edge needles were selected from different manufacturers for measurement of these needle performance parameters. This testing demonstrated that needle diameter, manufacturing process, needle material composition, cross-sectional design, and the manufacturer were all important determinants of surgical needle performance. In addition, the biomechanics of curved surgical needle bending has been related to the clamping moment of surgical needle holders. This relationship identifies the surgical needle holder that can be used with surgical needles without deformation. The results of these studies provide a scientific basis for the selection of surgical needles and needle holders for use in surgery.

  13. Needle biopsy of the liver. A critique of four currently available methods.

    PubMed Central

    Babb, R R; Jackman, R J

    1989-01-01

    There are currently four needle biopsy methods for obtaining tissue from patients with possible diffuse liver disease or cancer. These include percutaneous blind needle biopsy, a visually guided needle biopsy at laparoscopy, guided fine-needle biopsies with ultrasonography or computed tomography, and the transvenous liver biopsy. We and others have found the guided fine-needle biopsy technique to be safe, relatively cheap, and highly accurate in the diagnosis of liver cancer. Blind percutaneous biopsy should be reserved for patients with possible diffuse, noncancerous, liver disease. Guided biopsies at laparoscopy can be done if the other two methods fail to give a tissue diagnosis. The transvenous approach is useful in patients with a coagulation disorder. PMID:2660406

  14. Feedback Control for Steering Needles Through 3D Deformable Tissue Using Helical Paths

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Kris; Alterovitz, Ron; Chentanez, Nuttapong; Okamura, Allison; Goldberg, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Bevel-tip steerable needles are a promising new technology for improving accuracy and accessibility in minimally invasive medical procedures. As yet, 3D needle steering has not been demonstrated in the presence of tissue deformation and uncertainty, despite the application of progressively more sophisticated planning algorithms. This paper presents a feedback controller that steers a needle along 3D helical paths, and varies the helix radius to correct for perturbations. It achieves high accuracy for targets sufficiently far from the needle insertion point; this is counterintuitive because the system is highly under-actuated and not locally controllable. The controller uses a model predictive control framework that chooses a needle twist rate such that the predicted helical trajectory minimizes the distance to the target. Fast branch and bound techniques enable execution at kilohertz rates on a 2GHz PC. We evaluate the controller under a variety of simulated perturbations, including imaging noise, needle deflections, and curvature estimation errors. We also test the controller in a 3D finite element simulator that incorporates deformation in the tissue as well as the needle. In deformable tissue examples, the controller reduced targeting error by up to 88% compared to open-loop execution. PMID:21179401

  15. A decline in HIV-infected needles returned to New Haven's needle exchange program: client shift or needle exchange?

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, E H; Khoshnood, K; Heimer, R

    1994-01-01

    The New Haven needle exchange program experienced a significant decline in the fraction of returned needles containing human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) proviral DNA. Is this decline due to the operations of the needle exchange or to a shift in clients? Analysis of demographic and behavioral data revealed that only one variable, the race of participating clients, changed significantly over time. However, HIV-1 prevalences in needles given to Whites and to non-Whites were not statistically different. Thus, client shift cannot be responsible for the decline in the observed HIV prevalence in needles. Instead, needle circulation times were a significant predictor of HIV prevalence. PMID:7998644

  16. Warm needle acupuncture at Pungsi (GB31) has an enhanced analgesic effect on formalin-induced pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyuk; Shim, Insop; Yi, Seung Ho; Lee, Hyejung; Lim, Hyoung-Soo; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2009-03-16

    Warm needle acupuncture (WNA) therapy combines the effects of acupuncture and heat produced by moxibustion. This therapy has been widely used in Korean traditional medicine to treat a number of health problems. We evaluated the analgesic effect of WNA treatment on formalin-induced pain behavior and c-Fos expression in the spinal cord of rats. Acupuncture and heat stimulation by moxibustion were performed at the Pungsi (GB31) acupoint. Needle insertion without heat stimulation (ACU) and heat stimulation without needle insertion (SWNA) were used as negative controls. WNA therapy was executed by burning 1.5 g of cylinder-shaped moxa on top of the needle that was inserted at the acupoint. We measured temperatures of two different locations on the needle using an automatic temperature-acquisition system. Needle temperatures were overwhelmingly dependent on the distance from moxa while burning and showed a maximum of 44.9 degrees C at the location 7 mm apart from the ground after ignition. WNA treatment was more effective than ACU or SWNA in alleviating pain during the late phase in the rat formalin test. WNA, ACU, and SWNA significantly reduced c-Fos expression in the superficial dorsal horn by 23.5, 28.3 and 19.4%, respectively.

  17. Effect on hemostasis of an absorbable hemostatic gelatin sponge after transrectal prostate needle biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Kobatake, Kohei; Mita, Koji; Kato, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the usefulness of an absorbable hemostatic gelatin sponge for hemostasis after transrectal prostate needle biopsy. Subjects and Methods The subjects comprised 278 participants who underwent transrectal prostate needle biopsy. They were randomly allocated to the gelatin sponge insertion group (group A: 148 participants) and to the non-insertion group (group B: 130 participants). In group A, the gelatin sponge was inserted into the rectum immediately after biopsy. A biopsy-induced hemorrhage was defined as a case in which a subject complained of bleeding from the rectum, and excretion of blood clots was confirmed. A blood test was performed before and after biopsy, and a questionnaire survey was given after the biopsy. Results Significantly fewer participants in group A required hemostasis after biopsy compared to group B (3 (2.0%) vs. 11 (8.5%), P=0.029). The results of the blood tests and the responses from the questionnaire did not differ significantly between the two groups. In multivariate analysis, only “insertion of a gelatin sponge into the rectum” emerged as a significant predictor of hemostasis. Conclusion Insertion of a gelatin sponge into the rectum after transrectal prostate needle biopsy significantly increases hemostasis without increasing patient symptoms, such as pain and a sense of discomfort. PMID:26005977

  18. Focused high frequency needle transducer for ultrasonic imaging and trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Sheng; Zheng, Fan; Li, Ying; Lee, Changyang; Zhou, Qifa; Kirk Shung, K.

    2012-07-01

    A miniature focused needle transducer (<1 mm) was fabricated using the press-focusing technique. The measured pulse-echo waveform showed the transducer had center frequency of 57.5 MHz with 54% bandwidth and 14 dB insertion loss. To evaluate the performance of this type of transducer, invitro ultrasonic biomicroscopy imaging on the rabbit eye was obtained. Moreover, a single beam acoustic trapping experiment was performed using this transducer. Trapping of targeted particle size smaller than the ultrasonic wavelength was observed. Potential applications of these devices include minimally invasive measurements of retinal blood flow and single beam acoustic trapping of microparticles.

  19. Precision needle-tip localization during magnetic resonance imaging interstitial therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lu J.; Sinha, Shantanu; Sinha, Usha; Ennevor, Sean J.; Saxton, Romaine E.; Lufkin, Robert B.; Castro, Dan J.

    1993-07-01

    MRI-guided interventional procedures are critically dependent on accurate localization of an MRI-compatible needle used as a guiding device for laser fiber optic therapy. We present a scheme which utilizes the 3D imaging capability of the MRI modality and the 3D image processing capability of computer workstations to automatically and time-efficiently localize and display the tip of the needle on an oblique plane which cuts through the scanned object.

  20. Electromagnetic thermotherapy system with needle arrays: a practical tool for the removal of cancerous tumors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-Chieh; Kang, Jui-Wen; Tsai, Hung-Wen; Shan, Yan-Shen; Lin, Xi-Zhang; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2014-02-01

    Thermotherapy has been a promising method to treat tumor. In recent years, electromagnetic thermotherapy (EMT) has been extensively investigated and holds the potential for a variety of medical applications including for cancer treatment when combined with minimally invasive surgery approach. In this study, an alternating electromagnetic frequency was provided by an EMT system to heat up stainless steel needle arrays which were inserted into the target tumor to a high temperature, therefore leading to local ablation of the tumor. A new two-section needle-array apparatus was further demonstrated to encompass the tumor to prevent the tumor cells to spread after the treatment process. By using the needle-array insertion apparatus, there is no limitation of the treatment area; this method could, therefore, be applied for tumors that are larger than 6 cm. It was first successfully demonstrated in the in vitro experiments on porcine livers. Then an in vivo experiment was directly conducted on pigs. The two-section needle array incorporated with the needle-array apparatus and EMT was demonstrated to be promising for no-touch isolation treatment of cancerous tumors.

  1. [Needle implantations--clinical report].

    PubMed

    Esswein, W

    1977-04-01

    In the last four years 27 patients with edentulous lower jaw were treated with implantation of rows of tantalum needles; 25 of them were followed up clinically and radiologically. After an average of two years and seven months where the success rate was found to be 72%. Reasons for failure were thought to be mistakes in operative technique, insufficient oral hygiene of the patients and less than optimal aftercare. These needle implants have proved their value also in cases with marked atrophy of the lower jaw where other prosthetic-surgical methods aimed at improving the prosthesis site have failed.

  2. Magnetic needles and superparamagnetic cells

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, H C; Sergatskov, D A; Lovato, Debbie; Adolphi, Natalie L; Larson, Richard S; Flynn, Edward R

    2007-01-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles can be attached in great numbers to pathogenic cells using specific antibodies so that the magnetically-labeled cells themselves become superparamagnets. The cells can then be manipulated and drawn out of biological fluids, as in a biopsy, very selectively using a magnetic needle. We examine the origins and uncertainties in the forces exerted on magnetic nanoparticles by static magnetic fields, leading to a model for trajectories and collection times of dilute superparamagnetic cells in biological fluids. We discuss the design and application of such magnetic needles and the theory of collection times. We compare the mathematical model to measurements in a variety of media including blood. PMID:17664592

  3. Inserts Automatically Lubricate Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Inserts on ball-separator ring of ball bearings provide continuous film of lubricant on ball surfaces. Inserts are machined or molded. Small inserts in ball pockets provide steady supply of lubricant. Technique is utilized on equipment for which maintenance is often poor and lubrication interval is uncertain, such as household appliances, automobiles, and marine engines.

  4. Conformal needle-based ultrasound ablation using EM-tracked conebeam CT image guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdette, E. Clif; Banovac, Filip; Diederich, Chris J.; Cheng, Patrick; Wilson, Emmanuel; Cleary, Kevin R.

    2011-03-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of interstitial ablative approaches for the treatment of renal and hepatic tumors. Despite these promising results, current systems remain highly dependent on operator skill, and cannot treat many tumors because there is little control of the size and shape of the zone of necrosis, and no control over ablator trajectory within tissue once insertion has taken place. Additionally, tissue deformation and target motion make it extremely difficult to accurately place the ablator device into the target. Irregularly shaped target volumes typically require multiple insertions and several sequential thermal ablation procedures. This study demonstrated feasibility of spatially tracked image-guided conformal ultrasound (US) ablation for percutaneous directional ablation of diseased tissue. Tissue was prepared by suturing the liver within a pig belly and 1mm BBs placed to serve as needle targets. The image guided system used integrated electromagnetic tracking and cone-beam CT (CBCT) with conformable needlebased high-intensity US ablation in the interventional suite. Tomographic images from cone beam CT were transferred electronically to the image-guided tracking system (IGSTK). Paired-point registration was used to register the target specimen to CT images and enable navigation. Path planning is done by selecting the target BB on the GUI of the realtime tracking system and determining skin entry location until an optimal path is selected. Power was applied to create the desired ablation extent within 7-10 minutes at a thermal dose (>300eqm43). The system was successfully used to place the US ablator in planned target locations within ex-vivo kidney and liver through percutaneous access. Targeting accuracy was 3-4 mm. Sectioned specimens demonstrated uniform ablation within the planned target zone. Subsequent experiments were conducted for multiple ablator positions based upon treatment planning simulations. Ablation zones in

  5. PERTINENT DRY NEEDLING CONSIDERATIONS FOR MINIMIZING ADVERSE EFFECTS – PART ONE

    PubMed Central

    Halle, Rob J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Dry needling is an evidence-based treatment technique that is accepted and used by physical therapists in the United States. This treatment approach focuses on releasing or inactivating muscular trigger points to decrease pain, reduce muscle tension, and assist patients with an accelerated return to active rehabilitation. Issue While commonly used, the technique has some patient risk and value of the treatment should be based on benefit compared to the potential risk. Adverse effects (AEs) with dry needling can be mild or severe, with overall incidence rates varying from zero to rates of approximately 10 percent. While mild AEs are the rule, any procedure that involves a needle insertion has the potential for an AE, with select regions and the underlying anatomy increasing the risk. Known significant AEs from small diameter needle insertion include pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade, hematoma, infection, central nervous system injury, and other complications. Purpose/Objective Underlying anatomy across individuals has variability, requiring an in-depth knowledge of anatomy prior to any needle placement. This commentary is an overview of pertinent anatomy in the region of the thorax, with a ‘part two’ that addresses the abdomen, pelvis, back, vasovagal response, informed consent and other pertinent issues. The purpose of the commentary is to minimize the risk of a dry needling AE. Conclusions/Implications Dry needling is an effective adjunct treatment procedure that is within the recognized scope of physical therapy practice. Physical therapy education and training provides practitioners with the anatomy, basic sciences, and clinical foundation to use this intervention safely and effectively. A safe and evidenced-based implementation of the procedure is based on a thorough understanding of the underlying anatomy and the potential risks, with risks coordinated with patients via informed consent. Levels of Evidence Level 5 PMID:27525188

  6. True anteroposterior view pedicle screw insertion technique

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jia-yue; Zhang, Wei; An, Ji-long; Sun, Ya-peng; Ding, Wen-yuan; Shen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background The wide use of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) surgery in the treatment of degenerative disc disease of lumbar spine in spinal surgery highlights the gradual decrease in the use of traditional pedicle screw insertion technology. This study aims to analyze the accuracy of the true anteroposterior view pedicle screw insertion technique in MIS-TLIF surgery, compare it with conventional pedicle screw insertion technology, and discuss its clinical application value. Methods Fifty-two patients undergoing true anteroposterior view (group A) and 87 patients undergoing conventional pedicle screw insertion (group B) were diagnosed with lumbar disc herniation or lumbar spinal stenosis. Time for screw placement, intraoperative irradiation exposure, accuracy rate of pedicle screw insertion, and incidence of neurovascular injury were compared between the two groups. Results The time for screw placement and intraoperative irradiation exposure was significantly less in group A. Penetration rates of the paries lateralis of vertebral pedicle, medial wall of vertebral pedicle, and anterior vertebral wall were 1.44%, 0%, and 2.40%, respectively, all of which were significantly lower than that in group B. No additional serious complications caused by the placement of screw were observed during the follow-up period in patients in group A, but two patients with medial penetration underwent revision for unbearable radicular pain. Conclusion The application of true anteroposterior view pedicle screw insertion technique in MIS-TLIF surgery shortens time for screw placement and reduces the intraoperative irradiation exposure along with a higher accuracy rate of screw placement, which makes it a safe, accurate, and efficient technique. PMID:27418828

  7. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in 21 CFR 801.109, (2) Device material biocompatibility, and (3) Device sterility. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to...

  8. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in 21 CFR 801.109, (2) Device material biocompatibility, and (3) Device sterility. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to...

  9. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in 21 CFR 801.109, (2) Device material biocompatibility, and (3) Device sterility. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to...

  10. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... in 21 CFR 801.109, (2) Device material biocompatibility, and (3) Device sterility. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to...

  11. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... in 21 CFR 801.109, (2) Device material biocompatibility, and (3) Device sterility. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to...

  12. 21 CFR 882.1350 - Needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Needle electrode. 882.1350 Section 882.1350 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1350 Needle electrode. (a) Identification. A needle electrode is a device which is placed subcutaneously to stimulate or to...

  13. 21 CFR 882.1350 - Needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Needle electrode. 882.1350 Section 882.1350 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1350 Needle electrode. (a) Identification. A needle electrode is a device which is placed subcutaneously to stimulate or to...

  14. 21 CFR 882.1350 - Needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Needle electrode. 882.1350 Section 882.1350 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1350 Needle electrode. (a) Identification. A needle electrode is a device which is placed subcutaneously to stimulate or to...

  15. 21 CFR 882.1350 - Needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Needle electrode. 882.1350 Section 882.1350 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1350 Needle electrode. (a) Identification. A needle electrode is a device which is placed subcutaneously to stimulate or to...

  16. 21 CFR 882.1350 - Needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Needle electrode. 882.1350 Section 882.1350 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1350 Needle electrode. (a) Identification. A needle electrode is a device which is placed subcutaneously to stimulate or to...

  17. Pneumatically Operated MRI-Compatible Needle Placement Robot for Prostate Interventions.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Gregory S; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; Mewes, Philip W; Tempany, Clare M; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2008-06-13

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. The strong magnetic field prevents the use of conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intra-prostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. The robot performs needle insertion under real-time 3T MR image guidance; workspace requirements, MR compatibility, and workflow have been evaluated on phantoms. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system.

  18. Core needle biopsy guidance based on EMOCT imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Park, Jesung; Maguluri, Gopi

    2016-03-01

    We present a novel method, based on encoder mapping OCT imaging, for real-time guidance of core biopsy procedures. This method provides real-time feedback to the interventional radiologist, such that he/she can reorient the needle during the biopsy and sample the most representative area of the suspicious mass that is being investigated. This aspect is very important for tailoring therapy to the specific cancer based on biomarker analysis, which will become one of the next big advances in our search for the optimal cancer therapy. To enable individualized treatment, the genetic constitution and the DNA repair status in the affected areas is needed for each patient. Thus, representative sampling of the tumor is needed for analyzing various biomarkers, which are used as a tool to personalize cancer therapy. The encoder-based OCT enables samping of large size masses and provides full control on the imaging probe, which is passed through the bore of the biopsy guidance needle. The OCT image is built gradually, based on the feedback of an optical encoder which senses the incremental movement of the needle with a few microns resolution. Tissue mapping is independent of the needle speed, while it is advanced through the tissue. The OCT frame is analyzed in real-time and tissue cellularity is reported in a very simple manner (pie chart). Our preliminary study on a rabbit model of cancer has demonstrated the capability of this technology for accurately differentiating between viable cancer and heterogeneous or necrotic tissue.

  19. The ACUSITT ultrasonic ablator: the first steerable needle with an integrated interventional tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdette, E. Clif; Rucker, D. Caleb; Prakash, Punit; Diederich, Chris J.; Croom, Jordon M.; Clarke, Clyde; Stolka, Philipp; Juang, Titania; Boctor, Emad M.; Webster, Robert J., III

    2010-03-01

    Steerability in percutaneous medical devices is highly desirable, enabling a needle or needle-like instrument to avoid sensitive structures (e.g. nerves or blood vessels), access obstructed anatomical targets, and compensate for the inevitable errors induced by registration accuracy thresholds and tissue deformation during insertion. Thus, mechanisms for needle steering have been of great interest in the engineering community in the past few years, and several have been proposed. While many interventional applications have been hypothesized for steerable needles (essentially anything deliverable via a regular needle), none have yet been demonstrated as far as the authors are aware. Instead, prior studies have focused on model validation, control, and accuracy assessment. In this paper, we present the first integrated steerable needle-interventional device. The ACUSITT integrates a multi-tube steerable Active Cannula (AC) with an Ultrasonic Interstitial Thermal Therapy ablator (USITT) to create a steerable percutaneous device that can deliver a spatially and temporally controllable (both mechanically and electronically) thermal dose profile. We present our initial experiments toward applying the ACUSITT to treat large liver tumors through a single entry point. This involves repositioning the ablator tip to several different locations, without withdrawing it from the liver capsule, under 3D Ultrasound image guidance. In our experiments, the ACUSITT was deployed to three positions, each 2cm apart in a conical pattern to demonstrate the feasibility of ablating large liver tumors 7cm in diameter without multiple parenchyma punctures.

  20. Needle Trajectory and Tip Localization in Real-Time 3-D Ultrasound Using a Moving Stylus.

    PubMed

    Beigi, Parmida; Rohling, Robert; Salcudean, Tim; Lessoway, Victoria A; Ng, Gary C

    2015-07-01

    Described here is a novel approach to needle localization in 3-D ultrasound based on automatic detection of small changes in appearance on movement of the needle stylus. By stylus oscillation, including its full insertion into the cannula to the tip, the image processing techniques can localize the needle trajectory and the tip in the 3-D ultrasound volume. The 3-D needle localization task is reduced to two 2-D localizations using orthogonal projections. To evaluate our method, we tested it on three different ex vivo tissue types, and the preliminary results indicated that the method accuracy lies within clinical acceptance, with average error ranges of 0.9°-1.4° in needle trajectory and 0.8-1.1 mm in needle tip. Results also indicate that method performance is independent of the echogenicity of the tissue. This technique is a safe way of producing ultrasonic intensity changes and appears to introduce negligible risk to the patient, as the outer cannula remains fixed.

  1. Remote Subcutaneous Needling to Suppress the Irritability of Myofascial Trigger Spots: An Experimental Study in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhonghua; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling; Hong, Chang-Zern; Kao, Mu-Jung; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chou, Li-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To obtain electrophysiological effects of Fu's subcutaneous needling (FSN) on needling distance by assessment of endplate noise (EPN) recorded from the myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs) in rabbit skeletal muscle. Method. Eighteen New Zealand rabbits weighing 2.5–3.0 kg were randomly divided into two groups as follows: proximal needling (PN) group and distal needling (DN) group. The needling procedure followed the instructions described by the inventor of FSN, including needling insertion and swaying movement. The amplitudes of EPN on the MTrS region of BF muscle were recorded as an index of MTrS irritability. Random sampling of EPN tracings were taken for further analyses before, during, and after FSN treatment. Results. In PN and DN groups, the trends of EPN amplitude alterations were similar at conditions before, during, and after FSN treatment. The degree of reduction in the EPN amplitude in PN group was significantly higher than that in DN group. There were no significant changes in EPN amplitudes in the MTrS of contralateral BF without FSN intervention either in DN or PN group. Conclusion. The irritability of proximal MTrSs could be modulated after ipsilateral FSNs. The placement of FSN may affect the effectiveness of suppression of irritability of MTrSs. PMID:23346200

  2. Lactate and glucose measurement in subepidermal tissue using minimally invasive microperfusion needle.

    PubMed

    Tsuruoka, Noriko; Ishii, Kenji; Matsunaga, Tadao; Nagatomi, Ryoichi; Haga, Yoichi

    2016-02-01

    Knowing the concentrations of biological substances can help ascertain physiological and pathological states. In the present study, a minimally invasive microperfusion needle was developed for measuring the concentrations of biological substances in subepidermal tissue. The microperfusion needle has a flow channel with a perforated membrane through which biological substances from subepidermal tissue are extracted. Since this device uses a thin steel acupuncture needle as the base substrate, it has sufficient rigidity for insertion through the skin. The efficacy of the needle was examined by measuring lactate and glucose concentrations in mice. Lactate was injected intraperitoneally, and changes in lactate concentrations in subepidermal tissue over time were measured using the device. Lactate concentrations of blood were also measured as a reference. Lactate was successfully collected using the microperfusion needle, and the lactate concentration of perfused saline was significantly correlated with blood lactate concentration. Glucose solution was administered orally, and the glucose concentration of perfused saline was also correlated with blood glucose concentration. The newly developed microperfusion needle can be used for minimally invasive monitoring of the concentrations of biological substances. PMID:26860415

  3. A randomised, single-blind technical study comparing the ultrasonic visibility of smooth-surfaced and textured needles in a soft embalmed cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Munirama, S; Joy, J; Columb, M; Habershaw, R; Eisma, R; Corner, G; Cochran, S; McLeod, G

    2015-05-01

    Visibility of the needle tip and shaft is important during ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia in order to prevent nerve trauma. Tip and shaft visibility is reduced when needles are inserted in-plane at wide angles and out-of-plane at narrow angles to the ultrasound probe. Although textured needles are more reflective than smooth needles, we hypothesised that poor visibility of the tip and shaft still remained using the above angle-probe combinations. In a single-blind study, we compared the visibility of a textured Tuohy needle, a textured single-shot needle and a conventional smooth-surfaced Tuohy needle when inserted into the biceps and deltoid muscles of a soft embalmed cadaver. One hundred and forty-four needles were block-randomised to in-plane and out-of-plane insertions at 30°, 45°, 60° and 75° to the ultrasound beam. Two blinded raters assessed needle tip visibility on video recordings of the insertions using a binary scale (0 = not visible, 1 = visible) and shaft visibility using a 5-point Likert scale. The median (IQR [range]) proportions of visible needle tips were 83% (67-83 [50-100]%) for the textured Tuohy, 75% (67-83 [33-83]%) for the textured single-shot needle and 33% (33-46 [0-50]%) for the smooth-surfaced Tuohy (p = 0.0007). Median (IQR [range]) needle shaft visibility was rated as 4.0 (3.5-4.7 [3.0-4.9]) for the textured Tuohy, 4.0 (3.8-4.5 [2.7-4.9]) for the textured single-shot needle and 3.0 (2.4-3.3 [2.3-3.5]) for the smooth-surfaced Tuohy (p = 0.015). Nevertheless, visibility was reduced at wide angles in-plane and narrow angles out-of-plane both for needle tips (p = 0.004) and shafts (p = 0.005).

  4. Fine Needle Elastography (FNE) device for biomechanically determining local variations of tissue mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Wickramaratne, Dayan; Wilkinson, Paul; Rao, JianYu; Ragavendra, Nagesh; Sharma, Shivani; Gimzewski, James K

    2015-01-01

    Diseased tissues exhibit changes in mechanical properties and thus possess clinical diagnostic significance. We report the design and development of a Fine Needle Elastography (FNE) prototype device integrated with Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) needle that allows for quantitative and sensitive assessment of tissues and materials based on local variations in elastic, friction, and cutting forces on needle insertion. A piezoelectric force-sensor at the base of FNA needle measures the forces opposing needle penetration with micrometer scale resolution. Measurement precision (±5 μm) and axial resolution (~20 μm) of FNE device was tested using control mm size gelatin matrices and unripe pear in assessing needle penetration resistance, force heterogeneity and optimization of needle penetration velocity. Further, we demonstrated the usefulness of FNE in quantitative, biomechanical differentiation of simulated thyroid tumor nodules in an ultrasound neck phantom. Fluid or solid nodules were probed in the phantom study coupled with ultrasound guidance. Our data shows significantly higher force variations (1-D force heterogeneity; HF,a=6.5 mN, HF,q=8.25 mN and stiffness heterogeneity; HS,a=0.0274 kN/m, HS,q=0.0395 kN/m) in solid nodules compared either to fluid nodules or to regions corresponding to healthy thyroid tissue within the ultrasound phantom. The results suggest future applications of in vivo FNE biopsies based on force heterogeneity to diagnose thyroid tumors in areas where ultrasound instrumentation or access to a qualified pathologist for FNAC are unavailable, as well as an ancillary diagnostic tool in thyroid cancer management. PMID:25468668

  5. Radio frequency needle hyperthermia of normal and cancerous animal tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalhav, Arieh; Ramon, J.; Goldwasser, Benad; Nativ, Ofer; Cherniack, Ramy; Zajdel, Liliana

    1994-12-01

    Capacitative radio frequency (RF) was met with little success when used to treat human cancer. Conductive rf needle hyperthermia (RFNH) is used successfully for human tissue ablation in neurosurgery, cardiology, and recently in urology. RFNH ablates tissue by causing thermal damage limited to the vicinity of the rf needle. We conducted a series of studies to evaluate the effect of RFNH on cancerous and normal tissue. RFNH was applied to normal porcine livers during open surgery. Liver function tests were elevated two days post treatment, then returned to normal. Pigs were sequentially sacrificed. RFNH induced lesions were found to be maximal in size on days 2 - 4 post treatment and later became smaller as liver regenerated. Phase 2 included mice bearing two subcutaneous murine bladder tumors (MBT2). The rf needle was inserted into both tumors of each mouse, but rf current was applied to one tumor only. Energies of 3 to 7.5 watts were applied for 30 seconds to 5 minutes using a 0.02 inch needle. Mice were sacrificed 0, 1, and 3 days after treatment. Necrotic lesions 0.5 - 1.2 cm in diameter were found within the treated tumors. In phase 3, mice bearing a single 8 - 18 mm subcutaneous tumor were treated by RFNH aiming for complete tumor destruction. All control mice died of huge tumors within 31 days. Treated mice were alive with no signs of tumor when sacrificed 60 days after treatment. In phase 3 RFNH is capable of complete tumor eradication with little damage to surrounding normal tissue. It may have clinical applications for percutaneous endoscopic and laparoscopic treatment of tumors.

  6. Direction of catheter insertion and the incidence of paresthesia during continuous epidural anesthesia in the elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Hak; Lee, Jun Seop

    2013-01-01

    Background Continuous epidural anesthesia is useful for endoscopic urologic surgery, as mostly performed in the elderly patients. In such a case, it is necessary to obtain successful sacral anesthesia, and the insertion of epidural catheter in the caudad direction may be needed. However, continuous epidural catherization has been related to paresthesias. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the direction of the catheter insertion on the incidence of paresthesias in the elderly patients. Methods Two hundred elderly patients scheduled for endoscopic urologic surgery were enrolled. The epidural catheter was inserted at L2-3, L3-4, and L4-5 using the Tuohy needle. In Group I (n = 100), the Tuohy needle with the bevel directed the cephalad during the catheter insertion. In Group II (n = 100), it directed the caudad. During the catheter insertion, an anesthesiologist evaluated the presence of paresthesias and the ease or difficulty during the catheter insertion. Results In Group I (n = 97), 15.5% of the patients had paresthesias versus 18.4% in Group II (n = 98), and there was no significant difference between the two groups. In paresthesia depending on the insertion site and the ease or difficulty during the catheter insertion, there were no significant differences between the two groups. Conclusions Our results concluded that the direction of epidural catheter insertion did not significantly influence the incidence of paresthesias in the elderly patients. PMID:23741568

  7. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mocko, Michal

    2015-10-06

    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  8. Impedance calculation for ferrite inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Breitzmann, S.C.; Lee, S.Y.; Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    Passive ferrite inserts were used to compensate the space charge impedance in high intensity space charge dominated accelerators. They study the narrowband longitudinal impedance of these ferrite inserts. they find that the shunt impedance and the quality factor for ferrite inserts are inversely proportional to the imaginary part of the permeability of ferrite materials. They also provide a recipe for attaining a truly passive space charge impedance compensation and avoiding narrowband microwave instabilities.

  9. Tattoo machines, needles and utilities.

    PubMed

    Rosenkilde, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Starting out as a professional tattooist back in 1977 in Copenhagen, Denmark, Frank Rosenkilde has personally experienced the remarkable development of tattoo machines, needles and utilities: all the way from home-made equipment to industrial products of substantially improved quality. Machines can be constructed like the traditional dual-coil and single-coil machines or can be e-coil, rotary and hybrid machines, with the more convenient and precise rotary machines being the recent trend. This development has resulted in disposable needles and utilities. Newer machines are more easily kept clean and protected with foil to prevent crosscontaminations and infections. The machines and the tattooists' knowledge and awareness about prevention of infection have developed hand-in-hand. For decades, Frank Rosenkilde has been collecting tattoo machines. Part of his collection is presented here, supplemented by his personal notes. PMID:25833620

  10. Fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology of major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Qizilbash, A H; Sianos, J; Young, J E; Archibald, S D

    1985-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the major salivary glands was performed on 160 patients. In 146 patients with satisfactory samples, the cytologic diagnosis was correlated with clinical follow-up and histologic findings. There were 122 benign lesions, including 47 tumors. There were 24 malignant lesions, 10 of which were primary and 14 metastatic. The overall accuracy was 98%. The sensitivity of the technique was 87.5%. There was no false-positive diagnosis. There were three false-negative diagnoses due to sampling errors and inexperience during the initial period of the study. This study documents that needle aspiration biopsy cytology of the salivary glands is accurate, simple, rapid, inexpensive, well tolerated and harmless to the patient.

  11. Characterizing tissue stiffness at the tip of a rigid needle using an opto-mechanical force sensor.

    PubMed

    Beekmans, S V; Iannuzzi, D

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel device that allows the user to measure the Young Modulus of a material at the opening of a 5 mm diameter needle. The device relies on a miniaturized cantilever spring mounted at the end of the needle and interrogated via Fabry-Pérot optical fiber interferometry. The probe is repetitively brought in and out of contact with the sample at the end of the needle by means of a steel cable that is controlled via a piezoelectric actuator located at the proximal end. We demonstrate the ability of our device to detect and quantify layers of varying stiffness during needle insertion in a gelatin phantom and to successfully locate tissue boundaries in bovine liver tissue embedded in gelatin.

  12. Feasibility of near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopy on patients undergoing image-guided core-needle biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bing; Burnside, Elizabeth S.; Sisney, Gale A.; Harter, Josephine M.; Zhu, Changfang; Dhalla, Al-Hafeez; Ramanujam, Nirmala

    2009-01-01

    We describe a side-firing fiber optic sensor based on near-infrared spectroscopy for guiding core needle biopsy diagnosis of breast cancer. The sensor is composed of three side firing optical fibers (two source fibers and one detection fiber), providing two source-detector separations. The entire assembly is inserted into a core biopsy needle, allowing for sampling to occur at the biopsy site. A multi-wavelength frequency-domain near-infrared instrument is used to collect diffuse reflectance in the breast tissue through an aperture on the biopsy needle before the tissue is removed for histology. Preliminary in vivo measurements performed on 10 normal or benign breast tissues from 5 women undergoing stereo- or ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy show the ability of the system to determine tissue optical properties and constituent concentrations, which are correlated with breast tissue composition derived from histopathology. PMID:19547057

  13. Characterizing tissue stiffness at the tip of a rigid needle using an opto-mechanical force sensor.

    PubMed

    Beekmans, S V; Iannuzzi, D

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel device that allows the user to measure the Young Modulus of a material at the opening of a 5 mm diameter needle. The device relies on a miniaturized cantilever spring mounted at the end of the needle and interrogated via Fabry-Pérot optical fiber interferometry. The probe is repetitively brought in and out of contact with the sample at the end of the needle by means of a steel cable that is controlled via a piezoelectric actuator located at the proximal end. We demonstrate the ability of our device to detect and quantify layers of varying stiffness during needle insertion in a gelatin phantom and to successfully locate tissue boundaries in bovine liver tissue embedded in gelatin. PMID:26838036

  14. Needle detection in ultrasound using the spectral properties of the displacement field: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beigi, Parmida; Salcudean, Tim; Rohling, Robert; Lessoway, Victoria A.; Ng, Gary C.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a new needle detection technique for ultrasound guided interventions based on the spectral properties of small displacements arising from hand tremour or intentional motion. In a block-based approach, the displacement map is computed for each block of interest versus a reference frame, using an optical flow technique. To compute the flow parameters, the Lucas-Kanade approach is used in a multiresolution and regularized form. A least-squares fit is used to estimate the flow parameters from the overdetermined system of spatial and temporal gradients. Lateral and axial components of the displacement are obtained for each block of interest at consecutive frames. Magnitude-squared spectral coherency is derived between the median displacements of the reference block and each block of interest, to determine the spectral correlation. In vivo images were obtained from the tissue near the abdominal aorta to capture the extreme intrinsic body motion and insertion images were captured from a tissue-mimicking agar phantom. According to the analysis, both the involuntary and intentional movement of the needle produces coherent displacement with respect to a reference window near the insertion site. Intrinsic body motion also produces coherent displacement with respect to a reference window in the tissue; however, the coherency spectra of intrinsic and needle motion are distinguishable spectrally. Blocks with high spectral coherency at high frequencies are selected, estimating a channel for needle trajectory. The needle trajectory is detected from locally thresholded absolute displacement map within the initial estimate. Experimental results show the RMS localization accuracy of 1:0 mm, 0:7 mm, and 0:5 mm for hand tremour, vibrational and rotational needle movements, respectively.

