On the equinoctial orbit elements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Broucke, R. A.; Cefola, P. J.
1972-01-01
This paper investigates the equinoctial orbit elements for the two-body problem, showing that the associated matrices are free from singularities for zero eccentricities and zero and ninety degree inclinations. The matrix of the partial derivatives of the position and velocity vectors with respect to the orbit elements is given explicitly, together with the matrix of inverse partial derivatives, in order to facilitate construction of the matrizant (state transition matrix) corresponding to these elements. The Lagrange and Poisson bracket matrices are also given. The application of the equinoctial orbit elements to general and special perturbations is discussed.
Podolsky, Dale J; Mainprize, James G; Edwards, Glenn P; Antonyshyn, Oleh M
2016-01-01
Fracture of the orbital floor is commonly seen in facial trauma. Accurate anatomical reconstruction of the orbital floor contour is challenging. The authors demonstrate a novel method to more precisely reconstruct the orbital floor on a 50-year-old female who sustained an orbital floor fracture following a fall. Results of the reconstruction show excellent reapproximation of the native orbital floor contour and complete resolution of her enopthalmos and facial asymmetry. PMID:26674886
Conversion Between Osculating and Mean Orbital Elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guinn, Joseph; Chung, Min-Kun; Vincent, Mark
2006-01-01
Osculating/Mean Orbital Element Conversion (C version) (OSMEANC) is a C-language computer program that performs precise conversions between osculating and mean classical orbital elements. OSMEANC can be used for precise design of spacecraft missions and maneuvers and precise calculation of planetary orbits. The program accounts for the full complexity of gravitational fields, including aspherical and third-body effects.
Equinoctial orbit elements - Application to artificial satellite orbits.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cefola, P. J.
1972-01-01
The matrizant of the two-body problem is developed in terms of elements that are free from singularities for zero eccentricities and zero- and ninety-degree inclinations. Retrograde equinoctial elements eliminate the singularity for inclinations near 180 degrees, with only minor changes in the expressions for the matrizant. The 'single-averaged' variation-of-parameters equations for these elements are developed for third-body, oblateness, and drag effects. Higher order terms are included in the expansions for the third-body and oblateness potential. A computer program that uses these equations to predict orbital evolution is described. Numerical results are given for a near-circular orbit.
Exoplanet's Atmospheres Characteristics vs. Exoplanet's Orbital Elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molaverdikhani, Karan
2009-10-01
400 years after Galileo Galilei was detected Jovian system, we know about 400 exoplanets in other stellar systems. But we identify just about their major properties like some of orbital elements, planet's radii or density. Also, there are many scientists who interested in searching for life or habitability on these planets. They are working in different ways such as planetary formation, planetary orbital stability or immigration, HabStars, composition of atmospheres, most probable zone in sky for exoplanets detection, etc. In this research we distinct and defined some main characteristics of terrestrial planet's atmospheres with surveying on solar system's planets and matching with current theorems on atmosphere formation. On the other hand, we were modeled Mars, Venus, Titan, single Hadley Earth and virtual Venus with different tilt angel (applying Global Circulation Modeling) to finding a critical limit on Polar Vortex formation in our last research. With extension this method on hypothetical terrestrial planets in constraint mass between 0.7 to 2.5 Earth's mass on Green Belt and applying host stars from 0.5 to 1.5 Sun's mass, we found some limitations on planet's atmosphere formation and estimation values of atmosphere's main characteristics.
Equinoctial orbit elements - Application to optimal transfer problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kechichian, Jean Albert
The variation of parameters perturbation equations in terms of the nonsingular equinoctial orbit elements for the third body, oblateness, air drag, and thrust acceleration effects have been developed in the literature, to carry out orbit prediction and orbit determination, as well as optimal orbit transfer analyses for elliptic as well as near-circular orbits around earth. The partials of these elements with respect to the velocity vector and their partials with respect to the elements that define the state and Lagrange differential equations, were developed using the mean and eccentric longitudes as independent orbital elements, respectively. The full set of governing equations for optimal orbit transfer and rendezvous applications are presented in this paper in a consistent manner, for the case where mean longitude is the sixth element.
