Accurate orbit determination strategies for the tracking and data relay satellites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oza, D. H.; Bolvin, D. T.; Lorah, J. M.; Lee, T.; Doll, C. E.
1995-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) System (TDRSS) for tracking and communications support of low Earth-orbiting satellites. TDRSS has the operational capability of providing 85% coverage for TDRSS-user spacecraft. TDRSS currently consists of five geosynchronous spacecraft and the White Sands Complex (WSC) at White Sands, New Mexico. The Bilateration Ranging Transponder System (BRTS) provides range and Doppler measurements for each TDRS. The ground-based BRTS transponders are tracked as if they were TDRSS-user spacecraft. Since the positions of the BRTS transponders are known, their radiometric tracking measurements can be used to provide a well-determined ephemeris for the TDRS spacecraft. For high-accuracy orbit determination of a TDRSS user, such as the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/Poseidon spacecraft, high-accuracy TDRS orbits are required. This paper reports on successive refinements in improved techniques and procedures leading to more accurate TDRS orbit determination strategies using the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS). These strategies range from the standard operational solution using only the BRTS tracking measurements to a sophisticated iterative process involving several successive simultaneous solutions for multiple TDRSs and a TDRSS-user spacecraft. Results are presented for GTDS-generated TDRS ephemerides produced in simultaneous solutions with the TOPEX/Poseidon spacecraft. Strategies with different user spacecraft, as well as schemes for recovering accurate TDRS orbits following a TDRS maneuver, are also presented. In addition, a comprehensive assessment and evaluation of alternative strategies for TDRS orbit determination, excluding BRTS tracking measurements, are presented.
Accurate Determination of Comet and Asteroid Orbits Leading to Collision With Earth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Kay-Bunnell, Linda; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Kumar, Renjith R.; Seywald, Hans; Hausman, Matthew A.
2005-01-01
Movements of the celestial bodies in our solar system inspired Isaac Newton to work out his profound laws of gravitation and motion; with one or two notable exceptions, all of those objects move as Newton said they would. But normally harmonious orbital motion is accompanied by the risk of collision, which can be cataclysmic. The Earth s moon is thought to have been produced by such an event, and we recently witnessed magnificent bombardments of Jupiter by several pieces of what was once Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9. Other comets or asteroids may have met the Earth with such violence that dinosaurs and other forms of life became extinct; it is this possibility that causes us to ask how the human species might avoid a similar catastrophe, and the answer requires a thorough understanding of orbital motion. The two red square flags with black square centers displayed are internationally recognized as a warning of an impending hurricane. Mariners and coastal residents who know the meaning of this symbol and the signs evident in the sky and ocean can act in advance to try to protect lives and property; someone who is unfamiliar with the warning signs or chooses to ignore them is in much greater jeopardy. Although collisions between Earth and large comets or asteroids occur much less frequently than landfall of a hurricane, it is imperative that we learn to identify the harbingers of such collisions by careful examination of an object s path. An accurate determination of the orbit of a comet or asteroid is necessary in order to know if, when, and where on the Earth s surface a collision will occur. Generally speaking, the longer the warning time, the better the chance of being able to plan and execute action to prevent a collision. The more accurate the determination of an orbit, the less likely such action will be wasted effort or, what is worse, an effort that increases rather than decreases the probability of a collision. Conditions necessary for a collision to occur are
Modeling of Non-Gravitational Forces for Precise and Accurate Orbit Determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hackel, Stefan; Gisinger, Christoph; Steigenberger, Peter; Balss, Ulrich; Montenbruck, Oliver; Eineder, Michael
2014-05-01
Remote sensing satellites support a broad range of scientific and commercial applications. The two radar imaging satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X provide spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and interferometric SAR data with a very high accuracy. The precise reconstruction of the satellite's trajectory is based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from a geodetic-grade dual-frequency Integrated Geodetic and Occultation Receiver (IGOR) onboard the spacecraft. The increasing demand for precise radar products relies on validation methods, which require precise and accurate orbit products. An analysis of the orbit quality by means of internal and external validation methods on long and short timescales shows systematics, which reflect deficits in the employed force models. Following the proper analysis of this deficits, possible solution strategies are highlighted in the presentation. The employed Reduced Dynamic Orbit Determination (RDOD) approach utilizes models for gravitational and non-gravitational forces. A detailed satellite macro model is introduced to describe the geometry and the optical surface properties of the satellite. Two major non-gravitational forces are the direct and the indirect Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP). The satellite TerraSAR-X flies on a dusk-dawn orbit with an altitude of approximately 510 km above ground. Due to this constellation, the Sun almost constantly illuminates the satellite, which causes strong across-track accelerations on the plane rectangular to the solar rays. The indirect effect of the solar radiation is called Earth Radiation Pressure (ERP). This force depends on the sunlight, which is reflected by the illuminated Earth surface (visible spectra) and the emission of the Earth body in the infrared spectra. Both components of ERP require Earth models to describe the optical properties of the Earth surface. Therefore, the influence of different Earth models on the orbit quality is assessed. The scope of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hackel, Stefan; Montenbruck, Oliver; Steigenberger, -Peter; Eineder, Michael; Gisinger, Christoph
Remote sensing satellites support a broad range of scientific and commercial applications. The two radar imaging satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X provide spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and interferometric SAR data with a very high accuracy. The increasing demand for precise radar products relies on sophisticated validation methods, which require precise and accurate orbit products. Basically, the precise reconstruction of the satellite’s trajectory is based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from a geodetic-grade dual-frequency receiver onboard the spacecraft. The Reduced Dynamic Orbit Determination (RDOD) approach utilizes models for the gravitational and non-gravitational forces. Following a proper analysis of the orbit quality, systematics in the orbit products have been identified, which reflect deficits in the non-gravitational force models. A detailed satellite macro model is introduced to describe the geometry and the optical surface properties of the satellite. Two major non-gravitational forces are the direct and the indirect Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP). Due to the dusk-dawn orbit configuration of TerraSAR-X, the satellite is almost constantly illuminated by the Sun. Therefore, the direct SRP has an effect on the lateral stability of the determined orbit. The indirect effect of the solar radiation principally contributes to the Earth Radiation Pressure (ERP). The resulting force depends on the sunlight, which is reflected by the illuminated Earth surface in the visible, and the emission of the Earth body in the infrared spectra. Both components of ERP require Earth models to describe the optical properties of the Earth surface. Therefore, the influence of different Earth models on the orbit quality is assessed within the presentation. The presentation highlights the influence of non-gravitational force and satellite macro models on the orbit quality of TerraSAR-X.
Radio interferometric measurements for accurate planetary orbiter navigation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poole, S. R.; Ananda, M.; Hildebrand, C. E.
1979-01-01
The use of narrowband delta-VLBI to achieve accurate orbit determination is presented by viewing a spacecraft from widely separated stations followed by viewing a nearby quasar from the same stations. Current analysis is examined that establishes the orbit determination accuracy achieved with data arcs spanning up to 3.5 d. Strategies for improving prediction accuracy are given, and the performance of delta-VLBI is compared with conventional radiometric tracking data. It is found that accuracy 'within the fit' is on the order of 0.5 km for data arcs having delta-VLBI on the ends of the arcs and for arc lengths varying from one baseline to 3.5 d. The technique is discussed with reference to the proposed Venus Orbiting Imaging Radar mission.
Information Measures for Statistical Orbit Determination
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mashiku, Alinda K.
2013-01-01
The current Situational Space Awareness (SSA) is faced with a huge task of tracking the increasing number of space objects. The tracking of space objects requires frequent and accurate monitoring for orbit maintenance and collision avoidance using methods for statistical orbit determination. Statistical orbit determination enables us to obtain…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jordan, J. F.; Boggs, D. H.; Born, G. H.; Christensen, E. J.; Ferrari, A. J.; Green, D. W.; Hylkema, R. K.; Mohan, S. N.; Reinbold, S. J.; Sievers, G. L.
1973-01-01
A historic account of the activities of the Satellite OD Group during the MM'71 mission is given along with an assessment of the accuracy of the determined orbit of the Mariner 9 spacecraft. Preflight study results are reviewed, and the major error sources described. Tracking and data fitting strategy actually used in the real time operations is itemized, and Deep Space Network data available for orbit fitting during the mission and the auxiliary information used by the navigation team are described. A detailed orbit fitting history of the first four revolutions of the satellite orbit of Mariner 9 is presented, with emphasis on the convergence problems and the delivered solution for the first orbit trim maneuver. Also included are a solution accuracy summary, the history of the spacecraft orbit osculating elements, the results of verifying the radio solutions with TV imaging data, and a summary of the normal points generated for the relativity experiment.
Accurate orbit propagation with planetary close encounters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baù, Giulio; Milani Comparetti, Andrea; Guerra, Francesca
2015-08-01
We tackle the problem of accurately propagating the motion of those small bodies that undergo close approaches with a planet. The literature is lacking on this topic and the reliability of the numerical results is not sufficiently discussed. The high-frequency components of the perturbation generated by a close encounter makes the propagation particularly challenging both from the point of view of the dynamical stability of the formulation and the numerical stability of the integrator. In our approach a fixed step-size and order multistep integrator is combined with a regularized formulation of the perturbed two-body problem. When the propagated object enters the region of influence of a celestial body, the latter becomes the new primary body of attraction. Moreover, the formulation and the step-size will also be changed if necessary. We present: 1) the restarter procedure applied to the multistep integrator whenever the primary body is changed; 2) new analytical formulae for setting the step-size (given the order of the multistep, formulation and initial osculating orbit) in order to control the accumulation of the local truncation error and guarantee the numerical stability during the propagation; 3) a new definition of the region of influence in the phase space. We test the propagator with some real asteroids subject to the gravitational attraction of the planets, the Yarkovsky and relativistic perturbations. Our goal is to show that the proposed approach improves the performance of both the propagator implemented in the OrbFit software package (which is currently used by the NEODyS service) and of the propagator represented by a variable step-size and order multistep method combined with Cowell's formulation (i.e. direct integration of position and velocity in either the physical or a fictitious time).
Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slojkowski, Steven E.
2014-01-01
Results from operational OD produced by the NASA Goddard Flight Dynamics Facility for the LRO nominal and extended mission are presented. During the LRO nominal mission, when LRO flew in a low circular orbit, orbit determination requirements were met nearly 100% of the time. When the extended mission began, LRO returned to a more elliptical frozen orbit where gravity and other modeling errors caused numerous violations of mission accuracy requirements. Prediction accuracy is particularly challenged during periods when LRO is in full-Sun. A series of improvements to LRO orbit determination are presented, including implementation of new lunar gravity models, improved spacecraft solar radiation pressure modeling using a dynamic multi-plate area model, a shorter orbit determination arc length, and a constrained plane method for estimation. The analysis presented in this paper shows that updated lunar gravity models improved accuracy in the frozen orbit, and a multiplate dynamic area model improves prediction accuracy during full-Sun orbit periods. Implementation of a 36-hour tracking data arc and plane constraints during edge-on orbit geometry also provide benefits. A comparison of the operational solutions to precision orbit determination solutions shows agreement on a 100- to 250-meter level in definitive accuracy.
Extremely Accurate On-Orbit Position Accuracy using TDRSS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stocklin, Frank; Toral, Marco; Bar-Sever, Yoaz; Rush, John
2006-01-01
NASA is planning to launch a new service for Earth satellites providing them with precise GPS differential corrections and other ancillary information enabling decimeter level orbit determination accuracy and nanosecond time-transfer accuracy, onboard, in real-time. The TDRSS Augmentation Service for Satellites (TASS) will broadcast its message on the S-band multiple access forward channel of NASA s Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The satellite's phase array antenna has been configured to provide a wide beam, extending coverage up to 1000 km altitude over the poles. Global coverage will be ensured with broadcast from three or more TDRSS satellites. The GPS differential corrections are provided by the NASA Global Differential GPS (GDGPS) System, developed and operated by JPL. The GDGPS System employs global ground network of more than 70 GPS receivers to monitor the GPS constellation in real time. The system provides real-time estimates of the GPS satellite states, as well as many other real-time products such as differential corrections, global ionospheric maps, and integrity monitoring. The unique multiply redundant architecture of the GDGPS System ensures very high reliability, with 99.999% demonstrated since the inception of the system in early 2000. The estimated real time GPS orbit and clock states provided by the GDGPS system are accurate to better than 20 cm 3D RMS, and have been demonstrated to support sub-decimeter real time positioning and orbit determination for a variety of terrestrial, airborne, and spaceborne applications. In addition to the GPS differential corrections, TASS will provide real-time Earth orientation and solar flux information that enable precise onboard knowledge of the Earth-fixed position of the spacecraft, and precise orbit prediction and planning capabilities. TASS will also provide 5 seconds alarms for GPS integrity failures based on the unique GPS integrity monitoring service of the GDGPS System.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carpenter, James R.; Berry, Kevin; Gregpru. Late; Speckman, Keith; Hur-Diaz, Sun; Surka, Derek; Gaylor, Dave
2010-01-01
The Orbit Determination Toolbox is an orbit determination (OD) analysis tool based on MATLAB and Java that provides a flexible way to do early mission analysis. The toolbox is primarily intended for advanced mission analysis such as might be performed in concept exploration, proposal, early design phase, or rapid design center environments. The emphasis is on flexibility, but it has enough fidelity to produce credible results. Insight into all flight dynamics source code is provided. MATLAB is the primary user interface and is used for piecing together measurement and dynamic models. The Java Astrodynamics Toolbox is used as an engine for things that might be slow or inefficient in MATLAB, such as high-fidelity trajectory propagation, lunar and planetary ephemeris look-ups, precession, nutation, polar motion calculations, ephemeris file parsing, and the like. The primary analysis functions are sequential filter/smoother and batch least-squares commands that incorporate Monte-Carlo data simulation, linear covariance analysis, measurement processing, and plotting capabilities at the generic level. These functions have a user interface that is based on that of the MATLAB ODE suite. To perform a specific analysis, users write MATLAB functions that implement truth and design system models. The user provides his or her models as inputs to the filter commands. The software provides a capability to publish and subscribe to a software bus that is compliant with the NASA Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) standards, to exchange data with other flight dynamics tools to simplify the flight dynamics design cycle. Using the publish and subscribe approach allows for analysts in a rapid design center environment to seamlessly incorporate changes in spacecraft and mission design into navigation analysis and vice versa.
Kaguya Orbit Determination from JPL
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haw, Robert J.; Mottinger, N. A.; Graat, E. J.; Jefferson, D. C.; Park, R.; Menom, P.; Higa, E.
2008-01-01
Selene (re-named 'Kaguya' after launch) is an unmanned mission to the Moon navigated, in part, by JPL personnel. Launched by an H-IIA rocket on September 14, 2007 from Tanegashima Space Center, Kaguya entered a high, Earth-centered phasing orbit with apogee near the radius of the Moon's orbit. After 19 days and two orbits of Earth, Kaguya entered lunar orbit. Over the next 2 weeks the spacecraft decreased its apolune altitude until reaching a circular, 100 kilometer altitude orbit. This paper describes NASA/JPL's participation in the JAXA/Kaguya mission during that 5 week period, wherein JPL provided tracking data and orbit determination support for Kaguya.
Orbit Determination of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Torrence, M. H.; Lemoine, F. G.; Zuber, M. T.
2011-01-01
We present the results on precision orbit determination from the radio science investigation of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft. We describe the data, modeling and methods used to achieve position knowledge several times better than the required 50-100m (in total position), over the period from 13 July 2009 to 31 January 2011. In addition to the near-continuous radiometric tracking data, we include altimetric data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) in the form of crossover measurements, and show that they strongly improve the accuracy of the orbit reconstruction (total position overlap differences decrease from approx.70m to approx.23 m). To refine the spacecraft trajectory further, we develop a lunar gravity field by combining the newly acquired LRO data with the historical data. The reprocessing of the spacecraft trajectory with that model shows significantly increased accuracy (approx.20m with only the radiometric data, and approx.14m with the addition of the altimetric crossovers). LOLA topographic maps and calibration data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera were used to supplement the results of the overlap analysis and demonstrate the trajectory accuracy.
Lunar Prospector Orbit Determination Results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beckman, Mark; Concha, Marco
1998-01-01
The orbit support for Lunar Prospector (LP) consists of three main areas: (1) cislunar orbit determination, (2) rapid maneuver assessment using Doppler residuals, and (3) routine mapping orbit determination. The cislunar phase consisted of two trajectory correction maneuvers during the translunar cruise followed by three lunar orbit insertion burns. This paper will detail the cislunar orbit determination accuracy and the real-time assessment of the cislunar trajectory correction and lunar orbit insertion maneuvers. The non-spherical gravity model of the Moon is the primary influence on the mapping orbit determination accuracy. During the first two months of the mission, the GLGM-2 lunar potential model was used. After one month in the mapping orbit, a new potential model was developed that incorporated LP Doppler data. This paper will compare and contrast the mapping orbit determination accuracy using these two models. LP orbit support also includes a new enhancement - a web page to disseminate all definitive and predictive trajectory and mission planning information. The web site provides definitive mapping orbit ephemerides including moon latitude and longitude, and four week predictive products including: ephemeris, moon latitude/longitude, earth shadow, moon shadow, and ground station view periods. This paper will discuss the specifics of this web site.
Precise Orbit Determination for ALOS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nakamura, Ryo; Nakamura, Shinichi; Kudo, Nobuo; Katagiri, Seiji
2007-01-01
The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) has been developed to contribute to the fields of mapping, precise regional land coverage observation, disaster monitoring, and resource surveying. Because the mounted sensors need high geometrical accuracy, precise orbit determination for ALOS is essential for satisfying the mission objectives. So ALOS mounts a GPS receiver and a Laser Reflector (LR) for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). This paper deals with the precise orbit determination experiments for ALOS using Global and High Accuracy Trajectory determination System (GUTS) and the evaluation of the orbit determination accuracy by SLR data. The results show that, even though the GPS receiver loses lock of GPS signals more frequently than expected, GPS-based orbit is consistent with SLR-based orbit. And considering the 1 sigma error, orbit determination accuracy of a few decimeters (peak-to-peak) was achieved.
Mars Science Laboratory Orbit Determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kruizinga, Gerhard; Gustafson, Eric; Jefferson, David; Martin-Mur, Tomas; Mottinger, Neil; Pelletier, Fred; Ryne, Mark; Thompson, Paul
2012-01-01
Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Orbit Determination (OD) met all requirements with considerable margin, MSL OD team developed spin signature removal tool and successfully used the tool during cruise, A novel approach was used for the MSL solar radiation pressure model and resulted in a very accurate model during the approach phase, The change in velocity for Attitude Control System (ACS) turns was successfully calibrated and with appropriate scale factor resulted in improved change in velocity prediction for future turns, All Trajectory Correction Maneuvers were successfully reconstructed and execution errors were well below the assumed pre-fight execution errors, The official OD solutions were statistically consistent throughout cruise and for OD solutions with different arc lengths as well, Only EPU-1 was sent to MSL. All other Entry Parameter Updates were waived, EPU-1 solution was only 200 m separated from final trajectory reconstruction in the B-plane
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tang, Charles C. H.
1988-01-01
By using Von Zeipel's generating function procedure the perturbing earth gravitational potential is averaged with respect to the fast variable (mean anomaly) and a set of 'fictitous' mean orbital elements which can be used as a long-term satellite orbit predictor is obtained. The set of elements is shown to be a function of the nonlinear square of the second zonal harmonic coefficient. It is found that the long-term orbit prediction using the 'fictitous' mean elements is as accurate as that using the osculating elements, but has a computing speed about two orders of magnitude faster. For short-term orbit predictions, the osculating elements approach must be used.
Precise Orbit Determination for Altimeter Satellites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zelensky, N. P.; Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Beckley, B. B.; Wang, Y.; Chinn, D. S.
2002-05-01
Orbit error remains a critical component in the error budget for all radar altimeter missions. This paper describes the ongoing work at GSFC to improve orbits for three radar altimeter satellites: TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P), Jason, and Geosat Follow-On (GFO). T/P has demonstrated that, the time variation of ocean topography can be determined with an accuracy of a few centimeters, thanks to the availability of highly accurate orbits (2-3 cm radially) produced at GSFC. Jason, the T/P follow-on, is intended to continue measurement of the ocean surface with the same, if not better accuracy. Reaching the Jason centimeter accuracy orbit goal would greatly benefit the knowledge of ocean circulation. Several new POD strategies which promise significant improvement to the current T/P orbit are evaluated over one year of data. Also, preliminary, but very promising Jason POD results are presented. Orbit improvement for GFO has been dramatic, and has allowed this mission to provide a POESEIDON class altimeter product. The GFO Precise Orbit Ephemeris (POE) orbits are based on satellite laser ranging (SLR) tracking supplemented with GFO/GFO altimeter crossover data. The accuracy of these orbits were evaluated using several tests, including independent TOPEX/GFO altimeter crossover data. The orbit improvements are shown over the years 2000 and 2001 for which the POEs have been completed.
Orbit Determination Issues for Libration Point Orbits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beckman, Mark; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Libration point mission designers require knowledge of orbital accuracy for a variety of analyses including station keeping control strategies, transfer trajectory design, and formation and constellation control. Past publications have detailed orbit determination (OD) results from individual libration point missions. This paper collects both published and unpublished results from four previous libration point missions (ISEE (International Sun-Earth Explorer) -3, SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory), ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) and MAP (Microwave Anisotropy Probe)) supported by Goddard Space Flight Center's Guidance, Navigation & Control Center. The results of those missions are presented along with OD issues specific to each mission. All past missions have been limited to ground based tracking through NASA ground sites using standard range and Doppler measurement types. Advanced technology is enabling other OD options including onboard navigation using seaboard attitude sensors and the use of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) measurement Delta Differenced One-Way Range (DDOR). Both options potentially enable missions to reduce coherent dedicated tracking passes while maintaining orbital accuracy. With the increased projected loading of the DSN (Deep Space Network), missions must find alternatives to the standard OD scenario.
Mars Science Laboratory Orbit Determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kruizinga, Gerhard L.; Gustafson, Eric D.; Thompson, Paul F.; Jefferson, David C.; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; Mottinger, Neil A.; Pelletier, Frederic J.; Ryne, Mark S.
2012-01-01
This paper describes the orbit determination process, results and filter strategies used by the Mars Science Laboratory Navigation Team during cruise from Earth to Mars. The new atmospheric entry guidance system resulted in an orbit determination paradigm shift during final approach when compared to previous Mars lander missions. The evolving orbit determination filter strategies during cruise are presented. Furthermore, results of calibration activities of dynamical models are presented. The atmospheric entry interface trajectory knowledge was significantly better than the original requirements, which enabled the very precise landing in Gale Crater.
Geostationary orbit determination using SATRE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Hui; Li, ZhiGang; Yang, XuHai; Wu, WenJun; Cheng, Xuan; Yang, Ying; Feng, ChuGang
2011-09-01
A new strategy of precise orbit determination (POD) for GEO (Geostationary Earth Orbit) satellite using SATRE (SAtellite Time and Ranging Equipment) is presented. Two observation modes are proposed and different channels of the same instruments are used to construct different observation modes, one mode receiving time signals from their own station and the other mode receiving time signals from each other for two stations called pairs of combined observations. Using data from such a tracking network in China, the results for both modes are compared. The precise orbit determination for the Sino-1 satellite using the data from 6 June 2005 to 13 June 2005 has been carried out in this work. The RMS (Root-Mean-Square) of observing residuals for 3-day solutions with the former mode is better than 9.1 cm. The RMS of observing residuals for 3-day solutions with the latter mode is better than 4.8 cm, much better than the former mode. Orbital overlapping (3-day orbit solution with 1-day orbit overlap) tests show that the RMS of the orbit difference for the former mode is 0.16 m in the radial direction, 0.53 m in the along-track direction, 0.97 m in the cross-track direction and 1.12 m in the 3-dimension position and the RMS of the orbit difference for the latter mode is 0.36 m in the radial direction, 0.89 m in the along-track direction, 1.18 m in the cross-track direction and 1.52 m in the 3-dimension position, almost the same as the former mode. All the experiments indicate that a meter-level accuracy of orbit determination for geostationary satellite is achievable.
Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slojkowski, Steven E.
2014-01-01
LRO definitive and predictive accuracy requirements were easily met in the nominal mission orbit, using the LP150Q lunar gravity model. center dot Accuracy of the LP150Q model is poorer in the extended mission elliptical orbit. center dot Later lunar gravity models, in particular GSFC-GRAIL-270, improve OD accuracy in the extended mission. center dot Implementation of a constrained plane when the orbit is within 45 degrees of the Earth-Moon line improves cross-track accuracy. center dot Prediction accuracy is still challenged during full-Sun periods due to coarse spacecraft area modeling - Implementation of a multi-plate area model with definitive attitude input can eliminate prediction violations. - The FDF is evaluating using analytic and predicted attitude modeling to improve full-Sun prediction accuracy. center dot Comparison of FDF ephemeris file to high-precision ephemeris files provides gross confirmation that overlap compares properly assess orbit accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iorio, L.
2016-01-01
By using the most recently published Doppler tomography measurements and accurate theoretical modelling of the oblateness-driven orbital precessions, we tightly constrain some of the physical and orbital parameters of the planetary system hosted by the fast rotating star WASP-33. In particular, the measurements of the orbital inclination ip to the plane of the sky and of the sky-projected spin-orbit misalignment λ at two epochs about six years apart allowed for the determination of the longitude of the ascending node Ω and of the orbital inclination I to the apparent equatorial plane at the same epochs. As a consequence, average rates of change dot{Ω }_exp, dot{I}_exp of this two orbital elements, accurate to a ≈10-2 deg yr-1 level, were calculated as well. By comparing them to general theoretical expressions dot{Ω }_{J_2}, dot{I}_{J_2} for their precessions induced by an oblate star whose symmetry axis is arbitrarily oriented, we were able to determine the angle i⋆ between the line of sight the star's spin {S}^{star } and its first even zonal harmonic J_2^{star } obtaining i^{star } = {142}^{+10}_{-11} deg, J_2^{star } = 2.1^{+0.8}_{-0.5}times; 10^{-4}. As a by-product, the angle between {S}^{star } and the orbital angular momentum L is as large as about ψ ≈ 100 ° psi; ^{2008} = 99^{+5}_{-4} deg, ψ ^{{2014}} = 103^{+5}_{-4} deg and changes at a rate dot{ψ }= 0.{7}^{+1.5}_{-1.6} deg {yr}^{-1}. The predicted general relativistic Lense-Thirring precessions, of the order of ≈10-3deg yr-1, are, at present, about one order of magnitude below the measurability threshold.
James Webb Space Telescope Orbit Determination Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yoon, Sungpil; Rosales, Jose; Richon, Karen
2014-01-01
The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is designed to study and answer fundamental astrophysical questions from an orbit about the Sun-EarthMoon L2 libration point, 1.5 million km away from Earth. Three mid-course correction (MCC) maneuvers during launch and early orbit phase and transfer orbit phase are required for the spacecraft to reach L2. These three MCC maneuvers are MCC-1a at Launch+12 hours, MCC-1b at L+2.5 days and MCC-2 at L+30 days. Accurate orbit determination (OD) solutions are needed to support MCC maneuver planning. A preliminary analysis shows that OD performance with the given assumptions is adequate to support MCC maneuver planning. During the nominal science operations phase, the mission requires better than 2 cmsec velocity estimation performance to support stationkeeping maneuver planning. The major challenge to accurate JWST OD during the nominal science phase results from the unusually large solar radiation pressure force acting on the huge sunshield. Other challenges are stationkeeping maneuvers at 21-day intervals to keep JWST in orbit around L2, frequent attitude reorientations to align the JWST telescope with its targets and frequent maneuvers to unload momentum accumulated in the reaction wheels. Monte Carlo analysis shows that the proposed OD approach can produce solutions that meet the mission requirements.
James Webb Space Telescope Orbit Determination Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yoon, Sungpil; Rosales, Jose; Richon, Karen
2014-01-01
The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is designed to study and answer fundamental astrophysical questions from an orbit about the Sun-Earth/Moon L2 libration point, 1.5 million km away from Earth. This paper describes the results of an orbit determination (OD) analysis of the JWST mission emphasizing the challenges specific to this mission in various mission phases. Three mid-course correction (MCC) maneuvers during launch and early orbit phase and transfer orbit phase are required for the spacecraft to reach L2. These three MCC maneuvers are MCC-1a at Launch+12 hours, MCC-1b at L+2.5 days and MCC-2 at L+30 days. Accurate OD solutions are needed to support MCC maneuver planning. A preliminary analysis shows that OD performance with the given assumptions is adequate to support MCC maneuver planning. During the nominal science operations phase, the mission requires better than 2 cm/sec velocity estimation performance to support stationkeeping maneuver planning. The major challenge to accurate JWST OD during the nominal science phase results from the unusually large solar radiation pressure force acting on the huge sunshield. Other challenges are stationkeeping maneuvers at 21-day intervals to keep JWST in orbit around L2, frequent attitude reorientations to align the JWST telescope with its targets and frequent maneuvers to unload momentum accumulated in the reaction wheels. Monte Carlo analysis shows that the proposed OD approach can produce solutions that meet the mission requirements.
Gravity Probe B orbit determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shestople, P.; Ndili, A.; Hanuschak, G.; Parkinson, B. W.; Small, H.
2015-11-01
The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) satellite was equipped with a pair of redundant Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers used to provide navigation solutions for real-time and post-processed orbit determination (OD), as well as to establish the relation between vehicle time and coordinated universal time. The receivers performed better than the real-time position requirement of 100 m rms per axis. Post-processed solutions indicated an rms position error of 2.5 m and an rms velocity error of 2.2 mm s-1. Satellite laser ranging measurements provided independent verification of the GPS-derived GP-B orbit. We discuss the modifications and performance of the Trimble Advance Navigation System Vector III GPS receivers. We describe the GP-B precision orbit and detail the OD methodology, including ephemeris errors and the laser ranging measurements.
Single Frequency GPS Orbit Determination for Low Earth Orbiters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bertiger, Willy; Wu, Sien-Chong
1996-01-01
A number of missions in the future are planning to use GPS for precision orbit determination. Cost considerations and receiver availability make single frequency GPS receivers attractive if the orbit accuracy requirements can be met.
Real-time shipboard orbit determination using Kalman filtering techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brammer, R. F.
1974-01-01
The real-time tracking and orbit determination program used on board the NASA tracking ship, the USNS Vanguard, is described in this paper. The computer program uses a variety of filtering algorithms, including an extended Kalman filter, to derive real-time orbit determinations (position-velocity state vectors) from shipboard tracking and navigation data. Results from Apollo missions are given to show that orbital parameters can be estimated quickly and accurately using these methods.
Low thrust orbit determination program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hong, P. E.; Shults, G. L.; Huling, K. R.; Ratliff, C. W.
1972-01-01
Logical flow and guidelines are provided for the construction of a low thrust orbit determination computer program. The program, tentatively called FRACAS (filter response analysis for continuously accelerating spacecraft), is capable of generating a reference low thrust trajectory, performing a linear covariance analysis of guidance and navigation processes, and analyzing trajectory nonlinearities in Monte Carlo fashion. The choice of trajectory, guidance and navigation models has been made after extensive literature surveys and investigation of previous software. A key part of program design relied upon experience gained in developing and using Martin Marietta Aerospace programs: TOPSEP (Targeting/Optimization for Solar Electric Propulsion), GODSEP (Guidance and Orbit Determination for SEP) and SIMSEP (Simulation of SEP).
Semi-Major Axis Knowledge and GPS Orbit Determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carpenter, J. Russell; Schiesser, Emil R.; Bauer, F. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
In recent years spacecraft designers have increasingly sought to use onboard Global Positioning System receivers for orbit determination. The superb positioning accuracy of GPS has tended to focus more attention on the system's capability to determine the spacecraft's location at a particular epoch than on accurate orbit determination, per se. The determination of orbit plane orientation and orbit shape to acceptable levels is less challenging than the determination of orbital period or semi-major axis. It is necessary to address semi-major axis mission requirements and the GPS receiver capability for orbital maneuver targeting and other operations that require trajectory prediction. Failure to determine semi-major axis accurately can result in a solution that may not be usable for targeting the execution of orbit adjustment and rendezvous maneuvers. Simple formulas, charts, and rules of thumb relating position, velocity, and semi-major axis are useful in design and analysis of GPS receivers for near circular orbit operations, including rendezvous and formation flying missions. Space Shuttle flights of a number of different GPS receivers, including a mix of unfiltered and filtered solution data and Standard and Precise Positioning, Service modes, have been accomplished. These results indicate that semi-major axis is often not determined very accurately, due to a poor velocity solution and a lack of proper filtering to provide good radial and speed error correlation.
Semi-Major Axis Knowledge and GPS Orbit Determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carpenter, J. Russell; Schiesser, Emil R.; Bauer, F. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
In recent years spacecraft designers have increasingly sought to use onboard Global Positioning System receivers for orbit determination. The superb positioning accuracy of GPS has tended to focus more attention on the system's capability to determine the spacecraft's location at a particular epoch than on accurate orbit determination, per se. The determination of orbit plane orientation and orbit shape to acceptable levels is less challenging than the determination of orbital period or semi-major axis. It is necessary to address semi-major axis mission requirements and the GPS receiver capability for orbital maneuver targeting and other operations that require trajectory prediction. Failure to determine semi-major axis accurately can result in a solution that may not be usable for targeting the execution of orbit adjustment and rendezvous maneuvers. Simple formulas, charts, and rules of thumb relating position, velocity, and semi-major axis are useful in design and analysis of GPS receivers for near circular orbit operations, including rendezvous and formation flying missions. Space Shuttle flights of a number of different GPS receivers, including a mix of unfiltered and filtered solution data and Standard and Precise Positioning Service modes, have been accomplished. These results indicate that semi-major axis is often not determined very accurately, due to a poor velocity solution and a lack of proper filtering to provide good radial and speed error correlation.
Calibration effects on orbit determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Madrid, G. A.; Winn, F. B.; Zielenbach, J. W.; Yip, K. B.
1974-01-01
The effects of charged particle and tropospheric calibrations on the orbit determination (OD) process are analyzed. The calibration process consisted of correcting the Doppler observables for the media effects. Calibrated and uncalibrated Doppler data sets were used to obtain OD results for past missions as well as Mariner Mars 1971. Comparisons of these Doppler reductions show the significance of the calibrations. For the MM'71 mission, the media calibrations proved themselves effective in diminishing the overall B-plane error and reducing the Doppler residual signatures.
Accurate determination of characteristic relative permeability curves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krause, Michael H.; Benson, Sally M.
2015-09-01
A recently developed technique to accurately characterize sub-core scale heterogeneity is applied to investigate the factors responsible for flowrate-dependent effective relative permeability curves measured on core samples in the laboratory. The dependency of laboratory measured relative permeability on flowrate has long been both supported and challenged by a number of investigators. Studies have shown that this apparent flowrate dependency is a result of both sub-core scale heterogeneity and outlet boundary effects. However this has only been demonstrated numerically for highly simplified models of porous media. In this paper, flowrate dependency of effective relative permeability is demonstrated using two rock cores, a Berea Sandstone and a heterogeneous sandstone from the Otway Basin Pilot Project in Australia. Numerical simulations of steady-state coreflooding experiments are conducted at a number of injection rates using a single set of input characteristic relative permeability curves. Effective relative permeability is then calculated from the simulation data using standard interpretation methods for calculating relative permeability from steady-state tests. Results show that simplified approaches may be used to determine flowrate-independent characteristic relative permeability provided flow rate is sufficiently high, and the core heterogeneity is relatively low. It is also shown that characteristic relative permeability can be determined at any typical flowrate, and even for geologically complex models, when using accurate three-dimensional models.
Precision orbit determination at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Putney, B.; Kolenkiewicz, R.; Smith, D.; Dunn, P.; Torrence, M. H.
1990-01-01
This paper describes the GEODYN computer program developed by the Geodynamics Branch at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and outlines the procedure for accurate satellite orbit and tracking-data analyses. The capabilities of the program allow the development of gravity fields as large as 90 by 90, and a complete modeling of tidal parameters. It is also feasible to numerically integrate a continuous orbit of a satellite such as Lageos for up to 12 years. The evolution of the orbit can be studied, and, by comparison with locally determined orbits, force model improvements can be made. The GEODYN flow diagrams are presented.
Mars exploration rovers orbit determination system modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wawrzyniak, Geoffrey; Baird, Darren; Graat, Eric; McElrath, Tim; Portock, Brian; Watkins, Michael
2006-06-01
From June 2003 to January 2004, two spinning spacecraft journeyed from Earth to Mars. A team of navigators at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) accurately determined the orbits of both Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. For the navigation process to be successful, the team needed to know how nongravitational effects and how measurement system properties affected the trajectory and data modeling. To accomplish this, in addition to the standard gravitational and radiometric modeling of the spacecraft, a calibration was performed on each spacecraft to determine the amount of ΔV that might occur during a turn, a high-fidelity solar-radiation-pressure model was created, the spin signature was removed from the tracking data, the station locations of the Deep Space Network were resurveyed, and a model of interplanetary charged particles was developed. The result of this effort was near-perfect accuracy, surpassing the tight atmospheric-entry requirements for navigation of both spacecraft.
Orbit Determination System for Low Earth Orbit Satellites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elisha, Yossi; Shyldkrot, Haim; Hankin, Maxim
2007-01-01
The IAI/MBT Precise Orbit Determination system for Low Earth Orbit satellites is presented. The system is based on GPS pesudorange and carrier phase measurements and implements the Reduced Dynamics method. The GPS measurements model, the dynamic model, and the least squares orbit determination are discussed. Results are shown for data from the CHAMP satellite and for simulated data from the ROKAR GPS receiver. In both cases the one sigma 3D position and velocity accuracy is about 0.2 m and 0.5 mm/sec respectively.
GPS as an orbit determination subsystems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fennessey, Richard; Roberts, Pat; Knight, Robin; Vanvolkinburg, Bart
1995-01-01
This paper evaluates the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers as a primary source of tracking data for low-Earth orbit satellites. GPS data is an alternative to using range, azimuth, elevation, and range-rate (RAER) data from the Air Force Satellite Control Network antennas, the Space Ground Link System (SGLS). This evaluation is applicable to missions such as Skipper, a joint U.S. and Russian atmosphere research mission, that will rely on a GPS receiver as a primary tracking data source. The Detachment 2, Space and Missile Systems Center's Test Support Complex (TSC) conducted the evaluation based on receiver data from the Space Test Experiment Platform Mission O (STEP-O) and Advanced Photovoltaic and Electronics Experiments (APEX) satellites. The TSC performed orbit reconstruction and prediction on the STEP-0 and APEX vehicles using GPS receiver navigation solution data, SGLS RAER data, and SGLS anglesonly (azimuth and elevation) data. For the STEP-O case, the navigation solution based orbits proved to be more accurate than SGLS RAER based orbits. For the APEX case, navigation solution based orbits proved to be less accurate than SGLS RAER based orbits for orbit prediction, and results for orbit reconstruction were inconclusive due to the lack of a precise truth orbit. After evaluating several different GPS data processing methods, the TSC concluded that using GPS navigation solution data is a viable alternative to using SGLS RAER data.
Spitzer Orbit Determination During In-orbit Checkout Phase
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menon, Premkumar R.
2004-01-01
The Spitzer Space Telescope was injected into heliocentric orbit on August 25, 2003 to observe and study astrophysical phenomena in the infrared range of frequencies. The initial 60 days was dedicated to Spitzer's "In-Orbit Checkout (IOC)" efforts. During this time high levels of Helium venting were used to cool down the telescope. Attitude control was done using reaction wheels, which in turn were de-saturated using cold gas Nitrogen thrusting. Dense tracking data (nearly continuous) by the Deep Space network (DSN) were used to perform orbit determination and to assess any possible venting imbalance. Only Doppler data were available for navigation. This paper deals with navigation efforts during the IOC phase. It includes Dust Cover Ejection (DCE) monitoring, orbit determination strategy validation and results and assessment of non-gravitational accelerations acting on Spitzer including that due to possible imbalance in Helium venting.
Shadowing Lemma and chaotic orbit determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spoto, Federica; Milani, Andrea
2016-03-01
Orbit determination is possible for a chaotic orbit of a dynamical system, given a finite set of observations, provided the initial conditions are at the central time. The Shadowing Lemma (Anosov 1967; Bowen in J Differ Equ 18:333-356, 1975) can be seen as a way to connect the orbit obtained using the observations with a real trajectory. An orbit is a shadowing of the trajectory if it stays close to the real trajectory for some amount of time. In a simple discrete model, the standard map, we tackle the problem of chaotic orbit determination when observations extend beyond the predictability horizon. If the orbit is hyperbolic, a shadowing orbit is computed by the least squares orbit determination. We test both the convergence of the orbit determination iterative procedure and the behaviour of the uncertainties as a function of the maximum number of map iterations observed. When the initial conditions belong to a chaotic orbit, the orbit determination is made impossible by numerical instability beyond a computability horizon, which can be approximately predicted by a simple formula. Moreover, the uncertainty of the results is sharply increased if a dynamical parameter is added to the initial conditions as parameter to be estimated. The Shadowing Lemma does not dictate what the asymptotic behaviour of the uncertainties should be. These phenomena have significant implications, which remain to be studied, in practical problems of orbit determination involving chaos, such as the chaotic rotation state of a celestial body and a chaotic orbit of a planet-crossing asteroid undergoing many close approaches.
Precision Orbit Determination for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemoine, F. G.; Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Torrence, M. H.; McGarry, J. F.; Neumann, G. A.; Mao, D.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.
2010-05-01
The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft was launched on June 18, 2009. In mid-September 2009, the spacecraft orbit was changed from its commissioning orbit (30 x 216 km polar) to a quasi-frozen polar orbit with an average altitude of 50km (+-15km). One of the goals of the LRO mission is to develop a new lunar reference frame to facilitate future exploration. Precision Orbit Determination is used to achieve the accuracy requirements, and to precisely geolocate the high-resolution datasets obtained by the LRO instruments. In addition to the tracking data most commonly used to determine spacecraft orbits in planetary missions (radiometric Range and Doppler), LRO benefits from two other types of orbital constraints, both enabled by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument. The altimetric data collected as the instrument's primary purpose can be used to derive constraints on the orbit geometry at the times of laser groundtrack intersections (crossovers). The multi-beam configuration and high firing-rate of LOLA further improves the strength of these crossovers, compared to what was possible with the MOLA instrument onboard Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). Furthermore, one-way laser ranges (LR) between Earth International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) stations and the spacecraft are made possible by the addition of a small telescope mounted on the spacecraft high-gain antenna. The photons received from Earth are transmitted to one LOLA detector by a fiber optics bundle. Thanks to the accuracy of the LOLA timing system, the precision of 5-s LR normal points is below 10cm. We present the first results of the Precision Orbit Determination (POD) of LRO through the commissioning and nominal phases of the mission. Orbit quality is discussed, and various gravity fields are evaluated with the new (independent) LRO radio tracking data. The altimetric crossovers are used as an independent data type to evaluate the quality of the orbits. The contribution of the LR
Orbit determination by range-only data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duong, N.; Winn, C. B.
1973-01-01
The determination of satellite orbits for use in geodesy using range-only data has been examined. A recently developed recursive algorithm for rectification of the nominal orbit after processing each observation has been tested. It is shown that when a synchronous satellite is tracked simultaneously with a subsynchronous geodetic target satellite, the orbits of each may be readily determined by processing the range information. Random data errors and satellite perturbations are included in the examples presented.
Orbit Determination of Spacecraft in Earth-Moon L1 and L2 Libration Point Orbits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodard, Mark; Cosgrove, Daniel; Morinelli, Patrick; Marchese, Jeff; Owens, Brandon; Folta, David
2011-01-01
measurements that would be needed to meet the required orbit determination accuracies. Analysts used the Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS) to perform covariance analyses using various tracking data schedules. From this analysis, it was determined that 3.5 hours of DSN TRK-2-34 range and Doppler tracking data every other day would suffice to meet the predictive orbit knowledge accuracies in the Lissajous region. The results of this analysis are presented. Both GTDS and ODTK have high-fidelity environmental orbit force models that allow for very accurate orbit estimation in the lunar Lissajous regime. These models include solar radiation pressure, Earth and Moon gravity models, third body gravitational effects from the Sun, and to a lesser extent third body gravitational effects from Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, and Mars. Increased position and velocity uncertainties following each maneuver, due to small execution performance errors, requires that several days of post-maneuver tracking data be processed to converge on an accurate post-maneuver orbit solution. The effects of maneuvers on orbit determination accuracy will be presented, including a comparison of the batch least squares technique to the extended Kalman filter/smoother technique. We will present the maneuver calibration results derived from processing post-maneuver tracking data. A dominant error in the orbit estimation process is the uncertainty in solar radiation pressure and the resultant force on the spacecraft. An estimation of this value can include many related factors, such as the uncertainty in spacecraft reflectivity and surface area which is a function of spacecraft orientation (spin-axis attitude), uncertainty in spacecraft wet mass, and potential seasonal variability due to the changing direction of the Sun line relative to the Earth-Moon Lissajous reference frame. In addition, each spacecraft occasionally enters into Earth or Moon penumbra or umbra and these shadow crossings reduche solar
Orbit determination and control for the European Student Moon Orbiter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zuiani, Federico; Gibbings, Alison; Vetrisano, Massimo; Rizzi, Francesco; Martinez, Cesar; Vasile, Massimiliano
2012-10-01
This paper presents the preliminary navigation and orbit determination analyses for the European Student Moon Orbiter. The severe constraint on the total mission Δv and the all-day piggy-back launch requirement imposed by the limited available budget, led to the choice of using a low-energy transfer, more specifically a Weak Stability Boundary one, with a capture into an elliptic orbit around the Moon. A particular navigation strategy was devised to ensure capture and fulfil the requirement for the uncontrolled orbit stability at the Moon. This paper presents a simulation of the orbit determination process, based on an extended Kalman filter, and the navigation strategy applied to the baseline transfer of the 2011-2012 window. The navigation strategy optimally allocates multiple Trajectory Correction Manoeuvres to target a so-called capture corridor. The capture corridor is defined, at each point along the transfer, by back-propagating the set of perturbed states at the Moon that provides an acceptable lifetime of the lunar orbit.
Determination of GPS orbits to submeter accuracy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bertiger, W. I.; Lichten, S. M.; Katsigris, E. C.
1988-01-01
Orbits for satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS) were determined with submeter accuracy. Tests used to assess orbital accuracy include orbit comparisons from independent data sets, orbit prediction, ground baseline determination, and formal errors. One satellite tracked 8 hours each day shows rms error below 1 m even when predicted more than 3 days outside of a 1-week data arc. Differential tracking of the GPS satellites in high Earth orbit provides a powerful relative positioning capability, even when a relatively small continental U.S. fiducial tracking network is used with less than one-third of the full GPS constellation. To demonstrate this capability, baselines of up to 2000 km in North America were also determined with the GPS orbits. The 2000 km baselines show rms daily repeatability of 0.3 to 2 parts in 10 to the 8th power and agree with very long base interferometry (VLBI) solutions at the level of 1.5 parts in 10 to the 8th power. This GPS demonstration provides an opportunity to test different techniques for high-accuracy orbit determination for high Earth orbiters. The best GPS orbit strategies included data arcs of at least 1 week, process noise models for tropospheric fluctuations, estimation of GPS solar pressure coefficients, and combine processing of GPS carrier phase and pseudorange data. For data arc of 2 weeks, constrained process noise models for GPS dynamic parameters significantly improved the situation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Löcher, Anno; Kusche, Jürgen
2014-05-01
The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) launched in 2009 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) still orbits the Moon in a polar orbit at an altitude of 50 kilometers and below. Its main objective is the detailed exploration of the Moon's surface by means of the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) and three high resolution cameras bundled in the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) unit. Referring these observations to a Moon-fixed reference frame requires the computation of highly accurate and consistent orbits. For this task only Earth-based observations are available, primarily radiometric tracking data from stations in the United States, Australia and Europe. In addition, LRO is prepared for one-way laser measurements from specially adapted sites. Currently, 10 laser stations participate more or less regularly in this experiment. For operational reasons, the official LRO orbits from NASA only include radiometric data so far. In this presentation, we investigate the benefit of the laser ranging data by feeding both types of observations in an integrated orbit determination process. All computations are performed by an in-house software development based on a dynamical approach improving orbit and force parameters in an iterative way. Special attention is paid to the determination of bias parameters, in particular of timing biases between radio and laser stations and the drift and aging of the LRO spacecraft clock. The solutions from the combined data set will be compared to radio- and laser-only orbits as well as to the NASA orbits. Further results will show how recent gravity field models from the GRAIL mission can improve the accuracy of the LRO orbits.
Cassini Orbit Determination Results: January 2006 - End of Prime Mission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antreasian, P. G.; Ardalan, S. M.; Bordi, J. J.; Criddle, K. E.; Ionasescu, R.; Jacobson, R. A.; Jones, J. B.; Mackenzie, R. A.; Parcher, D. W.; Pelletier, F. J.; Roth, D. C.; Thompson, P. F.; Vaughan, A. T.
2008-01-01
After the forty-fifth flyby of Titan, the Cassini spacecraft has successfully completed the planned four-year prime mission tour of the Saturnian system. This paper reports on the orbit determination performance of the Cassini spacecraft over two years spanning 2006 - 2008. In this time span, Cassini's orbit progressed through the magnetotail and pi-transfer phases of the mission. Thirty-four accurate close encounters of Titan, one close flyby of Iapetus and one 50 km flyby of Enceladus were performed during this period. The Iapetus and Enceladus flybys were especially challenging and so the orbit determination supporting these encounters will be discussed in more detail. This paper will show that in most cases orbit determination has exceeded the navigation requirements for targeting flybys and predicting science instrument pointing during these encounters.
Robust Orbit Determination and Classification: A Learning Theoretic Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, S.; Cutler, J. W.
2015-11-01
Orbit determination involves estimation of a non-linear mapping from feature vectors associated with the position of the spacecraft to its orbital parameters. The de facto standard in orbit determination in real-world scenarios for spacecraft has been linearized estimators such as the extended Kalman filter. Such an estimator, while very accurate and convergent over its linear region, is hard to generalize over arbitrary gravitational potentials and diverse sets of measurements. It is also challenging to perform exact mathematical characterizations of the Kalman filter performance over such general systems. Here we present a new approach to orbit determination as a learning problem involving distribution regression and, also, for the multiple-spacecraft scenario, a transfer learning system for classification of feature vectors associated with spacecraft, and provide some associated analysis of such systems.
Precise orbit determination based on raw GPS measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zehentner, Norbert; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten
2016-03-01
Precise orbit determination is an essential part of the most scientific satellite missions. Highly accurate knowledge of the satellite position is used to geolocate measurements of the onboard sensors. For applications in the field of gravity field research, the position itself can be used as observation. In this context, kinematic orbits of low earth orbiters (LEO) are widely used, because they do not include a priori information about the gravity field. The limiting factor for the achievable accuracy of the gravity field through LEO positions is the orbit accuracy. We make use of raw global positioning system (GPS) observations to estimate the kinematic satellite positions. The method is based on the principles of precise point positioning. Systematic influences are reduced by modeling and correcting for all known error sources. Remaining effects such as the ionospheric influence on the signal propagation are either unknown or not known to a sufficient level of accuracy. These effects are modeled as unknown parameters in the estimation process. The redundancy in the adjustment is reduced; however, an improvement in orbit accuracy leads to a better gravity field estimation. This paper describes our orbit determination approach and its mathematical background. Some examples of real data applications highlight the feasibility of the orbit determination method based on raw GPS measurements. Its suitability for gravity field estimation is presented in a second step.
Satellite orbit determination from an airborne platform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shepard, M. M.; Foshee, J. J.
This paper describes the requirements, approach, and problems associated with autonomous satellite orbit determination from an airborne platform. The ability to perform orbit determination from an airborne platform removes the reliance on ground control facilities. Aircraft orbit determination offers a more robust system in that it is less susceptible to direct attack, sabotage, or nuclear disaster. Ranging on a satellite and the processing of range/range-rate data along with INS inputs to produce a set of orbital parameters to be transmitted to user terminals are discussed. Several algorithms that could be utilized by the user terminal to recover the satellite position/velocity data from the transmitted message are presented. The ability to compress the ephemeris message to a small size while remaining autonomous for a long period of time, as would be needed in future military communication satellites, is discussed.
Accurate abundance determinations in S stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neyskens, P.; Van Eck, S.; Plez, B.; Goriely, S.; Siess, L.; Jorissen, A.
2011-12-01
S-type stars are thought to be the first objects, during their evolution on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), to experience s-process nucleosynthesis and third dredge-ups, and therefore to exhibit s-process signatures in their atmospheres. Until present, the modeling of these processes is subject to large uncertainties. Precise abundance determinations in S stars are of extreme importance for constraining e.g., the depth and the formation of the 13C pocket. In this paper a large grid of MARCS model atmospheres for S stars is used to derive precise abundances of key s-process elements and iron. A first estimation of the atmospheric parameters is obtained using a set of well-chosen photometric and spectroscopic indices for selecting the best model atmosphere of each S star. Abundances are derived from spectral line synthesis, using the selected model atmosphere. Special interest is paid to technetium, an element without stable isotopes. Its detection in stars is considered as the best possible signature that the star effectively populates the thermally-pulsing AGB (TP-AGB) phase of evolution. The derived Tc/Zr abundances are compared, as a function of the derived [Zr/Fe] overabundances, with AGB stellar model predictions. The computed [Zr/Fe] overabundances are in good agreement with the AGB stellar evolution model predictions, while the Tc/Zr abundances are slightly over-predicted. This discrepancy can help to set stronger constraints on nucleosynthesis and mixing mechanisms in AGB stars.
The GEOS-3 orbit determination investigation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pisacane, V. L.; Eisner, A.; Yionoulis, S. M.; Mcconahy, R. J.; Black, H. D.; Pryor, L. L.
1978-01-01
The nature and improvement in satellite orbit determination when precise altimetric height data are used in combination with conventional tracking data was determined. A digital orbit determination program was developed that could singly or jointly use laser ranging, C-band ranging, Doppler range difference, and altimetric height data. Two intervals were selected and used in a preliminary evaluation of the altimeter data. With the data available, it was possible to determine the semimajor axis and eccentricity to within several kilometers, in addition to determining an altimeter height bias. When used jointly with a limited amount of either C-band or laser range data, it was shown that altimeter data can improve the orbit solution.
Dealing with Uncertainties in Initial Orbit Determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Armellin, Roberto; Di Lizia, Pierluigi; Zanetti, Renato
2015-01-01
A method to deal with uncertainties in initial orbit determination (IOD) is presented. This is based on the use of Taylor differential algebra (DA) to nonlinearly map the observation uncertainties from the observation space to the state space. When a minimum set of observations is available DA is used to expand the solution of the IOD problem in Taylor series with respect to measurement errors. When more observations are available high order inversion tools are exploited to obtain full state pseudo-observations at a common epoch. The mean and covariance of these pseudo-observations are nonlinearly computed by evaluating the expectation of high order Taylor polynomials. Finally, a linear scheme is employed to update the current knowledge of the orbit. Angles-only observations are considered and simplified Keplerian dynamics adopted to ease the explanation. Three test cases of orbit determination of artificial satellites in different orbital regimes are presented to discuss the feature and performances of the proposed methodology.
Shadowing Lemma and Chaotic Orbit Determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milani Comparetti, Andrea; Spoto, Federica
2015-08-01
Orbit determination is possible for a chaotic orbit of a dynamical system, given a finite set of observations, provided the initial conditions are at the central time. We test both the convergence of the orbit determination procedure and the behavior of the uncertainties as a function of the maximum number n of map iterations observed; this by using a simple discrete model, namely the standard map. Two problems appear: first, the orbit determination is made impossible by numerical instability beyond a computability horizon, which can be approximately predicted by a simple formula containing the Lyapounov time and the relative roundoff error. Second, the uncertainty of the results is sharply increased if a dynamical parameter (contained in the standard map formula) is added to the initial conditions as parameter to be estimated. In particular the uncertainty of the dynamical parameter, and of at least one of the initial conditions, decreases like n^a with a<0 but not large (of the order of unity). If only the initial conditions are estimated, their uncertainty decreases exponentially with n, thus it becomes very small. All these phenomena occur when the chosen initial conditions belong to a chaotic orbit (as shown by one of the well known Lyapounov indicators). If they belong to a non-chaotic orbit the computational horizon is much larger, if it exists at all, and the decrease of the uncertainty appears to be polynomial in all parameters, like n^a with a approximately 1/2; the difference between the case with and without dynamical parameter estimated disappears. These phenomena, which we can investigate in a simple model, have significant implications in practical problems of orbit determination involving chatic phenomena, such as the chaotic rotation state of a celestial body and a chaotic orbit of a planet-crossing asteroid undergoing many close approaches.
Effective Echo Detection and Accurate Orbit Estimation Algorithms for Space Debris Radar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isoda, Kentaro; Sakamoto, Takuya; Sato, Toru
Orbit estimation of space debris, objects of no inherent value orbiting the earth, is a task that is important for avoiding collisions with spacecraft. The Kamisaibara Spaceguard Center radar system was built in 2004 as the first radar facility in Japan devoted to the observation of space debris. In order to detect the smaller debris, coherent integration is effective in improving SNR (Signal-to-Noise Ratio). However, it is difficult to apply coherent integration to real data because the motions of the targets are unknown. An effective algorithm is proposed for echo detection and orbit estimation of the faint echoes from space debris. The characteristics of the evaluation function are utilized by the algorithm. Experiments show the proposed algorithm improves SNR by 8.32dB and enables estimation of orbital parameters accurately to allow for re-tracking with a single radar.
Tethered body problems and relative motion orbit determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eades, J. B., Jr.; Wolf, H.
1972-01-01
Selected problems dealing with orbiting tethered body systems have been studied. In addition, a relative motion orbit determination program was developed. Results from these tasks are described and discussed. The expected tethered body motions were examined, analytically, to ascertain what influence would be played by the physical parameters of the tether, the gravity gradient and orbit eccentricity. After separating the motion modes these influences were determined; and, subsequently, the effects of oscillations and/or rotations, on tether force, were described. A study was undertaken, by examining tether motions, to see what type of control actions would be needed to accurately place a mass particle at a prescribed position relative to a main vehicle. Other applications for tethers were studied. Principally these were concerned with the producing of low-level gee forces by means of stabilized tether configurations; and, the initiation of free transfer trajectories from tether supported vehicle relative positions.
Orbit determination methods in view of the PODET project
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deleflie, F.; Coulot, D.; Decosta, R.; Richard, P.
2013-11-01
We present an orbit determination method based on genetic algorithms. Contrary to usual estimation methods mainly based on least-squares methods, these algorithms do not require any a priori knowledge of the initial state vector to be estimated. These algorithms can be applied when a new satellite is launched or for uncatalogued objects We show in this paper preliminary results obtained from an SLR satellite, for which tracking data acquired by the ILRS network enable to build accurate orbital arcs at a few centimeter level, which can be used as a reference orbit. The method is carried out in several steps: (i) an analytical propagation of the equations of motion, (ii) an estimation kernel based on genetic algorithms, which follows the usual steps of such approaches: initialization and evolution of a selected population, so as to determine the best parameters. Each parameter to be estimated, namely each initial keplerian element, has to be searched among an interval that is preliminary chosen.
Meteor orbit determination with improved accuracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dmitriev, Vasily; Lupovla, Valery; Gritsevich, Maria
2015-08-01
Modern observational techniques make it possible to retrive meteor trajectory and its velocity with high accuracy. There has been a rapid rise in high quality observational data accumulating yearly. This fact creates new challenges for solving the problem of meteor orbit determination. Currently, traditional technique based on including corrections to zenith distance and apparent velocity using well-known Schiaparelli formula is widely used. Alternative approach relies on meteoroid trajectory correction using numerical integration of equation of motion (Clark & Wiegert, 2011; Zuluaga et al., 2013). In our work we suggest technique of meteor orbit determination based on strict coordinate transformation and integration of differential equation of motion. We demonstrate advantage of this method in comparison with traditional technique. We provide results of calculations by different methods for real, recently occurred fireballs, as well as for simulated cases with a priori known retrieval parameters. Simulated data were used to demonstrate the condition, when application of more complex technique is necessary. It was found, that for several low velocity meteoroids application of traditional technique may lead to dramatically delusion of orbit precision (first of all, due to errors in Ω, because this parameter has a highest potential accuracy). Our results are complemented by analysis of sources of perturbations allowing to quantitatively indicate which factors have to be considered in orbit determination. In addition, the developed method includes analysis of observational error propagation based on strict covariance transition, which is also presented.Acknowledgements. This work was carried out at MIIGAiK and supported by the Russian Science Foundation, project No. 14-22-00197.References:Clark, D. L., & Wiegert, P. A. (2011). A numerical comparison with the Ceplecha analytical meteoroid orbit determination method. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 46(8), pp. 1217
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yee, C. P.; Kelbel, D. A.; Lee, T.; Dunham, J. B.; Mistretta, G. D.
1990-01-01
The influence of ionospheric refraction on orbit determination was studied through the use of the Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS). The results of a study of the orbital state estimate errors due to the ionospheric refraction corrections, particularly for measurements involving spacecraft-to-spacecraft tracking links, are presented. In current operational practice at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF), the ionospheric refraction effects on the tracking measurements are modeled in the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) using the Bent ionospheric model. While GTDS has the capability of incorporating the ionospheric refraction effects for measurements involving ground-to-spacecraft tracking links, such as those generated by the Ground Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (GSTDN), it does not have the capability to incorporate the refraction effects for spacecraft-to-spacecraft tracking links for measurements generated by the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The lack of this particular capability in GTDS raised some concern about the achievable accuracy of the estimated orbit for certain classes of spacecraft missions that require high-precision orbits. Using an enhanced research version of GTDS, some efforts have already been made to assess the importance of the spacecraft-to-spacecraft ionospheric refraction corrections in an orbit determination process. While these studies were performed using simulated data or real tracking data in definitive orbit determination modes, the study results presented here were obtained by means of covariance analysis simulating the weighted least-squares method used in orbit determination.
Experimental determination of storage ring optics using orbit response measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safranek, J.
1997-02-01
The measured response matrix giving the change in orbit at beam position monitors (BPMs) with changes in steering magnet excitation can be used to accurately calibrate the linear optics in an electron storage ring [1-8]. A computer code called LOCO (Linear Optics from Closed Orbits) was developed to analyze the NSLS X-Ray Ring measured response matrix to determine: the gradients in all 56 quadrupole magnets; the calibration of the steering magnets and BPMs; the roll of the quadrupoles, steering magnets, and BPMs about the electron beam direction; the longitudinal magnetic centers of the orbit steering magnets; the horizontal dispersion at the orbit steering magnets; and the transverse mis-alignment of the electron orbit in each of the sextupoles. Random orbit measurement error from the BPMs propagated to give only 0.04% rms error in the determination of individual quadrupole gradients and 0.4 mrad rms error in the determination of individual quadrupole rolls. Small variations of a few parts in a thousand in the quadrupole gradients within an individual family were resolved. The optics derived by LOCO gave accurate predictions of the horizontal dispersion, the beta functions, and the horizontal and vertical emittances, and it gave good qualitative agreement with the measured vertical dispersion. The improved understanding of the X-Ray Ring has enabled us to increase the synchrotron radiation brightness. The LOCO code can also be used to find the quadrupole family gradients that best correct for gradient errors in quadrupoles, in sextupoles, and from synchrotron radiation insertion devices. In this way the design periodicity of a storage ring's optics can be restored. An example of periodicity restoration will be presented for the NSLS VUV Ring. LOCO has also produced useful results when applied to the ALS storage ring [8].
Filtering theory applied to orbit determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Torroglosa, V.
1973-01-01
Modifications to the extended Kalman filter and the Jazwinski filter are made and compared with the classical extended Kalman filter in applications to orbit determination using real data. The results show that with the kind of data available today, the application of filtering theories in this field presents many problems.
The determination of orbits using Picard iteration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mikkilineni, R. P.; Feagin, T.
1975-01-01
The determination of orbits by using Picard iteration is reported. This is a direct extension of the classical method of Picard that has been used in finding approximate solutions of nonlinear differential equations for a variety of problems. The application of the Picard method of successive approximations to the initial value and the two point boundary value problems is given.
Preliminary orbit determination for lunar satellites.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lancaster, E. R.
1973-01-01
Methods for the determination of orbits of artificial lunar satellites from earth-based range rate measurements developed by Koskela (1964) and Bateman et al. (1966) are simplified and extended to include range measurements along with range rate measurements. For illustration, a numerical example is presented.