  15. Is it necessary to rotate the epidural needle to obtain successful sacral segment block?

    PubMed

    Lin, C C; Fan, S Z; Huang, F Y; Lin, S Y

    1990-09-01

    The effect of rotating the level of touhy needle to obtain successful sacral blockade was controversial. During the rotation, dural puncture was reported by some studies. In our study, we divided forty patients into two groups randomly. They all belonged to ASA I-II, receiving epidural needle insertion at L 2-3 epidural space, before epidural catheter was inserted. Total of 10 mL of 2% xylocaine was injected into the epidural space. In group A, the level of Touhy needle was pointed upward, that is, parallel to the ligament flavum. In group B, the level was pointed caudally. We determined the cutaneous extension of loss of cold sensation by using a swab of cotton wool soaked with alcohol 15 min and 25 min after the test injection. Our result showed no different in loss of cold sensation in sacral area between these two groups. So we concluded that there is no need to rotate the epidural needle for sacral blockade.

  16. Characterizing tissue stiffness at the tip of a rigid needle using an opto-mechanical force sensor (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beekmans, Steven V.; Iannuzzi, Davide; van den Dobbelsteen, John J.

    2016-03-01

    Each year, in the Netherlands alone, more than 50.000 percutaneous procedures are performed for treatment or for removal of tissue from possibly diseased organs, of which 30% return non-diagnostic due to erroneous needle targeting, often as a result of non-homogeneity of the penetrated tissue. In this study, we aim to facilitate needle targeting by assessing the tissue in front of the needle based on its mechanical properties. A probe that can identify tissues via real-time measurements of their mechanical properties is placed at the tip of the needle. The probe, actuated by a remote system at the distal part of the needle, employs the bending of a micro-machined cantilever fabricated on top of an optical fiber. The displacement of the cantilever, imposed by pressing a micro-bead (r = 75 µm) glued at the tip of the cantilever against the tissue, is interrogated by Fabry-Pérot interferometry and converted to force acted on the tissue in real-time. The force transducer is able to perform in harsh environments due to its monolithic design and all-optical working principle. Using our setup, load-indentation curves were obtained during needle insertion in several gelatin-based specimens. We demonstrate the ability of our device to detect and quantify layers of varying stiffness and to successfully locate tissue boundaries in animal tissue embedded in gelatin. Furthermore, a diagnostic measurement can be made by quantifying intra-organ tissue stiffness at the needle target location.

  17. Sink Inserts for Flood Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Fraser F.; Bodnar, Daniel J.; Hardesty, David L.

    2004-09-01

    A simple, inexpensive insert is described for preventing flooding in lab sinks. The insert is essentially a tube with slots cut into the side that fits snugly into the drain outlet, preventing water buildup and providing additional drainage sites to avoid constriction by small lab items and paper towels.

  18. Dry needling — peripheral and central considerations

    PubMed Central

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture. PMID:23115475

  19. Dry needling - peripheral and central considerations.

    PubMed

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-11-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture.

  20. Fabrication of a Micro-Needle Array Electrode by Thermal Drawing for Bio-Signals Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lei; Jiang, Qing; Chen, Keyun; Chen, Zhipeng; Pan, Chengfeng; Jiang, Lelun

    2016-01-01

    A novel micro-needle array electrode (MAE) fabricated by thermal drawing and coated with Ti/Au film was proposed for bio-signals monitoring. A simple and effective setup was employed to form glassy-state poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) into a micro-needle array (MA) by the thermal drawing method. The MA was composed of 6 × 6 micro-needles with an average height of about 500 μm. Electrode-skin interface impedance (EII) was recorded as the insertion force was applied on the MAE. The insertion process of the MAE was also simulated by the finite element method. Results showed that MAE could insert into skin with a relatively low compression force and maintain stable contact impedance between the MAE and skin. Bio-signals, including electromyography (EMG), electrocardiography (ECG), and electroencephalograph (EEG) were also collected. Test results showed that the MAE could record EMG, ECG, and EEG signals with good fidelity in shape and amplitude in comparison with the commercial Ag/AgCl electrodes, which proves that MAE is an alternative electrode for bio-signals monitoring. PMID:27322278

  1. Fabrication of a Micro-Needle Array Electrode by Thermal Drawing for Bio-Signals Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Lei; Jiang, Qing; Chen, Keyun; Chen, Zhipeng; Pan, Chengfeng; Jiang, Lelun

    2016-01-01

    A novel micro-needle array electrode (MAE) fabricated by thermal drawing and coated with Ti/Au film was proposed for bio-signals monitoring. A simple and effective setup was employed to form glassy-state poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) into a micro-needle array (MA) by the thermal drawing method. The MA was composed of 6 × 6 micro-needles with an average height of about 500 μm. Electrode-skin interface impedance (EII) was recorded as the insertion force was applied on the MAE. The insertion process of the MAE was also simulated by the finite element method. Results showed that MAE could insert into skin with a relatively low compression force and maintain stable contact impedance between the MAE and skin. Bio-signals, including electromyography (EMG), electrocardiography (ECG), and electroencephalograph (EEG) were also collected. Test results showed that the MAE could record EMG, ECG, and EEG signals with good fidelity in shape and amplitude in comparison with the commercial Ag/AgCl electrodes, which proves that MAE is an alternative electrode for bio-signals monitoring. PMID:27322278

  2. Zebrafish needle EMG: a new tool for high-throughput drug screens.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Joon; Nam, Tai-Seung; Byun, Donghak; Choi, Seok-Yong; Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Kim, Sohee

    2015-09-01

    Zebrafish models have recently been highlighted as a valuable tool in studying the molecular basis of neuromuscular diseases and developing new pharmacological treatments. Needle electromyography (EMG) is needed not only for validating transgenic zebrafish models with muscular dystrophies (MD), but also for assessing the efficacy of therapeutics. However, performing needle EMG on larval zebrafish has not been feasible due to the lack of proper EMG sensors and systems for such small animals. We introduce a new type of EMG needle electrode to measure intramuscular activities of larval zebrafish, together with a method to hold the animal in position during EMG, without anesthetization. The silicon-based needle electrode was found to be sufficiently strong and sharp to penetrate the skin and muscles of zebrafish larvae, and its shape and performance did not change after multiple insertions. With the use of the proposed needle electrode and measurement system, EMG was successfully performed on zebrafish at 30 days postfertilization (dpf) and at 5 dpf. Burst patterns and spike morphology of the recorded EMG signals were analyzed. The measured single spikes were triphasic with an initial positive deflection, which is typical for motor unit action potentials, with durations of ∼10 ms, whereas the muscle activity was silent during the anesthetized condition. These findings confirmed the capability of this system of detecting EMG signals from very small animals such as 5 dpf zebrafish. The developed EMG sensor and system are expected to become a helpful tool in validating zebrafish MD models and further developing therapeutics.

  3. Static and dynamic imaging of alveoli using optical coherence tomography needle probes.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Robert A; Yang, Xiaojie; Quirk, Bryden C; Lorenser, Dirk; Kirk, Rodney W; Noble, Peter B; Sampson, David D

    2012-09-01

    Imaging of alveoli in situ has for the most part been infeasible due to the high resolution required to discern individual alveoli and limited access to alveoli beneath the lung surface. In this study, we present a novel technique to image alveoli using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We propose the use of OCT needle probes, where the distal imaging probe has been miniaturized and encased within a hypodermic needle (as small as 30-gauge, outer diameter 310 μm), allowing insertion deep within the lung tissue with minimal tissue distortion. Such probes enable imaging at a resolution of ∼12 μm within a three-dimensional cylindrical field of view with diameter ∼1.5 mm centered on the needle tip. The imaging technique is demonstrated on excised lungs from three different species: adult rats, fetal sheep, and adult pigs. OCT needle probes were used to image alveoli, small bronchioles, and blood vessels, and results were matched to histological sections. We also present the first dynamic OCT images acquired with an OCT needle probe, allowing tracking of individual alveoli during simulated cyclical lung inflation and deflation. PMID:22773771

  4. Zebrafish needle EMG: a new tool for high-throughput drug screens

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Joon; Nam, Tai-Seung; Byun, Donghak; Choi, Seok-Yong; Kim, Myeong-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish models have recently been highlighted as a valuable tool in studying the molecular basis of neuromuscular diseases and developing new pharmacological treatments. Needle electromyography (EMG) is needed not only for validating transgenic zebrafish models with muscular dystrophies (MD), but also for assessing the efficacy of therapeutics. However, performing needle EMG on larval zebrafish has not been feasible due to the lack of proper EMG sensors and systems for such small animals. We introduce a new type of EMG needle electrode to measure intramuscular activities of larval zebrafish, together with a method to hold the animal in position during EMG, without anesthetization. The silicon-based needle electrode was found to be sufficiently strong and sharp to penetrate the skin and muscles of zebrafish larvae, and its shape and performance did not change after multiple insertions. With the use of the proposed needle electrode and measurement system, EMG was successfully performed on zebrafish at 30 days postfertilization (dpf) and at 5 dpf. Burst patterns and spike morphology of the recorded EMG signals were analyzed. The measured single spikes were triphasic with an initial positive deflection, which is typical for motor unit action potentials, with durations of ∼10 ms, whereas the muscle activity was silent during the anesthetized condition. These findings confirmed the capability of this system of detecting EMG signals from very small animals such as 5 dpf zebrafish. The developed EMG sensor and system are expected to become a helpful tool in validating zebrafish MD models and further developing therapeutics. PMID:26180124

  5. Characterization of tissue-simulating phantom materials for ultrasound-guided needle procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, Susan; Moore, John; Lammers, Deanna; Baxter, John; Peters, Terry

    2012-02-01

    Needle biopsies are standard protocols that are commonly performed under ultrasound (US) guidance or computed tomography (CT)1. Vascular access such as central line insertions, and many spinal needle therapies also rely on US guidance. Phantoms for these procedures are crucial as both training tools for clinicians and research tools for developing new guidance systems. Realistic imaging properties and material longevity are critical qualities for needle guidance phantoms. However, current commercially available phantoms for use with US guidance have many limitations, the most detrimental of which include harsh needle tracks obfuscating US images and a membrane comparable to human skin that does not allow seepage of inner media. To overcome these difficulties, we tested a variety of readily available media and membranes to evaluate optimal materials to fit our current needs. It was concluded that liquid hand soap was the best medium, as it instantly left no needle tracks, had an acceptable depth of US penetration and portrayed realistic imaging conditions, while because of its low leakage, low cost, acceptable durability and transparency, the optimal membrane was 10 gauge vinyl.

  6. PERTINENT DRY NEEDLING CONSIDERATIONS FOR MINIMIZING ADVERSE EFFECTS – PART TWO

    PubMed Central

    Halle, Rob J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dry needling (DN) is an evidence based treatment technique that is accepted and used by physical therapists in the United States. This clinical commentary is the second in a two-part series outlining some of the pertinent anatomy and other issues that are needed for optimal utilization of this treatment modality. Part one was an overview of the thorax with a summary of reported adverse effects (AEs) and the underlying anatomy that could be used to minimize patient risk. As is the case with any intervention, the technique of dry needling has some inherent patient risk. The incidence of AEs with this procedure is typically low, ranging from zero to approximately 10 percent. Knowledge of the underlying anatomy can be a key factor associated with decreasing the likelihood of an AE. Purpose/Objective The second part of this clinical commentary goes beyond the thorax, to explore the anatomy associated with dry needling the abdomen, pelvis, and back. In the abdomen, pelvis and back, dry needling can penetrate the peritoneal cavity or adjacent organs, resulting in AEs. A physiological reaction that is an AE secondary to a needle insertion, pain or fear, is an autonomic vasovagal response. Additionally, suggestions for dealing with the fearful patient, the obese patient, universal precautions, and other clinical considerations, are discussed. The purpose of parts one and part two of this clinical commentary is to minimize the risk of a dry needling AE. Conclusions/Implications Dry needling is an effective adjunctive treatment procedure that is within the recognized scope of practice of the physical therapist. An evidence-based implementation of the procedure must be based on a thorough understanding of the underlying anatomy and the potential risks, with risks communicated to patients via informed consent. Level of Evidence Level 5 PMID:27757293

  7. Lidocaine injection versus dry needling to myofascial trigger point. The importance of the local twitch response.

    PubMed

    Hong, C Z

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of injection with a local anesthetic agent or dry needling into a myofascial trigger point (TrP) of the upper trapezius muscle in 58 patients. Trigger point injections with 0.5% lidocaine were given to 26 patients (Group I), and dry needling was performed on TrPs in 15 patients (Group II). Local twitch responses (LTRs) were elicited during multiple needle insertions in both Groups I and II. In another 17 patients, no LTR was elicited during TrP injection with lidocaine (9 patients, group Ia) or dry needling (8 patients, group IIa). Improvement was assessed by measuring the subjective pain intensity, the pain threshold of the TrP and the range of motion of the cervical spine. Significant improvement occurred immediately after injection into the patients in both group I and group II. In Groups Ia and Ib, there was little change in pain, tenderness or tightness after injection. Within 2-8 h after injection or dry needling, soreness (different from patients' original myofascial pain) developed in 42% of the patients in group I and in 100% of the patients in group II. Patients treated with dry needling had postinjection soreness of significantly greater intensity and longer duration than those treated with lidocaine injection. The author concludes that it is essential to elicit LTRs during injection to obtain an immediately desirable effect. TrP injection with 0.5% lidocaine is recommended, because it reduces the intensity and duration of postinjection soreness compared with that produced by dry needling.

  8. A subcutaneous Raman needle probe.

    PubMed

    Day, John C C; Stone, Nicholas

    2013-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the biochemical composition of tissues and cells in the human body. We describe the initial results of a feasibility study to design and build a miniature, fiber optic probe incorporated into a standard hypodermic needle. This probe is intended for use in optical biopsies of solid tissues to provide valuable information of disease type, such as in the lymphatic system, breast, or prostate, or of such tissue types as muscle, fat, or spinal, when identifying a critical injection site. The optical design and fabrication of this probe is described, and example spectra of various ex vivo samples are shown. PMID:23452501

  9. Geographical and climatic limits of needle types of one- and two-needled pinyon pines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, K.L.; Fisher, J.; Arundel, S.T.; Cannella, J.; Swift, S.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The geographical extent and climatic tolerances of one- and two-needled pinyon pines (Pinus subsect. Cembroides) are the focus of questions in taxonomy, palaeoclimatology and modelling of future distributions. The identification of these pines, traditionally classified by one- versus two-needled fascicles, is complicated by populations with both one- and two-needled fascicles on the same tree, and the description of two more recently described one-needled varieties: the fallax-type and californiarum-type. Because previous studies have suggested correlations between needle anatomy and climate, including anatomical plasticity reflecting annual precipitation, we approached this study at the level of the anatomy of individual pine needles rather than species. Location: Western North America. Methods: We synthesized available and new data from field and herbarium collections of needles to compile maps of their current distributions across western North America. Annual frequencies of needle types were compared with local precipitation histories for some stands. Historical North American climates were modelled on a c. 1-km grid using monthly temperature and precipitation values. A geospatial model (ClimLim), which analyses the effect of climate-modulated physiological and ecosystem processes, was used to rank the importance of seasonal climate variables in limiting the distributions of anatomical needle types. Results: The pinyon needles were classified into four distinct types based upon the number of needles per fascicle, needle thickness and the number of stomatal rows and resin canals. The individual needles fit well into four categories of needle types, whereas some trees exhibit a mixture of two needle types. Trees from central Arizona containing a mixture of Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles increased their percentage of fallax-type needles following dry years. All four needle types occupy broader geographical regions with distinctive precipitation regimes

  10. Effect of Tension and Curvature of Skin on Insertion Characteristics of Microneedle Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto; Takano, Naoki; Nishiyabu, Kazuaki; Miki, Norihisa; Ami, Yoshimichi

    Recent MEMS (micro electro mechanical system) fabrication techniques have made it possible to produce painless microneedles precisely enough to be inserted into epidermis layer penetrating the stratum corneum of human skin. This paper presents a testing procedure to evaluate the insertion characteristics of microneedle array using cultured human skin considering the tension and the curvature. First, the biaxial strain applied to the cultured human skin was measured by optical technique with image processing. It was found that almost constant strain could be successfully given within a certain area and that error factors in the experiment except the thickness variation of the cultured skin were negligible. Next, using a microneedle square array for brain machine interface (BMI) application, the effects of biaxial tension and the curvature on insertion characteristics were discussed. Within the above mentioned area with high strain, the needles were successfully inserted.

  11. Canine lymphoma: immunocytochemical analysis of fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Caniatti, M; Roccabianca, P; Scanziani, E; Paltrinieri, S; Moore, P F

    1996-03-01

    Cytospin preparations of fine-needle aspirates from 21 dogs with peripheral lymphadenopathy (18 with lymphoma and three with lymph node hyperplasia) were studied by combining morphologic and immunocytochemical analysis. Fine-needle aspirates were taken from at least two enlarged lymph nodes, and the diagnosis was based on air-dried smears stained with May-Grünwald Giemsa. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy always provided an adequate quality and quantity of cells to perform morphologic and immunologic studies. Immunophenotyping was performed on cytospin preparations with a panel of eight monoclonal antibodies specific for canine cell surface antigens and one rabbit polyclonal antibody (A452) against human CD3, which cross-reacts with dog antigen. The immunocytochemical study resulted in the diagnosis of 14 B-cell lymphomas (CD21+, CD3-) and three T-cell lymphomas (all CD3+, two CD8+). One lymphoma lacked surface antigens specific for the B- or T-cell lineage and was classified as non-B-non-T lymphoma (CD21-, CD3-, CD4-, CD8-). The monoclonal antibodies CA12.10C12, CA4.1D3, and CA1D6 and the polyclonal antibody A452, used as a group, appeared to be the most useful reagents to suggest lymphoid origin and to discriminate between T-and B-cell phenotype. Cytospin preparations in combination with immunocytochemistry provided a practical, economical, and accurate method for the diagnosis and phenotyping of canine lymphoma.

  12. Controllable design of super-oscillatory planar lenses for sub-diffraction-limit optical needles.

    PubMed

    Diao, Jinshuai; Yuan, Weizheng; Yu, Yiting; Zhu, Yechuan; Wu, Yan

    2016-02-01

    Sub-diffraction-limit optical needle can be created by a binary amplitude mask through tailoring the interference of diffraction beams. In this paper, a controllable design of super-oscillatory planar lenses to create sub-diffraction-limit optical needles with the tunable focal length and depth of focus (DOF) is presented. As a high-quality optical needle is influenced by various factors, we first propose a multi-objective and multi-constraint optimization model compromising all the main factors to achieve a needle with the prescribed characteristics. The optimizing procedure is self-designed using the Matlab programming language based on the genetic algorithm (GA) and fast Hankel transform algorithm. Numerical simulations show that the optical needles' properties can be controlled accurately. The optimized results are further validated by the theoretical calculation with the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld integral. The sub-diffraction-limit optical needles can be used in wide fields such as optical nanofabrication, super-resolution imaging, particle acceleration and high-density optical data storage. PMID:26906769

  13. Localization of needle tip with color doppler during pericardiocentesis: In vitro validation and initial clinical application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, G.; Cardon, L.; Vilkomerson, D.; Lipson, D.; Wong, J.; Rodriguez, L. L.; Thomas, J. D.; Griffin, B. P.

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluates a new device that uses color Doppler ultrasonography to enable real-time image guidance of the aspirating needle, which has not been possible until now. The ColorMark device (EchoCath Inc, Princeton, NJ) induces high-frequency, low-amplitude vibrations in the needle to enable localization with color Doppler. We studied this technique in 25 consecutive patients undergoing pericardiocentesis, and in vitro, in a urethane phantom with which the accuracy of color Doppler localization of the needle tip was compared with that obtained by direct measurement. Tip localization was excellent in vitro; errors axial to the ultrasound beam (velocity Doppler -0.13 +/- 0.90 mm, power Doppler -0.05 +/- 1.7 mm) were less than lateral errors (velocity -0.36 +/- 1.8 mm, power -0.02 +/- 2.8 mm). In 18 of 25 patients, the needle was identified and guided into the pericardial space with the ColorMark technique, and it allowed successful, uncomplicated drainage of fluid. Initial failures were the result of incorrect settings on the echocardiographic machine and inappropriate combinations of the needle puncture site and imaging window. This study demonstrates a novel color Doppler technique that is highly accurate at localizing a needle tip. The technique is feasible for guiding pericardiocentesis. Further clinical validation of this technique is required.

  14. [Clinical experiences of RUAN's needling method for insomnia].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ling-Zhen; Ruan, Bu-Qing

    2013-07-01

    The theoretical basis and needling techniques of RUAN's needling method in treatment of insomnia are introduced in this paper. Ruan's needling method follows the theory of traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture, stresses the theory of taking brain as the marrow sea in treatment of insomnia acupuncture. The characteristics of his needling method are that emphasis on acupoints, including positioning accuracy and proper compatibility; think highly of needling method that combines with perpendicular needling, oblique needling, parallel needling, deep needling and shallow needling; emphasis on manipulation and identify qi under the needle to decide reinforcing or reducing method by arrival of qi, excess or deficiency. And the clinical observation of RUAN' s needling method on 30 cases of insomnia is attached. PMID:24032204

  15. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid An ultrasound-guided thyroid biopsy ... Thyroid? What is Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? During a fine needle aspiration ...

  16. MRI assisted cervix cancer brachytherapy pre-planning, based on insertion of the applicator in para-cervical anaesthesia: preliminary results of a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Hudej, Robert; Music, Maja

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To report on preliminary results of a prospective study on MRI-assisted cervix cancer brachytherapy pre-planning. Material and methods In six locally advanced cervix cancer patients, five days before the first brachytherapy fraction, tandem & ring applicator was inserted under para-cervical anaesthesia, MRI performed and applicator removed. Procedure-time and patient-tolerability were recorded. High risk CTV and organs at risk were delineated, virtual needles placed and dose planning performed. At brachytherapy, insertion was carried out under subarachnoidal anaesthesia, according to pre-planned geometry. Pre-planned and actual needle positions and DVH parameters were compared. Results The procedure was well tolerated and short. All inserted needles were inside high risk CTV and outside organs at risk. Differences in pre-planned and actual DVH parameters and implant geometry were small. Conclusions The procedure was well tolerated and feasible. Pre-planned geometry could be reproduced thoroughly at brachytherapy application.

  17. Needle aspiration cytologic biopsy in head and neck masses.

    PubMed

    Young, J E; Archibald, S D; Shier, K J

    1981-10-01

    Over 500 fine (no. 22) needle aspiration biopsies were done on head and neck lesions. The total accuracy for the series was 94.5 percent. The accuracy rates for thyroid, salivary and metastatic or benign lymph node lesions were similar: approximately 95 percent. Only lymphomatous lesions gave a lower accuracy rate: 75 percent. This method of evaluating masses in the head and neck is simple, rapid, inexpensive, well-tolerated and harmless, and is very accurate when there is close cooperation between the clinician and the cytopathologist.

  18. Short, multi-needle FDR sensor suitable for measuring soil water content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) is a well-established electromagnetic technique used to measure soil water content. TDR sensors have been combined with heat pulse sensors to produce thermo-TDR sensors. Thermo-TDR sensors are restricted to having relatively short needles in order to accurately measur...

  19. A proposed model membrane and test method for microneedle insertion studies

    PubMed Central

    Larrañeta, Eneko; Moore, Jessica; Vicente-Pérez, Eva M.; González-Vázquez, Patricia; Lutton, Rebecca; Woolfson, A. David; Donnelly, Ryan F.

    2014-01-01

    A commercial polymeric film (Parafilm M®, a blend of a hydrocarbon wax and a polyolefin) was evaluated as a model membrane for microneedle (MN) insertion studies. Polymeric MN arrays were inserted into Parafilm M® (PF) and also into excised neonatal porcine skin. Parafilm M® was folded before the insertions to closely approximate thickness of the excised skin. Insertion depths were evaluated using optical coherence tomography (OCT) using either a force applied by a Texture Analyser or by a group of human volunteers. The obtained insertion depths were, in general, slightly lower, especially for higher forces, for PF than for skin. However, this difference was not a large, being less than the 10% of the needle length. Therefore, all these data indicate that this model membrane could be a good alternative to biological tissue for MN insertion studies. As an alternative method to OCT, light microscopy was used to evaluate the insertion depths of MN in the model membrane. This provided a rapid, simple method to compare different MN formulations. The use of Parafilm M®, in conjunction with a standardised force/time profile applied by a Texture Analyser, could provide the basis for a rapid MN quality control test suitable for in-process use. It could also be used as a comparative test of insertion efficiency between candidate MN formulations. PMID:24877757

  20. A proposed model membrane and test method for microneedle insertion studies.

    PubMed

    Larrañeta, Eneko; Moore, Jessica; Vicente-Pérez, Eva M; González-Vázquez, Patricia; Lutton, Rebecca; Woolfson, A David; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2014-09-10

    A commercial polymeric film (Parafilm M(®), a blend of a hydrocarbon wax and a polyolefin) was evaluated as a model membrane for microneedle (MN) insertion studies. Polymeric MN arrays were inserted into Parafilm M(®) (PF) and also into excised neonatal porcine skin. Parafilm M(®) was folded before the insertions to closely approximate thickness of the excised skin. Insertion depths were evaluated using optical coherence tomography (OCT) using either a force applied by a Texture Analyser or by a group of human volunteers. The obtained insertion depths were, in general, slightly lower, especially for higher forces, for PF than for skin. However, this difference was not a large, being less than the 10% of the needle length. Therefore, all these data indicate that this model membrane could be a good alternative to biological tissue for MN insertion studies. As an alternative method to OCT, light microscopy was used to evaluate the insertion depths of MN in the model membrane. This provided a rapid, simple method to compare different MN formulations. The use of Parafilm M(®), in conjunction with a standardised force/time profile applied by a Texture Analyser, could provide the basis for a rapid MN quality control test suitable for in-process use. It could also be used as a comparative test of insertion efficiency between candidate MN formulations. PMID:24877757

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial on the Effect of Needle Gauge on the Pain and Anxiety Experienced during Radial Arterial Puncture

    PubMed Central

    Molano, Luis-Carlos; Viacroze, Catherine; Benhamou, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background Arterial punctures for assessment of arterial blood-gases can be a painful procedure. Lidocaine can be used to reduce pain prior to needle insertion but it is not a widely accepted practice. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a large size needle induces more pain compared to a smaller size needle for radial arterial puncture and to assess the anxiety associated with radial arterial punctures. Methods We conducted a prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled, monocentric study including all outpatients who had a planned assessment of arterial blood gas analysis. Patients were randomized to have the arterial puncture performed with a 23 or a 25 G needle. The main judgement criteria was pain during arterial puncture. Visual analogue scale for pain (VAS-P) and visual analogue scale for anxiety (VAS-A) were used to assess pain and anxiety during radial arterial puncture. Results Two hundred consecutive patients were randomized. The 25 G needle was as painful as the 23 G needle (6.63 mm [0–19 mm] vs. 5.21 mm [0–18.49 mm], respectively, p = 0.527). Time for arterial puncture was longer with the 25 G needle than with the 23 G needle (42 s [35–55 s] vs. 33 s [24.5–35 s], respectively, p = 0.002). There was a correlation between the level of anxiety prior to the arterial puncture and the pain experienced by the patients (p: 0.369, p<0.0001). There was a correlation between the pain experienced by patients and the anxiety experienced in anticipation of another arterial puncture (p: 0.5124, p<0.0001). Conclusions The use of 23 G needle allows quicker arterial sampling and is not associated with increased pain and symptoms. Anxiety was correlated with the pain experienced by patients during arterial punctures. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02320916 PMID:26407017

  2. New needle packed with polydimethylsiloxane having a micro-bore tunnel for headspace in-needle microextraction of aroma components of citrus oils.

    PubMed

    Son, Hyun-Hwa; Bae, Sunyoung; Lee, Dong-Sun

    2012-11-01

    A novel in-needle microextraction (INME) for headspace sampling evaluated in this study has significantly higher extraction speed and the practical merits of a durable stainless steel needle to overcome some exposed fiber related drawbacks. A prototype stainless steel needle (Hamilton 90022, 22 gauge bevel tip, 51 mm length) packed with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, 0.413 mm O.D., 10mm length) having a micro-bore (200 μm I.D.) tunnel was prepared as a new INME device. This needle with a barrel and a plunger is then inserted and exposed into the headspace over the sample. Headspace sampling can be speeded up by an automatic reciprocating pump. The extraction parameters have been optimized along with the validation of method performance. The methodology has been applied for the analysis of volatile aroma active components emitted from eight kinds of citrus essential oils by GC-FID or GC/MS. The proposed method showed excellent linearity, reproducibility, and low detection limit. This solventless technique is simple to operate, inexpensive to fabricate, and provides a facile means for collecting and introducing volatile aroma active components of essential oils.

  3. Estimating needle-tissue interaction forces for hollow needles using fiber Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Saurabh; Shrikanth, V.; Bharadwaj, Amrutur; Asokan, Sundarrajan; Bobji, M. S.

    2016-03-01

    Brachytherapy and neurological procedures can benefit from real-time estimation of needle-tissue interaction forces, specifically for robotic or robot-assisted procedures. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors provide advantages of very small size and electromagnetic immunity for use in measurement of the forces directly at the needle tip. This has advantages compared to measurements at the needle shaft which require extensive models of the friction between needle and tissues with varying depth. This paper presents the measurement of tip forces for a hollow needle and compensation for bending when encountering regions of varying stiffness in phantoms with multiple layers prepared using Polydimethylsiloxane.

  4. Insertion devices for Doris III

    SciTech Connect

    Pfluger, J.; Heintze, G. ); Baran, W.; Fernow, D.; Kuntze, K. )

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the mechanical and magnetic layout of the first three insertion devices for DORIS III, an upgraded reconstruction of DORIS II, is described and results of the magnetic characterization are given as well.

  5. Tool Removes Coil-Spring Thread Inserts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Gerald J., Jr.; Swenson, Gary J.; Mcclellan, J. Scott

    1991-01-01

    Tool removes coil-spring thread inserts from threaded holes. Threads into hole, pries insert loose, grips insert, then pulls insert to thread it out of hole. Effects essentially reverse of insertion process to ease removal and avoid further damage to threaded inner surface of hole.

  6. Needle placement for piriformis injection using 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Clendenen, Steven R; Candler, Shawn A; Osborne, Michael D; Palmer, Scott C; Duench, Stephanie; Glynn, Laura; Ghazi, Salim M

    2013-01-01

    Piriformis syndrome is a pain syndrome originating in the buttock and is attributed to 6% - 8% of patients referred for the treatment of back and leg pain. The treatment for piriformis syndrome using fluoroscopy, computed tomography (CT), electromyography (EMG), and ultrasound (US) has become standard practice. The treatment of Piriformis Syndrome has evolved to include fluoroscopy and EMG with CT guidance. We present a case study of 5 successful piriformis injections using 3-D computer-assisted electromagnet needle tracking coupled with ultrasound. A 6-degree of freedom electromagnetic position tracker was attached to the ultrasound probe that allowed the system to detect the position and orientation of the probe in the magnetic field. The tracked ultrasound probe was used to find the posterior superior iliac spine. Subsequently, 3 points were captured to register the ultrasound image with the CT or magnetic resonance image scan. Moreover, after the registration was obtained, the navigation system visualized the tracked needle relative to the CT scan in real-time using 2 orthogonal multi-planar reconstructions centered at the tracked needle tip. Conversely, a recent study revealed that fluoroscopically guided injections had 30% accuracy compared to ultrasound guided injections, which tripled the accuracy percentage. This novel technique exhibited an accurate needle guidance injection precision of 98% while advancing to the piriformis muscle and avoiding the sciatic nerve. The mean (± SD) procedure time was 19.08 (± 4.9) minutes. This technique allows for electromagnetic instrument tip tracking with real-time 3-D guidance to the selected target. As with any new technique, a learning curve is expected; however, this technique could offer an alternative, minimizing radiation exposure. PMID:23703429

  7. Needle Exchange Programs and Drug Injection Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSimone, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This study examines how drug injection and needle sharing propensities respond when a needle exchange program (NEP) is introduced into a city. I analyze 1989-1995 Drug Use Forecasting data on adult male arrestees from 24 large U.S. cities, in nine of which NEPs opened during the sample period. After controlling for cocaine and heroin prices, AIDS…

  8. [Textual research on the fire needle and the fire needle therapy].

    PubMed

    Liu, T; Zhu, J P; Zhang, Q C

    2016-03-01

    There are different names of the fire needle therapy in the Huang di nei jing (Inner Canon of Huangdi) such as Zu-zhen (), Cui-zhen (,), Fan-zhen (), Huo-cui (), Cui (,,), Cuici ,), Fan zhen jie ci (). It is claimed that the lance needle, the round sharp needle and the long needle recorded in this Classic are puncturing tools for the fire needle therapy. In the Eastern Han Dynasty, Zhang Zhongjing expanded the indications for the fire needle therapy and Huo-zhen () firstly appeared in the Jin kui yu han jing(Classic of the Jade Box and Golden Chamber). The application of the fire needle therapy had been further expanded to a lot of internal and external disorders form the Wei-Jin-Southern and Northern Dynasties to the Ming and Qing Dynasties. There are more detailed records on the manipulation and the tools of the fire needle therapy during this period. In the 1970s, Huo zhen liao fa () was proposed and still in use today. However the Bai-zhen (plain needle) in ancient literature is equal to the filiform needle and should not be regarded as the former name of the fire needle. PMID:27255194

  9. Resuscitation in massive obstetric haemorrhage using an intraosseous needle.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, D J; Bukunola, B; Samuels, T L; Induruwage, L; Uncles, D R

    2011-04-01

    A 38-year-old woman experienced a massive postpartum haemorrhage 30 minutes after emergency caesarean delivery. The patient became severely haemodynamically compromised with an unrecordable blood pressure. Rapid fluid resuscitation was limited by the capacity of the intravenous cannula in place at the time and inability to establish additional vascular access using conventional routes in a timely manner. An intraosseous needle was inserted in the proximal humerus at the first attempt and administration of resuscitation fluid by this route subsequently enabled successful placement of further intravenous lines. Blood and blood products were deployed in conjunction with intra-operative cell salvage and transoesophageal Doppler cardiac output monitoring was used to assess adequacy of volume replacement. Haemorrhage control was finally achieved with the use of recombinant factor VIIa and hysterectomy. PMID:21401545

  10. Diagnostic Accuracy of MRI-guided Percutaneous Transthoracic Needle Biopsy of Solitary Pulmonary Nodules

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shangang; Li, Chengli; Yu, Xuejuan; Liu, Ming; Fan, Tingyong Chen, Dong Zhang, Pinliang Ren, Ruimei

    2015-04-15

    ObjectiveThe purpose of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MRI-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB) of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs).MethodsRetrospective review of 69 patients who underwent MR-guided PTNB of SPNs was performed. Each case was reviewed for complications. The final diagnosis was established by surgical pathology of the nodule or clinical and imaging follow-up. Pneumothorax rate and diagnostic accuracy were compared between two groups according to nodule diameter (≤2 vs. >2 cm) using χ{sup 2} chest and Fisher’s exact test, respectively.ResultsThe success rate of single puncture was 95.6 %. Twelve (17.4 %) patients had pneumothorax, with 1 (1.4 %) requiring chest tube insertion. Mild hemoptysis occurred in 7 (7.2 %) patients. All of the sample material was sufficient for histological diagnostic evaluation. Pathological analysis of biopsy specimens showed 46 malignant, 22 benign, and 1 nondiagnostic nodule. The final diagnoses were 49 malignant nodules and 20 benign nodules basing on postoperative histopathology and clinical follow-up data. One nondiagnostic sample was excluded from calculating diagnostic performance. A sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value in diagnosing SPNs were 95.8, 100, 97.0, 100, and 90.9 %, respectively. Pneumothorax rate, diagnostic sensitivity, and accuracy were not significantly different between the two groups (P > 0.05).ConclusionsMRI-guided PTNB is safe, feasible, and high accurate diagnostic technique for pathologic diagnosis of pulmonary nodules.