Determination of AES Orbit Elements Using Mixed Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolesnik, S. Ja.; Strakhova, S. L.
An algorithm is worked out and a program is compiled for a determination of AES (artificial Earth satellite) orbit elements using both goniometrical and range-finder observations of different precision. The observations of one or several passages carried out from one or several stations can be used. A number of observational stations and a number of observations are not limited in principle. When solving this task the AES ephemerides on the moments of observations are calculated for different sets of orbit elements. A parameter F is considered which is a function of orbit elements. The parameter presents a square-mean deviation of AES ephemeris position on the moments {J;} from its observed one. The determination of real orbit elements comes to minimizing of parameter F by orbit elements using a method of deformed polyhedron. When calculating the ephemeris the amendments for 2-d, 3-d, 4-th geopotential zone harmonics are considered.
Accurate interlaminar stress recovery from finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tessler, Alexander; Riggs, H. Ronald
1994-01-01
The accuracy and robustness of a two-dimensional smoothing methodology is examined for the problem of recovering accurate interlaminar shear stress distributions in laminated composite and sandwich plates. The smoothing methodology is based on a variational formulation which combines discrete least-squares and penalty-constraint functionals in a single variational form. The smoothing analysis utilizes optimal strains computed at discrete locations in a finite element analysis. These discrete strain data are smoothed with a smoothing element discretization, producing superior accuracy strains and their first gradients. The approach enables the resulting smooth strain field to be practically C1-continuous throughout the domain of smoothing, exhibiting superconvergent properties of the smoothed quantity. The continuous strain gradients are also obtained directly from the solution. The recovered strain gradients are subsequently employed in the integration o equilibrium equations to obtain accurate interlaminar shear stresses. The problem is a simply-supported rectangular plate under a doubly sinusoidal load. The problem has an exact analytic solution which serves as a measure of goodness of the recovered interlaminar shear stresses. The method has the versatility of being applicable to the analysis of rather general and complex structures built of distinct components and materials, such as found in aircraft design. For these types of structures, the smoothing is achieved with 'patches', each patch covering the domain in which the smoothed quantity is physically continuous.
Design requirements for orbit maintenance of SPS elements
Not Available
1980-11-01
The objective of this study is to identify the design and operational requirements that will be imposed by the need to avoid unplanned reentry of SPS elements. The LEO Staging Base, Electric Orbit Transfer Vehicle, the LEO Construction Base, and SPS Self-Power Module are the SPS elements selected for this analysis. The orbit decay rates and attitude control/orbit maintenance propellant requirements for nominal and worst case conditions are defined. The sequence of events that could cause unplanned reentry are defined. The design and operational requirements that will be used to prevent the various elements from deorbiting are defined.
Tessmer, Manuel; Gopakumar, Achamveedu
2008-10-15
Compact binaries inspiralling along eccentric orbits are plausible gravitational-wave (GW) sources for the ground-based laser interferometers. We explore the losses in the event rates incurred when searching for GWs from compact binaries inspiralling along post-Newtonian accurate eccentric orbits with certain obvious nonoptimal search templates. For the present analysis, GW signals having 2.5 post-Newtonian (PN) accurate orbital evolution are modeled following the phasing formalism, presented by T. Damour, A. Gopakumar, and B. R. Iyer [Phys. Rev. D 70, 064028 (2004)]. We demonstrate that the search templates that model in a gauge-invariant manner GWs from compact binaries inspiralling under quadrupolar radiation reaction along 2PN accurate circular orbits are very efficient in capturing our somewhat realistic GW signals. However, three types of search templates based on the adiabatic, complete adiabatic, and gauge-dependent complete nonadiabatic approximants, detailed in P. Ajith, B. R. Iyer, C. A. K. Robinson, and B. S. Sathyaprakash, Phys. Rev. D 71, 044029 (2005), relevant for the circular inspiral under the quadrupolar radiation reaction were found to be inefficient in capturing the above-mentioned eccentric signal. We conclude that further investigations will be required to probe the ability of various types of PN accurate circular templates, employed to analyze the LIGO/VIRGO data, to capture GWs from compact binaries having tiny orbital eccentricities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tessmer, Manuel; Gopakumar, Achamveedu