Use of the VLBI delay observable for orbit determination of Earth-orbiting VLBI satellites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ulvestad, J. S.
1992-01-01
Very long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations using a radio telescope in Earth orbit were performed first in the 1980s. Two spacecraft dedicated to VLBI are scheduled for launch in 1995; the primary scientific goals of these missions will be astrophysical in nature. This article addresses the use of space VLBI delay data for the additional purpose of improving the orbit determination of the Earth-orbiting spacecraft. In an idealized case of quasi-simultaneous observations of three radio sources in orthogonal directions, analytical expressions are found for the instantaneous spacecraft position and its error. The typical position error is at least as large as the distance corresponding to the delay measurement accuracy but can be much greater for some geometries. A number of practical considerations, such as system noise and imperfect calibrations, set bounds on the orbit-determination accuracy realistically achievable using space VLBI delay data. These effects limit the spacecraft position accuracy to at least 35 cm (and probably 3 m or more) for the first generation of dedicated space VLBI experiments. Even a 35-cm orbital accuracy would fail to provide global VLBI astrometry as accurate as ground-only VLBI. Recommended charges in future space VLBI missions are unlikely to make space VLBI competitive with ground-only VLBI in global astrometric measurements.
Real-Time and Post-Processed Orbit Determination and Positioning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bar-Sever, Yoaz E. (Inventor); Bertiger, William I. (Inventor); Dorsey, Angela R. (Inventor); Harvey, Nathaniel E. (Inventor); Lu, Wenwen (Inventor); Miller, Kevin J. (Inventor); Miller, Mark A. (Inventor); Romans, Larry J. (Inventor); Sibthorpe, Anthony J. (Inventor); Weiss, Jan P. (Inventor); Garcia Fernandez, Miquel (Inventor); Gross, Jason (Inventor)
2016-01-01
Novel methods and systems for the accurate and efficient processing of real-time and latent global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) data are described. Such methods and systems can perform orbit determination of GNSS satellites, orbit determination of satellites carrying GNSS receivers, positioning of GNSS receivers, and environmental monitoring with GNSS data.
Real-Time and Post-Processed Orbit Determination and Positioning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bar-Sever, Yoaz E. (Inventor); Bertiger, William I. (Inventor); Dorsey, Angela R. (Inventor); Harvey, Nathaniel E. (Inventor); Lu, Wenwen (Inventor); Miller, Kevin J. (Inventor); Miller, Mark A. (Inventor); Romans, Larry J. (Inventor); Sibthorpe, Anthony J. (Inventor); Weiss, Jan P. (Inventor); Garcia Fernandez, Miquel (Inventor); Gross, Jason (Inventor)
2015-01-01
Novel methods and systems for the accurate and efficient processing of real-time and latent global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) data are described. Such methods and systems can perform orbit determination of GNSS satellites, orbit determination of satellites carrying GNSS receivers, positioning of GNSS receivers, and environmental monitoring with GNSS data.
GPS-LEO orbiter occultation orbital analyses and event determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdul Rashid, Z. A.; Cheng, P. P.
2003-04-01
A good knowledge of the vertical profiles of temperature and humidity throughout the atmosphere are crucial to understand the present state of the Earth's atmosphere and it's modeling. The application of radio occultation technique has a heritage of over 2 decades in NASA's planetary exploration program to study the atmosphere of most of the major bodies in the solar system. Results from NASA's planetary program experiment have proven to be very effective at characterizing the atmosphere of a planet. However, the use of radio occultation technique to remote sensing the Earth's atmosphere is only practical to be implemented recently with the advent of the matured Global Positioning System (GPS). The GPS occultation technique is well suited to observe the Earth's atmosphere, due to it excellent geographical coverage, all weather capability, long-term stability, self-calibration and high vertical resolution. The GPS/MET (GPS Meteorology) experiment launched in April 1995 is the proof-of-concept of this technique. The results from this experiment is appealing and shown that the GPS occultation technique is a promising candidate to monitor the Earth's atmosphere. With the advancement of receiver technologies and lower system cost, the GPS occultation technique is a promising tool to predict the long-term climatic changes and numerical weather modeling of the Earth's atmosphere at a higher precision. This paper briefly describes the radio occultation concept and the GPS satellite systems, which form the basis understanding of this subject matter. This is followed by a detail description of the occultation geometries between the GPS satellites and a LEO orbiter. A method to determine the occultation event is discussed and thoroughly analyzed in terms of orbit inclinations, altitudes, receiver sampling rates, antenna positioning (aft and fore pointing), and antenna mask angles. A simulator is developed using MATLAB for the orbital analyses and occultation determination in
Accelerometers for Precise GNSS Orbit Determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hugentobler, Urs; Schlicht, Anja
2016-07-01
The solar radiation pressure is the largest non-gravitational acceleration on GNSS satellites limiting the accuracy of precise orbit models. Other non-gravitational accelerations may be thrusts for station keeping maneuvers. Accelerometers measure the motion of a test mass that is shielded against satellite surface forces with respect to a cage that is rigidly connected to the satellite. They can thus be used to measure these difficult-to-model non-gravitational accelerations. Accelerometers however typically show correlated noise as well as a drift of the scaling factors converting measured voltages to accelerations. The scaling thus needs to be regularly calibrated. The presented study is based on several simulated scenarios including orbit determination of accelerometer-equipped Galileo satellites. It shall evaluate different options on how to accommodate accelerometer measurements in the orbit integrator, indicate to what extent currently available accelerometers can be used to improve the modeling of non-gravitational accelerations on GNSS satellites for precise orbit determination, and assess the necessary requirements for an accelerometer that can serve this purpose.
The Seasat Precision Orbit Determination Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tapley, B. D.; Born, G. H.
1980-01-01
The objectives and conclusions reached during the Seasat Precision Orbit Determination Experiment are discussed. It is noted that the activities of the experiment team included extensive software calibration and validation and an intense effort to validate and improve the dynamic models which describe the satellite's motion. Significant improvement in the gravitational model was obtained during the experiment, and it is pointed out that the current accuracy of the Seasat altitude ephemeris is 1.5 m rms. An altitude ephemeris for the Seasat spacecraft with an accuracy of 0.5 m rms is seen as possible with further improvements in the geopotential, atmospheric drag, and solar radiation pressure models. It is concluded that since altimetry missions with a 2-cm precision altimeter are contemplated, the precision orbit determination effort initiated under the Seasat Project must be continued and expanded.
GPS-Based Reduced Dynamic Orbit Determination Using Accelerometer Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
VanHelleputte, Tom; Visser, Pieter
2007-01-01
Currently two gravity field satellite missions, CHAMP and GRACE, are equipped with high sensitivity electrostatic accelerometers, measuring the non-conservative forces acting on the spacecraft in three orthogonal directions. During the gravity field recovery these measurements help to separate gravitational and non-gravitational contributions in the observed orbit perturbations. For precise orbit determination purposes all these missions have a dual-frequency GPS receiver on board. The reduced dynamic technique combines the dense and accurate GPS observations with physical models of the forces acting on the spacecraft, complemented by empirical accelerations, which are stochastic parameters adjusted in the orbit determination process. When the spacecraft carries an accelerometer, these measured accelerations can be used to replace the models of the non-conservative forces, such as air drag and solar radiation pressure. This approach is implemented in a batch least-squares estimator of the GPS High Precision Orbit Determination Software Tools (GHOST), developed at DLR/GSOC and DEOS. It is extensively tested with data of the CHAMP and GRACE satellites. As accelerometer observations typically can be affected by an unknown scale factor and bias in each measurement direction, they require calibration during processing. Therefore the estimated state vector is augmented with six parameters: a scale and bias factor for the three axes. In order to converge efficiently to a good solution, reasonable a priori values for the bias factor are necessary. These are calculated by combining the mean value of the accelerometer observations with the mean value of the non-conservative force models and empirical accelerations, estimated when using these models. When replacing the non-conservative force models with accelerometer observations and still estimating empirical accelerations, a good orbit precision is achieved. 100 days of GRACE B data processing results in a mean orbit fit of
Precision orbit determination software validation experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schutz, B. E.; Tapley, B. D.; Eanes, R. J.; Marsh, J. G.; Williamson, R. G.; Martin, T. V.
1980-01-01
This paper presents the results of an experiment which was designed to ascertain the level of agreement between GEODYN and UTOPIA, two completely independent computer programs used for precision orbit determination, and to identify the sources which limit the agreement. For a limited set of models and a seven-day data set arc length, the altitude components of the ephemeris obtained by the two programs agree at the sub-centimeter level throughout the arc.
Operational Challenges In TDRS Post-Maneuver Orbit Determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Laing, Jason; Myers, Jessica; Ward, Douglas; Lamb, Rivers
2015-01-01
The GSFC Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) is responsible for daily and post maneuver orbit determination for the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The most stringent requirement for this orbit determination is 75 meters total position accuracy (3-sigma) predicted over one day for Terra's onboard navigation system. To maintain an accurate solution onboard Terra, a solution is generated and provided by the FDF Four hours after a TDRS maneuver. A number of factors present challenges to this support, such as maneuver prediction uncertainty and potentially unreliable tracking from User satellities. Reliable support is provided by comparing an extended Kalman Filter (estimated using ODTK) against a Batch Least Squares system (estimated using GTDS).
Using Onboard Telemetry for MAVEN Orbit Determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lam, Try; Trawny, Nikolas; Lee, Clifford
2013-01-01
Determination of the spacecraft state has been traditional done using radiometric tracking data before and after the atmosphere drag pass. This paper describes our approach and results to include onboard telemetry measurements in addition to radiometric observables to refine the reconstructed trajectory estimate for the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN). Uncertainties in the Mars atmosphere models, combined with non-continuous tracking degrade navigation accuracy, making MAVEN a key candidate for using onboard telemetry data to help complement its orbit determination process.
Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission Commissioning Phase Orbit Determination Error Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chung, Lauren R.; Novak, Stefan; Long, Anne; Gramling, Cheryl
2009-01-01
The Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission commissioning phase starts in a 185 km altitude x 12 Earth radii (RE) injection orbit and lasts until the Phase 1 mission orbits and orientation to the Earth-Sun li ne are achieved. During a limited time period in the early part of co mmissioning, five maneuvers are performed to raise the perigee radius to 1.2 R E, with a maneuver every other apogee. The current baseline is for the Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics Facility to p rovide MMS orbit determination support during the early commissioning phase using all available two-way range and Doppler tracking from bo th the Deep Space Network and Space Network. This paper summarizes th e results from a linear covariance analysis to determine the type and amount of tracking data required to accurately estimate the spacecraf t state, plan each perigee raising maneuver, and support thruster cal ibration during this phase. The primary focus of this study is the na vigation accuracy required to plan the first and the final perigee ra ising maneuvers. Absolute and relative position and velocity error hi stories are generated for all cases and summarized in terms of the ma ximum root-sum-square consider and measurement noise error contributi ons over the definitive and predictive arcs and at discrete times inc luding the maneuver planning and execution times. Details of the meth odology, orbital characteristics, maneuver timeline, error models, and error sensitivities are provided.
Precise and Accurate Density Determination of Explosives Using Hydrostatic Weighing
B. Olinger
2005-07-01
Precise and accurate density determination requires weight measurements in air and water using sufficiently precise analytical balances, knowledge of the densities of air and water, knowledge of thermal expansions, availability of a density standard, and a method to estimate the time to achieve thermal equilibrium with water. Density distributions in pressed explosives are inferred from the densities of elements from a central slice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Lemoine, F. G.; Torrence, M. H.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Mao, D.
2010-12-01
We present results of the Precision Orbit Determination work undertaken by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Science Team for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission, in order to meet the position knowledge accuracy requirements (50-m total position) and to precisely geolocate the LRO datasets. In addition to the radiometric tracking data, one-way laser ranges (LR) between Earth stations and the spacecraft are made possible by a small telescope mounted on the spacecraft high-gain antenna. The photons received from Earth are transmitted to one LOLA detector by a fiber optics bundle. The LOLA timing system enables 5-s LR normal points with precision better than 10cm. Other types of geodetic constraints are derived from the altimetric data itself. The orbit geometry can be constrained at the times of laser groundtrack intersections (crossovers). Due to the Moon's slow rotation, orbit solutions and normal equations including altimeter crossovers are processed and created in one month batches. Recent high-resolution topographic maps near the lunar poles are used to produce a new kind of geodetic constraints. Purely geometric, those do not necessitate actual groundtrack intersections. We assess the contributions of those data types, and the quality of our orbits. Solutions which use altimetric crossover meet the horizontal 50-m requirement, and perform usually better (10-20m). We also obtain gravity field solutions based on LRO and historical data. The various LRO data are accumulated into normal equations, separately for each one month batch and for each measurement type, which enables the final weights to be adjusted during the least-squares inversion step. Expansion coefficients to degree and order 150 are estimated, and a Kaula rule is still needed to stabilize the farside field. The gravity field solutions are compared to previous solutions (GLGM-3, LP150Q, SGM100h) and the geopotential predicted from the latest LOLA spherical harmonic expansion.
A Study into the Method of Precise Orbit Determination of a HEO Orbiter by GPS and Accelerometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ikenaga, Toshinori; Hashida, Yoshi; Unwin, Martin
2007-01-01
In the present day, orbit determination by Global Positioning System (GPS) is not unusual. Especially for low-cost small satellites, position determination by an on-board GPS receiver provides a cheap, reliable and precise method. However, the original purpose of GPS is for ground users, so the transmissions from all of the GPS satellites are directed toward the Earth s surface. Hence there are some restrictions for users above the GPS constellation to detect those signals. On the other hand, a desire for precise orbit determination for users in orbits higher than GPS constellation exists. For example, the next Japanese Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) mission "ASTRO-G" is trying to determine its orbit in an accuracy of a few centimeters at apogee. The use of GPS is essential for such ultra accurate orbit determination. This study aims to construct a method for precise orbit determination for such high orbit users, especially in High Elliptical Orbits (HEOs). There are several approaches for this objective. In this study, a hybrid method with GPS and an accelerometer is chosen. Basically, while the position cannot be determined by an on-board GPS receiver or other Range and Range Rate (RARR) method, all we can do to estimate the user satellite s position is to propagate the orbit along with the force model, which is not perfectly correct. However if it has an accelerometer (ACC), the coefficients of the air drag and the solar radiation pressure applied to the user satellite can be updated and then the propagation along with the "updated" force model can improve the fitting accuracy of the user satellite s orbit. In this study, it is assumed to use an accelerometer available in the present market. The effects by a bias error of an accelerometer will also be discussed in this paper.
Accurate Energies and Orbital Description in Semi-Local Kohn-Sham DFT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindmaa, Alexander; Kuemmel, Stephan; Armiento, Rickard
2015-03-01
We present our progress on a scheme in semi-local Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (KS-DFT) for improving the orbital description while still retaining the level of accuracy of the usual semi-local exchange-correlation (xc) functionals. DFT is a widely used tool for first-principles calculations of properties of materials. A given task normally requires a balance of accuracy and computational cost, which is well achieved with semi-local DFT. However, commonly used semi-local xc functionals have important shortcomings which often can be attributed to features of the corresponding xc potential. One shortcoming is an overly delocalized representation of localized orbitals. Recently a semi-local GGA-type xc functional was constructed to address these issues, however, it has the trade-off of lower accuracy of the total energy. We discuss the source of this error in terms of a surplus energy contribution in the functional that needs to be accounted for, and offer a remedy for this issue which formally stays within KS-DFT, and, which does not harshly increase the computational effort. The end result is a scheme that combines accurate total energies (e.g., relaxed geometries) with an improved orbital description (e.g., improved band structure).
An Independent Orbit Determination Simulation for the OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Getzandanner, Kenneth; Rowlands, David; Mazarico, Erwan; Antreasian, Peter; Jackman, Coralie; Moreau, Michael
2016-01-01
After arriving at the near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu in late 2018, the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft will execute a series of observation campaigns and orbit phases to accurately characterize Bennu and ultimately collect a sample of pristine regolith from its surface. While in the vicinity of Bennu, the OSIRIS-REx navigation team will rely on a combination of ground-based radiometric tracking data and optical navigation (OpNav) images to generate and deliver precision orbit determination products. Long before arrival at Bennu, the navigation team is performing multiple orbit determination simulations and thread tests to verify navigation performance and ensure interfaces between multiple software suites function properly. In this paper, we will summarize the results of an independent orbit determination simulation of the Orbit B phase of the mission performed to test the interface between the OpNav image processing and orbit determination software packages.
Orbit determination singularities in the Doppler tracking of a planetary orbiter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, L. J.
1985-01-01
On a number of occasions, spacecraft launched by the U.S. have been placed into orbit about the moon, Venus, or Mars. It is pointed out that, in particular, in planetary orbiter missions two-way coherent Doppler data have provided the principal data type for orbit determination applications. The present investigation is concerned with the problem of orbit determination on the basis of Doppler tracking data in the case of a spacecraft in orbit about a natural body other than the earth or the sun. Attention is given to Doppler shift associated with a planetary orbiter, orbit determination using a zeroth-order model for the Doppler shift, and orbit determination using a first-order model for the Doppler shift.
Accurate Method for Determining Adhesion of Cantilever Beams
Michalske, T.A.; de Boer, M.P.
1999-01-08
Using surface micromachined samples, we demonstrate the accurate measurement of cantilever beam adhesion by using test structures which are adhered over long attachment lengths. We show that this configuration has a deep energy well, such that a fracture equilibrium is easily reached. When compared to the commonly used method of determining the shortest attached beam, the present method is much less sensitive to variations in surface topography or to details of capillary drying.
Accurate method for determining adhesion of cantilever beams
de Boer, M.P.; Michalske, T.A.
1999-07-01
Using surface micromachined samples, we demonstrate the accurate measurement of cantilever beam adhesion by using test structures which are adhered over long attachment lengths. We show that this configuration has a deep energy well, such that a fracture equilibrium is easily reached. When compared to the commonly used method of determining the shortest attached beam, the present method is much less sensitive to variations in surface topography or to details of capillary drying. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
2012-01-01
A natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis of unpaired electron spin density in metalloproteins is presented, which allows a fast and robust calculation of paramagnetic NMR parameters. Approximately 90% of the unpaired electron spin density occupies metal–ligand NBOs, allowing the majority of the density to be modeled by only a few NBOs that reflect the chemical bonding environment. We show that the paramagnetic relaxation rate of protons can be calculated accurately using only the metal–ligand NBOs and that these rates are in good agreement with corresponding rates measured experimentally. This holds, in particular, for protons of ligand residues where the point-dipole approximation breaks down. To describe the paramagnetic relaxation of heavy nuclei, also the electron spin density in the local orbitals must be taken into account. Geometric distance restraints for 15N can be derived from the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement and the Fermi contact shift when local NBOs are included in the analysis. Thus, the NBO approach allows us to include experimental paramagnetic NMR parameters of 15N nuclei as restraints in a structure optimization protocol. We performed a molecular dynamics simulation and structure determination of oxidized rubredoxin using the experimentally obtained paramagnetic NMR parameters of 15N. The corresponding structures obtained are in good agreement with the crystal structure of rubredoxin. Thus, the NBO approach allows an accurate description of the geometric structure and the dynamics of metalloproteins, when NMR parameters are available of nuclei in the immediate vicinity of the metal-site. PMID:22329704
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maier, A.; Baur, O.; Krauss, S.
2014-04-01
This contribution deals with Precise Orbit Determination of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, which is tracked with optical laser ranges in addition to radiometric Doppler range-rates and range observations. The optimum parameterization is assessed by overlap analysis tests that indicate the inner precision of the computed orbits. Information about the very long wavelengths of the lunar gravity field is inferred from the spacecraft positions. The NASA software packages GEODYN II and SOLVE were used for orbit determination and gravity field recovery [1].
Relative Attitude Determination of Earth Orbiting Formations Using GPS Receivers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lightsey, E. Glenn
2004-01-01
Satellite formation missions require the precise determination of both the position and attitude of multiple vehicles to achieve the desired objectives. In order to support the mission requirements for these applications, it is necessary to develop techniques for representing and controlling the attitude of formations of vehicles. A generalized method for representing the attitude of a formation of vehicles has been developed. The representation may be applied to both absolute and relative formation attitude control problems. The technique is able to accommodate formations of arbitrarily large number of vehicles. To demonstrate the formation attitude problem, the method is applied to the attitude determination of a simple leader-follower along-track orbit formation. A multiplicative extended Kalman filter is employed to estimate vehicle attitude. In a simulation study using GPS receivers as the attitude sensors, the relative attitude between vehicles in the formation is determined 3 times more accurately than the absolute attitude.
Toward decimeter Topex orbit determination using GPS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Sien-Chong; Yunck, Thomas P.; Hajj, George A.
1990-01-01
Several practical aspects of precision GPS-based Topex orbit determination are investigated. Multipath signals contaminating Topex pseudorange data are greatly reduced by placing the GPS antenna on a conducting backplate consisting of concentric choke rings to attenuate signals coming in from the Topex horizon and below, and by elevating it on a boom to keep it well above all reflecting surfaces. A proper GPS antenna cutoff view angle is chosen so that a sufficient number of GPS satellites with good geometry are in view while reception of reflected signals is minimized. The geometrical strength of the tracking data is optimized by properly selecting GPS satellites to be observed so as to provide data with moderate continuity, low PDOP, and common visibility with ground tracking sites. The tracking performance is greatly enhanced when three complementary sites are added to the minimum ground tracking network consisting of the three NASA DSN sites.
Orbital Advection by Interpolation: A Fast and Accurate Numerical Scheme for Super-Fast MHD Flows
Johnson, B M; Guan, X; Gammie, F
2008-04-11
In numerical models of thin astrophysical disks that use an Eulerian scheme, gas orbits supersonically through a fixed grid. As a result the timestep is sharply limited by the Courant condition. Also, because the mean flow speed with respect to the grid varies with position, the truncation error varies systematically with position. For hydrodynamic (unmagnetized) disks an algorithm called FARGO has been developed that advects the gas along its mean orbit using a separate interpolation substep. This relaxes the constraint imposed by the Courant condition, which now depends only on the peculiar velocity of the gas, and results in a truncation error that is more nearly independent of position. This paper describes a FARGO-like algorithm suitable for evolving magnetized disks. Our method is second order accurate on a smooth flow and preserves {del} {center_dot} B = 0 to machine precision. The main restriction is that B must be discretized on a staggered mesh. We give a detailed description of an implementation of the code and demonstrate that it produces the expected results on linear and nonlinear problems. We also point out how the scheme might be generalized to make the integration of other supersonic/super-fast flows more efficient. Although our scheme reduces the variation of truncation error with position, it does not eliminate it. We show that the residual position dependence leads to characteristic radial variations in the density over long integrations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murison, Marc A.
2006-06-01
This paper addresses the characterization of the precision of observationally determined orbit parameters when optical observations are taken of an artificial satellite ("target") from another orbiting body ("platform"). Of interest are, among others, optimal platform orbits and optimal observing strategies for a given level of observational astrometric precision and for certain types of target orbits. Classical orbit determination methods are not particularly amenable for gaining analytical insight into the characterization of the determined orbital parameter errors. Here we make an attempt to bypass classical orbit determination and look for an approach that can instead make use of certain approximations to the relative distance and velocity vectors. Furthermore, given the modern possibility for spectroscopic optical instruments in space, we also investigate what may additionally be gained from radial velocity observations. We start with the distance and velocity vectors of an orbiting target body with respect to an orbiting observation platform. We approximate the relative distance and velocity vectors, allowed by certain assumptions such as small eccentricities, relative inclination angle(s), and ratio of orbit radii. We then analytically propagate the observational errors through the equations and characterize what target orbit parameter errors we are able. It turns out this is more difficult than anticipated at first. We then perform numerical simulations to more completely characterize the behaviors of the determined orbit parameter errors.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mashiku, Alinda; Garrison, James L.; Carpenter, J. Russell
2012-01-01
The tracking of space objects requires frequent and accurate monitoring for collision avoidance. As even collision events with very low probability are important, accurate prediction of collisions require the representation of the full probability density function (PDF) of the random orbit state. Through representing the full PDF of the orbit state for orbit maintenance and collision avoidance, we can take advantage of the statistical information present in the heavy tailed distributions, more accurately representing the orbit states with low probability. The classical methods of orbit determination (i.e. Kalman Filter and its derivatives) provide state estimates based on only the second moments of the state and measurement errors that are captured by assuming a Gaussian distribution. Although the measurement errors can be accurately assumed to have a Gaussian distribution, errors with a non-Gaussian distribution could arise during propagation between observations. Moreover, unmodeled dynamics in the orbit model could introduce non-Gaussian errors into the process noise. A Particle Filter (PF) is proposed as a nonlinear filtering technique that is capable of propagating and estimating a more complete representation of the state distribution as an accurate approximation of a full PDF. The PF uses Monte Carlo runs to generate particles that approximate the full PDF representation. The PF is applied in the estimation and propagation of a highly eccentric orbit and the results are compared to the Extended Kalman Filter and Splitting Gaussian Mixture algorithms to demonstrate its proficiency.
Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis of the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission During Perigee Raise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pachura, Daniel A.; Vavrina, Matthew A.; Carpenter, J. R.; Wright, Cinnamon A.
2014-01-01
The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) will provide orbit determination and prediction support for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission during the missions commissioning period. The spacecraft will launch into a highly elliptical Earth orbit in 2015. Starting approximately four days after launch, a series of five large perigee-raising maneuvers will be executed near apogee on a nearly every-other-orbit cadence. This perigee-raise operations concept requires a high-accuracy estimate of the orbital state within one orbit following the maneuver for performance evaluation and a high-accuracy orbit prediction to correctly plan and execute the next maneuver in the sequence. During early mission design, a linear covariance analysis method was used to study orbit determination and prediction accuracy for this perigee-raising campaign. This paper provides a higher fidelity Monte Carlo analysis using the operational COTS extended Kalman filter implementation that was performed to validate the linear covariance analysis estimates and to better characterize orbit determination performance for actively maneuvering spacecraft in a highly elliptical orbit. The study finds that the COTS extended Kalman filter tool converges on accurate definitive orbit solutions quickly, but prediction accuracy through orbits with very low altitude perigees is degraded by the unpredictability of atmospheric density variation.
Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis of the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission During Perigee Raise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pachura, Daniel A.; Vavrina, Matthew A.; Carpenter, J. Russell; Wright, Cinnamon A.
2014-01-01
The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) will provide orbit determination and prediction support for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission during the mission's commissioning period. The spacecraft will launch into a highly elliptical Earth orbit in 2015. Starting approximately four days after launch, a series of five large perigee-raising maneuvers will be executed near apogee on a nearly every-other-orbit cadence. This perigee-raise operations concept requires a high-accuracy estimate of the orbital state within one orbit following the maneuver for performance evaluation and a high-accuracy orbit prediction to correctly plan and execute the next maneuver in the sequence. During early mission design, a linear covariance analysis method was used to study orbit determination and prediction accuracy for this perigee-raising campaign. This paper provides a higher fidelity Monte Carlo analysis using the operational COTS extended Kalman filter implementation that was performed to validate the linear covariance analysis estimates and to better characterize orbit determination performance for actively maneuvering spacecraft in a highly elliptical orbit. The study finds that the COTS extended Kalman filter tool converges on accurate definitive orbit solutions quickly, but prediction accuracy through orbits with very low altitude perigees is degraded by the unpredictability of atmospheric density variation.
Orbit Determination Support for the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Truong, Son H.; Cuevas, Osvaldo O.; Slojkowski, Steven; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) is a Medium Class Explorers (MIDEX) mission produced in partnership between Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Princeton University. The main science objective of the MAP mission is to produce an accurate full-sky map of the cosmic microwave background temperature fluctuations anisotropy. MAP was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Complex 17 aboard a Delta II 7425-10 expendable launch vehicle at exactly 19:46:46.183 UTC on June 30, 2001. The spacecraft received a nominal direct insertion by the Delta into a 185 km circular orbit. MAP was then maneuvered into a sequence of phasing loops designed to set up a lunar swingby (gravity-assisted acceleration) of the spacecraft onto a transfer trajectory to a Lissajous orbit about the Earth-Sun L2 point. The mission duration is approximately 27 months with 3 to 4 months of transfer time to the final mission orbit about L2. The MAP transfer orbit consisted of 3.5 phasing loops: the first loop has a 7-day period, the second and third loops have a 9-day period, and the last half loop has a 4-day period as illustrated in Figure 1, which also indicates the placement of maneuvers. A Pfinal correction maneuver was performed 18 hours after the last perigee to more closely achieve the targeted lissajous orbit. The lunar encounter or swingby took place approximately 30 days after launch. After the lunar encounter, the spacecraft will cruise for approximately 120 days before it arrives at L2. A Mid-Course Correction (MCC) maneuver was executed seven days after the swingby to further refine the trajectory. Once the MAP satellite is injected into the L2 Lissajous orbit, it will perform occasional stationkeeping maneuvers to maintain the Lissajous orbit for a minimum of two years (and a goal of four years). Because of its complex orbital characteristics, the mission provided a unique challenge to orbit determination (OD) support in many orbital regimes. Extensive trajectory error
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Setty, Srinivas J.; Cefola, Paul J.; Montenbruck, Oliver; Fiedler, Hauke
2016-05-01
Catalog maintenance for Space Situational Awareness (SSA) demands an accurate and computationally lean orbit propagation and orbit determination technique to cope with the ever increasing number of observed space objects. As an alternative to established numerical and analytical methods, we investigate the accuracy and computational load of the Draper Semi-analytical Satellite Theory (DSST). The standalone version of the DSST was enhanced with additional perturbation models to improve its recovery of short periodic motion. The accuracy of DSST is, for the first time, compared to a numerical propagator with fidelity force models for a comprehensive grid of low, medium, and high altitude orbits with varying eccentricity and different inclinations. Furthermore, the run-time of both propagators is compared as a function of propagation arc, output step size and gravity field order to assess its performance for a full range of relevant use cases. For use in orbit determination, a robust performance of DSST is demonstrated even in the case of sparse observations, which is most sensitive to mismodeled short periodic perturbations. Overall, DSST is shown to exhibit adequate accuracy at favorable computational speed for the full set of orbits that need to be considered in space surveillance. Along with the inherent benefits of a semi-analytical orbit representation, DSST provides an attractive alternative to the more common numerical orbit propagation techniques.
Parallel Computation of Orbit Determination for Space Debris Population
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olmedo, Estrella; Sanchez-Ortiz, Noelia; Ramos-Lerate, Mercedes
2009-03-01
In this work we present an algorithm for computing Orbit Determination for Space Debris population. The method presents a high degree of parallelism. That means that the number of available computers divides the computational effort. The context of this work and the later scope is to have the capability of cataloguing and correlating the Space Debris population. In this sense, as better the accuracy provided by the orbit determination is, more accurate will be the estimation of the state vectors corresponding to the debris objects and better will be the accuracy of the future catalogue of Space Debris. As more objects we can determinate the corresponding orbit, more complete will be the future catalogue. Therefore numerical tools for orbit determination are a key point in the development of a future ESSAS. The first time that a new object is observed, six measurements (these measurements may come from RADAR, Ground Based Telescope or Space Based Telescope) are required for computing an Initial Orbit Determination (IOD). After that, the Initial Estimated State Vector (IESV) is improved within the next-coming measurement. The idea of this method is the following. From six initial measurements, we compute the IOD following the same ideas of [1]. We compute also the initial knowledge covariance matrix (IKCM) corresponding to the IESV. In general, the numerical error of the IOD is too big for processing the following measurements with a conventional numerical filter (like the Square Root Information Filter (SRIF)). The problem is that the improvement of the accuracy in the IOD is not an easy task in those cases with large initial error. However the computed IKCM give a realistic approximation of the committed error in the IOD. The proposed algorithm uses the IKCM for generating a cloud of IESVs. All the IESV inside the cloud are processed with a new and much smaller IKCM by using SRIF. In such a way that the ones that are close enough to the real state vector (and thus
Laser Ranging for Effective and Accurate Tracking of Space Debris in Low Earth Orbits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanchet, Guillaume; Haag, Herve; Hennegrave, Laurent; Assemat, Francois; Vial, Sophie; Samain, Etienne
2013-08-01
The paper presents the results of preliminary design options for an operational laser ranging system adapted to the measurement of the distance of space debris. Thorough analysis of the operational parameters is provided with identification of performance drivers and assessment of enabling design options. Results from performance simulation demonstrate how the range measurement enables improvement of the orbit determination when combined with astrometry. Besides, experimental results on rocket-stage class debris in LEO were obtained by Astrium beginning of 2012, in collaboration with the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (OCA), by operating an experimental laser ranging system supported by the MéO (Métrologie Optique) telescope.
Orbit determination by genetic algorithm and application to GEO observation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hinagawa, Hideaki; Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Hanada, Toshiya
2014-02-01
This paper demonstrates an initial orbit determination method that solves the problem by a genetic algorithm using two well-known solutions for the Lambert's problem: universal variable method and Battin method. This paper also suggests an intuitive error evaluation method in terms of rotational angle and orbit shape by separating orbit elements into two groups. As reference orbit, mean orbit elements (original two-lines elements) and osculating orbit elements considering the J2 effect are adopted and compared. Our proposed orbit determination method has been tested with actual optical observations of a geosynchronous spacecraft. It should be noted that this demonstration of the orbit determination is limited to one test case. This observation was conducted during approximately 70 min on 2013/05/15 UT. Our method was compared with the orbit elements propagated by SGP4 using the TLE of the spacecraft. The result indicates that our proposed method had a slightly better performance on estimating orbit shape than Gauss's methods and Escobal's method by 120 km. In addition, the result of the rotational angle is closer to the osculating orbit elements than the mean orbit elements by 0.02°, which supports that the estimated orbit is valid.
Spacecraft Orbit Determination with B Spline Approximation Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Y. Z.; Huang, Y.; Hu, X. G.; Li, P. J.; Cao, J. F.
2013-07-01
It is known that the dynamical orbit determination is the most common way to get the precise orbit of spacecraft. However, it is hard to describe the precise orbit of spacecraft sometimes. In order to solve this problem, the technique of the orbit determination with the B spline approximation method based on the theory of function approximation is presented in this article. Several simulation cases of the orbit determination including LEO (Low Earth Orbit), MEO (Medium Earth Orbit), and HEO (Highly Eccentric Orbit) satellites are performed, and it is shown that the accuracy of this method is reliable and stable.The approach can be performed in the conventional celestial coordinate system and conventional terrestrial coordinate system.The spacecraft's position and velocity can be calculated directly with the B spline approximation method, which means that it is unnecessary to integrate the dynamics equations and variational equations. In that case, it makes the calculation amount of orbit determination reduce substantially relative to the dynamical orbit determination method. The technique not only has a certain theoretical significance, but also can be as a conventional algorithm in the spacecraft orbit determination.
Bayesian Statistical Approach To Binary Asteroid Orbit Determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dmitrievna Kovalenko, Irina; Stoica, Radu S.
2015-08-01
Orbit determination from observations is one of the classical problems in celestial mechanics. Deriving the trajectory of binary asteroid with high precision is much more complicate than the trajectory of simple asteroid. Here we present a method of orbit determination based on the algorithm of Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC). This method can be used for the preliminary orbit determination with relatively small number of observations, or for adjustment of orbit previously determined.The problem consists on determination of a conditional a posteriori probability density with given observations. Applying the Bayesian statistics, the a posteriori probability density of the binary asteroid orbital parameters is proportional to the a priori and likelihood probability densities. The likelihood function is related to the noise probability density and can be calculated from O-C deviations (Observed minus Calculated positions). The optionally used a priori probability density takes into account information about the population of discovered asteroids. The a priori probability density is used to constrain the phase space of possible orbits.As a MCMC method the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm has been applied, adding a globally convergent coefficient. The sequence of possible orbits derives through the sampling of each orbital parameter and acceptance criteria.The method allows to determine the phase space of every possible orbit considering each parameter. It also can be used to derive one orbit with the biggest probability density of orbital elements.
Reverse radiance: a fast accurate method for determining luminance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, Kenneth E.; Rykowski, Ronald F.; Gangadhara, Sanjay
2012-10-01
Reverse ray tracing from a region of interest backward to the source has long been proposed as an efficient method of determining luminous flux. The idea is to trace rays only from where the final flux needs to be known back to the source, rather than tracing in the forward direction from the source outward to see where the light goes. Once the reverse ray reaches the source, the radiance the equivalent forward ray would have represented is determined and the resulting flux computed. Although reverse ray tracing is conceptually simple, the method critically depends upon an accurate source model in both the near and far field. An overly simplified source model, such as an ideal Lambertian surface substantially detracts from the accuracy and thus benefit of the method. This paper will introduce an improved method of reverse ray tracing that we call Reverse Radiance that avoids assumptions about the source properties. The new method uses measured data from a Source Imaging Goniometer (SIG) that simultaneously measures near and far field luminous data. Incorporating this data into a fast reverse ray tracing integration method yields fast, accurate data for a wide variety of illumination problems.
GRAS NRT Precise Orbit Determination: Operational Experience
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
MartinezFadrique, Francisco M.; Mate, Alberto Agueda; Rodriquez-Portugal, Francisco Sancho
2007-01-01
EUMETSAT launched the meteorological satellite MetOp-A in October 2006; it is the first of the three satellites that constitute the EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS) space segment. This satellite carries a challenging and innovative instrument, the GNSS Receiver for Atmospheric Sounding (GRAS). The goal of the GRAS instrument is to support the production of atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity with high accuracy, in an operational context, based on the bending of the GPS signals traversing the atmosphere during the so-called occultation periods. One of the key aspects associated to the data processing of the GRAS instrument is the necessity to describe the satellite motion and GPS receiver clock behaviour with high accuracy and within very strict timeliness limitations. In addition to these severe requirements, the GRAS Product Processing Facility (PPF) must be integrated in the EPS core ground segment, which introduces additional complexity from the data integration and operational procedure points of view. This paper sets out the rationale for algorithm selection and the conclusions from operational experience. It describes in detail the rationale and conclusions derived from the selection and implementation of the algorithms leading to the final orbit determination requirements (0.1 mm/s in velocity and 1 ns in receiver clock error at 1 Hz). Then it describes the operational approach and extracts the ideas and conclusions derived from the operational experience.
Ulysses orbit determination at high declinations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcelrath, Timothy P.; Lewis, George D.
1995-01-01
The trajectory of the Ulysses spacecraft caused its geocentric declination to exceed 60 deg South for over two months during the Fall of 1994, permitting continuous tracking from a single site. During this time, spacecraft operations constraints allowed only Doppler tracking data to be collected, and imposed a high radial acceleration uncertainty on the orbit determination process. The unusual aspects of this situation have motivated a re-examination of the Hamilton-Melbourne results, which have been used before to estimate the information content of Doppler tracking for trajectories closer to the ecliptic. The addition of an acceleration term to this equation is found to significantly increase the declination uncertainty for symmetric passes. In addition, a simple means is described to transform the symmetric results when the tracking pass is non-symmetric. The analytical results are then compared against numerical studies of this tracking geometry and found to be in good agreement for the angular uncertainties. The results of this analysis are applicable to the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission and to any other missions with high declination trajectories, as well as to missions using short tracking passes and/or one-way Doppler data.
Optimal solutions of unobservable orbit determination problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cicci, David A.; Tapley, Byron D.
1988-12-01
The method of data augmentation, in the form ofa priori covariance information on the reference solution, as a means to overcome the effects of ill-conditioning in orbit determination problems has been investigated. Specifically, for the case when ill-conditioning results from parameter non-observability and an appropriatea priori covariance is unknown, methods by which thea priori covariance is optimally chosen are presented. In problems where an inaccuratea priori covariance is provided, the optimal weighting of this data set is obtained. The feasibility of these ‘ridge-type’ solution methods is demonstrated by their application to a non-observable gravity field recovery simulation. In the simulation, both ‘ridge-type’ and conventional solutions are compared. Substantial improvement in the accuracy of the conventional solution is realized by the use of these ridge-type solution methods. The solution techniques presented in this study are applicable to observable, but ill-conditioned problems as well as the unobservable problems directly addressed. For the case of observable problems, the ridge-type solutions provide an improvement in the accuracy of the ordinary least squares solutions.
MicroGPS for Low-Cost Orbit Determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, S. C.; Bertiger, W. I.; Kuang, D.; Lichten, S. M.; Nandi, S.; Romans, L. J.; Srinivasan, J. M.
1997-07-01
This article presents a new technology for satellite orbit determination using a simple Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver (microGPS) with ultra-low cost, power, and mass. The capability of low-cost orbit determination with microGPS for a low Earth-orbiting satellite, Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE), is demonstrated using actual GPS data from the GPS/Meteorology (MET) satellite. The measurements acquired by the microGPS receiver will be snapshots of carrier Doppler and ambiguous pseudorange. Among the challenges in orbit determination are the resolution of the pseudorange ambiguity; the estimation of the measurement time tag drift, which effects the in-track orbit position solution; and the convergence of the orbit solution from a cold start with essentially no knowledge of the orbit. The effects of data gaps and Doppler data quality are investigated. An efficient data acquisition scenario for SNOE is derived.
Low-Earth Orbit Determination from Gravity Gradient Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Xiucong; Chen, Pei; Macabiau, Christophe; Han, Chao
2016-06-01
An innovative orbit determination method which makes use of gravity gradients for Low-Earth-Orbiting satellites is proposed. The measurement principle of gravity gradiometry is briefly reviewed and the sources of measurement error are analyzed. An adaptive hybrid least squares batch filter based on linearization of the orbital equation and unscented transformation of the measurement equation is developed to estimate the orbital states and the measurement biases. The algorithm is tested with the actual flight data from the European Space Agency's Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE). The orbit determination results are compared with the GPS-derived orbits. The radial and cross-track position errors are on the order of tens of meters, whereas the along-track position error is over one order of magnitude larger. The gravity gradient based orbit determination method is promising for potential use in GPS-denied spacecraft navigation.
Spacecraft Orbit Determination with The B-spline Approximation Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Ye-zhi; Huang, Yong; Hu, Xiao-gong; Li, Pei-jia; Cao, Jian-feng
2014-04-01
It is known that the dynamical orbit determination is the most common way to get the precise orbits of spacecraft. However, it is hard to build up the precise dynamical model of spacecraft sometimes. In order to solve this problem, the technique of the orbit determination with the B-spline approximation method based on the theory of function approximation is presented in this article. In order to verify the effectiveness of this method, simulative orbit determinations in the cases of LEO (Low Earth Orbit), MEO (Medium Earth Orbit), and HEO (Highly Eccentric Orbit) satellites are performed, and it is shown that this method has a reliable accuracy and stable solution. The approach can be performed in both the conventional celestial coordinate system and the conventional terrestrial coordinate system. The spacecraft's position and velocity can be calculated directly with the B-spline approximation method, it needs not to integrate the dynamical equations, nor to calculate the state transfer matrix, thus the burden of calculations in the orbit determination is reduced substantially relative to the dynamical orbit determination method. The technique not only has a certain theoretical significance, but also can serve as a conventional algorithm in the spacecraft orbit determination.
Contribution Analysis of BDS/GPS Combined Orbit Determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Qin
2016-07-01
BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) does not have the ability of global navigation and positioning currently. The whole tracking observation of satellite orbit and the geometry of reference station are not perfect. These situations influence the accuracy of satellite orbit determination. Based on the theory and method of dynamic orbit determination, the analytical contribution of multi-GNSS combined orbit determination to the solution precision of parameters was derived. And using the measured data, the statistical contribution of BDS/GPS combined orbit determination to the solution precision of orbit and clock error was analyzed. The results show that the contribution of combined orbit determination to the solution precision of the common parameters between different systems was significant. The solution precisions of the orbit and clock error were significantly improved except GEO satellites. The statistical contribution of BDS/GPS combined orbit determination to the precision of BDS satellite orbit, the RMS of BDS satellite clock error and the RMS of receiver clock error were 36.21%, 26.88% and 20.88% respectively. Especially, the contribution to the clock error of receivers which were in the area with few visible satellites was particularly significant. And the statistical contribution was 45.95%.
Accurate determination of cobalt traces in several biological reference materials.
Dybczyński, R; Danko, B
1994-01-01
A newly devised, very accurate ("definitive") method for the determination of trace amounts of cobalt in biological materials was validated by the analysis of several certified reference materials. The method is based on a combination of neutron activation and selective and quantitative postirradiation isolation of radiocobalt from practically all other radionuclides by ion-exchange and extraction chromatography followed by gamma-ray spectrometric measurement. The significance of criteria that should be fulfilled in order to accept a given result as obtained by the "definitive method" is emphasized. In view of the demonstrated very good accuracy of the method, it is suggested that our values for cobalt content in those reference materials in which it was originally not certified (SRM 1570 spinach, SRM 1571 orchard leaves, SRM 1577 bovine liver, and Czechoslovak bovine liver 12-02-01) might be used as provisional certified values. PMID:7710879
Fast and accurate automated cell boundary determination for fluorescence microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arce, Stephen Hugo; Wu, Pei-Hsun; Tseng, Yiider
2013-07-01
Detailed measurement of cell phenotype information from digital fluorescence images has the potential to greatly advance biomedicine in various disciplines such as patient diagnostics or drug screening. Yet, the complexity of cell conformations presents a major barrier preventing effective determination of cell boundaries, and introduces measurement error that propagates throughout subsequent assessment of cellular parameters and statistical analysis. State-of-the-art image segmentation techniques that require user-interaction, prolonged computation time and specialized training cannot adequately provide the support for high content platforms, which often sacrifice resolution to foster the speedy collection of massive amounts of cellular data. This work introduces a strategy that allows us to rapidly obtain accurate cell boundaries from digital fluorescent images in an automated format. Hence, this new method has broad applicability to promote biotechnology.
Orbit determination and prediction study for Dynamic Explorer 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, R. L.; Nakai, Y.; Doll, C. E.
1983-01-01
Definitive orbit determination accuracy and orbit prediction accuracy for the Dynamic Explorer-2 (DE-2) are studied using the trajectory determination system for the period within six weeks of spacecraft reentry. Baseline accuracies using standard orbit determination models and methods are established. A promising general technique for improving the orbit determination accuracy of high drag orbits, estimation of random drag variations at perigee passages, is investigated. This technique improved the fit to the tracking data by a factor of five and improved the solution overlap consistency by a factor of two during a period in which the spacecraft perigee altitude was below 200 kilometers. The results of the DE-2 orbit predictions showed that improvement in short term prediction accuracy reduces to the problem of predicting future drag scale factors: the smoothness of the solar 10.7 centimeter flux density suggests that this may be feasible.
Definitive orbit determination for the HEAO-2 spacecraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, R. L.; Mallick, M. K.
1984-08-01
Precise ephemerides for the High Energy Astronomy Observatory-2 (HEAO-2) were computed to assist in the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory development of an onboard orbit determination technique. Weighted least-squares, batch orbit solutions were calculated using a high-precision earth gravity model and an approximate model for intermittent spacecraft thrusting. With these improvements, orbit solution consistencies at the 50- to 100-meter level were attained using the Goddard Trajectory Determination System and NASA S-band tracking data.
Definitive orbit determination for the HEAO-2 spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, R. L.; Mallick, M. K.
1984-01-01
Precise ephemerides for the High Energy Astronomy Observatory-2 (HEAO-2) were computed to assist in the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory development of an onboard orbit determination technique. Weighted least-squares, batch orbit solutions were calculated using a high-precision earth gravity model and an approximate model for intermittent spacecraft thrusting. With these improvements, orbit solution consistencies at the 50- to 100-meter level were attained using the Goddard Trajectory Determination System and NASA S-band tracking data.
Phenomenological Determination of the Orbital Angular Momentum
Ramsey, Gordon P.
2009-08-04
Measurements involving the gluon spin, {delta}G(x, t) and the corresponding asymmetry, A(x,t) = {delta}G(x,t)/G(x,t) play an important role in quantitative understanding of proton structure. We have modeled the asymmetry perturbatively and calculated model corrections to obtain information about non-perturbative spin-orbit effects. These models are consistent with existing COMPASS and HERMES data on the gluon asymmetry. The J{sub z} = (1/2) sum rule is used to generate values of orbital angular momentum at LO and NLO. For models consistent with data, the orbital angular momentum is small. Our studies specify accuracy that future measurements should achieve to constrain theoretical models for nucleon structure.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kennedy, Brian; Abrahamson, Matt; Ardito, Alessandro; Han, Dongsuk; Haw, Robert; Mastrodemos, Nicholas; Nandi, Sumita; Park, Ryan; Rush, Brian; Vaughan, Andrew
2013-01-01
The Dawn spacecraft was launched on September 27th, 2007. Its mission is to consecutively rendezvous with and observe the two largest bodies in the asteroid belt, Vesta and Ceres. It has already completed over a year's worth of direct observations of Vesta (spanning from early 2011 through late 2012) and is currently on a cruise trajectory to Ceres, where it will begin scientific observations in mid-2015. Achieving this data collection required careful planning and execution from all spacecraft teams. Dawn's Orbit Determination (OD) team was tasked with accurately predicting the trajectory of the Dawn spacecraft during the Vesta science phases, and also determining the parameters of Vesta to support future science orbit design. The future orbits included the upcoming science phase orbits as well as the transfer orbits between science phases. In all, five science phases were executed at Vesta, and this paper will describe some of the OD team contributions to the planning and execution of those phases.
The determination of the satellite orbit of Mariner 9.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Born, G. H.; Christensen, E. J.; Ferrari, A. J.; Jordan, J. F.; Reinbold, S. J.
1972-01-01
This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the Mars orbital phase of the Mariner 9 trajectory as determined from Earth based radio data. Both the method and accuracy of the orbit determination process are reviewed. Analysis is presented to show the effects of Mars gravity model and node in the plane of the sky errors on the accuracy of orbit determination. In addition the long term evolution of the orbit from insertion to date is presented, and is decomposed into effects from the Mars gravity field, n-body perturbations, and solar radiation pressure. Since the orbit period is nearly commensurable with the Mars rotational period, the orbit experiences significant resonance perturbations. The primary perturbation is in-track with a maximum amplitude of 1000 km and a wavelength of 39 revolutions.
TOPEX/Poseidon precision orbit determination production and expert system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Putney, Barbara; Zelensky, Nikita; Klosko, Steven
1993-01-01
TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) is a joint mission between NASA and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), the French Space Agency. The TOPEX/Poseidon Precision Orbit Determination Production System (PODPS) was developed at Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC) to produce the absolute orbital reference required to support the fundamental ocean science goals of this satellite altimeter mission within NASA. The orbital trajectory for T/P is required to have a RMS accuracy of 13 centimeters in its radial component. This requirement is based on the effective use of the satellite altimetry for the isolation of absolute long-wavelength ocean topography important for monitoring global changes in the ocean circulation system. This orbit modeling requirement is at an unprecedented accuracy level for this type of satellite. In order to routinely produce and evaluate these orbits, GSFC has developed a production and supporting expert system. The PODPS is a menu driven system allowing routine importation and processing of tracking data for orbit determination, and an evaluation of the quality of the orbit so produced through a progressive series of tests. Phase 1 of the expert system grades the orbit and displays test results. Later phases undergoing implementation, will prescribe corrective actions when unsatisfactory results are seen. This paper describes the design and implementation of this orbit determination production system and the basis for its orbit accuracy assessment within the expert system.
Astrodynamics. Volume 1 - Orbit determination, space navigation, celestial mechanics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herrick, S.
1971-01-01
Essential navigational, physical, and mathematical problems of space exploration are covered. The introductory chapters dealing with conic sections, orientation, and the integration of the two-body problem are followed by an introduction to orbit determination and design. Systems of units and constants, as well as ephemerides, representations, reference systems, and data are then dealt with. A detailed attention is given to rendezvous problems and to differential processes in observational orbit correction, and in rendezvous or guidance correction. Finally, the Laplacian methods for determining preliminary orbits, and the orbit methods of Lagrange, Gauss, and Gibbs are reviewed.
Strategies for high-precision Global Positioning System orbit determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lichten, Stephen M.; Border, James S.
1987-01-01
Various strategies for the high-precision orbit determination of the GPS satellites are explored using data from the 1985 GPS field test. Several refinements to the orbit determination strategies were found to be crucial for achieving high levels of repeatability and accuracy. These include the fine tuning of the GPS solar radiation coefficients and the ground station zenith tropospheric delays. Multiday arcs of 3-6 days provided better orbits and baselines than the 8-hr arcs from single-day passes. Highest-quality orbits and baselines were obtained with combined carrier phase and pseudorange solutions.
An orbit determination from debris impacts on measurement satellites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujita, Koki; Tasaki, Mitsuhiko; Furumoto, Masahiro; Hanada, Toshiya
2016-01-01
This work proposes a method to determine orbital plane of a micron-sized space debris cloud utilizing their impacts on measurement satellites. Given that debris impacts occur on a line of intersection between debris and satellites orbital planes, a couple of debris orbital parameters, right ascension of the ascending node, inclination, and nodal regression rate can be determined by impact times and locations measured from more than two satellites in different earth orbits. This paper proves that unique solution for the debris orbital parameters is obtained from the measurement data, and derives a computational scheme to estimate them. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is finally demonstrated by a simulation test, in which measurement data are obtained from a numerical simulation considering realistic debris' and satellites' orbits.
Nanoparticle Counting: Towards Accurate Determination of the Molar Concentration
Shang, Jing; Gao, Xiaohu
2014-01-01
Summary Innovations in nanotechnology have brought tremendous opportunities for the advancement of many research frontiers, ranging from electronics, photonics, energy, to medicine. To maximize the benefits of nano-scaled materials in different devices and systems, precise control of their concentration is a prerequisite. While concentrations of nanoparticles have been provided in other forms (e.g., mass), accurate determination of molar concentration, arguably the most useful one for chemical reactions and applications, has been a major challenge (especially for nanoparticles smaller than 30 nm). Towards this significant yet chronic problem, a variety of strategies are currently under development. Most of these strategies are applicable to a specialized group of nanoparticles due to their restrictions on the composition and size ranges of nanoparticles. As research and uses of nanomaterials being explored in an unprecedented speed, it is necessary to develop universal strategies that are easy to use, and compatible with nanoparticles of different sizes, compositions, and shapes. This review outlines the theories and applications of current strategies to measure nanoparticle molar concentration, discusses the advantages and limitations of these methods, and provides insights into future directions. PMID:25099190
Orbit Determination Analysis Utilizing Radiometric and Laser Ranging Measurements for GPS Orbit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Welch, Bryan W.
2007-01-01
While navigation systems for the determination of the orbit of the Global Position System (GPS) have proven to be very effective, the current issues involve lowering the error in the GPS satellite ephemerides below their current level. In this document, the results of an orbit determination covariance assessment are provided. The analysis is intended to be the baseline orbit determination study comparing the benefits of adding laser ranging measurements from various numbers of ground stations. Results are shown for two starting longitude assumptions of the satellite location and for nine initial covariance cases for the GPS satellite state vector.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svoren, J.; Neslusan, L.; Porubcan, V.
1994-08-01
All known parent bodies of meteor showers belong to bodies moving in high-eccentricity orbits (e => 0.5). Recently, asteroids in low-eccentricity orbits (e < 0.5) approaching the Earth's orbit, were suggested as another population of possible parent bodies of meteor streams. This paper deals with the problem of calculation of meteor radiants connected with the bodies in low-eccentricity orbits from the point of view of optimal results depending on the method applied. The paper is a continuation of our previous analysis of high-eccentricity orbits (Svoren, J., Neslusan, L., Porubcan, V.: 1993, Contrib. Astron. Obs. Skalnate Pleso 23, 23). Some additional methods resulting from mathematical modelling are presented and discussed together with Porter's, Steel-Baggaley's and Hasegawa's methods. In order to be able to compare how suitable the application of the individual radiant determination methods is, it is necessary to determine the accuracy with which they approximate real meteor orbits. To verify the accuracy with which the orbit of a meteoroid with at least one node at 1 AU fits the original orbit of the parent body, the Southworth-Hawkins D-criterion (Southworth, R.B., Hawkins, G.S.: 1963, Smithson. Contr. Astrophys. 7, 261) was applied. D <= 0.1 indicates a very good fit of orbits, 0.1 < D <= 0.2 is considered for a good fit and D > 0.2 means that the fit is rather poor and the change of orbit unrealistic. The optimal method, i.e. the one which results in the smallest D values for the population of low-eccentricity orbits, is that of adjusting the orbit by varying both the eccentricity and perihelion distance. A comparison of theoretical radiants obtained by various methods was made for typical representatives from each group of the NEA (near-Earth asteroids) objects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tukaram Aghav, Sandip; Achyut Gangal, Shashikala
2014-06-01
In this paper, the main work is focused on designing and simplifying the orbit determination algorithm which will be used for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) navigation. The various data processing algorithms, state estimation algorithms and modeling forces were studied in detail, and simplified algorithm is selected to reduce hardware burden and computational cost. This is done by using raw navigation solution provided by GPS Navigation sensor. A fixed step-size Runge-Kutta 4th order numerical integration method is selected for orbit propagation. Both, the least square and Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) orbit estimation algorithms are developed and the results of the same are compared with each other. EKF algorithm converges faster than least square algorithm. EKF algorithm satisfies the criterions of low computation burden which is required for autonomous orbit determination. Simple static force models also feasible to reduce the hardware burden and computational cost.
Contributions of Satellite Laser Ranging to the Precise Orbit Determination of Low Earth Orbiters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wirnsberger, H.; Krauss, S.; Baur, O.
2014-11-01
Space-based monitoring and modeling of the system Earth requires precise knowledge of the orbits of artificial satellites. In this framework, since decades Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) contributes with high measurement accuracy and robust tracking data to precise orbit determination. One essential role of SLR tracking is the external validation of orbit solutions derived from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), such as the Global Positioning System (GPS). This valuable task of external validation is performed by the comparison of computed ranges based on orbit solutions and unambiguous SLR tracking data (observed ranges). Apart from validation, extension of the existing SLR network by passive antennas in combination with multistatic observations provides improvements in orbit determination processes with the background of sparse tracking data. Conceptually, these multistatic observations refer to the tracking of spacecraft from an active SLR-station and the detection of the diffuse reflected photons from the spacecraft at one or more passive stations.
Dependence of Orbit Determination Accuracy on the Observer Position
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vananti, Alessandro; Schildknecht, Thomas
2013-08-01
The Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) is conducting several search campaigns for space debris in Geostationary (GEO) and Medium Earth Orbits (MEO). Usually, to improve the quality of the determined orbits for newly discovered objects, follow-up observations are conducted. The latter take place at different times during the discovery night or in subsequent nights. The time interval between the observations plays an important role in the accuracy of the calculated orbits. Another essential parameter to consider is the position of the observer at the observation time. In this paper, the accuracy of the orbit determination with respect to the position of the observer is analyzed. The same observing site at varying epochs or multiple site locations involve different distances from the target object and a different observing angle with respect to its orbital plane and trajectory. The formal error in the orbit determination process is, among other dependencies, a function of the latter parameters. The analysis of this dependence is important to choose the appropriate observation strategy. One of the main questions that arises is e.g. whether observing the same object from different stations results in better determined orbits and, if yes, how big is the improvement. Another question is e.g. whether the observation from multiple sites needs to be simultaneous or not for a better orbit accuracy.
Analysis of filter tuning techniques for sequential orbit determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, T.; Yee, C.; Oza, D.
1995-01-01
This paper examines filter tuning techniques for a sequential orbit determination (OD) covariance analysis. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in sequential OD, primarily due to the successful flight qualification of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Onboard Navigation System (TONS) using Doppler data extracted onboard the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) spacecraft. TONS computes highly accurate orbit solutions onboard the spacecraft in realtime using a sequential filter. As the result of the successful TONS-EUVE flight qualification experiment, the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM-1 Project has selected TONS as the prime navigation system. In addition, sequential OD methods can be used successfully for ground OD. Whether data are processed onboard or on the ground, a sequential OD procedure is generally favored over a batch technique when a realtime automated OD system is desired. Recently, OD covariance analyses were performed for the TONS-EUVE and TONS-EOS missions using the sequential processing options of the Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS). ODEAS is the primary covariance analysis system used by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD). The results of these analyses revealed a high sensitivity of the OD solutions to the state process noise filter tuning parameters. The covariance analysis results show that the state estimate error contributions from measurement-related error sources, especially those due to the random noise and satellite-to-satellite ionospheric refraction correction errors, increase rapidly as the state process noise increases. These results prompted an in-depth investigation of the role of the filter tuning parameters in sequential OD covariance analysis. This paper analyzes how the spacecraft state estimate errors due to dynamic and measurement-related error sources are affected by the process noise level used. This information is then used to establish
Determination of AES Orbit Elements Using Mixed Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolesnik, S. Ja.; Strakhova, S. L.
An algorithm is worked out and a program is compiled for a determination of AES (artificial Earth satellite) orbit elements using both goniometrical and range-finder observations of different precision. The observations of one or several passages carried out from one or several stations can be used. A number of observational stations and a number of observations are not limited in principle. When solving this task the AES ephemerides on the moments of observations are calculated for different sets of orbit elements. A parameter F is considered which is a function of orbit elements. The parameter presents a square-mean deviation of AES ephemeris position on the moments {J;} from its observed one. The determination of real orbit elements comes to minimizing of parameter F by orbit elements using a method of deformed polyhedron. When calculating the ephemeris the amendments for 2-d, 3-d, 4-th geopotential zone harmonics are considered.
Real-time on-board orbit determination with DORIS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berthias, J.-P.; Jayles, C.; Pradines, D.
1993-01-01
A spaceborne orbit determination system is being developed by the French Space Agency (CNES) for the SPOT 4 satellite. It processes DORIS measurements to produce an orbit with an accuracy of about 50O meters rms. In order to evaluate the reliability of the software, it was combined with the MERCATOR man/machine interface and used to process the TOPEX/Poseidon DORIS data in near real time during the validation phase of the instrument, at JPL and at CNES. This paper gives an overview of the orbit determination system and presents the results of the TOPEX/Poseidon experiment.
Status of Precise Orbit Determination for Jason-2 Using GPS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melachroinos, S.; Lemoine, F. G.; Zelensky, N. P.; Rowlands, D. D.; Pavlis, D. E.
2011-01-01
The JASON-2 satellite, launched in June 2008, is the latest follow-on to the successful TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) and JASON-I altimetry missions. JASON-2 is equipped with a TRSR Blackjack GPS dual-frequency receiver, a laser retroreflector array, and a DORIS receiver for precise orbit determination (POD). The most recent time series of orbits computed at NASA GSFC, based on SLR/DORIS data have been completed using both ITRF2005 and ITRF2008. These orbits have been shown to agree radially at 1 cm RMS for dynamic vs SLRlDORIS reduced-dynamic orbits and in comparison with orbits produced by other analysis centers (Lemoine et al., 2010; Zelensky et al., 2010; Cerri et al., 2010). We have recently upgraded the GEODYN software to implement model improvements for GPS processing. We describe the implementation of IGS standards to the Jason2 GEODYN GPS processing, and other dynamical and measurement model improvements. Our GPS-only JASON-2 orbit accuracy is assessed using a number of tests including analysis of independent SLR and altimeter crossover residuals, orbit overlap differences, and direct comparison to orbits generated at GSFC using SLR and DORIS tracking, and to orbits generated externally at other centers. Tests based on SLR and the altimeter crossover residuals provide the best performance indicator for independent validation of the NASAlGSFC GPS-only reduced dynamic orbits. For the ITRF2005 and ITRF2008 implementation of our GPS-only obits we are using the IGS05 and IGS08 standards. Reduced dynamic versus dynamic orbit differences are used to characterize the remaining force model error and TRF instability. We evaluate the GPS vs SLR & DORIS orbits produced using the GEODYN software and assess in particular their consistency radially and the stability of the altimeter satellite reference frame in the Z direction for both ITRF2005 and ITRF2008 as a proxy to assess the consistency of the reference frame for altimeter satellite POD.
Evaluation of the IMP-16 microprocessor orbit determination system filter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shenitz, C. M.; Tasaki, K. K.