  11. Intramuscular Hemangioma in the Anterior Scalene Muscle Diagnosed by Core Needle Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jae-Keun; Sung, Myung-Whun

    2015-01-01

    Intramuscular hemangioma (IMH) is a rare, benign vascular lesion that frequently develops within skeletal muscles. Preoperatively, accurate diagnosis of IMH is often extremely difficult because of nonspecific clinical findings and the inaccuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology. IMH is suspected in only 8% of preoperative diagnoses before surgical exploration. Here, we report a case of a 44-year-old man with a huge IMH in the anterior scalene muscle that was preoperatively diagnosed using ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy, and was successfully treated based on preoperative clinical information. PMID:26330928

  12. Micromachined bulk PZT tissue contrast sensor for fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Gianchandani, Roma Y; Gianchandani, Yogesh B

    2007-02-01

    This paper describes a micromachined piezoelectric sensor, integrated into a cavity at the tip of a biopsy needle, and preliminary experiments to determine if such a device can be used for real-time tissue differentiation, which is needed for needle positioning guidance during fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy. The sensor is fabricated from bulk lead zirconate titanate (PZT), using a customized process in which micro electro-discharge machining is used to form a steel tool that is subsequently used for batch-mode ultrasonic micromachining of bulk PZT ceramic. The resulting sensor is 50 microm thick and 200 microm in diameter. It is placed in the biopsy needle cavity, against a steel diaphragm which is 300 microm diameter and has an average thickness of 23 microm. Devices were tested in materials that mimic the ultrasound characteristics of human tissue, used in the training of physicians, and with porcine fat and muscle tissue. In both schemes, the magnitude and frequency of an electrical impedance resonance peak showed tissue-specific characteristics as the needle was inserted. For example, in the porcine tissue, the impedance peak frequency changed approximately 13 MHz from the initial 163 MHz, and the magnitude changed approximately 1600 Omega from the initial 2100 Omega, as the needle moved from fat to muscle. Samples including oils and saline solution were tested for calibration, and an empirical tissue contrast model shows an approximately proportional relationship between measured frequency shift and sample acoustic impedance. These results suggest that the device can complement existing methods for guidance during biopsies.

  13. Gene Insertion Patterns and Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vain, Philippe; Thole, Vera

    During the past 25 years, the molecular analysis of transgene insertion patterns and sites in plants has greatly contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying transgene integration, expression, and stability in the nuclear genome. Molecular characterization is also an essential step in the safety assessment of genetically modified crops. This chapter describes the standard experimental procedures used to analyze transgene insertion patterns and loci in cereals and grasses transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens or direct transfer of DNA. Methods and protocols enabling the determination of the number and configuration of transgenic loci via a combination of inheritance studies, polymerase chain reaction, and Southern analyses are presented. The complete characterization of transgenic inserts in plants is, however, a holistic process relying on a wide variety of experimental approaches. In this chapter, these additional approaches are not detailed but references to relevant bibliographic records are provided.

  14. Fine needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M B; Fisher, P E; Holly, E A; Ljung, B M; Löwhagen, T; Bottles, K

    1990-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy is an increasingly popular method for the evaluation of salivary gland tumors. Of the common salivary gland tumors, mucoepidermoid carcinoma is probably the most difficult to diagnose accurately by this means. A series of 96 FNA biopsy specimens of salivary gland masses, including 34 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 51 other benign and malignant neoplasms, 7 nonneoplastic lesions and 4 normal salivary glands, were analyzed in order to identify the most useful criteria for diagnosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Thirteen cytologic criteria were evaluated in the FNA specimens, and a stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed. The three cytologic features selected as most predictive of mucoepidermoid carcinoma were intermediate cells, squamous cells and overlapping epithelial groups. Using these three features together, the sensitivity and specificity of accurately diagnosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma were 97% and 100%, respectively.

  15. Vital role of volume and number of needles in HDR brachytherapy (HDR-BT) of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kanikowski, Marek; Skowronek, Janusz

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The quality of HDR-BT of prostate cancer depends on operator skills, anatomy, prostate volume and relation to surrounding tissues as well as previous diseases and treatments of a patient. There is a rare data available concerning the minimum number of needles and its influence on dose distribution, side effects and long-term outcome. The study is to determine the minimal prostate volume and minimum number of needles suitable for HDR-BT in order to obtain an implant of good quality. Material and methods 181 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with interstitial HDR-BT boost. 15 Gy from HDR-BT was administered after 50 Gy from EBRT. Clinical, volumetric and dosimetric data were collected. Treatment plans were divided into Group A, consisted of optimal treatment plans (P-D90 > 90%, P-V200 < 15%, U-D10 < 125%, U-Dmax < 160%, R-D10 < 85%) and Group B, with suboptimal plans. Results The difference between two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.013) with regard to number of needles. There was no statistically significant difference concerning prostatic volume. Median number of inserted needles in the first and the second group resulted in 15 (range 9-18) and 13 (range 8-18), respectively. Differences were the most eminent in patients with prostate glands of small volume (< 20 cc). In the study, either the minimum number of needles nor minimal prostate gland volume were not clearly defined in terms of high probability of achieving a good quality implant. Conclusions Larger volume and higher number of needles are related to an advanced probability of treatment plan with all DVC fulfilled. The minimum number of needles suggested is > 9, optimally ≥ 13. Furthermore, the minimal prostate volume recommended is > 12 cc, optimally ≥ 18 cc. The volume of insufficient size and/or small number of needles results in suboptimal treatment plans.

  16. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  17. 21 CFR 882.4650 - Neurosurgical suture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neurosurgical suture needle. 882.4650 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4650 Neurosurgical suture needle. (a) Identification. A neurosurgical suture needle is a needle used in suturing during...

  18. 21 CFR 880.6920 - Syringe needle introducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Syringe needle introducer. 880.6920 Section 880... Devices § 880.6920 Syringe needle introducer. (a) Identification. A syringe needle introducer is a device that uses a spring-loaded mechanism to drive a hypodermic needle into a patient to a...

  19. 21 CFR 880.6920 - Syringe needle introducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Syringe needle introducer. 880.6920 Section 880... Devices § 880.6920 Syringe needle introducer. (a) Identification. A syringe needle introducer is a device that uses a spring-loaded mechanism to drive a hypodermic needle into a patient to a...

  20. 21 CFR 880.6920 - Syringe needle introducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Syringe needle introducer. 880.6920 Section 880... Devices § 880.6920 Syringe needle introducer. (a) Identification. A syringe needle introducer is a device that uses a spring-loaded mechanism to drive a hypodermic needle into a patient to a...

  1. 21 CFR 882.4650 - Neurosurgical suture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neurosurgical suture needle. 882.4650 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4650 Neurosurgical suture needle. (a) Identification. A neurosurgical suture needle is a needle used in suturing during...

  2. 21 CFR 882.4650 - Neurosurgical suture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neurosurgical suture needle. 882.4650 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4650 Neurosurgical suture needle. (a) Identification. A neurosurgical suture needle is a needle used in suturing during...

  3. 21 CFR 880.6920 - Syringe needle introducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Syringe needle introducer. 880.6920 Section 880... Devices § 880.6920 Syringe needle introducer. (a) Identification. A syringe needle introducer is a device that uses a spring-loaded mechanism to drive a hypodermic needle into a patient to a...

  4. 21 CFR 880.6920 - Syringe needle introducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Syringe needle introducer. 880.6920 Section 880... Devices § 880.6920 Syringe needle introducer. (a) Identification. A syringe needle introducer is a device that uses a spring-loaded mechanism to drive a hypodermic needle into a patient to a...

  5. 21 CFR 882.4650 - Neurosurgical suture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neurosurgical suture needle. 882.4650 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4650 Neurosurgical suture needle. (a) Identification. A neurosurgical suture needle is a needle used in suturing during...

  6. 21 CFR 882.4650 - Neurosurgical suture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Neurosurgical suture needle. 882.4650 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4650 Neurosurgical suture needle. (a) Identification. A neurosurgical suture needle is a needle used in suturing during...

  7. Design of an actively controlled steerable needle with tendon actuation and FBG-based shape sensing.

    PubMed

    van de Berg, Nick J; Dankelman, Jenny; van den Dobbelsteen, John J

    2015-06-01

    This work presents a new steerable needle to facilitate active steering toward predefined target locations. It focuses on mechanical aspects and design choices in relation to the observed response in a tissue phantom. Tip steering with two rotational degrees of freedom was achieved by a tendon actuated ball joint mechanism. During insertion, the flexible cannula bends as a result of asymmetric tip-tissue interaction forces. The stylet was equipped with fiber Bragg gratings to measure the needle shape and tip position during use. A PI-controller was implemented to facilitate steering to predefined targets. During the validation study, nine targets were defined at a depth of 100 mm below the gelatin surface. One was located below the insertion point, the others at a radial offset of 30 mm in each of the eight principle steering directions. Per location, six repetitions were performed. The targeting accuracy was 6.2 ± 1.4 mm (mean ± std). The steering precision was 2.6 ± 1.1 mm. The ability to steer with this new needle steering approach is presented and the mechanical characteristics are discussed for this representative subset of steering directions. PMID:25922213

  8. MR-guided cholecystostomy: Assessment of biplanar, real-time needle tracking in three pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Goehde, Susanne C.; Pfammatter, Thomas; Steiner, Paul; Erhart, Peter; Romanowski, Benjamin J.; Debatin, Joerg F.

    1997-07-15

    Purpose. To demonstrate the feasibility of magnetic resonance (MR)-guided cholecystostomy using active, real-time, biplanar MR tracking in animal experiments. Methods. Experiments were performed on three fully anesthetized pigs in an interventional MR system (GE open). The gallbladder was displayed in two orthogonal planes using a heavily T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequence. These 'cholangio roadmaps' were displayed on LCD monitors positioned in front of the interventionalist. A special coaxial MR-tracking needle, equipped with a small receive-only coil at its tip, was inserted percutaneously into the gallbladder under continuous, biplanar MR guidance. The MR-tracking sequence allowed sampling of the coil (needle tip) position every 120 msec. The position of the coil was projected onto the two orthogonal 'cholangio roadmap' images. Results. Successful insertion of the needle was confirmed by aspiration of bile from the gallbladder. The process of aspiration and subsequent instillation of Gd-DTPA into the gallbladder was documented with fast gradient-recalled echo imaging. Conclusion. Biplanar, active, real-time MR tracking in combination with 'cholangio roadmaps' allows for cholecystostomies in an interventional MRI environment.

  9. Design of an actively controlled steerable needle with tendon actuation and FBG-based shape sensing.

    PubMed

    van de Berg, Nick J; Dankelman, Jenny; van den Dobbelsteen, John J

    2015-06-01

    This work presents a new steerable needle to facilitate active steering toward predefined target locations. It focuses on mechanical aspects and design choices in relation to the observed response in a tissue phantom. Tip steering with two rotational degrees of freedom was achieved by a tendon actuated ball joint mechanism. During insertion, the flexible cannula bends as a result of asymmetric tip-tissue interaction forces. The stylet was equipped with fiber Bragg gratings to measure the needle shape and tip position during use. A PI-controller was implemented to facilitate steering to predefined targets. During the validation study, nine targets were defined at a depth of 100 mm below the gelatin surface. One was located below the insertion point, the others at a radial offset of 30 mm in each of the eight principle steering directions. Per location, six repetitions were performed. The targeting accuracy was 6.2 ± 1.4 mm (mean ± std). The steering precision was 2.6 ± 1.1 mm. The ability to steer with this new needle steering approach is presented and the mechanical characteristics are discussed for this representative subset of steering directions.

  10. Needle optical coherence elastography for the measurement of microscale mechanical contrast deep within human breast tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Kelsey M.; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Kennedy, Brendan F.; Tien, Alan; Latham, Bruce; Saunders, Christobel M.; Sampson, David D.

    2013-12-01

    Optical coherence elastography (OCE) is an emerging imaging technique that probes microscale mechanical contrast in tissues with the potential to differentiate healthy and malignant tissues. However, conventional OCE techniques are limited to imaging the first 1 to 2 mm of tissue in depth. We demonstrate, for the first time, OCE measurements deep within human tissues using needle OCE, extending the potential of OCE as a surgical guidance tool. We use needle OCE to detect tissue interfaces based on mechanical contrast in both normal and malignant breast tissues in freshly excised human mastectomy samples, as validated against histopathology. Further, we demonstrate the feasibility of in situ measurements >4 cm from the tissue surface using ultrasound guidance of the OCE needle probe. With further refinement, our method may potentially aid in accurate detection of the boundary of the tumor to help ensure full removal of all malignant tissues, which is critical to the success of breast-conserving surgery.

  11. From cytology to histology: diagnosis of a relapsed mediastinal lymphoma by endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial histological needle.

    PubMed

    Ariza-Prota, Miguel Angel; Bango Álvarez, Antonio; Pérez, Liliana; Pando-Sandoval, Ana; Fuentes, Nelson; Casan, Pere

    2015-06-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is highly accurate in diagnosing mediastinal lymphadenopathies of lung cancer and benign disorders, with the advantage that it is a minimally invasive technique, unlike open surgery and mediastinoscopy. However, the diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA for the diagnosis of lymphoma in patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy is not well defined. The lack of tissue architecture obtained by cytological needles decreases the diagnostic accuracy for diagnosis and subtyping of de novo and relapsed mediastinal lymphomas. We present the first described case in the literature of an anaplastic large cell lymphoma relapsed, diagnosed on tissue fragments obtained by EBUS-TBNA with the particularity of using a histological needle. PMID:26090115

  12. Microneedle array and insertion guide array for safe use of biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khumpuang, Sommawan; Maeda, Ryutaro; Sugiyama, Susumu

    2004-03-01

    A new method of using silicon microneedle array in Bio-Medical applications is introduced in this work. The hollow microneedle array with the facilitation of an insertion guide array have been designed and fabricated. The needles can be pushed down through the second layer of human skin with less-bending. The tip of microneedle will be led by the insertion guide to pierce the skin perpendicularly. The silicon bulk micromachining technique using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etcher has been employed to fabricate the microneedle array and the insertion guide array. The array chips are 5x5 mm2 for both structures. The needle array chip contains 100 microneedles with 100μm and 30 μm of the outer diameter and the hole diameter respectively. The guide array chip is 100 μm-thick and contains 100 guiding holes with 120 μm diameter. A buckling test of microneedle shows the result that there was no microneedle broken during the test via the guiding holes. Contrary, there were several microneedles broken during the penetration without the facilitation of the guide. The finite-element analysis also supports the test result. After the insertion with guiding has been tested and proved, a wet etching process was added in order to obtain sharper tips.

  13. Transthoracic needle biopsy of the lung

    PubMed Central

    DiBardino, David M.; Yarmus, Lonny B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Image guided transthoracic needle aspiration (TTNA) is a valuable tool used for the diagnosis of countless thoracic diseases. Computed tomography (CT) is the most common imaging modality used for guidance followed by ultrasound (US) for lesions abutting the pleural surface. Novel approaches using virtual CT guidance have recently been introduced. The objective of this review is to examine the current literature for TTNA biopsy of the lung focusing on diagnostic accuracy and safety. Methods MEDLINE was searched from inception to October 2015 for all case series examining image guided TTNA. Articles focusing on fluoroscopic guidance as well as influence of rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) on yield were excluded. The diagnostic accuracy, defined as the number of true positives divided by the number of biopsies done, as well as the complication rate [pneumothorax (PTX), bleeding] was examined for CT guided TTNA, US guided TTNA as well as CT guided electromagnetic navigational-TTNA (E-TTNA). Of the 490 articles recovered 75 were included in our analysis. Results The overall pooled diagnostic accuracy for CT guided TTNA using 48 articles that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria was 92.1% (9,567/10,383). A similar yield was obtained examining ten articles using US guided TTNA of 88.7% (446/503). E-TTNA, being a new modality, only had one pilot study citing a diagnostic accuracy of 83% (19/23). Pooled PTX and hemorrhage rates were 20.5% and 2.8% respectively for CT guided TTNA. The PTX rate was lower in US guided TTNA at a pooled rate of 4.4%. E-TTNA showed a similar rate of PTX at 20% with no incidence of bleeding in a single pilot study available. Conclusions Image guided TTNA is a safe and accurate modality for the biopsy of lung pathology. This study found similar yield and safety profiles with the three imaging modalities examined. PMID:26807279

  14. MRI-guided prostate focal laser ablation therapy using a mechatronic needle guidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepek, Jeremy; Lindner, Uri; Ghai, Sangeet; Davidson, Sean R. H.; Trachtenberg, John; Fenster, Aaron

    2014-03-01

    Focal therapy of localized prostate cancer is receiving increased attention due to its potential for providing effective cancer control in select patients with minimal treatment-related side effects. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided focal laser ablation (FLA) therapy is an attractive modality for such an approach. In FLA therapy, accurate placement of laser fibers is critical to ensuring that the full target volume is ablated. In practice, error in needle placement is invariably present due to pre- to intra-procedure image registration error, needle deflection, prostate motion, and variability in interventionalist skill. In addition, some of these sources of error are difficult to control, since the available workspace and patient positions are restricted within a clinical MRI bore. In an attempt to take full advantage of the utility of intraprocedure MRI, while minimizing error in needle placement, we developed an MRI-compatible mechatronic system for guiding needles to the prostate for FLA therapy. The system has been used to place interstitial catheters for MRI-guided FLA therapy in eight subjects in an ongoing Phase I/II clinical trial. Data from these cases has provided quantification of the level of uncertainty in needle placement error. To relate needle placement error to clinical outcome, we developed a model for predicting the probability of achieving complete focal target ablation for a family of parameterized treatment plans. Results from this work have enabled the specification of evidence-based selection criteria for the maximum target size that can be confidently ablated using this technique, and quantify the benefit that may be gained with improvements in needle placement accuracy.

  15. Dual-row needle arrays under an electromagnetic thermotherapy system for bloodless liver resection surgery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng Chieh; Chang, Yi Yuan; Chao, Ying Jui; Shan, Yan Shen; Lin, Xi Zhang; Lee, Gwo Bin

    2012-03-01

    Electromagnetic thermotherapy has been extensively investigated recently and may become a new surgical modality for a variety of medical applications. It applies a high-frequency alternating magnetic field to heat up magnetic materials inserted within the human body to generate tissue coagulation or cell apoptosis. Using a new procedure with dual-row needle arrays under an electromagnetic thermotherapy system with a feedback temperature control system, this study demonstrates bloodless porcine liver resection, which is challenging using existing methods. In vitro experiments showed that hollowed, stainless-steel needles could be heated up to more than 300 °C within 30 s when centered under the induction coils of the electromagnetic thermotherapy system. In order to generate a wide ablation zone and to prevent the dual-row needle arrays from sticking to the tissue after heating, a constant temperature of 120 °C was applied using a specific treatment protocol. The temperature distribution in the porcine livers was also measured to explore the effective coagulation area. Liver resection was then performed in Lan-Yu pigs. Experimental results showed that seven pigs underwent liver resection without bleeding during surgery and no complications afterward. The dual-row needle arrays combined with the electromagnetic thermotherapy system are thus shown to be promising for bloodless tissue resection.

  16. Dual-row needle arrays under an electromagnetic thermotherapy system for bloodless liver resection surgery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng Chieh; Chang, Yi Yuan; Chao, Ying Jui; Shan, Yan Shen; Lin, Xi Zhang; Lee, Gwo Bin

    2012-03-01

    Electromagnetic thermotherapy has been extensively investigated recently and may become a new surgical modality for a variety of medical applications. It applies a high-frequency alternating magnetic field to heat up magnetic materials inserted within the human body to generate tissue coagulation or cell apoptosis. Using a new procedure with dual-row needle arrays under an electromagnetic thermotherapy system with a feedback temperature control system, this study demonstrates bloodless porcine liver resection, which is challenging using existing methods. In vitro experiments showed that hollowed, stainless-steel needles could be heated up to more than 300 °C within 30 s when centered under the induction coils of the electromagnetic thermotherapy system. In order to generate a wide ablation zone and to prevent the dual-row needle arrays from sticking to the tissue after heating, a constant temperature of 120 °C was applied using a specific treatment protocol. The temperature distribution in the porcine livers was also measured to explore the effective coagulation area. Liver resection was then performed in Lan-Yu pigs. Experimental results showed that seven pigs underwent liver resection without bleeding during surgery and no complications afterward. The dual-row needle arrays combined with the electromagnetic thermotherapy system are thus shown to be promising for bloodless tissue resection. PMID:22194233

  17. Direct metal micropatterning on needle-type structures towards bioimpedance and chemical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sanghyeok; Park, Jae-ho; Kang, Kyungnam; Park, Chong-Ook; Park, Inkyu

    2015-01-01

    Direct metal patterning methods, such as screen printing, inkjet printing and gravure/flexography printing, are widely used to form electrodes or interconnections for printed electronic devices due to their inexpensive, simple and rapid fabrication as compared to vacuum-based conventional metallization processes. Here, we present direct metal patterning by modified screen printing on the curved surface of needle-type rod structures (i.e. rods with radius of ρ < 1 mm). We achieved various microscale patterns such as straight lines, zigzag lines, wavy lines and alphabetic words with a minimum width of 70 µm on the surface of the rod. Also, four pairs of line patterns were printed on the single rod for electrical interconnection. Printed patterns on the surface of the rod were used as electrodes for the control of a light emission diode (LED) as well as the real-time electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of electrolyte solutions and solid objects by the rod insertion. Furthermore, needles with multiple pairs of microelectrodes were used to measure the electrical impedance of biological samples such as fat and muscle tissues of porcine meat. In addition, a needle-type probe sensor with gas sensing capability was demonstrated by using a needle with printed Ag electrodes and Pd thin films.

  18. A portable, low coherence interferometry based instrument for fine needle aspiration biopsy guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Bouma, Brett E.; Pitman, Martha B.; Goldberg, Brian; Bressner, Jason; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2005-06-01

    A portable, low coherence interferometry (LCI) based instrument for fine-needle aspiration biopsy guidance is presented. The instrument consists of a fiber-based low coherence interferometer, a data acquisition, processing and display unit, and a probe. The probe, consisting of a 250μm diameter single-mode optical fiber inserted within the bore of a fine needle, is used to illuminate tissue and collect light from tissue at the tip of the needle. Light returning out of the probe is detected by the LCI system, which is capable of measuring depth-resolved information (reflectivity, spectra, birefringence) with a spatial resolution of 10μm over a depth range of approximately 1.4mm. The LCI based instrument can be used to guide the fine needle during biopsy procedures to potentially diagnose neoplasms, infections, inflammations, or infiltrations. The design and performance of the instrument, as well as preliminary measurements on excised breast tissue specimens, are presented in detail.

  19. The in vivo invasion assay: preparation and handling of collection needles.

    PubMed

    Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Gligorijevic, Bojana; Entenberg, David; Segall, Jeffrey; Condeelis, John

    2011-10-01

    Analysis of the individual steps in metastasis is crucial if insights at the molecular level are to be linked to the cell biology of cancer. A technical hurdle to achieving the analysis of the individual steps of metastasis is the fact that, at the gross level, tumors are heterogeneous in both animal models and patients. Human primary tumors show extensive variation in all properties ranging from growth and morphology of the tumor through tumor-cell density in the blood and formation and growth of metastases. Methods capable of the direct visualization and analysis of tumor-cell behavior at single-cell resolution in vivo have become crucial in advancing the understanding of mechanisms of metastasis, the definition of microenvironment, and the markers related to both. High-resolution multiphoton imaging of tumors in vivo is a valuable tool in this regard. Because tumor cells have been found to be attracted to blood vessels, the in vivo invasion assay was developed to analyze which factors may stimulate invasion of these cells into the vessels. This protocol describes the preparation and handling of collection needles for the assay. A set of 33-gauge needles is used to create artificial or surrogate blood vessels that are injected into tumors, using a special holding device attached to a micromanipulator to stabilize the needle positions during and after insertion into the anesthetized animal. The needles are filled with Matrigel and various growth factors to determine which of these factors may influence the invading tumor cells.

  20. Investigation on fabrication process of dissolving microneedle arrays to improve effective needle drug distribution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingqing; Yao, Gangtao; Dong, Pin; Gong, Zihua; Li, Ge; Zhang, Kejian; Wu, Chuanbin

    2015-01-23

    The dissolving microneedle array (DMNA) offers a novel potential approach for transdermal delivery of biological macromolecular drugs and vaccines, because it can be as efficient as hypodermic injection and as safe and patient compliant as conventional transdermal delivery. However, effective needle drug distribution is the main challenge for clinical application of DMNA. This study focused on the mechanism and control of drug diffusion inside DMNA during the fabrication process in order to improve the drug delivery efficiency. The needle drug loading proportion (NDP) in DMNAs was measured to determine the influences of drug concentration gradient, needle drying step, excipients, and solvent of the base solution on drug diffusion and distribution. The results showed that the evaporation of base solvent was the key factor determining NDP. Slow evaporation of water from the base led to gradual increase of viscosity, and an approximate drug concentration equilibrium was built between the needle and base portions, resulting in NDP as low as about 6%. When highly volatile ethanol was used as the base solvent, the viscosity in the base rose quickly, resulting in NDP more than 90%. Ethanol as base solvent did not impact the insertion capability of DMNAs, but greatly increased the in vitro drug release and transdermal delivery from DMNAs. Furthermore, the drug diffusion process during DMNA fabrication was thoroughly investigated for the first time, and the outcomes can be applied to most two-step molding processes and optimization of the DMNA fabrication. PMID:25446513

  1. The Use of Dry Needling and Myofascial Meridians in a Case of Plantar Fasciitis

    PubMed Central

    Behnam, Akhbari; Mahyar, Salavati; Ezzati, Kamran; Rad, Shahrzad Mohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe the use of dry needling based on myofascial meridians for management of plantar fasciitis. Clinical features A 53-year-old man presented with bilateral chronic foot pain for more than 2 years. After 2 months of conventional treatment (ultrasound, plantar fascia and Achilles tendon stretching, and intrinsic foot strengthening), symptoms eventually improved; however, symptoms returned after prolonged standing or walking. Almost all previous treatment methods were localized in the site of pain that targeted only the plantar fascia. Initial examination of this individual revealed that multiple tender points were found along the insertion of Achilles tendon, medial gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and ischial tuberosity. Intervention and outcome Dry needling of the trigger points was applied. After 4 treatments over 2 weeks, the patient felt a 60% to 70% reduction in pain. His pressure pain threshold was increased, and pain was alleviated. The patient returned to full daily activities. The rapid relief of this patient’s pain after 2 weeks of dry needling to additional locations along the superficial back line suggests that a more global view on management was beneficial to this patient. Conclusion Dry needling based on myofascial meridians improved the symptoms for a patient with recurrent plantar fasciitis. PMID:24711784

  2. Biopsy needle detection in transrectal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Ayvaci, Alper; Yan, Pingkun; Xu, Sheng; Soatto, Stefano; Kruecker, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Using the fusion of pre-operative MRI and real time intra-procedural transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) to guide prostate biopsy has been shown as a very promising approach to yield better clinical outcome than the routinely performed TRUS only guided biopsy. In several situations of the MRI/TRUS fusion guided biopsy, it is important to know the exact location of the deployed biopsy needle, which is imaged in the TRUS video. In this paper, we present a method to automatically detect and segment the biopsy needle in TRUS. To achieve this goal, we propose to combine information from multiple resources, including ultrasound probe stability, TRUS video background model, and the prior knowledge of needle orientation and position. The proposed algorithm was tested on TRUS video sequences which have in total more than 25,000 frames. The needle deployments were successfully detected and segmented in the sequences with high accuracy and low false-positive detection rate.

  3. Demand for superpremium needle cokes on upswing

    SciTech Connect

    Acciarri, J.A.; Stockman, G.H. )

    1989-12-01

    The authors discuss how recent supply shortages of super-premium quality needle cokes, plus the expectation of increased shortfalls in the future, indicate that refiners should consider upgrading their operations to fill these demands. Calcined, super-premium needle cokes are currently selling for as much as $550/metric ton, fob producer, and increasing demand will continue the upward push of the past year. Needle coke, in its calcined form, is the major raw material in the manufacture of graphite electrodes. Used in steelmaking, graphite electrodes are the electrical conductors that supply the heat source, through arcing electrode column tips, to electric arc steel furnaces. Needle coke is commercially available in three grades - super premium, premium, and intermediate. Super premium is used to produce electrodes for the most severe electric arc furnace steelmaking applications, premium for electrodes destined to less severe operations, and intermediate for even less critical needs.

  4. Research on needle exchange: redefining the agenda.

    PubMed Central

    Hantman, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    Researchers studying needle-exchange programs in the United States pursue a two-fold agenda that requires answers to these questions: (1) Do such programs successfully reduce HIV seroprevalence among injecting drug users? (2) Do they promote drug use? Several federal laws and regulations require convincing data on each question before the release of federal funds for needle exchange. Fears that needle exchange promotes drug use are at the core of federal concerns, and these fears are shared by community leaders, scientists, and public health professionals. Nonetheless, the manner in which the "drug use" question has been framed and addressed in scientific research has been given insufficient attention. This article aims to stimulate debate about current research, and restore a focus on HIV prevention, by addressing several methodological, logical, and ethical weaknesses that characterize the scientific inquiry into whether needle exchange promotes drug use. PMID:10101379

  5. An illuminated flute needle for vitreoretinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Davison, C N; Rosen, P H

    1994-06-01

    We have developed a simple self-illuminated flute needle for internal drainage of subretinal fluid during three-port vitrectomy. This instrument facilitates visualization and drainage through peripheral retinal breaks.

  6. A Multi-Layered Needle Injection Simulator.

    PubMed

    Laufer, Shlomi; Kempton, Steve J; Maciolek, Kimberly; Terry, Aliyya; Ray, Rebeca D; Pugh, Carla M; Afifi, Ahmed M

    2016-01-01

    Insuring correct needle location is crucial in many medical procedures. This can be even more challenging for physicians injecting in a new location for the first time. Since they do not necessarily know how the tissue is supposed to feel, finding the correct location and correct depth can be difficult. In this study we designed a simulator for training needle injection. The simulator was fabricated to give a realistic feeling of injecting Botox® in the temporalis and the semispinalis muscles as part of migraine treatment. In addition the simulator provided real-time feedback of correct needle location. Nine residents and medical students evaluated the simulator. They made several errors that were corrected real time using the real time feedback provided. They found the simulator to be very useful and that the training significantly improved their confidence. The methods described in this study can easily be implemented for developing needle injection simulators for other anatomical locations.

  7. Science off the Sphere: Knitting Needles

    NASA Video Gallery

    International Space Station Expedition 30 astronaut Don Pettit uses knitting needles and water droplets to demonstrate physics in space for 'Science off the Sphere.' Through a partnership between N...

  8. Effect of thinning on anatomical adaptations of Norway spruce needles.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, Roman; Volarík, Daniel; Urban, Josef; Børja, Isabella; Nagy, Nina Elisabeth; Eldhuset, Toril Drabløs; Krokene, Paal

    2011-10-01

    Conifers and other trees are constantly adapting to changes in light conditions, water/nutrient supply and temperatures by physiological and morphological modifications of their foliage. However, the relationship between physiological processes and anatomical characteristics of foliage has been little explored in trees. In this study we evaluated needle structure and function in Norway spruce families exposed to different light conditions and transpiration regimes. We compared needle characteristics of sun-exposed and shaded current-year needles in a control plot and a thinned plot with 50% reduction in stand density. Whole-tree transpiration rates remained similar across plots, but increased transpiration of lower branches after thinning implies that sun-exposed needles in the thinned plot were subjected to higher water stress than sun-exposed needles in the control plot. In general, morphological and anatomical needle parameters increased with increasing tree height and light intensity. Needle width, needle cross-section area, needle stele area and needle flatness (the ratio of needle thickness to needle width) differed most between the upper and lower canopy. The parameters that were most sensitive to the altered needle water status of the upper canopy after thinning were needle thickness, needle flatness and percentage of stele area in needle area. These results show that studies comparing needle structure or function between tree species should consider not only tree height and light gradients, but also needle water status. Unaccounted for differences in needle water status may have contributed to the variable relationship between needle structure and irradiance that has been observed among conifers. PMID:21891783

  9. Dry needling versus acupuncture: the ongoing debate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kehua; Ma, Yan; Brogan, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    Although Western medical acupuncture (WMA) is commonly practised in the UK, a particular approach called dry needling (DN) is becoming increasingly popular in other countries. The legitimacy of the use of DN by conventional non-physician healthcare professionals is questioned by acupuncturists. This article describes the ongoing debate over the practice of DN between physical therapists and acupuncturists, with a particular emphasis on the USA. DN and acupuncture share many similarities but may differ in certain aspects. Currently, little information is available from the literature regarding the relationship between the two needling techniques. Through reviewing their origins, theory, and practice, we found that DN and acupuncture overlap in terms of needling technique with solid filiform needles as well as some fundamental theories. Both WMA and DN are based on modern biomedical understandings of the human body, although DN arguably represents only one subcategory of WMA. The increasing volume of research into needling therapy explains its growing popularity in the musculoskeletal field including sports medicine. To resolve the debate over DN practice, we call for the establishment of a regulatory body to accredit DN courses and a formal, comprehensive educational component and training for healthcare professionals who are not physicians or acupuncturists. Because of the close relationship between DN and acupuncture, collaboration rather than dispute between acupuncturists and other healthcare professionals should be encouraged with respect to education, research, and practice for the benefit of patients with musculoskeletal conditions who require needling therapy. PMID:26546163

  10. Dry needling versus acupuncture: the ongoing debate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kehua; Ma, Yan; Brogan, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    Although Western medical acupuncture (WMA) is commonly practised in the UK, a particular approach called dry needling (DN) is becoming increasingly popular in other countries. The legitimacy of the use of DN by conventional non-physician healthcare professionals is questioned by acupuncturists. This article describes the ongoing debate over the practice of DN between physical therapists and acupuncturists, with a particular emphasis on the USA. DN and acupuncture share many similarities but may differ in certain aspects. Currently, little information is available from the literature regarding the relationship between the two needling techniques. Through reviewing their origins, theory, and practice, we found that DN and acupuncture overlap in terms of needling technique with solid filiform needles as well as some fundamental theories. Both WMA and DN are based on modern biomedical understandings of the human body, although DN arguably represents only one subcategory of WMA. The increasing volume of research into needling therapy explains its growing popularity in the musculoskeletal field including sports medicine. To resolve the debate over DN practice, we call for the establishment of a regulatory body to accredit DN courses and a formal, comprehensive educational component and training for healthcare professionals who are not physicians or acupuncturists. Because of the close relationship between DN and acupuncture, collaboration rather than dispute between acupuncturists and other healthcare professionals should be encouraged with respect to education, research, and practice for the benefit of patients with musculoskeletal conditions who require needling therapy.