2008-10-01
Compact binaries inspiralling along eccentric orbits are plausible gravitational-wave (GW) sources for the ground-based laser interferometers. We explore the losses in the event rates incurred when searching for GWs from compact binaries inspiralling along post-Newtonian accurate eccentric orbits with certain obvious nonoptimal search templates. For the present analysis, GW signals having 2.5 post-Newtonian (PN) accurate orbital evolution are modeled following the phasing formalism, presented by T. Damour, A. Gopakumar, and B. R. Iyer [Phys. Rev. D 70, 064028 (2004)PRVDAQ0556-282110.1103/PhysRevD.70.064028]. We demonstrate that the search templates that model in a gauge-invariant manner GWs from compact binaries inspiralling under quadrupolar radiation reaction along 2PN accurate circular orbits are very efficient in capturing our somewhat realistic GW signals. However, three types of search templates based on the adiabatic, complete adiabatic, and gauge-dependent complete nonadiabatic approximants, detailed in P. Ajith, B. R. Iyer, C. A. K. Robinson, and B. S. Sathyaprakash, Phys. Rev. D 71, 044029 (2005)PRVDAQ0556-282110.1103/PhysRevD.71.044029, relevant for the circular inspiral under the quadrupolar radiation reaction were found to be inefficient in capturing the above-mentioned eccentric signal. We conclude that further investigations will be required to probe the ability of various types of PN accurate circular templates, employed to analyze the LIGO/VIRGO data, to capture GWs from compact binaries having tiny orbital eccentricities.
A general time element using Cartesian coordinates: Eccentric orbit integration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Janin, G.
1980-01-01
A general time element, valid with any arbitrary independent variables, and used with Cartesian coordinates for the integration of the elliptic motion in orbits, is examined. The derivation of the time element from a set of canonical elements of the Delaunay type, developed in the extended phase space, is presented. The application of the method using an example of a transfer orbit for a geosynchronous mission is presented. The eccentric and elliptic anomaly are utilized as the independent variable. The reduction of the in track error resulting from using Cartesian coordinates with the time element is reported.
Orbital elements of Charon from speckle interferometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beletic, J. W.; Goody, R. M.; Tholen, D. J.
1989-01-01
The semimajor axis and the inclination are the two most important quantities presently determined from 56 well-calibrated speckle-interferometric observations of the position of Charon, which are presented in conjunction with an orbit solution that incorporates them. Both values in the best solution obtained are noted to significantly differ from earlier determinations. The new value for the semimajor axis represents a 2.7 percent increase over the previously accepted value; the mean density of the system, however, remains unaltered.
Orbital elements of Charon from speckle interferometry
Beletic, J.W.; Goody, R.M.; Tholen, D.J.; Hawaii Univ., Honolulu )
1989-05-01
The semimajor axis and the inclination are the two most important quantities presently determined from 56 well-calibrated speckle-interferometric observations of the position of Charon, which are presented in conjunction with an orbit solution that incorporates them. Both values in the best solution obtained are noted to significantly differ from earlier determinations. The new value for the semimajor axis represents a 2.7 percent increase over the previously accepted value; the mean density of the system, however, remains unaltered. 18 refs.
Optimal low-thrust rendezvous using equinoctial orbit elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kechichian, Jean Albert
1996-01-01
The problem of optimal low-thrust rendezvous using continuous constant acceleration is presented based on the use of the non-singular equinoctial orbit elements. State and adjoint equations are integrated numerically by applying the thrust vector along a direction that maximizes the variational Hamiltonian at each instant of time. The two-point-boundary-value problem is solved via a Newton-Raphson scheme after guessing the initial values of the Lagrange multipliers as well as the total flight time. The transversality condition for the Hamiltonian at the final time is also used to carry out the 7 × 7 search. Equinoctial elements have previously been used to carry out minimum-time orbit transfers by considering only the five slowly varying elements. The inclusion of the sixth element representing the fast variable has allowed us to extend the applicability of the non-singular formulation to problems of orbital rendezvous.