1979-01-01
The results of the numerical tests performed in evaluating the interplanetary monitoring platform-16 orbit determination system are presented. The system is capable of performing orbit determination from satellite to satellite tracking data in applications technology satellite range and range rate format. The estimation scheme used is a Kalman filter, sequential (recursive) estimator. Descriptions of the tests performed and tabulations of the numerical results are included.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Axelrad, Penina; Speed, Eden; Leitner, Jesse A. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This report summarizes the efforts to date in processing GPS measurements in High Earth Orbit (HEO) applications by the Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research (CCAR). Two specific projects were conducted; initialization of the orbit propagation software, GEODE, using nominal orbital elements for the IMEX orbit, and processing of actual and simulated GPS data from the AMSAT satellite using a Doppler-only batch filter. CCAR has investigated a number of approaches for initialization of the GEODE orbit estimator with little a priori information. This document describes a batch solution approach that uses pseudorange or Doppler measurements collected over an orbital arc to compute an epoch state estimate. The algorithm is based on limited orbital element knowledge from which a coarse estimate of satellite position and velocity can be determined and used to initialize GEODE. This algorithm assumes knowledge of nominal orbital elements, (a, e, i, omega, omega) and uses a search on time of perigee passage (tau(sub p)) to estimate the host satellite position within the orbit and the approximate receiver clock bias. Results of the method are shown for a simulation including large orbital uncertainties and measurement errors. In addition, CCAR has attempted to process GPS data from the AMSAT satellite to obtain an initial estimation of the orbit. Limited GPS data have been received to date, with few satellites tracked and no computed point solutions. Unknown variables in the received data have made computations of a precise orbit using the recovered pseudorange difficult. This document describes the Doppler-only batch approach used to compute the AMSAT orbit. Both actual flight data from AMSAT, and simulated data generated using the Satellite Tool Kit and Goddard Space Flight Center's Flight Simulator, were processed. Results for each case and conclusion are presented.
Space Capsule Recovery Orbit Determination System and Performance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vighnesam, N. V.; Sonney, A.; Soni, P. K.
2008-08-01
Space Capsule Recovery (SRE), a small satellite, completely recoverable capsule was launched by the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C7) from the Indian spaceport Sriharikota on 10th January 2007 at 04:09UT along with Indian Remore Sensing Satellite CARTOSAT-2 and two micro satellites namely Nano- Peheunsat and Lapantubsat. The satellite was put into an almost nominal orbit of (630 X 638)km with an inclination of 97.94deg. The main objective of the SRE missions was to conduct microgravity experiment, de- orbit and recover it in Indian waters. The spacecraft was de-boosted after the payload operations in the micro- gravity environment. This was achieved in two steps. SRE was first placed from the injected circular orbit to Repetitive Elliptical Orbit (REO) and subsequently de- boosted for reentry and recovery. This paper describes the S-band based orbit determination system for SRE and its performance during different phases of the mission. Comparison of the inertial navigation system (INS) and nominal orbit with the achieved/estimated orbit was made. Orbit determination system was executed successfully through out the mission. Relatively large residues were observed in measurements during OD process due to continuous thruster activity through out the mission.
GEODYN Orbit Determination of Dawn at Vesta using Image Constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Centinello, F. J., III; Mazarico, E.; Zuber, M. T.
2012-12-01
The Dawn spacecraft has completed the orbital phase of its mapping mission of the asteroid 4 Vesta. We utilized radiometric measurements and image constraints to compute the spacecraft orbit using the GEODYN II orbit determination software. Image constraints are computed control point vectors which point from the spacecraft to landmarks observed in two images of the same region of Vesta, and are a newly developed measurement type for GEODYN. This capability was added because image constraints can provide supplemental information on the spacecraft trajectory especially in a weak gravity environment. Due to the geometric nature of image constraints, they can reduce the orbital errors in the along- and cross-track directions, which have typically carried higher uncertainty in previous interplanetary missions. Image constraints are also useful during times of absence of radiometric tracking data. Improvements to orbit determination can provide improved gravity field estimation and knowledge of the interior structure of Vesta. The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) provides X-band tracking measurements for Dawn. Radiometric and image constraints were processed for the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) I and II, and the Low Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO), from 23 Sept 2011 to 26 July 2012. The spacecraft altitude was roughly 685 km during HAMO and 200 km during LAMO. Doppler and range residual RMS were under 1 mm/s and 10 m, respectively. Improvement in orbital knowledge from image constraints is typically greatest in the cross-track direction and in our analysis these residuals were typically better than 500 m.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maier, Andrea; Baur, Oliver
2016-03-01
We present results for Precise Orbit Determination (POD) of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) based on two-way Doppler range-rates over a time span of ~13 months (January 3, 2011 to February 9, 2012). Different orbital arc lengths and various sets of empirical parameters were tested to seek optimal parametrization. An overlap analysis covering three months of Doppler data shows that the most precise orbits are obtained using an arc length of 2.5 days and estimating arc-wise constant empirical accelerations in along track direction. The overlap analysis over the entire investigated time span of 13 months indicates an orbital precision of 13.79 m, 14.17 m, and 1.28 m in along track, cross track, and radial direction, respectively, with 21.32 m in total position. We compare our orbits to the official science orbits released by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The differences amount to 9.50 m, 6.98 m, and 1.50 m in along track, cross track, and radial direction, respectively, as well as 12.71 m in total position. Based on the reconstructed LRO orbits, we estimated lunar gravity field coefficients up to spherical harmonic degree and order 60. The results are compared to gravity field solutions derived from data collected by other lunar missions.
Fast Geometric Method for Calculating Accurate Minimum Orbit Intersection Distances (MOIDs)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiźniowski, T.; Rickman, H.
2013-06-01
We present a new method to compute Minimum Orbit Intersection Distances (MOIDs) for arbitrary pairs of heliocentric orbits and compare it with Giovanni Gronchi's algebraic method. Our procedure is numerical and iterative, and the MOID configuration is found by geometric scanning and tuning. A basic element is the meridional plane, used for initial scanning, which contains one of the objects and is perpendicular to the orbital plane of the other. Our method also relies on an efficient tuning technique in order to zoom in on the MOID configuration, starting from the first approximation found by scanning. We work with high accuracy and take special care to avoid the risk of missing the MOID, which is inherent to our type of approach. We demonstrate that our method is both fast, reliable and flexible. It is freely available and its source Fortran code downloadable via our web page.
Optimum satellite orbits for accurate measurement of the earth's radiation budget, summary
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, G. G.; Vonderhaar, T. H.
1978-01-01
The optimum set of orbit inclinations for the measurement of the earth radiation budget from spacially integrating sensor systems was estimated for two and three satellite systems. The best set of the two were satellites at orbit inclinations of 80 deg and 50 deg; of three the inclinations were 80 deg, 60 deg and 50 deg. These were chosen on the basis of a simulation of flat plate and spherical detectors flying over a daily varying earth radiation field as measured by the Nimbus 3 medium resolution scanners. A diurnal oscillation was also included in the emitted flux and albedo to give a source field as realistic as possible. Twenty three satellites with different inclinations and equator crossings were simulated, allowing the results of thousand of multisatellite sets to be intercompared. All were circular orbits of radius 7178 kilometers.
Precise orbit determination of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and first gravity field results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maier, Andrea; Baur, Oliver
2014-05-01
The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) was launched in 2009 and is expected to orbit the Moon until the end of 2014. Among other instruments, LRO has a highly precise altimeter on board demanding an orbit accuracy of one meter in the radial component. Precise orbit determination (POD) is achieved with radiometric observations (Doppler range rates, ranges) on the one hand, and optical laser ranges on the other hand. LRO is the first satellite at a distance of approximately 360 000 to 400 000 km from the Earth that is routinely tracked with optical laser ranges. This measurement type was introduced to achieve orbits of higher precision than it would be possible with radiometric observations only. In this contribution we investigate the strength of each measurement type (radiometric range rates, radiometric ranges, optical laser ranges) based on single-technique orbit estimation. In a next step all measurement types are combined in a joined analysis. In addition to POD results, preliminary gravity field coefficients are presented being a subsequent product of the orbit determination process. POD and gravity field estimation was accomplished with the NASA/GSFC software packages GEODYN and SOLVE.
Bayesian statistical approach to binary asteroid orbit determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovalenko, Irina D.; Stoica, Radu S.; Emelyanov, N. V.; Doressoundiram, A.; Hestroffer, D.
2016-01-01
The problem of binary asteroids orbit determination is of particular interest, given knowledge of the orbit is the best way to derive the mass of the system. Orbit determination from observed points is a classic problem of celestial mechanics. However, in the case of binary asteroids, particularly with a small number of observations, the solution is not evident to derive. In the case of resolved binaries the problem consists in the determination of the relative orbit from observed relative positions of a secondary asteroid with respect to the primary. In this work, the problem is investigated as a statistical inverse problem. Within this context, we propose a method based on Bayesian modelling together with a global optimisation procedure that is based on the simulated annealing algorithm.
Orbit and attitude determination using artificial satellite imagery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawamura, S.; Nishida, S.; Nishimura, T.
1980-09-01
Simultaneous determination of orbital as well as attitude parameters of geostationary satellites is proposed in this paper. For this purpose, landmarks contained in the images of the earth taken by such satellites are utilized and attention is focussed on the accuracy of estimates of orbital parameters attained by this method, thus extracting effective informations on the location of the satellite contained in the images. The technology and algorithm for the simultaneous determination of orbit and attitude are actually applied to the geostationary meteorological satellite 'HIMAWARI' of Japan and the experimental results are presented. The precision of orbit determination using landmarks is less than 9 km, and it will offer useful informations to the image processing. The proposed method will be also useful at the emergency when a hazard takes place in the ranging station or ranging devices.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lichten, S. M.; Estefan, J. A.
1990-01-01
Orbit covariance analyses pertaining to the Japanese VLBI Space Observatory Program (VSOP) MUSES-B satellite and to the International VLBI Satellite are presented. It is determined that a combination of Doppler and GPS measurements can provide the orbit accuracy required to support advanced radio interferometric experiments. For the VSOP, the required orbit accuracy of 130 m is easily met with two-way Doppler as the primary type of data; the 0.4 cm/s VSOP velocity requirement is also feasible provided that precise ground calibrations of tropospheric delays and station coordinates are available. It is concluded that combining the data from a VSOP GPS flight instrument with the ground GPS and two-way Doppler data will significantly enhance orbit determination accuracy in position and velocity.
Orbit Determination and Navigation Software Testing for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pini, Alex
2011-01-01
During the extended science phase of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's lifecycle, the operational duties pertaining to navigation primarily involve orbit determination. The orbit determination process utilizes radiometric tracking data and is used for the prediction and reconstruction of MRO's trajectories. Predictions are done twice per week for ephemeris updates on-board the spacecraft and for planning purposes. Orbit Trim Maneuvers (OTM-s) are also designed using the predicted trajectory. Reconstructions, which incorporate a batch estimator, provide precise information about the spacecraft state to be synchronized with scientific measurements. These tasks were conducted regularly to validate the results obtained by the MRO Navigation Team. Additionally, the team is in the process of converting to newer versions of the navigation software and operating system. The capability to model multiple densities in the Martian atmosphere is also being implemented. However, testing outputs among these different configurations was necessary to ensure compliance to a satisfactory degree.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weisman, R. M.; Majji, M.; Alfriend, K. T.
2014-02-01
This paper presents an approach to characterize the uncertainty associated with the state vector obtained from the Herrick-Gibbs orbit determination approach using transformation of variables. The approach is applied to estimate the state vector and its probability density function for objects in low Earth orbit using sparse observations. The state vector and associated uncertainty estimates are computed in Cartesian coordinates and Keplerian elements. The approach is then extended to accommodate the J_2 perturbation where the state vector is written in terms of mean orbital elements. The results obtained from the analytical approach presented in this paper are validated using Monte Carlo simulations and compared with the often utilized similarity transformation for Kepler, mean, and nonsingular elements. The measurement uncertainty characterization obtained is used to initialize conventional nonlinear filters as well as operate a Bayesian approach for orbit determination and object tracking.
Precision orbit determination using TOPEX/Poseidon TDRSS observations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Teles, Jerome; Putney, B.; Phelps, J.; Mccarthy, J.; Eddy, W.; Klosko, S.
1993-01-01
The TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) Mission carries a variety of packages to support experimental, precision and operational orbit determination. Included are a GPS transponder, laser retro-reflectors, the French-developed Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) Doppler tracking system and a Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) transponder. Presently, TDRSS tracking is used for operational orbit support and is processed with force and measurement modeling consistent with this purpose. However, the low noise and extensive geographical coverage of the TDRSS/TOPEX data allows an assessment of TDRSS Precision Orbit Determination (POD) capabilities by comparison to the T/P precision orbit determination. The Geodynamics (GEODYN) Orbit Determination System is used to process laser and DORIS data to produce the precision orbits for the T/P Project. GEODYN has been modified recently to support the TDRSS observations. TDRSS data analysis can now benefit from the extensive force modeling and reference frame stability needed to meet the orbit determination (OD) goals of the T/P Mission. This analysis has concentrated on the strongest of the TDRSS measurement types, its two-way average range rate. Both the TDRSS and T/P orbits have been assessed in combination with the global satellite laser ranging (SLR) data and by themselves. These results indicate that significant improvement in the TDRSS ephemerides is obtained when the T/P orbit is well determined by SLR, and the TDRSS/TOPEX Doppler link is used to position TDRSS. Meter-level TDRSS positioning uncertainty is achieved using this approach. When the TDRSS orbit location is provided by this approach, the two-way range rate from a single TDRSS (i.e. West only) can provide T/P orbits with sub-meter radial accuracies and two meter RMS total position agreement with SLR defined orbits. These preliminary results indicate improved modeling of the TDRSS measurement through the elimination of heretofore
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelecy, Tom; Shoemaker, Michael; Jah, Moriba
2013-08-01
A break-up in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is simulated for 10 objects having area-to-mass ratios (AMR's) ranging from 0.1-10.0 m2/kg. The Constrained Admissible Region Multiple Hypothesis Filter (CAR-MHF) is applied to determining and characterizing the orbit and atmospheric drag parameters (CdA/m) simultaneously for each of the 10 objects with no a priori orbit or drag information. The results indicate that CAR-MHF shows promise for accurate, unambiguous and autonomous determination of the orbit and drag states.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryant, W. C., Jr.; Goad, C. C.
1973-01-01
A Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) made up of two earth synchronous data relay satellites is proposed for the late 1970s to aid in the tracking, or take the place of ground tracking, or near-earth orbiters. Theoretical error analysis studies were conducted to evaluate the TDRSS concept of tracking user satellites. All major factors affecting orbit determination accuracy were considered in the analysis, including tracking system and dynamic modeling errors.
Determining the Eccentricity of the Moon's Orbit without a Telescope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krisciunas, Kevin
2010-01-01
Ancient Greek astronomers knew that Moon's distance from the Earth was not constant. Ptolemy's model of the Moon's motion implied that the Moon ranged in distance from 33 to 64 Earth radii. This implied that its angular size ranged nearly a factor of two. Tycho Brahe's model of the Moon's motion implied a smaller distance range, some ±3 percent at syzygy. However, the ancient and Renaissance astronomers are notably silent on the subject of measuring the angular size of the Moon as a check on the implied range of distance from their models of the position of the Moon. Using a quarter-inch hole in a piece of cardboard that slides along a yardstick, we show that pre-telescopic astronomers could have measured an accurate mean value of the angular size of the Moon, and that they could have determined a reasonably accurate value of the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. The principal calibration for each observer is to measure the apparent angular diameter of a 91 mm disk viewed at a distance of 10 meters, giving a true angular size of 31.3 arcmin (the Moon's mean angular size). Because the sighting hole is not much bigger than the size of one's pupil, each observer obtains a personal correction factor with which to scale the raw measures. If one takes data over the course of 7 lunations (7.5 anomalistic months), any systematic errors which are a function of phase should even out over the course of the observations. We find that the random error of an individual observation of ±0.8 arcmin can be achieved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svoren, J.; Neslusan, L.; Porubcan, V.
1993-07-01
It is evident that there is no uniform method of calculating meteor radiants which would yield reliable results for all types of cometary orbits. In the present paper an analysis of this problem is presented, together with recommended methods for various types of orbits. Some additional methods resulting from mathematical modelling are presented and discussed together with Porter's, Steel-Baggaley's and Hasegawa's methods. In order to be able to compare how suitable the application of the individual radiant determination methods is, it is necessary to determine the accuracy with which they approximate real meteor orbits. To verify the accuracy with which the orbit of a meteoroid with at least one node at 1 AU fits the original orbit of the parent body, we applied the Southworth-Hawkins D-criterion (Southworth, R.B., Hawkins, G.S.: 1963, Smithson. Contr. Astrophys 7, 261). D<=0.1 indicates a very good fit of orbits, 0.1
Determining the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit without a telescope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krisciunas, Kevin
2010-08-01
Prior to the invention of the telescope many astronomers worked out models of the motion of the Moon to predict the position of the Moon in the sky. These geometrical models implied a certain range of distances of the Moon from Earth. Ptolemy's most quoted model predicted that the Moon was nearly twice as far away at apogee than at perigee. Measurements of the angular size of the Moon were within the capabilities of pretelescopic astronomers. Such measurements could have helped refine the models of the motion of the Moon, but hardly anyone seems to have made any measurements that have come down to us. We use a piece of cardboard with a small hole in it which slides up and down a yardstick to show that it is possible to determine the eccentricity ɛ~0.039+/-0.006 of the Moon's orbit. A typical measurement uncertainty of the Moon's angular size is +/-0.8 arc min. Because the Moon's angular size ranges from 29.4 to 33.5 arc min, carefully taken naked eye data are accurate enough to demonstrate periodic variations of the Moon's angular size.
Orbit Determination Accuracy for Comets on Earth-Impacting Trajectories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kay-Bunnell, Linda
2004-01-01
The results presented show the level of orbit determination accuracy obtainable for long-period comets discovered approximately one year before collision with Earth. Preliminary orbits are determined from simulated observations using Gauss' method. Additional measurements are incorporated to improve the solution through the use of a Kalman filter, and include non-gravitational perturbations due to outgassing. Comparisons between observatories in several different circular heliocentric orbits show that observatories in orbits with radii less than 1 AU result in increased orbit determination accuracy for short tracking durations due to increased parallax per unit time. However, an observatory at 1 AU will perform similarly if the tracking duration is increased, and accuracy is significantly improved if additional observatories are positioned at the Sun-Earth Lagrange points L3, L4, or L5. A single observatory at 1 AU capable of both optical and range measurements yields the highest orbit determination accuracy in the shortest amount of time when compared to other systems of observatories.
Evaluation of Improved Spacecraft Models for GLONASS Orbit Determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weiss, J. P.; Sibthorpe, A.; Harvey, N.; Bar-Sever, Y.; Kuang, D.
2010-12-01
High-fidelity spacecraft models become more important as orbit determination strategies achieve greater levels of precision and accuracy. In this presentation, we assess the impacts of new solar radiation pressure and attitude models on precise orbit determination (POD) for GLONASS spacecraft within JPLs GIPSY-OASIS software. A new solar radiation pressure model is developed by empirically fitting a Fourier expansion to solar pressure forces acting on the spacecraft X, Y, Z components using one year of recent orbit data. Compared to a basic “box-wing” solar pressure model, the median 24-hour orbit prediction accuracy for one month of independent test data improves by 43%. We additionally implement an updated yaw attitude model during eclipse periods. We evaluate the impacts of both models on post-processed POD solutions spanning 6-months. We consider a number of metrics such as internal orbit and clock overlaps as well as comparisons to independent solutions. Improved yaw attitude modeling reduces the dependence of these metrics on the “solar elevation” angle. The updated solar pressure model improves orbit overlap statistics by several mm in the median sense and centimeters in the max sense (1D). Orbit differences relative to the IGS combined solution are at or below the 5 cm level (1D RMS).
Accurately Determining the Risks of Rising Sea Level
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marbaix, Philippe; Nicholls, Robert J.
2007-10-01
With the highest density of people and the greatest concentration of economic activity located in the coastal regions, sea level rise is an important concern as the climate continues to warm. Subsequent flooding may potentially disrupt industries, populations, and livelihoods, particularly in the long term if the climate is not quickly stabilized [McGranahan et al., 2007; Tol et al., 2006]. To help policy makers understand these risks, a more accurate description of hazards posed by rising sea levels is needed at the global scale, even though the impacts in specific regions are better known.
GRAIL Orbit Determination for the Science Phase and Extended Mission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ryne, Mark; Antreasian, Peter; Broschart, Stephen; Criddle, Kevin; Gustafson, Eric; Jefferson, David; Lau, Eunice; Ying Wen, Hui; You, Tung-Han
2013-01-01
The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission (GRAIL) is the 11th mission of the NASA Discovery Program. Its objective is to help answer funda-mental questions about the Moon's internal structure, thermal evolution, and collisional history. GRAIL employs twin spacecraft, which fly in formation in low altitude polar orbits around the Moon. An improved global lunar gravity field is derived from high-precision range-rate measurements of the distance between the two spacecraft. The purpose of this paper is to describe the strategies used by the GRAIL Orbit Determination Team to overcome challenges posed during on-orbit operations.
Dealing with uncertainties in angles-only initial orbit determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Armellin, Roberto; Di Lizia, Pierluigi; Zanetti, Renato
2016-08-01
A method to deal with uncertainties in initial orbit determination (IOD) is presented. This is based on the use of Taylor differential algebra (DA) to nonlinearly map uncertainties from the observation space to the state space. When a minimum set of observations is available, DA is used to expand the solution of the IOD problem in Taylor series with respect to measurement errors. When more observations are available, high order inversion tools are exploited to obtain full state pseudo-observations at a common epoch. The mean and covariance of these pseudo-observations are nonlinearly computed by evaluating the expectation of high order Taylor polynomials. Finally, a linear scheme is employed to update the current knowledge of the orbit. Angles-only observations are considered and simplified Keplerian dynamics adopted to ease the explanation. Three test cases of orbit determination of artificial satellites in different orbital regimes are presented to discuss the feature and performances of the proposed methodology.
Dealing with uncertainties in angles-only initial orbit determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Armellin, Roberto; Di Lizia, Pierluigi; Zanetti, Renato
2016-05-01
A method to deal with uncertainties in initial orbit determination (IOD) is presented. This is based on the use of Taylor differential algebra (DA) to nonlinearly map uncertainties from the observation space to the state space. When a minimum set of observations is available, DA is used to expand the solution of the IOD problem in Taylor series with respect to measurement errors. When more observations are available, high order inversion tools are exploited to obtain full state pseudo-observations at a common epoch. The mean and covariance of these pseudo-observations are nonlinearly computed by evaluating the expectation of high order Taylor polynomials. Finally, a linear scheme is employed to update the current knowledge of the orbit. Angles-only observations are considered and simplified Keplerian dynamics adopted to ease the explanation. Three test cases of orbit determination of artificial satellites in different orbital regimes are presented to discuss the feature and performances of the proposed methodology.
Accurate Determination of Membrane Dynamics with Line-Scan FCS
Ries, Jonas; Chiantia, Salvatore; Schwille, Petra
2009-01-01
Here we present an efficient implementation of line-scan fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (i.e., one-dimensional spatio-temporal image correlation spectroscopy) using a commercial laser scanning microscope, which allows the accurate measurement of diffusion coefficients and concentrations in biological lipid membranes within seconds. Line-scan fluorescence correlation spectroscopy is a calibration-free technique. Therefore, it is insensitive to optical artifacts, saturation, or incorrect positioning of the laser focus. In addition, it is virtually unaffected by photobleaching. Correction schemes for residual inhomogeneities and depletion of fluorophores due to photobleaching extend the applicability of line-scan fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to more demanding systems. This technique enabled us to measure accurate diffusion coefficients and partition coefficients of fluorescent lipids in phase-separating supported bilayers of three commonly used raft-mimicking compositions. Furthermore, we probed the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient in several model membranes, and in human embryonic kidney cell membranes not affected by temperature-induced optical aberrations. PMID:19254560
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maier, Andrea; Baur, Oliver
2015-04-01
The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), launched in 2009, is well suited for the estimation of the long wavelengths of the lunar gravity field due to its low altitude of 50 km. Further, the orbit of LRO was polar for two years providing global coverage. The satellite has been primarily tracked via S-band (mainly two-way Doppler range-rates and two-way radiometric ranges) from the dedicated station in White Sands and from the Universal Space Network (USN). Due to the onboard altimeter the orbital precision requirement in the radial direction was rigorously defined as 1m. Because simulation studies before LRO's launch showed that this precision could not be reached with S-band observations alone, it was decided to additionally track LRO via optical laser ranges. It is worthwhile to point out that LRO is the first spacecraft in interplanetary space routinely tracked with optical one-way laser ranges. Gravity field recovery from orbit perturbations is intrinsically related to precise orbit determination. This is why considerable effort was made to find the optimum settings for orbit modeling. For a time span of three months we conducted a series of orbit overlapping tests based on Doppler observations to find the optimum arc length and the optimum set of empirical parameters. The analysis of observation residuals and orbit overlap differences showed that the estimated orbits are most precise when subdividing the time span into 2.5 days and estimating one constant empirical acceleration in along track direction. These settings were then used to analyze 13 months of Doppler data to LRO. The processing of the optical one-way laser was difficult due to the involvement of two non-synchronous clocks in one measurement (one clock at the ground station and one clock onboard LRO). The NASA software GEODYN, which was used for orbit determination and parameter estimation, models the LRO clock using a drift rate (first-order term) and an aging rate (second-order term). It seems
GOCE: precise orbit determination for the entire mission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bock, Heike; Jäggi, Adrian; Beutler, Gerhard; Meyer, Ulrich
2014-07-01
The Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) was the first Earth explorer core mission of the European Space Agency. It was launched on March 17, 2009 into a Sun-synchronous dusk-dawn orbit and re-entered into the Earth's atmosphere on November 11, 2013. The satellite altitude was between 255 and 225 km for the measurement phases. The European GOCE Gravity consortium is responsible for the Level 1b to Level 2 data processing in the frame of the GOCE High-level processing facility (HPF). The Precise Science Orbit (PSO) is one Level 2 product, which was produced under the responsibility of the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern within the HPF. This PSO product has been continuously delivered during the entire mission. Regular checks guaranteed a high consistency and quality of the orbits. A correlation between solar activity, GPS data availability and quality of the orbits was found. The accuracy of the kinematic orbit primarily suffers from this. Improvements in modeling the range corrections at the retro-reflector array for the SLR measurements were made and implemented in the independent SLR validation for the GOCE PSO products. The satellite laser ranging (SLR) validation finally states an orbit accuracy of 2.42 cm for the kinematic and 1.84 cm for the reduced-dynamic orbits over the entire mission. The common-mode accelerations from the GOCE gradiometer were not used for the official PSO product, but in addition to the operational HPF work a study was performed to investigate to which extent common-mode accelerations improve the reduced-dynamic orbit determination results. The accelerometer data may be used to derive realistic constraints for the empirical accelerations estimated for the reduced-dynamic orbit determination, which already improves the orbit quality. On top of that the accelerometer data may further improve the orbit quality if realistic constraints and state-of-the-art background models such as gravity field
Accurate Mass Determinations in Decay Chains with Missing Energy
Cheng, H.-C; Gunion, John F.; Han Zhenyu; Engelhardt, Dalit; McElrath, Bob
2008-06-27
Many beyond the standard model theories include a stable dark matter candidate that yields missing or invisible energy in collider detectors. If observed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, we must determine if its mass and other properties (and those of its partners) predict the correct dark matter relic density. We give a new procedure for determining its mass with small error.
Accurate mass determinations in decay chains with missing energy.
Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Engelhardt, Dalit; Gunion, John F; Han, Zhenyu; McElrath, Bob
2008-06-27
Many beyond the standard model theories include a stable dark matter candidate that yields missing or invisible energy in collider detectors. If observed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, we must determine if its mass and other properties (and those of its partners) predict the correct dark matter relic density. We give a new procedure for determining its mass with small error. PMID:18643654
Determination of sockage for accurate rough rice quality assessment
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Determination of dockage of freshly harvested rice is crucial for precise development of a universal rice shrinking chart. The objectives of this research were to determine the effect of different factors, including rice variety, farm location, harvest moisture and time, drying, dropping, weather ev...
Accurate Determination of Conformational Transitions in Oligomeric Membrane Proteins
Sanz-Hernández, Máximo; Vostrikov, Vitaly V.; Veglia, Gianluigi; De Simone, Alfonso
2016-01-01
The structural dynamics governing collective motions in oligomeric membrane proteins play key roles in vital biomolecular processes at cellular membranes. In this study, we present a structural refinement approach that combines solid-state NMR experiments and molecular simulations to accurately describe concerted conformational transitions identifying the overall structural, dynamical, and topological states of oligomeric membrane proteins. The accuracy of the structural ensembles generated with this method is shown to reach the statistical error limit, and is further demonstrated by correctly reproducing orthogonal NMR data. We demonstrate the accuracy of this approach by characterising the pentameric state of phospholamban, a key player in the regulation of calcium uptake in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and by probing its dynamical activation upon phosphorylation. Our results underline the importance of using an ensemble approach to characterise the conformational transitions that are often responsible for the biological function of oligomeric membrane protein states. PMID:26975211
Efficient determination of accurate atomic polarizabilities for polarizeable embedding calculations.
Schröder, Heiner; Schwabe, Tobias
2016-08-15
We evaluate embedding potentials, obtained via various methods, used for polarizable embedding computations of excitation energies of para-nitroaniline in water and organic solvents as well as of the green fluorescent protein. We found that isotropic polarizabilities derived from DFTD3 dispersion coefficients correlate well with those obtained via the LoProp method. We show that these polarizabilities in conjunction with appropriately derived point charges are in good agreement with calculations employing static multipole moments up to quadrupoles and anisotropic polarizabilities for both computed systems. The (partial) use of these easily-accessible parameters drastically reduces the computational effort to obtain accurate embedding potentials especially for proteins. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27317509
Application of GPS tracking techniques to orbit determination for TDRS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haines, B. J.; Lichten, S. M.; Malla, R. P.; Wu, S. C.
1993-01-01
In this paper, we evaluate two fundamentally different approaches to TDRS orbit determination utilizing Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and GPS-related techniques. In the first, a GPS flight receiver is deployed on the TDRSS spacecraft. The TDRS ephemerides are determined using direct ranging to the GPS spacecraft, and no ground network is required. In the second approach, the TDRSS spacecraft broadcast a suitable beacon signal, permitting the simultaneous tracking of GPS and TDRSS satellites from a small ground network. Both strategies can be designed to meet future operational requirements for TDRS-2 orbit determination.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ko, H.; Scheeres, D.
2014-09-01
Representing spacecraft orbit anomalies between two separate states is a challenging but an important problem in achieving space situational awareness for an active spacecraft. Incorporation of such a capability could play an essential role in analyzing satellite behaviors as well as trajectory estimation of the space object. A general way to deal with the anomaly problem is to add an estimated perturbing acceleration such as dynamic model compensation (DMC) into an orbit determination process based on pre- and post-anomaly tracking data. It is a time-consuming numerical process to find valid coefficients to compensate for unknown dynamics for the anomaly. Even if the orbit determination filter with DMC can crudely estimate an unknown acceleration, this approach does not consider any fundamental element of the unknown dynamics for a given anomaly. In this paper, a new way of representing a spacecraft anomaly using an interpolation technique with the Thrust-Fourier-Coefficients (TFCs) is introduced and several anomaly cases are studied using this interpolation method. It provides a very efficient way of reconstructing the fundamental elements of the dynamics for a given spacecraft anomaly. Any maneuver performed by a satellite transitioning between two arbitrary orbital states can be represented as an equivalent maneuver using an interpolation technique with the TFCs. Given unconnected orbit states between two epochs due to a spacecraft anomaly, it is possible to obtain a unique control law using the TFCs that is able to generate the desired secular behavior for the given orbital changes. This interpolation technique can capture the fundamental elements of combined unmodeled anomaly events. The interpolated orbit trajectory, using the TFCs compensating for a given anomaly, can be used to improve the quality of orbit fits through the anomaly period and therefore help to obtain a good orbit determination solution after the anomaly. Orbit Determination Toolbox (ODTBX
Orbit determination support of the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/Poseidon operational orbit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schanzle, A. F.; Rovnak, J. E.; Bolvin, D. T.; Doll, C. E.
1993-01-01
The Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX/Poseidon) mission is designed to determine the topography of the Earth's sea surface over a 3-year period, beginning shortly after launch in July 1992. TOPEX/Poseidon is a joint venture between the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the French Centre Nationale d'Etudes Spatiales. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is NASA's TOPEX/Poseidon project center. The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) will nominally be used to support the day-to-day orbit determination aspects of the mission. Due to its extensive experience with TDRSS tracking data, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) will receive and process TDRSS observational data. To fulfill the scientific goals of the mission, it is necessary to achieve and maintain a very precise orbit. The most stringent accuracy requirements are associated with planning and evaluating orbit maneuvers, which will place the spacecraft in its mission orbit and maintain the required ground track. To determine if the FDF can meet the TOPEX/Poseidon maneuver accuracy requirements, covariance analysis was undertaken with the Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS). The covariance analysis addressed many aspects of TOPEX/Poseidon orbit determination, including arc length, force models, and other processing options. The most recent analysis has focused on determining the size of the geopotential field necessary to meet the maneuver support requirements. Analysis was undertaken with the full 50 x 50 Goddard Earth Model (GEM) T3 field as well as smaller representations of this model.
Evaluation of semiempirical atmospheric density models for orbit determination applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cox, C. M.; Feiertag, R. J.; Oza, D. H.; Doll, C. E.
1994-01-01
This paper presents the results of an investigation of the orbit determination performance of the Jacchia-Roberts (JR), mass spectrometer incoherent scatter 1986 (MSIS-86), and drag temperature model (DTM) atmospheric density models. Evaluation of the models was performed to assess the modeling of the total atmospheric density. This study was made generic by using six spacecraft and selecting time periods of study representative of all portions of the 11-year cycle. Performance of the models was measured for multiple spacecraft, representing a selection of orbit geometries from near-equatorial to polar inclinations and altitudes from 400 kilometers to 900 kilometers. The orbit geometries represent typical low earth-orbiting spacecraft supported by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD). The best available modeling and orbit determination techniques using the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) were employed to minimize the effects of modeling errors. The latest geopotential model available during the analysis, the Goddard earth model-T3 (GEM-T3), was employed to minimize geopotential model error effects on the drag estimation. Improved-accuracy techniques identified for TOPEX/Poseidon orbit determination analysis were used to improve the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS)-based orbit determination used for most of the spacecraft chosen for this analysis. This paper shows that during periods of relatively quiet solar flux and geomagnetic activity near the solar minimum, the choice of atmospheric density model used for orbit determination is relatively inconsequential. During typical solar flux conditions near the solar maximum, the differences between the JR, DTM, and MSIS-86 models begin to become apparent. Time periods of extreme solar activity, those in which the daily and 81-day mean solar flux are high and change rapidly, result in significant differences between the models. During periods of high
Apparatus enables accurate determination of alkali oxides in alkali metals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dupraw, W. A.; Gahn, R. F.; Graab, J. W.; Maple, W. E.; Rosenblum, L.
1966-01-01
Evacuated apparatus determines the alkali oxide content of an alkali metal by separating the metal from the oxide by amalgamation with mercury. The apparatus prevents oxygen and moisture from inadvertently entering the system during the sampling and analytical procedure.
Precise Orbit Determination of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Lina; Ge, Maorong; Wang, Jiexian; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald
2013-04-01
China has been developing its own independent satellite navigation system since decades. Now the COMPASS system, also known as BeiDou, is emerging and gaining more and more interest and attention in the worldwide GNSS communities. The current regional BeiDou system is ready for its operational service around the end of 2012 with a constellation including five Geostationary Earth Orbit satellites (GEO), five Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit satellites (IGSO) and four Medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites in operation. Besides the open service with positioning accuracy of around 10m which is free to civilian users, both precise relative positioning, and precise point positioning are demonstrated as well. In order to enhance the BeiDou precise positioning service, Precise Orbit Determination (POD) which is essential of any satellite navigation system has been investigated and studied thoroughly. To further improving the orbits of different types of satellites, we study the impact of network coverage on POD data products by comparing results from tracking networks over the Chinese territory, Asian-Pacific, Asian and of global scale. Furthermore, we concentrate on the improvement of involving MEOs on the orbit quality of GEOs and IGSOs. POD with and without MEOs are undertaken and results are analyzed. Finally, integer ambiguity resolution which brings highly improvement on orbits and positions with GPS data is also carried out and its effect on POD data products is assessed and discussed in detail. Seven weeks of BeiDou data from a ground tracking network, deployed by Wuhan University is employed in this study. The test constellation includes four GEO, five IGSO and two MEO satellites in operation. The three-day solution approach is employed to enhance its strength due to the limited coverage of the tracking network and the small movement of most of the satellites. A number of tracking scenarios and processing schemas are identified and processed and overlapping orbit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vigue, Y.; Lichten, S. M.; Muellerschoen, R. J.; Blewitt, G.; Heflin, M. B.
1993-01-01
Data collected from a worldwide 1992 experiment were processed at JPL to determine precise orbits for the satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS). A filtering technique was tested to improve modeling of solar-radiation pressure force parameters for GPS satellites. The new approach improves orbit quality for eclipsing satellites by a factor of two, with typical results in the 25- to 50-cm range. The resultant GPS-based estimates for geocentric coordinates of the tracking sites, which include the three DSN sites, are accurate to 2 to 8 cm, roughly equivalent to 3 to 10 nrad of angular measure.
Precise GPS orbit determination results from 1985 field tests
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lichten, S. M.; Border, J. S.; Wu, S.-C.; Williams, B. G.; Yunck, T. P.
1986-01-01
Data from three different receiver types have been used to obtain precise orbits for the satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS). The data were collected during the 1985 March-April GPS experiment to test and validate GPS techniques for precision orbit determination and geodesy. A new software package developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), GIPSY (GPS Inferred Positioning SYstem), was used to process the data. To assess orbit accuracy, solutions are compared using integrated doppler data from various different receiver types, different fiducial sites, and independent data arcs, including one spanning six days. From these intercomparisons, orbit accuracy for a well-tracked GPS satellite of three meters in altitude and about five meters in each of down and cross-track components are inferred.
Algorithms for Autonomous GS Orbit Determination and Formation Flying
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moreau, Michael C.; Speed, Eden Denton-Trost; Axelrad, Penina; Leitner, Jesse (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This final report for our study of autonomous Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite orbit determination comprises two sections. The first is the Ph.D. dissertation written by Michael C. Moreau entitled, "GPS Receiver Architecture for Autonomous Navigation in High Earth Orbits." Dr. Moreau's work was conducted under both this project and a NASA GSRP. His dissertation describes the key design features of a receiver specifically designed for autonomous operation in high earth orbits (HEO). He focused on the implementation and testing of these features for the GSFC PiVoT receiver. The second part is a memo describing a robust method for autonomous initialization of the orbit estimate given very little a priori information and sparse measurements. This is a key piece missing in the design of receivers for HEO.
Applications of accurate isentropic exponent determination for fuel gas measurement
Pack, D.J.; Edwards, T.J.; Fawcett, D.
1996-07-01
This paper discusses the determination and application of the isentropic exponent to the various thermodynamic processes found in a high-pressure natural gas transmission system. Increasing demands for more precise measurement of natural gas, coupled with the need for greater efficiency and accountability of transportation and processing operations, had led to the research and development of gas thermodynamic properties including isentropic exponent. The isentropic exponent has many applications, some of which include: the determination of the expansion factor {epsilon}, for calculation of flow using an orifice or venturi-type meter; the volumetric efficiency in a reciprocating compressor; the determination of the compression head for a centrifugal compressor; the engine power required for the given conditions for a gas compressor; the calculation of discharge temperatures for compressors; and the direct measurement of gas density. As can be appreciated, the application of an incorrect value for the isentropic exponent represents an error in the parameter determined. For large volume gas flows, this can translate into a significant cost penalty.
Copernicus POD Service: Orbit Determination of the Sentinel Satellites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peter, Heike; Fernández, Jaime; Ayuga, Francisco; Féménias, Pierre
2016-04-01
The Copernicus POD (Precise Orbit Determination) Service is part of the Copernicus Processing Data Ground Segment (PDGS) of the Sentinel-1, -2 and -3 missions. A GMV-led consortium is operating the Copernicus POD Service being in charge of generating precise orbital products and auxiliary data files for their use as part of the processing chains of the respective Sentinel PDGS. Sentinel-1A was launched in April 2014 while Sentinel-2A was on June 2015 and both are routinely operated since then. Sentinel-3A is expected to be launched in February 2016 and Sentinel-1B is planned for spring 2016. Thus the CPOD Service will be operating three to four satellites simultaneously in spring 2016. The satellites of the Sentinel-1, -2, and -3 missions are all equipped with dual frequency high precision GPS receivers delivering the main observables for POD. Sentinel-3 satellites will additionally be equipped with a laser retro reflector for Satellite Laser Ranging and a receiver for DORIS tracking. All three types of observables (GPS, SLR and DORIS) will be used routinely for POD. The POD core of the CPOD Service is NAPEOS (Navigation Package for Earth Orbiting Satellites) the leading ESA/ESOC software for precise orbit determination. The careful selection of models and inputs is important to achieve the different but very demanding requirements in terms of orbital accuracy and timeliness for the Sentinel -1, -2 & -3 missions. The three missions require orbital products with various latencies from 30 minutes up to 20-30 days. The accuracy requirements are also different and partly very challenging, targeting 5 cm in 3D for Sentinel-1 and 2-3 cm in radial direction for Sentinel-3. Although the characteristics and the requirements are different for the three missions the same core POD setup is used to the largest extent possible. This strategy facilitates maintenance of the complex system of the CPOD Service. Updates in the dynamical modelling of the satellite orbits, e
Orbit Determination for the 2007 Mars Phoenix Lander
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ryne, Mark S.; Graat, Eric; Haw, Robert; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Lau, Eunice; Martin-Mur, Tomas; McElrath, Timothy; Nandi, Sumita; Portock, Brian
2008-01-01
The Phoenix mission is designed to study the arctic region of Mars. To achieve this goal, the spacecraft must be delivered to a narrow corridor at the top of the Martian atmosphere, which is approximately 20 km wide. This paper will discuss the details of the Phoenix orbit determination process and the effort to reduce errors below the level necessary to achieve successful atmospheric entry at Mars. Emphasis will be placed on properly modeling forces that perturb the spacecraft trajectory and the errors and uncertainties associated with those forces. Orbit determination covariance analysis strongly influenced mission operations scenarios, which were chosen to minimize errors and associated uncertainties.
Filter Strategies for Mars Science Laboratory Orbit Determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, Paul F.; Gustafson, Eric D.; Kruizinga, Gerhard L.; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.
2013-01-01
The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) spacecraft had ambitious navigation delivery and knowledge accuracy requirements for landing inside Gale Crater. Confidence in the orbit determination (OD) solutions was increased by investigating numerous filter strategies for solving the orbit determination problem. We will discuss the strategy for the different types of variations: for example, data types, data weights, solar pressure model covariance, and estimating versus considering model parameters. This process generated a set of plausible OD solutions that were compared to the baseline OD strategy. Even implausible or unrealistic results were helpful in isolating sensitivities in the OD solutions to certain model parameterizations or data types.
Evaluation of advanced geopotential models for operational orbit determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Radomski, M. S.; Davis, B. E.; Samii, M. V.; Engel, C. J.; Doll, C. E.
1988-01-01
To meet future orbit determination accuracy requirements for different NASA projects, analyses are performed using Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) tracking measurements and orbit determination improvements in areas such as the modeling of the Earth's gravitational field. Current operational requirements are satisfied using the Goddard Earth Model-9 (GEM-9) geopotential model with the harmonic expansion truncated at order and degree 21 (21-by-21). This study evaluates the performance of 36-by-36 geopotential models, such as the GEM-10B and Preliminary Goddard Solution-3117 (PGS-3117) models. The Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and LANDSAT-5 are the spacecraft considered in this study.
The Greenhouse Effect - Determination From Accurate Surface Longwave Radiation Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Philipona, R.
Longwave radiation measurements have been drastically improved in recent years. Uncertainty levels down to s2 Wm-2 are realistic and achieved during long-term ´ longwave irradiance measurements. Longwave downward irradiance measurements together with temperature and humidity measurements at the station are used to sepa- rate clear-sky from cloudy-sky situations. Longwave net radiation separated between clear-sky and all-sky situations allows to determine the longwave cloud radiative forc- ing at the station. For clear-sky situations radiative transfer models demonstrate a lin- ear relation between longwave downward radiation and the greenhouse radiative flux. Clear-sky longwave radiation, temperature and humidity for different atmospheres and different altitudes were modeled with the MODTRAN radiative transfer code and compared to longwave radiation, temperature and humidity measured at 4 radiation stations of the Alpine Surface Radiation Budget (ASRB) network at similar altitude and with corresponding atmospheres. At the 11 ASRB stations the clear-sky green- house effect was determined by using clear-sky longwave downward measurements and MODTRAN model calculations. The all-sky greenhouse effect was determined by adding the longwave cloud radiative forcing to the clear-sky greenhouse radiative flux. The altitude dependence of annual and seasonal mean values of the greenhouse effect will be shown for the altitude range of 400 to 3600 meter a.s.l. in the Alps.
Cassini orbit determination performance during the first eight orbits of the Saturn satellite tour
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antreasian, P. G.; Bordi, J. J.; Criddle, K. E.; Ionasescu, R.; Jacobson, R. A.; Jones, J. B.; MacKenzie, R. A.; Meek, M. C.; Pelletier, F. J.; Roth, D. C.; Roundhill, I. M.; Stauch, J.
2005-01-01
From June 2004 through July 2005, the Cassini/Huygens spacecraft has executed nine successful close-targeted encounters by three major satellites of the Saturnian system. Current results show that orbit determination has met design requirements for targeting encounters, Hugens descent, and predicting science instrument pointing for targetd satellite encounters. This paper compares actual target dispersion against, the predicte tour covariance analyses.
Analysis of orbital configurations for geocenter determination with GPS and low-Earth orbiters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuang, Da; Bar-Sever, Yoaz; Haines, Bruce
2015-05-01
We use a series of simulated scenarios to characterize the observability of geocenter location with GPS tracking data. We examine in particular the improvement realized when a GPS receiver in low Earth orbit (LEO) augments the ground network. Various orbital configurations for the LEO are considered and the observability of geocenter location based on GPS tracking is compared to that based on satellite laser ranging (SLR). The distance between a satellite and a ground tracking-site is the primary measurement, and Earth rotation plays important role in determining the geocenter location. Compared to SLR, which directly and unambiguously measures this distance, terrestrial GPS observations provide a weaker (relative) measurement for geocenter location determination. The estimation of GPS transmitter and receiver clock errors, which is equivalent to double differencing four simultaneous range measurements, removes much of this absolute distance information. We show that when ground GPS tracking data are augmented with precise measurements from a GPS receiver onboard a LEO satellite, the sensitivity of the data to geocenter location increases by more than a factor of two for Z-component. The geometric diversity underlying the varying baselines between the LEO and ground stations promotes improved global observability, and renders the GPS technique comparable to SLR in terms of information content for geocenter location determination. We assess a variety of LEO orbital configurations, including the proposed orbit for the geodetic reference antenna in space mission concept. The results suggest that a retrograde LEO with altitude near 3,000 km is favorable for geocenter determination.
DETERMINATION OF ORBITAL ELEMENTS OF SPECTROSCOPIC BINARIES USING HIGH-DISPERSION SPECTROSCOPY
Katoh, Noriyuki; Itoh, Yoichi; Toyota, Eri; Sato, Bun'ei
2013-02-01
Orbital elements of 37 single-lined spectroscopic binary systems (SB1s) and 5 double-lined spectroscopic binary systems (SB2s) were determined using high-dispersion spectroscopy. To determine the orbital elements accurately, we carried out precise Doppler shift measurements using the HIgh Dispersion Echelle Spectrograph mounted on the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory 1.88 m telescope. We achieved a radial-velocity precision of {approx}10 m s{sup -1} over seven years of observations. The targeted binaries have spectral types between F5 and K3, and are brighter than the 7th magnitude in the V band. The orbital elements of 28 SB1s and 5 SB2s were determined at least 10 times more precisely than previous measurements. Among the remaining nine SB1s, five objects were found to be single stars, and the orbital elements of four objects were not determined because our observations did not cover the entire orbital period. We checked the absorption lines from the secondary star for 28 SB1s and found that three objects were in fact SB2s.
The role of laser determined orbits in geodesy and geophysics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kolenkiewicz, R.; Smith, D. E.; Dunn, P. J.; Torrence, M. H.; Robbins, J. W.
1991-01-01
Some of the results of orbit analysis from the NASA SLR analysis group are presented. The earth's orientation was determined for 5-day intervals to 1.9 mas for the pole and 0.09 msec for length of day. The 3d center of mass station positions was determined to 33 mm over a period of 3 months, and geodesic rates of SLR tracking sites were determined to 5 mm/yr.
GRAIL Science Data System Orbit Determination : Approach, Strategy, and Performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fahnestock, Eugene; Asmar, Sami; Park, Ryan; Strekalov, Dmitry; Yuan, Dah-Ning; Harvey, Nate; Kahan, Daniel; Konopliv, Alex; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Oudrhiri, Kamal; Paik, Meegyeong
2013-01-01
This paper details orbit determination techniques and strategies employed within each stage of the larger iterative process of preprocessing raw GRAIL data into the gravity science measurements used within gravity field solutions. Each orbit determination pass used different data, corrections to them, and/or estimation parameters. We compare performance metrics among these passes. For example, for the primary mission, the magnitude of residuals using our orbits progressed from approximately or equal to19.4 to 0.077 approximately or equal to m/s for inter-satellite range rate data and from approximately or equal to 0.4 to approximately or equal to 0.1 mm/s for Doppler data.
The GLAS Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document for Precision Orbit Determination (POD)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rim, Hyung Jin; Yoon, S. P.; Schultz, Bob E.
2013-01-01
The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) was the sole instrument for NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimetry mission. The primary purpose of the ICESat mission was to make ice sheet elevation measurements of the polar regions. Additional goals were to measure the global distribution of clouds and aerosols and to map sea ice, land topography and vegetation. ICESat was the benchmark Earth Observing System (EOS) mission to be used to determine the mass balance of the ice sheets, as well as for providing cloud property information, especially for stratospheric clouds common over polar areas. The GLAS instrument operated from 2003 to 2009 and provided multi-year elevation data needed to determine changes in sea ice freeboard, land topography and vegetation around the globe, in addition to elevation changes of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. This document describes the Precision Orbit Determination (POD) algorithm for the ICESat mission. The problem of determining an accurate ephemeris for an orbiting satellite involves estimating the position and velocity of the satellite from a sequence of observations. The ICESatGLAS elevation measurements must be very accurately geolocated, combining precise orbit information with precision pointing information. The ICESat mission POD requirement states that the position of the instrument should be determined with an accuracy of 5 and 20 cm (1-s) in radial and horizontal components, respectively, to meet the science requirements for determining elevation change.
Orbit determination based on meteor observations using numerical integration of equations of motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dmitriev, V.; Lupovka, V.; Gritsevich, M.
2014-07-01
We review the definitions and approaches to orbital-characteristics analysis applied to photographic or video ground-based observations of meteors. A number of camera networks dedicated to meteors registration were established all over the word, including USA, Canada, Central Europe, Australia, Spain, Finland and Poland. Many of these networks are currently operational. The meteor observations are conducted from different locations hosting the network stations. Each station is equipped with at least one camera for continuous monitoring of the firmament (except possible weather restrictions). For registered multi-station meteors, it is possible to accurately determine the direction and absolute value for the meteor velocity and thus obtain the topocentric radiant. Based on topocentric radiant one further determines the heliocentric meteor orbit. We aim to reduce total uncertainty in our orbit-determination technique, keeping it even less than the accuracy of observations. The additional corrections for the zenith attraction are widely in use and are implemented, for example, here [1]. We propose a technique for meteor-orbit determination with higher accuracy. We transform the topocentric radiant in inertial (J2000) coordinate system using the model recommended by IAU [2]. The main difference if compared to the existing orbit-determination techniques is integration of ordinary differential equations of motion instead of addition correction in visible velocity for zenith attraction. The attraction of the central body (the Sun), the perturbations by Earth, Moon and other planets of the Solar System, the Earth's flattening (important in the initial moment of integration, i.e. at the moment when a meteoroid enters the atmosphere), atmospheric drag may be optionally included in the equations. In addition, reverse integration of the same equations can be performed to analyze orbital evolution preceding to meteoroid's collision with Earth. To demonstrate the developed
Analysis of HY2A precise orbit determination using DORIS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Fan; Peng, Bibo; Zhang, Yu; Evariste, Ngatchou Heutchi; Liu, Jihua; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhong, Min; Lin, Mingsen; Wang, Nazi; Chen, Runjing; Xu, Houze
2015-03-01
HY2A is the first Chinese marine dynamic environment satellite. The payloads include a radar altimeter to measure the sea surface height in combination with a high precision orbit to be determined from tracking data. Onboard satellite tracking includes GPS, SLR, and the DORIS DGXX receiver which delivers phase and pseudo-range measurements. CNES releases raw phase and pseudo-range measurements with RINEX DORIS 3.0 format and pre-processed Doppler range-rate with DORIS 2.2 data format. However, the VMSI software package developed by Van Martin Systems, Inc which is used to estimate HY2A DORIS orbits can only process Doppler range-rate but not the DORIS phase data which are available with much shorter latency. We have proposed a method of constructing the phase increment data, which are similar to range-rate data, from RINEX DORIS 3.0 phase data. We compute the HY2A orbits from June, 2013 to August, 2013 using the POD strategy described in this paper based on DORIS 2.2 range-rate data and our reconstructed phase increment data. The estimated orbits are evaluated by comparing with the CNES precise orbits and SLR residuals. Our DORIS-only orbits agree with the precise GPS + SLR + DORIS CNES orbits radially at 1-cm and about 3-cm in the other two directions. SLR test with the 50° cutoff elevation shows that the CNES orbit can achieve about 1.1-cm accuracy in radial direction and our DORIS-only POD solutions are slightly worse. In addition, other HY2A DORIS POD concerns are discussed in this paper. Firstly, we discuss the frequency offset values provided with the RINEX data and find that orbit accuracy for the case when the frequency offset is applied is worse than when it is not applied. Secondly, HY2A DORIS antenna z-offsets are estimated using two kinds of measurements from June, 2013 to August, 2013. The results show that the measurement errors contribute a total of about 2-cm difference of estimated z-offset. Finally, we estimate HY2A orbits selecting 3 days with
Orbit Determination for Mars Global Surveyor During Mapping
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemoine, F. G.; Rowlands, D. D.; Smith, D. E.; Pavlis, D. E.; Chinn, D. S.; Luthcke, S. B.; Neumann, G. A.
1999-01-01
The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft reached a low-altitude circular orbit on February 4, 1999, after the termination of the second phase of aerobraking. The MGS spacecraft carries the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) whose primary goal is to derive a global, geodetically referenced 0.2 deg x 0.2 deg topographic grid of Mars with a vertical accuracy of better than 30 meters. During the interim science orbits in the' Hiatus mission phase (October - November 1997), and the Science Phasing Orbits (March - April, 1998, and June - July 1998) 208 passes of altimeter data were collected by the MOLA instrument. On March 1, 1999 the first ten orbits of MOLA altimeter data from the near-circular orbit were successfully returned from MGS by the Deep Space Network (DSN). Data will be collected from MOLA throughout the Mapping phase of the MCS mission, or for at least one Mars year (687 days). Whereas the interim orbits of Hiatus and SPO were highly eccentric, and altimeter data were only collected near periapsis when the spacecraft was below 785 km, the Mapping orbit of MGS is near circular, and altimeter data will be collected continuously at a rate of 10 Hz. The proper analysis of the altimeter data requires that the orbit of the MGS spacecraft be known to an accuracy comparable to that of the quality of the altimeter data. The altimeter has an ultimate precision of 30 cm on mostly flat surfaces, so ideally the orbits of the MGS spacecraft should be known to this level. This is a stringent requirement, and more realistic goals of orbit error for MGS are ten to thirty meters. In this paper we will discuss the force and measurement modelling required to achieve this objective. Issues in force modelling include the proper modelling of the gravity field of Mars, and the modelling of non-conservatives forces, including the development of a 'macro-model', in a similar fashion to TOPEX/POSEIDON and TDRSS. During Cruise and Aerobraking, the high gain antenna (HGA) was stowed
Orbit determination of Tance-1 satellite using VLBI data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Y.; Hu, X. G.; Huang, C.; Jiang, D. R.
2006-01-01
On 30 December, 2003, China successfully launched the first satellite Tance-1 of Chinese Geospace Double Star Exploration Program, i.e. "Double Star Program (DSP)", on an improved Long March 2C launch vehicle. The Tance-1 satellite is operating at an orbit around the earth with a 550km perigee, 78000km apogee and 28.5 degree inclination.VLBI technique can track Tance-1 satellite or even far satellites such as lunar vehicles. To validate the VLBI technique in the on-going Chinese lunar exploration mission, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (SHAO) organized to track the Tance-1 satellite with Chinese three VLBI stations: Shanghai, Kunming and Urumchi Orbit Determination (OD) of the Tance-1 satellite with about two days VLBI dada, and the capability of OD with VLBI data are studied. The results show that the VLBI-based orbit solutions improve the fit level over the initial orbit. The VLBI-delay-based orbit solution shows that the RMS of residuals of VLBI delay data is about 5.5m, and about 2.0cm/s for the withheld VLBI delay rate data. The VLBI-delay-rate-based orbit solution shows that the RMS of residuals of VLBI delay rate data is about 1.3cm/s, and about 29m for the withheld VLBI delay data. In the situation of orbit determination with VLBI delay and delay rate data with data sigma 5.5m and 1.3cm/s respectively, the RMS of residuals are 5.5,m and 2.0cm/s respectively. The simulation data assess the performance of the solutions. Considering the dynamic model errors of the Tance-1 satellite, the accuracy of the position is about km magnitude, and the accuracy of the velocity is about cm/s magnitude. The simulation work also show the dramatic accuracy improvement of OD with VLBI and USB combined.
Orbit Determination for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Using an Extended Kalman Filter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slojkowski, Steven; Lowe, Jonathan; Woodburn, James
2015-01-01
Orbit determination (OD) analysis results are presented for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) using a commercially available Extended Kalman Filter, Analytical Graphics' Orbit Determination Tool Kit (ODTK). Process noise models for lunar gravity and solar radiation pressure (SRP) are described and OD results employing the models are presented. Definitive accuracy using ODTK meets mission requirements and is better than that achieved using the operational LRO OD tool, the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS). Results demonstrate that a Vasicek stochastic model produces better estimates of the coefficient of solar radiation pressure than a Gauss-Markov model, and prediction accuracy using a Vasicek model meets mission requirements over the analysis span. Modeling the effect of antenna motion on range-rate tracking considerably improves residuals and filter-smoother consistency. Inclusion of off-axis SRP process noise and generalized process noise improves filter performance for both definitive and predicted accuracy. Definitive accuracy from the smoother is better than achieved using GTDS and is close to that achieved by precision OD methods used to generate definitive science orbits. Use of a multi-plate dynamic spacecraft area model with ODTK's force model plugin capability provides additional improvements in predicted accuracy.
Accurate Optical Target Pose Determination for Applications in Aerial Photogrammetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cucci, D. A.
2016-06-01
We propose a new design for an optical coded target based on concentric circles and a position and orientation determination algorithm optimized for high distances compared to the target size. If two ellipses are fitted on the edge pixels corresponding to the outer and inner circles, quasi-analytical methods are known to obtain the coordinates of the projection of the circles center. We show the limits of these methods for quasi-frontal target orientations and in presence of noise and we propose an iterative refinement algorithm based on a geometric invariant. Next, we introduce a closed form, computationally inexpensive, solution to obtain the target position and orientation given the projected circle center and the parameters of the outer circle projection. The viability of the approach is demonstrated based on aerial pictures taken by an UAV from elevations between 10 to 100 m. We obtain a distance RMS below 0.25 % under 50 m and below 1 % under 100 m with a target size of 90 cm, part of which is a deterministic bias introduced by image exposure.
An autonomous orbit determination method for MEO and LEO satellite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Hui; Wang, Jin; Yu, Guobin; Zhong, Jie; Lin, Ling
2014-09-01
A reliable and secure navigation system and assured autonomous capability of satellite are in high demand in case of emergencies in space. This paper introduces a novel autonomous orbit determination method for Middle-Earth-Orbit and Low-Earth-Orbit (MEO and LEO) satellite by observing space objects whose orbits are known. Generally, the geodetic satellites, such as LAGEOS and ETALONS, can be selected as the space objects here. The precision CCD camera on tracking gimbal can make a series of photos of the objects and surrounding stars when MEO and LEO satellite encounters the space objects. Then the information processor processes images and attains sightings and angular observations of space objects. Several clusters of such angular observations are incorporated into a batch least squares filter to obtain an orbit determination solution. This paper describes basic principle and builds integrated mathematical model. The accuracy of this method is analyzed by means of computer simulation. Then a simulant experiment system is built, and the experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of this method. The experimental results show that this method can attain the accuracy of 150 meters with angular observations of 1 arcsecond system error.
Mars Science Laboratory Orbit Determination Data Pre-Processing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gustafson, Eric D.; Kruizinga, Gerhard L.; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.
2013-01-01
The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) was spin-stabilized during its cruise to Mars. We discuss the effects of spin on the radiometric data and how the orbit determination team dealt with them. Additionally, we will discuss the unplanned benefits of detailed spin modeling including attitude estimation and spacecraft clock correlation.
Implementation of a low-cost, commercial orbit determination system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Corrigan, Jim
1994-01-01
This paper describes the implementation and potential applications of a workstation-based orbit determination system developed by Storm Integration, Inc. called the Precision Orbit Determination System (PODS). PODS is offered as a layered product to the commercially-available Satellite Tool Kit (STK) produced by Analytical Graphics, Inc. PODS also incorporates the Workstation/Precision Orbit Determination (WS/POD) product offered by Van Martin System, Inc. The STK graphical user interface is used to access and invoke the PODS capabilities and to display the results. WS/POD is used to compute a best-fit solution to user-supplied tracking data. PODS provides the capability to simultaneously estimate the orbits of up to 99 satellites based on a wide variety of observation types including angles, range, range rate, and Global Positioning System (GPS) data. PODS can also estimate ground facility locations, Earth geopotential model coefficients, solar pressure and atmospheric drag parameters, and observation data biases. All determined data is automatically incorporated into the STK data base, which allows storage, manipulation and export of the data to other applications. PODS is offered in three levels: Standard, Basic GPS and Extended GPS. Standard allows processing of non-GPS observation types for any number of vehicles and facilities. Basic GPS adds processing of GPS pseudo-ranging data to the Standard capabilities. Extended GPS adds the ability to process GPS carrier phase data.
Capabilities of a single TDRS to support user orbit determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cappellari, J. O., Jr.; Kay, P. Y.; Nicholson, A. M.
1988-01-01
It is shown that the single-TDRS S-band tracking configuration satisfies the navigation certification requirements for operational orbit determination support for the Landsat-5, SMM, SME, and Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) spacecraft. It is also shown that a pair of 3-min bilateration ranging transponder system (BRTS) tracking passes every 4 hrs, one each from two different BRTS locations, is sufficient to maintain user orbit accuracy to the navigation certification requirements. The BRTS tracking requirements for the single-TDRS configuration will also apply to each TDRS in a multiple-TDRS configuration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, J. S.
2011-03-01
It has been over half a century since the launch of the first artificial satellite Sputnik in 1957, which marks the beginning of the Space Age. During the past 50 years, with the development and innovations in various fields and technologies, satellite application has grown more and more intensive and extensive. This thesis is based on three major research projects which the author joined in. These representative projects cover main aspects of satellite orbit theory and application of precise orbit determination (POD), and also show major research methods and important applications in orbit dynamics. Chapter 1 is an in-depth research on analytical theory of satellite orbits. This research utilizes general transformation theory to acquire high-order analytical solutions when mean-element method is not applicable. These solutions can be used in guidance and control or rapid orbit forecast within the accuracy of 10-6. We also discuss other major perturbations, each of which is considered with improved models, in pursuit of both convenience and accuracy especially when old models are hardly applicable. Chapter 2 is POD research based on observations. Assuming a priori force model and estimation algorithm have reached their accuracy limits, we introduce empirical forces to Shenzhou-type orbit in order to compensate possible unmodeled or mismodeled perturbations. Residuals are analyzed first and only empirical force models with actual physical background are considered. This not only enhances a posteriori POD accuracy, but also considerably improves the accuracy of orbit forecast. This chapter also contains theoretical discussions on modeling of empirical forces, computation of partial derivatives and propagation of various errors. Error propagation helps to better evaluate orbital accuracy in future missions. Chapter 3 is an application of POD in space geodesy. GRACE satellites are used to obtain Antarctic temporal gravity field between 2004 and 2007. Various changes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yang; Yue, Xiaokui; Yuan, Jianping; Rizos, Chris
2014-11-01
Clock error estimation has been the focus of a great deal of research because of the extensive usage of clocks in GPS positioning applications. The receiver clock error in the spacecraft orbit determination is commonly estimated on an epoch-by-epoch basis, along with the spacecraft’s position. However, due to the high correlation between the spacecraft orbit altitude and the receiver clock parameters, estimates of the radial component are degraded in the kinematic approach. Using clocks with high stability, the predictable behaviour of the receiver oscillator can be exploited to improve the positioning accuracy, especially for the radial component. This paper introduces two GPS receiver clock models to describe the deterministic and stochastic property of the receiver clock, both of which can improve the accuracy of kinematic orbit determination for spacecraft in low earth orbit. In particular, the clock parameters are estimated as time offset and frequency offset in the two-state model. The frequency drift is also estimated as an unknown parameter in the three-state model. Additionally, residual non-deterministic random errors such as frequency white noise, frequency random walk noise and frequency random run noise are modelled. Test results indicate that the positioning accuracy could be improved significantly using one day of GRACE flight data. In particular, the error of the radial component was reduced by over 40.0% in the real-time scenario.