  11. Trigger point needling: techniques and outcome.

    PubMed

    Vulfsons, Simon; Ratmansky, Motti; Kalichman, Leonid

    2012-10-01

    In this review we provide the updates on last years' advancements in basic science, imaging methods, efficacy, and safety of dry needling of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). The latest studies confirmed that dry needling is an effective and safe method for the treatment of MTrPs when provided by adequately trained physicians or physical therapists. Recent basic studies have confirmed that at the site of an active MTrP there are elevated levels of inflammatory mediators, known to be associated with persistent pain states and myofascial tenderness and that this local milieu changes with the occurrence of local twitch response. Two new modalities, sonoelastography and magnetic resonance elastography, were recently introduced allowing noninvasive imaging of MTrPs. MTrP dry needling, at least partially, involves supraspinal pain control via midbrain periaqueductal gray matter activation. A recent study demonstrated that distal muscle needling reduces proximal pain by means of the diffuse noxious inhibitory control. Therefore, in a patient too sensitive to be needled in the area of the primary pain source, the treatment can be initiated with distal needling.

  12. Insertion Testing of Polyethylene Glycol Microneedle Array into Cultured Human Skin with Biaxial Tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Naoki; Tachikawa, Hiroto; Miyano, Takaya; Nishiyabu, Kazuaki

    Aiming at the practical use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) microneedles for transdermal drug delivery system (DDS), a testing apparatus for their insertion into cultured human skin has been developed. To simulate the variety of conditions of human skin, biaxial tension can be applied to the cultured human skin. An adopted testing scheme to apply and control the biaxial tension is similar to the deep-draw forming technique. An attention was also paid to the short-time setup of small, thin and wet cultured skin. One dimensional array with four needles was inserted and influence of tension was discussed. It was found that tension, deflection of skin during insertion and original curvature of skin are the important parameters for microneedles array design.

  13. Comparison between marked versus unmarked introducer needle in real-time ultrasound-guided central vein cannulation: A prospective randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Ghatak, Tanmoy; Singh, Ratender Kumar; Baronia, Arvind Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Introducer needle tip is not clearly visible during the real-time ultrasound (US)-guided central vein cannulation (CVC). Blind tip leads to mechanical complications. This study was designed to evaluate whether real-time US-guided CVC with a marked introducer needle is superior to the existing unmarked needle. Methodology: Sixty-two critically ill patients aged 18–60 years of either sex were included in the study. The patients were randomized into two groups based on whether a marked or unmarked introducer needle was used. Both groups underwent real-time US-guided CVC by a single experienced operator. Aseptically, introducer needle was indented with markings spaced 0.5 cm (single marking) and every 1 cm (double marking). This needle was used in the marked group. Approximate depths (centimeter) of the anterior and posterior wall of the internal jugular vein, anterior wall of the internal carotid artery, and lung pleura were appreciated from the midpoint of the probe in short-axis view at the level of the cricoid cartilage. Access time (seconds) was recorded using a stopwatch. A number of attempts and complications such as arterial puncture, hematoma, and pneumothorax of either procedure were compared. Results: Both marked needle and unmarked needle groups were comparable with regard to age, gender, severity scores, platelet counts, prothrombin time, and distance from the midpoint of the probe to the vein, artery, and pleura and skin-to-guide wire insertion access time. However, an average number of attempts (P = 0.03) and complications such as hematoma were significantly lower (P = 0.02) with the marked introducer needle group. Pneumothorax was not reported in any of the groups. Conclusion: Our study supports the idea that marked introducer needle can further reduce the iatrogenic complications of US-guided CVC. PMID:27716692

  14. Real-time Needle Steering in Response to Rolling Vein Deformation by a 9-DOF Image-Guided Autonomous Venipuncture Robot

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Alvin I.; Balter, Max L.; Maguire, Timothy J.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    Venipuncture is the most common invasive medical procedure performed in the United States and the number one cause of hospital injury. Failure rates are particularly high in pediatric and elderly patients, whose veins tend to deform, move, or roll as the needle is introduced. To improve venipuncture accuracy in challenging patient populations, we have developed a portable device that autonomously servos a needle into a suitable vein under image guidance. The device operates in real time, combining near-infrared and ultrasound imaging, computer vision software, and a 9 degrees-of-freedom robot that servos the needle. In this paper, we present the kinematic and mechanical design of the latest generation robot. We then investigate in silico and in vitro the mechanics of vessel rolling and deformation in response to needle insertions performed by the robot. Finally, we demonstrate how the robot can make real-time adjustments under ultrasound image guidance to compensate for subtle vessel motions during venipuncture. PMID:26779381

  15. An Endovascular Cannulation Needle with an Internal Wire for the Fragmentation of Thrombi in Retinal Vein Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Asami, Tetsu; Kaneko, Hiroki; Miyake, Kensaku; Ota, Ichiro; Miyake, Goichiro; Kato, Seiichi; Yasuda, Shunsuke; Iwase, Takeshi; Ito, Yasuki; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We report a newly developed device to fragment thrombi in retinal vein occlusion. Methods The new instrument consists of a 23-gauge (G) pipe and a 37-G needle with an internal wire. A total of 40 porcine eyes were used; 20 eyes for experiments in the branch retinal vein (BRV group) and 20 eyes for experiments in the central retinal vein (CRV group). We placed 25-G 3-port trocars, and core vitrectomy was performed. Another 23-G scleral incision was performed for insertion of the needle. The needle pierced the retinal vein at a distance of three- to four- or one-disc diameters from the optic disc (BRV or CRV group, respectively), and the internal wire was advanced toward the disc. The success rates of needle piercing and cannulation of the internal wire were recorded in each group. In the CRV group, the cannulation was deemed successful when the tip reached inside the optic disc. Real-time optical coherence tomography imaging also was performed using the Zeiss Rescan 700 device in porcine eyes. Histologic examination of the retinal vessel inserted with the internal wire was performed. Results The success rates of needle piercing into the BRV and CRV were 85% and 95%, respectively. The success rates of cannulation of the internal wire into the BRV and CRV were 85% and 0%, respectively. The process of cannulation was recorded successfully with the Rescan 700. Histologic examination showed no damages to the endothelial cell layer. Conclusions The needle and internal wire intended to be used for recanalization of BRV occlusion were successfully pierced and cannulated into the BRV. Translational Relevance This newly developed device could become a treatment modality for retinal vein occlusion to fragment thrombi that present treatment methods cannot reach and remove directly. PMID:27730009

  16. Improvement in clinical outcomes after dry needling in a patient with occipital neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Bond, Bryan M; Kinslow, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    The primary purpose of this case report is to outline the diagnosis, intervention and clinical outcome of a patient presenting with occipital neuralgia. Upon initial presentation, the patient described a four-year history of stabbing neck pain and headaches. After providing informed consent, the patient underwent a total of four dry needling (DN) sessions over a two-week duration. During each of the treatment sessions, needles were inserted into the trapezii and suboccipital muscles. Post-intervention, the patient reported a 32-point change in her neck disability index score along with a 28-point change in her headache disability index score. Thus, it appears that subsequent four sessions of DN over two weeks, our patient experienced meaningful improvement in her neck pain and headaches. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report describing DN to successfully improve clinical outcomes in a patient diagnosed with occipital neuralgia. PMID:26136602

  17. Non-stick syringe needles: Beneficial effects of thin film metallic glass coating.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jinn P; Yu, Chia-Chi; Tanatsugu, Yusuke; Yasuzawa, Mikito; Shen, Yu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the use of Zr-based (Zr53Cu33Al9Ta5) thin film metallic glass (TFMG) for the coating of syringe needles and compares the results with those obtained using titanium nitride and pure titanium coatings. TFMG coatings were shown to reduce insertion forces by ∼66% and retraction forces by ∼72%, when tested using polyurethane rubber block. The benefits of TFMG-coated needles were also observed when tested using muscle tissue from pigs. In nano-scratch tests, the TFMG coatings achieved a coefficient of friction (COF) of just ∼0.05, which is about one order of magnitude lower than those of other coatings. Finite-element modeling also indicates a significant reduction in injection and retraction forces. The COF can be attributed to the absence of grain boundaries in the TFMG coating as well as a smooth surface morphology and low surface free energy. PMID:27573062

  18. Non-stick syringe needles: Beneficial effects of thin film metallic glass coating

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Jinn P.; Yu, Chia-Chi; Tanatsugu, Yusuke; Yasuzawa, Mikito; Shen, Yu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the use of Zr-based (Zr53Cu33Al9Ta5) thin film metallic glass (TFMG) for the coating of syringe needles and compares the results with those obtained using titanium nitride and pure titanium coatings. TFMG coatings were shown to reduce insertion forces by ∼66% and retraction forces by ∼72%, when tested using polyurethane rubber block. The benefits of TFMG-coated needles were also observed when tested using muscle tissue from pigs. In nano-scratch tests, the TFMG coatings achieved a coefficient of friction (COF) of just ∼0.05, which is about one order of magnitude lower than those of other coatings. Finite-element modeling also indicates a significant reduction in injection and retraction forces. The COF can be attributed to the absence of grain boundaries in the TFMG coating as well as a smooth surface morphology and low surface free energy. PMID:27573062

  19. Multiple impacted urethral metallic needles and screws (foreign bodies) associated with polyembolokoilamania.

    PubMed

    Singh, Iqbal; Pal, Ajay Kumar; Gautam, Lokesh

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to present the challenges faced in the management of multiple impacted foreign bodies, needles, and screws from the penile and bulbar urethra. A young man presented with complaint of a hard perineal swelling and passage of metallic nails per urethra. Pelvic radiograph revealed multiple foreign bodies (nails) in the penile and bulbar urethra. Successful cystoscopic removal of 11 foreign bodies comprising four large metallic screws and seven nail-like large sewing needles was done in two sessions. The most prevalent motivation for self-insertion of urethral foreign bodies is autoerotism/psychological impairment. Appropriate surgical technique guided by physical examination/ imaging with endoscopic removal is often successful, depending on the object's physical attributes and morphology while minimizing urothelial trauma and preserving voiding and erectile function. Follow-up cystourethroscopy is important for diagnosing any complications and urothelial injuries.

  20. Improvement in clinical outcomes after dry needling in a patient with occipital neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Bryan M.; Kinslow, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this case report is to outline the diagnosis, intervention and clinical outcome of a patient presenting with occipital neuralgia. Upon initial presentation, the patient described a four-year history of stabbing neck pain and headaches. After providing informed consent, the patient underwent a total of four dry needling (DN) sessions over a two-week duration. During each of the treatment sessions, needles were inserted into the trapezii and suboccipital muscles. Post-intervention, the patient reported a 32-point change in her neck disability index score along with a 28-point change in her headache disability index score. Thus, it appears that subsequent four sessions of DN over two weeks, our patient experienced meaningful improvement in her neck pain and headaches. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report describing DN to successfully improve clinical outcomes in a patient diagnosed with occipital neuralgia. PMID:26136602

  1. Improvement in clinical outcomes after dry needling in a patient with occipital neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Bond, Bryan M; Kinslow, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    The primary purpose of this case report is to outline the diagnosis, intervention and clinical outcome of a patient presenting with occipital neuralgia. Upon initial presentation, the patient described a four-year history of stabbing neck pain and headaches. After providing informed consent, the patient underwent a total of four dry needling (DN) sessions over a two-week duration. During each of the treatment sessions, needles were inserted into the trapezii and suboccipital muscles. Post-intervention, the patient reported a 32-point change in her neck disability index score along with a 28-point change in her headache disability index score. Thus, it appears that subsequent four sessions of DN over two weeks, our patient experienced meaningful improvement in her neck pain and headaches. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report describing DN to successfully improve clinical outcomes in a patient diagnosed with occipital neuralgia.

  2. Non-stick syringe needles: Beneficial effects of thin film metallic glass coating.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jinn P; Yu, Chia-Chi; Tanatsugu, Yusuke; Yasuzawa, Mikito; Shen, Yu-Lin

    2016-08-30

    This paper reports on the use of Zr-based (Zr53Cu33Al9Ta5) thin film metallic glass (TFMG) for the coating of syringe needles and compares the results with those obtained using titanium nitride and pure titanium coatings. TFMG coatings were shown to reduce insertion forces by ∼66% and retraction forces by ∼72%, when tested using polyurethane rubber block. The benefits of TFMG-coated needles were also observed when tested using muscle tissue from pigs. In nano-scratch tests, the TFMG coatings achieved a coefficient of friction (COF) of just ∼0.05, which is about one order of magnitude lower than those of other coatings. Finite-element modeling also indicates a significant reduction in injection and retraction forces. The COF can be attributed to the absence of grain boundaries in the TFMG coating as well as a smooth surface morphology and low surface free energy.

  3. Combination of needle aspiration and core needle biopsy: A new technique of stereotactic biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Abrar Ahad; Wani, M. Afzal; Ramzan, Altaf U.; Nizami, Furqan A.; Malik, Nayil K.; Shafiq, S.; Ahmad, Rais; Kumar, Ashish; Lone, Iqbal; Makhdoomi, Rumana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study aims at describing the results of using a new technique to acquire the tissue sample in stereotactic biopsy of brain lesions. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in 19 patients over a period of 5 years in which we used the new technique, i.e., Abrar and Afzal technique (AT) of obtaining tissue biopsy. It is a combination of core tissue biopsy and needle aspiration techniques. The technique was devised to acquire greater amount of tissue for pathologic study. Results: While we could give pathologic diagnosis in 18 patients out of 19 (94.7%), in one patient, the tissue sample revealed only inflammatory cells and definitive diagnosis could not be reached. There was no significant morbidity or any mortality in the series. Conclusion: Abrar and Afzal technique is a reasonably accurate technique of acquiring larger tissue sample in stereotactic brain biopsy without any additional risks. It can be done with little modification of the conventional equipment available with the stereotactic system. PMID:27057212

  4. Accurate monotone cubic interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1991-01-01

    Monotone piecewise cubic interpolants are simple and effective. They are generally third-order accurate, except near strict local extrema where accuracy degenerates to second-order due to the monotonicity constraint. Algorithms for piecewise cubic interpolants, which preserve monotonicity as well as uniform third and fourth-order accuracy are presented. The gain of accuracy is obtained by relaxing the monotonicity constraint in a geometric framework in which the median function plays a crucial role.

  5. Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.

  6. Mutations in the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Type III Secretion System Needle Protein, YscF, That Specifically Abrogate Effector Translocation into Host Cells▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Alison J.; Mecsas, Joan

    2007-01-01

    The trafficking of effectors, termed Yops, from Yersinia spp. into host cells is a multistep process that requires the type III secretion system (TTSS). The TTSS has three main structural parts: a base, a needle, and a translocon, which work together to ensure the polarized movement of Yops directly from the bacterial cytosol into the host cell cytosol. To understand the interactions that take place at the interface between the tip of the TTSS needle and the translocon, we developed a screen to identify mutations in the needle protein YscF that separated its function in secretion from its role in translocation. We identified 25 translocation-defective (TD) yscF mutants, which fall into five phenotypic classes. Some classes exhibit aberrant needle structure and/or reduced levels of Yop secretion, consistent with known functions for YscF. Strikingly, two yscF TD classes formed needles and secreted Yops normally but displayed distinct translocation defects. Class I yscF TD mutants showed diminished pore formation, suggesting incomplete pore insertion and/or assembly. Class II yscF TD mutants formed pores but showed nonpolar translocation, suggesting unstable needle-translocon interactions. These results indicate that YscF functions in Yop secretion and translocation can be genetically separated. Furthermore, the identification of YscF residues that are required for the assembly of the translocon and/or productive interactions with the translocon has allowed us to initiate the mapping of the needle-translocon interface. PMID:17071752

  7. Insertion device calculations with mathematica

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, R.; Lidia, S.

    1995-02-01

    The design of accelerator insertion devices such as wigglers and undulators has usually been aided by numerical modeling on digital computers, using code in high level languages like Fortran. In the present era, there are higher level programming environments like IDL{reg_sign}, MatLab{reg_sign}, and Mathematica{reg_sign} in which these calculations may be performed by writing much less code, and in which standard mathematical techniques are very easily used. The authors present a suite of standard insertion device modeling routines in Mathematica to illustrate the new techniques. These routines include a simple way to generate magnetic fields using blocks of CSEM materials, trajectory solutions from the Lorentz force equations for given magnetic fields, Bessel function calculations of radiation for wigglers and undulators and general radiation calculations for undulators.

  8. Customizable engineered blood vessels using 3D printed inserts.

    PubMed

    Pinnock, Cameron B; Meier, Elizabeth M; Joshi, Neeraj N; Wu, Bin; Lam, Mai T

    2016-04-15

    Current techniques for tissue engineering blood vessels are not customizable for vascular size variation and vessel wall thickness. These critical parameters vary widely between the different arteries in the human body, and the ability to engineer vessels of varying sizes could increase capabilities for disease modeling and treatment options. We present an innovative method for producing customizable, tissue engineered, self-organizing vascular constructs by replicating a major structural component of blood vessels - the smooth muscle layer, or tunica media. We utilize a unique system combining 3D printed plate inserts to control construct size and shape, and cell sheets supported by a temporary fibrin hydrogel to encourage cellular self-organization into a tubular form resembling a natural artery. To form the vascular construct, 3D printed inserts are adhered to tissue culture plates, fibrin hydrogel is deposited around the inserts, and human aortic smooth muscle cells are then seeded atop the fibrin hydrogel. The gel, aided by the innate contractile properties of the smooth muscle cells, aggregates towards the center post insert, creating a tissue ring of smooth muscle cells. These rings are then stacked into the final tubular construct. Our methodology is robust, easily repeatable and allows for customization of cellular composition, vessel wall thickness, and length of the vessel construct merely by varying the size of the 3D printed inserts. This platform has potential for facilitating more accurate modeling of vascular pathology, serving as a drug discovery tool, or for vessel repair in disease treatment. PMID:26732049

  9. Customizable engineered blood vessels using 3D printed inserts.

    PubMed

    Pinnock, Cameron B; Meier, Elizabeth M; Joshi, Neeraj N; Wu, Bin; Lam, Mai T

    2016-04-15

    Current techniques for tissue engineering blood vessels are not customizable for vascular size variation and vessel wall thickness. These critical parameters vary widely between the different arteries in the human body, and the ability to engineer vessels of varying sizes could increase capabilities for disease modeling and treatment options. We present an innovative method for producing customizable, tissue engineered, self-organizing vascular constructs by replicating a major structural component of blood vessels - the smooth muscle layer, or tunica media. We utilize a unique system combining 3D printed plate inserts to control construct size and shape, and cell sheets supported by a temporary fibrin hydrogel to encourage cellular self-organization into a tubular form resembling a natural artery. To form the vascular construct, 3D printed inserts are adhered to tissue culture plates, fibrin hydrogel is deposited around the inserts, and human aortic smooth muscle cells are then seeded atop the fibrin hydrogel. The gel, aided by the innate contractile properties of the smooth muscle cells, aggregates towards the center post insert, creating a tissue ring of smooth muscle cells. These rings are then stacked into the final tubular construct. Our methodology is robust, easily repeatable and allows for customization of cellular composition, vessel wall thickness, and length of the vessel construct merely by varying the size of the 3D printed inserts. This platform has potential for facilitating more accurate modeling of vascular pathology, serving as a drug discovery tool, or for vessel repair in disease treatment.

  10. Needle exchange: how the meanings ascribed to needles impact exchange practices and policies.

    PubMed

    Strike, Carol J; Myers, Ted; Millson, Margaret

    2002-04-01

    The consistency among needle exchange practices, HIV prevention, harm reduction goals, and potential program effectiveness are analyzed. Using a modified ethnographic approach, qualitative interviews were conducted with staff (n = 59) of needle exchange programs (NEPs; n = 15). Interviews addressed operational policies; funding and challenges. An iterative, inductive analytic process was used. Differences in exchange practices are traced to differences in how workers define needles as objects of "risk" and/or "prevention." The weight accorded to each definition has implications for service delivery. Among NEPs that ascribe a "risk" meaning, workers enforce a strict one-for-one exchange, encourage clients to take fewer needles, and penalize clients. Programs that focus on the "prevention" meaning of needles work towards improving access, problem solving about proper disposal and do not penalize clients. Operational policies that restrict access to sterile equipment or discourage attendance need to be reconsidered if HIV prevention goals are to be realized. PMID:12000231

  11. MRI-Compatible Pneumatic Robot for Transperineal Prostate Needle Placement

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Gregory S.; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; DiMaio, Simon P.; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high-quality 3-D visualization of prostate and surrounding tissue, thus granting potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. However, the benefits cannot be readily harnessed for interventional procedures due to difficulties that surround the use of high-field (1.5T or greater) MRI. The inability to use conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intraprostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. MRI compatibility of the robot has been evaluated under 3T MRI using standard prostate imaging sequences and average SNR loss is limited to 5%. Needle alignment accuracy of the robot under servo pneumatic control is better than 0.94 mm rms per axis. The complete system workflow has been evaluated in phantom studies with accurate visualization and targeting of five out of five 1 cm targets. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design, the system integration, and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system. PMID:21057608

  12. MRI-Compatible Pneumatic Robot for Transperineal Prostate Needle Placement.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Gregory S; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; Dimaio, Simon P; Tempany, Clare M; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2008-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high-quality 3-D visualization of prostate and surrounding tissue, thus granting potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. However, the benefits cannot be readily harnessed for interventional procedures due to difficulties that surround the use of high-field (1.5T or greater) MRI. The inability to use conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intraprostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. MRI compatibility of the robot has been evaluated under 3T MRI using standard prostate imaging sequences and average SNR loss is limited to 5%. Needle alignment accuracy of the robot under servo pneumatic control is better than 0.94 mm rms per axis. The complete system workflow has been evaluated in phantom studies with accurate visualization and targeting of five out of five 1 cm targets. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design, the system integration, and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system.

  13. X-ray fluorescence analysis of soft materials using needle-type collimators enabling greater tolerance in analysis depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Kouichi; Matsuda, Akinori; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Okhrimovskyy, Andriy

    2006-04-01

    A simple micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) method was proposed by using commercially available injection needles. Two needles were arranged in confocal configuration inside the sample. One injection needle, which was connected directly to an X-ray tube, was used as an X-ray guide to irradiate X-rays into the sample. Another needle, which was also inserted into the sample, was used to detect the X-ray fluorescence excited inside the sample. From the beam size, the analyzing volume was evaluated to be 0.24 mm 3. Therefore, the X-ray fluorescence emitted from a micro region inside the sample could be detected, although this method can only be applied for soft samples. It was demonstrated that the X-ray fluorescence of Zn in a gelatin sample could be measured, and a good linear relationship was obtained for this element. X-ray fluorescence from an oyster sample was also successfully measured by using the injection needles collimator system.

  14. Novel sample preparation technique with needle-type micro-extraction device for volatile organic compounds in indoor air samples.

    PubMed

    Ueta, Ikuo; Mizuguchi, Ayako; Fujimura, Koji; Kawakubo, Susumu; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2012-10-01

    A novel needle-type sample preparation device was developed for the effective preconcentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air before gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. To develop a device for extracting a wide range of VOCs typically found in indoor air, several types of particulate sorbents were tested as the extraction medium in the needle-type extraction device. To determine the content of these VOCs, air samples were collected for 30min with the packed sorbent(s) in the extraction needle, and the extracted VOCs were thermally desorbed in a GC injection port by the direct insertion of the needle. A double-bed sorbent consisting of a needle packed with divinylbenzene and activated carbon particles exhibited excellent extraction and desorption performance and adequate extraction capacity for all the investigated VOCs. The results also clearly demonstrated that the proposed sample preparation method is a more rapid, simpler extraction/desorption technique than traditional sample preparation methods. PMID:22975183

  15. Microneedle Arrays Allow Lower Microbial Penetration Than Hypodermic Needles In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Ryan F.; Singh, Thakur Raghu Raj; Tunney, Michael M.; Morrow, Desmond I. J.; McCarron, Paul A.; O’Mahony, Conor; Woolfson, A. David

    2010-01-01

    Methods In this study we determined, for the first time, the ability of microorganisms to traverse microneedle-induced holes using two different in vitro models. Results When employing Silescol® membranes, the numbers of Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis crossing the membranes were an order of magnitude lower when the membranes were punctured by microneedles rather than a 21G hypodermic needle. Apart from the movement of C. albicans across hypodermic needle-punctured membranes, where 40.2% of the microbial load on control membranes permeated the barrier over 24 h, the numbers of permeating microorganisms was less than 5% of the original microbial load on control membranes. Experiments employing excised porcine skin and radiolabelled microorganisms showed that the numbers of microorganisms penetrating skin beyond the stratum corneum were approximately an order of magnitude greater than the numbers crossing Silescol® membranes in the corresponding experiments. Approximately 103cfu of each microorganism adhered to hypodermic needles during insertion. The numbers of microorganisms adhering to MN arrays were an order of magnitude higher in each case. Conclusion We have shown here that microneedle puncture resulted in significantly less microbial penetration than did hypodermic needle puncture and that no microorganisms crossed the viable epidermis in microneedle—punctured skin, in contrast to needle-punctured skin. Given the antimicrobial properties of skin, it is, therefore, likely that application of microneedle arrays to skin in an appropriate manner would not cause either local or systemic infection in normal circumstances in immune-competent patients. In supporting widespread clinical use of microneedle-based delivery systems, appropriate animal studies are now needed to conclusively demonstrate this in vivo. Safety in patients will be enhanced by aseptic or sterile manufacture and by fabricating microneedles from self

  16. Integration and evaluation of a needle-positioning robot with volumetric microcomputed tomography image guidance for small animal stereotactic interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Waspe, Adam C.; McErlain, David D.; Pitelka, Vasek; Holdsworth, David W.; Lacefield, James C.; Fenster, Aaron

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Preclinical research protocols often require insertion of needles to specific targets within small animal brains. To target biologically relevant locations in rodent brains more effectively, a robotic device has been developed that is capable of positioning a needle along oblique trajectories through a single burr hole in the skull under volumetric microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) guidance. Methods: An x-ray compatible stereotactic frame secures the head throughout the procedure using a bite bar, nose clamp, and ear bars. CT-to-robot registration enables structures identified in the image to be mapped to physical coordinates in the brain. Registration is accomplished by injecting a barium sulfate contrast agent as the robot withdraws the needle from predefined points in a phantom. Registration accuracy is affected by the robot-positioning error and is assessed by measuring the surface registration error for the fiducial and target needle tracks (FRE and TRE). This system was demonstrated in situ by injecting 200 {mu}m tungsten beads into rat brains along oblique trajectories through a single burr hole on the top of the skull under micro-CT image guidance. Postintervention micro-CT images of each skull were registered with preintervention high-field magnetic resonance images of the brain to infer the anatomical locations of the beads. Results: Registration using four fiducial needle tracks and one target track produced a FRE and a TRE of 96 and 210 {mu}m, respectively. Evaluation with tissue-mimicking gelatin phantoms showed that locations could be targeted with a mean error of 154{+-}113 {mu}m. Conclusions: The integration of a robotic needle-positioning device with volumetric micro-CT image guidance should increase the accuracy and reduce the invasiveness of stereotactic needle interventions in small animals.

  17. Of Needles and Haystacks: Building an Accurate Statewide Dropout Early Warning System in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Jared E.

    2015-01-01

    The state of Wisconsin has one of the highest four year graduation rates in the nation, but deep disparities among student subgroups remain. To address this the state has created the Wisconsin Dropout Early Warning System (DEWS), a predictive model of student dropout risk for students in grades six through nine. The Wisconsin DEWS is in use…

  18. Medically relevant ElectroNeedle technology development.

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Carrie Frances; Thomas, Michael Loren; McClain, Jaime L.; Harper, Jason C.; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2008-11-01

    ElectroNeedles technology was developed as part of an earlier Grand Challenge effort on Bio-Micro Fuel Cell project. During this earlier work, the fabrication of the ElectroNeedles was accomplished along with proof-of-concept work on several electrochemically active analytes such as glucose, quinone and ferricyanide. Additionally, earlier work demonstrated technology potential in the field of immunosensors by specifically detecting Troponin, a cardiac biomarker. The current work focused upon fabrication process reproducibility of the ElectroNeedles and then using the devices to sensitively detect p-cresol, a biomarker for kidney failure or nephrotoxicity. Valuable lessons were learned regarding fabrication assurance and quality. The detection of p-cresol was accomplished by electrochemistry as well as using fluorescence to benchmark ElectroNeedles performance. Results from these studies will serve as a guide for the future fabrication processes involving ElectroNeedles as well as provide the groundwork necessary to expand technology applications. One paper has been accepted for publication acknowledging LDRD funding (K. E. Achyuthan et al, Comb. Chem. & HTS, 2008). We are exploring the scope for a second paper describing the applications potential of this technology.

  19. Transurethral needle biopsy: a novel technique for pathologic diagnosis of bladder tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, Michelle; Li, Roger; Alsyouf, Muhannad; Nicolay, Lesli; Chamberlin, David

    2014-12-01

    Although rare, both benign and malignant bladder tumors are occasionally encountered in the pediatric population. In the present article, the technique of transurethral needle biopsy, which utilizes an 18-gauge core biopsy instrument inserted through a 9.5 French offset pediatric cystoscope to obtain diagnostic biopsies, is described. This technique has been used successfully in two patients, both of whom had an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor on biopsy and on final pathology from partial cystectomy. This provides an alternative technique, which may be used when a pediatric resectoscope is not available or in patients with a small caliber urethra.

  20. Use of Core Needle Biopsy rather than Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology in the Diagnostic Approach of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pagni, Paola; Spunticchia, Flaminia; Barberi, Simona; Caprio, Giuliana; Paglicci, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims In the following study case, we reviewed breast ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (CNB), using Mammotome (vacuum-assisted breast biopsy) and Tru-cut, carried out on palpable and nonpalpable uncertain breast lumps or malignant large lesions to be submitted to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Material and Methods Examinations were conducted during a 4-year period of clinical activity in a highly specialized center, from December 2009 to December 2013, in 712 patients previously subjected to fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Results The results demonstrated that among the 712 breast biopsies, in many cases FNAC was not conclusive, and therefore we proceeded with the echo-guided biopsy, through which we were able to collect sufficient material for the histological examination in order to direct patients to surgery or follow-up. Conclusions CNB is far superior to FNAC, especially in cases of uncertainty, where it is preferable to proceed directly with CNB, which may also determine additional prognostic and predictive markers. Initially FNAC is less expensive, but the actual costs involved tend to be higher for FNAC as it is less accurate and a CNB is often required. In accordance with recent publications, we can confirm the full validity of CNB in the diagnostic approach of breast lesions. PMID:25120471

  1. Shoe Inserts and Prescription Custom Orthotics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feet » Foot Health Information Shoe Inserts and Prescription Custom Orthotics What are Shoe Inserts? You've seen ... hold on to your receipt.) What are Prescription Custom Orthotics? Custom orthotics are specially-made devices designed ...

  2. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  3. Direct MRI-guided biopsy of the prostate: use of post-biopsy needle track imaging to confirm targeting

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Alexander J.; Pettersson, David R.; Korngold, Elena K.; Foster, Bryan R.; Hung, Arthur Y.; Amling, Christopher L.; Coakley, Fergus V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the observation that in-plane post-biopsy T2-weighted MRI often demonstrates the needle track as a transient visible linear tissue distortion during direct MRI-guided biopsy. Materials and methods We retrospectively identified 11 prostatic lesions in 9 men that underwent direct MRI-guided biopsy and in which post-biopsy images were obtained in the plane of the biopsy needle. Results In 9 of 11 targets, a post-biopsy needle track was visible as a linear tissue distortion on in-plane T2-weighted images obtained at a mean interval of 6 min (range 3–15). In these nine cases, the needle track traversed the intended target, and the biopsy was positive for malignancy in six. Biopsy was positive in one of two cases where the needle track was not visible. In five targets, one or more delayed series were obtained after a mean interval of 21 min (range 8–33), showing the track was no longer visible (n = 3) or was of progressively decreased conspicuity (n = 2). Conclusion Accurate targeting during direct MRI-guided biopsy of the prostate can be confirmed by obtaining post-biopsy in-plane images, since the needle track is usually visible as a transient linear tissue distortion. PMID:25687631

  4. 3T MR Guided in bore transperineal prostate biopsy: A Comparison of robotic and manual needle-guidance templates

    PubMed Central

    Tilak, Gaurie; Tuncali, Kemal; Song, Sang-Eun; Tokuda, Junichi; Olubiyi, Olutayo; Fennessy, Fiona; Fedorov, Andriy; Penzkofer, Tobias; Tempany, Clare; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the utility of a robotic needle-guidance template device as compared to a manual template for in-bore 3T transperineal MR-guided prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods This two-arm mixed retrospective-prospective study included 99 cases of targeted transperineal prostate biopsies. The biopsy needles were aimed at suspicious foci noted on multiparametric 3T MRI using manual template (historical control) as compared with a robotic template. The following data was obtained: the accuracy of average and closest needle placement to the focus, histologic yield, percentage of cancer volume in positive core samples, complication rate, and time to complete the procedure. Results 56 cases were performed using the manual template, and 43 cases were performed using the robotic template. The mean accuracy of the best needle placement attempt was higher in the robotic group (2.39 mm) than the manual group (3.71 mm, p<0.027). The mean core procedure time was shorter in the robotic (90.82min) than the manual group (100.63min, p<0.030). Percentage of cancer volume in positive core samples was higher in robotic group (p<0.001). Cancer yields and complication rates were not statistically different between the two sub-groups (p = 0.557 and p=0.172 respectively). Conclusion The robotic needle-guidance template helps accurate placement of biopsy needles in MRI-guided core biopsy of prostate cancer. PMID:25263213

  5. Treatment planning for prostate focal laser ablation in the face of needle placement uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Cepek, Jeremy Fenster, Aaron; Lindner, Uri; Trachtenberg, John; Davidson, Sean R. H.; Haider, Masoom A.; Ghai, Sangeet

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To study the effect of needle placement uncertainty on the expected probability of achieving complete focal target destruction in focal laser ablation (FLA) of prostate cancer. Methods: Using a simplified model of prostate cancer focal target, and focal laser ablation region shapes, Monte Carlo simulations of needle placement error were performed to estimate the probability of completely ablating a region of target tissue. Results: Graphs of the probability of complete focal target ablation are presented over clinically relevant ranges of focal target sizes and shapes, ablation region sizes, and levels of needle placement uncertainty. In addition, a table is provided for estimating the maximum target size that is treatable. The results predict that targets whose length is at least 5 mm smaller than the diameter of each ablation region can be confidently ablated using, at most, four laser fibers if the standard deviation in each component of needle placement error is less than 3 mm. However, targets larger than this (i.e., near to or exceeding the diameter of each ablation region) require more careful planning. This process is facilitated by using the table provided. Conclusions: The probability of completely ablating a focal target using FLA is sensitive to the level of needle placement uncertainty, especially as the target length approaches and becomes greater than the diameter of ablated tissue that each individual laser fiber can achieve. The results of this work can be used to help determine individual patient eligibility for prostate FLA, to guide the planning of prostate FLA, and to quantify the clinical benefit of using advanced systems for accurate needle delivery for this treatment modality.