Automated Orbit Determination System (AODS) requirements definition and analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waligora, S. R.; Goorevich, C. E.; Teles, J.; Pajerski, R. S.
1980-01-01
The requirements definition for the prototype version of the automated orbit determination system (AODS) is presented including the AODS requirements at all levels, the functional model as determined through the structured analysis performed during requirements definition, and the results of the requirements analysis. Also specified are the implementation strategy for AODS and the AODS-required external support software system (ADEPT), input and output message formats, and procedures for modifying the requirements.
Minesaki, Yukitaka
2013-08-01
For the restricted three-body problem, we propose an accurate orbital integration scheme that retains all conserved quantities of the two-body problem with two primaries and approximately preserves the Jacobi integral. The scheme is obtained by taking the limit as mass approaches zero in the discrete-time general three-body problem. For a long time interval, the proposed scheme precisely reproduces various periodic orbits that cannot be accurately computed by other generic integrators.
Determination of the orbits of inner Jupiter satellites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avdyushev, V. A.; Ban'shikova, M. A.
2008-08-01
Some problems in determining the orbits of inner satellites associated with the complex behavior of the target function, which is strongly ravine and which possesses multiple minima in the case of the satellite orbit is determined based on fragmentary observations distributed over a rather long time interval, are studied. These peculiarities of the inverse problems are considered by the example of the dynamics of the inner Jupiter satellites: Amalthea, Thebe, Adrastea, and Metis. Numerical models of the satellite motions whose parameters were determined based on ground-based observations available at the moment to date have been constructed. A composite approach has been proposed for the effective search for minima of the target function. The approach allows one to obtain the respective evaluations of the orbital parameters only for several tens of iterations even in the case of very rough initial approximations. If two groups of observations are available (Adrastea), a formal minimization of the target function is shown to give a solution set, which is the best solution from the point of view of representation of the orbital motion, which is impossible to choose. Other estimates are given characterizing the specific nature of the inverse problems.
Analysis on high-altitude earth Orbit Satellite Determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, J.; Hou, Y. W.; Yang, L.
2016-02-01
The difference is introduced between approx circular apogee orbit and approx circular perigee one by error transmitting at first. Then the characteristic of secant compensation is analysed when radar tracking object with high elevation. And two kinds of orbit force be pressed to, their perturbation influence and their earth-core angles are explained. And then the series of emulation results are shown including error data emulated with Monte Carlo method, the influence of the velocity increment from the ejecting force of spring while satellite-rocket separating and their perturbation influence and the length of influence of the data arc. Then decision analysis of Wald method and Bayesian statistics rule and the results from the two rule are introduced. So the suitable orbit determination decision is put forward from the decision method. Finally the result is tested reasonable and feasible via the real data. In the end it is useful to reference to make orbit decision in short injection of circular orbit far from the earth for calculating concurrently precise and timely.
Orbit Determination Support for the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor); Truong, Son H.; Cuevas, Osvaldo O.; Slojkowski, Steven
2003-01-01
NASA's Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Complex 17 aboard a Delta II 7425-10 expendable launch vehicle on June 30, 2001. The spacecraft received a nominal direct insertion by the Delta expendable launch vehicle into a 185-km circular orbit with a 28.7deg inclination. MAP was then maneuvered into a sequence of phasing loops designed to set up a lunar swingby (gravity-assisted acceleration) of the spacecraft onto a transfer trajectory to a lissajous orbit about the Earth-Sun L2 Lagrange point, about 1.5 million km from Earth. Because of its complex orbital characteristics, the mission provided a unique challenge for orbit determination (OD) support in many orbital regimes. This paper summarizes the premission trajectory covariance error analysis, as well as actual OD results. The use and impact of the various tracking stations, systems, and measurements will be also discussed. Important lessons learned from the MAP OD support team will be presented. There will be a discussion of the challenges presented to OD support including the effects of delta-Vs at apogee as well as perigee, and the impact of the spacecraft attitude mode on the OD accuracy and covariance analysis.
Hardware in-the-Loop Demonstration of Real-Time Orbit Determination in High Earth Orbits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moreau, Michael; Naasz, Bo; Leitner, Jesse; Carpenter, J. Russell; Gaylor, Dave
2005-01-01
This paper presents results from a study conducted at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to assess the real-time orbit determination accuracy of GPS-based navigation in a number of different high Earth orbital regimes. Measurements collected from a GPS receiver (connected to a GPS radio frequency (RF) signal simulator) were processed in a navigation filter in real-time, and resulting errors in the estimated states were assessed. For the most challenging orbit simulated, a 12 hour Molniya orbit with an apogee of approximately 39,000 km, mean total position and velocity errors were approximately 7 meters and 3 mm/s respectively. The study also makes direct comparisons between the results from the above hardware in-the-loop tests and results obtained by processing GPS measurements generated from software simulations. Care was taken to use the same models and assumptions in the generation of both the real-time and software simulated measurements, in order that the real-time data could be used to help validate the assumptions and models used in the software simulations. The study makes use of the unique capabilities of the Formation Flying Test Bed at GSFC, which provides a capability to interface with different GPS receivers and to produce real-time, filtered orbit solutions even when less than four satellites are visible. The result is a powerful tool for assessing onboard navigation performance in a wide range of orbital regimes, and a test-bed for developing software and procedures for use in real spacecraft applications.
Orbit determination of satellite "Tance 1" with VLBI data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yong; Hu, Xiao-gong; Huang, Cheng; Jiang, Dong-ro; Zheng, Wei-min; Zhang, Xiu-zhong
The satellite "Tance 1" of the "Double-Star Program" is the first truly scientific experimentation satellite of China. Its orbit is the farthest so far launched in China, with a geocentric apogee reaching 78 thousand kilometers. The tracking of "Tance 1" and of more distant space targets, such as the lunar exploration craft, can be realized with the VLBI technique of radio astronomy. In order to test and verify the role which the VLBI technique plays in the lunar exploration program of China, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory organized the only 3 tracking stations in China (located at Shanghai, Urumqi and Kunming), to carry out test tracking of "Tance 1," and used the time delay data obtained to determine the orbit of "Tance 1" over a two-day period, so providing a preliminary assessment of the possibility of VLBI orbit determination. The fitting error of the orbit so obtained is about 5.5 m in the time delay and about 2 cm/s in the delay rate (this for checking only), much better than is provided by the preliminary orbit (used merely for ensuring tracking) in which the corresponding figures are around 2 km and 15 cm/s. Further, if the orbit is determined by using both the time delay and time delay rate data (with weights according to their internal accuracies), then the residuals are 5.5 m in the time delay and 2 cm/s in the delay rate. For an appreciation of the true accuracy of the VLBI orbit determination, we used simulation data (of the observed two-day VLBI data) and found the results depended greatly on the error in the dynamic model of the satellite which, however, is difficult to assess, while the formal residuals are of the order of 1 kin in the delay and of cm/s in the delay rate. The simulation computation also indicates that a joint determination using both VLBI and USB data will have an improved accuracy.
Impact of Ionosphere on GPS-based Precise Orbit Determination of Low Earth Orbiters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnold, D.; Jaeggi, A.; Beutler, G.; Meyer, U.; Schaer, S.
2015-12-01
Deficiencies in geodetic products derived from the orbital trajectories of Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites determined by GPS-based Precise Orbit Determination (POD) were identified in recent years. The precise orbits of the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) mission are, e.g., severely affected by an increased position noise level over the geomagnetic poles and spurious signatures along the Earth's geomagnetic equator (see Fig. 1, which shows the carrier phase residuals of a reduced-dynamic orbit determination for GOCE in m). Such degradations may directly map into the gravity fields recovered from the orbits. They are related to a disturbed GPS signal propagation through the Earth's ionosphere and indicate that the GPS observation model and/or the data pre-processing need to be improved. While GOCE was the first mission where severe ionosphere-related problems became obvious, the GPS-based LEO POD of satellites of the more recent missions Swarm and Sentinel-1A turn out to be affected, as well. We characterize the stochastic and systematic behavior of the ionosphere by analyzing GPS data collected by the POD antennas of various LEO satellites covering a broad altitude range (e.g., GRACE, GOCE and Swarm) and for periods covering significant parts of an entire solar cycle, which probe substantially different ionosphere conditions. The information may provide the basis for improvements of data pre-processing to cope with the ionosphere-induced problems of LEO POD. The performance of cycle slip detection can, e.g., be degraded by large changes of ionospheric refraction from one measurement epoch to the next. Geographically resolved information on the stochastic properties of the ionosphere above the LEOs provide more realistic threshold values for cycle slip detection algorithms. Removing GPS data showing large ionospheric variations is a crude method to mitigate the ionosphere-induced artifacts in orbit and gravity field products
GPS orbit determination at the National Geodetic Survey
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schenewerk, Mark S.
1992-01-01
The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) independently generates precise ephemerides for all available Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. Beginning in 1991, these ephemerides were produced from double-differenced phase observations solely from the Cooperative International GPS Network (CIGNET) tracking sites. The double-difference technique combines simultaneous observations of two satellites from two ground stations effectively eliminating satellite and ground receiver clock errors, and the Selective Availability (S/A) signal degradation currently in effect. CIGNET is a global GPS tracking network whose primary purpose is to provide data for orbit production. The CIGNET data are collected daily at NGS and are available to the public. Each ephemeris covers a single week and is available within one month after the data were taken. Verification is by baseline repeatability and direct comparison with other ephemerides. Typically, an ephemeris is accurate at a few parts in 10(exp 7). This corresponds to a 10 meter error in the reported satellite positions. NGS is actively investigating methods to improve the accuracy of its orbits, the ultimate goal being one part in 10(exp 8) or better. The ephemerides are generally available to the public through the Coast Guard GPS Information Center or directly from NGS through the Geodetic Information Service. An overview of the techniques and software used in orbit generation will be given, the current status of CIGNET will be described, and a summary of the ephemeris verification results will be presented.
The Role of GRAIL Orbit Determination in Preprocessing of Gravity Science Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kruizinga, Gerhard; Asmar, Sami; Fahnestock, Eugene; Harvey, Nate; Kahan, Daniel; Konopliv, Alex; Oudrhiri, Kamal; Paik, Meegyeong; Park, Ryan; Strekalov, Dmitry; Watkins, Michael; Yuan, Dah-Ning
2013-01-01
The Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission has constructed a lunar gravity field with unprecedented uniform accuracy on the farside and nearside of the Moon. GRAIL lunar gravity field determination begins with preprocessing of the gravity science measurements by applying corrections for time tag error, general relativity, measurement noise and biases. Gravity field determination requires the generation of spacecraft ephemerides of an accuracy not attainable with the pre-GRAIL lunar gravity fields. Therefore, a bootstrapping strategy was developed, iterating between science data preprocessing and lunar gravity field estimation in order to construct sufficiently accurate orbit ephemerides.This paper describes the GRAIL measurements, their dependence on the spacecraft ephemerides and the role of orbit determination in the bootstrapping strategy. Simulation results will be presented that validate the bootstrapping strategy followed by bootstrapping results for flight data, which have led to the latest GRAIL lunar gravity fields.
Precise satellite orbit determination with particular application to ERS-1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandes, Maria Joana Afonso Pereira
The motivation behind this study is twofold. First to assess the accuracy of ERS-1 long arc ephemerides using state of the art models. Second, to develop improved methods for determining precise ERS-1 orbits using either short or long arc techniques. The SATAN programs, for the computation of satellite orbits using laser data were used. Several facilities were added to the original programs: the processing of PRARE range and altimeter data, and a number of algorithms that allow more flexible solutions by adjusting a number of additional parameters. The first part of this study, before the launch of ERS-1, was done with SEAS AT data. The accuracy of SEASAT orbits computed with PRARE simulated data has been determined. The effect of temporal distribution of tracking data along the arc and the extent to which altimetry can replace range data have been investigated. The second part starts with the computation of ERS-1 long arc solutions using laser data. Some aspects of modelling the two main forces affecting ERS-l's orbit are investigated. With regard to the gravitational forces, the adjustment of a set of geopotential coefficients has been considered. With respect to atmospheric drag, extensive research has been carried out on determining the influence on orbit accuracy of the measurements of solar fluxes (P10.7 indices) and geomagnetic activity (Kp indices) used by the atmospheric model in the computation of atmospheric density at satellite height. Two new short arc methods have been developed: the Constrained and the Bayesian method. Both methods are dynamic and consist of solving for the 6 osculating elements. Using different techniques, both methods overcome the problem of normal matrix ill- conditioning by constraining the solution. The accuracy and applicability of these methods are discussed and compared with the traditional non-dynamic TAR method.
Short arc orbit determination for altimeter calibration and validation on TOPEX/POSEIDON
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, B. G.; Christensen, E. J.; Yuan, D. N.; Mccoll, K. C.; Sunseri, R. F.
1993-01-01
TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) is a joint mission of United States' National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) design launched August 10, 1992. It carries two radar altimeters which alternately share a common antenna. There are two project designated verification sites, a NASA site off the coast at Pt. Conception, CA and a CNES site near Lampedusa Island in the Mediterranean Sea. Altimeter calibration and validation for T/P is performed over these highly instrumented sites by comparing the spacecraft's altimeter radar range to computed range based on in situ measurements which include the estimated orbit position. This paper presents selected results of orbit determination over each of these sites to support altimeter verification. A short arc orbit determination technique is used to estimate a locally accurate position determination of T/P from less than one revolution of satellite laser ranging (SLR) data. This technique is relatively insensitive to gravitational and non-gravitational force modeling errors and is demonstrated by covariance analysis and by comparison to orbits determined from longer arcs of data and other tracking data types, such as Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) and Global Positioning System Demonstration Receiver (GPSDR) data.
A reduced-dynamic technique for precise orbit determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, S. C.; Yunck, T. P.; Thornton, C. L.
1990-01-01
Observations of the Global Positioning System (GPS) will enable a reduced-dynamic technique for achieving subdecimeter orbit determination of earth-orbiting satellites. With this technique, information on the transition between satellite states at different observing times is furnished by both a formal dynamic model and observed satellite positional change (which is inferred kinematically from continuous GPS carrier-phase data). The relative weighting of dynamic and kinematic information can be freely varied. Covariance studies show that in situations where observing geometry is poor and the dynamic model is good, the model dominates determination of the state transition; where the dynamic model is poor and the geometry strong, carrier phase governs the determination of the transition. When neither kinematic nor dynamic information is clearly superior, the reduced-dynamic combination of the two can substantially improve the orbit-determination solution. Guidelines are given here for selecting a near-optimal weighting for the reduced-dynamic solution, and sensitivity of solution accuracy to this weighting is examined.
U Geminorum: a Test Case for Orbital Parameters Determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Echevarría, Juan; de La Fuente, Eduardo; Costero, Rafael
2007-08-01
Due to its eclipsing nature and thorough observational studies, U Gem, in general, a good candidate for the analysis of standard and new methods in the determination of the orbital parameters in cataclysmic variables. Although in this interactive binary, these parameters are relatively well known, there are still discrepancies in the radial velocity semi-amplitude of the white dwarf, as obtained from the optical or the Ultraviolet data. Furthermore, the secondary star is not visible in the optical; consequently, its corresponding semi-amplitude has been derived from data obtained in the infrared region. For these reasons U Gem is an interesting case for testing new methods to derive orbital parameters based on optical observations only. High resolution spectroscopy of U Gem, covering the spectral region λ 5200-9100 Å, was obtained. The system was observed during quiescence, about 35 days after the onset of an outburst. We did not find a hot spot or gas stream around the outer boundaries of the accretion disk. Instead, we detected a strong narrow emission at the location of the secondary star. We measured the radial velocity curve from the wings of the double-peaked Hα emission line, and obtained a semi-amplitude value in excellent agreement with the ultraviolet results by Long & Gilliland (1999). We present also a new method to obtain K[2], based on the detection of the TiO band around λ 7050 Å. Our results are compared with published values derived from the near-infrared NaI line doublet. From a comparison of the TiO band with those of late type M stars, we find that a best fit is obtained for a M6 V star, contributing 5 percent of the total light at that spectral region. Assuming that the radial velocity semi-amplitudes reflect accurately the motion of the binary components, then from our results: K[em] = 108 km s-1 and K[abs] = 310 km s-1. For a revised inclination angle of i = 70o (Zhang et al. 1987) the system parameters become; M[wd] = 1.20 ± 0.05 M
Improved DORIS accuracy for precise orbit determination and geodesy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Willis, Pascal; Jayles, Christian; Tavernier, Gilles
2004-01-01
In 2001 and 2002, 3 more DORIS satellites were launched. Since then, all DORIS results have been significantly improved. For precise orbit determination, 20 cm are now available in real-time with DIODE and 1.5 to 2 cm in post-processing. For geodesy, 1 cm precision can now be achieved regularly every week, making now DORIS an active part of a Global Observing System for Geodesy through the IDS.
Determination of orbital drag perturbations caused by atmospheric effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sehnal, L.
Atmospheric perturbations of the elements of the artificial satellites orbits are determined using a special model of distribution and variations of the total density of the upper atmosphere between 200-500 km. The model includes diurnal and semi-annual density variations, variations with solar activity and geomagnetic index and latitudinal changes. The height profile is expressed by multiple exponential functions. The equations of motion are solved analytically.
Earth Observing System (EOS) real-time onboard orbit determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Folta, David C.; Muller, Ron
1993-01-01
The paper describes the TDRSS Onboard Navigation System (TONS) selected by NASA/GSFC for the EOS-AM1 spacecraft as the baseline navigation system for real-time onboard orbit determination. Particular attention is given to the TONS algorithms and environmental models, the general design considerations, the algorithm implementation, and the required hardware. Results are presented of the covariance analysis for the nominal onboard and instrument requirements.
Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission (GRAIL) Orbit Determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
You, Tung-Han; Antreasian, Peter; Broschart, Stephen; Criddle, Kevin; Higa, Earl; Jefferson, David; Lau, Eunice; Mohan, Swati; Ryne, Mark; Keck, Mason
2012-01-01
Launched on 10 September 2011 from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, the twin-spacecraft Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) has the primary mission objective of generating a lunar gravity map with an unprecedented resolution via the Ka-band Lunar Gravity Ranging System (LGRS). After successfully executing nearly 30 maneuvers on their six-month journey, Ebb and Flow (aka GRAIL-A and GRAIL-B) established the most stringent planetary formation orbit on 1 March 2012 of approximately 30 km x 90 km in orbit size. This paper describes the orbit determination (OD) filter configurations, analyses, and results during the Trans-Lunar Cruise, Orbit Period Reduction, and Transition to Science Formation phases. The maneuver reconstruction strategies and their performance will also be discussed, as well as the navigation requirements, major dynamic models, and navigation challenges. GRAIL is the first mission to generate a full high-resolution gravity field of the only natural satellite of the Earth. It not only enables scientists to understand the detailed structure of the Moon but also further extends their knowledge of the evolutionary histories of the rocky inner planets. Robust and successful navigation was the key to making this a reality.
Galileo satellites measurement biases and orbit determination : preliminary results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perosanz, Felix; Loyer, Sylvain; Mercier, Flavien; Boulanger, Cyrille; Capdeville, Hugues; Mezerette, Adrien
2013-04-01
Thanks to the IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (M-GEX), signals from new GNSS satellites like Galileo are now available. CNES and IGN joined their efforts to contribute to the densification of this multi-GNSS global network through the REGINA project. However this network includes geodetic receivers from several manufacturers. For this reason we realized a dedicated test campaign to characterize the different receivers available in order to be able to process in a consistent way the data from the MGEX network. The test consisted in zero baseline measurements between receivers. Pseudo range as well as phase and wide-lane biases have been identified between Trimble, Leica, Javad and Septentrio receivers. Then the data from the global M-GEX tracking network have been processed for the Precise Orbit determination (POD) of the Galileo satellite. The strategy followed the one that the CNES-CLS IGS Analysis Center uses to compute hybrid GPS-GLONASS products. Since July 2012, Galileo data are processed and orbit solutions are routinely produced and evaluated. Pseudo-range and phase biases between receiver as well as inter-system biases have been quantified. We also demonstrated that a sub-decimeter 3D-WRMS orbit accuracy of Galileo satellite orbit can be achieved even during the constellation deployment.
Galileo satellites measurement biases and orbit determination: first results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perosanz, F.; Loyer, S.; Mercier, F.; Boulanger, C.; Capdeville, H.; Mezerette, A.
2012-12-01
Thanks to the IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (M-GEX), signals from new GNSS satellites like Galileo are now available. CNES and IGN joined their efforts to contribute to the densification of this multi-GNSS global network through the REGINA project. However this network includes geodetic receivers from several manufacturers. For this reason we realized a dedicated test campaign to characterize the different receivers available in order to be able to process in a consistent way the data from the MGEX network. The test consisted in zero baseline measurements between receivers. Pseudo range as well as phase and wide-lane biases have been identified between Trimble, Leica, Javad and Septentrio receivers. Then the data from the global M-GEX tracking network have been processed for the Precise Orbit determination of the Galileo satellite. The strategy followed the one that the CNES-CLS IGS Analysis Center uses to compute hybrid GPS-GLONASS products. Since July 2012, Galileo data are processed and orbit solutions are routinely produced and evaluated. Pseudo-range and phase biases between receiver as well as inter-system biases have been quantified. We also demonstrated that a decimeter 3D-WRMS orbit accuracy of Galileo satellite orbit can be achieved even during the constellation deployment.
Orbit determination with the tracking data relay satellite system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Argentiero, P.; Loveless, F.
1977-01-01
The possibility of employing the tracking data relay satellite system to satisfy the orbit determination demands of future applications missions is investigated. It is shown that when the relay satellites are continuously and independently tracked from ground stations it is possible, using six hour data arcs, to recover user satellite state with an average error of about 25 m radially, 260 m along track, and 20 m cross track. For this arc length, range sum data and range sum rate data are equally useful in determining orbits. For shorter arc lengths (20 min), range sum rate data is more useful than range sum data. When relay satellites are not continuously tracked, user satellite state can be recovered with an average error of about 140 m radially, 515 m along track, and 110 m cross track. These results indicate that the TDRS system can be employed to satisfy the orbit determination demands of applications missions, such as the MAGSAT and potential gradiometer missions, provided the relay satellites are continuously and independently tracked.
JASON-1 Precise Orbit Determination (POD)with SLR and DORIS Tracking
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zelensky, N. P.; Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Beckley, B. D.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Wang, Y. M.; Chinn, D. S.; Williams, T. A.
2002-01-01
Jason-1, the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) radar altimeter follow-on, is intended to continue measurement of the ocean surface with the same, if not better accuracy. T/P has demonstrated that, the time variation of ocean topography can be determined with an accuracy of a few centimeters, thanks to the availability of highly accurate orbits based on SLR and DORIS tracking. For verification and cross-calibration, Jason-1, was initially injected into the T/P orbit, flying just 72 seconds ahead of T/P. This configuration lasted over 21 Jason cycles. In mid-August T/P was maneuvered into its final tandem configuration, a parallel groundtrack, in order to improve the combined coverage. Preliminary investigations using cycles 1-9, shown at the June 2002 SWT, indicated that nominal Jason orbits can achieve the 2-3 cm accuracy objective, however several puzzling aspects of SLR and DORIS measurement modeling were also observed. This paper presents recent analysis of Jason SLR+DORIS POD spanning more than 20 cycles, and revisits several of the more puzzling issues, including estimation of the Laser Retroreflector Array (LRA) offset. The accuracy of the orbits and of the measurement modeling are evaluated using several tests, including SLR, DORIS, and altimeter crossover residual analysis, altimeter collinear analysis, and direct comparison with GPS and other orbits. T/P POD results over the same period are used as a reference.
Atmospheric drag model for Cassini orbit determination during low altitude Titan flybys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pelletier, F. J.; Antreasian, P. G.; Bordi, J. J.; Criddle, K. E.; Ionasescu, R.; Jacobson, R. A.; Mackenzie, R. A.; Parcher, D. W.; Stauch, J. R.
2006-01-01
On April 16, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft performed its lowest altitude flyby of Titan to date, the Titan-5 flyby, flying 1027 km above the surface of Titan. This document discusses the development of a Titan atmospheric drag model for the purpose of the orbit determination of Cassini. Results will be presented for the Titan A flyby, the Titan-5 flyby as well as the most recent low altitude Titan flyby, Titan-7. Different solutions will be compared against OD performance in terms of the flyby B-plane parameters, spacecraft thrusting activity and drag estimates. These low altitude Titan flybys were an excellent opportunity to observe the effect of Titan's atmospheric drag on the orbit determination solution and results show that the drag was successfully modeled to provide accurate flyby solutions.
CODE's new solar radiation pressure model for GNSS orbit determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnold, D.; Meindl, M.; Beutler, G.; Dach, R.; Schaer, S.; Lutz, S.; Prange, L.; Sośnica, K.; Mervart, L.; Jäggi, A.
2015-08-01
The Empirical CODE Orbit Model (ECOM) of the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE), which was developed in the early 1990s, is widely used in the International GNSS Service (IGS) community. For a rather long time, spurious spectral lines are known to exist in geophysical parameters, in particular in the Earth Rotation Parameters (ERPs) and in the estimated geocenter coordinates, which could recently be attributed to the ECOM. These effects grew creepingly with the increasing influence of the GLONASS system in recent years in the CODE analysis, which is based on a rigorous combination of GPS and GLONASS since May 2003. In a first step we show that the problems associated with the ECOM are to the largest extent caused by the GLONASS, which was reaching full deployment by the end of 2011. GPS-only, GLONASS-only, and combined GPS/GLONASS solutions using the observations in the years 2009-2011 of a global network of 92 combined GPS/GLONASS receivers were analyzed for this purpose. In a second step we review direct solar radiation pressure (SRP) models for GNSS satellites. We demonstrate that only even-order short-period harmonic perturbations acting along the direction Sun-satellite occur for GPS and GLONASS satellites, and only odd-order perturbations acting along the direction perpendicular to both, the vector Sun-satellite and the spacecraft's solar panel axis. Based on this insight we assess in the third step the performance of four candidate orbit models for the future ECOM. The geocenter coordinates, the ERP differences w. r. t. the IERS 08 C04 series of ERPs, the misclosures for the midnight epochs of the daily orbital arcs, and scale parameters of Helmert transformations for station coordinates serve as quality criteria. The old and updated ECOM are validated in addition with satellite laser ranging (SLR) observations and by comparing the orbits to those of the IGS and other analysis centers. Based on all tests, we present a new extended ECOM which
Position determination systems. [using orbital antenna scan of celestial bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shores, P. W. (Inventor)
1976-01-01
A system for an orbital antenna, operated at a synchronous altitude, to scan an area of a celestial body is disclosed. The antenna means comprises modules which are operated by a steering signal in a repetitive function for providing a scanning beam over the area. The scanning covers the entire area in a pattern and the azimuth of the scanning beam is transmitted to a control station on the celestial body simultaneous with signals from an activated ground beacon on the celestial body. The azimuth of the control station relative to the antenna is known and the location of the ground beacon is readily determined from the azimuth determinations.
(42355) Typhon Echidna: Scheduling observations for binary orbit determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grundy, W. M.; Noll, K. S.; Virtanen, J.; Muinonen, K.; Kern, S. D.; Stephens, D. C.; Stansberry, J. A.; Levison, H. F.; Spencer, J. R.
2008-09-01
We describe a strategy for scheduling astrometric observations to minimize the number required to determine the mutual orbits of binary transneptunian systems. The method is illustrated by application to Hubble Space Telescope observations of (42355) Typhon-Echidna, revealing that Typhon and Echidna orbit one another with a period of 18.971±0.006 days and a semimajor axis of 1628±29 km, implying a system mass of (9.49±0.52)×10 kg. The eccentricity of the orbit is 0.526±0.015. Combined with a radiometric size determined from Spitzer Space Telescope data and the assumption that Typhon and Echidna both have the same albedo, we estimate that their radii are 76-16+14 and 42-9+8 km, respectively. These numbers give an average bulk density of only 0.44-0.17+0.44 gcm, consistent with very low bulk densities recently reported for two other small transneptunian binaries.
Astrometric positioning and orbit determination of geostationary satellites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montojo, F. J.; López Moratalla, T.; Abad, C.
2011-03-01
In the project titled “Astrometric Positioning of Geostationary Satellite” (PASAGE), carried out by the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada (ROA), optical observation techniques were developed to allow satellites to be located in the geostationary ring with angular accuracies of up to a few tenths of an arcsec. These techniques do not necessarily require the use of large telescopes or especially dark areas, and furthermore, because optical observation is a passive method, they could be directly applicable to the detection and monitoring of passive objects such as space debris in the geostationary ring.By using single-station angular observations, geostationary satellite orbits with positional uncertainties below 350 m (2 sigma) were reconstructed using the Orbit Determination Tool Kit software, by Analytical Graphics, Inc. This software is used in collaboration with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial.Orbit determination can be improved by taking into consideration the data from other stations, such as angular observations alone or together with ranging measurements to the satellite. Tests were carried out combining angular observations with the ranging measurements obtained from the Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer technique that is used by ROA’s Time Section to carry out time transfer with other laboratories. Results show a reduction of the 2 sigma uncertainty to less than 100 m.
Orbit determination for the final stages of the GOCE mission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Visser, Pieter N. A. M.; Van Den IJssel, Jose
The European Space Agency (ESA) Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) re-entered the Earth's atmosphere on 11 November 2013, ending more than four years of successful mission operations. On 21 October 2013, the GOCE ion engines stopped functioning thereby ending its Drag-Free orbital motion. From then on, the satellite started decaying at increasing speeds and the atmospheric drag was growing exponentially towards its demise. Data from the GOCE Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver and accelerometers were collected down to an altitude of 137 km. The accelerometers started to get saturated on 7 November 2011 at an altitude of around 190 km, but kept on partially working until the altitude of 137 km as well. The data set of GPS and accelerometer observations for the last weeks of GOCE form a unique data set for testing GPS-based orbit determination in a high drag environment. Moreover, GPS-based estimates of the predominantly atmospheric drag induced non-gravitational accelerations can be validated against the accelerometer observations for this environment as well. This presentation will highlight precise orbit determination results and comparisons between accelerometer observations and GPS-based estimates of non-gravitational accelerations for the final stages of the GOCE mission.
Modeling radiation forces acting on satellites for precision orbit determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marshall, J. A.; Antreasian, P. G.; Rosborough, G. W.; Putney, B. H.
1992-01-01
Models of the TOPEX/Poseidon spacecraft are developed by means of finite-element analyses for use in generating acceleration histories for various orbit orientations which account for nonconservative radiation forces. The acceleration profiles are developed with an analysis based on the use of the 'box-wing' model in which the satellite is modeled as a combination of flat plates. The models account for the effects of solar, earth-albedo, earth-IR, and spacecraft-thermal radiation. The finite-element analysis gives the total force and induced accelerations acting on the satellite. The plate types used in the analysis have parameters that can be adjusted to optimize model performance according to the micromodel analysis and tracking observations. Acceleration related to solar radiation pressure is modeled effectively, and the techniques are shown to be useful for the precise orbit determinations required for spacecraft such as the TOPEX/Poseidon.
ANODE: An analytic orbit determination system, volume 1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sridharan, R.; Seniw, W. P.
1980-06-01
The computer system at the Millstone Hill radar was upgraded in August, 1977, with the acquisition of a Harris 7/220 system. The new computer is a virtual memory multitasking system capable of supporting up to 768 K bytes of user program simultaneously. A software system design was made for the radar system with the new computer. One of the components of the system is an on-line real time analytic orbit determination program. The purpose of the program is threefold: (1) it is intended to act as a real-time monitor on the tracking performance of the radar; (2) it is designed to function as a rapid orbit estimator available interactively to analyst.
Asteroid Orbit Determination and Rotational Period Calculations with CCD Astronomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burtz, Daniel C.
1998-10-01
This paper presents data collected and analyzed relating to photometry and astrometry of asteroids. All observations were accomplished at the U.S. Air Force Academy Observatory. The photometry involves determining the rotational period of asteroid 583 Klotilde. Astrometry was performed on asteroid 1035 Amata and the calculated position was used to determine its orbital elements. Klotilde was selected for rotational period determination based on its relatively low magnitude, favorable viewing position, and no previous rotational period information. Two hundred six images of Klotilde were taken and analyzed over four viewing nights. A Photometrics (PM512) Charge Couple Device (CCD) camera attached to a 61-cm Cassegrain telescope was used for these observations. Using NOAO' s IRAF software, the magnitudes of Klotilde and several comparison stars were determined. Using an Excel spreadsheet, differential photometry was performed and the light curve was plotted. The four nights of data gave a 9.210 +/- 0.005 hour synodic period with an amplitude of 0.18 magnitudes. Thirty-two images of Amata were taken on six different viewing nights. The images were taken with an ST-8 CCD attached to a 41-cm Cassegrain telescope. The data was reduced with the Astrometrica software package, which calculated the right ascension (RA), declination (Dec), and magnitude of Amata using several comparison stars. The computed RA and Dec, along with the times of observation were then used to determine the orbital elements of the asteroid.
Accurate determination of the vapor pressure of potassium using optical absorption
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shirinzadeh, B.; Wang, C. C.
1983-01-01
The vapor pressure of potassium has been measured in absorption using a CW tunable laser and calibrated against the accurate radiative lifetime of the 4s-4p doublet of potassium. An accurate value of 20,850 + or - 30 cal/mol for the heat of vaporization (from the liquid phase) at the melting point was determined.
HOW TO DETERMINE AN EXOMOON'S SENSE OF ORBITAL MOTION
Heller, René; Albrecht, Simon E-mail: albrecht@phys.au.dk
2014-11-20
We present two methods to determine an exomoon's sense of orbital motion (SOM), one with respect to the planet's circumstellar orbit and one with respect to the planetary rotation. Our simulations show that the required measurements will be possible with the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). The first method relies on mutual planet-moon events during stellar transits. Eclipses with the moon passing behind (in front of) the planet will be late (early) with regard to the moon's mean orbital period due to the finite speed of light. This ''transit timing dichotomy'' (TTD) determines an exomoon's SOM with respect to the circumstellar motion. For the 10 largest moons in the solar system, TTDs range between 2 and 12 s. The E-ELT will enable such measurements for Earth-sized moons around nearby Sun-like stars. The second method measures distortions in the IR spectrum of the rotating giant planet when it is transited by its moon. This Rossiter-McLaughlin effect (RME) in the planetary spectrum reveals the angle between the planetary equator and the moon's circumplanetary orbital plane, and therefore unveils the moon's SOM with respect to the planet's rotation. A reasonably large moon transiting a directly imaged planet like β Pic b causes an RME amplitude of almost 100 m s{sup –1}, about twice the stellar RME amplitude of the transiting exoplanet HD209458 b. Both new methods can be used to probe the origin of exomoons, that is, whether they are regular or irregular in nature.
Precision GPS orbit determination strategies for an earth orbiter and geodetic tracking system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lichten, Stephen M.; Bertiger, Willy I.; Border, James S.
1988-01-01
Data from two 1985 GPS field tests were processed and precise GPS orbits were determined. With a combined carrier phase and pseudorange, the 1314-km repeatability improves substantially to 5 parts in 10 to the 9th (0.6 cm) in the north and 2 parts in 10 to the 8th (2-3 cm) in the other components. To achieve these levels of repeatability and accuracy, it is necessary to fine-tune the GPS solar radiation coefficients and ground station zenith tropospheric delays.
Improving GLONASS Precise Orbit Determination through Data Connection
Liu, Yang; Ge, Maorong; Shi, Chuang; Lou, Yidong; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald
2015-01-01
In order to improve the precision of GLONASS orbits, this paper presents a method to connect the data segments of a single station-satellite pair to increase the observation continuity and, consequently, the strength of the precise orbit determination (POD) solution. In this method, for each GLONASS station-satellite pair, the wide-lane ambiguities derived from the Melbourne–Wübbena combination are statistically tested and corrected for phase integer offsets and then the same is carried out for the narrow-lane ambiguities calculated from the POD solution. An experimental validation was carried out using one-month GNSS data of a global network with 175 IGS stations. The result shows that, on average, 27.1% of the GLONASS station-satellite pairs with multiple data segments could be connected to a single long observation arc and, thus, only one ambiguity parameter was estimated. Using the connected data, the GLONASS orbit overlapping RMS at the day boundaries could be reduced by 19.2% in ideal cases with an averaged reduction of about 6.3%. PMID:26633414
Orbit determination covariance analysis for the Deep Space Program Science Experiment mission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beckman, M.; Yee, C.; Lee, T.; Hoppe, M.; Oza, D.
1993-01-01
To define an appropriate orbit support procedure for the DSPSE mission, detailed permission orbit determination covariance analyses have been performed for the translunar and trans-Geographos mission phases. Preliminary analyses were also performed for the lunar mapping mission phase. These analyses are designed to assess the tracking patterns and the amount of tracking data needed to obtain orbit solutions of required accuracy for each mission phase and before and after each major orbit perturbation, such as orbit maneuvers and flybys of the Earth and Moon. In addition to operational orbit determination procedures, these analyses identify major error sources, estimate their contribution to orbital errors, and address possible strategies to reduce orbit determination error. For the lunar orbit phase, several lunar gravity error modeling approaches have been investigated. The covariance analysis results presented in this paper will serve as a guide for providing orbit determination support for the DSPSE mission.
Real-time Sub-cm Differential Orbit Determination of two Low-Earth Orbiters with GPS Bias Fixing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Sien-Chong; Bar-Sever, Yoaz E.
2006-01-01
An effective technique for real-time differential orbit determination with GPS bias fixing is formulated. With this technique, only real-time GPS orbits and clocks are needed (available from the NASA Global Differential GPS System with 10-20 cm accuracy). The onboard, realtime orbital states of user satellites (few meters in accuracy) are used for orbit initialization and integration. An extended Kalman filter is constructed for the estimation of the differential orbit between the two satellites as well as a reference orbit, together with their associating dynamics parameters. Due to close proximity of the two satellites and of similar body shapes, the differential dynamics are highly common and can be tightly constrained which, in turn, strengthens the orbit estimation. Without explicit differencing of GPS data, double-differenced phase biases are formed by a transformation matrix. Integer-valued fixing of these biases are then performed which greatly strengthens the orbit estimation. A 9-day demonstration between GRACE orbits with baselines of approx.200 km indicates that approx.80% of the double-differenced phase biases can successfully be fixed and the differential orbit can be determined to approx.7 mm as compared to the results of onboard K-band ranging.
Innovative observing strategy and orbit determination for Low Earth Orbit space debris
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milani, A.; Farnocchia, D.; Dimare, L.; Rossi, A.; Bernardi, F.
2012-03-01
We present the results of a large scale simulation, reproducing the behavior of a data center for the build-up and maintenance of a complete catalog of space debris in the upper part of the Low Earth Orbits (LEOs) region. The purpose is to determine the performances of a network of advanced optical sensors, through the use of the newest correlation and orbit determination algorithms. This network is foreseen for implementation in a Space Situational Awareness system, such as the future European one. The conclusion is that it is possible to use a network of optical sensors to build up a catalog containing more than 98% of the objects with perigee height between 1100 and 2000 km, which would be observable by a reference radar system selected as comparison. It is also possible to maintain such a catalog within the accuracy requirements motivated by collision avoidance, and to detect catastrophic fragmentation events. The obtained results depend upon specific assumptions on the sensor and on the software technologies.
Benefits Derived From Laser Ranging Measurements for Orbit Determination of the GPS Satellite Orbit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Welch, Bryan W.
2007-01-01
While navigation systems for the determination of the orbit of the Global Position System (GPS) have proven to be very effective, the current research is examining methods to lower the error in the GPS satellite ephemerides below their current level. Two GPS satellites that are currently in orbit carry retro-reflectors onboard. One notion to reduce the error in the satellite ephemerides is to utilize the retro-reflectors via laser ranging measurements taken from multiple Earth ground stations. Analysis has been performed to determine the level of reduction in the semi-major axis covariance of the GPS satellites, when laser ranging measurements are supplemented to the radiometric station keeping, which the satellites undergo. Six ground tracking systems are studied to estimate the performance of the satellite. The first system is the baseline current system approach which provides pseudo-range and integrated Doppler measurements from six ground stations. The remaining five ground tracking systems utilize all measurements from the current system and laser ranging measurements from the additional ground stations utilized within those systems. Station locations for the additional ground sites were taken from a listing of laser ranging ground stations from the International Laser Ranging Service. Results show reductions in state covariance estimates when utilizing laser ranging measurements to solve for the satellite s position component of the state vector. Results also show dependency on the number of ground stations providing laser ranging measurements, orientation of the satellite to the ground stations, and the initial covariance of the satellite's state vector.
Genetic Algorithm for Initial Orbit Determination with Too Short Arc
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, X. R.; Wang, X.
2016-01-01
The sky surveys of space objects have obtained a huge quantity of too-short-arc (TSA) observation data. However, the classical method of initial orbit determination (IOD) can hardly get reasonable results for the TSAs. The IOD is reduced to a two-stage hierarchical optimization problem containing three variables for each stage. Using the genetic algorithm, a new method of the IOD for TSAs is established, through the selection of optimizing variables as well as the corresponding genetic operator for specific problems. Numerical experiments based on the real measurements show that the method can provide valid initial values for the follow-up work.
Representation of Probability Density Functions from Orbit Determination using the Particle Filter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mashiku, Alinda K.; Garrison, James; Carpenter, J. Russell
2012-01-01
Statistical orbit determination enables us to obtain estimates of the state and the statistical information of its region of uncertainty. In order to obtain an accurate representation of the probability density function (PDF) that incorporates higher order statistical information, we propose the use of nonlinear estimation methods such as the Particle Filter. The Particle Filter (PF) is capable of providing a PDF representation of the state estimates whose accuracy is dependent on the number of particles or samples used. For this method to be applicable to real case scenarios, we need a way of accurately representing the PDF in a compressed manner with little information loss. Hence we propose using the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) as a non-Gaussian dimensional reduction method that is capable of maintaining higher order statistical information obtained using the PF. Methods such as the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) are based on utilizing up to second order statistics, hence will not suffice in maintaining maximum information content. Both the PCA and the ICA are applied to two scenarios that involve a highly eccentric orbit with a lower apriori uncertainty covariance and a less eccentric orbit with a higher a priori uncertainty covariance, to illustrate the capability of the ICA in relation to the PCA.
A new method for satellite orbit determination using an operational worldwide transponder network
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lynn, J. J.; Schmid, P. E.; Anderson, R. E.
1974-01-01
The method utilizes computer programs developed for the forthcoming ATS-F/NIMBUS-F tracking and data relay experiment where the basic tracking measurements are multiple path round-trip propagation times and rates. This method of orbit computation has recently been successfully evaluated by tracking a geostationary satellite (ATS-3) using an existing VHF (150 MHz) network of automatic transponders. A master station sequentially interrogates each transponder via the ATS-3. The master site is located at Schenectady, N. Y. and four automatic transponders were located at Shannon, Reykajavik, Buenos Aires, and Seattle respectively. Data at hourly intervals were collected during a 24 hour period on April 18-19, 1973. After correcting this data for known systematic errors it was provided as input to an orbit determination program where all satellite motions during signal propagation are rigorously accounted for. The resulting estimated ATS-3 orbit yielded observational residuals on the order of 100 meters. By using more than one satellite the present scheme is further capable of accurately locating several stationary or mobile terminals as part of the overall orbital solution.
A Novel Method for Precise Onboard Real-Time Orbit Determination with a Standalone GPS Receiver
Wang, Fuhong; Gong, Xuewen; Sang, Jizhang; Zhang, Xiaohong
2015-01-01
Satellite remote sensing systems require accurate, autonomous and real-time orbit determinations (RTOD) for geo-referencing. Onboard Global Positioning System (GPS) has widely been used to undertake such tasks. In this paper, a novel RTOD method achieving decimeter precision using GPS carrier phases, required by China’s HY2A and ZY3 missions, is presented. A key to the algorithm success is the introduction of a new parameter, termed pseudo-ambiguity. This parameter combines the phase ambiguity, the orbit, and clock offset errors of the GPS broadcast ephemeris together to absorb a large part of the combined error. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of the orbit and clock offset errors, the pseudo-ambiguity can be modeled as a random walk, and estimated in an extended Kalman filter. Experiments of processing real data from HY2A and ZY3, simulating onboard operational scenarios of these two missions, are performed using the developed software SATODS. Results have demonstrated that the position and velocity accuracy (3D RMS) of 0.2–0.4 m and 0.2–0.4 mm/s, respectively, are achieved using dual-frequency carrier phases for HY2A, and slightly worse results for ZY3. These results show it is feasible to obtain orbit accuracy at decimeter level of 3–5 dm for position and 0.3–0.5 mm/s for velocity with this RTOD method. PMID:26690149
A Novel Method for Precise Onboard Real-Time Orbit Determination with a Standalone GPS Receiver.
Wang, Fuhong; Gong, Xuewen; Sang, Jizhang; Zhang, Xiaohong
2015-01-01
Satellite remote sensing systems require accurate, autonomous and real-time orbit determinations (RTOD) for geo-referencing. Onboard Global Positioning System (GPS) has widely been used to undertake such tasks. In this paper, a novel RTOD method achieving decimeter precision using GPS carrier phases, required by China's HY2A and ZY3 missions, is presented. A key to the algorithm success is the introduction of a new parameter, termed pseudo-ambiguity. This parameter combines the phase ambiguity, the orbit, and clock offset errors of the GPS broadcast ephemeris together to absorb a large part of the combined error. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of the orbit and clock offset errors, the pseudo-ambiguity can be modeled as a random walk, and estimated in an extended Kalman filter. Experiments of processing real data from HY2A and ZY3, simulating onboard operational scenarios of these two missions, are performed using the developed software SATODS. Results have demonstrated that the position and velocity accuracy (3D RMS) of 0.2-0.4 m and 0.2-0.4 mm/s, respectively, are achieved using dual-frequency carrier phases for HY2A, and slightly worse results for ZY3. These results show it is feasible to obtain orbit accuracy at decimeter level of 3-5 dm for position and 0.3-0.5 mm/s for velocity with this RTOD method. PMID:26690149
Improved Space Object Orbit Determination Using CMOS Detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schildknecht, T.; Peltonen, J.; Sännti, T.; Silha, J.; Flohrer, T.
2014-09-01
CMOS-sensors, or in general Active Pixel Sensors (APS), are rapidly replacing CCDs in the consumer camera market. Due to significant technological advances during the past years these devices start to compete with CCDs also for demanding scientific imaging applications, in particular in the astronomy community. CMOS detectors offer a series of inherent advantages compared to CCDs, due to the structure of their basic pixel cells, which each contains their own amplifier and readout electronics. The most prominent advantages for space object observations are the extremely fast and flexible readout capabilities, feasibility for electronic shuttering and precise epoch registration, and the potential to perform image processing operations on-chip and in real-time. The major challenges and design drivers for ground-based and space-based optical observation strategies have been analyzed. CMOS detector characteristics were critically evaluated and compared with the established CCD technology, especially with respect to the above mentioned observations. Similarly, the desirable on-chip processing functionalities which would further enhance the object detection and image segmentation were identified. Finally, we simulated several observation scenarios for ground- and space-based sensor by assuming different observation and sensor properties. We will introduce the analyzed end-to-end simulations of the ground- and space-based strategies in order to investigate the orbit determination accuracy and its sensitivity which may result from different values for the frame-rate, pixel scale, astrometric and epoch registration accuracies. Two cases were simulated, a survey using a ground-based sensor to observe objects in LEO for surveillance applications, and a statistical survey with a space-based sensor orbiting in LEO observing small-size debris in LEO. The ground-based LEO survey uses a dynamical fence close to the Earth shadow a few hours after sunset. For the space-based scenario
Precise Orbit Determination of the GOCE Re-Entry Phase
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gini, Francesco; Otten, Michiel; Springer, Tim; Enderle, Werner; Lemmens, Stijn; Flohrer, Tim
2015-03-01
During the last days of the GOCE mission, after the GOCE spacecraft ran out of fuel, it slowly decayed before finally re-entering the atmosphere on the 11th November 2013. As an integrated part of the AOCS, GOCE carried a GPS receiver that was in operations during the re-entry phase. This feature provided a unique opportunity for Precise Orbit Determination (POD) analysis. As part of the activities carried out by the Navigation Support Office (HSO-GN) at ESOC, precise ephemerides of the GOCE satellite have been reconstructed for the entire re-entry phase based on the available GPS observations of the onboard LAGRANGE receiver. All the data available from the moment the thruster was switched off on the 21st of October 2013 to the last available telemetry downlink on the 10th November 2013 have been processed, for a total of 21 daily arcs. For this period a dedicated processing sequence has been defined and implemented within the ESA/ESOC NAvigation Package for Earth Observation Satellites (NAPEOS) software. The computed results show a post-fit RMS of the GPS undifferenced carrier phase residuals (ionospheric-free linear combination) between 6 and 14 mm for the first 16 days which then progressively increases up to about 80 mm for the last available days. An orbit comparison with the Precise Science Orbits (PSO) generated at the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB, Bern, Switzerland) shows an average difference around 9 cm for the first 8 daily arcs and progressively increasing up to 17 cm for the following days. During this reentry phase (21st of October - 10th November 2013) a substantial drop in the GOCE altitude is observed, starting from about 230 km to 130 km where the last GPS measurements were taken. During this orbital decay an increment of a factor of 100 in the aerodynamic acceleration profile is observed. In order to limit the mis-modelling of the non-gravitational forces (radiation pressure and aerodynamic effects) the newly developed
Filter parameter tuning analysis for operational orbit determination support
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dunham, J.; Cox, C.; Niklewski, D.; Mistretta, G.; Hart, R.
1994-01-01
The use of an extended Kalman filter (EKF) for operational orbit determination support is being considered by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD). To support that investigation, analysis was performed to determine how an EKF can be tuned for operational support of a set of earth-orbiting spacecraft. The objectives of this analysis were to design and test a general purpose scheme for filter tuning, evaluate the solution accuracies, and develop practical methods to test the consistency of the EKF solutions in an operational environment. The filter was found to be easily tuned to produce estimates that were consistent, agreed with results from batch estimation, and compared well among the common parameters estimated for several spacecraft. The analysis indicates that there is not a sharply defined 'best' tunable parameter set, especially when considering only the position estimates over the data arc. The comparison of the EKF estimates for the user spacecraft showed that the filter is capable of high-accuracy results and can easily meet the current accuracy requirements for the spacecraft included in the investigation. The conclusion is that the EKF is a viable option for FDD operational support.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kibler, J. F.; Green, R. N.; Young, G. R.; Kelly, M. G.
1974-01-01
A method has previously been developed to satisfy terminal rendezvous and intermediate timing constraints for planetary missions involving orbital operations. The method uses impulse factoring in which a two-impulse transfer is divided into three or four impulses which add one or two intermediate orbits. The periods of the intermediate orbits and the number of revolutions in each orbit are varied to satisfy timing constraints. Techniques are developed to retarget the orbital transfer in the presence of orbit-determination and maneuver-execution errors. Sample results indicate that the nominal transfer can be retargeted with little change in either the magnitude (Delta V) or location of the individual impulses. Additonally, the total Delta V required for the retargeted transfer is little different from that required for the nominal transfer. A digital computer program developed to implement the techniques is described.
Fast and accurate determination of the Wigner rotation matrices in the fast multipole method.
Dachsel, Holger
2006-04-14
In the rotation based fast multipole method the accurate determination of the Wigner rotation matrices is essential. The combination of two recurrence relations and the control of the error accumulations allow a very precise determination of the Wigner rotation matrices. The recurrence formulas are simple, efficient, and numerically stable. The advantages over other recursions are documented. PMID:16626188
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Analytical methods for the determination of mycotoxins in foods are commonly based on chromatographic techniques (GC, HPLC or LC-MS). Although these methods permit a sensitive and accurate determination of the analyte, they require skilled personnel and are time-consuming, expensive, and unsuitable ...
Accurate potential energy functions, non-adiabatic and spin-orbit couplings in the ZnH+ system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Guiying; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Xiaomei; Xu, Haifeng; Yan, Bing
2016-03-01
A high-level ab initio calculation on the ZnH+ cation has been carried out with the multi-reference configuration interaction method plus Davison correction (MRCI + Q). The scalar relativistic effect is included by using the Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) method. The calculated potential energy curves (PECs) of the 7 Λ-S states are associated with the dissociation limits of Zn+(2Sg) + H(2Sg), Zn(1Sg) + H+(1Sg), and Zn+(2Pu) + H(2Sg), respectively (The Λ-S state is labeled as 2S + 1Λ, in which Λ is the quantum number for the projection along the internuclear axis of the total electronic orbital angular momentum and S is the total electron spin). The spectroscopic constants of the bound states are determined and in good agreement with the available theoretical and experimental results. The permanent dipole moments (PDMs) of Λ-S states and the spin-orbit (SO) matrix elements between Λ-S states are also computed. The results show that the abrupt changes of the PDMs and SO matrix elements come into being for the reason of the avoided crossing between the states with the same symmetry. In addition, the non-adiabatic couplings matrix elements between Λ-S states are also evaluated. Finally, the spin-orbit couplings (SOCs) for the low-lying states are considered with Breit-Pauli operator. The SOC effect makes the 7 Λ-S states of the ZnH+ cation split into 12 Ω states (Ω = Λ + Sz, in which Sz is projection of the total electron spin S along the internuclear Z-axis). For the (3)0+ state, the two energy minima exhibit in the potential, which could be attributed to the formation of the new avoided crossing point. The transition dipole moments (TDMs), Franck-Condon factors, and the radiative lifetimes of the selected transitions (2)0+-X0+, (3)0+-X0+, (2)1-X0+ and (3)1-X0+ have been reported.
Accurate potential energy functions, non-adiabatic and spin-orbit couplings in the ZnH(+) system.
Liang, Guiying; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Xiaomei; Xu, Haifeng; Yan, Bing
2016-03-01
A high-level ab initio calculation on the ZnH(+) cation has been carried out with the multi-reference configuration interaction method plus Davison correction (MRCI+Q). The scalar relativistic effect is included by using the Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) method. The calculated potential energy curves (PECs) of the 7 Λ-S states are associated with the dissociation limits of Zn(+)((2)Sg)+H((2)Sg), Zn((1)Sg)+H(+)((1)Sg), and Zn(+)((2)Pu)+H((2)Sg), respectively (The Λ-S state is labeled as (2S+1)Λ, in which Λ is the quantum number for the projection along the internuclear axis of the total electronic orbital angular momentum and S is the total electron spin). The spectroscopic constants of the bound states are determined and in good agreement with the available theoretical and experimental results. The permanent dipole moments (PDMs) of Λ-S states and the spin-orbit (SO) matrix elements between Λ-S states are also computed. The results show that the abrupt changes of the PDMs and SO matrix elements come into being for the reason of the avoided crossing between the states with the same symmetry. In addition, the non-adiabatic couplings matrix elements between Λ-S states are also evaluated. Finally, the spin-orbit couplings (SOCs) for the low-lying states are considered with Breit-Pauli operator. The SOC effect makes the 7 Λ-S states of the ZnH(+) cation split into 12 Ω states (Ω=Λ+Sz, in which Sz is projection of the total electron spin S along the internuclear Z-axis). For the (3)0(+) state, the two energy minima exhibit in the potential, which could be attributed to the formation of the new avoided crossing point. The transition dipole moments (TDMs), Franck-Condon factors, and the radiative lifetimes of the selected transitions (2)0(+)-X0(+), (3)0(+)-X0(+), (2)1-X0(+) and (3)1-X0(+) have been reported. PMID:26637984
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frauenholz, R. B.; Bhat, R. S.; Shapiro, B. E.; Leavitt, R. K.
1998-01-01
Since its' launch on August 10, 1992, the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite hs successfully observed the earth's ocean circulation using a combination of precision orbit determination (POD) and dual-frequency radar altimetry.
Urban Temperature Bias as Determined by Polar Orbiting Satellite Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Gregory Lynn
A method of determining urban temperature bias from remotely sensed data is developed and successfully tested in this study. First, atmospheric sounding products from NOAA's polar orbiting satellites were used to derive predictive equations of shelter-level maximum and minimum temperatures. Sounding data from both winter (January) and summer (July) months were combined with surface data from over 5300 cooperative weather stations in the continental United States to develop multiple linear regression equations. Predictive equations were then used to estimate rural ("background") temperatures, unaffected by urbanization. Clear and partly cloudy sounding retrievals proved superior to cloudy retrievals. Validation tests showed the models' abilities to predict rural temperatures in different months and in specific climatic regions. Using these equations, estimates of urban temperature bias for 37 cities in the United States were made. These estimates compared favorably to ground truth data. Largest differences between observed and predicted bias were found at coastal cities, and those at higher elevations in the western United States. Mean differences between observed and predicted bias for groups of cities were not significantly different, making the potential application of this technique to corrections of urban bias in large datasets very plausible. Other products obtained from polar orbiting satellites, including normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values, were also found to be useful descriptors of urban temperature bias. NDVI urban minus rural values were highly correlated to daily and monthly minimum temperature bias at most of the cities studied.
Improving integer ambiguity resolution for GLONASS precise orbit determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yang; Ge, Maorong; Shi, Chuang; Lou, Yidong; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald
2016-05-01
The frequency division multiple access adopted in present GLONASS introduces inter-frequency bias (IFB) at the receiver-end both in code and phase observables, which makes GLONASS ambiguity resolution rather difficult or even not available, especially for long baselines up to several thousand kilometers. This is one of the major reasons that GLONASS could hardly reach the orbit precision of GPS, both in terms of consistency among individual International GNSS Service (IGS) analysis centers and discontinuity at the overlapping day boundaries. Based on the fact that the GLONASS phase IFB is similar on L1 and L2 bands in unit of length and is a linear function of the frequency number, several approaches have been developed to estimate and calibrate the IFB for integer ambiguity resolution. However, they are only for short and medium baselines. In this study, a new ambiguity resolution approach is developed for GLONASS global networks. In the approach, the phase ambiguities in the ionosphere-free linear combination are directly transformed with a wavelength of about 5.3 cm, according to the special frequency relationship of GLONASS L1 and L2 signals. After such transformation, the phase IFB rate can be estimated and corrected precisely and then the corresponding double-differenced ambiguities can be directly fixed to integers even for baselines up to several thousand kilometers. To evaluate this approach, experimental validations using one-month data of a global network with 140 IGS stations was carried out for GLONASS precise orbit determination. The results show that the GLONASS double-difference ambiguity resolution for long baselines could be achieved with an average fixing-rate of 91.4 %. Applying the fixed ambiguities as constraints, the GLONASS orbit overlapping RMS at the day boundaries could be reduced by 37.2 % in ideal cases and with an averaged reduction of about 21.4 %, which is comparable with that by the GPS ambiguity resolution. The orbit improvement is
Improving integer ambiguity resolution for GLONASS precise orbit determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yang; Ge, Maorong; Shi, Chuang; Lou, Yidong; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald
2016-08-01
The frequency division multiple access adopted in present GLONASS introduces inter-frequency bias (IFB) at the receiver-end both in code and phase observables, which makes GLONASS ambiguity resolution rather difficult or even not available, especially for long baselines up to several thousand kilometers. This is one of the major reasons that GLONASS could hardly reach the orbit precision of GPS, both in terms of consistency among individual International GNSS Service (IGS) analysis centers and discontinuity at the overlapping day boundaries. Based on the fact that the GLONASS phase IFB is similar on L1 and L2 bands in unit of length and is a linear function of the frequency number, several approaches have been developed to estimate and calibrate the IFB for integer ambiguity resolution. However, they are only for short and medium baselines. In this study, a new ambiguity resolution approach is developed for GLONASS global networks. In the approach, the phase ambiguities in the ionosphere-free linear combination are directly transformed with a wavelength of about 5.3 cm, according to the special frequency relationship of GLONASS L1 and L2 signals. After such transformation, the phase IFB rate can be estimated and corrected precisely and then the corresponding double-differenced ambiguities can be directly fixed to integers even for baselines up to several thousand kilometers. To evaluate this approach, experimental validations using one-month data of a global network with 140 IGS stations was carried out for GLONASS precise orbit determination. The results show that the GLONASS double-difference ambiguity resolution for long baselines could be achieved with an average fixing-rate of 91.4 %. Applying the fixed ambiguities as constraints, the GLONASS orbit overlapping RMS at the day boundaries could be reduced by 37.2 % in ideal cases and with an averaged reduction of about 21.4 %, which is comparable with that by the GPS ambiguity resolution. The orbit improvement is
First Attempt of Orbit Determination of SLR Satellites and Space Debris Using Genetic Algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deleflie, F.; Coulot, D.; Descosta, R.; Fernier, A.; Richard, P.
2013-08-01
We present an orbit determination method based on genetic algorithms. Contrary to usual estimation methods mainly based on least-squares methods, these algorithms do not require any a priori knowledge of the initial state vector to be estimated. These algorithms can be applied when a new satellite is launched or for uncatalogued objects that appear in images obtained from robotic telescopes such as the TAROT ones. We show in this paper preliminary results obtained from an SLR satellite, for which tracking data acquired by the ILRS network enable to build accurate orbital arcs at a few centimeter level, which can be used as a reference orbit ; in this case, the basic observations are made up of time series of ranges, obtained from various tracking stations. We show as well the results obtained from the observations acquired by the two TAROT telescopes on the Telecom-2D satellite operated by CNES ; in that case, the observations are made up of time series of azimuths and elevations, seen from the two TAROT telescopes. The method is carried out in several steps: (i) an analytical propagation of the equations of motion, (ii) an estimation kernel based on genetic algorithms, which follows the usual steps of such approaches: initialization and evolution of a selected population, so as to determine the best parameters. Each parameter to be estimated, namely each initial keplerian element, has to be searched among an interval that is preliminary chosen. The algorithm is supposed to converge towards an optimum over a reasonable computational time.
Coarse Initial Orbit Determination for a Geostationary Satellite Using Single-Epoch GPS Measurements
Kim, Ghangho; Kim, Chongwon; Kee, Changdon
2015-01-01
A practical algorithm is proposed for determining the orbit of a geostationary orbit (GEO) satellite using single-epoch measurements from a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver under the sparse visibility of the GPS satellites. The algorithm uses three components of a state vector to determine the satellite’s state, even when it is impossible to apply the classical single-point solutions (SPS). Through consideration of the characteristics of the GEO orbital elements and GPS measurements, the components of the state vector are reduced to three. However, the algorithm remains sufficiently accurate for a GEO satellite. The developed algorithm was tested on simulated measurements from two or three GPS satellites, and the calculated maximum position error was found to be less than approximately 40 km or even several kilometers within the geometric range, even when the classical SPS solution was unattainable. In addition, extended Kalman filter (EKF) tests of a GEO satellite with the estimated initial state were performed to validate the algorithm. In the EKF, a reliable dynamic model was adapted to reduce the probability of divergence that can be caused by large errors in the initial state. PMID:25835299
Precise Orbit Determination of LEO Satellite Using Dual-Frequency GPS Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Yoola; Lee, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Jaehoon; Yoon, Jae-Cheol
2009-06-01
KOrea Multi-purpose SATellite (KOMPSAT)-5 will be launched at 550km altitude in 2010. Accurate satellite position (20 cm) and velocity (0.03 cm/s) are required to treat highly precise Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image processing. Ionosphere delay was eliminated using dual frequency GPS data and double differenced GPS measurement removed common clock errors of both GPS satellites and receiver. SAC-C carrier phase data with 0.1 Hz sampling rate was used to achieve precise orbit determination (POD) with ETRI GNSS Precise Orbit Determination (EGPOD) software, which was developed by ETRI. Dynamic model approach was used and satellite's position, velocity, and the coefficients of solar radiation pressure and drag were adjusted once per arc using Batch Least Square Estimator (BLSE) filter. Empirical accelerations for sinusoidal radial, along-track, and cross track terms were also estimated once per revolution for unmodeled dynamics. Additionally piece-wise constant acceleration for cross-track direction was estimated once per arc. The performance of POD was validated by comparing with JPL's Precise Orbit Ephemeris (POE).
GPS-Based Precision Orbit Determination for a New Era of Altimeter Satellites: Jason-1 and ICESat
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luthcke, Scott B.; Rowlands, David D.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Williams, Teresa A.
2003-01-01
Accurate positioning of the satellite center of mass is necessary in meeting an altimeter mission's science goals. The fundamental science observation is an altimetric derived topographic height. Errors in positioning the satellite's center of mass directly impact this fundamental observation. Therefore, orbit error is a critical Component in the error budget of altimeter satellites. With the launch of the Jason-1 radar altimeter (Dec. 2001) and the ICESat laser altimeter (Jan. 2003) a new era of satellite altimetry has begun. Both missions pose several challenges for precision orbit determination (POD). The Jason-1 radial orbit accuracy goal is 1 cm, while ICESat (600 km) at a much lower altitude than Jason-1 (1300 km), has a radial orbit accuracy requirement of less than 5 cm. Fortunately, Jason-1 and ICESat POD can rely on near continuous tracking data from the dual frequency codeless BlackJack GPS receiver and Satellite Laser Ranging. Analysis of current GPS-based solution performance indicates the l-cm radial orbit accuracy goal is being met for Jason-1, while radial orbit accuracy for ICESat is well below the 54x1 mission requirement. A brief overview of the GPS precision orbit determination methodology and results for both Jason-1 and ICESat are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauer, S.; Hussmann, H.; Oberst, J.; Dirkx, D.; Mao, D.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.; Torrence, M. H.; McGarry, J. F.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.
2016-09-01
We used one-way laser ranging data from International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) ground stations to NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) for a demonstration of orbit determination. In the one-way setup, the state of LRO and the parameters of the spacecraft and all involved ground station clocks must be estimated simultaneously. This setup introduces many correlated parameters that are resolved by using a priori constraints. Moreover the observation data coverage and errors accumulating from the dynamical and the clock modeling limit the maximum arc length. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of the arc length, the dynamical and modeling accuracy and the observation data coverage on the accuracy of the results. We analyzed multiple arcs using lengths of 2 and 7 days during a one-week period in Science Mission phase 02 (SM02, November 2010) and compared the trajectories, the post-fit measurement residuals and the estimated clock parameters. We further incorporated simultaneous passes from multiple stations within the observation data to investigate the expected improvement in positioning. The estimated trajectories were compared to the nominal LRO trajectory and the clock parameters (offset, rate and aging) to the results found in the literature. Arcs estimated with one-way ranging data had differences of 5-30 m compared to the nominal LRO trajectory. While the estimated LRO clock rates agreed closely with the a priori constraints, the aging parameters absorbed clock modeling errors with increasing clock arc length. Because of high correlations between the different ground station clocks and due to limited clock modeling accuracy, their differences only agreed at the order of magnitude with the literature. We found that the incorporation of simultaneous passes requires improved modeling in particular to enable the expected improvement in positioning. We found that gaps in the observation data coverage over 12 h (≈6 successive LRO orbits
Cassini Orbit Determination Performance (July 2008 - December 2011)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pelletier, Frederic J.; Antreasian, Peter; Ardalan, Shadan; Buffington, Brent; Criddle, Kevin; Ionasescu, Rodica; Jacobson, Robert; Jones, Jeremy; Nandi, Sumita; Nolet, Simon; Parcher, Daniel; Roth, Duane; Smith, Jonathon; Thompson, Paul
2012-01-01
This paper reports on the orbit determination performance for the Cassini spacecraft from July 2008 to December 2011. During this period, Cassini made 85 revolutions around Saturn and had 52 close satellite encounters. 35 of those were with the massive Titan, 13 with the small, yet interesting, Enceladus as well as 2 with Rhea and 2 with Dione. The period also includes 4 double encounters, where engineers had to plan the trajectory for two close satellite encounters within days of each other at once. Navigation performance is characterized by ephemeris errors relative to in-flight predictions. Most Titan encounters 3-dimensional results are within a 1.5 formal sigma, with a few exceptions, mostly attributable to larger maneuver execution errors. Results for almost all other satellite encounter reconstructions are less than 3 sigma from their predictions. The errors are attributable to satellite ephemerides errors and in some cases to maneuver execution errors.
Orbit Determination Covariance Analysis for the Europa Clipper Mission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ionasescu, Rodica; Martin-Mur, Tomas; Valerino, Powtawche; Criddle, Kevin; Buffington, Brent; McElrath, Timothy
2014-01-01
A new Jovian satellite tour is proposed by NASA, which would include numerous flybys of the moon Europa, and would explore its potential habitability by characterizing the existence of any water within and beneath Europa's ice shell. This paper describes the results of a covariance study that was undertaken on a sample tour to assess the navigational challenges and capabilities of such a mission from an orbit determination (OD) point of view, and to help establish a delta V budget for the maneuvers needed to keep the spacecraft on the reference trajectory. Additional parametric variations from the baseline case were also investigated. The success of the Europa Clipper mission will depend on the science measurements that it will enable. Meeting the requirements of the instruments onboard the spacecraft is an integral part of this analysis.
Determination of spin-orbit coefficients in semiconductor quantum wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faniel, S.; Matsuura, T.; Mineshige, S.; Sekine, Y.; Koga, T.
2011-03-01
We report the determination of the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction (SOI) parameters for In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As quantum wells (QWs) from the analysis of the weak antilocalization effect. We show that the Dresselhaus SOI is mostly negligible in this system and that the intrinsic parameter for the Rashba effect, aSO≡α/
Precise orbit determination of Multi-GNSS constellation including GPS GLONASS BDS and GALIEO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Xiaolei
2014-05-01
In addition to the existing American global positioning system (GPS) and the Russian global navigation satellite system (GLONASS), the new generation of GNSS is emerging and developing, such as the Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system (BDS) and the European GALILEO system. Multi-constellation is expected to contribute to more accurate and reliable positioning and navigation service. However, the application of multi-constellation challenges the traditional precise orbit determination (POD) strategy that was designed usually for single constellation. In this contribution, we exploit a more rigorous multi-constellation POD strategy for the ongoing IGS multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) where the common parameters are identical for each system, and the frequency- and system-specified parameters are employed to account for the inter-frequency and inter-system biases. Since the authorized BDS attitude model is not yet released, different BDS attitude model are implemented and their impact on orbit accuracy are studied. The proposed POD strategy was implemented in the PANDA (Position and Navigation Data Analyst) software and can process observations from GPS, GLONASS, BDS and GALILEO together. The strategy is evaluated with the multi-constellation observations from about 90 MGEX stations and BDS observations from the BeiDou experimental tracking network (BETN) of Wuhan University (WHU). Of all the MGEX stations, 28 stations record BDS observation, and about 80 stations record GALILEO observations. All these data were processed together in our software, resulting in the multi-constellation POD solutions. We assessed the orbit accuracy for GPS and GLONASS by comparing our solutions with the IGS final orbit, and for BDS and GALILEO by overlapping our daily orbit solution. The stability of inter-frequency bias of GLONASS and inter-system biases w.r.t. GPS for GLONASS, BDS and GALILEO were investigated. At last, we carried out precise point positioning (PPP) using the multi
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luthcke, S. B.; Zelensky, N. P.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Chinn, D. S.; Williams, T. A.
2002-01-01
Jason-1, launched on December 7, 2001, is continuing the time series of centimeter level ocean topography observations as the follow-on to the highly successful TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) radar altimeter satellite. The precision orbit determination (POD) is a critical component to meeting the ocean topography goals of the mission. T/P has demonstrated that the time variation of ocean topography can be determined with an accuracy of a few centimeters, thanks to the availability of highly accurate orbits based primarily on SLR+DORIS tracking. The Jason-1 mission is intended to continue measurement of the ocean surface with the same, if not better accuracy. Fortunately, Jason-1 POD can rely on four independent tracking data types available including near continuous tracking data from the dual frequency codeless BlackJack GPS receiver. Orbit solutions computed using individual and various combinations of GPS, SLR, DORIS and altimeter crossover data types have been determined from over 100 days of Jason-1 tracking data. The performance of the orbit solutions and tracking data has been evaluated. Orbit solution evaluation and comparison has provided insight into possible areas of refinement. Several aspects of the POD process are examined to obtain orbit improvements including measurement modeling, force modeling and solution strategy. The results of these analyses will be presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luthcke, Scott B.; Zelensky, N. P.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Chinn, D. S.; Williams, T. A.
2002-01-01
Jason-1, launched on December 7,2001, is continuing the time series of centimeter level ocean topography observations as the follow-on to the highly successful TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) radar altimeter satellite. The precision orbit determination (POD) is a critical component to meeting the ocean topography goals of the mission. T P has demonstrated that the time variation of ocean topography can be determined with an accuracy of a few centimeters, thanks to the availability of highly accurate orbits based primarily on SLR+DORIS tracking. The Jason-1 mission is intended to continue measurement of the ocean surface with the same, if not better accuracy. Fortunately, Jason- 1 POD can rely on four independent tracking data types available including near continuous tracking data from the dual frequency codeless BlackJack GPS receiver. Orbit solutions computed using individual and various combinations of GPS, SLR, DORIS and altimeter crossover data types have been determined from over 100 days of Jason-1 tracking data, The performance of the orbit solutions and tracking data has been evaluated. Orbit solution evaluation and comparison has provided insight into possible areas of refinement. Several aspects of the POD process are examined to obtain orbit improvements including measurement modeling, force modeling and solution strategy. The results of these analyses will be presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Son, Ju Young; Jo, Jung Hyun; Choi, Jin; Kim, Bang-Yeop; Yoon, Joh-Na; Yim, Hong-Suh; Choi, Young-Jun; Park, Sun-Youp; Bae, Young Ho; Roh, Dong-Goo; Park, Jang-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Hye
2015-09-01
We estimated the orbit of the Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS), a Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellite, through data from actual optical observations using telescopes at the Sobaeksan Optical Astronomy Observatory (SOAO) of the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Optical Wide field Patrol (OWL) at KASI, and the Chungbuk National University Observatory (CNUO) from August 1, 2014, to January 13, 2015. The astrometric data of the satellite were extracted from the World Coordinate System (WCS) in the obtained images, and geometrically distorted errors were corrected. To handle the optically observed data, corrections were made for the observation time, light-travel time delay, shutter speed delay, and aberration. For final product, the sequential filter within the Orbit Determination Tool Kit (ODTK) was used for orbit estimation based on the results of optical observation. In addition, a comparative analysis was conducted between the precise orbit from the ephemeris of the COMS maintained by the satellite operator and the results of orbit estimation using optical observation. The orbits estimated in simulation agree with those estimated with actual optical observation data. The error in the results using optical observation data decreased with increasing number of observatories. Our results are useful for optimizing observation data for orbit estimation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemoine, F. G.; Zelensky, N. P.; Luthcke, S. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Beckley, B. D.; Klosko, S. M.
2006-01-01
Launched in the summer of 1992, TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) was a joint mission between NASA and the Centre National d Etudes Spatiales (CNES), the French Space Agency, to make precise radar altimeter measurements of the ocean surface. After the remarkably successful 13-years of mapping the ocean surface T/P lost its ability to maneuver and was de-commissioned January 2006. T/P revolutionized the study of the Earth s oceans by vastly exceeding pre-launch estimates of surface height accuracy recoverable from radar altimeter measurements. The precision orbit lies at the heart of the altimeter measurement providing the reference frame from which the radar altimeter measurements are made. The expected quality of orbit knowledge had limited the measurement accuracy expectations of past altimeter missions, and still remains a major component in the error budget of all altimeter missions. This paper describes critical improvements made to the T/P orbit time series over the 13-years of precise orbit determination (POD) provided by the GSFC Space Geodesy Laboratory. The POD improvements from the pre-launch T/P expectation of radial orbit accuracy and Mission requirement of 13-cm to an expected accuracy of about 1.5-cm with today s latest orbits will be discussed. The latest orbits with 1.5 cm RMS radial accuracy represent a significant improvement to the 2.0-cm accuracy orbits currently available on the T/P Geophysical Data Record (GDR) altimeter product.
On canonical cylinder sections for accurate determination of contact angle in microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert; Zabihi, Farhad
1992-01-01
Large shifts of liquid arising from small changes in certain container shapes in zero gravity can be used as a basis for accurately determining contact angle. Canonical geometries for this purpose, recently developed mathematically, are investigated here computationally. It is found that the desired nearly-discontinuous behavior can be obtained and that the shifts of liquid have sufficient volume to be readily observed.
The determination of accurate dipole polarizabilities alpha and gamma for the noble gases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rice, Julia E.; Taylor, Peter R.; Lee, Timothy J.; Almlof, Jan
1991-01-01
Accurate static dipole polarizabilities alpha and gamma of the noble gases He through Xe were determined using wave functions of similar quality for each system. Good agreement with experimental data for the static polarizability gamma was obtained for Ne and Xe, but not for Ar and Kr. Calculations suggest that the experimental values for these latter ions are too low.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stwalley, W. C.; Verma, K. K.; Rajaei-Rizi, A.; Bahns, J. T.; Harding, D. R.
This paper illustrates (using the molecules LiH, Li2 and Na2) how laser-induced fluorescence can be used to greatly expand the range of observed vibrational levels in ground electronic states. This expanded vibrational range leads to the determination of virtually the full well of the potential energy curve. This also leads to improved determination of the dissociation limit and serves as a severe test for highly accurate ab initio calculations now available for many small molecules.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stwalley, W. C.; Verma, K. K.; Rajaei-Rizi, A.; Bahns, J. T.; Harding, D. R.
1982-01-01
This paper illustrates (using the molecules LiH, Li2 and Na2) how laser-induced fluorescence can be used to greatly expand the range of observed vibrational levels in ground electronic states. This expanded vibrational range leads to the determination of virtually the full well of the potential energy curve. This also leads to improved determination of the dissociation limit and serves as a severe test for highly accurate ab initio calculations now available for many small molecules.
Gravity and Tide Parameters Determined from Satellite and Spacecraft Orbits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobson, Robert A.
2015-05-01
As part of our work on the development of the Jovian and Saturnian satellite ephemerides to support the Juno and Cassini missions, we determined a number of planetary system gravity parameters. This work did not take into account tidal forces. In fact, we saw no obvious observational evidence of tidal effects on the satellite or spacecraft orbits. However, Lainey et al. (2009 Nature 459, 957) and Lainey et. al (2012 Astrophys. J. 752, 14) have published investigations of tidal effects in the Jovian and Saturnian systems, respectively. Consequently, we have begun a re-examination of our ephemeris work that includes a model for tides raised on the planet by the satellites as well as tides raised on the satellites by the planet. In this paper we briefly review the observations used in our ephemeris production; they include astrometry from the late 1800s to 2014, mutual events, eclipses, occultatons, and data acquired by the Pioneer, Voyager, Ulysses, Cassini, Galileo, and New Horizons spacecraft. We summarize the gravity parameter values found from our original analyses. Next we discuss our tidal acceleration model and its impact on the gravity parameter determination. We conclude with preliminary results found when the reprocessing of the observations includes tidal forces acting on the satellites and spacecraft.
Orbit Determination for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Using an Extended Kalman Filter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slojkowski, Steven; Lowe, Jonathan; Woodburn, James
2015-01-01
Since launch, the FDF has performed daily OD for LRO using the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS). GTDS is a batch least-squares (BLS) estimator. The tracking data arc for OD is 36 hours. Current operational OD uses 200 x 200 lunar gravity, solid lunar tides, solar radiation pressure (SRP) using a spherical spacecraft area model, and point mass gravity for the Earth, Sun, and Jupiter. LRO tracking data consists of range and range-rate measurements from: Universal Space Network (USN) stations in Sweden, Germany, Australia, and Hawaii. A NASA antenna at White Sands, New Mexico (WS1S). NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) stations. DSN data was sparse and not included in this study. Tracking is predominantly (50) from WS1S. The OD accuracy requirements are: Definitive ephemeris accuracy of 500 meters total position root-mean-squared (RMS) and18 meters radial RMS. Predicted orbit accuracy less than 800 meters root sum squared (RSS) over an 84-hour prediction span.
Accurate determination of absolute carrier-envelope phase dependence using photo-ionization.
Sayler, A M; Arbeiter, M; Fasold, S; Adolph, D; Möller, M; Hoff, D; Rathje, T; Fetić, B; Milošević, D B; Fennel, T; Paulus, G G
2015-07-01
The carrier-envelope phase (CEP) dependence of few-cycle above-threshold ionization (ATI) of Xe is calibrated for use as a reference measurement for determining and controlling the absolute CEP in other interactions. This is achieved by referencing the CEP-dependent ATI measurements of Xe to measurements of atomic H, which are in turn referenced to ab initio calculations for atomic H. This allows for the accurate determination of the absolute CEP dependence of Xe ATI, which enables relatively easy determination of the offset between the relative CEP measured and/or controlled by typical devices and the absolute CEP in the interaction. PMID:26125386
An analytic development of orbit determination for a distant, planetary orbiter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Russell, R. K.; Thurman, S. W.
1989-01-01
With the advent of the Mariner '71 Mission, NASA has been sending spacecraft to orbit various distant bodies within the solar system. At present, there is still no adequate theory describing the inherent state estimation accuracy, based on two-way, coherent range-rate data. It is the purpose of this article to lay the groundwork for a general elliptic theory, and in addition to provide an analytic solution for the special case of circular orbits. It is shown that circular orbits about distant planets may suffer singularities in over-all position error estimation. These singularities are due to orbit inclination, placement of the line-of-nodes, and insignificant cross-velocity at the start and end of retrograde motion when orbiting a superior planet. Even though these conclusions appear to yield poor state estimation, one should not be unduly alarmed inasmuch as the stated conditions for singularity are not maintained for extended periods during typical mission scenarios. However, mission analysts should be aware of these potential pitfalls and realize that spuriously large results for circular orbiters can be obtained and are not the result of incorrect assumptions or faulty software. The general elliptic problem appears so involved that analytic inversion at this time is just not feasible, and in any case the resulting expression for the position error would likely be so lengthy that any understanding would be lost in the maze.
The challenge of precise orbit determination for STSAT-2C using extremely sparse SLR data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Young-Rok; Park, Eunseo; Kucharski, Daniel; Lim, Hyung-Chul; Kim, Byoungsoo
2016-03-01
The Science and Technology Satellite (STSAT)-2C is the first Korean satellite equipped with a laser retro-reflector array for satellite laser ranging (SLR). SLR is the only on-board tracking source for precise orbit determination (POD) of STSAT-2C. However, POD for the STSAT-2C is a challenging issue, as the laser measurements of the satellite are extremely sparse, largely due to the inaccurate two-line element (TLE)-based orbit predictions used by the SLR tracking stations. In this study, POD for the STSAT-2C using extremely sparse SLR data is successfully implemented, and new laser-based orbit predictions are obtained. The NASA/GSFC GEODYN II software and seven-day arcs are used for the SLR data processing of two years of normal points from March 2013 to May 2015. To compensate for the extremely sparse laser tracking, the number of estimation parameters are minimized, and only the atmospheric drag coefficients are estimated with various intervals. The POD results show that the weighted root mean square (RMS) post-fit residuals are less than 10 m, and the 3D day boundaries vary from 30 m to 3 km. The average four-day orbit overlaps are less than 20/330/20 m for the radial/along-track/cross-track components. The quality of the new laser-based prediction is verified by SLR observations, and the SLR residuals show better results than those of previous TLE-based predictions. This study demonstrates that POD for the STSAT-2C can be successfully achieved against extreme sparseness of SLR data, and the results can deliver more accurate predictions.
Dawn Orbit Determination Team: Trajectory Modeling and Reconstruction Processes at Vesta
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Ardito, Alessandro; Han, Dongsuk; Haw, Robert; Kennedy, Brian; Mastrodemos, Nick; Nandi, Sumita; Park, Ryan; Rush, Brian; Vaughan, Andrew
2013-01-01
The Dawn spacecraft spent over a year in orbit around Vesta from July 2011 through August 2012. In order to maintain the designated science reference orbits and enable the transfers between those orbits, precise and timely orbit determination was required. Challenges included low-thrust ion propulsion modeling, estimation of relatively unknown Vesta gravity and rotation models, track-ing data limitations, incorporation of real-time telemetry into dynamics model updates, and rapid maneuver design cycles during transfers. This paper discusses the dynamics models, filter configuration, and data processing implemented to deliver a rapid orbit determination capability to the Dawn project.
An Empirical State Error Covariance Matrix Orbit Determination Example
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frisbee, Joseph H., Jr.
2015-01-01
State estimation techniques serve effectively to provide mean state estimates. However, the state error covariance matrices provided as part of these techniques suffer from some degree of lack of confidence in their ability to adequately describe the uncertainty in the estimated states. A specific problem with the traditional form of state error covariance matrices is that they represent only a mapping of the assumed observation error characteristics into the state space. Any errors that arise from other sources (environment modeling, precision, etc.) are not directly represented in a traditional, theoretical state error covariance matrix. First, consider that an actual observation contains only measurement error and that an estimated observation contains all other errors, known and unknown. Then it follows that a measurement residual (the difference between expected and observed measurements) contains all errors for that measurement. Therefore, a direct and appropriate inclusion of the actual measurement residuals in the state error covariance matrix of the estimate will result in an empirical state error covariance matrix. This empirical state error covariance matrix will fully include all of the errors in the state estimate. The empirical error covariance matrix is determined from a literal reinterpretation of the equations involved in the weighted least squares estimation algorithm. It is a formally correct, empirical state error covariance matrix obtained through use of the average form of the weighted measurement residual variance performance index rather than the usual total weighted residual form. Based on its formulation, this matrix will contain the total uncertainty in the state estimate, regardless as to the source of the uncertainty and whether the source is anticipated or not. It is expected that the empirical error covariance matrix will give a better, statistical representation of the state error in poorly modeled systems or when sensor performance
Procedure for the Determination of Orbits of Astronomical Bodies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Birnbaum, David
1977-01-01
Presents a procedure for finding the elements of the orbit of an astronomical object from three or more observations. From a set of assumed elements an ephemeris is calculated and compared to the observations. (MLH)
In-Orbit Lifetime Prediction for LEO and HEO Based on Orbit Determination from TLE Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agueda, A.; Aivar, L.; Tirado, J.; Dolado, J. C.
2013-08-01
Objects in Low-Earth Orbits (LEO) and Highly Elliptical Orbits (HEO) are subjected to decay and re-entry into the atmosphere due mainly to the drag force. While being this process the best solution to avoid the proliferation of debris in space and ensure the sustainability of future space activities, it implies a threat to the population on ground. Thus, the prediction of the in-orbit lifetime of an object and the evaluation of the risk on population and ground assets constitutes a crucial task. This paper will concentrate on the first of these tasks. Unfortunately the lifetime of an object in space is remarkably difficult to predict. This is mainly due to the dependence of the atmospheric drag on a number of uncertain elements such as the density profile and its dependence on the solar activity, the atmospheric conditions, the mass and surface area of the object (very difficult to evaluate), its uncontrolled attitude, etc. In this paper we will present a method for the prediction of this lifetime based on publicly available Two-Line Elements (TLEs) from the American USSTRATCOM's Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC). TLEs constitute an excellent source to access routinely orbital information for thousands of objects even though of their reduced and unpredictable accuracy. Additionally, the implementation of the method on a CNES's Java-based tool will be presented. This tool (OPERA) is executed routinely at CNES to predict the orbital lifetime of a whole catalogue of objects.
Orbit Determination Processes for the Navigation of the Cassini-Huygens Mission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antreasian, P.G.; Ardalan, S.M.; Beswick, R.M.; Criddle, K.E.; Ionasescu, R.; Jacobson, R.A.; Jones, J.B.; MacKenzie, R.A.; Parcher, D.W.; Pelletier, F.J.; Roth, D.C.; Thompson, P.F.; Vaughan, A.T.
2008-01-01
Deep space navigation, particularly the Orbit Determination (OD) operations of Cassini at Saturn, cannot easily be automated due to the complex dynamical environment in which the spacecraft flies; however several sub-processes are automated. The Cassini OD operations are often faced with unique challenges that require more than routine procedures. The OD Team is staffed appropriately to meet the demanding schedules and allow some level of flexibility. This paper will discuss how the OD processes are developed and the seven-member OD team is scheduled to support efficient and accurate Cassini navigation operations. Also discussed will be the requirements of the radio-metric Doppler and range tracking data acquired via the Deep Space Network and the optical navigation images of the satellites to support the daily OD operations. Furthermore, the reliability of the OD solutions, which is ensured within the framework of the OD processes, will be explained.
Precise orbit determination of Beidou Satellites at GFZ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Zhiguo; Ge, Maorong; Uhlemann, Maik; Zhao, Qile
2014-05-01
In December 2012 the Signal-In-Space Interface Control Document (ICD) of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BeiDou system) was published. Currently the initial BeiDou regional navigation satellite system consisting of 14 satellites was completed, and provides observation data of five Geostationary-Earth-Orbit (GEO)satellites, five Inclined-GeoSynchronous-Orbit (IGSO) satellites and four Medium-Earth-Orbit (MEO) satellites. The Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) contributes as one of the analysis centers to the International GNSS Service (IGS) since many years. In 2012 the IGS began the "Multi GNSS EXperiment" (MGEX), which supports the new GNSS, such as Galileo, Compass, and QZSS. Based on tracking data of BeiDou-capable receivers from the MGEX and chinese BeiDou networks up to 45 global distributed stations are selected to estimate orbit and clock parameters of the GPS/BeiDou satellites. Some selected results from the combined GPS/BeiDou data processing with 10 weeks of data from 2013 are shown. The quality of the orbit and clock products are assessed by means of orbit overlap statistics, clock stabilities as well as an independent validation with SLR measurements. At the end an outlook about GFZ AC's future Multi-GNSS activities will be given.
Orbit of the OJ287 black hole binary as determined from the General Relativity centenary flare
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valtonen, Mauri; Gopakumar, Achamveedu; Mikkola, Seppo; Zola, Staszek; Ciprini, Stefano; Matsumoto, Katsura; Sadakane, Kozo; Kidger, Mark; Gazeas, Kosmas; Nilsson, Kari; Berdyugin, Andrei; Piirola, Vilppu; Jermak, Helen; Baliyan, Kiran; Hudec, Rene; Reichart, Daniel
2016-05-01
OJ287 goes through large optical flares twice each 12 years. The times of these flares have been predicted successfully now 5 times using a black hole binary model. In this model a secondary black hole goes around a primary black hole, impacting the accretion disk of the latter twice per orbital period, creating a thermal flare. Together with 6 flares from the historical data base, the set of flare timings determines uniquely the 7 parameters of the model: the two masses, the primary spin, the major axis, eccentricity and the phase of the orbit, plus a time delay parameter that gives the extent of time between accretion disk impacts and the related optical flares. Based on observations by the OJ287-15/16 Collaboration, OJ287 went into the phase of rapid flux rise on November 25, on the centenary of Einstein’s General Relativity, and peaked on December 5. At that time OJ287 was the brightest in over 30 years in optical wavelengths. The flare was of low polarization, and did not extend beyond the optical/UV region of the spectrum. On top of the main flare there were a number of small flares; their excess brightness correlates well with the simultaneous X-ray data. With these properties the main flare qualifies as the marker of the orbit of the secondary going around the primary black hole. Since the orbit solution is strongly over-determined, its parameters are known very accurately, at better than one percent level for the masses and the spin. The next flare is predicted to peak on July 28, 2019.Detailed monitoring of this event should allow us to test, for the first time, the celebrated black hole no-hair theorem for a massive black hole at the 10% level. The present data is consistent with the theorem only at a 30% level. The main difficulty in observing OJ287 from Earth at our predicted epoch is its closeness to the sun. Therefore, it is desirable to monitor OJ287 from a space-based telescope not in the vicinity of Earth. Unfortunately, this unique opportunity
Implementation of a low-cost, commercial orbit determination system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Corrigan, Jim
1994-01-01
Traditional satellite and launch control systems have consisted of custom solutions requiring significant development and maintenance costs. These systems have typically been designed to support specific program requirements and are expensive to modify and augment after delivery. The expanding role of space in today's marketplace combined with the increased sophistication and capabilities of modern satellites has created a need for more efficient, lower cost solutions to complete command and control systems. Recent technical advances have resulted in commercial-off-the-shelf products which greatly reduce the complete life-cycle costs associated with satellite launch and control system procurements. System integrators and spacecraft operators have, however, been slow to integrate these commercial based solutions into a comprehensive command and control system. This is due, in part, to a resistance to change and the fact that many available products are unable to effectively communicate with other commercial products. The United States Air Force, responsible for the health and safety of over 84 satellites via its Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN), has embarked on an initiative to prove that commercial products can be used effectively to form a comprehensive command and control system. The initial version of this system is being installed at the Air Force's Center for Research Support (CERES) located at the National Test Facility in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The first stage of this initiative involved the identification of commercial products capable of satisfying each functional element of a command and control system. A significant requirement in this product selection criteria was flexibility and ability to integrate with other available commercial products. This paper discusses the functions and capabilities of the product selected to provide orbit determination functions for this comprehensive command and control system.
Implementation of a low-cost, commercial orbit determination system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corrigan, Jim
1994-11-01
Traditional satellite and launch control systems have consisted of custom solutions requiring significant development and maintenance costs. These systems have typically been designed to support specific program requirements and are expensive to modify and augment after delivery. The expanding role of space in today's marketplace combined with the increased sophistication and capabilities of modern satellites has created a need for more efficient, lower cost solutions to complete command and control systems. Recent technical advances have resulted in commercial-off-the-shelf products which greatly reduce the complete life-cycle costs associated with satellite launch and control system procurements. System integrators and spacecraft operators have, however, been slow to integrate these commercial based solutions into a comprehensive command and control system. This is due, in part, to a resistance to change and the fact that many available products are unable to effectively communicate with other commercial products. The United States Air Force, responsible for the health and safety of over 84 satellites via its Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN), has embarked on an initiative to prove that commercial products can be used effectively to form a comprehensive command and control system. The initial version of this system is being installed at the Air Force's Center for Research Support (CERES) located at the National Test Facility in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The first stage of this initiative involved the identification of commercial products capable of satisfying each functional element of a command and control system. A significant requirement in this product selection criteria was flexibility and ability to integrate with other available commercial products. This paper discusses the functions and capabilities of the product selected to provide orbit determination functions for this comprehensive command and control system.
Advanced stellar compass onboard autonomous orbit determination, preliminary performance.
Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John L; Jørgensen, Peter S; Denver, Troelz
2004-05-01
Deep space exploration is in the agenda of the major space agencies worldwide; certainly the European Space Agency (SMART Program) and the American NASA (New Millennium Program) have set up programs to allow the development and the demonstration of technologies that can reduce the risks and the cost of deep space missions. From past experience, it appears that navigation is the Achilles heel of deep space missions. Performed on ground, this imposes considerable constraints on the entire system and limits operations. This makes it is very expensive to execute, especially when the mission lasts several years and, furthermore, it is not failure tolerant. Nevertheless, to date, ground navigation has been the only viable solution. The technology breakthrough of advanced star trackers, like the advanced stellar compass (ASC), might change this situation. Indeed, exploiting the capabilities of this instrument, the authors have devised a method to determine the orbit of a spacecraft autonomously, onboard, and without a priori knowledge of any kind. The solution is robust and fast. This paper presents the preliminary performance obtained during the ground testing in August 2002 at the Mauna Kea Observatories. The main goals were: (1) to assess the robustness of the method in solving autonomously, onboard, the position lost-in-space problem; (2) to assess the preliminary accuracy achievable with a single planet and a single observation; (3) to verify the autonomous navigation (AutoNav) module could be implemented into an ASC without degrading the attitude measurements; and (4) to identify the areas of development and consolidation. The results obtained are very encouraging. PMID:15220158
Orbits of four visual binaries determined from observations along short arcs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romanenko, L. G.; Kiselev, A. A.
2014-01-01
The orbits of the four visual binaries ADS 246 (GL 15), ADS 7724 ( γ Leo), ADS 10386 (GJ 659), and ADS 14909 (1 Peg) have been determined using the apparent motion parameters (AMP) method. The orbital periods of these stars are 1200, 550, 7500, and 18 000 yr, respectively. The orbits were calculated based on observations along short arcs obtained with the 26-inch refractor of the Pulkovo Observatory and Hipparcos parallaxes, supplemented with radial-velocity measurements for the components of these pairs taken from the literature. All visual and photographic observations of these stars after 1830 from the WDS catalog have been taken into consideration. The new orbits of ADS 246 and ADS 7724 are compared with the orbits computed in other studies. The orbits of ADS 10386 and ADS 14909 have been determined for the first time. The orientation of the planes of the computed orbits in Galactic coordinates have also been calculated.
Barman, Bhajendra N
2014-01-31
Carbonyl compounds, specifically aldehydes, present in amine catalysts or amines are determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using ultraviolet detection of their corresponding 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones. The primary focus has been to establish optimum conditions for determining aldehydes accurately because these add exposure concerns when the amine catalysts are used to manufacture polyurethane products. Concentrations of aldehydes determined by this method are found to vary with the pH of the aqueous amine solution and the derivatization time, the latter being problematic when the derivatization reaction proceeds slowly and not to completion in neutral and basic media. Accurate determination of aldehydes in amines through derivatization can be carried out at an effective solution pH of about 2 and with derivatization time of 20min. Hydrochloric acid has been used for neutralization of an amine. For complete derivatization, it is essential to protonate all nitrogen atoms in the amine. An approach for the determination of an adequate amount of acid needed for complete derivatization has been described. Several 0.2M buffer solutions varying in pH from 4 to 8 have also been used to make amine solutions for carrying out derivatization of aldehydes. These solutions have effective pHs of 10 or higher and provide much lower aldehyde concentrations compared to their true values. Mechanisms for the formation of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones in both acidic and basic media are discussed. PMID:24411140
Orbit determination and analysis of meteors recently observed by Finnish Fireball Network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dmitriev, V.; Lupovla, V.; Gritsevich, M.; Lyytinen, E.; Mineeva, S.
2015-10-01
We perform orbit determination and analysis of three fireballs recently observed by Finnish Fireball Network (FFN). Precise orbit determination was performed by using integration of differential equations of motion. This technique was implemented into free distributable software "Meteor Toolkit". Accounting of several perturbing forces are discussed. Also estimation of accuracy of orbital elements was obtained by propagation of observational error with using covariance transformation. Long-term backward integration was provided as well.
Impact of the ionosphere on GPS-based precise orbit determination of Low Earth Orbiters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnold, Daniel; Jäggi, Adrian; Meyer, Ulrich; Beutler, Gerhard
2016-04-01
GPS-derived kinematic precise Swarm orbits are significantly affected by increased position noise over the geomagnetic poles and spurious signatures along the geomagnetic equator. The latter deficiencies were identified for the first time for the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) mission and are attributed to the distortion of the GPS carrier signal when propagating through portions of the Earth's ionosphere with a large free electron content. Via the GPS-derived kinematic Swarm positions, the spurious signatures along the geomagnetic equator map directly into the derived gravity fields. This was already the case for GOCE and obviously is also true for Swarm. To identify the root cause of the problem, the stochastic and deterministic behavior of the ionosphere is characterized by analyzing data collected by the GPS receivers on various LEO satellites. We compare in particular the performance of the Swarm and the GRACE receivers, because no obvious degradations occur in GRACE orbit and gravity field solutions. Removing GPS data with large ionospheric variations mitigates the ionosphere-induced artifacts in orbits and gravity fields. We illustrate the impact of this measure on the Swarm orbit and gravity field solutions. Making use of the geographically resolved ionosphere characteristics, e.g., to establish better data weighting schemes, results in a better POD performance for LEO satellites.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gan, Q. B.
2012-07-01
Autonomous satellite orbit determination is a key technique in autonomous satellite navigation. Many kinds of technologies have been proposed to realize the autonomous satellite navigation, such as the star sensor, the Earth magnetometer, the occultation time survey, and the phase measurement of X-ray pulsar signals. This dissertation studies a method of autonomous satellite orbit determination using star sensor. Moreover, the method is extended to the autonomous navigation of satellite constellation and the space-based surveillance. In chapters 1 and 2, some usual time and reference systems are introduced. Then the principles of several typical autonomous navigation methods, and their merits and shortcomings are analyzed. In chapter 3, the autonomous satellite orbit determination using star sensor and infrared Earth sensor (IRES) is specifically studied, which is based on the status movement simulation, the stellar background observation from star sensor, and the Earth center direction survey from IRES. By simulating the low Earth orbit satellites and pseudo Geostationary Earth orbit (PGEO) satellites, the precision of position and speed with autonomous orbit determination using star sensor is obtained. Besides, the autonomous orbit determination using star sensor with double detectors is studied. According to the observation equation's characters, an optimized type of star sensor and IRES initial assembly model is proposed. In the study of the PGEO autonomous orbit determination, an efficient sampling frequency of measurements is promoted. The simulation results confirm that the autonomous satellite orbit determination using star sensor is feasible for satellites with all kinds of altitudes. In chapter 4, the method of autonomous satellite orbit determination using star sensor is extended to the autonomous navigation of mini-satellite constellation. Combining with the high-accuracy inter satellite links data, the precision of the determined orbit and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rein, Hanno; Spiegel, David S.
2015-01-01
We present IAS15, a 15th-order integrator to simulate gravitational dynamics. The integrator is based on a Gauß-Radau quadrature and can handle conservative as well as non-conservative forces. We develop a step-size control that can automatically choose an optimal timestep. The algorithm can handle close encounters and high-eccentricity orbits. The systematic errors are kept well below machine precision, and long-term orbit integrations over 109 orbits show that IAS15 is optimal in the sense that it follows Brouwer's law, i.e. the energy error behaves like a random walk. Our tests show that IAS15 is superior to a mixed-variable symplectic integrator and other popular integrators, including high-order ones, in both speed and accuracy. In fact, IAS15 preserves the symplecticity of Hamiltonian systems better than the commonly used nominally symplectic integrators to which we compared it. We provide an open-source implementation of IAS15. The package comes with several easy-to-extend examples involving resonant planetary systems, Kozai-Lidov cycles, close encounters, radiation pressure, quadrupole moment and generic damping functions that can, among other things, be used to simulate planet-disc interactions. Other non-conservative forces can be added easily.
Liu, Hui; Shi, Deheng; Sun, Jinfeng; Zhu, Zunlue; Shulin, Zhang
2014-04-24
The potential energy curves (PECs) of 54 spin-orbit states generated from the 22 electronic states of O2 molecule are investigated for the first time for internuclear separations from about 0.1 to 1.0nm. Of the 22 electronic states, the X(3)Σg(-), A(')(3)Δu, A(3)Σu(+), B(3)Σu(-), C(3)Πg, a(1)Δg, b(1)Σg(+), c(1)Σu(-), d(1)Πg, f(1)Σu(+), 1(5)Πg, 1(3)Πu, 2(3)Σg(-), 1(5)Σu(-), 2(1)Σu(-) and 2(1)Δg are found to be bound, whereas the 1(5)Σg(+), 2(5)Σg(+), 1(1)Πu, 1(5)Δg, 1(5)Πu and 2(1)Πu are found to be repulsive ones. The B(3)Σu(-) and d(1)Πg states possess the double well. And the 1(3)Πu, C(3)Πg, A'(3)Δu, 1(5)Δg and 2(5)Σg(+) states are the inverted ones when the spin-orbit coupling is included. The PEC calculations are done by the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method, which is followed by the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction (icMRCI) approach with the Davidson correction. Core-valence correlation and scalar relativistic corrections are taken into account. The convergence of present calculations is evaluated with respect to the basis set and level of theory. The vibrational properties are discussed for the 1(5)Πg, 1(3)Πu, d(1)Πg and 1(5)Σu(-) states and for the second well of the B(3)Σu(-) state. The spin-orbit coupling effect is accounted for by the state interaction method with the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. The PECs of all the electronic states and spin-orbit states are extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. The spectroscopic parameters are obtained, and compared with available experimental and other theoretical results. Analyses demonstrate that the spectroscopic parameters reported here can be expected to be reliably predicted ones. The conclusion is obtained that the effect of spin-orbit coupling on the spectroscopic parameters are small almost for all the electronic states involved in this paper except for the 1(5)Σu(-), 1(5)Πg and 1(3)Πu. PMID:24486866
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fuchs, A. J. (Editor)
1979-01-01
Onboard and real time image processing to enhance geometric correction of the data is discussed with application to autonomous navigation and attitude and orbit determination. Specific topics covered include: (1) LANDSAT landmark data; (2) star sensing and pattern recognition; (3) filtering algorithms for Global Positioning System; and (4) determining orbital elements for geostationary satellites.
The iterative solution of the problem of orbit determination using Chebyshev series
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Feagin, T.
1975-01-01
A method of orbit determination is investigated which employs Picard iteration and Chebyshev series. The method is applied to the problem of determining the orbit of an earth satellite from range and range-rate observations contaminated by noise. It is shown to be readily applicable and to possess linear convergence.
Program of Aes Orbit Determination from Measurement Data of Astronomical Station ("orbita - M")
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheptoon, A. D.; Kolesnik, S. Ja.; Paltsev, N. G.
A program is developed of determining AES orbits from measurement data of one or several astronomical stations. Its algorithm is rather stable to small errors of measurements and permits to use data with low accuracy for calculations.The use of several transits data enables to increase presision of orbital semi-major axe determination by nearly 10000 times.
FIRST ORBIT AND MASS DETERMINATIONS FOR NINE VISUAL BINARIES
Ling, J. F.
2012-01-15
This paper presents the first published orbits and masses for nine visual double stars: WDS 00149-3209 (B 1024), WDS 01006+4719 (MAD 1), WDS 03130+4417 (STT 51), WDS 04357+3944 (HU 1084), WDS 19083+2706 (HO 98 AB), WDS 19222-0735 (A 102 AB), WDS 20524+2008 (HO 144), WDS 21051+0757 (HDS 3004 AB), and WDS 22202+2931 (BU 1216). Masses were calculated from the updated Hipparcos parallax data when available and sufficiently precise, or from dynamical parallaxes otherwise. Other physical and orbital properties are also discussed.
First Orbit and Mass Determinations for Nine Visual Binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ling, J. F.
2012-01-01
This paper presents the first published orbits and masses for nine visual double stars: WDS 00149-3209 (B 1024), WDS 01006+4719 (MAD 1), WDS 03130+4417 (STT 51), WDS 04357+3944 (HU 1084), WDS 19083+2706 (HO 98 AB), WDS 19222-0735 (A 102 AB), WDS 20524+2008 (HO 144), WDS 21051+0757 (HDS 3004 AB), and WDS 22202+2931 (BU 1216). Masses were calculated from the updated Hipparcos parallax data when available and sufficiently precise, or from dynamical parallaxes otherwise. Other physical and orbital properties are also discussed.
Bender, P L; Currie, D G; Poultney, S K; Alley, C O; Dicke, R H; Wilkinson, D T; Eckhardt, D H; Faller, J E; Kaula, W M; Mulholland, J D; Plotkin, H H; Silverberg, E C; Williams, J G
1973-10-19
The lunar ranging measurements now being made at the McDonald Observatory have an accuracy of 1 nsec in round-trip travel time. This corresponds to 15 cm in the one-way distance. The use of lasers with pulse-lengths of less than 1 nsec is expected to give an accuracy of 2 to 3 cm in the next few years. A new station is under construction in Hawaii, and additional stations in other countries are either in operation or under development. It is hoped that these stations will form the basis for a worldwide network to determine polar motion and earth rotation on a regular basis, and will assist in providing information about movement of the tectonic plates making up the earth's surface. Several mobile lunar ranging stations with telescopes having diameters of 1.0 m or less could, in the future, greatly extend the information obtainable about motions within and between the tectonic plates. The data obtained so far by the McDonald Observatory have been used to generate a new lunar ephemeris based on direct numerical integration of the equations of motion for the moon and planets. With this ephemeris, the range to the three Apollo retro-reflectors can be fit to an accuracy of 5 m by adjusting the differences in moments of inertia of the moon about its principal axes, the selenocentric coordinates of the reflectors, and the McDonald longitude. The accuracy of fitting the results is limited currently by errors of the order of an arc second in the angular orientation of the moon, as derived from the best available theory of how the moon rotates in response to the torques acting on it. Both a new calculation of the moon's orientation as a function of time based on direct numerical integration of the torque equations and a new analytic theory of the moon's orientation are expected to be available soon, and to improve considerably the accuracy of fitting the data. The accuracy already achieved routinely in lunar laser ranging represents a hundredfold improvement over any
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Culp, Robert D.; Mackison, Don; Fu, Ho-Ling
This paper deals with an advanced Kalman filter application to orbit determination from satellite tracking data. Modern control theory is used to set up an optimal Kalman gain for the estimation problem and to estimate its errors out of the system outputs. The classical orbit determination techniques have been used over the years for the evaluation of data analysis. A recent study was conducted to find the initial state values by modern orbit determination with Kalman gain. An original algorithm introduced by Born et al. (1986) has been applied to the spacecraft and earth satellite orbit determination for several years. The determination of the desired process and special Kalman gain for the best estimator include three kinds of computational algorithms: Batch, Sequential, and Extended Sequential processors. The model is based on a minimum variance using estimation and prediction techniques. Moreover, the estimation and computational algorithms have been modified in the UNIX system simulating to the TOPEX satellite orbit data process.
Orbit Determination Error Analysis Results for the Triana Sun-Earth L2 Libration Point Mission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marr, G.
2003-01-01
Using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS), orbit determination error analysis results are presented for all phases of the Triana Sun-Earth L1 libration point mission and for the science data collection phase of a future Sun-Earth L2 libration point mission. The Triana spacecraft was nominally to be released by the Space Shuttle in a low Earth orbit, and this analysis focuses on that scenario. From the release orbit a transfer trajectory insertion (TTI) maneuver performed using a solid stage would increase the velocity be approximately 3.1 km/sec sending Triana on a direct trajectory to its mission orbit. The Triana mission orbit is a Sun-Earth L1 Lissajous orbit with a Sun-Earth-vehicle (SEV) angle between 4.0 and 15.0 degrees, which would be achieved after a Lissajous orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver at approximately launch plus 6 months. Because Triana was to be launched by the Space Shuttle, TTI could potentially occur over a 16 orbit range from low Earth orbit. This analysis was performed assuming TTI was performed from a low Earth orbit with an inclination of 28.5 degrees and assuming support from a combination of three Deep Space Network (DSN) stations, Goldstone, Canberra, and Madrid and four commercial Universal Space Network (USN) stations, Alaska, Hawaii, Perth, and Santiago. These ground stations would provide coherent two-way range and range rate tracking data usable for orbit determination. Larger range and range rate errors were assumed for the USN stations. Nominally, DSN support would end at TTI+144 hours assuming there were no USN problems. Post-TTI coverage for a range of TTI longitudes for a given nominal trajectory case were analyzed. The orbit determination error analysis after the first correction maneuver would be generally applicable to any libration point mission utilizing a direct trajectory.
The use of laser altimetry data in Chang'E-1 precision orbit determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Sheng-Qi; Huang, Yong; Li, Pei-Jia; Hu, Xiao-Gong; Fan, Min
2016-09-01
Accurate altimetric measurement not only can be applied to the calculation of a topography model but also can be used to improve the quality of the orbit reconstruction in the form of crossovers. Altimetry data from the Chang'E-1 (CE-1) laser altimeter are analyzed in this paper. The differences between the crossover constraint equation in the form of height discrepancies and in the form of minimum distances are mainly discussed. The results demonstrate that the crossover constraint equation in the form of minimum distances improves the CE-1 orbit precision. The overlap orbit performance has increased ∼ 30% compared to the orbit using only tracking data. External assessment using the topography model also shows orbit improvement. The results will be helpful for recomputing ephemeris and improving the CE-1 topography model.
Validation of individual GOCE accelerometers by precise orbit determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Visser, Pieter N. A. M.
2012-07-01
The European Space Agency (ESA) Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circular Explorer (GOCE) carries a gradiometer consisting of three pairs of accelerometers in an orthogonal triad. Precise GOCE science orbit solutions (PSO), which are based on Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST) observations by the Global Positioning System (GPS) and which are claimed to be at the few cm precision level, can be used to validate the observations taken by the accelerometers. This has been done for each individual accelerometer by a dynamic orbit fit of the time series of position coordinates from the PSOs, where the accelerometer observations represent the non-gravitational accelerations. Since the accelerometers do not coincide with the center of mass of the GOCE satellite, the observations have to be corrected for rotational and gravity gradient terms. This is opposed to using the so-called common-mode accelerations, provided the center of the gradiometer coincides with the center of mass. Dynamic orbit fits based on these common-mode accelerations therefore served as reference. It will be shown that for all individual accelerometers similar dynamic orbit fits can be obtained, provided the above mentioned corrections are made. When using the common-mode accelerations, similar fits are obtained. In addition, attention will be paid to the possibility of estimating accelerometer calibration parameters, such as biases and scale factors.
Accurate Determination of Torsion and Pure Bending Moment for Viscoelastic Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yun-Che; Ko, Chih-Chin; Shiau, Li-Ming
Measurements of time-dependent material properties in the context of linear viscoelasticity, at a given frequency and temperature, require accurate determination of both loading and deformation that are subjected to the testing materials. A pendulum-type viscoelastic spectroscopy is developed to experimentally measure loss tangent and the magnitude of dynamic modulus of solid materials. The mechanical system of the device is based on the behavior of the cantilever beam, and torsion and pure bending moment are generated from the interaction between a permanent magnet and the Helmholtz coils. The strength of the magnetic interactions may be determined with a material with known mechanical properties, such as aluminum 6061T4 alloy. The sensitivity of the torque measurement is on the order of one micro N-m level. With the high accurate torque measurement and deformation detection from a laser-based displacement measurement system, viscoelastic properties of materials can be experimentally measured in different frequency regimes. Sinusoidal driving signals are adopted for measuring complex modulus in the sub-resonant regime, and dc bias driving for creep tests in the low frequency limit. At structural resonant frequencies, the full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) method or Lorentzian curve fitting method is adopted to extract material properties. The completion of determining material properties in the wide frequency spectrum may help to identify the deformation mechanisms of the material and to create better models for simulation work.
Orbit determination of highly elliptical Earth orbiters using improved Doppler data-processing modes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Estefan, J. A.
1995-01-01
A navigation error covariance analysis of four highly elliptical Earth orbits is described, with apogee heights ranging from 20,000 to 76,800 km and perigee heights ranging from 1,000 to 5,000 km. This analysis differs from earlier studies in that improved navigation data-processing modes were used to reduce the radio metric data. For this study, X-band (8.4-GHz) Doppler data were assumed to be acquired from two Deep Space Network radio antennas and reconstructed orbit errors propagated over a single day. Doppler measurements were formulated as total-count phase measurements and compared to the traditional formulation of differenced-count frequency measurements. In addition, an enhanced data-filtering strategy was used, which treated the principal ground system calibration errors affecting the data as filter parameters. Results suggest that a 40- to 60-percent accuracy improvement may be achievable over traditional data-processing modes in reconstructed orbit errors, with a substantial reduction in reconstructed velocity errors at perigee. Historically, this has been a regime in which stringent navigation requirements have been difficult to meet by conventional methods.
Stewart, W C L; Hager, V R
2016-01-01
In the analysis of DNA sequences on related individuals, most methods strive to incorporate as much information as possible, with little or no attention paid to the issue of statistical significance. For example, a modern workstation can easily handle the computations needed to perform a large-scale genome-wide inheritance-by-descent (IBD) scan, but accurate assessment of the significance of that scan is often hindered by inaccurate approximations and computationally intensive simulation. To address these issues, we developed gLOD—a test of co-segregation that, for large samples, models chromosome-specific IBD statistics as a collection of stationary Gaussian processes. With this simple model, the parametric bootstrap yields an accurate and rapid assessment of significance—the genome-wide corrected P-value. Furthermore, we show that (i) under the null hypothesis, the limiting distribution of the gLOD is the standard Gumbel distribution; (ii) our parametric bootstrap simulator is approximately 40 000 times faster than gene-dropping methods, and it is more powerful than methods that approximate the adjusted P-value; and, (iii) the gLOD has the same statistical power as the widely used maximum Kong and Cox LOD. Thus, our approach gives researchers the ability to determine quickly and accurately the significance of most large-scale IBD scans, which may contain multiple traits, thousands of families and tens of thousands of DNA sequences. PMID:27245422
Stewart, W C L; Hager, V R
2016-08-01
In the analysis of DNA sequences on related individuals, most methods strive to incorporate as much information as possible, with little or no attention paid to the issue of statistical significance. For example, a modern workstation can easily handle the computations needed to perform a large-scale genome-wide inheritance-by-descent (IBD) scan, but accurate assessment of the significance of that scan is often hindered by inaccurate approximations and computationally intensive simulation. To address these issues, we developed gLOD-a test of co-segregation that, for large samples, models chromosome-specific IBD statistics as a collection of stationary Gaussian processes. With this simple model, the parametric bootstrap yields an accurate and rapid assessment of significance-the genome-wide corrected P-value. Furthermore, we show that (i) under the null hypothesis, the limiting distribution of the gLOD is the standard Gumbel distribution; (ii) our parametric bootstrap simulator is approximately 40 000 times faster than gene-dropping methods, and it is more powerful than methods that approximate the adjusted P-value; and, (iii) the gLOD has the same statistical power as the widely used maximum Kong and Cox LOD. Thus, our approach gives researchers the ability to determine quickly and accurately the significance of most large-scale IBD scans, which may contain multiple traits, thousands of families and tens of thousands of DNA sequences. PMID:27245422
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pujol, A., Jr.
1983-01-01
The development of an accurate close range (from 0.0 meters to 30.0 meters) radar system for Teleoperator Maneuvering Systems (TMS) is discussed. The system under investigation is a digital processor that converts incoming signals from the radar system into their related frequency spectra. Identification will be attempted by correlating spectral characteristics with accurate range determinataions. The system will utilize an analog to digital converter for sampling and converting the signal from the radar system into 16-bit digital words (two bytes) for RAM storage, data manipulations, and computations. To remove unwanted frequency components the data will be retrieved from RAM and digitally filtered using large scale integration (LSI) circuits. Filtering will be performed by a biquadratic routine within the chip which carries out the required filter algorithm. For conversion to a frequency spectrum the filtered data will be processed by a Fast Fourier Transform chip. Analysis and identification of spectral characteristics for accurate range determinations will be made by microcomputer computations.
Jeynes, C; Barradas, N P; Szilágyi, E
2012-07-17
Ion beam analysis (IBA) is a cluster of techniques including Rutherford and non-Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Recently, the ability to treat multiple IBA techniques (including PIXE) self-consistently has been demonstrated. The utility of IBA for accurately depth profiling thin films is critically reviewed. As an important example of IBA, three laboratories have independently measured a silicon sample implanted with a fluence of nominally 5 × 10(15) As/cm(2) at an unprecedented absolute accuracy. Using 1.5 MeV (4)He(+) Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), each lab has demonstrated a combined standard uncertainty around 1% (coverage factor k = 1) traceable to an Sb-implanted certified reference material through the silicon electronic stopping power. The uncertainty budget shows that this accuracy is dominated by the knowledge of the electronic stopping, but that special care must also be taken to accurately determine the electronic gain of the detection system and other parameters. This RBS method is quite general and can be used routinely to accurately validate ion implanter charge collection systems, to certify SIMS standards, and for other applications. The generality of application of such methods in IBA is emphasized: if RBS and PIXE data are analysed self-consistently then the resulting depth profile inherits the accuracy and depth resolution of RBS and the sensitivity and elemental discrimination of PIXE. PMID:22681761
A calibration-independent method for accurate complex permittivity determination of liquid materials
Hasar, U. C.
2008-08-15
This note presents a calibration-independent method for accurate complex permittivity determination of liquid materials. There are two main advantages of the proposed method over those in the literature, which require measurements of two cells with different lengths loaded by the same liquid material. First, it eliminates any inhomogeneity or impurity present in the second sample and decreases the uncertainty in sample thickness. Second, it removes the undesired impacts of measurement plane deterioration on measurements of liquid materials. For validation of the proposed method, we measure the complex permittivity of distilled water and compare its extracted permittivity with the theoretical datum obtained from the Debye equation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arnaiz, H. H.
1975-01-01
As part of a NASA program to evaluate current methods of predicting the performance of large, supersonic airplanes, the drag of the XB-70 airplane was measured accurately in flight at Mach numbers from 0.75 to 2.5. This paper describes the techniques used to determine engine net thrust and the drag forces charged to the propulsion system that were required for the in-flight drag measurements. The accuracy of the measurements and the application of the measurement techniques to aircraft with different propulsion systems are discussed. Examples of results obtained for the XB-70 airplane are presented.
Accurate bulk density determination of irregularly shaped translucent and opaque aerogels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petkov, M. P.; Jones, S. M.
2016-05-01
We present a volumetric method for accurate determination of bulk density of aerogels, calculated from extrapolated weight of the dry pure solid and volume estimates based on the Archimedes' principle of volume displacement, using packed 100 μm-sized monodispersed glass spheres as a "quasi-fluid" media. Hard particle packing theory is invoked to demonstrate the reproducibility of the apparent density of the quasi-fluid. Accuracy rivaling that of the refractive index method is demonstrated for both translucent and opaque aerogels with different absorptive properties, as well as for aerogels with regular and irregular shapes.
Toppet, M
2005-01-01
The care of infancy and childhood blood diseases implies a comprehensive medicosocial approach. This is a prerequisite for regular follow-up, for satisfactory compliance to treatment and for optimal patient's quality of life. Different modalities of medicosocial approach have been developed in the pediatric department (firstly in the Hospital Saint Pierre and than in the Children's University Hospital HUDERF). The drastic importance of a recent reform of the increased family allowances is briefly presented. The author underlines the determinant role of an accurate global approach, in which the patient and the family are surrounded by a multidisciplinary team, including social workers. PMID:16454232
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Doll, C.; Mistretta, G.; Hart, R.; Oza, D.; Cox, C.; Nemesure, M.; Bolvin, D.; Samii, Mina V.
1993-01-01
Orbit determination results are obtained by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) using the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) and a real-time extended Kalman filter estimation system to process Tracking Data and Relay Satellite (TDRS) System (TDRSS) measurements in support of the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/Poseidon spacecraft navigation and health and safety operations. GTDS is the operational orbit determination system used by the FDD, and the extended Kalman fliter was implemented in an analysis prototype system, the Real-Time Orbit Determination System/Enhanced (RTOD/E). The Precision Orbit Determination (POD) team within the GSFC Space Geodesy Branch generates an independent set of high-accuracy trajectories to support the TOPEX/Poseidon scientific data. These latter solutions use the Geodynamics (GEODYN) orbit determination system with laser ranging tracking data. The TOPEX/Poseidon trajectories were estimated for the October 22 - November 1, 1992, timeframe, for which the latest preliminary POD results were available. Independent assessments were made of the consistencies of solutions produced by the batch and sequential methods. The batch cases were assessed using overlap comparisons, while the sequential cases were assessed with covariances and the first measurement residuals. The batch least-squares and forward-filtered RTOD/E orbit solutions were compared with the definitive POD orbit solutions. The solution differences were generally less than 10 meters (m) for the batch least squares and less than 18 m for the sequential estimation solutions. The differences among the POD, GTDS, and RTOD/E solutions can be traced to differences in modeling and tracking data types, which are being analyzed in detail.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luthcke, Scott; Rowlands, David; Lemoine, Frank; Zelensky, Nikita; Beckley, Brian; Klosko, Steve; Chinn, Doug
2006-01-01
Although satellite altimetry has been around for thirty years, the last fifteen beginning with the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon (TP) have yielded an abundance of significant results including: monitoring of ENS0 events, detection of internal tides, determination of accurate global tides, unambiguous delineation of Rossby waves and their propagation characteristics, accurate determination of geostrophic currents, and a multi-decadal time series of mean sea level trend and dynamic ocean topography variability. While the high level of accuracy being achieved is a result of both instrument maturity and the quality of models and correction algorithms applied to the data, improving the quality of the Climate Data Records produced from altimetry is highly dependent on concurrent progress being made in fields such as orbit determination. The precision orbits form the reference frame from which the radar altimeter observations are made. Therefore, the accuracy of the altimetric mapping is limited to a great extent by the accuracy to which a satellite orbit can be computed. The TP mission represents the first time that the radial component of an altimeter orbit was routinely computed with an accuracy of 2-cm. Recently it has been demonstrated that it is possible to compute the radial component of Jason orbits with an accuracy of better than 1-cm. Additionally, still further improvements in TP orbits are being achieved with new techniques and algorithms largely developed from combined Jason and TP data analysis. While these recent POD achievements are impressive, the new accuracies are now revealing subtle systematic orbit error that manifest as both intra and inter annual ocean topography errors. Additionally the construction of inter-decadal time series of climate data records requires the removal of systematic differences across multiple missions. Current and future efforts must focus on the understanding and reduction of these errors in order to generate a complete and
Dawn Orbit Determination Team : Trajectory Modeling and Reconstruction Processes at Vesta
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abrahamson, Matt; Ardito, Alessandro; Han, Don; Haw, Robert; Kennedy, Brian; Mastrodemos, Nicholas; Nandi, Sumita; Park, Ryan; Rush, Brian; Vaughan, Andrew
2013-01-01
The NASA Dawn spacecraft was launched on September 27, 2007 on a mission to study the asteroid belt's two largest objects, Vesta and Ceres. It is the first deep space orbiting mission to demonstrate solar-electric ion propulsion, providing the necessary delta-V to enable capture and escape from two extraterrestrial bodies. At this time, Dawn has completed its science campaign at Vesta and is currently on its journey to Ceres, where it will arrive in mid-2015. The spacecraft spent over a year in orbit around Vesta from July 2011 through August 2012, capturing science data during four dedicated orbit phases. In order to maintain the reference orbits necessary for science and enable the transfers between those orbits, precise and timely orbit determination was required. The constraints associated with low-thrust ion propulsion coupled with the relatively unknown a priori gravity and rotation models for Vesta presented unique challenges for the Dawn orbit determination team. While [1] discusses the prediction performance of the orbit determination products, this paper discusses the dynamics models, filter configuration, and data processing implemented to deliver a rapid orbit determination capability to the Dawn project.
Accurate age determinations of several nearby open clusters containing magnetic Ap stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silaj, J.; Landstreet, J. D.
2014-06-01
Context. To study the time evolution of magnetic fields, chemical abundance peculiarities, and other characteristics of magnetic Ap and Bp stars during their main sequence lives, a sample of these stars in open clusters has been obtained, as such stars can be assumed to have the same ages as the clusters to which they belong. However, in exploring age determinations in the literature, we find a large dispersion among different age determinations, even for bright, nearby clusters. Aims: Our aim is to obtain ages that are as accurate as possible for the seven nearby open clusters α Per, Coma Ber, IC 2602, NGC 2232, NGC 2451A, NGC 2516, and NGC 6475, each of which contains at least one magnetic Ap or Bp star. Simultaneously, we test the current calibrations of Te and luminosity for the Ap/Bp star members, and identify clearly blue stragglers in the clusters studied. Methods: We explore the possibility that isochrone fitting in the theoretical Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (i.e. log (L/L⊙) vs. log Te), rather than in the conventional colour-magnitude diagram, can provide more precise and accurate cluster ages, with well-defined uncertainties. Results: Well-defined ages are found for all the clusters studied. For the nearby clusters studied, the derived ages are not very sensitive to the small uncertainties in distance, reddening, membership, metallicity, or choice of isochrones. Our age determinations are all within the range of previously determined values, but the associated uncertainties are considerably smaller than the spread in recent age determinations from the literature. Furthermore, examination of proper motions and HR diagrams confirms that the Ap stars identified in these clusters are members, and that the presently accepted temperature scale and bolometric corrections for Ap stars are approximately correct. We show that in these theoretical HR diagrams blue stragglers are particularly easy to identify. Conclusions: Constructing the theoretical HR diagram
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desmars, J.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Braga-Ribas, F.; Vieira-Martins, R.; Assafin, M.; Vachier, F.; Colas, F.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Morales, N.; Sicardy, B.; Gomes-Júnior, A. R.; Benedetti-Rossi, G.