  6. Needle aspiration of peritonsillar abscess in children.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, E; Brodsky, L; Stanievich, J; Volk, M

    1993-02-01

    Needle aspiration for the treatment of peritonsillar abscess was assessed in 43 consecutive children aged 7 to 18 years (mean age, 13.9 +/- 2.5 years) during the 3-year period from 1988 through 1991. A positive aspirate was obtained in 31 (76%) of the 41 patients who cooperated for needle aspiration; a mean of 2.9 +/- 1.9 mL of pus was withdrawn. Of the 31 children with a positive aspirate, in 27 (87%) the abscess resolved, two (6%) required a second aspiration for resolution, and two (6%) underwent immediate tonsillectomy for persistent abscess. Of the 10 children (24%) with negative aspirations, in six (60%) the abscess resolved with antibiotic treatment alone, three (30%) underwent immediate (quinsy) tonsillectomy, and in one (10%) the abscess spontaneously drained. No bleeding, airway obstruction, or anesthetic complications occurred. Needle aspiration of peritonsillar abscess in children, with tonsillectomy reserved for nonresponders, appears to be an efficacious and safe method of treatment.

  7. Needle enzyme electrodes for biological studies.

    PubMed

    Churchouse, S J; Battersby, C M; Mullen, W H; Vadgama, P M

    1986-01-01

    Needle enzyme electrodes have been produced for measurement of glucose and lactate. They comprise glutaraldehyde-crosslinked oxidases immobilised over less than 1.1 mm od needle-type sensors for H2O2. To obtain selectivity in blood, an underlying polyethersulphone membrane was used which excluded electrochemical interferents from the working (Pt) electrode. Linearity for the systems was extended to cover the clinical range by the use of outer low permeability polyurethane membranes. This type of external membrane also reduced the stirring dependence of electrodes. The glucose needle electrode was used in unstirred whole blood samples and gave an acceptable correlation with the routine spectrophotometric method (y = 0.954x + 0.202, r = 0.991, n = 48). PMID:3632730

  8. Structural changes in spruce and fir needles.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, U; Ruetze, M

    1990-01-01

    Needles from spruce and fir trees were analyzed for histological changes induced by long-term exposure in open-top chambers to SO(2) and/or O(3) combined with acid rain. Light and electron microscopical evaluation revealed initial structural changes in the vascular bundle of fir needles, with an increased number of crushed sieve cells in the phloem. In addition the walls of young, adaxial sieve cells lacked the typical thickening usually observed in naturally aged needles. These findings may indicate restricted assimilate translocation. The presence of SO(2) in any treatment led to thylakoidal swellings and membrane reductions in the chloroplasts of mesophyll cells near the vascular bundle. This damage pattern resembled alterations caused by nutrient deficiency rather than by the direct action of gaseous pollutants. In general, fir appears to be more sensitive to environmental stress than spruce; this substantiates the findings of previous studies.

  9. [The value of fine needle biopsy in the diagnosis of tumors of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Fière, A; Cartier, E; Breton, P; Faucon, M; Freidel, M

    1990-01-01

    Aspiration biopsy by fine needle from the major salivary glands has been studied. To evaluate this form of biopsy, 34 patients with salivary gland enlargement were examined. By this technic, 29 has confirmative histology. The method proved complication free and accurate. The safety of this biopsy form has been proven. The accuracy of this method may be high, particularly, for the most common benign mixed tumor. Thus this procedure is suggested for initial examination of all lesions of the salivary gland.

  10. Insert metering plates for gas turbine nozzles

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven S.; Itzel, Gary; Chopra, Sanjay; Abuaf, Nesim; Correia, Victor H.

    2004-05-11

    The invention comprises a metering plate which is assembled to an impingement insert for use in the nozzle of a gas turbine. The metering plate can have one or more metering holes and is used to balance the cooling flow within the nozzle. A metering plate with multiple holes reduces static pressure variations which result from the cooling airflow through the metering plate. The metering plate can be assembled to the insert before or after the insert is inserted into the nozzle.

  11. ["Sham Needle"--Design and Application of A Double-blind Placebo Needle Assembly].

    PubMed

    Yan, Liu; Ma, Li-hong

    2016-02-01

    The blind study design, particularly the double-blind study design is a very important method for diminishing placebo effect and reducing bias in clinical medical trial. Enlightened by Streitberger's and Park's sham needle design, the authors of the present paper introduce a newly designed sham needle device (Yan's sham-needle) for controlled double-blind trials of acupuncture. This sham needle device consists of needle, tube and base. The bottom of the tube is completely sealed and it can never arouse any invasive stimulation on the subject's skin when the sham needle is downward pressed on the body surface. Meanwhile, this sham device is filled with sponge which is able to simulate soft tissues of the acupoint area. By combining words suggestions or hints before trials and the same shape as verum device, this sham-needle device reduces the risk of blind-breaking and makes it possible to conduct controlled double-blind trials. Primary practice showed that this device may provide a new and practical tool for researching the placebo effect of acupuncture therapy. PMID:27141628

  12. Accurate quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.

  13. Needle free injection technology: A complete insight

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Ansh Dev; Sadhna, D; Nagpaal, D; Chawla, L

    2015-01-01

    Needle free injection technology (NFIT)is an extremely broad concept which include a wide range of drug delivery systems that drive drugs through the skin using any of the forces as Lorentz, Shock waves, pressure by gas or electrophoresis which propels the drug through the skin, virtually nullifying the use of hypodermic needle. This technology is not only touted to be beneficial for the pharma industry but developing world too find it highly useful in mass immunization programmes, bypassing the chances of needle stick injuries and avoiding other complications including those arising due to multiple use of single needle. The NFIT devices can be classified based on their working, type of load, mechanism of drug delivery and site of delivery. To administer a stable, safe and an effective dose through NFIT, the sterility, shelf life and viscosity of drug are the main components which should be taken care of. Technically superior needle-free injection systems are able to administer highly viscous drug products which cannot be administered by traditional needle and syringe systems, further adding to the usefulness of the technology. NFIT devices can be manufactured in a variety of ways; however the widely employed procedure to manufacture it is by injection molding technique. There are many variants of this technology which are being marketed, such as Bioject® ZetaJetTM, Vitajet 3, Tev-Tropin® and so on. Larger investment has been made in developing this technology with several devices already being available in the market post FDA clearance and a great market worldwide. PMID:26682189

  14. Needle free injection technology: A complete insight.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Ansh Dev; Sadhna, D; Nagpaal, D; Chawla, L

    2015-01-01

    Needle free injection technology (NFIT)is an extremely broad concept which include a wide range of drug delivery systems that drive drugs through the skin using any of the forces as Lorentz, Shock waves, pressure by gas or electrophoresis which propels the drug through the skin, virtually nullifying the use of hypodermic needle. This technology is not only touted to be beneficial for the pharma industry but developing world too find it highly useful in mass immunization programmes, bypassing the chances of needle stick injuries and avoiding other complications including those arising due to multiple use of single needle. The NFIT devices can be classified based on their working, type of load, mechanism of drug delivery and site of delivery. To administer a stable, safe and an effective dose through NFIT, the sterility, shelf life and viscosity of drug are the main components which should be taken care of. Technically superior needle-free injection systems are able to administer highly viscous drug products which cannot be administered by traditional needle and syringe systems, further adding to the usefulness of the technology. NFIT devices can be manufactured in a variety of ways; however the widely employed procedure to manufacture it is by injection molding technique. There are many variants of this technology which are being marketed, such as Bioject(®) ZetaJetTM, Vitajet 3, Tev-Tropin(®) and so on. Larger investment has been made in developing this technology with several devices already being available in the market post FDA clearance and a great market worldwide.

  15. Needle free injection technology: A complete insight.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Ansh Dev; Sadhna, D; Nagpaal, D; Chawla, L

    2015-01-01

    Needle free injection technology (NFIT)is an extremely broad concept which include a wide range of drug delivery systems that drive drugs through the skin using any of the forces as Lorentz, Shock waves, pressure by gas or electrophoresis which propels the drug through the skin, virtually nullifying the use of hypodermic needle. This technology is not only touted to be beneficial for the pharma industry but developing world too find it highly useful in mass immunization programmes, bypassing the chances of needle stick injuries and avoiding other complications including those arising due to multiple use of single needle. The NFIT devices can be classified based on their working, type of load, mechanism of drug delivery and site of delivery. To administer a stable, safe and an effective dose through NFIT, the sterility, shelf life and viscosity of drug are the main components which should be taken care of. Technically superior needle-free injection systems are able to administer highly viscous drug products which cannot be administered by traditional needle and syringe systems, further adding to the usefulness of the technology. NFIT devices can be manufactured in a variety of ways; however the widely employed procedure to manufacture it is by injection molding technique. There are many variants of this technology which are being marketed, such as Bioject(®) ZetaJetTM, Vitajet 3, Tev-Tropin(®) and so on. Larger investment has been made in developing this technology with several devices already being available in the market post FDA clearance and a great market worldwide. PMID:26682189

  16. Syringe and Needle Size, Syringe Type, Vacuum Generation, and Needle Control in Aspiration Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Haseler, Luke J.; Sibbitt, Randy R.; Sibbitt, Wilmer L.; Michael, Adrian A.; Gasparovic, Charles M.; Bankhurst, Arthur D.

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: Syringes are used for diagnostic fluid aspiration and fine-needle aspiration biopsy in interventional procedures. We determined the benefits, disadvantages, and patient safety implications of syringe and needle size on vacuum generation, hand force requirements, biopsy/fluid yield, and needle control during aspiration procedures. Materials and Methods: Different sizes (1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 ml) of the conventional syringe and aspirating mechanical safety syringe, the reciprocating procedure device, were studied. Twenty operators performed aspiration procedures with the following outcomes measured: (1) vacuum (torr), (2) time to vacuum (s), (3) hand force to generate vacuum (torr-cm{sup 2}), (4) operator difficulty during aspiration, (5) biopsy yield (mg), and (6) operator control of the needle tip position (mm). Results: Vacuum increased tissue biopsy yield at all needle diameters (P < 0.002). Twenty-milliliter syringes achieved a vacuum of -517 torr but required far more strength to aspirate, and resulted in significant loss of needle control (P < 0.002). The 10-ml syringe generated only 15% less vacuum (-435 torr) than the 20-ml device and required much less hand strength. The mechanical syringe generated identical vacuum at all syringe sizes with less hand force (P < 0.002) and provided significantly enhanced needle control (P < 0.002). Conclusions: To optimize patient safety and control of the needle, and to maximize fluid and tissue yield during aspiration procedures, a two-handed technique and the smallest syringe size adequate for the procedure should be used. If precise needle control or one-handed operation is required, a mechanical safety syringe should be considered.

  17. Endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration and useful ancillary methods

    PubMed Central

    Tadic, Mario; Stoos-Veic, Tajana; Kusec, Rajko

    2014-01-01

    The role of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in evaluating pancreatic pathology has been well documented from the beginning of its clinical use. High spatial resolution and the close proximity to the evaluated organs within the mediastinum and abdominal cavity allow detection of small focal lesions and precise tissue acquisition from suspected lesions within the reach of this method. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is considered of additional value to EUS and is performed to obtain tissue diagnosis. Tissue acquisition from suspected lesions for cytological or histological analysis allows, not only the differentiation between malignant and non-malignant lesions, but, in most cases, also the accurate distinction between the various types of malignant lesions. It is well documented that the best results are achieved only if an adequate sample is obtained for further analysis, if the material is processed in an appropriate way, and if adequate ancillary methods are performed. This is a multi-step process and could be quite a challenge in some cases. In this article, we discuss the technical aspects of tissue acquisition by EUS-guided-FNA (EUS-FNA), as well as the role of an on-site cytopathologist, various means of specimen processing, and the selection of the appropriate ancillary method for providing an accurate tissue diagnosis and maximizing the yield of this method. The main goal of this review is to alert endosonographers, not only to the different possibilities of tissue acquisition, namely EUS-FNA, but also to bring to their attention the importance of proper sample processing in the evaluation of various lesions in the gastrointestinal tract and other accessible organs. All aspects of tissue acquisition (needles, suction, use of stylet, complications, etc.) have been well discussed lately. Adequate tissue samples enable comprehensive diagnoses, which answer the main clinical questions, thus enabling targeted therapy. PMID:25339816

  18. PET-Based Percutaneous Needle Biopsy.

    PubMed

    El-Haddad, Ghassan

    2016-07-01

    PET can be used to guide percutaneous needle biopsy to the most metabolic lesion, improving diagnostic yield. PET biopsy guidance can be performed using visual or software coregistration, electromagnetic needle tracking, cone-beam computed tomography (CT), and intraprocedural PET/CT guidance. PET/CT-guided biopsies allow the sampling of lesions that may not be clearly visible on anatomic imaging, or of lesions that are morphologically normal. PET can identify suspicious locations within complex tumors that are most likely to contain important diagnostic and prognostic information. PMID:27321036

  19. Changing attitudes toward needle biopsies of breast cancer in Shanghai: experience and current status over the past 8 years

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Shuang; Liu, Zhe-Bin; Ling, Hong; Chen, Jia-Jian; Shen, Ju-Ping; Yang, Wen-Tao; Shao, Zhi-Min

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic patterns in breast cancer have greatly changed over the past few decades, and core needle biopsy (CNB) has become a reliable procedure for detecting breast cancer without invasive surgery. To estimate the changing diagnostic patterns of breast cancer in urban Shanghai, 11,947 women with breast lesions detected by preoperative needle biopsy between January 1995 and December 2012 were selected from the Shanghai Cancer Data base, which integrates information from approximately 50% of breast cancer patients in Shanghai. The CNB procedure uses an automated prone unit, biopsy gun, and 14-gauge needles under freehand or ultrasound guidance and was performed by experienced radiologists and surgeons specializing in needle biopsies. Diagnosis and classification for each patient were independently evaluated by pathologists. Over the indicated 8-year period, biopsy type consisted of 11,947 ultrasound-guided core needle biopsies (UCNBs), 2,015 ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted biopsies (UVABs), and 654 stereotactic X-ray-guided vacuum-assisted biopsies (XVABs). For all the 11,947 women included in this study, image-guided needle biopsy was the initial diagnostic procedure. Approximately 81.0% of biopsied samples were histopathologically determined to be malignant lesions, 5.5% were determined to be high-risk lesions, and 13.5% were determined to be benign lesions. The number of patients choosing UCNB increased at the greatest rate, and UCNB has become a standard procedure for histodiagnosis because it is inexpensive, convenient, and accurate. The overall false-negative rate of CNB was 1.7%, and the specific false-negative rates for UCNB, UVAB, and XVAB, were 1.7%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. This study suggests that the use of preoperative needle biopsy as the initial breast cancer diagnostic procedure is acceptable in urban Shanghai. Preoperative needle biopsy is now a standard procedure in the Shanghai Cancer Center because it may reduce the number of surgeries

  20. Analysis of the NovoTwist pen needle in comparison with conventional screw-thread needles.

    PubMed

    Aye, Tandy

    2011-11-01

    Administration of insulin via a pen device may be advantageous over a vial and syringe system. Hofman and colleagues introduce a new insulin pen needle, the NovoTwist, to simplify injections to a small group of children and adolescents. Their overall preferences and evaluation of the handling of the needle are reported in the study. This new needle has the potential to ease administration of insulin via a pen device that may increase both the use of a pen device and adherence to insulin therapy.

  1. The needle effect in the relief of myofascial pain.

    PubMed

    Lewit, K

    1979-02-01

    In reviewing techniques for therapeutic local anaesthesia of pain spots, it appeared that the common denominator was puncture by the needle and not the anaesthetic employed. The present study examines short- and long-term effects of dry needling in the treatment of chronic myofascial pain. 241 patients and 312 pain sites were treated by needling. When the most painful spot was touched by the needle, immediate analgesia without hypesthesia was observed in 86.8% of cases. Permanent relief of tenderness in the needled structure was obtained for 92 structures; relief for several months in 58; for several weeks in 63; and for several days in 32 out of 288 pain sites followed up. The effectiveness of treatment was related to the intensity of pain produced at the trigger zone, and to the precision with which the site of maximal tenderness was located by the needle. The immediate analgesia produced by needling the pain spot has been called the "needle effect".

  2. 41. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, SHOWING NEEDLE VALVE CONTROL PEDESTALS (MANUFACTURED BY AMERICAN LOCOMOTIVE COMPANY) IN LEFT FOREGROUND AND RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  3. Analysis of inserts in prokaryote genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristea, Paul Dan; Tuduce, Rodica Aurora

    2008-02-01

    Nucleotide genomic signals satisfy regularities that reveal restrictions in the distribution of nucleotides and pairs of nucleotides along DNA sequences. Structurally, a chromosome appears to be more than a plain text, by satisfying symmetry constrains that evoke the rhythm and rhyme in poems. These regularities make it easy to identify exogenous inserts in the genomes of prokaryotes, because such inserts obey different regularities than the background sequence. The paper presents instances of inserts found in the genomes of Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other prokaryotes. Inserts of exogenous material are frequently accompanied by complementary inserts tending to restore the original constrains.

  4. Complications Associated with the Percutaneous Insertion of Fiducial Markers in the Thorax

    SciTech Connect

    Bhagat, Nikhil; Fidelman, Nicholas Durack, Jeremy C.; Collins, Jeremy; Gordon, Roy L.; LaBerge, Jeanne M.; Kerlan, Robert K.

    2010-12-15

    PurposeRadiosurgery requires precise lesion localization. Fiducial markers enable lesion tracking, but complications from insertion may occur. The purpose of this study was to describe complications of fiducial marker insertion into pulmonary lesions.Materials and MethodsClinical and imaging records of 28 consecutive patients with 32 lung nodules or masses who underwent insertion of a total of 59 fiducial markers before radiosurgery were retrospectively reviewed.ResultsEighteen patients (67%) developed a pneumothorax, and six patients (22%) required a chest tube. The rates of pneumothorax were 82% and 40%, respectively, when 18-gauge and 19-gauge needles were used for marker insertion (P = 0.01). Increased rate of pneumothorax was also associated with targeting smaller lesions (P = 0.03) and tumors not in contact with the pleural surface (P = 0.04). A total of 11 fiducials (19%) migrated after insertion into the pleural space (10 markers) or into the airway (1 marker). Migration was associated with shorter distances from pleura to the marker deposition site (P = 0.04) and with fiducial placement outside of the target lesion (P = 0.03).ConclusionFiducial marker placement into lung lesions is associated with a high risk of pneumothorax and a risk of fiducial migration.

  5. Quench Module Insert (QMI) and the Diffusion Module Insert (DMI) Furnace Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, Myscha; Carswell, William; Farmer, Jeff; Rose, Fred; Tidwell, Paul

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents, in viewgraph form, QMI (Quench Module Insert) and DMI (Diffusion Module Insert) furnace development. The topics include: 1) Furnace Module in Rack; 2) Quench Module Insert; 3) QMI in MSL Core; 4) Diffusion Module Insert; 5) QMI; and 6) QMI Development and Testing.

  6. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device used to inject local anesthetics into a patient...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device used to inject local anesthetics into a patient...

  8. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  9. 21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assisted reproduction needles. 884.6100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6100 Assisted reproduction needles. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction needles are devices used in...

  10. 21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Assisted reproduction needles. 884.6100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6100 Assisted reproduction needles. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction needles are devices used in...

  11. 21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assisted reproduction needles. 884.6100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6100 Assisted reproduction needles. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction needles are devices used in...

  12. 21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction needles. 884.6100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6100 Assisted reproduction needles. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction needles are devices used in...

  13. 21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Assisted reproduction needles. 884.6100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6100 Assisted reproduction needles. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction needles are devices used in...

  14. The Double-Needle Felling Machine. Module 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the double-needle felling machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers two topics: performing special operations on the double-needle felling machine (straight seams) and performing special operations on the double-needle felling machine (curved flat-felled seams). For…

  15. 21 CFR 880.5570 - Hypodermic single lumen needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hypodermic single lumen needle. 880.5570 Section... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5570 Hypodermic single lumen needle. (a) Identification. A hypodermic single lumen needle is a device intended to inject fluids into, or withdraw fluids from, parts of the body below...

  16. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  17. 21 CFR 880.5570 - Hypodermic single lumen needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hypodermic single lumen needle. 880.5570 Section... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5570 Hypodermic single lumen needle. (a) Identification. A hypodermic single lumen needle is a device intended to inject fluids into, or withdraw fluids from, parts of the body below...

  18. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  19. Functional insights into the Shigella type III needle tip IpaD in secretion control and cell contact.

    PubMed

    Schiavolin, Lionel; Meghraoui, Alaeddine; Cherradi, Youness; Biskri, Latéfa; Botteaux, Anne; Allaoui, Abdelmounaaïm

    2013-04-01

    Type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) are complex nanomachines that insert a translocation pore into the host cell membrane through which effector proteins are injected into the cytosol. In Shigella, the pore is inserted by a needle tip complex that also controls secretion. IpaD is the key protein that rules the composition of the tip complex before and upon cell contact or Congo red (CR) induction. However, how IpaD is involved in secretion control and translocon insertion remains not fully understood. Here, we report the phenotypic analysis of 20 10-amino acids deletion variants all along the coiled-coil and the central domains of IpaD (residues 131-332). Our results highlight three classes of T3S phenotype; (i) wild-type secretion, (ii) constitutive secretion of all classes of effectors, and (iii) constitutive secretion of translocators and early effectors, but not of late effectors. Our data also suggest that the composition of the tip complex defines both the T3SA inducibility state and late effectors secretion. Finally, we shed light on a new aspect regarding the contact of the needle tip with cell membrane by uncoupling the Shigella abilities to escape macrophage vacuole, and to insert the translocation pore or to invade non-phagocytic cells.

  20. Vocational Home Economics Education. Needle Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halmes, Ellen; Sawatzky, Joyce

    This instructional package, designed for use in secondary and adult education, focuses on the vocational area of needle trades. Section A of this document contains three units of instruction; "Securing a Job,""Career Success," and "The Free Enterprise System." Section B contains four units on sewn products operations: "Sewing Machine Maintenance…

  1. A Modification to Maxwell's Needle Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soorya, Tribhuvan N.

    2015-01-01

    Maxwell's needle apparatus is used to determine the shear modulus (?) of the material of a wire of uniform cylindrical cross section. Conventionally, a single observation is taken for each observable, and the value of ? is calculated in a single shot. A modification to the above apparatus is made by varying one of the observables, namely the mass…

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Melnick-Needles syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... or buccal smear. Am J Med Genet. 2002 Mar 1;108(2):120-7. Citation on PubMed OMIM: ... 2003 Apr;33(4):487-91. Epub 2003 Mar 3. Citation on ... syndrome types 1 and 2, frontometaphyseal dysplasia and Melnick-Needles syndrome. ...

  3. A method for the determination of syringe needle punctures in rubber stoppers using stereoscopic light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Platek, S Frank; Keisler, Mark A; Ranieri, Nicola; Reynolds, Todd W; Crowe, John B

    2002-09-01

    The ability to accurately determine the number of syringe needle penetration holes through the rubber stoppers in pharmaceutical vials and rubber septa in intravenous (i.v.) line and bag ports has been a critical factor in a number of forensic cases involving the thefts of controlled substances or suspected homicide by lethal injection. In the early 1990s, the microscopy and microanalysis group of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Forensic Chemistry Center (FCC) developed and implemented a method (unpublished) to locate needle punctures in rubber pharmaceutical vial stoppers. In 1996, as part of a multiple homicide investigation, the Indiana State Police Laboratory (ISPL) contacted the FCC for information on a method to identify and count syringe needle punctures through rubber stoppers in pharmaceutical vials. In a joint project and investigation using the FCC's needle hole location method and applying a method of puncture site mapping developed by the ISPL, a systematic method was developed to locate, identify, count, and map syringe punctures in rubber bottle stoppers or i.v. bag ports using microscopic analysis. The method requires documentation of punctures on both sides of the rubber stoppers and microscopic analysis of each suspect puncture site. The final result of an analysis using the method is a detailed diagram of puncture holes on both sides of a questioned stopper and a record of the minimum number of puncture holes through a stopper.

  4. Accurate Optical Reference Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, N.

    2006-08-01

    Current and near future all-sky astrometric catalogs on the ICRF are reviewed with the emphasis on reference star data at optical wavelengths for user applications. The standard error of a Hipparcos Catalogue star position is now about 15 mas per coordinate. For the Tycho-2 data it is typically 20 to 100 mas, depending on magnitude. The USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC) observing program was completed in 2004 and reductions toward the final UCAC3 release are in progress. This all-sky reference catalogue will have positional errors of 15 to 70 mas for stars in the 10 to 16 mag range, with a high degree of completeness. Proper motions for the about 60 million UCAC stars will be derived by combining UCAC astrometry with available early epoch data, including yet unpublished scans of the complete set of AGK2, Hamburg Zone astrograph and USNO Black Birch programs. Accurate positional and proper motion data are combined in the Naval Observatory Merged Astrometric Dataset (NOMAD) which includes Hipparcos, Tycho-2, UCAC2, USNO-B1, NPM+SPM plate scan data for astrometry, and is supplemented by multi-band optical photometry as well as 2MASS near infrared photometry. The Milli-Arcsecond Pathfinder Survey (MAPS) mission is currently being planned at USNO. This is a micro-satellite to obtain 1 mas positions, parallaxes, and 1 mas/yr proper motions for all bright stars down to about 15th magnitude. This program will be supplemented by a ground-based program to reach 18th magnitude on the 5 mas level.

  5. A serious game for learning ultrasound-guided needle placement skills.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wing-Yin; Qin, Jing; Chui, Yim-Pan; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    2012-11-01

    Ultrasound-guided needle placement is a key step in a lot of radiological intervention procedures such as biopsy, local anesthesia and fluid drainage. To help training future intervention radiologists, we develop a serious game to teach the skills involved. We introduce novel techniques for realistic simulation and integrate game elements for active and effective learning. This game is designed in the context of needle placement training based on the some essential characteristics of serious games. Training scenarios are interactively generated via a block-based construction scheme. A novel example-based texture synthesis technique is proposed to simulate corresponding ultrasound images. Game levels are defined based on the difficulties of the generated scenarios. Interactive recommendation of desirable insertion paths is provided during the training as an adaptation mechanism. We also develop a fast physics-based approach to reproduce the shadowing effect of needles in ultrasound images. Game elements such as time-attack tasks, hints and performance evaluation tools are also integrated in our system. Extensive experiments are performed to validate its feasibility for training.

  6. Transconjunctival sutureless intrascleral intraocular lens fixation using intrascleral tunnels guided with catheter and 30-gauge needles.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Kohei; Akimoto, Masayuki; Taguchi, Hogara; Nakagawa, Satoko; Hiroi, Kano

    2015-11-01

    We invented a new method for fixing an intraocular lens (IOL) in the scleral tunnel without using a wide conjunctival incision. Modified bent catheter needles were used to penetrate the IOL haptics through the sclerotomy sites. The IOL haptics were inserted into 30-guage (G) scleral tunnels guided by double 30-G needles piercing the sclera. All procedures were performed through the conjunctiva without wide incision. The procedure does not require special forceps, trocars or fibrin glue, only catheter and 30-G needles. The aid of an assistant was not required to support the IOL haptic. The procedures were easily learnt based on our previous method. As with other transconjunctival sutureless surgeries, patients feel less discomfort and the conjunctiva can be conserved for future glaucoma surgery. Complications included two cases of vitreous haemorrhage (16.7%), and one case each of postoperative hypotony, and iris capture (8.3%). Astigmatism induced by intraocular aberration was the same as we reported previously. Our method for fixing the IOL into the scleral tunnel is innovative, less expensive, less invasive and quick. This modified method is a good alternative for fixing IOL haptics into the sclera.

  7. Mars Observer Orbit Insertion Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Steve Wall is the host of this video entitled, "Return to the Red Planet". Live animation of the Mars Observer orbiting Mars is presented. Steve Wall explains the spacecraft insertion maneuver and also explains the purpose for the Mars Observer launch. Live coverage of the Cape Canaveral launch of the Mars Observer is also presented. Suzanne Dodd, Chief of the Mission Planning team describes the burn start and how the spacecraft will be captured by Mars' gravity. Glenn Cunningham, Mars Observer Project Manager, gives background information on the Mars Observer and describes the organizations behind the Mars Observer Spacecraft, such as the Deep Space Network, the Mission Operation Support Office, Science Investigators, the Flight Engineering Office, Operations Office, and the Ground Data System Office. Dr. William Piotrowski, Acting Director, Solar System Exploration Division, NASA, talks about the purpose of the Mars Pathfinder which is to develop the technology and systems for landing small science packages on Mars. Mr. Roger Gibbs, Former Mars Observer Spacecraft Systems Engineer, tells us how the Mars Observer was built and describes the structural elements on the Mars Observer. The 11-month cruise period for the spacecraft is given by Joseph Beerer, Manager of the Engineering office. The thrust for the Mars Orbit Insertion is described by Ronald Klemetson, Technical Manager, Propulsion Subsystem Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). George Chen, Lead Engineer Attitude and Articulation Subsystem Spacecraft Team, explains the importance of the attitude control engines on the Spacecraft. Marvin Traxler, Manager of Tracking and Data Acquisition, describes how searching for a signal from the Mars Observer works. See NONP-NASA-VT-2000081555 for a continuation of this discussion with Marvin Traxler.

  8. Needle aspiration biopsy in salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Shaha, A R; Webber, C; DiMaio, T; Jaffe, B M

    1990-10-01

    The value of needle aspiration biopsy in the evaluation and management of salivary gland pathology is controversial. The major reasons for this controversy are the difficulty in cytologic evaluation and the fact that the extent of surgery can be easily defined based on clinical judgement. However, a preoperative diagnosis is helpful in discussions with patients regarding the extent and type of surgery. Apart from the fact that needle biopsy can distinguish benign from malignant conditions, it is also very useful in distinguishing between salivary and other nonsalivary pathology. Over the past 7 1/2 years, we have performed 160 needle aspirations of parotid, submandibular, and submucosal lesions. Adequate specimens for cytologic evaluation were obtained in 155 patients (97%). A total of 84 parotid lesions, 70 submandibular lumps, and 6 submucosal abnormalities were detected. A cytologic diagnosis of benign pathology was made in 120 patients. Twelve patients had lymphoma and the diagnosis was suspected based on needle aspiration. There were 10 patients with tuberculosis and 30 patients with hyperplastic lymph nodes or benign lymphoepithelial disease of the parotid. There were three false-positive and two false-negative reports. No complications such as hematoma, nerve injury, or infection developed. The major difficulty was in distinguishing between malignancy and obstructive sialadenitis in the submandibular region. Needle aspiration was helpful in evaluating lesions in the tail of the parotid and submandibular area. The cytologic distinction between salivary and nonsalivary pathology was useful in planning the appropriate surgery and the extent of surgical resection. From a clinical standpoint, the distinction between benign and malignant salivary and nonsalivary pathology was very helpful. Preoperative diagnosis of Warthin's tumor, lymphoma, or benign lymphoepithelial disease was essential to the correct management of these patients.

  9. Single amino acid substitutions on the needle tip protein IpaD increased Shigella virulence.

    PubMed

    Meghraoui, Alaeddine; Schiavolin, Lionel; Allaoui, Abdelmounaaïm

    2014-07-01

    Infection of colonic epithelial cells by Shigella is associated with the type III secretion system, which serves as a molecular syringe to inject effectors into host cells. This system includes an extracellular needle used as a conduit for secreted proteins. Two of these proteins, IpaB and IpaD, dock at the needle tip to control secretion and are also involved in the insertion of a translocation pore into host cell membrane allowing effector delivery. To better understand the function of IpaD, we substituted thirteen residues conserved among homologous proteins in other bacterial species. Generated variants were tested for their ability to surface expose IpaB and IpaD, to control secretion, to insert the translocation pore, and to invade host cells. In addition to a first group of seven ipaD variants that behaved similarly to the wild-type strain, we identified a second group with mutations V314D and I319D that deregulated secretion of all effectors, but remained fully invasive. Moreover, we identified a third group with mutations Y153A, T161D, Q165L and Y276A, that exhibited increased levels of translocators secretion, pore formation, and cell entry. Altogether, our results offer a better understanding of the role of IpaD in the control of Shigella virulence.

  10. Transoesophageal echocardiography and central line insertion.

    PubMed

    Chaney, Mark A; Minhaj, Mohammed M; Patel, Komal; Muzic, David

    2007-07-01

    We investigated the potential utility of transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) in facilitating central venous catheter (CVC) insertion in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Thirty five patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery and CVC insertion were prospectively included in the observational, single-centre clinical investigation. Following induction of general anaesthesia and tracheal intubation, the TOE probe was inserted and the bicaval view obtained prior to CVC insertion (site at discretion of the anaesthesiologist). Prospectively collected data included site and sequence of CVC insertion attempts, information regarding ease of guidewire insertion, whether or not guidewire was visualized via TOE, and other pertinent information. In 1 patient, the TOE bicaval view could not be readily obtained because of right atrial (RA) distortion. In 31 patients, the TOE bicaval view was obtained and CVC access was successful at the site of first choice (guidewire visualized in all). Three patients had noteworthy CVC insertions. In one, CVC insertion was difficult despite visualization ofguidewire in the RA. In another, multiple guidewire insertions met with substantial resistance and without visualization of guidewire in the RA. One patient was found to have an unanticipated large mobile superior vena cava thrombus that extended into the RA, which changed clinical management by prompting initial CVC insertion into the femoral vein (potentially avoiding morbidity associated with thrombus dislodgement). Our prospective observational clinical study indicates that routine use of TOE during CVC insertion may help avoid potential complications associated with this intervention. If both CVC insertion and TOE are going to be used in the same patient, the benefits of TOE should be maximized by routine visualization of the bicaval view during guidewire insertion.