2015-12-01
Context. The prediction of stellar occultations by trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) and Centaurs is a difficult challenge that requires accuracy both in the occulted star position and in the object ephemeris. Until now, the most used method of prediction, involving dozens of TNOs/Centaurs, has been to consider a constant offset for the right ascension and for the declination with respect to a reference ephemeris, usually the latest public version. This offset is determined as the difference between the most recent observations of the TNO/Centaur and the reference ephemeris. This method can be successfully applied when the offset remains constant with time, i.e. when the orbit is stable enough. In this case, the prediction even holds for occultations that occur several days after the last observations. Aims: This paper presents an alternative method of prediction, based on a new accurate orbit determination procedure, which uses all the available positions of the TNO from the Minor Planet Center database, as well as sets of new astrometric positions from unpublished observations. Methods: Orbits were determined through a numerical integration procedure called NIMA, in which we developed a specific weighting scheme that considers the individual precision of the observation, the number of observations performed during one night by the same observatory, and the presence of systematic errors in the positions. Results: The NIMA method was applied to 51 selected TNOs and Centaurs. For this purpose, we performed about 2900 new observations in several observatories (European South Observatory, Observatório Pico dos Dias, Pic du Midi, etc.) during the 2007-2014 period. Using NIMA, we succeed in predicting the stellar occultations of 10 TNOs and 3 Centaurs between July 2013 and February 2015. By comparing the NIMA and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) ephemerides, we highlight the variation in the offset between them with time, by showing that, generally, the constant offset
Preliminary Orbit Determination of a Tethered Satellite Using the p-Iteration Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cicci, D. A.; Qualls, C.
2016-06-01
The possibility of the future deployment of tethered satellites has created a need for a preliminary orbit determination method capable of determining whether or not a satellite is tethered to another satellite. Classical preliminary orbit determination methods, which are used for untethered satellites, typically require two or more position vectors along with their respective observation times in order to determine a preliminary orbital element set. However, these conventional methods can't distinguish between an untethered satellite and a tethered one, whose motion is modified due to the presence of a tether force. The use of conventional methods on a satellite which is part of a tethered satellite system will result in the calculation of inaccurate orbital elements. Modifications have been made to the p-iteration preliminary orbit determination method in order to allow for the identification of these tethered satellites. The modifications allow for the calculation of a modified gravitational parameter, which can be used to distinguish between a tethered satellite and an untethered one. This paper applies this modified p-iteration method to the problem of the quick identification of a tethered satellite. The performance of this method is evaluated through scenarios of differing tether lengths, levels of observation error, and orbital eccentricities. Due to the need for the preliminary orbit determination to be achieved quickly, only short time intervals between observations were considered. The manner in which this preliminary orbit information can be used to obtain tether parameters for the subsequent differential correction process is also described.
Preliminary Orbit Determination of a Tethered Satellite Using the p-Iteration Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cicci, D. A.; Qualls, C.
2016-04-01
The possibility of the future deployment of tethered satellites has created a need for a preliminary orbit determination method capable of determining whether or not a satellite is tethered to another satellite. Classical preliminary orbit determination methods, which are used for untethered satellites, typically require two or more position vectors along with their respective observation times in order to determine a preliminary orbital element set. However, these conventional methods can't distinguish between an untethered satellite and a tethered one, whose motion is modified due to the presence of a tether force. The use of conventional methods on a satellite which is part of a tethered satellite system will result in the calculation of inaccurate orbital elements. Modifications have been made to the p-iteration preliminary orbit determination method in order to allow for the identification of these tethered satellites. The modifications allow for the calculation of a modified gravitational parameter, which can be used to distinguish between a tethered satellite and an untethered one. This paper applies this modified p-iteration method to the problem of the quick identification of a tethered satellite. The performance of this method is evaluated through scenarios of differing tether lengths, levels of observation error, and orbital eccentricities. Due to the need for the preliminary orbit determination to be achieved quickly, only short time intervals between observations were considered. The manner in which this preliminary orbit information can be used to obtain tether parameters for the subsequent differential correction process is also described.
Sub-meter GPS orbit determination and high precision user positioning - A demonstration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lichten, Stephen M.; Bertiger, Willy I.; Katsigris, Eugenia C.
1988-01-01
High-accuracy orbit solutions have been obtained for GPS satellites, and submeter orbit accuracy is demonstrated for two well-tracked satellites. Orbit accuracy was tested based upon orbit repeatability from independent data sets, orbit prediction, ground baseline determination, and formal errors. Baselines of up to 2000 km in North America found with the GPS orbits show a daily repeatability of 0.3-1.5 parts in 10 to the 8th, and are found to agree well with VLBI solutions at the level of 0.3-3 parts in 10 to the 8th. Baselines were also determined between Florida and sites in the Caribbean region over 1000 km away, with a daily repeatability of 1-4 parts in 10 to the 8th.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oza, D. H.; Jones, T. L.; Hodjatzadeh, M.; Samii, M. V.; Doll, C. E.; Hart, R. C.; Mistretta, G. D.
1991-01-01
The development of the Real-Time Orbit Determination/Enhanced (RTOD/E) system as a prototype system for sequential orbit determination on a Disk Operating System (DOS) based Personal Computer (PC) is addressed. The results of a study to compare the orbit determination accuracy of a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) user spacecraft obtained using RTOD/E with the accuracy of an established batch least squares system, the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS), is addressed. Independent assessments were made to examine the consistencies of results obtained by the batch and sequential methods. Comparisons were made between the forward filtered RTOD/E orbit solutions and definitive GTDS orbit solutions for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS); the maximum solution differences were less than 25 m after the filter had reached steady state.
Accurate determination of rates from non-uniformly sampled relaxation data.
Stetz, Matthew A; Wand, A Joshua
2016-08-01
The application of non-uniform sampling (NUS) to relaxation experiments traditionally used to characterize the fast internal motion of proteins is quantitatively examined. Experimentally acquired Poisson-gap sampled data reconstructed with iterative soft thresholding are compared to regular sequentially sampled (RSS) data. Using ubiquitin as a model system, it is shown that 25 % sampling is sufficient for the determination of quantitatively accurate relaxation rates. When the sampling density is fixed at 25 %, the accuracy of rates is shown to increase sharply with the total number of sampled points until eventually converging near the inherent reproducibility of the experiment. Perhaps contrary to some expectations, it is found that accurate peak height reconstruction is not required for the determination of accurate rates. Instead, inaccuracies in rates arise from inconsistencies in reconstruction across the relaxation series that primarily manifest as a non-linearity in the recovered peak height. This indicates that the performance of an NUS relaxation experiment cannot be predicted from comparison of peak heights using a single RSS reference spectrum. The generality of these findings was assessed using three alternative reconstruction algorithms, eight different relaxation measurements, and three additional proteins that exhibit varying degrees of spectral complexity. From these data, it is revealed that non-linearity in peak height reconstruction across the relaxation series is strongly correlated with errors in NUS-derived relaxation rates. Importantly, it is shown that this correlation can be exploited to reliably predict the performance of an NUS-relaxation experiment by using three or more RSS reference planes from the relaxation series. The RSS reference time points can also serve to provide estimates of the uncertainty of the sampled intensity, which for a typical relaxation times series incurs no penalty in total acquisition time. PMID:27393626
Observation error propagation on video meteor orbit determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
SonotaCo
2016-04-01
A new radiant direction error computation method on SonotaCo Network meteor observation data was tested. It uses single station observation error obtained by reference star measurement and trajectory linearity measurement on each video, as its source error value, and propagates this to the radiant and orbit parameter errors via the Monte Carlo simulation method. The resulting error values on a sample data set showed a reasonable error distribution that makes accuracy-based selecting feasible. A sample set of selected orbits obtained by this method revealed a sharper concentration of shower meteor radiants than we have ever seen before. The simultaneously observed meteor data sets published by the SonotaCo Network will be revised to include this error value on each record and will be publically available along with the computation program in near future.
Zhang, Shu-Xin; Chai, Xin-Sheng; He, Liang
2016-09-16
This work reports on a method for the accurate determination of fiber water-retaining capability at process conditions by headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) method. The method was based the HS-GC measurement of water vapor on a set closed vials containing in a given amount pulp with different amounts of water addition, from under-saturation to over-saturation. By plotting the equilibrated water vapor signal vs. the amount of water added in pulp, two different trend lines can be observed, in which the transition of the lines corresponds to fiber water-retaining capability. The results showed that the HS-GC method has good measurement precision (much better than the reference method) and good accuracy. The present method can be also used for determining pulp fiber water-retaining capability at the process temperatures in both laboratory research and mill applications. PMID:27554029
Rapid and accurate determination of the lignin content of lignocellulosic biomass by solid-state NMR
Fu, Li; McCallum, Scott A.; Miao, Jianjun; Hart, Courtney; Tudryn, Gregory J.; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J.
2014-01-01
Biofuels and biomaterials, produced from lignocellulosic feedstock, require facile access to cellulose and hemicellulose to be competitive with petroleum processing and sugar-based fermentation. Physical-chemical barriers resulting from lignin complicates the hydrolysis biomass into fermentable sugars. Thus, the amount of lignin within a substrate is critical in determining biomass processing. The application of 13C cross-polarization, magic-angle spinning, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance for the direct quantification of lignin content in biomass is examined. Using a standard curve constructed from pristine lignin and cellulose, the lignin content of a biomass sample is accurately determined through direct measurement without chemical or enzymatic pre-treatment. PMID:25404762
Fu, Li; McCallum, Scott A; Miao, Jianjun; Hart, Courtney; Tudryn, Gregory J; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J
2015-02-01
Biofuels and biomaterials, produced from lignocellulosic feedstock, require facile access to cellulose and hemicellulose to be competitive with petroleum processing and sugar-based fermentation. Physical-chemical barriers resulting from lignin complicates the hydrolysis biomass into fermentable sugars. Thus, the amount of lignin within a substrate is critical in determining biomass processing. The application of (13)C cross-polarization, magic-angle spinning, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance for the direct quantification of lignin content in biomass is examined. Using a standard curve constructed from pristine lignin and cellulose, the lignin content of a biomass sample is accurately determined through direct measurement without chemical or enzymatic pre-treatment. PMID:25404762
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oza, D. H.; Jones, T. L.; Feiertag, R.; Samii, M. V.; Doll, C. E.; Mistretta, G. D.; Hart, R. C.
1993-01-01
The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) commissioned Applied Technology Associates, Incorporated, to develop the Real-Time Orbit Determination/Enhanced (RTOD/E) system on a Disk Operating System (DOS)-based personal computer (PC) as a prototype system for sequential orbit determination of spacecraft. This paper presents the results of a study to compare the orbit determination accuracy for a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) System (TDRSS) user spacecraft, Landsat-4, obtained using RTOD/E, operating on a PC, with the accuracy of an established batch least-squares system, the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS), operating on a mainframe computer. The results of Landsat-4 orbit determination will provide useful experience for the Earth Observing System (EOS) series of satellites. The Landsat-4 ephemerides were estimated for the May 18-24, 1992, timeframe, during which intensive TDRSS tracking data for Landsat-4 were available. During this period, there were two separate orbit-adjust maneuvers on one of the TDRSS spacecraft (TDRS-East) and one small orbit-adjust maneuver for Landsat-4. Independent assessments were made of the consistencies (overlap comparisons for the batch case and covariances and the first measurement residuals for the sequential case) of solutions produced by the batch and sequential methods. The forward-filtered RTOD/E orbit solutions were compared with the definitive GTDS orbit solutions for Landsat-4; the solution differences were generally less than 30 meters after the filter had reached steady state.
Orbit Determination of Non-cooperative Targets Using Laser Ranging Data at Changchun Station
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, J. N.; Liu, C. Z.; Fan, C. B.; Sun, M. G.
2015-09-01
The precise orbit determination software successfully processes the satellite laser ranging data of the non-cooperative targets in a single station. The insufficient observation data and the sole distribution data have become a principal difficulty in the orbit determination of the non-cooperative targets. Through the choices of dynamic models and the selections of solving parameters in the process of orbit determination, the condition equation can be solved with a convergence algorithm, and the orbit is obtained. The positional deviation obtained with the method of orbital overlap will be used as the accuracy index in calculating more groups of non-cooperative targets data. And the ranging deviation is obtained by comparing the trajectory information after orbit determination with the observation data uninvolved in orbit determination, which can be regarded as the externally coincident precision. The results show that the average ranging residual is 1.01 meters, the outer precision is 14.35 meters, and the precision of 1-day orbit prediction is 24.60 meters for non-cooperative target (4814).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neese, Frank; Wennmohs, Frank; Hansen, Andreas
2009-03-01
Coupled-electron pair approximations (CEPAs) and coupled-pair functionals (CPFs) have been popular in the 1970s and 1980s and have yielded excellent results for small molecules. Recently, interest in CEPA and CPF methods has been renewed. It has been shown that these methods lead to competitive thermochemical, kinetic, and structural predictions. They greatly surpass second order Møller-Plesset and popular density functional theory based approaches in accuracy and are intermediate in quality between CCSD and CCSD(T) in extended benchmark studies. In this work an efficient production level implementation of the closed shell CEPA and CPF methods is reported that can be applied to medium sized molecules in the range of 50-100 atoms and up to about 2000 basis functions. The internal space is spanned by localized internal orbitals. The external space is greatly compressed through the method of pair natural orbitals (PNOs) that was also introduced by the pioneers of the CEPA approaches. Our implementation also makes extended use of density fitting (or resolution of the identity) techniques in order to speed up the laborious integral transformations. The method is called local pair natural orbital CEPA (LPNO-CEPA) (LPNO-CPF). The implementation is centered around the concepts of electron pairs and matrix operations. Altogether three cutoff parameters are introduced that control the size of the significant pair list, the average number of PNOs per electron pair, and the number of contributing basis functions per PNO. With the conservatively chosen default values of these thresholds, the method recovers about 99.8% of the canonical correlation energy. This translates to absolute deviations from the canonical result of only a few kcal mol-1. Extended numerical test calculations demonstrate that LPNO-CEPA (LPNO-CPF) has essentially the same accuracy as parent CEPA (CPF) methods for thermochemistry, kinetics, weak interactions, and potential energy surfaces but is up to 500
Comparison of ERBS orbit determination accuracy using batch least-squares and sequential methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oza, D. H.; Jones, T. L.; Fabien, S. M.; Mistretta, G. D.; Hart, R. C.; Doll, C. E.
1991-01-01
The Flight Dynamics Div. (FDD) at NASA-Goddard commissioned a study to develop the Real Time Orbit Determination/Enhanced (RTOD/E) system as a prototype system for sequential orbit determination of spacecraft on a DOS based personal computer (PC). An overview is presented of RTOD/E capabilities and the results are presented of a study to compare the orbit determination accuracy for a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) user spacecraft obtained using RTOS/E on a PC with the accuracy of an established batch least squares system, the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS), operating on a mainframe computer. RTOD/E was used to perform sequential orbit determination for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), and the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) was used to perform the batch least squares orbit determination. The estimated ERBS ephemerides were obtained for the Aug. 16 to 22, 1989, timeframe, during which intensive TDRSS tracking data for ERBS were available. Independent assessments were made to examine the consistencies of results obtained by the batch and sequential methods. Comparisons were made between the forward filtered RTOD/E orbit solutions and definitive GTDS orbit solutions for ERBS; the solution differences were less than 40 meters after the filter had reached steady state.
Orbit Determination and Navigation of the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mesarch, Michael A.; Robertson, Mika; Ottenstein, Neil; Nicholson, Ann; Nicholson, Mark; Ward, Douglas T.; Cosgrove, Jennifer; German, Darla; Hendry, Stephen; Shaw, James
2007-01-01
This paper provides an overview of the required upgrades necessary for navigation of NASA's twin heliocentric science missions, Solar TErestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) Ahead and Behind. The orbit determination of the STEREO spacecraft was provided by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) in support of the mission operations activities performed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The changes to FDF's orbit determination software included modeling upgrades as well as modifications required to process the Deep Space Network X-band tracking data used for STEREO. Orbit results as well as comparisons to independently computed solutions are also included. The successful orbit determination support aided in maneuvering the STEREO spacecraft, launched on October 26, 2006 (00:52 Z), to target the lunar gravity assists required to place the spacecraft into their final heliocentric drift-away orbits where they are providing stereo imaging of the Sun.
Orbit Determination and Navigation of the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mesarch, Michael; Robertson, Mika; Ottenstein, Neil; Nicholson, Ann; Nicholson, Mark; Ward, Douglas T.; Cosgrove, Jennifer; German, Darla; Hendry, Stephen; Shaw, James
2007-01-01
This paper provides an overview of the required upgrades necessary for navigation of NASA's twin heliocentric science missions, Solar TErestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) Ahead and Behind. The orbit determination of the STEREO spacecraft was provided by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) in support of the mission operations activities performed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The changes to FDF s orbit determination software included modeling upgrades as well as modifications required to process the Deep Space Network X-band tracking data used for STEREO. Orbit results as well as comparisons to independently computed solutions are also included. The successful orbit determination support aided in maneuvering the STEREO spacecraft, launched on October 26, 2006 (00:52 Z), to target the lunar gravity assists required to place the spacecraft into their final heliocentric drift-away orbits where they are providing stereo imaging of the Sun.
Orbit Determination and Quality Assessment Using SELENE Tracking Data and Results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goossens, Sander; Matsumoto, Koji; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Liu, Qinghui; Kikuchi, Fuyuhiko; Noda, Hirotomo; Namiki, Noriyuki; Iwata, Takahiro
On September 14, 2007, the SELENE (KAGUYA) spacecraft were launched from Tanegashima Space Center in Japan. SELENE consists of three satellites: a main orbiter in a 100 km by 100 km circular, polar orbit, and two small subsatellites in 100 km by 2400 km (Rstar) and 100 km by 800 km (Vstar) elliptical, polar orbits. Until now, tracking of lunar satellites consisted of 2-way (or 3-way, where the upand downlink stations are different) tracking, leaving a gap in the tracking coverage over the far side of the Moon as the satellite cannot be tracked there from Earth. This severely hampers the determination of the global lunar gravity field, and, consequently, this also puts limits on the precision of orbits of lunar satellites. By employing 4-way Doppler tracking between the main orbiter and Rstar, the first direct tracking data of a satellite over the far side have been obtained, resulting in a newly determined global lunar gravity field. The existing 2-way tracking data set is furthermore complemented by differential VLBI tracking between Rstar and Vstar, providing a sensitivity perpendicular to the line-ofsight from station to satellite. This work focuses on aspects of orbit determination for the SELENE satellites, including the processing strategies for data types using multiple satellites. Orbit determination quality is described in terms of data fit and, where possible, orbit overlap statistics. For the main satellite, the on-board altimeter provides an independent check of orbit quality through crossovers, although they are not yet systematically included in the orbit determination process. The performance of the VLBI data in the orbit determination of the small subsatellites is also discussed. The newly determined global lunar gravity field models from SELENE are evaluated in several ways: their performance when used in orbit determination of previous lunar satellites, and their ability in orbit prediction. Covariance analysis shows the expected orbit quality
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morinelli, Patrick; Cosgrove, jennifer; Blizzard, Mike; Nicholson, Ann; Robertson, Mika
2007-01-01
This paper provides an overview of the launch and early orbit activities performed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) in support of five probes comprising the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft. The FDF was tasked to support THEMIS in a limited capacity providing backup orbit determination support for validation purposes for all five THEMIS probes during launch plus 30 days in coordination with University of California Berkeley Flight Dynamics Center (UCB/FDC). The FDF's orbit determination responsibilities were originally planned to be as a backup to the UCB/FDC for validation purposes only. However, various challenges early on in the mission and a Spacecraft Emergency declared thirty hours after launch placed the FDF team in the role of providing the orbit solutions that enabled contact with each of the probes and the eventual termination of the Spacecraft Emergency. This paper details the challenges and various techniques used by the GSFC FDF team to successfully perform orbit determination for all five THEMIS probes during the early mission. In addition, actual THEMIS orbit determination results are presented spanning the launch and early orbit mission phase. Lastly, this paper enumerates lessons learned from the THEMIS mission, as well as demonstrates the broad range of resources and capabilities within the FDF for supporting critical launch and early orbit navigation activities, especially challenging for constellation missions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morinelli, Patrick; Cosgrove, Jennifer; Blizzard, Mike; Robertson, Mike
2007-01-01
This paper provides an overview of the launch and early orbit activities performed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) in support of five probes comprising the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft. The FDF was tasked to support THEMIS in a limited capacity providing backup orbit determination support for validation purposes for all five THEMIS probes during launch plus 30 days in coordination with University of California Berkeley Flight Dynamics Center (UCB/FDC)2. The FDF's orbit determination responsibilities were originally planned to be as a backup to the UCB/FDC for validation purposes only. However, various challenges early on in the mission and a Spacecraft Emergency declared thirty hours after launch placed the FDF team in the role of providing the orbit solutions that enabled contact with each of the probes and the eventual termination of the Spacecraft Emergency. This paper details the challenges and various techniques used by the GSFC FDF team to successfully perform orbit determination for all five THEMIS probes during the early mission. In addition, actual THEMIS orbit determination results are presented spanning the launch and early orbit mission phase. Lastly, this paper enumerates lessons learned from the THEMIS mission, as well as demonstrates the broad range of resources and capabilities within the FDF for supporting critical launch and early orbit navigation activities, especially challenging for constellation missions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Head, D. E.; Mitchell, K. L.
1967-01-01
Program computes the thermal environment of a spacecraft in a lunar orbit. The quantities determined include the incident flux /solar and lunar emitted radiation/, total radiation absorbed by a surface, and the resulting surface temperature as a function of time and orbital position.
Laser ranging network performance and routine orbit determination at D-PAF
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Massmann, Franz-Heinrich; Reigber, C.; Li, H.; Koenig, Rolf; Raimondo, J. C.; Rajasenan, C.; Vei, M.
1993-01-01
ERS-1 is now about 8 months in orbit and has been tracked by the global laser network from the very beginning of the mission. The German processing and archiving facility for ERS-1 (D-PAF) is coordinating and supporting the network and performing the different routine orbit determination tasks. This paper presents details about the global network status, the communication to D-PAF and the tracking data and orbit processing system at D-PAF. The quality of the preliminary and precise orbits are shown and some problem areas are identified.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fang, B. T.
1979-01-01
The TDRS was modeled as a combination of a sun-pointing solar panel and earth-pointing plate. Based on this model, explanations are given for the following orbit determination error characteristics: inherent limits in orbital accuracy, the variation of solar pressure induced orbital error with time of the day of epoch, the insensitivity of range-rate orbits to GM error, and optimum bilateration baseline.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Jiun-Tsong; Yunck, Thomas P.
1992-01-01
A covariance analysis is presented for satellite tracking and gravity recovery with a differential Global Positioning System-based technique to be demonstrated on TOPEX in the early 1990s. The technique employs data from an ensemble of repeat ground tracks to recover a unique satellite epoch state for each track and a set of invariant positional parameters common to all tracks. The positional parameters represent the effect of mismodeled gravitational field on the satellite orbit. At an altitude of 1336 km, where gravity modeling is the dominant systematic error, averaging of random error over many arcs and adjustment of the gravity model reduce the final satellite position error. The positional parameters can then be used to produce a refined global gravity model. The analysis indicates that errors ranging from 5 to 8 cm in TOPEX altitude and 0.05 to 0.2 mGal for the gravity field can be achieved, depending on the number of repeat arcs used.
Impact of tracking station distribution structure on BeiDou satellite orbit determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Qin; Huang, Guanwen; Wang, Le; Qu, Wei
2015-11-01
The racking station distribution structure plays an important role in GNSS satellite orbit determination. Due to the current satellite distribution of the BeiDou satellite navigation system (BDS), the problem how to construct a reasonable distribution of tracking stations to obtain BDS satellite orbits with high precision has become a highly imperative issue. Based on the theory of dynamic orbit determination, two different station distributions were analyzed to study their impact on BDS precise and real-time orbit determination. Subsequently, the impact of Satellite Position Dilution of Precision (SPDOP) values on orbit determination was analyzed. Finally, an improved scheme for the tracking station distribution was designed based on the original scheme. The numerical results show that the SPDOP value can be used to evaluate the contribution of the tracking stations distribution on the BDS IGSO and MEO satellites orbit determination. In addition, the tracking stations which focus on the Asia-Pacific region play a key role in current BDS orbit determination.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shavezipur, M.; Li, G. H.; Laboriante, I.; Gou, W. J.; Carraro, C.; Maboudian, R.
2011-11-01
This paper reports on accurate analysis of adhesion force between polysilicon-polysilicon surfaces in micro-/nanoelectromechanical systems (M/NEMS). The measurement is carried out using double-clamped beams. Electrostatic actuation and structural restoring force are exploited to respectively initiate and terminate the contact between the two surfaces under investigation. The adhesion force is obtained by balancing the electrostatic and mechanical forces acting on the beam just before the separation of the two surfaces. Different finite element models are developed to simulate the coupled-field multiphysics problem. The effects of fringing field in the electrostatic domain and geometric nonlinearity and residual stress in the structural domain are taken into consideration. Moreover, the beam stiffness is directly obtained for the case of combined loading (electrostatic and adhesion). Therefore, the overall electrostatic and structural forces used to extract the actual adhesion force from measured data are determined with high accuracy leading to accurate values for the adhesion force. The finite element simulations presented in this paper are not limited to adhesion force measurement and can be used to design or characterize electrostatically actuated devices such as MEM tunable capacitors and micromirrors, RF switches and M/NEM relays.
Precise Orbit Determination for the GEOSAT Follow-On Spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemoine, Frank G.; Rowlands, David D.; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Luthcke, Scott B.; Cox, Christopher M.; Marr, Gregory C.
1999-01-01
The US Navy's GEOSAT Follow-On spacecraft was launched on February 10, 1998 with its primary mission objective to map the oceans using a radar altimeter. The spacecraft tracking complement consists of GPS receivers, a laser retroreflector and Doppler beacons. Since the GPS receivers have not yet returned reliable data, the only means of providing high-quality precise orbits has been though satellite laser ranging (SLR). SLR has tracked the spacecraft since April 22, 1998, and an average of 7 passes per day have been obtained from US and foreign stations. Since the predicted radial orbit error due to the gravity field is only two to three cm, the largest contributor to the high SLR residuals (10 cm) is the mismodelling of the non-conservative forces. The SLR residuals show a clear correlation with beta prime (solar elevation) angle, peaking in mid-August 1998 when the beta prime angle reached -80 to -90 degrees. We report in this paper on the analysis of the GFO tracking data (SLR, Doppler, and if available GPS) using GEODYN, and on the tuning of the non-conservative force model and the gravity model using these data.
Orbit determination with the two-body integrals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gronchi, G. F.; Dimare, L.; Milani, A.
2010-07-01
We investigate a method to compute a finite set of preliminary orbits for solar system bodies using the first integrals of the Kepler problem. This method is thought for the applications to the modern sets of astrometric observations, where often the information contained in the observations allows only to compute, by interpolation, two angular positions of the observed body and their time derivatives at a given epoch; we call this set of data attributable. Given two attributables of the same body at two different epochs we can use the energy and angular momentum integrals of the two-body problem to write a system of polynomial equations for the topocentric distance and the radial velocity at the two epochs. We define two different algorithms for the computation of the solutions, based on different ways to perform elimination of variables and obtain a univariate polynomial. Moreover we use the redundancy of the data to test the hypothesis that two attributables belong to the same body ( linkage problem). It is also possible to compute a covariance matrix, describing the uncertainty of the preliminary orbits which results from the observation error statistics. The performance of this method has been investigated by using a large set of simulated observations of the Pan-STARRS project.
Determination of the diffuser reference plane for accurate illuminance responsivity calibrations
Hovila, Jari; Mustonen, Maria; Kaerhae, Petri; Ikonen, Erkki
2005-10-01
It is difficult to predict where the effective measurement plane is situated with dome-shaped diffusers often used in commercial photometers and radiometers. Insufficient knowledge of this plane could lead to large systematic errors in calibration of the illuminance responsivity of photometers. We propose a method that can be used to determine this reference plane accurately, based on the inverse-square law between the measured signal and the distance from the source. The method is demonstrated with three commercial photometers with dome-shaped diffusers of different geometries. By taking into account the measured shifts of the reference planes (5.0{+-}0.5 mm, 7.8{+-}0.3 mm, and 8.5{+-}0.7 mm), we reduced the systematic measurement errors up to 2% to statistical uncertainty components at the level of 0.2%.
Precise orbit determination for the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellite mission using GPS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Cheinway; Tseng, Tzu-Pang; Lin, Tingjung; Švehla, Dražen; Schreiner, Bill
2009-05-01
The joint Taiwan-US mission FORMOSAT-3/ COSMIC (COSMIC) was launched on April 17, 2006. Each of the six satellites is equipped with two POD antennas. The orbits of the six satellites are determined from GPS data using zero-difference carrier-phase measurements by the reduced dynamic and kinematic methods. The effects of satellite center of mass (COM) variation, satellite attitude, GPS antenna phase center variation (PCV), and cable delay difference on the COSMIC orbit determination are studied. Nominal attitudes estimated from satellite state vectors deliver a better orbit accuracy when compared to observed attitude. Numerical tests show that the COSMIC COM must be precisely calibrated in order not to corrupt orbit determination. Based on the analyses of the 5 and 6-h orbit overlaps of two 30-h arcs, orbit accuracies from the reduced dynamic and kinematic solutions are nearly identical and are at the 2-3 cm level. The mean RMS difference between the orbits from this paper and those from UCAR (near real-time) and WHU (post-processed) is about 10 cm, which is largely due to different uses of GPS ephemerides, high-rate GPS clocks and force models. The kinematic orbits of COSMIC are expected to be used for recovery of temporal variations in the gravity field.
Improved solution accuracy for TDRSS-based TOPEX/Poseidon orbit determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Doll, C. E.; Mistretta, G. D.; Hart, R. C.; Oza, D. H.; Bolvin, D. T.; Cox, C. M.; Nemesure, M.; Niklewski, D. J.; Samii, M. V.
1994-01-01
Orbit determination results are obtained by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) using a batch-least-squares estimator available in the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) and an extended Kalman filter estimation system to process Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) System (TDRSS) measurements. GTDS is the operational orbit determination system used by the FDD in support of the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/Poseidon spacecraft navigation and health and safety operations. The extended Kalman filter was implemented in an orbit determination analysis prototype system, closely related to the Real-Time Orbit Determination System/Enhanced (RTOD/E) system. In addition, the Precision Orbit Determination (POD) team within the GSFC Space Geodesy Branch generated an independent set of high-accuracy trajectories to support the TOPEX/Poseidon scientific data. These latter solutions use the geodynamics (GEODYN) orbit determination system with laser ranging and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning integrated by satellite (DORIS) tracking measurements. The TOPEX/Poseidon trajectories were estimated for November 7 through November 11, 1992, the timeframe under study. Independent assessments were made of the consistencies of solutions produced by the batch and sequential methods. The batch-least-squares solutions were assessed based on the solution residuals, while the sequential solutions were assessed based on primarily the estimated covariances. The batch-least-squares and sequential orbit solutions were compared with the definitive POD orbit solutions. The solution differences were generally less than 2 meters for the batch-least-squares and less than 13 meters for the sequential estimation solutions. After the sequential estimation solutions were processed with a smoother algorithm, position differences with POD orbit solutions of less than 7 meters were obtained. The differences among the POD, GTDS, and filter
Distance-based relative orbital elements determination for formation flying system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Yanchao; Xu, Ming; Chen, Xi
2016-01-01
The present paper deals with determination of relative orbital elements based only on distance between satellites in the formation flying system, which has potential application in engineering, especially suited for rapid orbit determination required missions. A geometric simplification is performed to reduce the formation configuration in three-dimensional space to a plane. Then the equivalent actual configuration deviating from its nominal design is introduced to derive a group of autonomous linear equations on the mapping between the relative orbital elements differences and distance errors. The primary linear equations-based algorithm is initially proposed to conduct the rapid and precise determination of the relative orbital elements without the complex computation, which is further improved by least-squares method with more distance measurements taken into consideration. Numerical simulations and comparisons with traditional approaches are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. To assess the performance of the two proposed algorithms, accuracy validation and Monte Carlo simulations are implemented in the presence of noises of distance measurements and the leader's absolute orbital elements. It is demonstrated that the relative orbital elements determination accuracy of two approaches reaches more than 90% and even close to the actual values for the least-squares improved one. The proposed approaches can be alternates for relative orbit determination without assistance of additional facilities in engineering for their fairly high efficiency with accuracy and autonomy.
Chen, Yu-Wen; Tseng, Sheng-Hao
2015-03-01
In general, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) systems work with photon diffusion models to determine the absorption coefficient μa and reduced scattering coefficient μs' of turbid samples. However, in some DRS measurement scenarios, such as using short source-detector separations to investigate superficial tissues with comparable μa and μs', photon diffusion models might be invalid or might not have analytical solutions. In this study, a systematic workflow of constructing a rapid, accurate photon transport model that is valid at short source-detector separations (SDSs) and at a wide range of sample albedo is revealed. To create such a model, we first employed a GPU (Graphic Processing Unit) based Monte Carlo model to calculate the reflectance at various sample optical property combinations and established a database at high speed. The database was then utilized to train an artificial neural network (ANN) for determining the sample absorption and reduced scattering coefficients from the reflectance measured at several SDSs without applying spectral constraints. The robustness of the produced ANN model was rigorously validated. We evaluated the performance of a successfully trained ANN using tissue simulating phantoms. We also determined the 500-1000 nm absorption and reduced scattering spectra of in-vivo skin using our ANN model and found that the values agree well with those reported in several independent studies. PMID:25798300
Accurate determination of the successive moments of the sun: a new window open on the sun's interior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozelot, J. P.; Godier, S.
Despite its great importance for solar physics, mainly in the fields of solar fundamental astrometry, helioseismology, planetary motions and relativistic effects, the successive zonal harmonics of the Sun still remain elusive and subject to some controversy. Direct observations from the ground suffer from atmospheric effects and are not of enough accuracy. Up to now, space flights (SOHO) or balloon missions give consistent data but lead to spurious results due to the noise. As far as indirect observations are concerned, the more precise determination of the successive moments (mainly J 2, J 4 and even J 6), will be provided unambiguously by the study of the orbit of a spacecraft flying close to the Sun or around Mercury. This has been scheduled, but not yet achieved. In this paper we will first emphasize why it is important to know the successive zonal harmonics of the Sun with a high accuracy. We will show how their precise knowledge permits to obtain informations on the Sun's interior, mainly the shear's regions (tacholine or leptocline). Then we will give an up-to-date review of both theories (including the heliosismology approach) and data. We will explain some of the difficulties, mainly due to the differential rotation and we will give an insight of what the PICARD's mission will bring in that field. Then we will propose a novel concept for a Sun's mission, which would lead to the most accurate determination of the successive solar moments (that could be part of another project), and thus opening a new window on the Sun's interior.
Orbiting Deep Space Relay Station (ODSRS). Volume 1: Requirement determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunter, J. A.
1979-01-01
The deep space communications requirements of the post-1985 time frame are described and the orbiting deep space relay station (ODSRS) is presented as an option for meeting these requirements. Under current conditions, the ODSRS is not yet cost competitive with Earth based stations to increase DSN telemetry performance, but has significant advantages over a ground station, and these are sufficient to maintain it as a future option. These advantages include: the ability to track a spacecraft 24 hours per day with ground stations located only in the USA; the ability to operate at higher frequencies that would be attenuated by Earth's atmosphere; and the potential for building very large structures without the constraints of Earth's gravity.
The use of mixed observations from one station to determine the preliminary orbits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baghos, B. B.
The use of mixed observations from a laser tracking station whose geodetic coordinates are known, to determine a preliminary orbit is examined. The method has the advantage of being able to determine an osculating orbit without using iterative processes or the truncated f and g series. By using mixed data obtained from Ondrejov Observatory for the satellite, Starlette, the numerical stability of the method is discussed. A computer routine in basic FORTRAN, which illlustrates the procedure, is given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sow, P. L. T.; Merji, S.; Tokunaga, S. K.; Lemarchand, C.; Triki, M.; Borde, C.; Chardonnet, C.; Darquie, B.; Daussy, C.
2013-06-01
Accurate molecular spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region allows precision measurements of fundamental constants. For instance, measuring the linewidth of an isolated Doppler-broadened absorption line of ammonia around 10 μm enables a determination of the Boltzmann constant k_{{B}}. We report on our latest measurements. The main systematic effects, including the temperature control, will be discussed and an error budget will be presented in which the global uncertainty on systematic effects is at the level of a few ppm. This is valid provided that data is recorded under the optimized experimental conditions determined by the studies of systematic effects and provided that spectra are fitted to the speed-dependent Voigt profile, identified as the most suitable lineshape for our measurements. A determination of k_{{B}} by Doppler spectroscopy with a combined uncertainty of a few ppm is within reach. This is comparable to the best current uncertainty obtained using acoustic methods and would make a significant contribution to any new value of k_{{B}} determined by the CODATA. Furthermore, having multiple independent measurements at these accuracies opens the possibility of defining the Kelvin by fixing k_{{B}}, an exciting prospect considering the upcoming redefinition of the International System of Units (SI). C. Lemarchand, M. Triki, B. Darquié, C. J. Bordé, C. Chardonnet and C. Daussy, New J. Phys. 13, 073028 (2011). M. Triki, C. Lemarchand, B. Darquié, P. L. T. Sow, V. Roncin, C. Chardonnet, and C. Daussy, Phys. Rev. A 85, 062510 (2012).
Accurate determination of the complex refractive index of solid tissue-equivalent phantom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jin; Ye, Qing; Deng, Zhichao; Zhou, Wenyuan; Zhang, Chunping; Tian, Jianguo
2012-06-01
Tissue-equivalent phantom is becoming widespread as a substitute in the biological field to verify optical theories, test measuring systems and study the tissue performances for varying boundary conditions, sample size and shape at a quantitative level. Compared with phantoms made with Intralipid solution, ink and other liquid substances, phantom in solid state is stable over time, reproducible, easy to handle and has been testified to be a suitable optical simulator in the visible and near-infrared region. We present accurate determination of the complex refractive index (RI) of a solid tissueequivalent phantom using extended derivative total reflection method (EDTRM). Scattering phantoms in solid state were measured for p-polarized and s-polarized incident light respectively. The reflectance curves of the sample as a function of incident angle were recorded. The real part of RI is directly determined by derivative of the reflectance curve, and the imaginary part is obtained from nonlinear fitting based on the Fresnel equation and Nelder-Mead simplex method. The EDTRM method is applicable for RI measurement of high scattering media such as biotissue, solid tissue-equivalent phantom and bulk material. The obtained RI information can be used in the study of tissue optics and biomedical field.
An accurate and nondestructive GC method for determination of cocaine on US paper currency.
Zuo, Yuegang; Zhang, Kai; Wu, Jingping; Rego, Christopher; Fritz, John
2008-07-01
The presence of cocaine on US paper currency has been known for a long time. Banknotes become contaminated during the exchange, storage, and abuse of cocaine. The analysis of cocaine on various denominations of US banknotes in the general circulation can provide law enforcement circles and forensic epidemiologists objective and timely information on epidemiology of illicit drug use and on how to differentiate money contaminated in the general circulation from banknotes used in drug transaction. A simple, nondestructive, and accurate capillary gas chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of cocaine on various denominations of US banknotes in this study. The method comprises a fast ultrasonic extraction using water as a solvent followed by a SPE cleanup process with a C(18) cartridge and capillary GC separation, identification, and quantification. This nondestructive analytical method has been successfully applied to determine the cocaine contamination in US paper currency of all denominations. Standard calibration curve was linear over the concentration range from the LOQ (2.00 ng/mL) to 100 microg/mL and the RSD less than 2.0%. Cocaine was detected in 67% of the circulated banknotes collected in Southeastern Massachusetts in amounts ranging from approximately 2 ng to 49.4 microg per note. On average, $5, 10, 20, and 50 denominations contain higher amounts of cocaine than $1 and 100 denominations of US banknotes. PMID:18646272
Puhakka, Pia H; Te Moller, Nikae C R; Tanska, Petri; Saarakkala, Simo; Tiitu, Virpi; Korhonen, Rami K; Brommer, Harold; Virén, Tuomas; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Töyräs, Juha
2016-08-01
Background and purpose - Arthroscopic estimation of articular cartilage thickness is important for scoring of lesion severity, and measurement of cartilage speed of sound (SOS)-a sensitive index of changes in cartilage composition. We investigated the accuracy of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in measurements of cartilage thickness and determined SOS by combining OCT thickness and ultrasound (US) time-of-flight (TOF) measurements. Material and methods - Cartilage thickness measurements from OCT and microscopy images of 94 equine osteochondral samples were compared. Then, SOS in cartilage was determined using simultaneous OCT thickness and US TOF measurements. SOS was then compared with the compositional, structural, and mechanical properties of cartilage. Results - Measurements of non-calcified cartilage thickness using OCT and microscopy were significantly correlated (ρ = 0.92; p < 0.001). With calcified cartilage included, the correlation was ρ = 0.85 (p < 0.001). The mean cartilage SOS (1,636 m/s) was in agreement with the literature. However, SOS and the other properties of cartilage lacked any statistically significant correlation. Interpretation - OCT can give an accurate measurement of articular cartilage thickness. Although SOS measurements lacked accuracy in thin equine cartilage, the concept of SOS measurement using OCT appears promising. PMID:27164159
A method for accurate determination of terminal sequences of viral genomic RNA.
Weng, Z; Xiong, Z
1995-09-01
A combination of ligation-anchored PCR and anchored cDNA cloning techniques were used to clone the termini of the saguaro cactus virus (SCV) RNA genome. The terminal sequences of the viral genome were subsequently determined from the clones. The 5' terminus was cloned by ligation-anchored PCR, whereas the 3' terminus was obtained by a technique we term anchored cDNA cloning. In anchored cDNA cloning, an anchor oligonucleotide was prepared by phosphorylation at the 5' end, followed by addition of a dideoxynucleotide at the 3' end to block the free hydroxyl group. The 5' end of the anchor was subsequently ligated to the 3' end of SCV RNA. The anchor-ligated, chimerical viral RNA was then reverse-transcribed into cDNA using a primer complementary to the anchor. The cDNA containing the complete 3'-terminal sequence was converted into ds-cDNA, cloned, and sequenced. Two restriction sites, one within the viral sequence and one within the primer sequence, were used to facilitate cloning. The combination of these techniques proved to be an easy and accurate way to determine the terminal sequences of SCV RNA genome and should be applicable to any other RNA molecules with unknown terminal sequences. PMID:9132274
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dominquez, Jesus A.; Tate, Lanetra C.; Wright, M. Clara; Caraccio, Anne
2013-01-01
Accomplishing the best-performing composite matrix (resin) requires that not only the processing method but also the cure cycle generate low-void-content structures. If voids are present, the performance of the composite matrix will be significantly reduced. This is usually noticed by significant reductions in matrix-dominated properties, such as compression and shear strength. Voids in composite materials are areas that are absent of the composite components: matrix and fibers. The characteristics of the voids and their accurate estimation are critical to determine for high performance composite structures. One widely used method of performing void analysis on a composite structure sample is acquiring optical micrographs or Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of lateral sides of the sample and retrieving the void areas within the micrographs/images using an image analysis technique. Segmentation for the retrieval and subsequent computation of void areas within the micrographs/images is challenging as the gray-scaled values of the void areas are close to the gray-scaled values of the matrix leading to the need of manually performing the segmentation based on the histogram of the micrographs/images to retrieve the void areas. The use of an algorithm developed by NASA and based on Fuzzy Reasoning (FR) proved to overcome the difficulty of suitably differentiate void and matrix image areas with similar gray-scaled values leading not only to a more accurate estimation of void areas on composite matrix micrographs but also to a faster void analysis process as the algorithm is fully autonomous.
Study of geopotential error models used in orbit determination error analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yee, C.; Kelbel, D.; Lee, T.; Samii, M. V.; Mistretta, G. D.; Hart, R. C.
1991-01-01
The uncertainty in the geopotential model is currently one of the major error sources in the orbit determination of low-altitude Earth-orbiting spacecraft. The results of an investigation of different geopotential error models and modeling approaches currently used for operational orbit error analysis support at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) are presented, with emphasis placed on sequential orbit error analysis using a Kalman filtering algorithm. Several geopotential models, known as the Goddard Earth Models (GEMs), were developed and used at GSFC for orbit determination. The errors in the geopotential models arise from the truncation errors that result from the omission of higher order terms (omission errors) and the errors in the spherical harmonic coefficients themselves (commission errors). At GSFC, two error modeling approaches were operationally used to analyze the effects of geopotential uncertainties on the accuracy of spacecraft orbit determination - the lumped error modeling and uncorrelated error modeling. The lumped error modeling approach computes the orbit determination errors on the basis of either the calibrated standard deviations of a geopotential model's coefficients or the weighted difference between two independently derived geopotential models. The uncorrelated error modeling approach treats the errors in the individual spherical harmonic components as uncorrelated error sources and computes the aggregate effect using a combination of individual coefficient effects. This study assesses the reasonableness of the two error modeling approaches in terms of global error distribution characteristics and orbit error analysis results. Specifically, this study presents the global distribution of geopotential acceleration errors for several gravity error models and assesses the orbit determination errors resulting from these error models for three types of spacecraft - the Gamma Ray Observatory, the Ocean Topography Experiment, and the Cosmic
Improved solution accuracy for Landsat-4 (TDRSS-user) orbit determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oza, D. H.; Niklewski, D. J.; Doll, C. E.; Mistretta, G. D.; Hart, R. C.
1994-01-01
This paper presents the results of a study to compare the orbit determination accuracy for a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) user spacecraft, Landsat-4, obtained using a Prototype Filter Smoother (PFS), with the accuracy of an established batch-least-squares system, the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS). The results of Landsat-4 orbit determination will provide useful experience for the Earth Observing System (EOS) series of satellites. The Landsat-4 ephemerides were estimated for the January 17-23, 1991, timeframe, during which intensive TDRSS tracking data for Landsat-4 were available. Independent assessments were made of the consistencies (overlap comparisons for the batch case and convariances for the sequential case) of solutions produced by the batch and sequential methods. The filtered and smoothed PFS orbit solutions were compared with the definitive GTDS orbit solutions for Landsat-4; the solution differences were generally less than 15 meters.
Determination of Eros Physical Parameters for Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous Orbit Phase Navigation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, J. K.; Antreasian, P. J.; Georgini, J.; Owen, W. M.; Williams, B. G.; Yeomans, D. K.
1995-01-01
Navigation of the orbit phase of the Near Earth steroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission will re,quire determination of certain physical parameters describing the size, shape, gravity field, attitude and inertial properties of Eros. Prior to launch, little was known about Eros except for its orbit which could be determined with high precision from ground based telescope observations. Radar bounce and light curve data provided a rough estimate of Eros shape and a fairly good estimate of the pole, prime meridian and spin rate. However, the determination of the NEAR spacecraft orbit requires a high precision model of Eros's physical parameters and the ground based data provides only marginal a priori information. Eros is the principal source of perturbations of the spacecraft's trajectory and the principal source of data for determining the orbit. The initial orbit determination strategy is therefore concerned with developing a precise model of Eros. The original plan for Eros orbital operations was to execute a series of rendezvous burns beginning on December 20,1998 and insert into a close Eros orbit in January 1999. As a result of an unplanned termination of the rendezvous burn on December 20, 1998, the NEAR spacecraft continued on its high velocity approach trajectory and passed within 3900 km of Eros on December 23, 1998. The planned rendezvous burn was delayed until January 3, 1999 which resulted in the spacecraft being placed on a trajectory that slowly returns to Eros with a subsequent delay of close Eros orbital operations until February 2001. The flyby of Eros provided a brief glimpse and allowed for a crude estimate of the pole, prime meridian and mass of Eros. More importantly for navigation, orbit determination software was executed in the landmark tracking mode to determine the spacecraft orbit and a preliminary shape and landmark data base has been obtained. The flyby also provided an opportunity to test orbit determination operational procedures that will be
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dinpajooh, Mohammadhasan; Bai, Peng; Allan, Douglas A.; Siepmann, J. Ilja
2015-09-01
Since the seminal paper by Panagiotopoulos [Mol. Phys. 61, 813 (1997)], the Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo (GEMC) method has been the most popular particle-based simulation approach for the computation of vapor-liquid phase equilibria. However, the validity of GEMC simulations in the near-critical region has been questioned because rigorous finite-size scaling approaches cannot be applied to simulations with fluctuating volume. Valleau [Mol. Simul. 29, 627 (2003)] has argued that GEMC simulations would lead to a spurious overestimation of the critical temperature. More recently, Patel et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 024101 (2011)] opined that the use of analytical tail corrections would be problematic in the near-critical region. To address these issues, we perform extensive GEMC simulations for Lennard-Jones particles in the near-critical region varying the system size, the overall system density, and the cutoff distance. For a system with N = 5500 particles, potential truncation at 8σ and analytical tail corrections, an extrapolation of GEMC simulation data at temperatures in the range from 1.27 to 1.305 yields Tc = 1.3128 ± 0.0016, ρc = 0.316 ± 0.004, and pc = 0.1274 ± 0.0013 in excellent agreement with the thermodynamic limit determined by Potoff and Panagiotopoulos [J. Chem. Phys. 109, 10914 (1998)] using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling. Critical properties estimated using GEMC simulations with different overall system densities (0.296 ≤ ρt ≤ 0.336) agree to within the statistical uncertainties. For simulations with tail corrections, data obtained using rcut = 3.5σ yield Tc and pc that are higher by 0.2% and 1.4% than simulations with rcut = 5 and 8σ but still with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. In contrast, GEMC simulations with a truncated and shifted potential show that rcut = 8σ is insufficient to obtain accurate results. Additional GEMC simulations for hard-core square-well particles with various ranges of the
How accurately can the peak skin dose in fluoroscopy be determined using indirect dose metrics?
Jones, A. Kyle; Ensor, Joe E.; Pasciak, Alexander S.
2014-07-15
Purpose: Skin dosimetry is important for fluoroscopically-guided interventions, as peak skin doses (PSD) that result in skin reactions can be reached during these procedures. There is no consensus as to whether or not indirect skin dosimetry is sufficiently accurate for fluoroscopically-guided interventions. However, measuring PSD with film is difficult and the decision to do so must be madea priori. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of different types of indirect dose estimates and to determine if PSD can be calculated within ±50% using indirect dose metrics for embolization procedures. Methods: PSD were measured directly using radiochromic film for 41 consecutive embolization procedures at two sites. Indirect dose metrics from the procedures were collected, including reference air kerma. Four different estimates of PSD were calculated from the indirect dose metrics and compared along with reference air kerma to the measured PSD for each case. The four indirect estimates included a standard calculation method, the use of detailed information from the radiation dose structured report, and two simplified calculation methods based on the standard method. Indirect dosimetry results were compared with direct measurements, including an analysis of uncertainty associated with film dosimetry. Factors affecting the accuracy of the different indirect estimates were examined. Results: When using the standard calculation method, calculated PSD were within ±35% for all 41 procedures studied. Calculated PSD were within ±50% for a simplified method using a single source-to-patient distance for all calculations. Reference air kerma was within ±50% for all but one procedure. Cases for which reference air kerma or calculated PSD exhibited large (±35%) differences from the measured PSD were analyzed, and two main causative factors were identified: unusually small or large source-to-patient distances and large contributions to reference air kerma from cone
Dinpajooh, Mohammadhasan; Bai, Peng; Allan, Douglas A.; Siepmann, J. Ilja
2015-09-21
Since the seminal paper by Panagiotopoulos [Mol. Phys. 61, 813 (1997)], the Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo (GEMC) method has been the most popular particle-based simulation approach for the computation of vapor–liquid phase equilibria. However, the validity of GEMC simulations in the near-critical region has been questioned because rigorous finite-size scaling approaches cannot be applied to simulations with fluctuating volume. Valleau [Mol. Simul. 29, 627 (2003)] has argued that GEMC simulations would lead to a spurious overestimation of the critical temperature. More recently, Patel et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 024101 (2011)] opined that the use of analytical tail corrections would be problematic in the near-critical region. To address these issues, we perform extensive GEMC simulations for Lennard-Jones particles in the near-critical region varying the system size, the overall system density, and the cutoff distance. For a system with N = 5500 particles, potential truncation at 8σ and analytical tail corrections, an extrapolation of GEMC simulation data at temperatures in the range from 1.27 to 1.305 yields T{sub c} = 1.3128 ± 0.0016, ρ{sub c} = 0.316 ± 0.004, and p{sub c} = 0.1274 ± 0.0013 in excellent agreement with the thermodynamic limit determined by Potoff and Panagiotopoulos [J. Chem. Phys. 109, 10914 (1998)] using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling. Critical properties estimated using GEMC simulations with different overall system densities (0.296 ≤ ρ{sub t} ≤ 0.336) agree to within the statistical uncertainties. For simulations with tail corrections, data obtained using r{sub cut} = 3.5σ yield T{sub c} and p{sub c} that are higher by 0.2% and 1.4% than simulations with r{sub cut} = 5 and 8σ but still with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. In contrast, GEMC simulations with a truncated and shifted potential show that r{sub cut} = 8σ is insufficient to obtain accurate results. Additional GEMC simulations for hard
Taking advantage of the MEMO orbiter to improve the determination of Mars' gravity field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenblatt, P.; Le Maitre, S.; Marty, J. C.; Duron, J.; Dehant, V.
2007-08-01
In the context of future ESA's mission to Mars, it is proposed an orbiter named MEMO (Mars Escape and Magnetic Orbiter) to especially improve the measurement of the atmospheric escape and the magnetic field of the planet. Its orbit is planned to have an inclination of 77 degrees and periapsis and apoapsis altitude of 130 km and 1000 km, respectively. In addition, such an orbit is scheduled to be maintained during one Martian year. This differs from the usual near-polar, near-circular orbit with a periapsis altitude of at least 200 km, such as for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Even if the MEMO orbiter is not dedicated to Mars' gravity field investigation, we propose to take this opportunity to improve our knowledge of Mars' gravity field. Indeed, the sensitivity of an orbiter to the gravity field strongly depends on the semi-major axis, inclination and eccentricity of its orbit. In this study, we quantitatively estimate the improvement on the determination of local gravity anomalies, of seasonal variations of the first zonal harmonics and of the k2 Love number of Mars. We base our work on both analytical and numerical approaches in order to simulate the Mars' gravity field determination from spacecraft tracking data from the Earth.We also add in our simulations the possibility to have an accelerometer onboard the MEMO spacecraft. Indeed, if it is placed at the center of mass of the spacecraft, it could provide measurements of the non-gravitational forces acting on it, especially the atmospheric drag. A good determination of the contribution of this force to the spacecraft motion would bring information about the atmospheric density at altitude between 100 and 200 km, and would improve the gravity field determination from tracking data of the spacecraft.
Ren Shulin; Fu Yanning E-mail: fyn@pmo.ac.c
2010-05-15
Untill now, the Hipparcos intermediate astrometric data (HIAD) have contributed little to the full orbit determination of double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2s). This is because the photocenter of such a binary system is usually not far from the system mass center, and its orbital wobble is generally weak with respect to the accuracy of the HIAD. However, the HIAD have been recently revised and the accuracy is increased by a factor of 2.2 in the total weight. Therefore, it is interesting to see if the revised HIAD can be used in the orbit determination at least for some SB2s. In this paper, we first search the 9th Catalogue of Orbits of Spectroscopic Binaries (S{sub B{sup 9}}) for SB2s with reliable spectroscopic orbital solutions and with periods between 50 days and 3.2 years. This leaves us with 56 systems. The full orbital solutions of these systems are then determined from the HIAD by a highly efficient grid search method developed in this paper. The high efficiency is achieved by reducing the number of nonlinear model parameters to one, and by allowing all parameters to be adjustable within a region centered at each grid point. After a variety of tests, we finally accept orbital solutions of 13 systems. Among these systems, six (HIP 677, 20894, 87895, 95995, 101382, and 111170) are well resolved with reliable interferometric data. Orbital solutions from these data are consistent with our results. The full orbital solutions of the other seven systems (HIP 9121, 17732, 32040, 57029, 76006, 102431, and 116360) are determined for the first time.
TDRSS-user orbit determination using batch least-squares and sequential methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oza, D. H.; Jones, T. L.; Hakimi, M.; Samii, Mina V.; Doll, C. E.; Mistretta, G. D.; Hart, R. C.
1993-01-01
The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) commissioned Applied Technology Associates, Incorporated, to develop the Real-Time Orbit Determination/Enhanced (RTOD/E) system on a Disk Operating System (DOS)-based personal computer (PC) as a prototype system for sequential orbit determination of spacecraft. This paper presents the results of a study to compare the orbit determination accuracy for a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) user spacecraft, Landsat-4, obtained using RTOD/E, operating on a PC, with the accuracy of an established batch least-squares system, the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS), and operating on a mainframe computer. The results of Landsat-4 orbit determination will provide useful experience for the Earth Observing System (EOS) series of satellites. The Landsat-4 ephemerides were estimated for the January 17-23, 1991, timeframe, during which intensive TDRSS tracking data for Landsat-4 were available. Independent assessments were made of the consistencies (overlap comparisons for the batch case and covariances and the first measurement residuals for the sequential case) of solutions produced by the batch and sequential methods. The forward-filtered RTOD/E orbit solutions were compared with the definitive GTDS orbit solutions for Landsat-4; the solution differences were less than 40 meters after the filter had reached steady state.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ulvestad, J. S.; Thurman, S. W.
1992-01-01
An error covariance analysis methodology is used to investigate different weighting schemes for two-way (coherent) Doppler data in the presence of transmission-media and observing-platform calibration errors. The analysis focuses on orbit-determination performance in the interplanetary cruise phase of deep-space missions. Analytical models for the Doppler observable and for transmission-media and observing-platform calibration errors are presented, drawn primarily from previous work. Previously published analytical models were improved upon by the following: (1) considering the effects of errors in the calibration of radio signal propagation through the troposphere and ionosphere as well as station-location errors; (2) modelling the spacecraft state transition matrix using a more accurate piecewise-linear approximation to represent the evolution of the spacecraft trajectory; and (3) incorporating Doppler data weighting functions that are functions of elevation angle, which reduce the sensitivity of the estimated spacecraft trajectory to troposphere and ionosphere calibration errors. The analysis is motivated by the need to develop suitable weighting functions for two-way Doppler data acquired at 8.4 GHz (X-band) and 32 GHz (Ka-band). This weighting is likely to be different from that in the weighting functions currently in use; the current functions were constructed originally for use with 2.3 GHz (S-band) Doppler data, which are affected much more strongly by the ionosphere than are the higher frequency data.
The Importance of Semi-Major Axis Knowledge in the Determination of Near-Circular Orbits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carpenter, J. Russell; Schiesser, Emil R.
1998-01-01
Modem orbit determination has mostly been accomplished using Cartesian coordinates. This usage has carried over in recent years to the use of GPS for satellite orbit determination. The unprecedented positioning accuracy of GPS has tended to focus attention more on the system's capability to locate the spacecraft's location at a particular epoch than on its accuracy in determination of the orbit, per se. As is well-known, the latter depends on a coordinated knowledge of position, velocity, and the correlation between their errors. Failure to determine a properly coordinated position/velocity state vector at a given epoch can lead to an epoch state that does not propagate well, and/or may not be usable for the execution of orbit adjustment maneuvers. For the quite common case of near-circular orbits, the degree to which position and velocity estimates are properly coordinated is largely captured by the error in semi-major axis (SMA) they jointly produce. Figure 1 depicts the relationships among radius error, speed error, and their correlation which exist for a typical low altitude Earth orbit. Two familiar consequences are the relationship Figure 1 shows are the following: (1) downrange position error grows at the per orbit rate of 3(pi) times the SMA error; (2) a velocity change imparted to the orbit will have an error of (pi) divided by the orbit period times the SMA error. A less familiar consequence occurs in the problem of initializing the covariance matrix for a sequential orbit determination filter. An initial covariance consistent with orbital dynamics should be used if the covariance is to propagate well. Properly accounting for the SMA error of the initial state in the construction of the initial covariance accomplishes half of this objective, by specifying the partition of the covariance corresponding to down-track position and radial velocity errors. The remainder of the in-plane covariance partition may be specified in terms of the flight path angle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fernando, G. W.; Cooper, B. R.; Ramana, M. V.; Krakauer, H.; Ma, C. Q.
1986-01-01
An accurate and efficient film linearized muffin-tin orbital (FLMTO) technique for surface electronic-structure calculations is presented which uses only 60-70 basis functions, as opposed to the 300 functions used in the linear augmented plane-wave method. Calculations for three different (3d and 4d) transition-metal films resulted in high quality results for five-layer slabs of Cu(001), Fe(001), and Ru(001), in addition to good results for the work functions and projected density of states. By retaining the LMTO small basis size, computer time and memory are reduced, making practical the study of systems with a larger number of atoms in the two-dimensional unit cell.
Radial orbit error reduction and sea surface topography determination using satellite altimetry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Engelis, Theodossios
1987-01-01
A method is presented in satellite altimetry that attempts to simultaneously determine the geoid and sea surface topography with minimum wavelengths of about 500 km and to reduce the radial orbit error caused by geopotential errors. The modeling of the radial orbit error is made using the linearized Lagrangian perturbation theory. Secular and second order effects are also included. After a rather extensive validation of the linearized equations, alternative expressions of the radial orbit error are derived. Numerical estimates for the radial orbit error and geoid undulation error are computed using the differences of two geopotential models as potential coefficient errors, for a SEASAT orbit. To provide statistical estimates of the radial distances and the geoid, a covariance propagation is made based on the full geopotential covariance. Accuracy estimates for the SEASAT orbits are given which agree quite well with already published results. Observation equations are develped using sea surface heights and crossover discrepancies as observables. A minimum variance solution with prior information provides estimates of parameters representing the sea surface topography and corrections to the gravity field that is used for the orbit generation. The simulation results show that the method can be used to effectively reduce the radial orbit error and recover the sea surface topography.
OREMUS: Prototype of an orbit determination center dedicated to mini-satellite control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laporte, Francois; Campan, Genevieve; Conessa, Huguette
1993-01-01
The OREMUS project aims to achieve at moderate cost a ground segment prototype for the purposes of orbiting satellite operations. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of a general system capable of satisfying the requirements of various users, main functions to be improved are data acquisition, orbit restitution, orbital maneuver calculations, and orbit linked expected operations. MERCATOR system architecture, components, capabilities, interest, and performance are recalled as well as the OOC (Operational Orbit determination Center) needs as regards the software. Characteristics and advantages of a new man machine interface called SISSI are presented. The OREMUS general system is based on MERCATOR and SISSI functions, and on the recovery of former modulus used in spatial mechanics. Descriptor files are documented by the users. Prototype main functions, data acquisition, orbit restitution, attitude restitution, orbital maneuver calculations, orbit linked expected operations, file management, and parameters graphic visualization are available in a control ground segment. These functions are performed by means of modulus; the linking and interfaces of which are managed by the man machine interface.
Kocan, R.; Dolan, H.; Hershberger, P.
2011-01-01
Several different techniques have been employed to detect and identify Ichthyophonus spp. in infected fish hosts; these include macroscopic observation, microscopic examination of tissue squashes, histological evaluation, in vitro culture, and molecular techniques. Examination of the peer-reviewed literature revealed that when more than 1 diagnostic method is used, they often result in significantly different results; for example, when in vitro culture was used to identify infected trout in an experimentally exposed population, 98.7% of infected trout were detected, but when standard histology was used to confirm known infected tissues from wild salmon, it detected ~50% of low-intensity infections and ~85% of high-intensity infections. Other studies on different species reported similar differences. When we examined a possible mechanism to explain the disparity between different diagnostic techniques, we observed non-random distribution of the parasite in 3-dimensionally visualized tissue sections from infected hosts, thus providing a possible explanation for the different sensitivities of commonly used diagnostic techniques. Based on experimental evidence and a review of the peer-reviewed literature, we have concluded that in vitro culture is currently the most accurate diagnostic technique for determining infection prevalence of Ichthyophonus, particularly when the exposure history of the population is not known.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shengzhi; Yu, Shuai; Liu, Chaojun; Liu, Sheng
2016-06-01
Tracking the position of pedestrian is urgently demanded when the most commonly used GPS (Global Position System) is unavailable. Benefited from the small size, low-power consumption, and relatively high reliability, micro-electro-mechanical system sensors are well suited for GPS-denied indoor pedestrian heading estimation. In this paper, a real-time miniature orientation determination system (MODS) was developed for indoor heading and trajectory tracking based on a novel dual-linear Kalman filter. The proposed filter precludes the impact of geomagnetic distortions on pitch and roll that the heading is subjected to. A robust calibration approach was designed to improve the accuracy of sensors measurements based on a unified sensor model. Online tests were performed on the MODS with an improved turntable. The results demonstrate that the average RMSE (root-mean-square error) of heading estimation is less than 1°. Indoor heading experiments were carried out with the MODS mounted on the shoe of pedestrian. Besides, we integrated the existing MODS into an indoor pedestrian dead reckoning application as an example of its utility in realistic actions. A human attitude-based walking model was developed to calculate the walking distance. Test results indicate that mean percentage error of indoor trajectory tracking achieves 2% of the total walking distance. This paper provides a feasible alternative for accurate indoor heading and trajectory tracking.
Zhang, Shengzhi; Yu, Shuai; Liu, Chaojun; Liu, Sheng
2016-06-01
Tracking the position of pedestrian is urgently demanded when the most commonly used GPS (Global Position System) is unavailable. Benefited from the small size, low-power consumption, and relatively high reliability, micro-electro-mechanical system sensors are well suited for GPS-denied indoor pedestrian heading estimation. In this paper, a real-time miniature orientation determination system (MODS) was developed for indoor heading and trajectory tracking based on a novel dual-linear Kalman filter. The proposed filter precludes the impact of geomagnetic distortions on pitch and roll that the heading is subjected to. A robust calibration approach was designed to improve the accuracy of sensors measurements based on a unified sensor model. Online tests were performed on the MODS with an improved turntable. The results demonstrate that the average RMSE (root-mean-square error) of heading estimation is less than 1°. Indoor heading experiments were carried out with the MODS mounted on the shoe of pedestrian. Besides, we integrated the existing MODS into an indoor pedestrian dead reckoning application as an example of its utility in realistic actions. A human attitude-based walking model was developed to calculate the walking distance. Test results indicate that mean percentage error of indoor trajectory tracking achieves 2% of the total walking distance. This paper provides a feasible alternative for accurate indoor heading and trajectory tracking. PMID:27370490
Kocan, Richard; Dolan, Heather; Hershberger, Paul
2011-04-01
Several different techniques have been employed to detect and identify Ichthyophonus spp. in infected fish hosts; these include macroscopic observation, microscopic examination of tissue squashes, histological evaluation, in vitro culture, and molecular techniques. Examination of the peer-reviewed literature revealed that when more than 1 diagnostic method is used, they often result in significantly different results; for example, when in vitro culture was used to identify infected trout in an experimentally exposed population, 98.7% of infected trout were detected, but when standard histology was used to confirm known infected tissues from wild salmon, it detected ~50% of low-intensity infections and ~85% of high-intensity infections. Other studies on different species reported similar differences. When we examined a possible mechanism to explain the disparity between different diagnostic techniques, we observed non-random distribution of the parasite in 3-dimensionally visualized tissue sections from infected hosts, thus providing a possible explanation for the different sensitivities of commonly used diagnostic techniques. Based on experimental evidence and a review of the peer-reviewed literature, we have concluded that in vitro culture is currently the most accurate diagnostic technique for determining infection prevalence of Ichthyophonus , particularly when the exposure history of the population is not known. PMID:21506773
Kovler, K; Prilutskiy, Z; Antropov, S; Antropova, N; Bozhko, V; Alfassi, Z B; Lavi, N
2013-07-01
The current paper makes an attempt to check whether the scintillation NaI(Tl) detectors, in spite of their poor energy resolution, can determine accurately the content of NORM in building materials. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides were measured using two types of detectors: (a) NaI(Tl) spectrometer equipped with the special software based on the matrix method of least squares, and (b) high-purity germanium spectrometer. Synthetic compositions with activity concentrations varying in a wide range, from 1/5 to 5 times median activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides available in the earth crust and the samples of popular building materials, such as concrete, pumice and gypsum, were tested, while the density of the tested samples changed in a wide range (from 860 up to 2,410 kg/m(3)). The results obtained in the NaI(Tl) system were similar to those obtained with the HPGe spectrometer, mostly within the uncertainty range. This comparison shows that scintillation spectrometers equipped with a special software aimed to compensate for the lower spectral resolution of NaI(Tl) detectors can be successfully used for the radiation control of mass construction products. PMID:23542118
Jeong, Hyunjo; Zhang, Shuzeng; Li, Xiongbing; Barnard, Dan
2015-09-15
The accurate measurement of acoustic nonlinearity parameter β for fluids or solids generally requires making corrections for diffraction effects due to finite size geometry of transmitter and receiver. These effects are well known in linear acoustics, while those for second harmonic waves have not been well addressed and therefore not properly considered in previous studies. In this work, we explicitly define the attenuation and diffraction corrections using the multi-Gaussian beam (MGB) equations which were developed from the quasilinear solutions of the KZK equation. The effects of making these corrections are examined through the simulation of β determination in water. Diffraction corrections are found to have more significant effects than attenuation corrections, and the β values of water can be estimated experimentally with less than 5% errors when the exact second harmonic diffraction corrections are used together with the negligible attenuation correction effects on the basis of linear frequency dependence between attenuation coefficients, α{sub 2} ≃ 2α{sub 1}.
Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini; Bounds, John Alan; Brumby, Steven P.; Prasad, Lakshman; Sullivan, John P.
2012-04-30
This is the final report of the project titled, 'Isotope Identification Algorithm for Rapid and Accurate Determination of Radioisotopes,' PMIS project number LA10-HUMANID-PD03. The goal of the work was to demonstrate principles of emulating a human analysis approach towards the data collected using radiation isotope identification devices (RIIDs). It summarizes work performed over the FY10 time period. The goal of the work was to demonstrate principles of emulating a human analysis approach towards the data collected using radiation isotope identification devices (RIIDs). Human analysts begin analyzing a spectrum based on features in the spectrum - lines and shapes that are present in a given spectrum. The proposed work was to carry out a feasibility study that will pick out all gamma ray peaks and other features such as Compton edges, bremsstrahlung, presence/absence of shielding and presence of neutrons and escape peaks. Ultimately success of this feasibility study will allow us to collectively explain identified features and form a realistic scenario that produced a given spectrum in the future. We wanted to develop and demonstrate machine learning algorithms that will qualitatively enhance the automated identification capabilities of portable radiological sensors that are currently being used in the field.
Rapid, accurate, and direct determination of total lycopene content in tomato paste
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bicanic, D.; Anese, M.; Luterotti, S.; Dadarlat, D.; Gibkes, J.; Lubbers, M.
2003-01-01
Lycopene that imparts red color to the tomato fruit is the most potent antioxidant among carotenes, an important nutrient and also used as a color ingredient in many food formulations. Since cooked and processed foods derived from tomatoes were shown to provide optimal lycopene boost, products such as paste, puree, juice, etc. are nowadays gaining popularity as dietary sources. The analysis of lycopene in tomato paste (partially dehydrated product prepared by vacuum concentrating tomato juice) is carried out using either high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), spectrophotometry, or by evaluating the color. The instability of lycopene during processes of extraction, etc., handling, and disposal of organic solvents makes the preparation of a sample for the analysis a delicate task. Despite a recognized need for accurate and rapid assessment of lycopene in tomato products no such method is available at present. The study described here focuses on a direct determination of a total lycopene content in different tomato pastes by means of the laser optothermal window (LOW) method at 502 nm. The concentration of lycopene in tomato paste ranged between 25 and 150 mg per 100 g product; the results are in excellent agreement with those obtained by spectrophotometry. The time needed to complete LOW analysis is very short, so that decomposition of pigment and the formation of artifacts are minimized. Preliminary results indicate a good degree of reproducibility making the LOW method suitable for routine assays of lycopene content in tomato paste.
A highly accurate method for the determination of mass and center of mass of a spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chow, E. Y.; Trubert, M. R.; Egwuatu, A.
1978-01-01
An extremely accurate method for the measurement of mass and the lateral center of mass of a spacecraft has been developed. The method was needed for the Voyager spacecraft mission requirement which limited the uncertainty in the knowledge of lateral center of mass of the spacecraft system weighing 750 kg to be less than 1.0 mm (0.04 in.). The method consists of using three load cells symmetrically located at 120 deg apart on a turntable with respect to the vertical axis of the spacecraft and making six measurements for each load cell. These six measurements are taken by cyclic rotations of the load cell turntable and of the spacecraft, about the vertical axis of the measurement fixture. This method eliminates all alignment, leveling, and load cell calibration errors for the lateral center of mass determination, and permits a statistical best fit of the measurement data. An associated data reduction computer program called MASCM has been written to implement this method and has been used for the Voyager spacecraft.
The determination of accurate dipole polarizabilities alpha and gamma for the noble gases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rice, Julia E.; Taylor, Peter R.; Lee, Timothy J.; Almloef, Jan
1989-01-01
The static dipole polarizabilities alpha and gamma for the noble gases helium through xenon were determined using large flexible one-particle basis sets in conjunction with high-level treatments of electron correlation. The electron correlation methods include single and double excitation coupled-cluster theory (CCSD), an extension of CCSD that includes a perturbational estimate of connected triple excitations, CCSD(T), and second order perturbation theory (MP2). The computed alpha and gamma values are estimated to be accurate to within a few percent. Agreement with experimental data for the static hyperpolarizability gamma is good for neon and xenon, but for argon and krypton the differences are larger than the combined theoretical and experimental uncertainties. Based on our calculations, we suggest that the experimental value of gamma for argon is too low; adjusting this value would bring the experimental value of gamma for krypton into better agreement with our computed result. The MP2 values for the polarizabilities of neon, argon, krypton and zenon are in reasonabe agreement with the CCSD and CCSD(T) values, suggesting that this less expensive method may be useful in studies of polarizabilities for larger systems.
Dual-beam interferometer for the accurate determination of surface-wave velocity.
McKie, A D; Wagner, J W; Spicer, J B; Deaton, J B
1991-10-01
A novel dual-beam interferometer has been designed and constructed that enables two beams from a He-Ne laser to probe remotely the surface of a material. The separation of the two He-Ne beams is adjustable in the 15-to- 40-mm range with a spatial resolution of 2 microm. Surface-acoustic-wave measurements have been performed with two different probe separations so that the travel time for the surface waves over a known distance can be determined accurately. With the aid of autocorrelation algorithms, the Rayleigh pulse velocity on 7075-T651 aluminum has been measured to be 2888 +/- 4 m/s. The current precision of the system is limited mainly by the 10-ns sampling rate of the digital oscilloscope used. Rayleigh pulse interactions with a surface-breaking slot, machined to a nominal depth of 0.5 mm, have also been examined and the depth estimated ultrasonically to be 0.49 +/- 0.02 mm. The system may also provide a technique for direct quantitative studies of surface-wave attenuation. PMID:20706500
RES-TOCSY: A facile approach for accurate determination of magnitudes, and relative signs of nJHF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lokesh; Chaudhari, Sachin R.; Suryaprakash, N.
2014-05-01
The RES-TOCSY experiment for accurate determination of heteronuclear nJHF is reported. The main feature of the proposed technique is the accurate measurement of magnitudes of heteronuclear couplings from the displacement of cross sections of the 2D spectrum and their relative signs from the slopes of their displacement vectors. The experiment is highly advantageous as the couplings of smaller magnitudes hidden within line widths could also be accurately determined, and also in situations when the spectrum does not display any coupling fine structures. The efficient utility of the developed pulse sequence is unambiguously established on fluorine containing aromatic and aliphatic molecules.
Orbit Determination from Combined Radar and Optical Tracks during XMM Contingency Operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flohrer, T.; Krag, H.; Klinkrad, H.; Kuusela, J.; Leushacke, L.; Schildknecht, T.; Ploner, M.
2009-03-01
On 18 October 2008 the operators of ESA's X-ray Multi- Mirror Mission (XMM-Newton) lost contact with the satellite. XMM is one of Europe's largest scientific satellites. It resides in a highly eccentric (21700 km x 99500 km) orbit with an inclination of 58 deg. The XMM operators asked to support the analysis of the contingency situation, in particular to acquire tracking data of the noncooperative target via suitable tracking facilities, and to determine a precise orbit. Any information on orbital states and attitude was highly desirable in order to better understand the situation and to ensure proper followups with the ground facilities during communication attempts. We present the fusion of radar and optical observations into a common orbit determination of a noncooperative target using the predicted orbit as a-priori information. Three European sensors participated in the adhoc tracking campaign: the Tracking and Imaging Radar (TIRA) of the Forschungsgesellschaft für Angewandte Naturwissenschaften (FGAN) near Bonn, Germany, the ESA Space Debris telescope at Tenerife, Spain, and the telescopes ZIMLAT and ZimSMART at the Zimmerwald observatory of the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) in Switzerland. All sensors were able to observe XMM close to the predicted positions. In the meantime the New Norcia ground station could establish a weak carrier-link. This finally led to re-establishing full radio contact. We validate the quality of the orbit determination through a comparison with the operational orbit. This work demonstrates the generation of orbit information for passive bodies by using European sensors only, even if the orbit is highly eccentric.
A demonstration of high precision GPS orbit determination for geodetic applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lichten, S. M.; Border, J. S.
1987-01-01
High precision orbit determination of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites is a key requirement for GPS-based precise geodetic measurements and precise low-earth orbiter tracking, currently under study at JPL. Different strategies for orbit determination have been explored at JPL with data from a 1985 GPS field experiment. The most successful strategy uses multi-day arcs for orbit determination and includes fine tuning of spacecraft solar pressure coefficients and station zenith tropospheric delays using the GPS data. Average rms orbit repeatability values for 5 of the GPS satellites are 1.0, 1.2, and 1.7 m in altitude, cross-track, and down-track componenets when two independent 5-day fits are compared. Orbit predictions up to 24 hours outside the multi-day arcs agree within 4 m of independent solutions obtained with well tracked satellites in the prediction interval. Baseline repeatability improves with multi-day as compared to single-day arc orbit solutions. When tropospheric delay fluctuations are modeled with process noise, significant additional improvement in baseline repeatability is achieved. For a 246-km baseline, with 6-day arc solutions for GPS orbits, baseline repeatability is 2 parts in 100 million (0.4-0.6 cm) for east, north, and length components and 8 parts in 100 million for the vertical component. For 1314 and 1509 km baselines with the same orbits, baseline repeatability is 2 parts in 100 million for the north components (2-3 cm) and 4 parts in 100 million or better for east, length, and vertical components.
An intelligent interface for satellite operations: Your Orbit Determination Assistant (YODA)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schur, Anne
1988-01-01
An intelligent interface is often characterized by the ability to adapt evaluation criteria as the environment and user goals change. Some factors that impact these adaptations are redefinition of task goals and, hence, user requirements; time criticality; and system status. To implement adaptations affected by these factors, a new set of capabilities must be incorporated into the human-computer interface design. These capabilities include: (1) dynamic update and removal of control states based on user inputs, (2) generation and removal of logical dependencies as change occurs, (3) uniform and smooth interfacing to numerous processes, databases, and expert systems, and (4) unobtrusive on-line assistance to users of concepts were applied and incorporated into a human-computer interface using artificial intelligence techniques to create a prototype expert system, Your Orbit Determination Assistant (YODA). YODA is a smart interface that supports, in real teime, orbit analysts who must determine the location of a satellite during the station acquisition phase of a mission. Also described is the integration of four knowledge sources required to support the orbit determination assistant: orbital mechanics, spacecraft specifications, characteristics of the mission support software, and orbit analyst experience. This initial effort is continuing with expansion of YODA's capabilities, including evaluation of results of the orbit determination task.
Investigations to Determine the Origin of the Solar Wind with SPICE and SolarOrbiter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassler, Donald M.; DeForest, C.; Wilkinson, E.; Davila, J.; SPICE Team
2011-05-01
At large spatial scales, the structure of the solar wind and it's mapping back to the solar corona, is thought to be reasonably well understood. However, the detailed structure of the various source regions at chromospheric and transition region heights is extremely complex, and less well understood. Determining this connection between heliospheric structures and their source regions at the Sun is one of the overarching objective of the Solar Orbiter mission. During perihelion segments of its orbit, when the spacecraft is in quasi-corotation with the Sun, Solar Orbiter will determine the plasma parameters and compositional signatures of the solar wind, which can be compared directly with the spectroscopic signatures of coronal ions with differing charge-to-mass ratios and FIP. One of the key instruments on the Solar Orbiter mission to make these remote sensing measurements is the SPICE (Spectral Imaging of the Coronal Environment) imaging spectrograph. SPICE will provide the images and plasma diagnostics needed to characterize the plasma state in different source regions, from active regions to quiet Sun to coronal holes. By comparing composition, plasma parameters, and low/high FIP ratios of structures remotely, with those measured directly at the Solar Orbiter spacecraft, Solar Orbiter will provide the first direct link between solar wind structures and their source regions at the Sun. This talk will provide a background of previous compositional correlation measurements and an outline of the method to be used for comparing the spectroscopic and in-situ plasma parameters to be measured with Solar Orbiter.
An improved theory for determining changes in satellite orbits caused by meridional winds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King-Hele, D. G.; Walker, Doreen M. C.
1987-05-01
Meridional (south-to-north) winds in the upper atmosphere may be specified by the equivalent angular rotation rate, Phi, and previous theories for the effect of meridional winds on satellite orbits have used Phi as the controlling parameter. In this report the theory is developed anew in terms of the parameter M = Phi sec phi, where phi is the latitude. It is shown that in practice M is just as useful as Phi; and M has the advantage of leading to a much simpler and more accurate theory for expressing the changes in orbital inclination and right ascension of an orbit of any eccentricity (e greater than 0 and less than 1) produced by meridional winds in an oblate atmosphere. The theory is developed in two parts: for high eccentricity (e greater than 0.05) and for low eccentricity (e less than 0.05).
OSIRIS-REx Orbit Determination Covariance Studies at Bennu
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antreasian, P. G.; Moreau, M.; Jackman, C.; Williams, K.; Page, B.; Leonard, J. M.
2016-01-01
The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in 2016 to rendezvous with the small, Earth-crossing asteroid (101955) Bennu in late 2018, ultimately returning a sample of regolith to Earth. Approximately three months before the encounter with Bennu, the asteroid becomes detectable in the narrow field PolyCam imager. The spacecraft's rendezvous with Bennu begins with a series of four Asteroid Approach Maneuvers, slowing the spacecraft's speed relative to Bennu beginning two and a half months prior to closest approach, ultimately delivering the spacecraft to a point 18 km from Bennu in Nov, 2018. An extensive campaign of proximity operations activities to characterize the properties of Bennu and select a suitable sample site will follow. This paper will discuss the challenges of navigating near a small 500-m diameter asteroid. The navigation at close proximity is dependent on the accurate mathematical model or digital terrain map of the asteroid's shape. Predictions of the spacecraft state are very sensitive to spacecraft small forces, solar radiation pressure, and mis-modeling of Bennu's gravity field. Uncertainties in the physical parameters of the central body Bennu create additional challenges. The navigation errors are discussed and their impact on science planning will be presented.
OSIRIS-REx Orbit Determination Covariance Studies at Bennu
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antreasian, P. G.; Moreau, M.; Jackman, C.; Williams, K.; Page, B.; Leonard, J. M.
2016-01-01
The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in 2016 to rendezvous with the small, Earth-crossing asteroid (101955) Bennu in late 2018, and ultimately return a sample of regolith to Earth. Approximately 3 months before the encounter with Bennu, the asteroid finally becomes detectable in the narrow field PolyCam imager. The spacecraft's rendezvous with Bennu begins with a series of four Asteroid Approach Maneuvers, which slow the spacecraft's speed relative to Bennu beginning two and a half months prior to closest approach, ultimately delivering the spacecraft to a point 18 km from Bennu on Nov 18, 2018. An extensive campaign of proximity operations activities to characterize the properties of Bennu and select a suitable sample site will follow. This paper will discuss the challenges of navigating near a small 500-m diameter asteroid. The navigation at close proximity is dependent on the accurate mathematical model or digital terrain map of the asteroids shape. Predictions of the spacecraft state are very sensitive to spacecraft small forces, solar radiation pressure, and mis-modeling of Bennu's gravity field. Uncertainties in the physical parameters of the central body Bennu create additional challenges. The navigation errors are discussed and their impact on science planning will be presented.
Orbit determination strategy and results for the Pioneer 10 Jupiter mission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wong, S. K.; Lubeley, A. J.
1974-01-01
Pioneer 10 is the first earth-based vehicle to encounter Jupiter and occult its moon, Io. In contributing to the success of the mission, the Orbit Determination Group evaluated the effects of the dominant error sources on the spacecraft's computed orbit and devised an encounter strategy minimizing the effects of these error sources. The encounter results indicated that: (1) errors in the satellite model played a very important role in the accuracy of the computed orbit, (2) encounter strategy was sound, (3) all mission objectives were met, and (4) Jupiter-Saturn mission for Pioneer 11 is within the navigation capability.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gordon, Steven C.
1993-01-01
Spacecraft in orbit near libration point L1 in the Sun-Earth system are excellent platforms for research concerning solar effects on the terrestrial environment. One spacecraft mission launched in 1978 used an L1 orbit for nearly 4 years, and future L1 orbital missions are also being planned. Orbit determination and station-keeping are, however, required for these orbits. In particular, orbit determination error analysis may be used to compute the state uncertainty after a predetermined tracking period; the predicted state uncertainty levels then will impact the control costs computed in station-keeping simulations. Error sources, such as solar radiation pressure and planetary mass uncertainties, are also incorporated. For future missions, there may be some flexibility in the type and size of the spacecraft's nominal trajectory, but different orbits may produce varying error analysis and station-keeping results. The nominal path, for instance, can be (nearly) periodic or distinctly quasi-periodic. A periodic 'halo' orbit may be constructed to be significantly larger than a quasi-periodic 'Lissajous' path; both may meet mission requirements, but perhaps the required control costs for these orbits are probably different. Also for this spacecraft tracking and control simulation problem, experimental design methods can be used to determine the most significant uncertainties. That is, these methods can determine the error sources in the tracking and control problem that most impact the control cost (output); it also produces an equation that gives the approximate functional relationship between the error inputs and the output.
U Geminorum: A Test Case for Orbital Parameter Determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Echevarría, Juan; de la Fuente, Eduardo; Costero, Rafael
2007-07-01
High-resolution spectroscopy of U Gem was obtained during quiescence. We did not find a hot spot or gas stream around the outer boundaries of the accretion disk. Instead, we detected a strong narrow emission region near the location of the secondary star. We measured the radial velocity curve from the wings of the double-peaked Hα emission line and obtained a semiamplitude value that is in excellent agreement with that obtained from observations in the ultraviolet spectral region by Sion et al. We also present a new method to obtain K2, which enhances the detection of absorption or emission features arising in the late-type companion. Our results are compared with published values derived from the near-infrared Na I line doublet. From a comparison of the TiO band with those of late-type M stars, we find that a best fit is obtained for an M6 V star, contributing 5% of the total light at that spectral region. Assuming that the radial velocity semiamplitudes accurately reflect the motion of the binary components, then from our results Kem=107+/-2 km s-1 and Kabs=310+/-5 km s-1 using the inclination angle given by Zhang & Robinson, i=69.7deg+/-0.7deg, the system parameters become MWD=1.20+/-0.05 Msolar, MRD=0.42+/-0.04 Msolar, and a=1.55+/-0.02 Rsolar. Based on the separation of the double emission peaks, we calculate an outer disk radius of Rout/a~0.61, close to the distance of the inner Lagrangian point L1/a~0.63. Therefore, we suggest that, at the time of observations, the accretion disk was filling the Roche lobe of the primary and the matter leaving the L1 point was colliding with the disk directly, producing the hot spot at this location.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asada, Hideki
2006-11-01
There exists a very classical inverse problem regarding orbit determination of a binary system: "when an orbital plane of two bodies is inclined with respect to the line of sight, observables are their positions projected onto a celestial sphere. How do we determine the orbital elements from observations?" A "complete exact solution" has been found. It is reviewed with some related topics.
TerraSAR-X precise orbit determination with real-time GPS ephemerides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wermuth, M.; Hauschild, A.; Montenbruck, O.; Kahle, R.
2012-09-01
For active and future Earth observation missions, the availability of near real-time precise orbit information is becoming more and more important. The latency and quality of precise orbit determination results is mainly driven by the availability of precise GPS ephemerides and clocks. In order to have high-quality GPS ephemerides and clocks available at real-time, the German Space Operations Center (GSOC) has developed the real-time clock estimation system RETICLE. The system receives data streams with GNSS observations from the global tracking network of the International GNSS Service (IGS) in real-time. Using the known station position, RETICLE estimates precise GPS satellite clock offsets and drifts based on the most recent available ultra rapid predicted orbits provided by the IGS. The clock offset estimates have an accuracy of better than 0.3 ns and are globally valid. The latency of the estimated clocks is approximately 7 s after the observation epoch. Another limiting factor is the frequency of satellite downlinks and the latency of the data transfer from the ground station to the operations center. Therefore a near real-time scenario using GPS observation data from the TerraSAR-X mission is examined in which the satellite has about one ground station contact per orbit or respectively one contact in 90 min. This test campaign shows that precise orbits can be obtained in near real-time. With the use of estimated clocks an orbit accuracy of better than 10 cm (3D-RMS) can be obtained. The evaluation of satellite laser ranging (SLR) observations shows residuals of 2.1 cm (RMS) for orbits using RECTICLE and residuals of 4.2 cm (RMS) for orbits using the IGS ultra rapid ephemerides and clocks products. Hence the use of estimated clocks improves the orbit determination accuracy significantly (˜factor 2) compared to using predicted clocks.
Orbit and attitude determination results during launch support operations for SBS-5
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hartman, K. R.; Iano, P. J.
1989-01-01
Presented are orbit and attitude determination results from the launch of Satellite Business Systems (SBS)-5 satellite on September 8, 1988 by Arianespace. SBS-5 is a (HS-376) spin stabilized spacecraft. The launch vehicle injected the spacecraft into a low inclination transfer orbit. Apogee motor firing (AMF) attitude was achieved with trim maneuvers. An apogee kick motor placed the spacecraft into drift orbit. Postburn, reorientation and spindown maneuvers were performed during the next 25 hours. The spacecraft was on-station 19 days later. The orbit and attitude were determined by both an extended Kalman filter and a weighted least squares batch processor. Although the orbit inclination was low and the launch was near equinox, post-AMF analysis indicated an attitude declination error of 0.034 deg., resulting in a saving of 8.5 pounds of fuel. The AMF velocity error was 0.4 percent below nominal. The post-AMF drift rate was determined with the filter only 2.5 hours after motor firing. The filter was used to monitor and retarget the reorientation to orbit normal in real time.
Orbit Determination for CE-2 Libration Flight and Asteroid Exploration Trial
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, J. F.
2016-01-01
Setting within the context of the flight trial of CE-2 (Chang'e 2) around the Sun-terrestrial libration point, the asteroid exploration as well as the YH-1 Mars exploration mission, this paper conducted various related studies on orbit determination techniques for deep space exploration. The research results provided high-precision orbit support for the successful photographing of the Toutatis. This paper also carried out preliminary orbit determination studies on YH-1 mission. Although the study findings can not be used directly in the Mars exploration mission, they can still be useful for the future explorations. This thesis is composed of the following five aspects. (1)Reviewed the statistical orbit determination theory, and gave a description of the spatiotemporal frame of reference, dynamical model issues, methods of estimation, perturbation analysis theory, as well as the algorithms for considering covariance analysis. (2)Developed the observational model for the deep space exploration. Based on theoretical analysis, the models of ranging, ranging rate, and VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) are derived. During the modeling process, the algorithm is optimized to improve the computational efficiency without deteriorating the accuracy. In addition, with the spin-stabilized characteristic of CE-2 in its cruise phase taken into consideration, a spin stabilization correction model of the tracking data is constructed, which not only meets the requirement of data correction, but also can estimate the alignment of antenna. (3)Carried out a study on the selection of integration center for CE-2 libration flight trial. The result shows that the Earth is most suitable for orbital prediction. A precise satellite ephemeris for CE-2's flight trial is provided. The transformation relation between the spatial-fixed coordinate system and the rotation coordinate system is constructed. An orbital accuracy of 2--10 km in the whole flight process and 5 km for the stable
Improving FermiI Orbit Determination and Prediction in an Uncertain Atmospheric Drag Environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vavrina, Matthew A.; Newman, Clark Patrick; Slojkowski, Steven E.; Carpenter, J. Russell
2014-01-01
Orbit determination and prediction of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope trajectory is strongly impacted by the unpredictability and variability of atmospheric density and the spacecrafts ballistic coefficient. Operationally, Global Positioning System point solutions are processed with an extended Kalman filter for orbit determination, and predictions are generated for conjunction assessment with secondary objects. When these predictions are compared to Joint Space Operations Center radar-based solutions, the close approach distance between the two predictions can greatly differ ahead of the conjunction. This work explores strategies for improving prediction accuracy and helps to explain the prediction disparities. Namely, a tuning analysis is performed to determine atmospheric drag modeling and filter parameters that can improve orbit determination as well as prediction accuracy. A 45 improvement in three-day prediction accuracy is realized by tuning the ballistic coefficient and atmospheric density stochastic models, measurement frequency, and other modeling and filter parameters.
Improving Fermi Orbit Determination and Prediction in an Uncertain Atmospheric Drag Environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vavrina, Matthew A.; Newman, Clark P.; Slojkowski, Steven E.; Carpenter, J. Russell
2014-01-01
Orbit determination and prediction of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope trajectory is strongly impacted by the unpredictability and variability of atmospheric density and the spacecraft's ballistic coefficient. Operationally, Global Positioning System point solutions are processed with an extended Kalman filter for orbit determination, and predictions are generated for conjunction assessment with secondary objects. When these predictions are compared to Joint Space Operations Center radar-based solutions, the close approach distance between the two predictions can greatly differ ahead of the conjunction. This work explores strategies for improving prediction accuracy and helps to explain the prediction disparities. Namely, a tuning analysis is performed to determine atmospheric drag modeling and filter parameters that can improve orbit determination as well as prediction accuracy. A 45% improvement in three-day prediction accuracy is realized by tuning the ballistic coefficient and atmospheric density stochastic models, measurement frequency, and other modeling and filter parameters.
A review of GPS-based tracking techniques for TDRS orbit determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haines, B. J.; Lichten, S. M.; Malla, R. P.; Wu, S.-C.
1993-01-01
This article evaluates two fundamentally different approaches to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) orbit determination utilizing Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and GPS-related techniques. In the first, a GPS flight receiver is deployed on the TDRS. The TDRS ephemerides are determined using direct ranging to the GPS spacecraft, and no ground network is required. In the second approach, the TDRS's broadcast a suitable beacon signal, permitting the simultaneous tracking of GPS and Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System satellites by ground receivers. Both strategies can be designed to meet future operational requirements for TDRS-II orbit determination.
DPTRAJ/ODP - DOUBLE PRECISION TRAJECTORY ANALYSIS AND ORBIT DETERMINATION PROGRAM
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Breckheimer, P. J.
1994-01-01
The Double Precision Trajectory Analysis Program, DPTRAJ, and the Orbit Determination Program, ODP, have been developed and improved over the years to provide the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory with a highly reliable and accurate navigation capability for their deep space missions such as VOYAGER. DPTRAJ and ODP are each collections of programs which work together to provide the desired computational results. DPTRAJ, ODP, and their supporting utility programs are capable of handling the massive amounts of data and performing the various numerical calculations required for solving the navigation problems associated with planetary fly-by and lander missions. They were used extensively in support of NASA's VOYAGER project. DPTRAJ produces a spacecraft ephemeris by numerical integration of the equations of motion, which can be formulated using a full set of acceleration models. For each particular trajectory case the extent of the modeling employed and the precision of the integration process are controlled by user input specifications. The equation of motion used includes four types of terms. An acceleration term accounts for the basic conic motion of the spacecraft with respect to the central body. Terms that measure the attraction of the perturbing bodies on the spacecraft and terms that indirectly affect the motion as perturbations on the central body may be included. Terms are also provided to account for other gravitational and non-gravitational effects on the motion. ODP's function is the processing of the observational data in order to compute precise estimates of the spacecraft, or lander, position coordinate histories. This function is executed by processing the observation data and auxiliary calibration information. ODP also computes a spacecraft state vector, or a lander position vector, along with parameters which define the acceleration. The heart of the ODP process is a data fitting subprocess in which validated, edited, and corrected observational data
Linear signal noise summer accurately determines and controls S/N ratio
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sundry, J. L.
1966-01-01
Linear signal noise summer precisely controls the relative power levels of signal and noise, and mixes them linearly in accurately known ratios. The S/N ratio accuracy and stability are greatly improved by this technique and are attained simultaneously.
Orbit determination accuracies using satellite-to-satellite tracking
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vonbun, F. O.; Argentiero, P. D.; Schmid, P. E.
1977-01-01
The uncertainty in relay satellite sate is a significant error source which cannot be ignored in the reduction of satellite-to-satellite tracking data. Based on simulations and real data reductions, it is numerically impractical to use simultaneous unconstrained solutions to determine both relay and user satellite epoch states. A Bayesian or least squares estimation technique with an a priori procedure is presented which permits the adjustment of relay satellite epoch state in the reduction of satellite-to-satellite tracking data without the numerical difficulties introduced by an ill-conditioned normal matrix.
Experimental Study on the Precise Orbit Determination of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System
He, Lina; Ge, Maorong; Wang, Jiexian; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald
2013-01-01
The regional service of the Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system is now in operation with a constellation including five Geostationary Earth Orbit satellites (GEO), five Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) satellites and four Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. Besides the standard positioning service with positioning accuracy of about 10 m, both precise relative positioning and precise point positioning are already demonstrated. As is well known, precise orbit and clock determination is essential in enhancing precise positioning services. To improve the satellite orbits of the BeiDou regional system, we concentrate on the impact of the tracking geometry and the involvement of MEOs, and on the effect of integer ambiguity resolution as well. About seven weeks of data collected at the BeiDou Experimental Test Service (BETS) network is employed in this experimental study. Several tracking scenarios are defined, various processing schemata are designed and carried out; and then, the estimates are compared and analyzed in detail. The results show that GEO orbits, especially the along-track component, can be significantly improved by extending the tracking network in China along longitude direction, whereas IGSOs gain more improvement if the tracking network extends in latitude. The involvement of MEOs and ambiguity-fixing also make the orbits better. PMID:23529116
Experimental study on the precise orbit determination of the BeiDou navigation satellite system.
He, Lina; Ge, Maorong; Wang, Jiexian; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald
2013-01-01
The regional service of the Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system is now in operation with a constellation including five Geostationary Earth Orbit satellites (GEO), five Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) satellites and four Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. Besides the standard positioning service with positioning accuracy of about 10 m, both precise relative positioning and precise point positioning are already demonstrated. As is well known, precise orbit and clock determination is essential in enhancing precise positioning services. To improve the satellite orbits of the BeiDou regional system, we concentrate on the impact of the tracking geometry and the involvement of MEOs, and on the effect of integer ambiguity resolution as well. About seven weeks of data collected at the BeiDou Experimental Test Service (BETS) network is employed in this experimental study. Several tracking scenarios are defined, various processing schemata are designed and carried out; and then, the estimates are compared and analyzed in detail. The results show that GEO orbits, especially the along-track component, can be significantly improved by extending the tracking network in China along longitude direction, whereas IGSOs gain more improvement if the tracking network extends in latitude. The involvement of MEOs and ambiguity-fixing also make the orbits better. PMID:23529116
Performance Evaluation of Orbit Determination System during Initial Phase of INSAT-3 Mission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subramanian, B.; Vighnesam, N. V.
INSAT-3C is the second in the third generation of ISRO's INSAT series of satellites that was launched by ARIANE-SPACE on 23 January 2002 at 23 h 46 m 57 s (lift off time in U.T). The ARIANE-4 Flight Nr.147 took off from Kourou in French Guyana and injected the 2750-kg communications satellite in a geostationary transfer orbit of (571 X 35935) km with an inclination of 4.007 deg at 00 h 07 m 48 s U.T on 24 January 2002 (1252 s after lift off). The satellite was successfully guided into its intended geostationary position of 74 deg E longitude by 09 February 2002 after a series of four firings of its Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM) and four station acquisition (STAQ) maneuvers. Six distinct phases of the mission were categorized based on the orbit characteristics of the INSAT- 3C mission, namely, the pre-launch phase, the launch phase, transfer orbit phase, intermediate orbit phase, drift orbit phase and synchronous orbit phase. The orbit with a perigee height of 571 km at injection of the satellite, was gradually raised to higher orbits with perigee height increasing to 9346 km after Apogee Motor Firing #1 (AMF #1), 18335 km after AMF #2, 32448 km after AMF #3 and 35493 km after AMF #4. The North and South solar panels and the reflectors were deployed at this stage of the mission and the attitude of the satellite with respect to the three axes was stabilized. The Orbit Determination System (ODS) that was used in the initial phase of the mission played a crucial role in realizing the objectives of the mission. This system which consisted of Tracking Data Pre-Processing (TDPP) software, Ephemeris Generation (EPHGEN) software and the Orbit Determination (OD) software, performed rigorously and its results were used for planning the AMF and STAQ strategies with a greater degree of accuracy. This paper reports the results of evaluation of the performance of the apogee-motor firings employed to place the satellite in its intended position where it is collocated with INSAT-1D
Phase Function Determination in Support of Orbital Debris Size Estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hejduk, M. D.; Cowardin, H. M.; Stansbery, Eugene G.
2012-01-01
To recover the size of a space debris object from photometric measurements, it is necessary to determine its albedo and basic shape: if the albedo is known, the reflective area can be calculated; and if the shape is known, the shape and area taken together can be used to estimate a characteristic dimension. Albedo is typically determined by inferring the object s material type from filter photometry or spectroscopy and is not the subject of the present study. Object shape, on the other hand, can be revealed from a time-history of the object s brightness response. The most data-rich presentation is a continuous light-curve that records the object s brightness for an entire sensor pass, which could last for tens of minutes to several hours: from this one can see both short-term periodic behavior as well as brightness variations with phase angle. Light-curve interpretation, however, is more art than science and does not lend itself easily to automation; and the collection method, which requires single-object telescope dedication for long periods of time, is not well suited to debris survey conditions. So one is led to investigate how easily an object s brightness phase function, which can be constructed from the more survey-friendly point photometry, can be used to recover object shape. Such a recovery is usually attempted by comparing a phase-function curve constructed from an object s empirical brightness measurements to analytically-derived curves for basic shapes or shape combinations. There are two ways to accomplish this: a simple averaged brightness-versus phase curve assembled from the empirical data, or a more elaborate approach in which one is essentially calculating a brightness PDF for each phase angle bin (a technique explored in unpublished AFRL/RV research and in Ojakangas 2011); in each case the empirical curve is compared to analytical results for shapes of interest. The latter technique promises more discrimination power but requires more data; the
GOCE Precise Orbit Determination for the Entire Mission- Challenges in the Final Mission Phase
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaggi, A.; Bock, H.; Meyer, U.
2015-03-01
The Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE), ESA’s first Earth Explorer core mission, was launched on March 17, 2009 into a sun-synchronous dusk-dawn orbit and eventually re-entered into the Earth’s atmosphere on November 11, 2013. A precise science orbit (PSO) product was provided by the GOCE High-level Processing Facility (HPF) from the GPS high-low Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (hl-SST) data from the beginning until the very last days of the mission. We recapitulate the PSO procedure and refer to the results achieved until the official end of the GOCE mission on October 21, 2013, where independent validations with Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) measurements confirmed a high quality of the PSO product of about 2 cm 1-D RMS. We then focus on the period after the official end of the mission, where orbits could still be determined thanks to the continuously running GPS receivers delivering high quality data until a few hours before the re-entry into the Earth’s atmosphere. We address the challenges encountered for orbit determination during these last days and report on adaptions in the PSO procedure to also obtain good orbit results at the unprecedented low orbital altitudes below 224 km.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peters, Palmer N.; Gregory, John C.
1992-01-01
Images produced by pinhole cameras using film sensitive to atomic oxygen provide information on the ratio of spacecraft orbital velocity to the most probable thermal speed of oxygen atoms, provided the spacecraft orientation is maintained stable relative to the orbital direction. Alternatively, information on the spacecraft attitude relative to the orbital velocity can be obtained, provided that corrections are properly made for thermal spreading and a corotating atmosphere. The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) orientation, uncorrected for a corotating atmosphere, was determined to be yawed 8.0 +/- 0.4 degrees from its nominal attitude, with an estimated +/- 0.35 degree oscillation in yaw. The integrated effect of inclined orbit and corotating atmosphere produces an apparent oscillation in the observed yaw direction, suggesting that the LDEF attitude measurement will indicate even better stability when corrected for a corotating atmosphere. The measured thermal spreading is consistent with major exposure occurring during high solar activity, which occurred late during the LDEF mission.
Interplanetary Departure Stage Navigation by Means of Liaison Orbit Determination Architecture
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McGranaghan, Ryan M.; Leonard, Jason M.; Fujimoto, Kohei; Parker, Jeffrey S.; Anderson, Rodney L.; Born, George H.
2013-01-01
Autonomous orbit determination for departure stages of interplanetary trajectories is conducted by means of realistic radiometric observations between the departing spacecraft and a satellite orbiting the first lunar libration point. Linked Autonomous Interplanetary Satellite Orbit Navigation (LiAISON) is used to estimate the orbit solution. This paper uses high-fidelity simulations to explore the utilization of LiAISON in providing improved accuracy for interplanetary departure missions. The use of autonomous navigation to supplement current techniques for interplanetary spacecraft is assessed using comparisons with groundbased navigation. Results from simulations including the Mars Science Laboratory, Mars Exploration Rover, and Cassini are presented. It is shown that observations from a dedicated LiAISON navigation satellite could be used to supplement ground-based measurements and significantly improve tracking performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herz, A.; Stoner, F.
2013-09-01
Current SSA sensor tasking and scheduling is not centrally coordinated or optimized for either orbit determination quality or efficient use of sensor resources. By applying readily available capabilities for determining optimal tasking times and centrally generating de-conflicted schedules for all available sensors, both the quality of determined orbits (and thus situational awareness) and the use of sensor resources may be measurably improved. This paper provides an approach that is logically separated into two main sections. Part 1 focuses on the science of orbit determination based on tracking data and the approaches to tracking that result in improved orbit prediction quality (such as separating limited tracking passes in inertial space as much as possible). This part of the paper defines the goals for Part 2 of the paper which focuses on the details of an improved tasking and scheduling approach for sensor tasking. Centralized tasking and scheduling of sensor tracking assignments eliminates conflicting tasking requests up front and coordinates tasking to achieve (as much as possible within the physics of the problem and limited resources) the tracking goals defined in Part I. The effectivity of the proposed approach will be assessed based on improvements in the overall accuracy of the space catalog. Systems Tool Kit (STK) from Analytical Graphics and STK Scheduler from Orbit Logic are used for computations and to generate schedules for the existing and improved approaches.
Cassini Orbit Determination Performance during Saturn Satellite Tour: August 2005 - January 2006
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antreasian, Peter G.; Bordi, J. J.; Criddle, K. E.; Ionasescu, R.; Jacobson, R. A.; Jones, J. B.; MacKenzie, R. A.; Parcher, D. W.; Pelletier, F. J.; Roth, D. C.; Stauch, J. R.
2007-01-01
During the period spanning the second Enceladus flyby in July 2005 through the eleventh Titan encounter in January 2006, the Cassini spacecraft was successfully navigated through eight close-targeted satellite encounters. Three of these encounters included the 500 km flybys of the icy satellites Hyperion, Dione and Rhea and five targeted flybys of Saturn's largest moon, Titan. This paper will show how our refinements to Saturn's satellite ephemerides have improved orbit determination predictions. These refinements include the mass estimates of Saturn and its satellites by better than 0.5%. Also, it will be shown how this better orbit determination performance has helped to eliminate several statistical maneuvers that were scheduled to clean-up orbit determination and/or maneuver-execution errors.
Li, Bin; Sang, Jizhang; Zhang, Zhongping
2016-01-01
A critical requirement to achieve high efficiency of debris laser tracking is to have sufficiently accurate orbit predictions (OP) in both the pointing direction (better than 20 arc seconds) and distance from the tracking station to the debris objects, with the former more important than the latter because of the narrow laser beam. When the two line element (TLE) is used to provide the orbit predictions, the resultant pointing errors are usually on the order of tens to hundreds of arc seconds. In practice, therefore, angular observations of debris objects are first collected using an optical tracking sensor, and then used to guide the laser beam pointing to the objects. The manual guidance may cause interrupts to the laser tracking, and consequently loss of valuable laser tracking data. This paper presents a real-time orbit determination (OD) and prediction method to realize smooth and efficient debris laser tracking. The method uses TLE-computed positions and angles over a short-arc of less than 2 min as observations in an OD process where simplified force models are considered. After the OD convergence, the OP is performed from the last observation epoch to the end of the tracking pass. Simulation and real tracking data processing results show that the pointing prediction errors are usually less than 10″, and the distance errors less than 100 m, therefore, the prediction accuracy is sufficient for the blind laser tracking. PMID:27347958
Li, Bin; Sang, Jizhang; Zhang, Zhongping
2016-01-01
A critical requirement to achieve high efficiency of debris laser tracking is to have sufficiently accurate orbit predictions (OP) in both the pointing direction (better than 20 arc seconds) and distance from the tracking station to the debris objects, with the former more important than the latter because of the narrow laser beam. When the two line element (TLE) is used to provide the orbit predictions, the resultant pointing errors are usually on the order of tens to hundreds of arc seconds. In practice, therefore, angular observations of debris objects are first collected using an optical tracking sensor, and then used to guide the laser beam pointing to the objects. The manual guidance may cause interrupts to the laser tracking, and consequently loss of valuable laser tracking data. This paper presents a real-time orbit determination (OD) and prediction method to realize smooth and efficient debris laser tracking. The method uses TLE-computed positions and angles over a short-arc of less than 2 min as observations in an OD process where simplified force models are considered. After the OD convergence, the OP is performed from the last observation epoch to the end of the tracking pass. Simulation and real tracking data processing results show that the pointing prediction errors are usually less than 10″, and the distance errors less than 100 m, therefore, the prediction accuracy is sufficient for the blind laser tracking. PMID:27347958
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stassun, Keivan
2016-05-01
We summarize the current state-of-the-art in the measurement of direct, precise stellar masses at pre-main-sequence ages through the analysis of eclipsing binary orbits and circumstellar disk dynamics. We highlight two key issues: (1) The masses determined from disk dynamics require more precise distance determinations that should become available from Gaia soon, and (2) many eclipsing binaries appear disturbed by the presence of tertiary companions that inject heat into and puff up one or both of the inner binary stars, however the dynamical mechanism by which orbital energy is injected as heat remains unknown.
Parabolic orbit determination. Comparison of the Olbers method and algebraic equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuznetsov, V. B.
2016-05-01
In this paper, the Olbers method for the preliminary parabolic orbit determination (in the Lagrange-Subbotin modification) and the method based on systems of algebraic equations for two or three variables proposed by the author are compared. The maximum number of possible solutions is estimated. The problem of selection of the true solution from the set of solutions obtained both using additional equations and by the problem reduction to finding the objective function minimum is considered. The results of orbit determination of the comets 153P/Ikeya-Zhang and 2007 N3 Lulin are cited as examples.
Landsat-4 (TDRSS-user) orbit determination using batch least-squares and sequential methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oza, D. H.; Jones, T. L.; Hakimi, M.; Samii, M. V.; Doll, C. E.; Mistretta, G. D.; Hart, R. C.
1992-01-01
TDRSS user orbit determination is analyzed using a batch least-squares method and a sequential estimation method. It was found that in the batch least-squares method analysis, the orbit determination consistency for Landsat-4, which was heavily tracked by TDRSS during January 1991, was about 4 meters in the rms overlap comparisons and about 6 meters in the maximum position differences in overlap comparisons. The consistency was about 10 to 30 meters in the 3 sigma state error covariance function in the sequential method analysis. As a measure of consistency, the first residual of each pass was within the 3 sigma bound in the residual space.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dunham, J. B.
1980-01-01
An onboard navigation system was developed to aid the design and evaluation of algorithms used in autonomous satellite navigation with Global Positioning System (GPS) data. The performance of the algorithms designed for a GPS Receiver/Processor Assembly (R/PA) intended for LANDSAT-D was investigated during the development phases of the GPS (four to six satellites in the constellation). This evaluation emphasized the effects on the orbit determination accuracy of the expected user clock errors, GPS satellite visibility, force model approximations, and state and covariance propagation approximations. Results are presented giving the sensitivity of orbit determination accuracy to these constraints.
DPOD2005 : Realization of a DORIS terrestrial reference frame for precise orbit determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Willis, Pascal; Ries, John C.; Soudarin, Laurent; Zelensky, Nikita; Pavlis, Erricos C.
Scientific studies related to altimetry data (mean sea level determination and its time evolution) require centimeter-level orbit determination in the radial component of the satellite. Change in station coordinates and velocities affect the orbit determination and the derived oceanographic results. Following the release of the ITRF2005, we conducted an extensive study related to the DORIS tracking network. For all ground beacons, we verified if the ITRF2005 position and velocity can be extrapolated in time without significant loss of precision. We tried to identified discontinuities in the DORIS coordinates time series, either caused by physical reason, such as Earthquakes, or by instrumental causes. We also identified time periods for which data for a specific station should not be used for orbit determination. In particular, specific stations such as Socorro Island, on which horizontal and vertical movements are detected from the DORIS results will be presented and can be explained by a volcano deformation. Finally, a more complex example will be provided for the Arequipa station, where a major Earthquake happened on June 23, 2001 and for which some relaxation effects are noticeable in the velocity determination even 2 years after the station displacement. A complete set of positions and velocities (by intervals) is given (DPOD2005) and will be used for Jason and TOPEX orbit determination.
GPS-Based Navigation And Orbit Determination for the AMSAT AO-40 Satellite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, George; Moreau, Michael; Carpenter, Russell; Bauer, Frank
2002-01-01
The AMSAT OSCAR-40 (AO-40) spacecraft occupies a highly elliptical orbit (HEO) to support amateur radio experiments. An interesting aspect of the mission is the attempted use of GPS for navigation and attitude determination in HEO. Previous experiences with GPS tracking in such orbits have demonstrated the ability to acquire GPS signals, but very little data were produced for navigation and orbit determination studies. The AO-40 spacecraft, flying two Trimble Advanced Navigation Sensor (TANS) Vector GPS receivers for signal reception at apogee and at perigee, is the first to demonstrate autonomous tracking of GPS signals from within a HEO with no interaction from ground controllers. Moreover, over 11 weeks of total operations as of June 2002, the receiver has returned a continuous stream of code phase, Doppler, and carrier phase measurements useful for studying GPS signal characteristics and performing post-processed orbit determination studies in HEO. This paper presents the initial efforts to generate AO-40 navigation solutions from pseudorange data reconstructed from the TANS Vector code phase, as well as to generate a precise orbit solution for the AO-40 spacecraft using a batch filter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudenko, Sergei; Gruber, Christian
2016-04-01
This study makes use of current GFZ monthly and daily gravity field products from 2002 to 2014 based on radial basis functions (RBF) instead of time variable gravity field modeling for precise orbit determination of altimetry satellites. Since some monthly solutions are missing in the GFZ GRACE RL05a solution and in order to reach a better quality for the precise orbit determination, daily generated RBF solutions obtained from Kalman filtered GRACE data processing and interpolated in case of gaps have been used. Moreover, since the geopotential coefficients of low degrees are better determined using SLR observations to geodetic satellites like Lageos, Stella, Starlette and Ajisai than from GRACE observations, these terms are co-estimated in the RBF solutions by using apriori SLR-derived values up to degree and order 4. Precise orbits for altimetry satellites Envisat (2002-2012), Jason-1 (2002-2013) and Jason-2 (2008-2014) are then computed over the given time intervals using this approach and compared with the orbits obtained when using other models such as EIGEN-6S4. An analysis of the root-mean-square values of the observation fits of SLR and DORIS observations and the orbit arcs overlaps will allow us to draw a conclusion on the quality of the RBF solution and to use these new trajectories for sea level trend estimates and geophysical application.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho; Cristiane Pardal, Paula; Koiti Kuga, Helio
has been done, using such GPS data, for orbit determination of the Topex/Poseidon satellite, whose accurate ephemerides are freely available at Internet. It is shown that from a poor but acceptable modeling up to all effects included, the accuracy can vary from about 30m to 8m. Test results for short period (2 hours) and for long period (24 hours) are also shown.
Precise orbit determination of BeiDou constellation based on BETS and MGEX network.
Lou, Yidong; Liu, Yang; Shi, Chuang; Yao, Xiuguang; Zheng, Fu
2014-01-01
Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System is officially operational as a regional constellation with five Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites, five Inclined Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit (IGSO) satellites and four Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. Observations from the BeiDou Experimental Tracking Stations (BETS) and the IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) network from 1 January to 31 March 2013 are processed for orbit determination of the BeiDou constellation. Various arc lengths and solar radiation pressure parameters are investigated. The reduced set of ECOM five-parameter model produces better performance than the full set of ECOM nine-parameter model for BeiDou IGSO and MEO. The orbit overlap for the middle days of 3-day arc solutions is better than 20 cm and 14 cm for IGSO and MEO in RMS, respectively. Satellite laser ranging residuals are better than 10 cm for both IGSO and MEO. For BeiDou GEO, the orbit overlap of several meters and satellite laser ranging residuals of several decimetres can be achieved. PMID:24733025
Precise orbit determination of BeiDou constellation based on BETS and MGEX network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lou, Yidong; Liu, Yang; Shi, Chuang; Yao, Xiuguang; Zheng, Fu
2014-04-01
Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System is officially operational as a regional constellation with five Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites, five Inclined Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit (IGSO) satellites and four Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. Observations from the BeiDou Experimental Tracking Stations (BETS) and the IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) network from 1 January to 31 March 2013 are processed for orbit determination of the BeiDou constellation. Various arc lengths and solar radiation pressure parameters are investigated. The reduced set of ECOM five-parameter model produces better performance than the full set of ECOM nine-parameter model for BeiDou IGSO and MEO. The orbit overlap for the middle days of 3-day arc solutions is better than 20 cm and 14 cm for IGSO and MEO in RMS, respectively. Satellite laser ranging residuals are better than 10 cm for both IGSO and MEO. For BeiDou GEO, the orbit overlap of several meters and satellite laser ranging residuals of several decimetres can be achieved.
Precise orbit determination of BeiDou constellation based on BETS and MGEX network
Lou, Yidong; Liu, Yang; Shi, Chuang; Yao, Xiuguang; Zheng, Fu
2014-01-01
Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System is officially operational as a regional constellation with five Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites, five Inclined Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit (IGSO) satellites and four Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. Observations from the BeiDou Experimental Tracking Stations (BETS) and the IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) network from 1 January to 31 March 2013 are processed for orbit determination of the BeiDou constellation. Various arc lengths and solar radiation pressure parameters are investigated. The reduced set of ECOM five-parameter model produces better performance than the full set of ECOM nine-parameter model for BeiDou IGSO and MEO. The orbit overlap for the middle days of 3-day arc solutions is better than 20 cm and 14 cm for IGSO and MEO in RMS, respectively. Satellite laser ranging residuals are better than 10 cm for both IGSO and MEO. For BeiDou GEO, the orbit overlap of several meters and satellite laser ranging residuals of several decimetres can be achieved. PMID:24733025
Orbit Determination Using SLR Data for STSAT-2C: Short-arc Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Young-Rok; Park, Eunseo; Kucharski, Daniel; Lim, Hyung-Chul
2015-09-01
In this study, we present the results of orbit determination (OD) using satellite laser ranging (SLR) data for the Science and Technology Satellite (STSAT)-2C by a short-arc analysis. For SLR data processing, the NASA/GSFC GEODYN II software with one year (2013/04 - 2014/04) of normal point observations is used. As there is only an extremely small quantity of SLR observations of STSAT-2C and they are sparsely distribution, the selection of the arc length and the estimation intervals for the atmospheric drag coefficients and the empirical acceleration parameters was made on an arc-to-arc basis. For orbit quality assessment, the post-fit residuals of each short-arc and orbit overlaps of arcs are investigated. The OD results show that the weighted root mean square post-fit residuals of short-arcs are less than 1 cm, and the average 1-day orbit overlaps are superior to 50/600/900 m for the radial/cross-track/along-track components. These results demonstrate that OD for STSAT-2C was successfully achieved with cm-level range precision. However its orbit quality did not reach the same level due to the availability of few and sparse measurement conditions. From a mission analysis viewpoint, obtaining the results of OD for STSAT-2C is significant for generating enhanced orbit predictions for more frequent tracking.
A Frontier Molecular Orbital determination of the active sites on dispersed metal catalysts
Augustine, R.L.; Lahanas, K.M.
1992-01-01
An angular overlap calculation has been used to determine the s, p and d orbital energy levels of the different types of surface sites present on a dispersed metal catalysts. The basis for these calculations is the reported finding that a large number of catalyzed reactions take place on single atom active sites on the metal surface. Thus, these sites can be considered as surface complexes made up of the central active atom surrounded by near-neighbor metal atom ligands'' with localized surface orbitals perturbed only by these ligands''. These complexes'' are based on a twelve coordinate species with the ligands'' attached to the t{sub 2g} orbitals and the coordinate axes coincident with the direction of the e{sub g} orbitals on the central atom. These data can permit a Frontier Molecular Orbital treatment of specific site activities as long as the surface orbital availability for overlap with adsorbed substrates is considered along with its energy value and symmetry.
A Frontier Molecular Orbital determination of the active sites on dispersed metal catalysts
Augustine, R.L.; Lahanas, K.M.
1992-11-01
An angular overlap calculation has been used to determine the s, p and d orbital energy levels of the different types of surface sites present on a dispersed metal catalysts. The basis for these calculations is the reported finding that a large number of catalyzed reactions take place on single atom active sites on the metal surface. Thus, these sites can be considered as surface complexes made up of the central active atom surrounded by near-neighbor metal atom ``ligands`` with localized surface orbitals perturbed only by these ``ligands``. These ``complexes`` are based on a twelve coordinate species with the ``ligands`` attached to the t{sub 2g} orbitals and the coordinate axes coincident with the direction of the e{sub g} orbitals on the central atom. These data can permit a Frontier Molecular Orbital treatment of specific site activities as long as the surface orbital availability for overlap with adsorbed substrates is considered along with its energy value and symmetry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marriott, Robert A.; Stancescu, Maria; Kennedy, Catherine A.; White, Mary Anne
2006-09-01
We introduce a four-step technique for the accurate determination of the heat capacity of volatile or air-sensitive samples using relaxation calorimetry. The samples are encapsulated in a hermetically sealed differential scanning calorimetry pan, in which there is an internal layer of Apiezon N grease to assist thermal relaxation. Using the Quantum Design physical property measurement system to investigate benzoic acid and copper standards, we find that this method can lead to heat capacity determinations accurate to ±2% over the temperature range of 1-300K, even for very small samples (e.g., <10mg and contributing ca. 20% to the total heat capacity).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mardirossian, H.; Heuerman, K.; Beri, A.; Samii, M. V.; Doll, C. E.
1989-01-01
The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) provides spacecraft trajectory determination for a wide variety of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-supported satellite missions, using the Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) and Ground Spaceflight and Tracking Data Network (GSTDN). To take advantage of computerized decision making processes that can be used in spacecraft navigation, the Orbit Determination Automation System (ODAS) was designed, developed, and implemented as a prototype system to automate orbit determination (OD) and orbit quality assurance (QA) functions performed by orbit operations. Based on a machine-resident generic schedule and predetermined mission-dependent QA criteria, ODAS autonomously activates an interface with the existing trajectory determination system using a batch least-squares differential correction algorithm to perform the basic OD functions. The computational parameters determined during the OD are processed to make computerized decisions regarding QA, and a controlled recovery process isactivated when the criteria are not satisfied. The complete cycle is autonomous and continuous. ODAS was extensively tested for performance under conditions resembling actual operational conditions and found to be effective and reliable for extended autonomous OD. Details of the system structure and function are discussed, and test results are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mardirossian, H.; Beri, A. C.; Doll, C. E.
1990-01-01
The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) provides spacecraft trajectory determination for a wide variety of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-supported satellite missions, using the Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) and Ground Spaceflight and Tracking Data Network (GSTDN). To take advantage of computerized decision making processes that can be used in spacecraft navigation, the Orbit Determination Automation System (ODAS) was designed, developed, and implemented as a prototype system to automate orbit determination (OD) and orbit quality assurance (QA) functions performed by orbit operations. Based on a machine-resident generic schedule and predetermined mission-dependent QA criteria, ODAS autonomously activates an interface with the existing trajectory determination system using a batch least-squares differential correction algorithm to perform the basic OD functions. The computational parameters determined during the OD are processed to make computerized decisions regarding QA, and a controlled recovery process is activated when the criteria are not satisfied. The complete cycle is autonomous and continuous. ODAS was extensively tested for performance under conditions resembling actual operational conditions and found to be effective and reliable for extended autonomous OD. Details of the system structure and function are discussed, and test results are presented.
Modeling radiation forces acting on TOPEX/Poseidon for precision orbit determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marshall, J. A.; Luthcke, S. B.; Antreasian, P. G.; Rosborough, G. W.
1992-01-01
Geodetic satellites such as GEOSAT, SPOT, ERS-1, and TOPEX/Poseidon require accurate orbital computations to support the scientific data they collect. Until recently, gravity field mismodeling was the major source of error in precise orbit definition. However, albedo and infrared re-radiation, and spacecraft thermal imbalances produce in combination no more than a 6-cm radial root-mean-square (RMS) error over a 10-day period. This requires the development of nonconservative force models that take the satellite's complex geometry, attitude, and surface properties into account. For TOPEX/Poseidon, a 'box-wing' satellite form was investigated that models the satellite as a combination of flat plates arranged in a box shape with a connected solar array. The nonconservative forces acting on each of the eight surfaces are computed independently, yielding vector accelerations which are summed to compute the total aggregate effect on the satellite center-of-mass. In order to test the validity of this concept, 'micro-models' based on finite element analysis of TOPEX/Poseidon were used to generate acceleration histories in a wide variety of orbit orientations. These profiles are then compared to the box-wing model. The results of these simulations and their implication on the ability to precisely model the TOPEX/Poseidon orbit are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morinelli, Patrick J.; Ward, Douglas T.; Blizzard, Michael R.; Mendelsohn, Chad R.
2008-01-01
This paper provides an overview of the lessons learned from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center s (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility s (FDF) support of the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft emergency in February 2007, and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-3 (TDRS-3) spacecraft emergency in March 2006. A successful and timely recovery from both of these spacecraft emergencies depended on accurate knowledge of the orbit. Unfortunately, the combination of each spacecraft emergency with very little tracking data contributed to difficulties in estimating and predicting the orbit and delayed recovery efforts in both cases. In both the THEMIS and TDRS-3 spacecraft emergencies, numerous factors contributed to problems with obtaining nominal tracking data measurements. This paper details the various causative factors and challenges. This paper further enumerates lessons learned from FDF s recovery efforts involving the THEMIS and TDRS-3 spacecraft emergencies and scant tracking data, as well as recommendations for improvements and corrective actions. In addition, this paper describes the broad range of resources and complex navigation methods employed within the FDF for supporting critical navigation activities during all mission phases, including launch, early orbit, and on-orbit operations.
Real-time, autonomous precise satellite orbit determination using the global positioning system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldstein, David Ben
2000-10-01
The desire for autonomously generated, rapidly available, and highly accurate satellite ephemeris is growing with the proliferation of constellations of satellites and the cost and overhead of ground tracking resources. Autonomous Orbit Determination (OD) may be done on the ground in a post-processing mode or in real-time on board a satellite and may be accomplished days, hours or immediately after observations are processed. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is now widely used as an alternative to ground tracking resources to supply observation data for satellite positioning and navigation. GPS is accurate, inexpensive, provides continuous coverage, and is an excellent choice for autonomous systems. In an effort to estimate precise satellite ephemeris in real-time on board a satellite, the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) created the GPS Enhanced OD Experiment (GEODE) flight navigation software. This dissertation offers alternative methods and improvements to GEODE to increase on board autonomy and real-time total position accuracy and precision without increasing computational burden. First, GEODE is modified to include a Gravity Acceleration Approximation Function (GAAF) to replace the traditional spherical harmonic representation of the gravity field. Next, an ionospheric correction method called Differenced Range Versus Integrated Doppler (DRVID) is applied to correct for ionospheric errors in the GPS measurements used in GEODE. Then, Dynamic Model Compensation (DMC) is added to estimate unmodeled and/or mismodeled forces in the dynamic model and to provide an alternative process noise variance-covariance formulation. Finally, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is implemented in the form of Genetic Model Compensation (GMC) to optimize DMC forcing noise parameters. Application of GAAF, DRVID and DMC improved GEODE's position estimates by 28.3% when applied to GPS/MET data collected in the presence of Selective Availability (SA), 17.5% when SA is removed from the GPS
Analytical determination of orbital elements using Fourier analysis. I. The radial velocity case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delisle, J.-B.; Ségransan, D.; Buchschacher, N.; Alesina, F.