  11. Pine needle holders for use in gas exchange measurements.

    PubMed

    Edwards, N T

    1989-12-01

    Simple holders for positioning pine needles in a gas exchange cuvette are described. The holders make it easy to enclose a standard length of needles in the cuvette in a single plane without mutual shading. The holders also make it possible, following gas exchange measurements, to harvest for further analysis just those needle portions that were enclosed in the leaf chamber. Field observations, which were made with a gas exchange cuvette incorporating the needle holders, on the relationship between carbon exchange rate and photon flux density in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) needles are reported.

  12. Dual mode fuel injector with one piece needle valve member

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Hinrichsen, Michael H.; Buckman, Colby

    2005-01-18

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively by inner and outer needle value members. The homogenous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by an outer needle value member that is moveably positioned in an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The inner needle valve member is positioned in the outer needle valve member. The outer needle valve member is a piece component that includes at least one external guide surface, an external value surface and an internal valve seat.

  13. A proposal for a drug information database and text templates for generating package inserts.

    PubMed

    Okuya, Ryo; Kimura, Masaomi; Ohkura, Michiko; Tsuchiya, Fumito

    2013-01-01

    To prevent prescription errors caused by information systems, a database to store complete and accurate drug information in a user-friendly format is needed. In previous studies, the primary method for obtaining data stored in a database is to extract drug information from package inserts by employing pattern matching or more sophisticated methods such as text mining. However, it is difficult to obtain a complete database because there is no strict rule concerning expressions used to describe drug information in package inserts. The authors' strategy was to first build a database and then automatically generate package inserts by embedding data in the database using templates. To create this database, the support of pharmaceutical companies to input accurate data is required. It is expected that this system will work, because these companies can earn merit for newly developed drugs to decrease the effort to create package inserts from scratch. This study designed the table schemata for the database and text templates to generate the package inserts. To handle the variety of drug-specific information in the package inserts, this information in drug composition descriptions was replaced with labels and the replacement descriptions utilizing cluster analysis were analyzed. To improve the method by which frequently repeated ingredient information and/or supplementary information are stored, the method was modified by introducing repeat tags in the templates to indicate repetition and improving the insertion of data into the database. The validity of this method was confirmed by inputting the drug information described in existing package inserts and checking that the method could regenerate the descriptions in the original package insert. In future research, the table schemata and text templates will be extended to regenerate other information in the package inserts.

  14. Modified algesimeter provides accurate depth measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, D. P.

    1966-01-01

    Algesimeter which incorporates a standard sensory needle with a sensitive micrometer, measures needle point depth penetration in pain tolerance research. This algesimeter provides an inexpensive, precise instrument with assured validity of recordings in those biomedical areas with a requirement for repeated pain detection or ascertaining pain sensitivity.

  15. Mixed mode fuel injector with individually moveable needle valve members

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, Chris; Chockley, Scott A.; Ibrahim, Daniel R.; Lawrence, Keith; Tomaseki, Jay; Azam, Junru H.; Tian, Steven Ye; Shafer, Scott F.

    2004-08-03

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by first and second needle valve members. One of the needle valve members moves to an open position while the other needle valve member remains stationary for a homogeneous charge injection event. The former needle valve member stays stationary while the other needle valve member moves to an open position for a conventional injection event. One of the needle valve members is at least partially positioned in the other needle valve member. Thus, the injector can perform homogeneous charge injection events, conventional injection events, or even a mixed mode having both types of injection events in a single engine cycle.

  16. Tip-holed spinal needle: a new design concept.

    PubMed

    Jahangir, S M

    2000-01-01

    Dura-arachnoid puncture for spinal anesthesia is associated with several complications. Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) and needle bending are significant among these. The incidence of PDPH has been reduced significantly with the advent of pencil-point needles. However, these needles also have their limitations, such as obstruction of the delivery port by tissues affecting both cerebrospinal fluid flash back and drug delivery. Increasing the size of the lateral hole has led to mechanical complications, such as tip bending. A new spreading beveled spinal needle tip has been designed to overcome the disadvantages of all the currently used spinal needles. To assess the feasibility, a 26-gauge Quincke spinal needle (B. Braun, Melsungen, Germany) has been modified manually. The new tip-holed design seems to be sound both from theoretical and practical point of view. Searching Medline Plus through their Internet Web site (www.nlm.nih.com) did not reveal the existence of any such spinal needle. PMID:10925938

  17. Needle length control and the secretion substrate specificity switch are only loosely coupled in the type III secretion apparatus of Shigella.

    PubMed

    Shen, Da-Kang; Moriya, Nao; Martinez-Argudo, Isabel; Blocker, Ariel J

    2012-07-01

    The type III secretion apparatus (T3SA), which is evolutionarily and structurally related to the bacterial flagellar hook basal body, is a key virulence factor used by many gram-negative bacteria to inject effector proteins into host cells. A hollow extracellular needle forms the injection conduit of the T3SA. Its length is tightly controlled to match specific structures at the bacterial and host-cell surfaces but how this occurs remains incompletely understood. The needle is topped by a tip complex, which senses the host cell and inserts as a translocation pore in the host membrane when secretion is activated. The interaction of two conserved proteins, inner-membrane Spa40 and secreted Spa32, respectively, in Shigella, is proposed to regulate needle length and to flick a type III secretion substrate specificity switch from needle components/Spa32 to translocator/effector substrates. We found that, as in T3SAs from other species, substitution N257A within the conserved cytoplasmic NPTH region in Spa40 prevented its autocleavage and substrate specificity switching. Yet, the spa40(N257A) mutant made only slightly longer needles with a few needle tip complexes, although it could not form translocation pores. On the other hand, Δspa32, which makes extremely long needles and also formed only few tip complexes, could still form some translocation pores, indicating that it could switch substrate specificity to some extent. Therefore, loss of needle length control and defects in secretion specificity switching are not tightly coupled in either a Δspa32 mutant or a spa40(N257A) mutant.

  18. Sensitivity of PCR Targeting Mycobacterium ulcerans by Use of Fine-Needle Aspirates for Diagnosis of Buruli Ulcer▿

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, R. O.; Sarfo, F. S.; Osei-Sarpong, F.; Boateng, A.; Tetteh, I.; Lartey, A.; Adentwe, E.; Opare, W.; Asiedu, K. B.; Wansbrough-Jones, M.

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study, we reported that the sensitivity of PCR targeting the IS2404 insertion sequence of Mycobacterium ulcerans was 98% when it was applied to 4-mm punch biopsy samples of Buruli lesions. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a less traumatic sampling technique for nonulcerated lesions, and we have studied the sensitivity of PCR using FNA samples. Fine-needle aspirates were taken with a 21-gauge needle from 43 patients diagnosed clinically with M. ulcerans disease. Four-millimeter punch biopsies were obtained for microscopy, culture, and PCR targeting the IS2404 insertion sequence. The sensitivity of PCR using samples obtained by FNA was 86% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 72 to 94%) compared with that for PCR using punch biopsy samples. In this study, the sensitivities of culture and microscopy for punch biopsy samples were 44% (95% CI, 29 to 60%) and 26% (95% CI, 14 to 41%), respectively. This demonstrates that PCR on an FNA sample is a viable minimally invasive technique to diagnose M. ulcerans lesions. PMID:19204098

  19. An Exploration of the Needling Depth in Acupuncture: The Safe Needling Depth and the Needling Depth of Clinical Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chou, Pei-Chi; Chu, Heng-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore the existing scientific information regarding safe needling depth of acupuncture points and the needling depth of clinical efficacy. Methods. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases to identify relevant monographs and related references from 1991 to 2013. Chinese journals and theses/dissertations were hand searched. Results. 47 studies were recruited and divided into 6 groups by measuring tools, that is, MRI, in vivo evaluation, CT, ultrasound, dissected specimen of cadavers, and another group with clinical efficacy. Each research was analyzed for study design, definition of safe depth, and factors that would affect the measured depths. Depths of clinical efficacy were discussed from the perspective of de-qi and other clinical observations. Conclusions. Great inconsistency in depth of each point measured from different subject groups and tools exists. The definition of safe depth should be established through standardization. There is also lack of researches to compare the clinical efficacy. A well-designed clinical trial selecting proper measuring tools to decide the actual and advisable needling depth for each point, to avoid adverse effects or complications and promote optimal clinical efficacy, is a top priority. PMID:23935678

  20. Mars Observer Orbit Insertion Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    For the first part of this briefing, see NONP-NASA-VT-2000081556. Marvin Traxler continues his discussion on signal tracking from the Mars Observer. Julie Webster, Lead Engineer, Telecommunications Subsystem, is introduced. She explains how signals coming back from Mars are detected. Dr. Pasquale Esposito talks about flyby orbits and capture orbits. He says that frequencies coming from the spacecraft can determine if the spacecraft has flown by Mars, or if a capture orbit has occurred. Charles Whetsel, System Engineer Spacecraft Team, presents a computer program. He shows where the signal will appear on the computer from the Spacecraft. Suzanne Dodd presents orbit insertion geometry. Dr. Arden Albee, Project Scientist Mars Observer Project, Cal Tech tech, says that Mars is studied to get more data to confirm their hypotheses derived from previous Mars Missions such as the Viking Mars Program and the Mariner Program. Dr. Albee also describes instrumentation on the Mars Observer such as the Ultra Stable Oscillator, Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, and Magnetometer. The camera on the spacecraft is similar to a fax machine because it scans one line at a time as the spacecraft orbits Mars. Dr. Michael Malin, Principle Investigator Mars Observer Camera, Malin Space Science Systems, Inc., describe this process.

  1. Electromagnetic thermotherapy for deep organ ablation by using a needle array under a synchronized-coil system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-Chieh; Kang, Jui-Wen; Tsai, Hung-Wen; Shan, Yan-Shen; Lin, Xi-Zhang; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2014-11-01

    Thermal ablation by using electromagnetic thermotherapy (EMT) has been a promising cancer modality in recent years. It has relatively few side effects and has therefore been extensively investigated for a variety of medical applications in internal medicine and surgery. The EMT system applies a high-frequency alternating electromagnetic field to heat up the needles which are inserted into the target tumor to cause tumor ablation. In this study, a new synchronized-coil EMT system was demonstrated, which was equipped with two synchronized coils and magnetic field generators to provide a long-range, penetrated electromagnetic field to effectively heat up the needles. The heating effect of the needles at the center of the two coils was first explored. The newly designed two-section needle array combined with the synchronized-coil EMT system was thus demonstrated in the in vitro and in vivo animal experiments. Experimental data showed that the developed system is promising for minimally invasive surgery since it might provide superior performance for thermotherapy in cancer treatment.

  2. Genetic Dissection of the Signaling Cascade that Controls Activation of the Shigella Type III Secretion System from the Needle Tip

    PubMed Central

    Murillo, I.; Martinez-Argudo, I.; Blocker, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens use type III secretion systems (T3SSs) for virulence. The Shigella T3SS consists of a hollow needle, made of MxiH and protruding from the bacterial surface, anchored in both bacterial membranes by multimeric protein rings. Atop the needle lies the tip complex (TC), formed by IpaD and IpaB. Upon physical contact with eukaryotic host cells, T3S is initiated leading to formation of a pore in the eukaryotic cell membrane, which is made of IpaB and IpaC. Through the needle and pore channels, further bacterial proteins are translocated inside the host cell to meditate its invasion. IpaD and the needle are implicated in transduction of the host cell-sensing signal to the T3S apparatus. Furthermore, the sensing-competent TC seems formed of 4 IpaDs topped by 1 IpaB. However, nothing further is known about the activation process. To investigate IpaB’s role during T3SS activation, we isolated secretion-deregulated IpaB mutants using random mutagenesis and a genetic screen. We found ipaB point mutations in leading to defects in secretion activation, which sometimes diminished pore insertion and host cell invasion. We also demonstrated IpaB communicates intramolecularly and intermolecularly with IpaD and MxiH within the TC because mutations affecting these interactions impair signal transduction. PMID:27277624

  3. The highly accurate anteriolateral portal for injecting the knee

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The extended knee lateral midpatellar portal for intraarticular injection of the knee is accurate but is not practical for all patients. We hypothesized that a modified anteriolateral portal where the synovial membrane of the medial femoral condyle is the target would be highly accurate and effective for intraarticular injection of the knee. Methods 83 subjects with non-effusive osteoarthritis of the knee were randomized to intraarticular injection using the modified anteriolateral bent knee versus the standard lateral midpatellar portal. After hydrodissection of the synovial membrane with lidocaine using a mechanical syringe (reciprocating procedure device), 80 mg of triamcinolone acetonide were injected into the knee with a 2.0-in (5.1-cm) 21-gauge needle. Baseline pain, procedural pain, and pain at outcome (2 weeks and 6 months) were determined with the 10 cm Visual Analogue Pain Score (VAS). The accuracy of needle placement was determined by sonographic imaging. Results The lateral midpatellar and anteriolateral portals resulted in equivalent clinical outcomes including procedural pain (VAS midpatellar: 4.6 ± 3.1 cm; anteriolateral: 4.8 ± 3.2 cm; p = 0.77), pain at outcome (VAS midpatellar: 2.6 ± 2.8 cm; anteriolateral: 1.7 ± 2.3 cm; p = 0.11), responders (midpatellar: 45%; anteriolateral: 56%; p = 0.33), duration of therapeutic effect (midpatellar: 3.9 ± 2.4 months; anteriolateral: 4.1 ± 2.2 months; p = 0.69), and time to next procedure (midpatellar: 7.3 ± 3.3 months; anteriolateral: 7.7 ± 3.7 months; p = 0.71). The anteriolateral portal was 97% accurate by real-time ultrasound imaging. Conclusion The modified anteriolateral bent knee portal is an effective, accurate, and equivalent alternative to the standard lateral midpatellar portal for intraarticular injection of the knee. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00651625 PMID:21447197

  4. Maxillofacial Changes in Melnick-Needles Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque do Nascimento, Leilane Larissa; Salgueiro, Monica da Consolação Canuto; Quintela, Mariana; Mota, Ana Carolina Costa

    2016-01-01

    Background. Melnick-Needles Syndrome is rare congenital hereditary skeletal dysplasia caused by mutations in the FLNA gene, which codifies the protein filamin A. This condition leads to serious skeletal abnormalities, including the stomatognathic region. Case Presentation. This paper describes the case of a 13-year-old girl diagnosed with Melnick-Needles Syndrome presenting with different forms of skeletal dysplasia, such as cranial hyperostosis, short upper limbs, bowed long bones, metaphyseal thickening, genu valgum (knock-knee), shortened distal phalanges, narrow pelvis and shoulders, rib tapering and irregularities, elongation of the vertebrae, kyphoscoliosis, micrognathia, hypoplastic coronoid processes of the mandible, left stylohyoid ligament suggesting ossification, and dental development anomalies. Conclusion. Knowledge of this rare syndrome on the part of dentists is important due to the fact that this condition involves severe abnormalities of the stomatognathic system that cause an impact on the development of the entire face as well as functional and esthetic impairments. PMID:27478655

  5. Maxillofacial Changes in Melnick-Needles Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque do Nascimento, Leilane Larissa; Salgueiro, Monica da Consolação Canuto; Quintela, Mariana; Teixeira, Victor Perez; Mota, Ana Carolina Costa; de Godoy, Camila Haddad Leal; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2016-01-01

    Background. Melnick-Needles Syndrome is rare congenital hereditary skeletal dysplasia caused by mutations in the FLNA gene, which codifies the protein filamin A. This condition leads to serious skeletal abnormalities, including the stomatognathic region. Case Presentation. This paper describes the case of a 13-year-old girl diagnosed with Melnick-Needles Syndrome presenting with different forms of skeletal dysplasia, such as cranial hyperostosis, short upper limbs, bowed long bones, metaphyseal thickening, genu valgum (knock-knee), shortened distal phalanges, narrow pelvis and shoulders, rib tapering and irregularities, elongation of the vertebrae, kyphoscoliosis, micrognathia, hypoplastic coronoid processes of the mandible, left stylohyoid ligament suggesting ossification, and dental development anomalies. Conclusion. Knowledge of this rare syndrome on the part of dentists is important due to the fact that this condition involves severe abnormalities of the stomatognathic system that cause an impact on the development of the entire face as well as functional and esthetic impairments. PMID:27478655

  6. West Needle Wilderness study area, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Van Loenen, R.E.; Scott, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    The West Needle Wilderness study area, southwestern Colorado, was evaluated for mineral-resource potential in 1982. An area extending westward into the wilderness near the Elk Park mine, has a probable mineral-resource potential for uranium. Uranium resources, and associated silver, nickel, cobalt, and copper, are located at the Elk Park mine, directly adjacent to the eastern study area boundary. No potential for other mineral or energy resources was identified in this study.

  7. Fine needle aspiration of salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Shintani, S; Matsuura, H; Hasegawa, Y

    1997-08-01

    The usefulness of fine needle aspiration (FNA) as a preoperative diagnostic procedure was studied in 43 patients with salivary gland tumors. Nine of the tumors were malignant and 34 benign. The diagnostic sensitivity of FNA was 88.9% (8/9), the specificity 94.1% (32/34) and the accuracy 93.0% (40/43). These results indicate that FNA is a highly sensitive and specific screening procedure.

  8. Exploration of new electroacupuncture needle material.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghun; Choi, Gwang-Ho; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Yu Kyoung; Lee, Saebhom; Cho, Sungjin; Yeon, Sunhee; Choi, Sun-Mi; Ryu, Yeon-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Background. Electro Acupuncture (EA) uses the acupuncture needle as an electrode to apply low-frequency stimulation. For its safe operation, it is essential to prevent any corrosion of the acupuncture needle. Objective. The aim of this study is to find an available material and determine the possibility of producing a standard EA needle that is biocompatible. Methods. Biocompatibility was tested by an MTT assay and cytotoxicity testing. Corrosion was observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) after 0.5 mA, 60 min stimulation. The straightness was measured using a gap length of 100 mm, and tensile testing was performed by imposing a maximum tensile load. Results. Phosphor bronze, Ni coated SS304, were deemed inappropriate materials because of mild-to-moderate cytotoxicity and corrosion. Ti-6Al-4V and SS316 showed no cytotoxicity or corrosion. Ti-6Al-4V has a 70 times higher cost and 2.5 times lower conductivity than SS316. The results of both straightness and tensile testing confirmed that SS316 can be manufactured as a standard product. Conclusion. As a result, we confirmed that SS316 can be used a new EA electrode material. We hope that a further study of the maximum capacity of low-frequency stimulation using an SS316 for safe operation. PMID:22675386

  9. Exploration of New Electroacupuncture Needle Material

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sanghun; Choi, Gwang-Ho; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Yu Kyoung; Lee, Saebhom; Cho, Sungjin; Yeon, Sunhee; Choi, Sun-Mi; Ryu, Yeon-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Background. Electro Acupuncture (EA) uses the acupuncture needle as an electrode to apply low-frequency stimulation. For its safe operation, it is essential to prevent any corrosion of the acupuncture needle. Objective. The aim of this study is to find an available material and determine the possibility of producing a standard EA needle that is biocompatible. Methods. Biocompatibility was tested by an MTT assay and cytotoxicity testing. Corrosion was observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) after 0.5 mA, 60 min stimulation. The straightness was measured using a gap length of 100 mm, and tensile testing was performed by imposing a maximum tensile load. Results. Phosphor bronze, Ni coated SS304, were deemed inappropriate materials because of mild-to-moderate cytotoxicity and corrosion. Ti-6Al-4V and SS316 showed no cytotoxicity or corrosion. Ti-6Al-4V has a 70 times higher cost and 2.5 times lower conductivity than SS316. The results of both straightness and tensile testing confirmed that SS316 can be manufactured as a standard product. Conclusion. As a result, we confirmed that SS316 can be used a new EA electrode material. We hope that a further study of the maximum capacity of low-frequency stimulation using an SS316 for safe operation. PMID:22675386

  10. The effects of needle deformation during lumbar puncture

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Hasan Hüseyin; Demir, Caner F.; Varol, Sefer; Arslan, Demet; Yıldız, Mustafa; Akil, Eşref

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to assess deformation of the tip and deflection from the axis of 22-gauge Quincke needles when they are used for diagnostic lumbar puncture (LP). Thus, it can be determined whether constructional alterations of needles are important for predicting clinical problems after diagnostic LP. Materials and Methods: The 22-gauge Quincke needles used for diagnostic LP were evaluated. A specially designed protractor was used for measurement and evaluation. Waist circumference was measured in each patient. Patients were questioned about headaches occurring after LP. Results: A total of 115 Quincke-type spinal needles used in 113 patients were evaluated. No deflection was detected in 38 (33.1%) of the needles. Deflection between 0.1° and 5° occurred in 43 (37.3%) of the needles and deflection ≥ 5.1° occurred in 34 patients (29.6%). Forty-seven (41.5%) patients experienced post lumbar puncture headache (PLPH) and 13 (11.5%) patients experienced intracranial hypotension (IH). No statistically significant correlation between the degree of deflection and headache was found (P > 0.05). Epidural blood patch was performed for three patients. Deformity in the form of bending like a hook occurred in seven needles and IH occurred in six patients using these needles. Two of the needles used in three patients requiring blood patch were found to be bent. Conclusion: Deformation of needles may increase complications after LP. Needle deformation may lead to IH. In case of deterioration in the structure of the needle, termination of the puncture procedure and the use of a new needle could reduce undesirable clinical consequences, especially IH. PMID:25883480

  11. Fast, automatic, and accurate catheter reconstruction in HDR brachytherapy using an electromagnetic 3D tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    Poulin, Eric; Racine, Emmanuel; Beaulieu, Luc; Binnekamp, Dirk

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: In high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-B), current catheter reconstruction protocols are relatively slow and error prone. The purpose of this technical note is to evaluate the accuracy and the robustness of an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system for automated and real-time catheter reconstruction. Methods: For this preclinical study, a total of ten catheters were inserted in gelatin phantoms with different trajectories. Catheters were reconstructed using a 18G biopsy needle, used as an EM stylet and equipped with a miniaturized sensor, and the second generation Aurora{sup ®} Planar Field Generator from Northern Digital Inc. The Aurora EM system provides position and orientation value with precisions of 0.7 mm and 0.2°, respectively. Phantoms were also scanned using a μCT (GE Healthcare) and Philips Big Bore clinical computed tomography (CT) system with a spatial resolution of 89 μm and 2 mm, respectively. Reconstructions using the EM stylet were compared to μCT and CT. To assess the robustness of the EM reconstruction, five catheters were reconstructed twice and compared. Results: Reconstruction time for one catheter was 10 s, leading to a total reconstruction time inferior to 3 min for a typical 17-catheter implant. When compared to the μCT, the mean EM tip identification error was 0.69 ± 0.29 mm while the CT error was 1.08 ± 0.67 mm. The mean 3D distance error was found to be 0.66 ± 0.33 mm and 1.08 ± 0.72 mm for the EM and CT, respectively. EM 3D catheter trajectories were found to be more accurate. A maximum difference of less than 0.6 mm was found between successive EM reconstructions. Conclusions: The EM reconstruction was found to be more accurate and precise than the conventional methods used for catheter reconstruction in HDR-B. This approach can be applied to any type of catheters and applicators.

  12. An Evolutionarily Conserved Family of Virion Tail Needles Related to Bacteriophage P22 gp26: Correlation between Structural Stability and Length of the -Helical Trimeric Coiled Coil

    SciTech Connect

    Bhardwaj, A.; Walker-Kopp, N; Casjens, S; Cingolani, G

    2009-01-01

    Bacteriophages of the Podoviridae family use short noncontractile tails to inject their genetic material into Gram-negative bacteria. In phage P22, the tail contains a thin needle, encoded by the phage gene 26, which is essential both for stabilization and for ejection of the packaged viral genome. Bioinformatic analysis of the N-terminal domain of gp26 (residues 1-60) led us to identify a family of genes encoding putative homologues of the tail needle gp26. To validate this idea experimentally and to explore their diversity, we cloned the gp26-like gene from phages HK620, Sf6 and HS1, and characterized these gene products in solution. All gp26-like factors contain an elongated {alpha}-helical coiled-coil core consisting of repeating, adjacent trimerization heptads and form trimeric fibers with length ranging between about 240 to 300 {angstrom}. gp26 tail needles display a high level of structural stability in solution, with Tm (temperature of melting) between 85 and 95 C. To determine how the structural stability of these phage fibers correlates with the length of the {alpha}-helical core, we investigated the effect of insertions and deletions in the helical core. In the P22 tail needle, we identified an 85-residue-long helical domain, termed MiCRU (minimal coiled-coil repeat unit), that can be inserted in-frame inside the gp26 helical core, preserving the straight morphology of the fiber. Likewise, we were able to remove three quarters of the helical core of the HS1 tail needle, minimally decreasing the stability of the fiber. We conclude that in the gp26 family of tail needles, structural stability increases nonlinearly with the length of the {alpha}-helical core. Thus, the overall stability of these bacteriophage fibers is not solely dependent on the number of trimerization repeats in the {alpha}-helical core.

  13. Tension pneumothorax as a severe complication of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine needle aspiration of mediastinal lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Szlubowski, Artur; Gil, Tomasz; Kocoń, Piotr; Ziętkiewicz, Mirosław; Twardowska, Magdalena; Kużdżał, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a case report of a patient suffering from bullous emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, who was diagnosed with tension pneumothorax after undergoing endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). Tension pneumothorax is a severe but rare complication of EBUS-TBNA. It can result from lung injury caused by the biopsy needle or, in patients suffering from bullous emphysema, from spontaneous rupture of an emphysematous bulla resulting from increased pressure in the chest cavity during cough caused by bronchofiberoscope insertion. The authors emphasize that patients should be carefully monitored after the biopsy, and, in the case of complications, provided with treatment immediately in proper hospital conditions. Patients burdened with a high risk of complications should be identified before the procedure and monitored with extreme care after its completion. PMID:26855656

  14. Turbine vane segment and impingement insert configuration for fail-safe impingement insert retention

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Kellock, Iain Robertson

    2003-05-13

    An impingement insert sleeve is provided that is adapted to be disposed in a coolant cavity defined through a stator vane. The insert has a generally open inlet end and first and second pairs of diametrically opposed side walls, and at least one fail-safe tab defined at a longitudinal end of the insert for limiting radial displacement of the insert with respect to the stator vane.

  15. Free thyroxine in needle washout after fine needle aspiration biopsy of toxic thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Raikov, Nikolai; Nonchev, Boyan; Chaushev, Borislav; Vjagova, Diyana; Todorov, Svetoslav; Bocheva, Yana; Malceva, Daniela; Vicheva, Snejinka; Raikova, Asyia; Argatska, Antoaneta; Raikov, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    The main diagnostic tool for toxic adenomas (TA) is radionuclide imaging indicated in patients with evidence of thyroid nodules in combination with thyrotoxic syndrome. Thyroid ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are widely used for the valuation of thyroid masses. There is no literature data concerning the utility of FNAB and related tests for the diagnosis of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of free thyroxine (FT4) in the needle washout after FNAB of hot thyroid nodules. The results of our study show that the FT4 levels in needle washout from TA were significantly higher than the surrounding parenchyma and correlated with the hormonal changes in patients with thyroid hyperfunctioning nodules. Further studies on a large number of patients are needed to refine the diagnostic value of this method and evaluate its importance in quantitative risk assessment of thyroid autonomy. PMID:26841375

  16. Free thyroxine in needle washout after fine needle aspiration biopsy of toxic thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Raikov, Nikolai; Nonchev, Boyan; Chaushev, Borislav; Vjagova, Diyana; Todorov, Svetoslav; Bocheva, Yana; Malceva, Daniela; Vicheva, Snejinka; Raikova, Asyia; Argatska, Antoaneta; Raikov, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    The main diagnostic tool for toxic adenomas (TA) is radionuclide imaging indicated in patients with evidence of thyroid nodules in combination with thyrotoxic syndrome. Thyroid ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are widely used for the valuation of thyroid masses. There is no literature data concerning the utility of FNAB and related tests for the diagnosis of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of free thyroxine (FT4) in the needle washout after FNAB of hot thyroid nodules. The results of our study show that the FT4 levels in needle washout from TA were significantly higher than the surrounding parenchyma and correlated with the hormonal changes in patients with thyroid hyperfunctioning nodules. Further studies on a large number of patients are needed to refine the diagnostic value of this method and evaluate its importance in quantitative risk assessment of thyroid autonomy.

  17. Thrust improvement with ablative insert nozzle extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, R. M.; Back, L. H.

    1986-01-01

    Aspects are examined of an investigation by the Marshall Space Flight Center into the conceptual feasibility of increasing the thrust performance of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) by using a conical nozzle extension fitted with an ablative insert in order to achieve a low-cost, near-term gain in payload. The ablating insert would provide a controlled increase in nozzle expansion ratio during launch and early climbout (first 30-60 seconds) so as to reduce thrust loss from nozzle over-expansion in the lower atmosphere. Summaries are given of JPL studies in the area of: defining the near-wall flow environment in the extended nozzle insert region; selecting potential insert materials; conceptualizing an extension/insert geometrical configuration; and identifying future experimental efforts necessary to verify the feasibility of the concepts.

  18. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N; Smirnov, Alexandre

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  19. Needle Fracture during Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of Suspicious Thoracic Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Bartosz; Manière, Thibaut; Déry, Vincent; Désilets, Étienne

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is used to make a cytopathologic diagnosis of suspicious lesions located around the gastrointestinal tract. It is a safe technique with few complications. The most common complications of EUS-FNA are related to pancreatic lesions (pancreatitis, bleeding, and abdominal pain). Rare complications have been noted such as stent malfunction, air embolism, infection, neural and vascular injuries, and tumor cell seeding. There are very few studies examining equipment malfunctions. We report a case of needle fracture during the EUS-FNA of suspicious thoracic lymph nodes in a 79-year-old man investigated for unexplained weight loss. PMID:27555874

  20. Needle Fracture during Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of Suspicious Thoracic Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Manière, Thibaut; Déry, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is used to make a cytopathologic diagnosis of suspicious lesions located around the gastrointestinal tract. It is a safe technique with few complications. The most common complications of EUS-FNA are related to pancreatic lesions (pancreatitis, bleeding, and abdominal pain). Rare complications have been noted such as stent malfunction, air embolism, infection, neural and vascular injuries, and tumor cell seeding. There are very few studies examining equipment malfunctions. We report a case of needle fracture during the EUS-FNA of suspicious thoracic lymph nodes in a 79-year-old man investigated for unexplained weight loss. PMID:27555874

  1. Picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination forms a monocrystalline silicon needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Fuyuto; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Hidai, Hirofumi; Yamane, Keisaku; Morita, Ryuji; Omatsu, Takashige

    2016-02-01

    The formation of a monocrystalline silicon needle by picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination was demonstrated for the first time in this study. The dynamics of this silicon needle formation was further revealed by employing an ultrahigh-speed camera. The melted silicon was collected through picosecond pulse deposition to the dark core of the optical vortex, forming the silicon needle on a submicrosecond time scale. The needle was composed of monocrystalline silicon with the same lattice index (100) as that of the silicon substrate, and had a height of approximately 14 μm and a thickness of approximately 3 μm. Overlaid vortex pulses allowed the needle to be shaped with a height of approximately 40 μm without any changes to the crystalline properties. Such a monocrystalline silicon needle can be applied to devices in many fields, such as core-shell structures for silicon photonics and photovoltaic devices as well as nano- or microelectromechanical systems.

  2. MR-compatible biopsy needle with enhanced tip force sensing

    PubMed Central

    Elayaperumal, Santhi; Bae, Jung Hwa; Christensen, David; Cutkosky, Mark R.; Daniel, Bruce L.; Costa, Joannes M.; Black, Richard J.; Faridian, Fereydoun; Moslehi, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    We describe an instrumented biopsy needle that provides physicians the capability to sense interaction forces directly at the tip of the needle’s inner stylet. The sensors consist of optical fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), and are unaffected by electromagnetic fields; hence the needle is suitable for MR-guided procedures. In comparison to previous instrumented needles that measure bending strains, the new design has additional sensors and a series of micro-machined holes at the tip. The holes increase strain sensitivity, especially to axial forces, without significantly reducing the stiffness or strength. A comparison of the dynamic forces measured with the new needle and those obtained using a force/torque sensor at the needle base shows that the enhanced tip sensitivity is particularly noticeable when there is significant friction along the needle sleeve. PMID:26509189

  3. Modeling and characterization of partially inserted electrical connector faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokgöz, ćaǧatay; Dardona, Sameh; Soldner, Nicholas C.; Wheeler, Kevin R.

    2016-03-01

    Faults within electrical connectors are prominent in avionics systems due to improper installation, corrosion, aging, and strained harnesses. These faults usually start off as undetectable with existing inspection techniques and increase in magnitude during the component lifetime. Detection and modeling of these faults are significantly more challenging than hard failures such as open and short circuits. Hence, enabling the capability to locate and characterize the precursors of these faults is critical for timely preventive maintenance and mitigation well before hard failures occur. In this paper, an electrical connector model based on a two-level nonlinear least squares approach is proposed. The connector is first characterized as a transmission line, broken into key components such as the pin, socket, and connector halves. Then, the fact that the resonance frequencies of the connector shift as insertion depth changes from a fully inserted to a barely touching contact is exploited. The model precisely captures these shifts by varying only two length parameters. It is demonstrated that the model accurately characterizes a partially inserted connector.

  4. Laparoscopic insertion of gastric electrodes for electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Brody, Fred; Nam, Arthur; Drenon, Elizabeth; Ali, Aamir; Soffer, Edy

    2007-02-01

    Gastric electrical stimulation can provide symptomatic relief for patients with refractory gastroparesis. Traditionally, these wires are placed through a midline laparotomy. This paper describes and illustrates, in detail, the laparoscopic technique for successful implantation. Thirty-one consecutive patients from October 2003 to March 2005 underwent laparoscopic insertion of gastric stimulating wires for gastroparesis. Twenty-six patients were female. Four laparoscopic ports were used to insert a pair of electrodes. Anterior, cephalad retraction of the gastric wall is critical for accurate seromuscular placement of gastric leads. Intraoperative endoscopy was used to verify the seromuscular placement of the leads. Both leads were secured to a subcutaneous generator and electrical parameters were immediately established in the operating room. Patient demographics, operative details, and postoperative morbidities were recorded. All procedures were completed laparoscopically. The mean operative time was 114.4 +/- 20.9 minutes (range, 95-140). No perioperative mortality occurred. Two patients developed cellulitis at the generator site postoperatively and oral antibiotics were prescribed for one week postoperatively. No hardware was removed. Two patients had their generators repositioned due to pain at the pocket site. Gastric electrical stimulation is a novel treatment modality for patients with refractory gastroparesis and can be accomplished safely via laparoscopy. Laparoscopic insertion is successful even in patients with prior surgery and intact gastrointestinal tubes. Long-term follow-up and the current prospective multicenter trial continue to assess the efficacy of this treatment modality. PMID:17362169

  5. In Vivo Needle-Based Electromechanical Reshaping of Pinnae

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Amy Y. Y.; Manuel, Cyrus; Hussain, Syed F.; Protsenko, Dmitry E.; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2014-01-01

    pinnae identified localized areas of cell injury and fibrosis in the cartilage and in the surrounding soft tissue where the needle electrodes were inserted. This circumferential zone of injury (range, 1.5-2.5 mm) corresponded to dead cells on cell viability assay, and the diameter of this region increased with total electrical charge transfer to a maximum of 2.5 mm at 6 V for 3 minutes. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Electromechanical reshaping produced shape change in intact pinnae of rabbits in this expanded in vivo study. A short application of 4 to 6 V can achieve adequate reshaping of the pinnae. Tissue injury around the electrodes increases with the amount of total current transferred into the tissue and is modest in spatial distribution. This study is a critical step toward evaluation of EMR in clinical trials. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE NA. PMID:24854476

  6. Evaluating the advances and use of hypodermic needles in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Boynes, Sean G

    2014-10-01

    Different injection techniques and patient management methodologies have been proposed to decrease the fear patients may have concerning dental needles. Dental providers should have an understanding of the technological advances, changes in techniques, and patient perceptions associated with the hypodermic needle. This article provides an overview of the pain perception process associated with dental injections. It reviews the two main sensory nerve fibers associated with injection pain and discusses needle properties as well as complications and adverse occurrences.