2016-05-01
We describe an analytical method for computing the orbital parameters of a planet from the periodogram of a radial velocity signal. The method is very efficient and provides a good approximation of the orbital parameters. The accuracy is mainly limited by the accuracy of the computation of the Fourier decomposition of the signal which is sensitive to sampling and noise. Our method is complementary with more accurate (and more expensive in computer time) numerical algorithms (e.g. Levenberg-Marquardt, Markov chain Monte Carlo, genetic algorithms). Indeed, the analytical approximation can be used as an initial condition to accelerate the convergence of these numerical methods. Our method can be applied iteratively to search for multiple planets in the same system.
Osher, Lawrence; Blazer, Marie Mantini; Buck, Stacie; Biernacki, Tomasz
2014-01-01
Several published studies have explained in detail how to measure relative metatarsal protrusion on the plain film anteroposterior pedal radiograph. These studies have demonstrated the utility of relative metatarsal protrusion measurement in that it correlates with distal forefoot deformity or pathologic features. The method currently preferred by practitioners in podiatric medicine and surgery often presents one with the daunting challenge of obtaining an accurate measurement when the intermetatarsal 1-2 angle is small. The present study illustrates a novel mathematical solution to this problem that is simple to master, relatively quick to perform, and yields accurate results. Our method was tested and proven by 4 trained observers with varying degrees of clinical skill who independently measured the same 10 radiographs. PMID:24933656
Precise orbit determination for GRACE using undifferenced or doubly differenced GPS data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jäggi, A.; Hugentobler, U.; Bock, H.; Beutler, G.
The two GRACE satellites provide the ideal platform to study the performance of different strategies for precise orbit determination using undifferenced or doubly differenced GPS data. We use pseudo-stochastic orbit modeling techniques in a batch least-squares environment for the two GRACE satellites to outline the mutual benefits of processing doubly differenced instead of undifferenced GPS data. We either process the space baseline only, the space-ground baselines only, or both types of baselines together, and show that the fixing of the GPS double difference carrier phase ambiguities has a significant impact on the space baseline, but also on the space-ground baselines. The validation of the relative orbit positions by inter-satellite K-band observations shows precisions of better than 1 mm in the case of fixed space baseline ambiguities, precisions of a few millimeter in the case of fixed space-ground baseline ambiguities, and precisions of about 1 cm in the case of float ambiguities. We discuss the differences between the various GRACE orbit solutions in order to formulate well suited orbit determination strategies tailored to the GRACE configuration. Satellite laser ranging observations indicate that accuracies between 2 cm and 2.5 cm are achieved.
Accurate determination of specific heat at high temperatures using the flash diffusivity method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vandersande, J. W.; Zoltan, A.; Wood, C.
1989-01-01
The flash diffusivity method of Parker et al. (1961) was used to measure accurately the specific heat of test samples simultaneously with thermal diffusivity, thus obtaining the thermal conductivity of these materials directly. The accuracy of data obtained on two types of materials (n-type silicon-germanium alloys and niobium), was + or - 3 percent. It is shown that the method is applicable up to at least 1300 K.
Khashan, M A; Nassif, A Y
1997-09-20
The band spacing of the fringes of equal chromatic order of a thin Fabry-Perot interferometer is compared when this interferometer contains air, a solid, or a liquid. This comparison enables the dispersion of the group velocity of light in these media to be known accurately to 2.4 parts in one thousand. The Sellmeier dispersion function is used to deduce the refractive indices with the same degree of accuracy. The order-transformation method is used to find the exact order values from the roughly known optical thickness. The exact order values for air and the sample are used to find the refractive index accurately to approximately 3 x 10(-5). A least-squares fitting of the accurate experimental data to the Sellmeier dispersion function enables the coefficients of the latter to be more precisely defined for solids such as glass and mica and for liquids such as glycerin and distilled water. The atomic parameters such as the density of states and the absorption wavelengths in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum for the given samples are deduced from the more precisely found Sellmeier coefficients. PMID:18259554
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daly, J. K.
1974-01-01
The programming techniques used to implement the equations and mathematical techniques of the Houston Operations Predictor/Estimator (HOPE) orbit determination program on the UNIVAC 1108 computer are described. Detailed descriptions are given of the program structure, the internal program structure, the internal program tables and program COMMON, modification and maintainence techniques, and individual subroutine documentation.
Researches on the Orbit Determination and Positioning of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, P. J.
2015-07-01
This dissertation studies the precise orbit determination (POD) and positioning of the Chinese lunar exploration spacecraft, emphasizing the variety of VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) technologies applied for the deep-space exploration, and their contributions to the methods and accuracies of the precise orbit determination and positioning. In summary, the main contents are as following: In this work, using the real-time data measured by the CE-2 (Chang'E-2) detector, the accuracy of orbit determination is analyzed for the domestic lunar probe under the present condition, and the role played by the VLBI tracking data is particularly reassessed through the precision orbit determination experiments for CE-2. The experiments of the short-arc orbit determination for the lunar probe show that the combination of the ranging and VLBI data with the arc of 15 minutes is able to improve the accuracy by 1-1.5 order of magnitude, compared to the cases for only using the ranging data with the arc of 3 hours. The orbital accuracy is assessed through the orbital overlapping analysis, and the results show that the VLBI data is able to contribute to the CE-2's long-arc POD especially in the along-track and orbital normal directions. For the CE-2's 100 km× 100 km lunar orbit, the position errors are better than 30 meters, and for the CE-2's 15 km× 100 km orbit, the position errors are better than 45 meters. The observational data with the delta differential one-way ranging (Δ DOR) from the CE-2's X-band monitoring and control system experimental are analyzed. It is concluded that the accuracy of Δ DOR delay is dramatically improved with the noise level better than 0.1 ns, and the systematic errors are well calibrated. Although it is unable to support the development of an independent lunar gravity model, the tracking data of CE-2 provided the evaluations of different lunar gravity models through POD, and the accuracies are examined in terms of orbit-to-orbit solution
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true How will we determine whether a State's work verification procedures ensure an accurate work participation measurement? 261.64 Section 261.64 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES,...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will we determine whether a State's work verification procedures ensure an accurate work participation measurement? 261.64 Section 261.64 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES,...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beare, R. A.
2008-01-01
Professional astronomers use specialized software not normally available to students to determine the rotation periods of asteroids from fragmented light curve data. This paper describes a simple yet accurate method based on Microsoft Excel[R] that enables students to find periods in asteroid light curve and other discontinuous time series data of…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keckler, C. R.; Kibler, K. S.; Powell, L. F.
1979-01-01
A high fidelity simulation of the annular suspension and pointing system (ASPS), its payload, and the shuttle orbiter was used to define the worst case orientations of the ASPS and its payload for the various vehicle disturbances, and to determine the performance capability of the ASPS under these conditions. The most demanding and largest proposed payload, the Solar Optical Telescope was selected for study. It was found that, in all cases, the ASPS more than satisfied the payload's requirements. It is concluded that, to satisfy facility class payload requirements, the ASPS or a shuttle orbiter free-drift mode (control system off) should be utilized.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taff, L. G.; Randall, P. M. S.
1985-01-01
A robust analytical formulation is developed to apply classical initial orbital determination to artificial satellites whose locations are uncertain to about 1 cu km and separated in time by no more than 30 min. An analytical simplification reduces Gauss's method, iteration on the semilatus rectum, iteration on the true anomaly, and the Lambert-Euler technique, to the solution of a single equation in one unknown, instead of the usual coupled triplet of three equations in three unknowns. The method is demonstrated for all common artificial satellite orbits over a variety of time intervals between the two location vectors, and for a varied set of position and distance errors.
Improved LRO orbit determination and LOLA science using the GRAIL gravity field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazarico, E.; Lemoine, F. G.; Goossens, S. J.; Neumann, G. A.; Torrence, M. H.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.
2012-12-01
The Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft mission has enabled the recovery of the global lunar gravity field to better accuracy and better spatial resolution (degree and order 420) than previous missions (150, and with poorer farside coverage). A solution produced at GSFC with the GEODYN software was evaluated with the tracking data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and the altimetric data from the onboard Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA). We show that the overlaps between adjacent reconstructed trajectory arcs, indicative of the accuracy of the orbit reconstruction, are significantly improved, from the 10-20m level with the LLGM-1 field to the 5-10m level. This is especially notable because the GRAIL field is completely independent of LRO data. Radially, the overlap study indicates accuracies better than 50cm, compared to 1-1.5m previously using LRO-based gravity fields. The gravity field can also be tuned to LRO orbits by including the LRO tracking data in the gravity inversion. This will allow lower-degree fields to perform well, but it will not improve the absolute accuracy is not improved. With more than three years of continuous data collected by LOLA, there exist tens of millions of altimetric crossovers. While most of the crossovers occur near the poles, the expected tidal deformation is larger outside of the polar regions. In addition, we focus on crossovers occurring between two five-beam (dayside) tracks because they provide strong constraints on their relative positions, which combine remaining orbital errors and tidal signal. We discuss the implications of having very accurate trajectories thanks to GRAIL for the analysis of the LOLA topographic data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Couhert, Alexandre; Cerri, Luca
2012-07-01
The reference Ocean Surface Topography Mission/Jason-2 satellite (CNES/NASA) has been in orbit for four years (since June 2008). It extends the continuous record of highly accurate sea surface height measurements begun in 1992 by the Topex/Poseidon mission and continued in 2001 by the Jason-1 mission. The complementary missions CryoSat-2 (ESA) and HY-2A (CNSA), with lower altitudes and higher inclinations, were launched in April 2010 and August 2011, respectively. Although the two last satellites fly in different orbits, they contribute to the altimeter constellation while enhancing the global coverage. The CNES Precision Orbit Determination (POD) Group delivers precise and homogeneous orbit solutions for these independent altimeter missions. This talk will address the issues related to the long-term stability of the orbit solutions; in particular, it focuses on the impact of the time-varying gravity field on the geographically correlated errors that are of interest for the altimeter analyst and on the recent modeling improvements that allow to deliver consistent orbit solutions across different missions. We will also give an overview of the performance of the tracking systems, and address some issues (like the use of a geocenter model on DORIS-SLR coordinates) concerning the prospects for improvements in modeling of the tracking data that would allow to improve the accuracy of the POD solutions in the long run.
A multi-satellite orbit determination problem in a parallel processing environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deakyne, M. S.; Anderle, R. J.
1988-01-01
The Engineering Orbit Analysis Unit at GE Valley Forge used an Intel Hypercube Parallel Processor to investigate the performance and gain experience of parallel processors with a multi-satellite orbit determination problem. A general study was selected in which major blocks of computation for the multi-satellite orbit computations were used as units to be assigned to the various processors on the Hypercube. Problems encountered or successes achieved in addressing the orbit determination problem would be more likely to be transferable to other parallel processors. The prime objective was to study the algorithm to allow processing of observations later in time than those employed in the state update. Expertise in ephemeris determination was exploited in addressing these problems and the facility used to bring a realism to the study which would highlight the problems which may not otherwise be anticipated. Secondary objectives were to gain experience of a non-trivial problem in a parallel processor environment, to explore the necessary interplay of serial and parallel sections of the algorithm in terms of timing studies, to explore the granularity (coarse vs. fine grain) to discover the granularity limit above which there would be a risk of starvation where the majority of nodes would be idle or under the limit where the overhead associated with splitting the problem may require more work and communication time than is useful.
The effects of geopotential resonance on orbit determination for Landsat-4
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoge, S. L.; Casteel, D. O.; Phenneger, M. C.; Smith, E. A.
1988-01-01
Analysis is presented demonstrating improved performance for Landsat-4 orbit determination using the Goddard Trajectory Determination System with an adjusted Goddard Earth Model-9 (GEM-9) for geopotential coefficients of the 15th degree and order. The orbital state is estimated along with the sine and cosine coefficients of degree and order 15, (C, S) sub 15,15. The estimates are made for two 5-day intervals of range and doppler data, primarily from the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite, during a period of low solar activity in January 1987. The average values of the estimated coefficients (C, S) sub 15,15 are used to modify the GEM-9 model, and orbit determination performance is tested on 17 consecutive 34-hour operational tracking data arcs in January 1987. Significant reductions in the mean values and standard deviations of the along-track position difference and the drag model scaling parameter from solution to solution are observed. The approach is guided by the shallow resonance theory of geopotential orbit perturbations.
Optimal Control for a Cooperative Rendezvous Between Two Spacecraft from Determined Orbits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Weiming; Han, Liping; Shi, Lei; Zhao, Di; Yang, Kun
2016-03-01
The mathematical model of a far-distance cooperative rendezvous between two spacecraft in a non-Keplerian orbit was established. Approximate global optimization was performed by a type of hybrid algorithm consisting of particle swarm optimization and differential evolution. In this process, the double-fitness function was established according to the objective function and the constraints; the double-fitness function was used to enable a better choice between the solutions obtained by the two algorithms at every iteration. In addition, the costate variables obtained were set as the initial values of the sequential quadratic programming to greatly increase the possibility of finding the approximate global optimal solution. After performing the calculations and simulations, it was concluded that the fuel required for orbiting was not influenced by the initial positions of the two spacecraft if the initial orbits of the two spacecraft were determined. However, the time consumption is strongly influenced in this situation.
Orbit Determination Issues and Results to Incorporate Optical Measurements in Conjunction Operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vallado, David A.; Kelso, T. S.; Agapov, Vladimir; Molotov, Igor
2009-03-01
Operations in geosynchronous orbit are important for many aspects of commerce. Avoiding conjunctions between an ever increasingly crowded geosynchronous environment is therefore becoming more important especially in light of the Iridium 33 - Cosmos 2251 collision. SOCRATES has processed Two-Line Element (TLE) set information for over 5 years. Unfortunately, the TLE information is of limited quality, and obtaining high quality ephemerides is difficult. A next step is to see how we can replace the TLE data for those objects for which we do not get operator data (non-participating SOCRATES-GEO oerational satellites or debris). The International Scientific Observing Network (ISON) is an excellent resource to obtain high-quality observations on satellites. The paper introduces the orbit determination, along with test cases and comparisons with known operator orbits. Finally, we discuss how these observations could be used operationally in the conjunction processing and what considerations should be taken into account.
TOPEX/POSEIDON operational orbit determination results using global positioning satellites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guinn, J.; Jee, J.; Wolff, P.; Lagattuta, F.; Drain, T.; Sierra, V.
1994-01-01
Results of operational orbit determination, performed as part of the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) Global Positioning System (GPS) demonstration experiment, are presented in this article. Elements of this experiment include the GPS satellite constellation, the GPS demonstration receiver on board T/P, six ground GPS receivers, the GPS Data Handling Facility, and the GPS Data Processing Facility (GDPF). Carrier phase and P-code pseudorange measurements from up to 24 GPS satellites to the seven GPS receivers are processed simultaneously with the GDPF software MIRAGE to produce orbit solutions of T/P and the GPS satellites. Daily solutions yield subdecimeter radial accuracies compared to other GPS, LASER, and DORIS precision orbit solutions.
The determination of maximum deep space station slew rates for a high Earth orbiter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Estefan, J. A.
1990-01-01
As developing national and international space ventures, which seek to employ NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) for tracking and data acquisition, evolve, it is essential for navigation and tracking system analysts to evaluate the operational capability of Deep Space Station antennas. To commission the DSN for use in tracking a highly eccentric Earth orbiter could quite possibly yield the greatest challenges in terms of slewing capability; certainly more so than with a deep-space probe. The focus here is on the determination of the maximum slew rates needed to track a specific high Earth orbiter, namely the Japanese MUSES-B spacecraft of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry Space Observatory Program. The results suggest that DSN 34-m antennas are capable of meeting the slew rate requirements for the nominal MUSES-B orbital geometries currently being considered.
Tariq, Muhammad Akram; Pourmand, Nader
2010-01-01
Measurement of the length of DNA fragments plays a pivotal role in genetic mapping, disease diagnostics, human identification and forensic applications. PCR followed by electrophoresis is used for DNA length measurement of STRs, a process that requires labeled primers and allelic ladders as standards to avoid machine error. Sequencing-based approaches can be used for STR analysis to eliminate the requirement of labeled primers and allelic ladder. However, the limiting factor with this approach is unsynchronized polymerization in heterozygous sample analysis, in which alleles with different lengths can lead to imbalanced heterozygote peak height ratios. We have developed a rapid DNA length measurement method using peptide nucleic acid and dideoxy dNTPs to “tailor” DNA templates for accurate sequencing to overcome this hurdle. We also devised an accelerated “dyad” pyrosequencing strategy, such that the combined approach can be used as a faster, more accurate alternative to de novo sequencing. Dyad sequencing interrogates two bases at a time by allowing the polymerase to incorporate two nucleotides to DNA template, cutting the analysis time in half. In addition, for the first time, we show the effect of peptide nucleic acid as a blocking probe to stop polymerization, which is essential to analyze the heterozygous samples by sequencing. This approach provides a new platform for rapid and cost-effective DNA length measurement for STRs and resequencing of small DNA fragments. PMID:20408144
Accurate label-free reaction kinetics determination using initial rate heat measurements
Ebrahimi, Kourosh Honarmand; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Jacobs, Denise; Hagen, Wilfred R.
2015-01-01
Accurate label-free methods or assays to obtain the initial reaction rates have significant importance in fundamental studies of enzymes and in application-oriented high throughput screening of enzyme activity. Here we introduce a label-free approach for obtaining initial rates of enzyme activity from heat measurements, which we name initial rate calorimetry (IrCal). This approach is based on our new finding that the data recorded by isothermal titration calorimetry for the early stages of a reaction, which have been widely ignored, are correlated to the initial rates. Application of the IrCal approach to various enzymes led to accurate enzyme kinetics parameters as compared to spectroscopic methods and enabled enzyme kinetic studies with natural substrate, e.g. proteases with protein substrates. Because heat is a label-free property of almost all reactions, the IrCal approach holds promise in fundamental studies of various enzymes and in use of calorimetry for high throughput screening of enzyme activity. PMID:26574737
Fujita, Masahiro; Yajima, Tomonari; Iijima, Kazuaki; Sato, Kiyoshi
2012-05-01
The uncertainty in pesticide residue levels (UPRL) associated with sampling size was estimated using individual acetamiprid and cypermethrin residue data from preharvested apple, broccoli, cabbage, grape, and sweet pepper samples. The relative standard deviation from the mean of each sampling size (n = 2(x), where x = 1-6) of randomly selected samples was defined as the UPRL for each sampling size. The estimated UPRLs, which were calculated on the basis of the regulatory sampling size recommended by the OECD Guidelines on Crop Field Trials (weights from 1 to 5 kg, and commodity unit numbers from 12 to 24), ranged from 2.1% for cypermethrin in sweet peppers to 14.6% for cypermethrin in cabbage samples. The percentages of commodity exceeding the maximum residue limits (MRLs) specified by the Japanese Food Sanitation Law may be predicted from the equation derived from this study, which was based on samples of various size ranges with mean residue levels below the MRL. The estimated UPRLs have confirmed that sufficient sampling weight and numbers are required for analysis and/or re-examination of subsamples to provide accurate values of pesticide residue levels for the enforcement of MRLs. The equation derived from the present study would aid the estimation of more accurate residue levels even from small sampling sizes. PMID:22475588
TerraSAR-X precise orbit determination with real-time GPS ephemerides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wermuth, Martin; Hauschild, Andre; Montenbruck, Oliver; Kahle, Ralph
TerraSAR-X is a German Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite, which was launched in June 2007 from Baikonour. Its task is to acquire radar images of the Earth's surface. In order to locate the radar data takes precisely, the satellite is equipped with a high-quality dual-frequency GPS receiver -the Integrated Geodetic and Occultation Receiver (IGOR) provided by the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ). Using GPS observations from the IGOR instrument in a reduced dynamic precise orbit determination (POD), the German Space Operations Center (DLR/GSOC) is computing rapid and science orbit products on a routine basis. The rapid orbit products arrive with a latency of about one hour after data reception with an accuracy of 10-20 cm. Science orbit products are computed with a latency of five days achieving an accuracy of about 5cm (3D-RMS). For active and future Earth observation missions, the availability of near real-time precise orbit information is becoming more and more important. Other applications of near real-time orbit products include the processing of GNSS radio occulation measurements for atmospheric sounding as well as altimeter measurements of ocean surface heights, which are nowadays employed in global weather and ocean circulation models with short latencies. For example after natural disasters it is necessary to evaluate the damage by satellite images as soon as possible. The latency and quality of POD results is mainly driven by the availability of precise GPS ephemerides. In order to have high-quality GPS ephemerides available at real-time, GSOC has developed the real-time clock estimation system RETICLE. The system receives NTRIP-data streams with GNSS observations from the global tracking network of IGS in real-time. Using the known station position, RETICLE estimates precise GPS satellite clock offsets and drifts based on the most recent available IGU predicted orbits. The clock offset estimates have an accuracy of better than 0.3 ns and are
GPS-Based Navigation and Orbit Determination for the AMSAT Phase 3D Satellite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, George; Carpenter, Russell; Moreau, Michael; Bauer, Frank H.; Long, Anne; Kelbel, David; Martin, Thomas
2002-01-01
This paper summarizes the results of processing GPS data from the AMSAT Phase 3D (AP3) satellite for real-time navigation and post-processed orbit determination experiments. AP3 was launched into a geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) on November 16, 2000 from Kourou, French Guiana, and then was maneuvered into its HEO over the next several months. It carries two Trimble TANS Vector GPS receivers for signal reception at apogee and at perigee. Its spin stabilization mode currently makes it favorable to track GPS satellites from the backside of the constellation while at perigee, and to track GPS satellites from below while at perigee. To date, the experiment has demonstrated that it is feasible to use GPS for navigation and orbit determination in HEO, which will be of great benefit to planned and proposed missions that will utilize such orbits for science observations. It has also shown that there are many important operational considerations to take into account. For example, GPS signals can be tracked above the constellation at altitudes as high as 58000 km, but sufficient amplification of those weak signals is needed. Moreover, GPS receivers can track up to 4 GPS satellites at perigee while moving as fast as 9.8 km/sec, but unless the receiver can maintain lock on the signals long enough, point solutions will be difficult to generate. The spin stabilization of AP3, for example, appears to cause signal levels to fluctuate as other antennas on the satellite block the signals. As a result, its TANS Vectors have been unable to lock on to the GPS signals long enough to down load the broadcast ephemeris and then generate position and velocity solutions. AP3 is currently in its eclipse season, and thus most of the spacecraft subsystems have been powered off. In Spring 2002, they will again be powered up and AP3 will be placed into a three-axis stabilization mode. This will significantly enhance the likelihood that point solutions can be generated, and perhaps more
Period and Orbital Separation determination of a Subdwarf B Pulsator, EC 20117-4014
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Otani, Tomomi; Oswalt, Terry
2016-01-01
EC 20117-4014 (V4640 Sgr) is believed to be a binary system consisting of a pulsating subdwarf B star and a F5V star, however the binary period and orbital distance has not been firmly determined. So far, the most promising theory for the origin of subdwarf B (sdB) stars is that they result from binary mass transfer near the Helium Flush stage. We attempted to constrain this evolutional theory by searching for companions and determining periods and orbital separations around sdB pulsators using the Observed-minus-Calculated (O-C) method. A star's position in space will wobble due to the gravitational forces of any companion. If the star is emitting a periodic signal, its orbital motion around the system's center of mass causes periodic changes in the light pulse arrival times. EC 20117-4014 was monitored from 2010-1 using the 0.6m SARA-CT telescope in Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile. After obtaining the O-C diagrams for the star, useful limits on suspected companions' minimum masses and semimajor axes were calculated. In addition, a modeling experiment was performed to investigate the ranges and combinations of possible companion masses and orbits that are consistent with the observational data. Also, the expected radial velocity semi-amplitude for each O-C companion signal was estimated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindqwister, Ulf J.; Lichten, Stephen M.; Davis, Edgar S.; Theiss, Harold L.
1993-01-01
Topex/Poseidon, a cooperative satellite mission between United States and France, aims to determine global ocean circulation patterns and to study their influence on world climate through precise measurements of sea surface height above the geoid with an on-board altimeter. To achieve the mission science aims, a goal of 13-cm orbit altitude accuracy was set. Topex/Poseidon includes a Global Positioning System (GPS) precise orbit determination (POD) system that has now demonstrated altitude accuracy better than 5 cm. The GPS POD system includes an on-board GPS receiver and a 6-station GPS global tracking network. This paper reviews early GPS results and discusses multi-mission capabilities available from a future enhanced global GPS network, which would provide ground-based geodetic and atmospheric calibrations needed for NASA deep space missions while also supplying tracking data for future low Earth orbiters. Benefits of the enhanced global GPS network include lower operations costs for deep space tracking and many scientific and societal benefits from the low Earth orbiter missions, including improved understanding of ocean circulation, ocean-weather interactions, the El Nino effect, the Earth thermal balance, and weather forecasting.
Test system accurately determines tensile properties of irradiated metals at cryogenic temperatures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levine, P. J.; Skalka, R. J.; Vandergrift, E. F.
1967-01-01
Modified testing system determines tensile properties of irradiated brittle-type metals at cryogenic temperatures. The system includes a lightweight cryostat, split-screw grips, a universal joint, and a special temperature control system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suardíaz, R.; Crespo-Otero, R.; Pérez, C.; Fabián, J. San; de la Vega, J. M. García
2011-02-01
Quantitative side-chain torsion angle χ1 determinations of phenylalanine residues in Desulfovibrio vulgaris flavodoxin are carried out using exclusively the correlation between the experimental vicinal coupling constants and theoretically determined Karplus equations. Karplus coefficients for nine vicinal coupling related with the torsion angle χ1 were calculated using the B3LYP functional and basis sets of different size. Optimized χ1 angles are in outstanding agreement with those previously reported by employing x ray and NMR measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murakami, M.
1989-03-01
The subject which this paper deals with is a 1-ppm level determination of the orbits of the Global Positioning System satellites for geodetic applications. A detailed model of the observables is developed. A new method of processing the phase and the range observables simultaneously to determine the GPS orbits is presented. Results are included and discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goossens, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Noda, H.; Araki, H.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.
2011-01-01
The SELENE mission, consisting of three separate satellites that use different terrestrial-based tracking systems, presents a unique opportunity to evaluate the contribution of these tracking systems to orbit determination precision. The tracking data consist of four-way Doppler between the main orbiter and one of the two sub-satellites while the former is over the far side, and of same-beam differential VLBI tracking between the two sub-satellites. Laser altimeter data are also used for orbit determination. The contribution to orbit precision of these different data types is investigated through orbit overlap analysis. It is shown that using four-way and VLBI data improves orbit consistency for all satellites involved by reducing peak values in orbit overlap differences that exist when only standard two-way Doppler and range data are used. Including laser altimeter data improves the orbit precision of the SELENE main satellite further, resulting in very smooth total orbit errors at an average level of 18m. The multi-satellite data have also resulted in improved lunar gravity field models, which are assessed through orbit overlap analysis using Lunar Prospector tracking data. Improvements over a pre-SELENE model are shown to be mostly in the along-track and cross-track directions. Orbit overlap differences are at a level between 13 and 21 m with the SELENE models, depending on whether l-day data overlaps or I-day predictions are used.
Do Ecological Niche Models Accurately Identify Climatic Determinants of Species Ranges?
Searcy, Christopher A; Shaffer, H Bradley
2016-04-01
Defining species' niches is central to understanding their distributions and is thus fundamental to basic ecology and climate change projections. Ecological niche models (ENMs) are a key component of making accurate projections and include descriptions of the niche in terms of both response curves and rankings of variable importance. In this study, we evaluate Maxent's ranking of environmental variables based on their importance in delimiting species' range boundaries by asking whether these same variables also govern annual recruitment based on long-term demographic studies. We found that Maxent-based assessments of variable importance in setting range boundaries in the California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense; CTS) correlate very well with how important those variables are in governing ongoing recruitment of CTS at the population level. This strong correlation suggests that Maxent's ranking of variable importance captures biologically realistic assessments of factors governing population persistence. However, this result holds only when Maxent models are built using best-practice procedures and variables are ranked based on permutation importance. Our study highlights the need for building high-quality niche models and provides encouraging evidence that when such models are built, they can reflect important aspects of a species' ecology. PMID:27028071
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Ruiliang; Koay, Cheng Guan; Hutchinson, Elizabeth; Basser, Peter J.
2014-07-01
Measurement of the T2 distribution in tissues provides biologically relevant information about normal and abnormal microstructure and organization. Typically, the T2 distribution is obtained by fitting the magnitude MR images acquired by a multi-echo MRI pulse sequence using an inverse Laplace transform (ILT) algorithm. It is well known that the ideal magnitude MR signal follows a Rician distribution. Unfortunately, studies attempting to establish the validity and efficacy of the ILT algorithm assume that these input signals are Gaussian distributed. Violation of the normality (or Gaussian) assumption introduces unexpected artifacts, including spurious cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-like long T2 components; bias of the true geometric mean T2 values and in the relative fractions of various components; and blurring of nearby T2 peaks in the T2 distribution. Here we apply and extend our previously proposed magnitude signal transformation framework to map noisy Rician-distributed magnitude multi-echo MRI signals into Gaussian-distributed signals with high accuracy and precision. We then perform an ILT on the transformed data to obtain an accurate T2 distribution. Additionally, we demonstrate, by simulations and experiments, that this approach corrects the aforementioned artifacts in magnitude multi-echo MR images over a large range of signal-to-noise ratios.
Spreading of liquid droplets on cylindrical surfaces: Accurate determination of contact angle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, H. D.
1990-02-01
The characterization of the physicochemical nature of interfaces is a key problem in the field of advanced fibrous composites. The macroscopic regime contact angle, which reflects the energetics of wetting at the solid-liquid interface, is difficult to measure by usual methods in the case of very thin cylindrical fibers, but it may be calculated from the shape of a liquid droplet spread onto a cylindrical monofilament using a method developed by Yamaki and Katayama [J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 19, 2897 (1975)], and B. J. Carroll [J. Coll. Interf. Sci. 57, 488 (1976)]. Unfortunately, measurements of the contact angle based on this method are, so far, unable to provide an accuracy of better than about 5°. In the present article two simple extensions of the method of Yamaki and Katayama and Carroll, are presented, from which highly accurate values of the contact angle may be obtained. This is demonstrated experimentally from the spreading of glycerol droplets on carbon fibers and epoxy droplets on aramid fibers.
Flight dynamics facility operational orbit determination support for the ocean topography experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bolvin, D. T.; Schanzle, A. F.; Samii, M. V.; Doll, C. E.
1991-01-01
The Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX/POSEIDON) mission is designed to determine the topography of the Earth's sea surface across a 3 yr period, beginning with launch in June 1992. The Goddard Space Flight Center Dynamics Facility has the capability to operationally receive and process Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) tracking data. Because these data will be used to support orbit determination (OD) aspects of the TOPEX mission, the Dynamics Facility was designated to perform TOPEX operational OD. The scientific data require stringent OD accuracy in navigating the TOPEX spacecraft. The OD accuracy requirements fall into two categories: (1) on orbit free flight; and (2) maneuver. The maneuver OD accuracy requirements are of two types; premaneuver planning and postmaneuver evaluation. Analysis using the Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS) covariance software has shown that, during the first postlaunch mission phase of the TOPEX mission, some postmaneuver evaluation OD accuracy requirements cannot be met. ODEAS results also show that the most difficult requirements to meet are those that determine the change in the components of velocity for postmaneuver evaluation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goossens, S. J.; Matsumoto, K.; Kikuchi, F.; Liu, Q.; Hanada, H.; Lemoine, F. G.; Rowlands, D. D.; Ishihara, Y.; Jianguo, Y.; Araki, H.; Noda, H.; Namiki, N.; Iwata, T.
2010-12-01
The Kaguya spacecraft were launched from Tanegashima Space Center on September 14, 2007. Kaguya consists of three orbiters: a main orbiter in a low-altitude (100 km) circular polar orbit, and two sub-satellites (Rstar and Vstar) in elliptical orbits. The satellites were tracked by a variety of terrestrial based tracking systems: in addition to standard two-way Doppler and range tracking, there was 4-way Doppler tracking between Rstar and the main orbiter, providing the first tracking data of a satellite over the lunar far side, and there was same-beam differential VLBI tracking between the two sub-satellites, providing precise orbits for these satellites. The main orbiter was also equipped with a laser altimeter (LALT) to measure the topography of the Moon. At points where the ground tracks of different orbits intersect, these data can provide further constraints on the orbit of the main satellite in the form of crossovers, as essentially the same topography should be measured. This comprehensive data set between the satellites allows for a unique opportunity to evaluate the contribution of these tracking systems to orbit and gravity field determination. Precise orbits are important for geolocation of the topography and camera data, whereas the gravity field can be used for studies of the lunar interior. Here, we present the analysis of the combinations of these tracking data. The use of 4-way and same-beam differential VLBI data leads to large improvements in orbit precision of all satellites involved, where especially peaks in orbit overlap differences during edge-on periods are reduced. The use of the altimetry crossovers improves the orbit of the main satellite further, resulting in an orbit precision of in general less than 20 m. We have also used the full set of SELENE tracking data (including all 4-way and all S-band same-beam differential VLBI data), together with historical data, for gravity field determination. We show a lunar gravity field model with an
Shi, Deheng; Li, Peiling; Sun, Jinfeng; Zhu, Zunlue
2014-01-01
The potential energy curves (PECs) of 28 Ω states generated from 9 Λ-S states (X(2)Π, 1(4)Π, 1(6)Π, 1(2)Σ(+), 1(4)Σ(+), 1(6)Σ(+), 1(4)Σ(-), 2(4)Π and 1(4)Δ) are studied for the first time using an ab initio quantum chemical method. All the 9 Λ-S states correlate to the first two dissociation limits, N((4)Su)+Se((3)Pg) and N((4)Su)+Se((3)Dg), of NSe radical. Of these Λ-S states, the 1(6)Σ(+), 1(4)Σ(+), 1(6)Π, 2(4)Π and 1(4)Δ are found to be rather weakly bound states. The 1(2)Σ(+) is found to be unstable and has double wells. And the 1(6)Σ(+), 1(4)Σ(+), 1(4)Π and 1(6)Π are found to be the inverted ones with the SO coupling included. The PEC calculations are made by the complete active space self-consistent field method, which is followed by the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction approach with the Davidson modification. The spin-orbit coupling is accounted for by the state interaction approach with the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. The convergence of the present calculations is discussed with respect to the basis set and the level of theory. Core-valence correlation corrections are included with a cc-pCVTZ basis set. Scalar relativistic corrections are calculated by the third-order Douglas-Kroll Hamiltonian approximation at the level of a cc-pV5Z basis set. All the PECs are extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. The variation with internuclear separation of spin-orbit coupling constants is discussed in brief for some Λ-S states with one shallow well on each PEC. The spectroscopic parameters of 9 Λ-S and 28 Ω states are determined by fitting the first ten vibrational levels whenever available, which are calculated by solving the rovibrational Schrödinger equation with Numerov's method. The splitting energy in the X(2)Π Λ-S state is determined to be about 864.92 cm(-1), which agrees favorably with the measurements of 891.80 cm(-1). Moreover, other spectroscopic parameters of Λ-S and Ω states involved here are
DETERMINING ION COMPOSITIONS USING AN ACCURATE MASS, TRIPLE QUADRUPOLE MASS SPECTROMETER
For the past decade, we have used double focusing mass spectrometers to determine
compositions of ions observed in mass spectra produced from compounds introduced by GC
based on measured exact masses of the ions and their +1 and +2 isotopic profiles arising from atoms of ...
Accurate determination of the magnetic anisotropy in cluster-assembled nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamion, Alexandre; Hillenkamp, Matthias; Tournus, Florent; Bonet, Edgar; Dupuis, Véronique
2009-08-01
The simultaneous triple adjustment of experimental magnetization curves under different conditions is shown to allow the unambiguous and consistent determination of both the magnetic particle size distribution and anisotropy for granular nanostructures of Co clusters embedded in protective matrices. The importance of interface effects resulting in magnetically dead layers is demonstrated.
Accurate NMR determination of C-H or N-H distances for unlabeled molecules.
Nishiyama, Y; Malon, M; Potrzebowski, M J; Paluch, P; Amoureux, J P
2016-02-01
Cross-Polarization with Variable Contact-time (CP-VC) is very efficient at ultra-fast MAS (νR ≥ 60 kHz) to measure accurately the dipolar interactions corresponding to C-H or N-H short distances, which are very useful for resonance assignment and for analysis of dynamics. Here, we demonstrate the CP-VC experiment with (1)H detection. In the case of C-H distances, we compare the CP-VC signals with direct ((13)C) and indirect ((1)H) detection and find that the latter allows a S/N gain of ca. 2.5, which means a gain of ca. 6 in experimental time. The main powerful characteristics of CP-VC methods are related to the ultra-fast spinning speed and to the fact that most of the time only the value of the dipolar peak separation has to be used to obtain the information. As a result, CP-VC methods are: (i) easy to set up and to use, and robust with respect to (ii) rf-inhomogeneity thus allowing the use of full rotor samples, (iii) rf mismatch, and (iv) offsets and chemical shift anisotropies. It must be noted that the CP-VC 2D method with indirect (1)H detection requires the proton resolution and is thus mainly applicable to small or perdeuterated molecules. We also show that an analysis of the dynamics can even be performed, with a reasonable experimental time, on unlabeled samples with (13)C or even (15)N natural abundance. PMID:26169913
Orbit determination and gravitational field accuracy for a Mercury transponder satellite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vincent, Mark A.; Bender, Pater L.
1990-01-01
Covariance studies were performed to investigate the orbit determination problem for a small transponder satellite in a nearly circular polar orbit with 4-hour period around Mercury. With X band and Ka band Doppler and range measurements, the analysis indicates that the gravitational field through degree and order 10 can be solved for from as few as 40 separate 8-hour arcs of tracking data. In addition, the earth-Mercury distance can be determined during each ranging period with about 6-cm accuracy. The expected geoid accuracy is 10 cm up through degree 5, and 1 m through degree 8. The main error sources were the geocentric range measurement error, the uncertainties in higher degree gravity field terms, which were not solved for, and the solar radiation pressure uncertainty.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, YANG; Caifa, GUO; Zhengxu, DAI; Xiaoyong, LI; Shaolin, WANG
2016-02-01
The space tracking ship is a moving platform in the TT&C network. The orbit determination precision of the ship plays a key role in the TT&C mission. Based on the measuring data obtained by the ship-borne equipments, the paper presents the mathematic models of the complicated error from the space tracking ship, which can separate the random error and the correction residual error with secondary low frequency from the complicated error. An error simulation algorithm is proposed to analyze the orbit determination precision based on the two set of the different equipments. With this algorithm, a group of complicated error can be simulated from a measured sample. The simulated error groups can meet the requirements of sufficient complicated error for the equipment tests before the mission execution, which is helpful to the practical application.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sellers, Michael; Lisal, Martin; Brennan, John
2015-06-01
Investigating the ability of a molecular model to accurately represent a real material is crucial to model development and use. When the model simulates materials in extreme conditions, one such property worth evaluating is the phase transition point. However, phase transitions are often overlooked or approximated because of difficulty or inaccuracy when simulating them. Techniques such as super-heating or super-squeezing a material to induce a phase change suffer from inherent timescale limitations leading to ``over-driving,'' and dual-phase simulations require many long-time runs to seek out what frequently results in an inexact location of phase-coexistence. We present a compilation of methods for the determination of solid-solid and solid-liquid phase transition points through the accurate calculation of the chemical potential. The methods are applied to the Smith-Bharadwaj atomistic potential's representation of cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) to accurately determine its melting point (Tm) and the alpha to gamma solid phase transition pressure. We also determine Tm for a coarse-grain model of RDX, and compare its value to experiment and atomistic counterpart. All methods are employed via the LAMMPS simulator, resulting in 60-70 simulations that total 30-50 ns. Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited.
Comparison of Sigma-Point and Extended Kalman Filters on a Realistic Orbit Determination Scenario
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gaebler, John; Hur-Diaz. Sun; Carpenter, Russell
2010-01-01
Sigma-point filters have received a lot of attention in recent years as a better alternative to extended Kalman filters for highly nonlinear problems. In this paper, we compare the performance of the additive divided difference sigma-point filter to the extended Kalman filter when applied to orbit determination of a realistic operational scenario based on the Interstellar Boundary Explorer mission. For the scenario studied, both filters provided equivalent results. The performance of each is discussed in detail.
An accurate method for the determination of carboxyhemoglobin in postmortem blood using GC-TCD.
Lewis, Russell J; Johnson, Robert D; Canfield, Dennis V
2004-01-01
During the investigation of aviation accidents, postmortem samples from accident victims are submitted to the FAA's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute for toxicological analysis. In order to determine if an accident victim was exposed to an in-flight/postcrash fire or faulty heating/exhaust system, the analysis of carbon monoxide (CO) is conducted. Although our laboratory predominantly uses a spectrophotometric method for the determination of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), we consider it essential to confirm with a second technique based on a different analytical principle. Our laboratory encountered difficulties with many of our postmortem samples while employing a commonly used GC method. We believed these problems were due to elevated methemoglobin (MetHb) concentration in our specimens. MetHb does not bind CO; therefore, elevated MetHb levels will result in a loss of CO-binding capacity. Because most commonly employed GC methods determine %COHb from a ratio of unsaturated blood to CO-saturated blood, a loss of CO-binding capacity will result in an erroneously high %COHb value. Our laboratory has developed a new GC method for the determination of %COHb that incorporates sodium dithionite, which will reduce any MetHb present to Hb. Using blood controls ranging from 1% to 67% COHb, we found no statistically significant differences between %COHb results from our new GC method and our spectrophotometric method. To validate the new GC method, postmortem samples were analyzed with our existing spectrophotometric method, a GC method commonly used without reducing agent, and our new GC method with the addition of sodium dithionite. As expected, we saw errors up to and exceeding 50% when comparing the unreduced GC results with our spectrophotometric method. With our new GC procedure, the error was virtually eliminated. PMID:14987426
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peters, Palmer N.; Gregory, John C.
1991-01-01
Images produced by pinhole cameras using film sensitive to atomic oxygen provide information on the ratio of spacecraft orbital velocity to the most probable thermal speed of oxygen atoms, provided the spacecraft orientation is maintained stable relative to the orbital direction. Alternatively, as it is described, information on the spacecraft attitude relative to the orbital velocity can be obtained, provided that corrections are properly made for thermal spreading and a co-rotating atmosphere. The LDEF orientation, uncorrected for a co-rotating atmosphere, was determined to be yawed 8.0 minus/plus 0.4 deg from its nominal attitude, with an estimated minus/plus 0.35 deg oscillation in yaw. The integrated effect of inclined orbit and co-rotating atmosphere produces an apparent oscillation in the observed yaw direction, suggesting that the LDEF attitude measurement will indicate even better stability when corrected for a co-rotating atmosphere. The measured thermal spreading is consistent with major exposure occurring during high solar activity, which occurred late during the LDEF mission.
Characterizing the three-orbital Hubbard model with determinant quantum Monte Carlo
Kung, Y. F.; Chen, C. -C.; Wang, Yao; Huang, E. W.; Nowadnick, E. A.; Moritz, B.; Scalettar, R. T.; Johnston, S.; Devereaux, T. P.
2016-04-29
Here, we characterize the three-orbital Hubbard model using state-of-the-art determinant quantum Monte Carlo (DQMC) simulations with parameters relevant to the cuprate high-temperature superconductors. The simulations find that doped holes preferentially reside on oxygen orbitals and that the (π,π) antiferromagnetic ordering vector dominates in the vicinity of the undoped system, as known from experiments. The orbitally-resolved spectral functions agree well with photoemission spectroscopy studies and enable identification of orbital content in the bands. A comparison of DQMC results with exact diagonalization and cluster perturbation theory studies elucidates how these different numerical techniques complement one another to produce a more complete understandingmore » of the model and the cuprates. Interestingly, our DQMC simulations predict a charge-transfer gap that is significantly smaller than the direct (optical) gap measured in experiment. Most likely, it corresponds to the indirect gap that has recently been suggested to be on the order of 0.8 eV, and demonstrates the subtlety in identifying charge gaps.« less
Characterizing the three-orbital Hubbard model with determinant quantum Monte Carlo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kung, Y. F.; Chen, C.-C.; Wang, Yao; Huang, E. W.; Nowadnick, E. A.; Moritz, B.; Scalettar, R. T.; Johnston, S.; Devereaux, T. P.
2016-04-01
We characterize the three-orbital Hubbard model using state-of-the-art determinant quantum Monte Carlo (DQMC) simulations with parameters relevant to the cuprate high-temperature superconductors. The simulations find that doped holes preferentially reside on oxygen orbitals and that the (π ,π ) antiferromagnetic ordering vector dominates in the vicinity of the undoped system, as known from experiments. The orbitally-resolved spectral functions agree well with photoemission spectroscopy studies and enable identification of orbital content in the bands. A comparison of DQMC results with exact diagonalization and cluster perturbation theory studies elucidates how these different numerical techniques complement one another to produce a more complete understanding of the model and the cuprates. Interestingly, our DQMC simulations predict a charge-transfer gap that is significantly smaller than the direct (optical) gap measured in experiment. Most likely, it corresponds to the indirect gap that has recently been suggested to be on the order of 0.8 eV, and demonstrates the subtlety in identifying charge gaps.
Orbit determination across unknown maneuvers using the essential Thrust-Fourier-Coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ko, Hyun Chul; Scheeres, Daniel J.
2016-01-01
Any maneuver performed by a satellite transitioning between two arbitrary orbital states can be represented as an equivalent maneuver involving Thrust-Fourier-Coefficients (TFCs). With a selected TFC set as a basis, a thrust acceleration can be constructed to interpolate two unconnected states across an unknown maneuver. This representation technique with TFCs enables us to facilitate the analytical propagation of uncertainties of the satellite state. This approach allows for the usage of existing pre-maneuver orbit estimation to compute the orbit solution after the unknown maneuver. In this paper, we applied this approach to orbit determination (OD) problems across unknown maneuvers by appending different combinations of TFCs to the state vector in the batch filter. The aim is to investigate how different maneuver representations with different TFC sets affect the OD solution across unknown maneuvers. Simulation results show that each TFC set provides different representations of the unknown perturbing acceleration, which yields varying magnitudes of delta velocity for a given maneuver. However, OD solutions across unknown maneuvers using different TFC sets display equivalent performance over the post-maneuver arc as long as those TFC sets are capable of generating the apparent secular motion caused by a given unknown maneuver.
Determination of the biotin content of select foods using accurate and sensitive HPLC/avidin binding
Staggs, C.G.; Sealey, W.M.; McCabe, B.J.; Teague, A.M.; Mock, D.M.
2006-01-01
Assessing dietary biotin content, biotin bioavailability, and resulting biotin status are crucial in determining whether biotin deficiency is teratogenic in humans. Accuracy in estimating dietary biotin is limited both by data gaps in food composition tables and by inaccuracies in published data. The present study applied sensitive and specific analytical techniques to determine values for biotin content in a select group of foods. Total biotin content of 87 foods was determined using acid hydrolysis and the HPLC/avidin-binding assay. These values are consistent with published values in that meat, fish, poultry, egg, dairy, and some vegetables are relatively rich sources of biotin. However, these biotin values disagreed substantially with published values for many foods. Assay values varied between 247 times greater than published values for a given food to as much as 36% less than the published biotin value. Among 51 foods assayed for which published values were available, only seven agreed within analytical variability (720%). We conclude that published values for biotin content of foods are likely to be inaccurate. PMID:16648879
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, Molly; Zhang, Da; Rong, John; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong
2009-10-01
Our goal was to evaluate the error contributed by photon fluence measurements to the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of an x-ray imaging system. The investigation consisted of separate error analyses for the exposure and spectrum measurements that determine the photon fluence. Methods were developed for each to determine the number of measurements required to achieve an acceptable error. A new method for calculating the magnification factor in the exposure measurements was presented and compared to the existing method. The new method not only produces much lower error at small source-to-image distances (SIDs) such as clinical systems, but is also independent of SID. The exposure and spectra results were combined to determine the photon fluence error contribution to the DQE of 4%. The error in this study is small because the measurements resulted from precisely controlled experimental procedures designed to minimize the error. However, these procedures are difficult to follow in clinical environments, and application of this method on clinical systems could therefore provide important insight into error reduction. This investigation was focused on the error in the photon fluence contribution to the DQE, but the error analysis method can easily be extended to a wide range of applications.
Zarabadi, Atefeh S; Pawliszyn, Janusz
2015-02-17
Analysis in the frequency domain is considered a powerful tool to elicit precise information from spectroscopic signals. In this study, the Fourier transformation technique is employed to determine the diffusion coefficient (D) of a number of proteins in the frequency domain. Analytical approaches are investigated for determination of D from both experimental and data treatment viewpoints. The diffusion process is modeled to calculate diffusion coefficients based on the Fourier transformation solution to Fick's law equation, and its results are compared to time domain results. The simulations characterize optimum spatial and temporal conditions and demonstrate the noise tolerance of the method. The proposed model is validated by its application for the electropherograms from the diffusion path of a set of proteins. Real-time dynamic scanning is conducted to monitor dispersion by employing whole column imaging detection technology in combination with capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) and the imaging plug flow (iPF) experiment. These experimental techniques provide different peak shapes, which are utilized to demonstrate the Fourier transformation ability in extracting diffusion coefficients out of irregular shape signals. Experimental results confirmed that the Fourier transformation procedure substantially enhanced the accuracy of the determined values compared to those obtained in the time domain. PMID:25607375
Relative orbit determination for satellite formation flying based on quantum ranging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Yanghe; Xu, Luping; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Shanshan; Song, Shibin
2015-08-01
Relative orbit determination is widely used in the field of autonomously controlled satellite formation flying (SFF). Currently, some traditional techniques cannot meet the strict requirement of the accuracy of relative orbit determination for certain space missions. Thus, the primary purpose of this study is to design some special type of sensor to increase the accuracy of the distance measurement, which can eventually lead to an improvement in the accuracy of relative orbit determination for SFF. Two types of quantum sensors are proposed, based on the double-points quantum ranging (DPQR) and the triangle quantum ranging (TQR) schemes that utilize the second-order correlation between the entangled photons. Simulation result shows that the ranging accuracy of the TQR-type sensor is more precise than that of the DPQR-type one. Additionally, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is used to estimate the relative state of the SFF, which uses the TQR-type sensor as the measurement model compared with a traditional sensor. The simulation results show that the quantum sensor is superior to the traditional one and their estimation errors of the position and velocity remain within 1 cm and 1 mm/s, respectively, at a relative distance of 1 km between the chief and deputy satellites.
A demonstration of unified TDRS/GPS tracking and orbit determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haines, B.; Lichten, S.; Srinivasan, J.; Young, L.
1995-01-01
We describe results from an experiment in which TDRS and GPS satellites were tracked simultaneously from a small (3 station) ground network in the western United States. We refer to this technique as 'GPS-like tracking' (GLT) since the user satellite - in this case TDRS - is essentially treated as a participant in the GPS constellation. In the experiment, the TDRS K(sub space-to-ground link (SGL) was tracked together with GPS L-band signals in enhanced geodetic-quality GPS receivers (TurboRogue). The enhanced receivers simultaneously measured and recorded both the TDRS SGL and the GPS carrier phases with sub-mm precision, enabling subsequent precise TDRS orbit determination with differential GPS techniques. A small number of calibrated ranging points from routine operations at the TDRS ground station (White Sands, NM) were used to supplement the GLT measurements in order to improve determination of the TDRS longitude. Various tests performed on TDRS ephemerides derived from data collected during this demonstration - including comparisons with the operational precise orbit generated by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center - provide evidence that the TDRS orbits have been determined to better than 25 m with the GLT technique.
Dingari, Narahara Chari; Horowitz, Gary L.; Kang, Jeon Woong; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Barman, Ishan
2012-01-01
We present the first demonstration of glycated albumin detection and quantification using Raman spectroscopy without the addition of reagents. Glycated albumin is an important marker for monitoring the long-term glycemic history of diabetics, especially as its concentrations, in contrast to glycated hemoglobin levels, are unaffected by changes in erythrocyte life times. Clinically, glycated albumin concentrations show a strong correlation with the development of serious diabetes complications including nephropathy and retinopathy. In this article, we propose and evaluate the efficacy of Raman spectroscopy for determination of this important analyte. By utilizing the pre-concentration obtained through drop-coating deposition, we show that glycation of albumin leads to subtle, but consistent, changes in vibrational features, which with the help of multivariate classification techniques can be used to discriminate glycated albumin from the unglycated variant with 100% accuracy. Moreover, we demonstrate that the calibration model developed on the glycated albumin spectral dataset shows high predictive power, even at substantially lower concentrations than those typically encountered in clinical practice. In fact, the limit of detection for glycated albumin measurements is calculated to be approximately four times lower than its minimum physiological concentration. Importantly, in relation to the existing detection methods for glycated albumin, the proposed method is also completely reagent-free, requires barely any sample preparation and has the potential for simultaneous determination of glycated hemoglobin levels as well. Given these key advantages, we believe that the proposed approach can provide a uniquely powerful tool for quantification of glycation status of proteins in biopharmaceutical development as well as for glycemic marker determination in routine clinical diagnostics in the future. PMID:22393405
Accurate mass determination of short-lived isotopes by a tandem Penning-trap mass spectrometer
Stolzenberg, H.; Becker, S.; Bollen, G.; Kern, F.; Kluge, H.; Otto, T.; Savard, G.; Schweikhard, L. ); Audi, G. ); Moore, R.B. ); The ISOLDE Collaboration
1990-12-17
A mass spectrometer consisting of two Penning traps has been set up for short-lived isotopes at the on-line mass separator ISOLDE at CERN. The ion beam is collected and cooled in the first trap. After delivery to the second trap, high-accuracy direct mass measurements are made by determining the cyclotron frequency of the stored ions. Measurements have been performed for {sup 118}Cs--{sup 137}Cs. A resolving power of over 10{sup 6} and an accuracy of 1.4{times}10{sup {minus}7} have been achieved, corresponding to about 20 keV.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Larson, T. J.; Siemers, P. M., III
1980-01-01
Wind tunnel pressure measurements were acquired from orifices on a 0.1 scale forebody model of the space shuttle orbiter that were arranged in a preliminary configuration of the shuttle entry air data system (SEADS). Pressures from those and auxiliary orifices were evaluated for their ability to provide air data at subsonic and transonic speeds. The orifices were on the vehicle's nose cap and on the sides of the forebody forward of the cabin. The investigation covered a Mach number range of 0.25 to 1.40 and an angle of attack range from 4 deg. to 18 deg. An air data system consisting of nose cap and forebody fuselage orifices constitutes a complete and accurate air data system at subsonic and transonic speeds. For Mach numbers less than 0.80 orifices confined to the nose cap can be used as a complete and accurate air data system. Air data systems that use only flush pressure orifices can be used to determine basic air data on other aircraft at subsonic and transonic speeds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dönsberg, Timo; Mäntynen, Henrik; Ikonen, Erkki
2016-06-01
The measurement uncertainty of illuminance and, consequently, luminous flux and luminous efficacy of LED lamps can be reduced with a recently introduced method based on the predictable quantum efficient detector (PQED). One of the most critical factors affecting the measurement uncertainty with the PQED method is the determination of the aperture area. This paper describes an upgrade to an optical method for direct determination of aperture area where superposition of equally spaced Gaussian laser beams is used to form a uniform irradiance distribution. In practice, this is accomplished by scanning the aperture in front of an intensity-stabilized laser beam. In the upgraded method, the aperture is attached to the PQED and the whole package is transversely scanned relative to the laser beam. This has the benefit of having identical geometry in the laser scanning of the aperture area and in the actual photometric measurement. Further, the aperture and detector assembly does not have to be dismantled for the aperture calibration. However, due to small acceptance angle of the PQED, differences between the diffraction effects of an overfilling plane wave and of a combination of Gaussian laser beams at the circular aperture need to be taken into account. A numerical calculation method for studying these effects is discussed in this paper. The calculation utilizes the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral, which is applied to the geometry of the PQED and the aperture. Calculation results for various aperture diameters and two different aperture-to-detector distances are presented.
A new sensor system for accurate and precise determination of sediment dynamics and position.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maniatis, Georgios; Hoey, Trevor; Sventek, Joseph; Hodge, Rebecca
2014-05-01
Sediment transport processes control many significant geomorphological changes. Consequently, sediment transport dynamics are studied across a wide range of scales leading to application of a variety of conceptually different mathematical descriptions (models) and data acquisition techniques (sensing). For river sediment transport processes both Eulerian and Lagrangian formulations are used. Data are gathered using a very wide range of sensing techniques that are not always compatible with the conceptual formulation applied. We are concerned with small to medium sediment grain-scale motion in gravel-bed rivers, and other coarse-grained environments, and: a) are developing a customised environmental sensor capable of providing coherent data that reliably record the motion; and, b) provide a mathematical framework in which these data can be analysed and interpreted, this being compatible with current stochastic approaches to sediment transport theory. Here we present results from three different aspects of the above developmental process. Firstly, we present a requirement analysis for the sensor based on the state of the art of the existing technologies. We focus on the factors that enhance data coherence and representativeness, extending the common practice for optimization which is based exclusively on electronics/computing related criteria. This analysis leads to formalization of a method that permits accurate control on the physical properties of the sensor using contemporary rapid prototyping techniques [Maniatis et al. 2013]. Secondly the first results are presented from a series of entrainment experiments in a 5 x 0.8 m flume in which a prototype sensor was deployed to monitor entrainment dynamics under increasing flow conditions (0.037 m3.s-1). The sensor was enclosed in an idealized spherical case (111 mm diameter) and placed on a constructed bed of hemispheres of the same diameter. We measured 3-axial inertial acceleration (as a measure of flow stress
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zohoun, Sylvain; Agoua, Eusèbe; Degan, Gérard; Perre, Patrick
2002-08-01
This paper presents an experimental study of the mass diffusion in the hygroscopic region of four temperate species and three tropical ones. In order to simplify the interpretation of the phenomena, a dimensionless parameter called reduced diffusivity is defined. This parameter varies from 0 to 1. The method used is firstly based on the determination of that parameter from results of the measurement of the mass flux which takes into account the conditions of operating standard device (tightness, dimensional variations and easy installation of samples of wood, good stability of temperature and humidity). Secondly the reasons why that parameter has to be corrected are presented. An abacus for this correction of mass diffusivity of wood in steady regime has been plotted. This work constitutes an advanced deal nowadays for characterising forest species.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veverková, Lenka; Hradilová, Šárka; Milde, David; Panáček, Aleš; Skopalová, Jana; Kvítek, Libor; Petrželová, Kamila; Zbořil, Radek
2014-12-01
This study examined recoveries of silver determination in animal tissues after wet digestion by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The composition of the mineralization mixture for microwave assisted digestion was optimized and the best recoveries were obtained for mineralization with HNO3 and addition of HCl promptly after digestion. The optimization was performed on model samples of chicken meat spiked with silver nanoparticles and a solution of ionic silver. Basic calculations of theoretical distribution of Ag among various silver-containing species were implemented and the results showed that most of the silver is in the form of soluble complexes AgCl2- and AgCl32 - for the optimized composition of the mineralization mixture. Three animal tissue certified reference materials were then analyzed to verify the trueness and precision of the results.
Initial results of precise orbit and clock determination for COMPASS navigation satellite system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Qile; Guo, Jing; Li, Min; Qu, Lizhong; Hu, Zhigang; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan
2013-05-01
The development of the COMPASS satellite system is introduced, and the regional tracking network and data availability are described. The precise orbit determination strategy of COMPASS satellites is presented. Data of June 2012 are processed. The obtained orbits are evaluated by analysis of post-fit residuals, orbit overlap comparison and SLR (satellite laser ranging) validation. The RMS (root mean square) values of post-fit residuals for one month's data are smaller than 2.0 cm for ionosphere-free phase measurements and 2.6 m for ionosphere-free code observations. The 48-h orbit overlap comparison shows that the RMS values of differences in the radial component are much smaller than 10 cm and those of the cross-track component are smaller than 20 cm. The SLR validation shows that the overall RMS of observed minus computed residuals is 68.5 cm for G01 and 10.8 cm for I03. The static and kinematic PPP solutions are produced to further evaluate the accuracy of COMPASS orbit and clock products. The static daily COMPASS PPP solutions achieve an accuracy of better than 1 cm in horizontal and 3 cm in vertical. The accuracy of the COMPASS kinematic PPP solutions is within 1-2 cm in the horizontal and 4-7 cm in the vertical. In addition, we find that the COMPASS kinematic solutions are generally better than the GPS ones for the selected location. Furthermore, the COMPASS/GPS combinations significantly improve the accuracy of GPS only PPP solutions. The RMS values are basically smaller than 1 cm in the horizontal components and 3-4 cm in the vertical component.
Andrews, D M; Callaghan, J P
2003-11-01
Cumulative low back loads have been linked to the reporting of low back pain. Traditional video-based methods used to estimate these loads are time intensive for data collection and analysis. Sampling less frequently would help to reduce the associated time and cost of this type of approach. The purpose of this study was to determine how the error in estimated cumulative low back loads is affected by reducing video sampling rate. Ten healthy male university students performed three laboratory, sagittal plane lifts of varying mass (2.3, 8.8, and 15.9 kg), speed (0.2, 0.4, 0.8 m/s), and postural demand (lift from floor to table; lower from shelf to table; lift from floor over barrier and lower to floor) while being videotaped (60 frames/s). Digitized body coordinates and anthropometrics were input into a static biomechanical model, resulting in estimates of low back compression and shear forces, and moment. Load-time histories for each condition underwent rectangular integration at 60 (gold standard), 30, 20, 15, 12, 10, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 frames/s, resulting in estimates of low back cumulative loads. Mean relative errors with respect to 60 frames/s for all cumulative loads and all conditions were found to be below 8% at 1 frame/s, and less than 3% at 2 frames/s. In addition, analyses at sampling rates above 3 frames/s were not significantly different than the cumulative loads determined at 60 frames/s, for all conditions. The accuracy of cumulative loads exhibited even at low sampling rates can be attributed, in part, to the fact that overestimations and underestimations of the integrated loads tend to cancel out over the length of the tasks considered. PMID:14559419
Determination of the force transmitted by an ion thruster plasma plume to an orbital object
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alpatov, A.; Cichocki, F.; Fokov, A.; Khoroshylov, S.; Merino, M.; Zakrzhevskii, A.
2016-02-01
An approach to determine the force transmitted by the plasma plume of an ion thruster to an orbital object immersed in it using its central projection on a selected plane is proposed. A photo camera is used to obtain the image of the object central projection. The algorithms for the calculation of the transmission of momentum by the impacting ion beam are developed including the determination of the object contour and the correction of the error due to a camera offset from the ion beam axis, and the computation of the fraction of the ion beam that impinges on the object surface.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iona, Glenn; Butler, James; Guenther, Bruce; Graziani, Larissa; Johnson, Eric; Kennedy, Brian; Kent, Criag; Lambeck, Robert; Waluschka, Eugne; Xiong, Xiaoxiong
2012-01-01
A gradual, but persistent, decrease in the optical throughput was detected during the early commissioning phase for the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP) Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Near Infrared (NIR) bands. Its initial rate and unknown cause were coincidently coupled with a decrease in sensitivity in the same spectral wavelength of the Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM) raising concerns about contamination or the possibility of a system-level satellite problem. An anomaly team was formed to investigate and provide recommendations before commissioning could resume. With few hard facts in hand, there was much speculation about possible causes and consequences of the degradation. Two different causes were determined as will be explained in this paper. This paper will describe the build and test history of VIIRS, why there were no indicators, even with hindsight, of an on-orbit problem, the appearance of the on-orbit anomaly, the initial work attempting to understand and determine the cause, the discovery of the root cause and what Test-As-You-Fly (TAYF) activities, can be done in the future to greatly reduce the likelihood of similar optical anomalies. These TAYF activities are captured in the lessons learned section of this paper.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iona, Glenn; Butler, James; Guenther, Bruce; Graziani, Larissa; Johnson, Eric; Kennedy, Brian; Kent, Cra