  7. Chest Wall Dissemination of Nocardiosis after Percutaneous Transthoracic Needle Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Shimamoto, Hiroshi Inaba, Yoshitaka; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Sato, Yozo; Kamiya, Mika; Miyazaki, Masaya; Arai, Yasuaki; Horio, Yoshitsugu

    2007-07-15

    We described a case of chest wall dissemination after percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy. A 65-year-old man had a lung nodule which was suspected to be lung carcinoma. He underwent percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy using an 18G semiautomated biopsy needle and pathologic diagnosis showed organizing pneumonia. Two months after the biopsy, chest wall dissemination occurred. Implantation of carcinoma along the biopsy route was suspected, but the mass was actually due to pulmonary nocardiosis.

  8. Design of a Tool Integrating Force Sensing With Automated Insertion in Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Schurzig, Daniel; Labadie, Robert F.; Hussong, Andreas; Rau, Thomas S.; Webster, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The quality of hearing restored to a deaf patient by a cochlear implant in hearing preservation cochlear implant surgery (and possibly also in routine cochlear implant surgery) is believed to depend on preserving delicate cochlear membranes while accurately inserting an electrode array deep into the spiral cochlea. Membrane rupture forces, and possibly, other indicators of suboptimal placement, are below the threshold detectable by human hands, motivating a force sensing insertion tool. Furthermore, recent studies have shown significant variability in manual insertion forces and velocities that may explain some instances of imperfect placement. Toward addressing this, an automated insertion tool was recently developed by Hussong et al. By following the same insertion tool concept, in this paper, we present mechanical enhancements that improve the surgeon’s interface with the device and make it smaller and lighter. We also present electomechanical design of new components enabling integrated force sensing. The tool is designed to be sufficiently compact and light that it can be mounted to a microstereotactic frame for accurate image-guided preinsertion positioning. The new integrated force sensing system is capable of resolving forces as small as 0.005 N, and we provide experimental illustration of using forces to detect errors in electrode insertion. PMID:23482414

  9. Hollow metallic micromachined needles with multiple output ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazzle, John D.; Mohanty, Swomitra K.; Frazier, A. Bruno

    1999-08-01

    In this paper, hollow metallic micromachined needles with multiple output ports are designed, fabricated, characterized, and packaged. The hollow metallic needles include design features such as tapered needle tips and multiple output ports on the bottom and top of each needle. The needle tip and shaft are formed by microelectroformed metal. The flow characteristics of the needles are currently being experimentally investigated and modeled using a finite element numerical model. The experimental results and theoretical models will be presented as part of this paper. The micromachined needles can be fabricated on a variety of substrates and can use micro-electroformed palladium as the structural material. The use of palladium as a structural material provides high mechanical strength and durability, as well as, biocompatibility for use in biomedical applications. The cross-sectional dimensions of individual needle tips begin at less than 10 micrometers in width and 15 micrometers in height and then taper to 200 micrometers in width and 60 micrometers in height. The significance of this work includes the development of hollow metallic micromachined needles for biomedical applications, as well as, a discussion of structural, fluidic, and packaging design considerations.

  10. Serrated needle design facilitates precise round window membrane perforation.

    PubMed

    Stevens, James P; Watanabe, Hirobumi; Kysar, Jeffrey W; Lalwani, Anil K

    2016-07-01

    The round window membrane (RWM) has become the preferred route, over cochleostomy, for the introduction of cochlear implant electrodes as it minimizes inner ear trauma. However, in the absence of a tool designed for creating precise perforation, current practices lead to tearing of the RWM and significant intracochlear pressure fluctuations. On the basis of RWM mechanical properties, we have designed a multi-serrated needle to create consistent holes without membrane tearing or damaging inner ear structures. Four and eight-serrated needles were designed and produced with wire electrical discharge machining (EDM). The needle's ability to create RWM perforations was tested in deidentified, commercially acquired temporal bones with the assistance of a micromanipulator. Subsequently, specimens were imaged under light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The needles created consistent, appropriately sized holes in the membrane with minimal tearing. While a four-serrated crown needle made rectangular/trapezoid perforations, the octagonal crown formed smooth oval holes within the membrane. Though designed for single use, the needle tolerated repeated use without significant damage. The serrated needles formed precise perforations in the RWM while minimizing damage during cochlear implantation. The octagonal needle design created the preferred oval perforation better than the quad needle. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1633-1637, 2016. PMID:26914984

  11. Lab in a needle for epidural space identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carotenuto, B.; Micco, A.; Ricciardi, A.; Amorizzo, E.; Mercieri, M.; Cutolo, A.; Cusano, A.

    2016-05-01

    This work relies on the development of a sensorized medical needle with an all-optical guidance (Lab in a Needle) system for epidural space identification. The device is based on the judicious integration of a Fiber Bragg grating sensor inside the lumen of an epidural needle to discriminate between different types of tissue and thus providing continuous and real time measurements of the pressure experienced by the needle tip during its advancement. Experiments carried out on an epidural training phantom demonstrate the validity of our approach for the correct and effective identification of the epidural space.

  12. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Russell B; Krueger, Judson J; Plank, William L

    2014-04-01

    A sequential impingement cooling insert for a turbine stator vane that forms a double impingement for the pressure and suction sides of the vane or a triple impingement. The insert is formed from a sheet metal formed in a zigzag shape that forms a series of alternating impingement cooling channels with return air channels, where pressure side and suction side impingement cooling plates are secured over the zigzag shaped main piece. Another embodiment includes the insert formed from one or two blocks of material in which the impingement channels and return air channels are machined into each block.

  13. Insertion Profiles of 4 Headless Compression Screws

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Adam; Harvey, Edward J.; Lefebvre, Louis-Philippe; Barthelat, Francois; Rabiei, Reza; Martineau, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In practice, the surgeon must rely on screw position (insertion depth) and tactile feedback from the screwdriver (insertion torque) to gauge compression. In this study, we identified the relationship between interfragmentary compression and these 2 factors. Methods The Acutrak Standard, Acutrak Mini, Synthes 3.0, and Herbert-Whipple implants were tested using a polyurethane foam scaphoid model. A specialized testing jig simultaneously measured compression force, insertion torque, and insertion depth at half-screw-turn intervals until failure occurred. Results The peak compression occurs at an insertion depth of −3.1 mm, −2.8 mm, 0.9 mm, and 1.5 mm for the Acutrak Mini, Acutrak Standard, Herbert-Whipple, and Synthes screws respectively (insertion depth is positive when the screw is proud above the bone and negative when buried). The compression and insertion torque at a depth of −2 mm were found to be 113 ± 18 N and 0.348 ± 0.052 Nm for the Acutrak Standard, 104 ± 15 N and 0.175 ± 0.008 Nm for the Acutrak Mini, 78 ± 9 N and 0.245 ± 0.006 Nm for the Herbert-Whipple, and 67 ± 2N, 0.233 ± 0.010 Nm for the Synthes headless compression screws. Conclusions All 4 screws generated a sizable amount of compression (> 60 N) over a wide range of insertion depths. The compression at the commonly recommended insertion depth of −2 mm was not significantly different between screws; thus, implant selection should not be based on compression profile alone. Conically shaped screws (Acutrak) generated their peak compression when they were fully buried in the foam whereas the shanked screws (Synthes and Herbert-Whipple) reached peak compression before they were fully inserted. Because insertion torque correlated poorly with compression, surgeons should avoid using tactile judgment of torque as a proxy for compression. Clinical relevance Knowledge of the insertion profile may improve our understanding of the implants, provide a better basis for comparing screws

  14. Elliptically polarizing adjustable phase insertion device

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Roger

    1995-01-01

    An insertion device for extracting polarized electromagnetic energy from a beam of particles is disclosed. The insertion device includes four linear arrays of magnets which are aligned with the particle beam. The magnetic field strength to which the particles are subjected is adjusted by altering the relative alignment of the arrays in a direction parallel to that of the particle beam. Both the energy and polarization of the extracted energy may be varied by moving the relevant arrays parallel to the beam direction. The present invention requires a substantially simpler and more economical superstructure than insertion devices in which the magnetic field strength is altered by changing the gap between arrays of magnets.

  15. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Russel B; Krueger, Judson J; Plank, William L

    2014-11-04

    A sequential impingement cooling insert for a turbine stator vane that forms a double impingement for the pressure and suction sides of the vane or a triple impingement. The insert is formed from a sheet metal formed in a zigzag shape that forms a series of alternating impingement cooling channels with return air channels, where pressure side and suction side impingement cooling plates are secured over the zigzag shaped main piece. Another embodiment includes the insert formed from one or two blocks of material in which the impingement channels and return air channels are machined into each block.

  16. Evolution of transbronchial needle aspiration technique

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing-Hua; Ben, Su-Qin; Xia, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is an established technique to collect cell and tissue specimens from lesions outside the airway wall, generally guided by flexible bronchoscope under the direct visualization of the puncture site. TBNA has been utilized for 30 years, and now there is renewed interest in utilizing it in conjunction with endobronchial ultrasound. Although the basic operational principles have remained the same, conventional TBNA (cTBNA) and endobronchial ultrasound-guided TBNA (EBUS-TBNA) have been greatly improved over the years with the increased application in clinic and the advance of new technology. In this article we briefly discussed the evolution of TBNA technique and its future. PMID:26807269

  17. Incidence and natural history of saline-filled breast implant deflations: comparison of blunt-tipped versus cutting and tapered needles.

    PubMed

    Rapaport, D P; Stadelmann, W K; Greenwald, D P

    1997-09-01

    The silicone shells of breast implants are known to fail. When failure occurs in saline-filled implants, the consequences are always ultimately symptomatic. Failure may be due to shell elastomer fatigue, fold-flaw cracking, faulty valve mechanisms, trauma, and microperforations (defined as perforations that are too small to be seen with the unassisted eye). To determine the incidence and natural history of microperforations, a major manufacturer of saline-filled breast implants was contacted. Over a 30-month period, 289,033 saline implants were sold, and 2844 were subsequently returned due to perioperative deflation. By using a rigorous and reproducible method of evaluating returned deflated saline-filled breast implants, it was found that 197 (0.068 percent of all implants sold) sustained needle damage at the time of insertion and went on to deflate within 6 months. Of the implants returned, overall 6.93 percent were found to have sustained needle trauma as the cause of the deflation, and the incidence appears to be increasing with time. The actual incidence of needle-related deflations may be significantly greater, since these data reflect only those implants which are voluntarily returned to the manufacturer. As a second part of this study, a segment of the silicone shell from a saline-filled breast implant was tested to determine the resistance to puncture using blunt-tipped, tapered, and cutting needles. The blunt-tipped needle required 6.6 times more force to puncture the shell than a cutting needle (p = 0.0011) and 3.2 times more force than a tapered needle (p = 0.0052). The difference in force needed to puncture the shell for a tapered and a cutting needle was not statistically significantly different (p = 0.5045). Microperforations do occur in the operating room and are responsible for a significant percentage of early (less than 6 months) deflations. Blunt needles require significantly more force to puncture the shell of an implant than do cutting and

  18. NNLOPS accurate associated HW production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astill, William; Bizon, Wojciech; Re, Emanuele; Zanderighi, Giulia

    2016-06-01

    We present a next-to-next-to-leading order accurate description of associated HW production consistently matched to a parton shower. The method is based on reweighting events obtained with the HW plus one jet NLO accurate calculation implemented in POWHEG, extended with the MiNLO procedure, to reproduce NNLO accurate Born distributions. Since the Born kinematics is more complex than the cases treated before, we use a parametrization of the Collins-Soper angles to reduce the number of variables required for the reweighting. We present phenomenological results at 13 TeV, with cuts suggested by the Higgs Cross section Working Group.

  19. A new sensor technology for 2D ultrasound-guided needle tracking.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huanxiang; Li, Junbo; Lu, Qiang; Bharat, Shyam; Erkamp, Ramon; Chen, Bin; Drysdale, Jeremy; Vignon, Francois; Jain, Ameet

    2014-01-01

    2D Ultrasound (US) is becoming the preferred modality for image-guided interventions due to its low cost and portability. However, the main limitation is the limited visibility of surgical tools. We present a new sensor technology that can easily be embedded on needles that are used for US-guided interventions. Two different types of materials are proposed to be used as sensor--co-polymer and PZT. The co-polymer technology is particularly attractive due to its plasticity, allowing very thin depositions (10-20 μm) on a variety of needle shapes. Both sensors receive acoustic energy and convert it to an electrical signal. The precise location of the needle can then be estimated from this signal, to provide real-time feedback to the clinician. We evaluated the feasibility of this new technology using (i) a 4DOF robot in a water tank; (ii) extensive ex vivo experiments; and (iii) in vivo studies. Quantitative robotic studies indicated that the co-polymer is more robust and stable when compared to PZT. In quantitative experiments, the technology achieved a tracking accuracy of 0.14 ± 0.03mm, significantly superior to competing technologies. The technology also proved success in near-real clinical studies on tissue data. This sensor technology is non-disruptive of existing clinical workflows, highly accurate, and is cost-effective. Initial clinician feedback shows great potential for large scale clinical impact.

  20. Comparisons of Prediction Models of Myofascial Pain Control after Dry Needling: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuan-Ting; Neoh, Choo-Aun; Lin, Shun-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Background. This study purposed to validate the use of artificial neural network (ANN) models for predicting myofascial pain control after dry needling and to compare the predictive capability of ANNs with that of support vector machine (SVM) and multiple linear regression (MLR). Methods. Totally 400 patients who have received dry needling treatments completed the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) at baseline and at 1 year postoperatively. Results. Compared to the MLR and SVM models, the ANN model generally had smaller mean square error (MSE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) values in the training dataset and testing dataset. Most ANN models had MAPE values ranging from 3.4% to 4.6% and most had high prediction accuracy. The global sensitivity analysis also showed that pretreatment BPI score was the best parameter for predicting pain after dry needling. Conclusion. Compared with the MLR and SVM models, the ANN model in this study was more accurate in predicting patient-reported BPI scores and had higher overall performance indices. Further studies of this model may consider the effect of a more detailed database that includes complications and clinical examination findings as well as more detailed outcome data. PMID:23853659

  1. Estimating thermal diffusivity and specific heat from needle probe thermal conductivity data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waite, W.F.; Gilbert, L.Y.; Winters, W.J.; Mason, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal diffusivity and specific heat can be estimated from thermal conductivity measurements made using a standard needle probe and a suitably high data acquisition rate. Thermal properties are calculated from the measured temperature change in a sample subjected to heating by a needle probe. Accurate thermal conductivity measurements are obtained from a linear fit to many tens or hundreds of temperature change data points. In contrast, thermal diffusivity calculations require a nonlinear fit to the measured temperature change occurring in the first few tenths of a second of the measurement, resulting in a lower accuracy than that obtained for thermal conductivity. Specific heat is calculated from the ratio of thermal conductivity to diffusivity, and thus can have an uncertainty no better than that of the diffusivity estimate. Our thermal conductivity measurements of ice Ih and of tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate, made using a 1.6 mm outer diameter needle probe and a data acquisition rate of 18.2 pointss, agree with published results. Our thermal diffusivity and specific heat results reproduce published results within 25% for ice Ih and 3% for THF hydrate. ?? 2006 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Needle-free injection into skin and soft matter with highly focused microjets.

    PubMed

    Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Oudalov, Nikolai; El Ghalbzouri, A; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2013-04-01

    The development of needle-free drug injection systems is of great importance to global healthcare. However, in spite of its great potential and research history over many decades, these systems are not commonly used. One of the main problems is that existing methods use diffusive jets, which result in scattered penetration and severe deceleration of the jets, causing frequent pain and insufficient penetration. Another long-standing challenge is the development of accurate small volume injections. In this paper we employ a novel method of needle-free drug injection, using highly-focused high speed microjets, which aims to solve these challenges. We experimentally demonstrate that these unique jets are able to penetrate human skin: the focused nature of these microjets creates an injection spot smaller than a mosquito's proboscis and guarantees a high percentage of the liquid being injected. The liquid substances can be delivered to a much larger depth than conventional methods, and create a well-controlled dispersion pattern. Thanks to the excellent controllability of the microjet, small volume injections become feasible. Furthermore, the penetration dynamics is studied through experiments performed on gelatin mixtures (human soft tissue equivalent) and human skin, agreeing well with a viscous stress model which we develop. This model predicts the depth of the penetration into both human skin and soft tissue. The results presented here take needle-free injections a step closer to widespread use. PMID:23386257

  3. Multi-needle capacitance probe for non-conductive two-phase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monrós-Andreu, G.; Martinez-Cuenca, R.; Torró, S.; Escrig, J.; Hewakandamby, B.; Chiva, S.

    2016-07-01

    Despite its variable degree of application, intrusive instrumentation is the most accurate way to obtain local information in a two-phase flow system, especially local interfacial velocity and local interfacial area parameters. In this way, multi-needle probes, based on conductivity or optical principles, have been extensively used in the past few decades by many researchers in two-phase flow investigations. Moreover, the signal processing methods used to obtain the time-averaged two-phase flow parameters in this type of sensor have been thoroughly discussed and validated by many experiments. The objective of the present study is to develop a miniaturized multi-needle probe, based on capacitance measurements applicable to a wide range of non-conductive two-phase flows and, thus, to extend the applicability of multi-needle sensor whilst also maintaining a signal processing methodology provided in the literature for conductivity probes. Results from the experiments performed assess the applicability of the proposed sensor measurement principle and signal processing method for the bubbly flow regime. These results also provide an insight into the sensor application for more complex two-phase flow regimes.

  4. Needles: Toward Large-Scale Genomic Prediction with Marker-by-Environment Interaction.

    PubMed

    De Coninck, Arne; De Baets, Bernard; Kourounis, Drosos; Verbosio, Fabio; Schenk, Olaf; Maenhout, Steven; Fostier, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Genomic prediction relies on genotypic marker information to predict the agronomic performance of future hybrid breeds based on trial records. Because the effect of markers may vary substantially under the influence of different environmental conditions, marker-by-environment interaction effects have to be taken into account. However, this may lead to a dramatic increase in the computational resources needed for analyzing large-scale trial data. A high-performance computing solution, called Needles, is presented for handling such data sets. Needles is tailored to the particular properties of the underlying algebraic framework by exploiting a sparse matrix formalism where suited and by utilizing distributed computing techniques to enable the use of a dedicated computing cluster. It is demonstrated that large-scale analyses can be performed within reasonable time frames with this framework. Moreover, by analyzing simulated trial data, it is shown that the effects of markers with a high environmental interaction can be predicted more accurately when more records per environment are available in the training data. The availability of such data and their analysis with Needles also may lead to the discovery of highly contributing QTL in specific environmental conditions. Such a framework thus opens the path for plant breeders to select crops based on these QTL, resulting in hybrid lines with optimized agronomic performance in specific environmental conditions.

  5. Comparative Use of Tree Leaves, Needles, Tree Barks and Lichens for Air Pollution Biomonitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Khoukhi, T.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chouak, A.; Moutia, Z.; Lferde, M.; Senhou, A.; Gaudry, A.; Ayrault, S.; Chakir, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the most suitable bioaccumulators for air pollution survey in Morocco. For this, we compare in this paper heavy metals uptake efficiencies for different types of biomonitors: leaves of oak and eucalyptus trees, needles of coniferous trees, tree-barks and lichens collected at the same site. Instrumental neutron activation analysis using the k0 method (INAA-k0) was used for its adequate characteristics to analyze accurately a wide number of elements. Reference materials were analyzed to check the reliability and the accuracy of this technique. The results obtained for all these bioaccumulators lead to the following conclusions. For the major elements, leaves and needles are more accumulating than tree barks and lichens. While for the intermediate and trace elements, there is an obvious accumulation in lichens in comparison with tree barks, leaves and needles. This work shows the possibility to use these four bioaccumulators according to their availability in an area. It will be useful however to set up an inter calibration between these bioaccumulators.

  6. Fine-needle aspiration in the diagnosis of salivary gland disorders in the community hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Pitts, D B; Hilsinger, R L; Karandy, E; Ross, J C; Caro, J E

    1992-05-01

    From 1983 to 1988, 47 patients with salivary gland disorders were assessed with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) before surgery. The preoperative fine-needle diagnoses were then compared with the postoperative pathologic findings. In the same period, 63 patients from two other community hospitals who had been evaluated preoperatively with FNA were studied retrospectively. The overall sensitivity of FNA for salivary neoplasms was 80.6%. Fine-needle aspiration was more sensitive in identifying benign tumors (88.4%) than malignant neoplasms (58.3%) and was least sensitive in identifying nonneoplastic salivary diseases (35.3%). Pleomorphic adenomas were correctly identified preoperatively in 96.2% of cases, whereas for malignant neoplasms, the diagnostic accuracy was highest for mucoepidermoid carcinoma (50%). To demonstrate the strengths of FNA as a diagnostic tool, as well as to delineate its limitations, we present our 5-year experience. Our FNA results are similar to those reported by the major European and American referral centers. Because our medical centers are community based, our results may more accurately reflect those seen by otolaryngologists in private practice. To date, no evidence of tumor seeding along the FNA tract has been reported.

  7. A new needle on the block: EchoTip ProCore endobronchial ultrasound needle.

    PubMed

    Dincer, H Erhan; Andrade, Rafael; Zamora, Felix; Podgaetz, Eitan

    2016-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound has become the first choice standard of care procedure to diagnose benign or malignant lesions involving mediastinum and lung parenchyma adjacent to the airways owing to its characteristics of being real-time and minimally invasive. Although the incidence of lung cancer has been decreasing, it is and will be the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the next few decades. When compared to other cancers, lung cancer kills more females than breast and colon cancers combined and more males than colon and prostate cancers combined. The type of lung cancer has changed in recent decades and adenocarcinoma has become the most frequent cell type. Prognosis of lung cancer depends upon the cell type and the staging at the time of diagnosis. The cell type and molecular characteristics of adenocarcinoma may allow individualized targeted treatment. Other malignant conditions in the mediastinum and lung (eg, metastatic lung cancers and lymphoma) can be biopsied using endobronchial ultrasound needles. Endobronchial ultrasound needle biopsies provides mostly cytology specimens due to its small sizes of needles (22 gauge or larger) which may not give enough tissue to make a definitive diagnosis in malignant (eg, lymphoma) or benign conditions (eg, sarcoidosis). EchoTip ProCore endobronchial needle released in early 2014 provides histologic biopsy material. Larger tissue biopsies may potentially provide a higher diagnostic yield and it eliminates mediastinoscopy or other surgical interventions. Here we aim to review bronchoscopic approach in the diagnosis of mediastinal lesions with emphasis of EchoTip ProCore needles. PMID:27099535

  8. Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.

  9. Prostate Brachytherapy With Oblique Needles to Treat Large Glands and Overcome Pubic Arch Interference

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Bon; Bax, Jeff; Edirisinge, Chandima; Lewis, Craig; Chen, Jeff; D'Souza, David; Fenster, Aaron; Wong, Eugene

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: First, to show that low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy plans using oblique needle trajectories are more successful than parallel trajectories for large prostates with pubic arch interference (PAI); second, to test the accuracy of delivering an oblique plan by using a three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided mechatronic system. Methods and Materials: Prostates were contoured for 5 subjects' 3D TRUS images showing a maximum PAI of {<=}1 cm and a prostate volume of <50 cc. Two planning studies were done. First, prostate contours were artificially enlarged to 45 to 80 cc in 5- to 10-cc increments for a single subject. Second, all subject prostate contours were enlarged to 60 cc. For each study, three types of plans were manually created for comparison: a parallel needle template (PT) plan, a parallel needle no-template (PNT) plan, and an oblique needle no-template (OBL) plan. Needle positions and angles were not discretized for nontemplate plans. European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology dose-volume histogram guidelines, iodine-125 (145-Gy prescription, 0.43 U), and needle angles of <15 Degree-Sign were used. An OBL plan was delivered to a pubic arch containing a 60-cc prostate phantom that mimicked the anatomy of the subject with the greatest PAI (23% by volume). Results: In the increasing-prostate volume study, OBL plans were successful for prostates of {<=}80 cc, and PT plans were successful for prostates of <65 cc. In paired, one-sided t tests for the 60-cc volume study, OBL plans showed dosimetric improvements for all organs compared to both of the parallel type plans (p < 0.05); PNT plans showed a benefit only in planning target volumes receiving more than 100 Gy compared to PT plans. A computed tomography scan of the phantom showed submillimeter seed placement accuracy in all directions. Conclusion: OBL plans were significantly better than parallel plans, and an OBL plan was accurately delivered to a 60-cc

  10. Efficient instruction sequencing with Inline Target Insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Wen-Mei W.; Chang, Pohua P.

    1992-01-01

    Inline target insertion, a specific compiler and pipeline implementation method for delayed branches with squashing, is defined. The method is shown to offer two important features not discovered in previous studies. First, branches inserted into branch slots are correctly executed. Second, the execution returns correctly from interrupts or exceptions with only one program counter. These two features result in better performance and less software/hardware complexity than conventional delayed branching mechanisms.

  11. Shrink-Fit Solderable Inserts Seal Hermetically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croucher, William C.

    1992-01-01

    Shrink-fit stainless-steel insert in aluminum equipment housing allows electrical connectors to be replaced by soldering, without degrading hermeticity of housing or connector. Welding could destroy electrostatic-sensitive components and harm housing and internal cables. Steel insert avoids problems because connector soldered directly to it rather than welded to housing. Seals between flange and housing, and between connector and flange resistant to leaks, even after mechanical overloading and thermal shocking.

  12. [The immediate interpretation for fine-needle aspiration cytology].

    PubMed

    Chang, M C; Ho, W L

    1993-11-01

    From December 1990 to November 1992, 2005 cases of immediate interpretation for fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology were performed, of which 727 cases were confirmed by surgical pathology. A mobile cytologic laboratory (a cart loaded with a dual viewing microscope, Liu's staining solutions, hair dryer, and slides) can be moved to the Out-patient Department, wards and Computed Tomography room, where clinicians perform aspiration and pathologists read smears. Immediate verbal diagnoses are documented to patients' charts and listed in cytopathologic files. Immediate interpretation in this entire series yielded a sensitivity 92.5%; specificity, 98.1%; false-positive rate, 1.1%; false-negative rate, 3.2%; positive predictive value (PV), 97.3%; negative PV, 94.7% and efficiency, 95.7%. The cause of false-negative results in the 23 cases probably came from the hesitation in making an immediate diagnosis. Most of these cases were malignant lymphoma or breast carcinoma. The roles of immediate cytodiagnosis are (1) to decrease the inadequate rate of FNA specimens; (2) to render preliminary diagnosis for clinicians to make decisions; (3) to provide on-site teaching material for both clinicians and pathology residents to better understand clinicopathological correlations; (4) to act as the initial diagnostic procedure in the evaluation of a superficial palpable mass. This study shows that immediate interpretation for FNA cytology is a simple, rapid, accurate and noninvasive diagnostic procedure that can be routinely used for superficial palpable masses.

  13. Design of a multi-needle Langmuir probe system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekkeng, T. A.; Jacobsen, K. S.; Bekkeng, J. K.; Pedersen, A.; Lindem, T.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Moen, J. I.

    2010-08-01

    The main goal of this work was to develop a Langmuir probe instrument for sounding rockets capable of performing high-speed absolute electron density measurements, and thereby be able to detect sub-meter ionospheric plasma density structures. The system comprises four cylindrical probes with a diameter of 0.51 mm and a length of 25 mm, each operated at a different fixed bias voltage in the electron saturation region. The probe diameter was chosen significantly less than the Debye shielding length to avoid complex sheath effects but large enough to ensure a probe area sufficiently large to accurately measure the electron currents drawn by the probes (in the range 1 nA to 1 µA). The crucial feature of the University of Oslo's multi-needle Langmuir probe (m-NLP) is that it is possible to determine the electron density without the need to know the spacecraft potential and the electron temperature Te. The m-NLP instrument covers a density range from ne = 109 m-3 to 1012 m-3, with sampling rates up to 9 kHz. The m-NLP instrument was successfully tested on the ICI-2 (Investigation of Cusp Irregularities) sounding rocket flight from Svalbard on 5 December 2008.

  14. Efficacy of Core Needle Biopsy Technique for Jawbone Diseases.

    PubMed

    Stolbizer, Federico; Cabrini, Romulo L; Keszler, Alicia

    2015-12-01

    Core needle biopsy (CNB) has been proven useful for diagnosing bone lesions, although it is not often used for jawbone lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the CNB method in a series of cases of intramaxillary lesions. CNB was performed on 85 patients with intraosseous lesions which were grouped according to radiographic appearance as: radiopaque lesions (RO, n=13), radiolucent lesions (RL, n=39) and mixed lesions with both radiolucent and radiopaque areas (RL-RO, n=33). The technique enabled us to obtain several tissue cylinders from each lesion (average 2.5 cylinders), which were processed following routine histopathological technique and H&E stain, plus special techniques when necessary. The histopathological analysis together with clinical data enabled accurate diagnosis (AD) in 81% of the cases and descriptive diagnosis (DD) in 14%. The material obtained in 5% of the cases was not appropriate for study (ND). The difference between successful (AD) and unsuccessful (DD+ND) CNB cases is statistically significant. The highest percentage of successful CBNs was for RO and RLRO lesions (85% and 100% respectively). RL lesions were more difficult because most of them were cystic lesions with fluid content.

  15. Toward improving fine needle aspiration cytology by applying Raman microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker-Putsche, Melanie; Bocklitz, Thomas; Clement, Joachim; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Medical diagnosis of biopsies performed by fine needle aspiration has to be very reliable. Therefore, pathologists/cytologists need additional biochemical information on single cancer cells for an accurate diagnosis. Accordingly, we applied three different classification models for discriminating various features of six breast cancer cell lines by analyzing Raman microspectroscopic data. The statistical evaluations are implemented by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machines (SVM). For the first model, a total of 61,580 Raman spectra from 110 single cells are discriminated at the cell-line level with an accuracy of 99.52% using an SVM. The LDA classification based on Raman data achieved an accuracy of 94.04% by discriminating cell lines by their origin (solid tumor versus pleural effusion). In the third model, Raman cell spectra are classified by their cancer subtypes. LDA results show an accuracy of 97.45% and specificities of 97.78%, 99.11%, and 98.97% for the subtypes basal-like, HER2+/ER-, and luminal, respectively. These subtypes are confirmed by gene expression patterns, which are important prognostic features in diagnosis. This work shows the applicability of Raman spectroscopy and statistical data handling in analyzing cancer-relevant biochemical information for advanced medical diagnosis on the single-cell level.

  16. Percolation in suspensions of hard nanoparticles: From spheres to needles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Tanja; Miller, Mark A.; van der Schoot, Paul

    2015-09-01

    We investigate geometric percolation and scaling relations in suspensions of nanorods, covering the entire range of aspect ratios from spheres to extremely slender needles. A new version of connectedness percolation theory is introduced and tested against specialised Monte Carlo simulations. The theory accurately predicts percolation thresholds for aspect ratios of rod length to width as low as 10. The percolation threshold for rod-like particles of aspect ratios below 1000 deviates significantly from the inverse aspect ratio scaling prediction, thought to be valid in the limit of infinitely slender rods and often used as a rule of thumb for nanofibres in composite materials. Hence, most fibres that are currently used as fillers in composite materials cannot be regarded as practically infinitely slender for the purposes of percolation theory. Comparing percolation thresholds of hard rods and new benchmark results for ideal rods, we find that i) for large aspect ratios, they differ by a factor that is inversely proportional to the connectivity distance between the hard cores, and ii) they approach the slender rod limit differently.

  17. Analytic theory for the selection of 2-D needle crystal at arbitrary Peclet number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanveer, Saleh

    1989-01-01

    An accurate analytic theory is presented for the velocity selection of a two-dimensional needle crystal for arbitrary Peclet number for small values of the surface tension parameter. The velocity selection is caused by the effect of transcendentally small terms which are determined by analytic continuation to the complex plane and analysis of nonlinear equations. The work supports the general conclusion of previous small Peclet number analytical results of other investigators, though there are some discrepancies in details. It also addresses questions raised on the validity of selection theory owing to assumptions made on shape corrections at large distances from the tip.

  18. Analytic theory for the selection of a two-dimensional needle crystal at arbitrary Peclet number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanveer, S.

    1989-01-01

    An accurate analytic theory is presented for the velocity selection of a two-dimensional needle crystal for arbitrary Peclet number for small values of the surface tension parameter. The velocity selection is caused by the effect of transcendentally small terms which are determined by analytic continuation to the complex plane and analysis of nonlinear equations. The work supports the general conclusion of previous small Peclet number analytical results of other investigators, though there are some discrepancies in details. It also addresses questions raised on the validity of selection theory owing to assumptions made on shape corrections at large distances from the tip.

  19. Rectal suppository: commonsense and mode of insertion.

    PubMed

    Abd-el-Maeboud, K H; el-Naggar, T; el-Hawi, E M; Mahmoud, S A; Abd-el-Hay, S

    1991-09-28

    Rectal suppository is a well-known form of medication and its use is increasing. The commonest shape is one with an apex (pointed end) tapering to a base (blunt end). Because of a general lack of information about mode of insertion, we asked 360 lay subjects (Egyptians and non-Egyptians) and 260 medical personnel (physicians, pharmacists, and nurses) by questionnaire which end they inserted foremost. Apart from 2 individuals, all subjects suggested insertion with the apex foremost. Commonsense was the most frequent basis for this practice (86.9% of lay subjects and 84.6% of medical personnel) followed by information from a relative, a friend, or medical personnel, or from study at medical school. Suppository insertion with the base or apex foremost was compared in 100 subjects (60 adults, 40 infants and children). Retention with the former method was more easily achieved in 98% of the cases, with no need to introduce a finger in the anal canal (1% vs 83%), and lower expulsion rate (0% vs 3%). The designer of the "torpedo-shaped" suppository suggested its insertion with apex foremost. Our data suggest that a suppository is better inserted with the base foremost. Reversed vermicular contractions or pressure gradient of the anal canal might press it inwards.

  20. Earth boring tool with improved inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, H.; Scales, S.

    1980-07-08

    A description is given of an improved earth boring tool of the type having at least one sintered tungsten carbide insert with a substantially cylindrical retaining surface interferringly secured to the wall of a retaining hole, the improvement comprising said retaining surface roughened such that in any lineal increment of at least 010 inch, there are at least three asperities at least 0.001 in ch long and at least 0.00005 inch deep when measured with a stylus point with a 0.00005 inch radius. An improved method of retaining tungsten carbide inserts in an earth boring tool, said method comprising the steps of: drilling and reaming a plurality of holes in selected locations on the earth boring tool; sintering a plurality of tungsten carbide inserts with a binder selected from the group consisting of cobalt, nickel or iron; grinding a substantially cylindrical wall surface on the inserts that are nominally larger in diameter than the drilled and reamed holes; roughening the wall surface of the inserts such that any lineal increment of at least 0.010 inch has at least three asperities which are at least 0.001 inch long and at least 00005 inch deep when measured with a stylus point with a 0.00005 inch radius; and forcing the inserts interferringly into the mating drilled and reamed holes.

  1. Strength of inserts in titanium alloy machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, V.; Huang, Z.; Zhang, J.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a stressed state of a non-worn cutting wedge in a machined titanium alloy (Ti6Al2Mo2Cr) is analyzed. The distribution of contact loads on the face of a cutting tool was obtained experimentally with the use of a ‘split cutting tool’. Calculation of internal stresses in the indexable insert made from cemented carbide (WC8Co) was carried out with the help of ANSYS 14.0 software. Investigations showed that a small thickness of the cutting insert leads to extremely high compressive stresses near the cutting edge, stresses that exceed the ultimate compressive strength of cemented carbide. The face and the base of the insert experience high tensile stresses, which approach the ultimate tensile strength of cemented carbide and increase a probability of cutting insert destruction. If the thickness of the cutting insert is bigger than 5 mm, compressive stresses near the cutting edge decrease, and tensile stresses on the face and base decrease to zero. The dependences of the greatest normal and tangential stresses on thickness of the cutting insert were found. Abbreviation and symbols: m/s - meter per second (cutting speed v); mm/r - millimeter per revolution (feed rate f); MPa - mega Pascal (dimension of specific contact loads and stresses); γ - rake angle of the cutting tool [°] α - clearance angle of the sharp cutting tool [°].

  2. The Basques according to polymorphic Alu insertions.

    PubMed

    de Pancorbo, M M; López-Martínez, M; Martínez-Bouzas, C; Castro, A; Fernández-Fernández, I; de Mayolo, G A; de Mayolo, A A; de Mayolo, P A; Rowold, D J; Herrera, R J

    2001-08-01

    Polymorphic Alu insertions provide a set of DNA markers of interest in human population genetics. Approximately 1000-2000 of these insertions have not reached fixation within the human genome. Each one of these polymorphic loci most probably resulted from a unique insertional event, and therefore all individuals possessing the insertion are related by descent not just state. In addition, the direction of mutational change is toward the gain of the Alu element at a particular locus. Therefore, the improved knowledge of both the ancestral state and the direction of mutational change greatly facilitates the analysis of population relationships. As a result, Alu insertion polymorphisms represent a significant tool for population genetic studies. In this study, polymorphic Alu insertions have been employed to ascertain phylogenetic relationships among Basque groups and worldwide populations. The Basques are considered to be a geographic isolate with a unique language and customs. They may be direct descendants of Cro-Magnon enclaves from the upper Paleolithic (38,000 to 10,000 years). The Basques are distributed among narrow valleys in northeastern Spain with little migration between them until recently. This characteristic may have had an effect on allelic frequency distributions. With the aim of studying this possible effect, we have analyzed six autosomal polymorphic Alu loci from four different sites within the Spanish Basque region in order to ascertain any genetic heterogeneity among the Basques. The results are consistent with a lack of homogeneity among these four autochthonous Basque groups.

  3. The Basques according to polymorphic Alu insertions.

    PubMed

    de Pancorbo, M M; López-Martínez, M; Martínez-Bouzas, C; Castro, A; Fernández-Fernández, I; de Mayolo, G A; de Mayolo, A A; de Mayolo, P A; Rowold, D J; Herrera, R J

    2001-08-01

    Polymorphic Alu insertions provide a set of DNA markers of interest in human population genetics. Approximately 1000-2000 of these insertions have not reached fixation within the human genome. Each one of these polymorphic loci most probably resulted from a unique insertional event, and therefore all individuals possessing the insertion are related by descent not just state. In addition, the direction of mutational change is toward the gain of the Alu element at a particular locus. Therefore, the improved knowledge of both the ancestral state and the direction of mutational change greatly facilitates the analysis of population relationships. As a result, Alu insertion polymorphisms represent a significant tool for population genetic studies. In this study, polymorphic Alu insertions have been employed to ascertain phylogenetic relationships among Basque groups and worldwide populations. The Basques are considered to be a geographic isolate with a unique language and customs. They may be direct descendants of Cro-Magnon enclaves from the upper Paleolithic (38,000 to 10,000 years). The Basques are distributed among narrow valleys in northeastern Spain with little migration between them until recently. This characteristic may have had an effect on allelic frequency distributions. With the aim of studying this possible effect, we have analyzed six autosomal polymorphic Alu loci from four different sites within the Spanish Basque region in order to ascertain any genetic heterogeneity among the Basques. The results are consistent with a lack of homogeneity among these four autochthonous Basque groups. PMID:11511929

  4. Z-2 Threaded Insert Design and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Jones, Robert J.; Graziosi, David; Ferl, Jinny; Sweeny, Mitch; Scarborough, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit contains several components fabricated from an advanced hybrid composite laminate consisting of IM10 carbon fiber and fiber glass. One requirement was to have removable, replaceable helicoil inserts to which other suit components would be fastened. An approach utilizing bonded in inserts with helicoils inside of them was implemented. During initial assembly, cracking sounds were heard followed by the lifting of one of the blind inserts out of its hole when the screws were torqued. A failure investigation was initiated to understand the mechanism of the failure. Ultimately, it was determined that the pre-tension caused by torqueing the fasteners is a much larger force than induced from the pressure loads of the suit which was not considered in the insert design. Bolt tension is determined by dividing the torque on the screw by a k value multiplied by the thread diameter of the bolt. The k value is a factor that accounts for friction in the system. A common value used for k for a non-lubricated screw is 0.2. The k value can go down by as much as 0.1 if the screw is lubricated which means for the same torque, a much larger tension could be placed on the bolt and insert. This paper summarizes the failure investigation that was performed to identify the root cause of the suit failure and details how the insert design was modified to resist a higher pull out tension.

  5. Rectal suppository: commonsense and mode of insertion.

    PubMed

    Abd-el-Maeboud, K H; el-Naggar, T; el-Hawi, E M; Mahmoud, S A; Abd-el-Hay, S

    1991-09-28

    Rectal suppository is a well-known form of medication and its use is increasing. The commonest shape is one with an apex (pointed end) tapering to a base (blunt end). Because of a general lack of information about mode of insertion, we asked 360 lay subjects (Egyptians and non-Egyptians) and 260 medical personnel (physicians, pharmacists, and nurses) by questionnaire which end they inserted foremost. Apart from 2 individuals, all subjects suggested insertion with the apex foremost. Commonsense was the most frequent basis for this practice (86.9% of lay subjects and 84.6% of medical personnel) followed by information from a relative, a friend, or medical personnel, or from study at medical school. Suppository insertion with the base or apex foremost was compared in 100 subjects (60 adults, 40 infants and children). Retention with the former method was more easily achieved in 98% of the cases, with no need to introduce a finger in the anal canal (1% vs 83%), and lower expulsion rate (0% vs 3%). The designer of the "torpedo-shaped" suppository suggested its insertion with apex foremost. Our data suggest that a suppository is better inserted with the base foremost. Reversed vermicular contractions or pressure gradient of the anal canal might press it inwards. PMID:1681170

  6. Specificity of Transposon Tn5 Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Douglas E.; Schmandt, Margaret A.; Lowe, John B.

    1983-01-01

    Genetic mapping studies had shown that the bacterial transposon Tn5 can insert into many sites in a gene, but that some sites are preferred. To begin understanding Tn5's insertion specificity at the molecular level, we selected transpositions of Tn5 from the Escherichia coli chromosome to the plasmid pBR322 and analyzed the resultant pBR322::Tn5 plasmids by restriction endonuclease digestion and DNA sequencing. Seventy-five insertions in the tet gene were found at 28 sites including one major hotspot (with 21 insertions) and four lesser hotspots (with four to ten insertions each). All five hotspots are within the first 300 of the 1250-base pair (bp) tet gene. In contrast, 31 independent insertions in the amp gene were found in at least 27 distinct sites.—Tn5 generates 9 bp target sequence duplications when it transposes. Such transposon-induced duplications are generally taken to indicate that cleavages of complementary target DNA strands are made 9 bp apart during transposition. DNA sequence analysis indicated that GC base pairs occupy positions 1 and 9 in the duplications at each of the five hotspots examined, suggesting a GC-cutting preference during Tn5 transposition. PMID:6315531

  7. Scaling of hemolysis in needles and catheters.

    PubMed

    Sharp, M K; Mohammad, S F

    1998-01-01

    Hemolysis in clinical blood samples leads to inaccurate assay results and often to the need for repeated blood draws. In vitro experiments were conducted to determine the influence on hemolysis in phlebotomy needles and catheters of pressure difference, cannula diameter, and cannula material. Fresh blood from five human volunteers was forced from a syringe inside a pressurized chamber through 14, 18, and 22 gauge 304 stainless steel needles and polyurethane and Teflon catheters, all 40 mm long. Hemolysis was measured in the samples by a spectrophotometer. It was found that hemolysis increased with increases in pressure difference and cannula diameter and no consistent trend could be identified with regard to cannula material. The pressure differences required for significant hemolysis were above those typical of clinical venipuncture blood draws. While there was substantial variability among individuals, the hemolysis values scaled with exponent S = (t/t0)[(tau/tau0)-1]2, where t is the characteristic duration of shear, t0 is a time constant, tau is the wall shear stress, and tau0 is the wall shear stress threshold below which no hemolysis occurs. A hemolysis threshold including both time and shear stress was also defined for S = constant. The threshold implies that a threshold shear stress exists below which erythrocytes are not damaged for any length of exposure time, but that red cells may be damaged by an arbitrarily short period of exposure to sufficiently large shear stress.

  8. Suction-modified needle biopsy technique for the human soleus muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Joshua A.; Yu, Alvin; Kreitenberg, Arthur; Haddad, Fadia H.; Baker, Michael J.; Fox, John C.; Adams, Gregory R.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The needle biopsy technique for the soleus muscle is of particular interest because of its unique fiber type distribution, contractile properties, and sensitivity to unloading. Unlike other commonly biopsied muscles, the soleus is not fully superficial and is in close proximity to neurovascular structures resulting in a more challenging biopsy. Because of this, a standardized protocol for performing needle biopsies on the human soleus muscle that is safe, reliable, and repeatable is presented. METHODS Ultrasonography was used on an initial set of 12 subjects to determine the optimal biopsy zone thereby guiding the location of the incision site. Forty-five subjects were recruited and attended two separate biopsy sessions. Each biopsy session incorporated 3 passes of the biopsy needle proximal, posterior, and distal using suction from a portable vacuum source producing 3 separate muscle specimens. RESULTS Eighty-four soleus muscle biopsy procedures were successfully conducted yielding 252 total samples without complication. Ultrasonography was used to confirm biopsy needle infiltration of the soleus muscle. Average sample weight obtained per pass was 61.5 ± 15.7 mg. Histochemistry and molecular analyses demonstrated a considerably higher amount of slow type I MHC in comparison to the vastus lateralis providing verification for the successful sampling of the soleus muscle. DISCUSSION The procedure presented consists of a detailed protocol to accurately and consistently obtain muscle biopsy samples from the human soleus muscle. We have demonstrated that the human soleus biopsy is a safe, reliable and repeatable procedure providing ample tissue for multiple types of analyses. PMID:24261060

  9. Design of a Slender Tuned Ultrasonic Needle for Bone Penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Rebecca; Mathieson, Andrew; Wallace, Robert; Simpson, Hamish; Lucas, Margaret

    This paper reports on an ultrasonic bone biopsy needle, particularly focusing on design guidelines applicable for any slender tuned ultrasonic device component. Ultrasonic surgical devices are routinely used to cut a range of biological tissues, such as bone. However the realisation of an ultrasonic bone biopsy needle is particularly challenging. This is due to the requirement to generate sufficient vibrational amplitude capable of penetrating mineralised tissue, while avoiding flexural vibrational responses, which are known to reduce the performance and reliability of slender ultrasonic devices. This investigation uses finite element analysis (FEA) to predict the vibrational behaviour of a resonant needle which has dimensions that match closely to an 8Gx4inch bone marrow biopsy needle. Features of the needle, including changes in material and repeated changes in diameter, have been included and systematically altered to demonstrate that the location of and geometry of these features can significantly affect the resonant frequency of bending and torsional modes of vibration while having a limited effect on the frequency and shape of the tuned longitudinal mode. Experimental modal analysis was used to identify the modal parameters of the selected needle design, validating the FEA model predictions of the longitudinal mode and the close flexural modes. This verifies that modal coupling can be avoided by judicious small geometry modifications. Finally, the tuned needle assembly was driven under typical operational excitation conditions to demonstrate that an ultrasonic biopsy needle can be designed to operate in a purely longitudinal motion.

  10. 21 CFR 868.5090 - Emergency airway needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Emergency airway needle. 868.5090 Section 868.5090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5090 Emergency airway needle....

  11. 21 CFR 868.5090 - Emergency airway needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Emergency airway needle. 868.5090 Section 868.5090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5090 Emergency airway needle....

  12. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 Section 868.5150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle....

  13. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 Section 868.5150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle....

  14. 21 CFR 868.5090 - Emergency airway needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Emergency airway needle. 868.5090 Section 868.5090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5090 Emergency airway needle....

  15. 21 CFR 868.5090 - Emergency airway needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Emergency airway needle. 868.5090 Section 868.5090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5090 Emergency airway needle....

  16. 21 CFR 868.5090 - Emergency airway needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Emergency airway needle. 868.5090 Section 868.5090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5090 Emergency airway needle....

  17. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 Section 868.5150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle....

  18. 21 CFR 880.5570 - Hypodermic single lumen needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hypodermic single lumen needle. 880.5570 Section 880.5570 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5570 Hypodermic single lumen needle. (a) Identification. A hypodermic single...

  19. Needle and Syringe Cleaning Practices among Injection Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Dennis G.; Harbke, Colin R.; Canty, John R.; Reynolds, Grace L.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluates the effect of needle exchange on the bleach-mediated disinfection (BMD) practices of 176 needle and syringe sharing injection drug users (IDUs). Results reveal that IDUs who traded sex for money or drugs were less likely to practice BMD, and IDUs who reported a reduced number of sex partners were more likely to practice BMD. (Contains 36…

  20. Needle Steering in 3-D Via Rapid Replanning

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Sachin; Burgner, Jessica; Webster, Robert J.; Alterovitz, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Steerable needles have the potential to improve the effectiveness of needle-based clinical procedures such as biopsy and drug delivery by improving targeting accuracy and reaching previously inaccessible targets that are behind sensitive or impenetrable anatomical regions. We present a new needle steering system capable of automatically reaching targets in 3-D environments while avoiding obstacles and compensating for real-world uncertainties. Given a specification of anatomical obstacles and a clinical target (e.g., from preoperative medical images), our system plans and controls needle motion in a closed-loop fashion under sensory feedback to optimize a clinical metric. We unify planning and control using a new fast algorithm that continuously replans the needle motion. Our rapid replanning approach is enabled by an efficient sampling-based rapidly exploring random tree (RRT) planner that achieves orders-of-magnitude reduction in computation time compared with prior 3-D approaches by incorporating variable curvature kinematics and a novel distance metric for planning. Our system uses an electromagnetic tracking system to sense the state of the needle tip during the procedure. We experimentally evaluate our needle steering system using tissue phantoms and animal tissue ex vivo. We demonstrate that our rapid replanning strategy successfully guides the needle around obstacles to desired 3-D targets with an average error of less than 3 mm. PMID:25435829

  1. 42. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. VALVEHOUSE FOR NEEDLE VALVE OUTLET WORKS ON GALLERY 2, SHOWING OVERHEAD SERVICE CRANE AT CENTER. NOTE NEEDLE VALVE AIR VENTS AND GAUGES AT RIGHT, NEXT TO CONTROL PEDESTAL. VIEW TO EAST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  2. Synthesis of nano-crystalline multifibrous zirconia needle

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Mridula; Bandyopadhyay, Siddhartha

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Zirconia needles have been successfully prepared by simple inorganic sol–gel route. • The shape of the needles was retained after firing with aspect ratio > 400. • Needles are composed of multiple fibres. • Fibres are composed of nano crystals. - Abstract: Zirconia needles have been successfully synthesized using a simple inorganic sol–gel process without using any template. The method employs mixture of zirconium oxychloride octahydrate and sulphuric acid in aqueous medium. This process requires heat treatment at 40 °C for 2 h in an oven for nucleus formation. Complete formation of needle occurs after 17 days. The green needle retained its original shape after calcination at 1200 °C. Fired needles were of 1–2 cm in length and 5–50 μm in diameter and possess monoclinic phase. Needles are composed of multiple fibres. Depending on the heat treatment temperature, crystallite size varies in the range of 8 to around 300 nm.

  3. Photoacoustic imaging of clinical metal needle by a LED light source integrated transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agano, Toshitaka; Sato, Naoto; Nakatsuka, Hitoshi; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Hanaoka, Takamitsu; Morisono, Koji; Shigeta, Yusuke; Tanaka, Chizuyo

    2016-03-01

    We have achieved penetration depth of 30mm by photoacoustic imaging system using LED light source integrated transducer to image a clinical metal needle inserted into a tissue mimicking phantom. We developed the transducer that integrated near-infrared LED array light source, which was connected to a photoacoustic imaging system which drove LED array light source and controlled photoacoustic data acquisition process. Conventionally solid-state laser has been used as the light source for photoacoustic imaging system. Because LED is diffused light source, laser safety glasses is not necessary, also inflexible fibers are not used to guide light close to a transducer, and we integrated LED light source inside the transducer, which became compact and practical size for conventional ultrasound equipment users. We made LED light source unit as detachable to the transducer easily, so wave-length of light can be selectable by changing the LED light source unit.

  4. Detection of Plant Water Content with Needle-Type In-Situ Water Content Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayanagi, Hitoshi; Miki, Norihisa

    A needle-type water content sensor with a polyethersulfone (PES) polymer membrane was developed for the low-invasive, direct in-situ measurement of plant water content (PWC) in prior work. In this paper we demonstrate a measurement of plant water stress that represents the demand for water of the plant and greatly affects its sweetness. We inserted the sensor into a stalk of strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) and soil. The variation in both the plant and the soil water content were successfully detected, which revealed the delay between variation in the plant water stress and soil water content after irrigation. Such delay could only be detected by the proposed sensor that could directly measure the variation of PWC in situ and continuously. The experiments also showed the variation in the signals as a function of detection sites and suggested that the detection sites of plant water stress need to be considered when the sensor is applied to irrigation culture.

  5. Deep-tissue access with confocal fluorescence microendoscopy through hypodermic needles.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Rajesh S; Lorenser, Dirk; Sampson, David D

    2011-04-11

    We report on the design and implementation of a gradient-index microendoscope suitable for accessing tissues deep within the body using confocal fluorescence imaging. The 350-μm diameter microendoscope has a length of 27 mm, which enables it to be inserted through a 22-gauge hypodermic needle. A prototype imaging system is demonstrated to obtain images of tissue samples at depths of ~15 mm with a lateral resolution of ~700 nm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest resolution and imaging depth reported for a confocal probe of these dimensions. We employ a scanning arrangement using a lensed fiber that can conveniently control the input beam parameters without causing off-axis aberrations typically present in the optical relay lenses used in galvanometer-mirror scanning systems. PMID:21503033

  6. Modeling Electric Fields of Peripheral Nerve Block Needles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, James Ch.; Anderson, Norman E.; Meisel, Mark W.; Ramirez, Jason G.; Kayser Enneking, F.

    2006-03-01

    Peripheral nerve blocks present an alternative to general anesthesia in certain surgical procedures and a means of acute pain relief through continuous blockades. They have been shown to decrease the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, reduce oral narcotic side effects, and improve sleep quality. Injecting needles, which carry small stimulating currents, are often used to aid in locating the target nerve bundle. With this technique, muscle responses indicate needle proximity to the corresponding nerve bundle. Failure rates in first injection attempts prompted our study of electric field distributions. Finite difference methods were used to solve for the electric fields generated by two widely used needles. Geometric differences in the needles effect variations in their electric field and current distributions. Further investigations may suggest needle modifications that result in a reduction of initial probing failures.

  7. Modeling Electric Fields of Peripheral Nerve Block Needles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, James Ch.; Ramirez, Jason G.

    2005-11-01

    Peripheral nerve blocks present an alternative to general anesthesia in certain surgical procedures and a means of acute pain relief through continuous blockades. They have been shown to decrease the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, reduce oral narcotic side effects, and improve sleep quality. Injecting needles, which carry small stimulating currents, are often used to aid in locating the target nerve bundle. With this technique, muscle responses indicate needle proximity to the corresponding nerve bundle. Failure rates in first injection attempts prompted our study of electric field distributions. Finite difference methods were used to solve for the electric fields generated by two widely used needles. Differences in geometry between needles are seen to effect changes in electric field and current distributions. Further investigations may suggest needle modifications that result in a reduction of initial probing failures.

  8. Needle targeting under C-arm fluoroscopy servoing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihaescu, Cristian; Ibanez, Luis; Mocanu, Mihai; Cleary, Kevin R.

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes a method for translational and orientational alignment of a robotic needle driver based on image servoing and x-ray fluoroscopy. The translational process works by segmenting the needle in a frame-grabbed fluoroscopic image and then commanding the robot to automatically move the needle tip to the skin entry point. The orientational alignment is then completed based on five different positions of the needle tip. Previously reported fluoroscopy servoing methods use complex robot-image registration algorithms, fiducial markers, and two or more dissimilar views that included moving the fluoroscope. Our method aligns the needle using one setting of the fluoroscope so that it does not need to be moved during the alignment process. Sample results from both the translational and orientational steps are included.

  9. Limited retention of micro-organisms using commercialized needle filters.

    PubMed

    Elbaz, W; McCarthy, G; Mawhinney, T; Goldsmith, C E; Moore, J E

    2015-03-01

    A study was undertaken to compare a commercialized needle filter with a 0.2-μm filtered epidural set and a non-filtered standard needle. No culturable bacteria were detected following filtration through the 0.2-μm filter. Bacterial breakthrough was observed with the filtered needle (pore size 5 μm) and the non-filtered needle. Filtered systems (0.2 μm) should be employed to achieve total bacterial retention. This highlights that filtration systems with different pore sizes will have varying ability to retain bacteria. Healthcare professionals need to know what type/capability of filter is implied on labels used by manufacturers, and to assess whether the specification has the desired functionality to prevent bacterial translocation through needles.

  10. Removal of an embedded crochet needle in the mouth.

    PubMed

    Klovenski, Victoria; Juergens, Andrew; Lappo, Kyla; Marshall, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year-old child presented to the emergency department with a crochet needle lodged in her posterior oral cavity. To localize the needle and significant surrounding anatomic structures, bedside transcavitary ultrasound was employed. After careful localization, the needle was removed using a modified needle cover technique. A review of barbed foreign object removal techniques, including advance-and-cut, retrograde, string-yank, and needle cover techniques, is presented. Important considerations while planning any procedure include risk, benefit, availability of staff, and availability of equipment. Proper anesthesia is paramount to the success of these procedures, and sedation in pediatric patients may prove necessary. Postprocedure wound care and follow-up must also be arranged. This case demonstrates the importance of adaptation of well-documented techniques to remain flexible for any situation that may present to the emergency department.

  11. Removal of an embedded crochet needle in the mouth

    PubMed Central

    Juergens, Andrew; Lappo, Kyla; Marshall, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year-old child presented to the emergency department with a crochet needle lodged in her posterior oral cavity. To localize the needle and significant surrounding anatomic structures, bedside transcavitary ultrasound was employed. After careful localization, the needle was removed using a modified needle cover technique. A review of barbed foreign object removal techniques, including advance-and-cut, retrograde, string-yank, and needle cover techniques, is presented. Important considerations while planning any procedure include risk, benefit, availability of staff, and availability of equipment. Proper anesthesia is paramount to the success of these procedures, and sedation in pediatric patients may prove necessary. Postprocedure wound care and follow-up must also be arranged. This case demonstrates the importance of adaptation of well-documented techniques to remain flexible for any situation that may present to the emergency department. PMID:26722162

  12. Design of an Optically Controlled MR-Compatible Active Needle

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Seok Chang; Quek, Zhan Fan; Koh, Je-Sung; Renaud, Pierre; Black, Richard J.; Moslehi, Behzad; Daniel, Bruce L.; Cho, Kyu-Jin; Cutkosky, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    An active needle is proposed for the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided percutaneous procedures. The needle uses a low-transition-temperature shape memory alloy (LT SMA) wire actuator to produce bending in the distal section of the needle. Actuation is achieved with internal optical heating using laser light transported via optical fibers and side coupled to the LT SMA. A prototype, with a size equivalent to a standard 16-gauge biopsy needle, exhibits significant bending, with a tip deflection of more than 14° in air and 5° in hard tissue. A single-ended optical sensor with a gold-coated tip is developed to measure the curvature independently of temperature. The experimental results in tissue phantoms show that human tissue causes fast heat dissipation from the wire actuator; however, the active needle can compensate for typical targeting errors during prostate biopsy. PMID:26512231

  13. Experimental model of intervertebral disc degeneration by needle puncture in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Issy, A.C.; Castania, V.; Castania, M.; Salmon, C.E.G.; Nogueira-Barbosa, M.H.; Bel, E. Del; Defino, H.L.A.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be used for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30 s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration. PMID:23532265

  14. Clinical use of testicular fine needle aspiration cytology in oligozoospermic and azoospermic dogs.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, S; Bonaccini, P; Stelletta, C; Garolla, A; Menegazzo, M; Foresta, C; Mollo, A; Milani, C; Gelli, D

    2009-07-01

    Clinical investigation of canine testicular function is complicated by the difficulty in the evaluation of seminiferous tubules. Until recently, testicular biopsy was the only diagnostic option for dogs with persistent oligo/azoospermia. In human andrology, testicular fine needle aspiration (TFNA) is currently considered a useful method in the evaluation of azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia, and has long replaced classical biopsy to evaluate spermatogenesis. In order to verify its diagnostic efficacy for the clinical approach to canine oligo- or azoospermia, TFNA was performed in seven adult (two oligozoospermic and five azoospermic) dogs. After sedation, a fine (21-23 gauge) butterfly needle connected to a 50-ml syringe was inserted into each testicle; strong suction was applied and the aspirated fluid squirted on a glass slide, smeared out, air-dried and stained with a modified May-Grunwald-Giemsa. Under light microscopy, Sertoli cells (all those found in each investigated field) and spermatogenic cells (n = 100) were counted on each smear in order to differentiate spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, early spermatids, late spermatids and spermatozoa, and calculate their relative percentages. Cytological analysis showed the following testicular pictures: normal spermatogenesis (compatible with obstruction of the seminal ducts), hypospermatogenesis, maturative disturbances and Sertoli cell-only syndrome. Two dogs with an obstructive lesion were treated with corticosteroids; one of them recovered and sired two litters of puppies.

  15. Rapid fabrication method of a microneedle mold with controllable needle height and width.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Heng; Lee, I-Chi; Hsu, Wei-Chieh; Hsu, Ching-Hong; Chang, Kai-Ping; Gao, Shao-Syuan

    2016-10-01

    The main issue of transdermal drug delivery is that macromolecular drugs cannot diffuse through the stratum corneum of skin. Many studies have pursued micro-sized needles encapsulated with drugs to overcome this problem, as these needles can pierce the stratum corneum and allow drugs to enter the circulatory system of the human body. However, most microneedle fabrication processes are time-consuming and require expensive equipment. In this study, we demonstrate a rapid method for fabricating a microneedle mold using drawing lithography and a UV-cured resin. The mold was filled with a water-soluble material, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was then demolded to produce a water-soluble microneedle array. The results of an in vitro skin insertion test using PVP microneedles and pig ear skin demonstrated the feasibility of the microneedle mold. In addition, by controlling the viscosity of the UV-cured resin through various heat treatments, microneedles with different heights and aspect ratios were produced. Compared with other methods, this technology significantly simplifies and accelerates the mold fabrication process. In addition, the required equipment is relatively simple and inexpensive. Through this technology, we can rapidly fabricate microneedle molds with controllable dimensions for various applications. PMID:27565822

  16. MEMS accelerometers in accurate mount positioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, László; Pál, András.; Jaskó, Attila

    2014-07-01

    In order to attain precise, accurate and stateless positioning of telescope mounts we apply microelectromechanical accelerometer systems (also known as MEMS accelerometers). In common practice, feedback from the mount position is provided by electronic, optical or magneto-mechanical systems or via real-time astrometric solution based on the acquired images. Hence, MEMS-based systems are completely independent from these mechanisms. Our goal is to investigate the advantages and challenges of applying such devices and to reach the sub-arcminute range { that is well smaller than the field-of-view of conventional imaging telescope systems. We present how this sub-arcminute accuracy can be achieved with very cheap MEMS sensors. Basically, these sensors yield raw output within an accuracy of a few degrees. We show what kind of calibration procedures could exploit spherical and cylindrical constraints between accelerometer output channels in order to achieve the previously mentioned accuracy level. We also demonstrate how can our implementation be inserted in a telescope control system. Although this attainable precision is less than both the resolution of telescope mount drive mechanics and the accuracy of astrometric solutions, the independent nature of attitude determination could significantly increase the reliability of autonomous or remotely operated astronomical observations.

  17. C-arm cone-beam CT-guided transthoracic lung core needle biopsy as a standard diagnostic tool: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Jaconi, Marta; Pagni, Fabio; Vacirca, Francesco; Leni, Davide; Corso, Rocco; Cortinovis, Diego; Bidoli, Paolo; Bono, Francesca; Cuttin, Maria S; Valente, Maria G; Pesci, Alberto; Bedini, Vittorio A; Leone, Biagio E

    2015-03-01

    C-arm cone-beam computed tomography (CT)-guided transthoracic lung core needle biopsy (CNB) is a safe and accurate procedure for the evaluation of patients with pulmonary nodules. This article will focus on the clinical features related to CNB in terms of diagnostic performance and complication rate. Moreover, the concept of categorizing pathological diagnosis into 4 categories, which could be used for clinical management, follow-up, and quality assurance is also introduced. We retrospectively collected data regarding 375 C-arm cone-beam CT-guided CNBs from January 2010 and June 2014. Clinical and radiological variables were evaluated in terms of success or failure rate. Pathological reports were inserted in 4 homogenous groups (nondiagnostic--L1, benign--L2, malignant not otherwise specified--L3, and malignant with specific histotype--L4), defining for each category a hierarchy of suggested actions. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value and accuracy for patients subjected to CNBs were of 96.8%, 100%, 100%, 100%, and 97.2%, respectively. Roughly 75% of our samples were diagnosed as malignant, with 60% lung adenocarcinoma diagnoses. Molecular analyses were performed on 85 malignant samples to verify applicability of targeted therapy. The rate of "nondiagnostic" samples was 12%. C-arm cone-beam CT-guided transthoracic lung CNB can represent the gold standard for the diagnostic evaluation of pulmonary nodules. A clinical and pathological multidisciplinary evaluation of CNBs was needed in terms of integration of radiological, histological, and oncological data. This approach provided exceptional performances in terms of specificity, positive and negative predictive values; sensitivity in our series was lower compared with other large studies, probably due to the application of strong criteria of adequacy for CNBs (L1 class rate). The satisfactory rate of collected material was evaluated not only in terms of merely diagnostic

  18. Cancer gene discovery: exploiting insertional mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ranzani, Marco; Annunziato, Stefano; Adams, David J.; Montini, Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    Insertional mutagenesis has been utilized as a functional forward genetics screen for the identification of novel genes involved in the pathogenesis of human cancers. Different insertional mutagens have been successfully used to reveal new cancer genes. For example, retroviruses (RVs) are integrating viruses with the capacity to induce the deregulation of genes in the neighborhood of the insertion site. RVs have been employed for more than 30 years to identify cancer genes in the hematopoietic system and mammary gland. Similarly, another tool that has revolutionized cancer gene discovery is the cut-and-paste transposons. These DNA elements have been engineered to contain strong promoters and stop cassettes that may function to perturb gene expression upon integration proximal to genes. In addition, complex mouse models characterized by tissue-restricted activity of transposons have been developed to identify oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that control the development of a wide range of solid tumor types, extending beyond those tissues accessible using RV-based approaches. Most recently, lentiviral vectors (LVs) have appeared on the scene for use in cancer gene screens. LVs are replication defective integrating vectors that have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, in a wide range of cell types and tissues. In this review, we describe the various insertional mutagens focusing on their advantages/limitations and we discuss the new and promising tools that will improve the insertional mutagenesis screens of the future. PMID:23928056

  19. Nozzle cavity impingement/area reduction insert

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael; Osgood, Sarah Jane

    2002-01-01

    A turbine vane segment is provided that has inner and outer walls spaced from one another, a vane extending between the inner and outer walls and having leading and trailing edges and pressure and suction sides, the vane including discrete leading edge, intermediate, aft and trailing edge cavities between the leading and trailing edges and extending lengthwise of the vane for flowing a cooling medium; and an insert sleeve within at least one of the cavities and spaced from interior wall surfaces thereof. The insert sleeve has an inlet for flowing the cooling medium into the insert sleeve and has impingement holes defined in first and second walls thereof that respectively face the pressure and suction sides of the vane. The impingement holes of at least one of those first and second walls are defined along substantially only a first, upstream portion thereof, whereby the cooling flow is predominantly impingement cooling along a first region of the insert wall corresponding to the first, upstream portion and the cooling flow is predominantly convective cooling along a second region corresponding to a second, downstream portion of the at least one wall of the insert sleeve.

  20. Sensing Membrane Stresses by Protein Insertions

    PubMed Central

    Campelo, Felix; Kozlov, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    Protein domains shallowly inserting into the membrane matrix are ubiquitous in peripheral membrane proteins involved in various processes of intracellular membrane shaping and remodeling. It has been suggested that these domains sense membrane curvature through their preferable binding to strongly curved membranes, the binding mechanism being mediated by lipid packing defects. Here we make an alternative statement that shallow protein insertions are universal sensors of the intra-membrane stresses existing in the region of the insertion embedding rather than sensors of the curvature per se. We substantiate this proposal computationally by considering different independent ways of the membrane stress generation among which some include changes of the membrane curvature whereas others do not alter the membrane shape. Our computations show that the membrane-binding coefficient of shallow protein insertions is determined by the resultant stress independently of the way this stress has been produced. By contrast, consideration of the correlation between the insertion binding and the membrane curvature demonstrates that the binding coefficient either increases or decreases with curvature depending on the factors leading to the curvature generation. To validate our computational model, we treat quantitatively the experimental results on membrane binding by ALPS1 and ALPS2 motifs of ArfGAP1. PMID:24722359