Effective Echo Detection and Accurate Orbit Estimation Algorithms for Space Debris Radar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isoda, Kentaro; Sakamoto, Takuya; Sato, Toru
Orbit estimation of space debris, objects of no inherent value orbiting the earth, is a task that is important for avoiding collisions with spacecraft. The Kamisaibara Spaceguard Center radar system was built in 2004 as the first radar facility in Japan devoted to the observation of space debris. In order to detect the smaller debris, coherent integration is effective in improving SNR (Signal-to-Noise Ratio). However, it is difficult to apply coherent integration to real data because the motions of the targets are unknown. An effective algorithm is proposed for echo detection and orbit estimation of the faint echoes from space debris. The characteristics of the evaluation function are utilized by the algorithm. Experiments show the proposed algorithm improves SNR by 8.32dB and enables estimation of orbital parameters accurately to allow for re-tracking with a single radar.
The Behavior of Orbital Element of 1566 Icarus Asteroids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soegiartini, Endang; Radiman, Iratius; Fauzi, Umar; Siregar, Suryadi
1566 Icarus is an asteroid with special orbital elements; high eccentricity (e = 0.8269), high incli-nation (i = 22o .8368), small semimajor-axis (a = 1.0778 AU), argument of perihelion (31o .3393), longitude of ascending node (88o .0474), and mean anomaly (M = 85o .8306) at epoch 2455200.5 JD or January 4, 2010. In this paper, we would like to trace the orbital evolution of 1566 Icarus for 200,000 years, from 100,000 BC until 100,000 AD. The gravitational influence of the eight planets was included in the integrations, which were all carried out using the hybrid inte-grator within the Mercury 6 (Chambers, 1999) software package. From this, we try to predict the behavior of its orbital element by making 243 (35 ) clones of 1566 Icarus. The clones are made by repeated permutation of nominal, nominal+1σ, nominal-1σ with the orbital elements: semi-major axis, eccentricity, orbital inclination, longitude of ascending node, and argument of perihelion. From this cloning, we see that the orbital evolution of 1566 Icarus will be stable for 200,000 years, but with small variation in semi-major axis (a).
Van Yperen-De Deyne, A; Pauwels, E; Van Speybroeck, V; Waroquier, M
2012-08-14
In this paper an overview is presented of several approximations within Density Functional Theory (DFT) to calculate g-tensors in transition metal containing systems and a new accurate description of the spin-other-orbit contribution for high spin systems is suggested. Various implementations in a broad variety of software packages (ORCA, ADF, Gaussian, CP2K, GIPAW and BAND) are critically assessed on various aspects including (i) non-relativistic versus relativistic Hamiltonians, (ii) spin-orbit coupling contributions and (iii) the gauge. Particular attention is given to the level of accuracy that can be achieved for codes that allow g-tensor calculations under periodic boundary conditions, as these are ideally suited to efficiently describe extended condensed-phase systems containing transition metals. In periodic codes like CP2K and GIPAW, the g-tensor calculation schemes currently suffer from an incorrect treatment of the exchange spin-orbit interaction and a deficient description of the spin-other-orbit term. In this paper a protocol is proposed, making the predictions of the exchange part to the g-tensor shift more plausible. Focus is also put on the influence of the spin-other-orbit interaction which becomes of higher importance for high-spin systems. In a revisited derivation of the various terms arising from the two-electron spin-orbit and spin-other-orbit interaction (SOO), new insight has been obtained revealing amongst other issues new terms for the SOO contribution. The periodic CP2K code has been adapted in view of this new development. One of the objectives of this study is indeed a serious enhancement of the performance of periodic codes in predicting g-tensors in transition metal containing systems at the same level of accuracy as the most advanced but time consuming spin-orbit mean-field approach. The methods are first applied on rhodium carbide but afterwards extended to a broad test set of molecules containing transition metals from the fourth
Accurate orbit determination strategies for the tracking and data relay satellites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oza, D. H.; Bolvin, D. T.; Lorah, J. M.; Lee, T.; Doll, C. E.
1995-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) System (TDRSS) for tracking and communications support of low Earth-orbiting satellites. TDRSS has the operational capability of providing 85% coverage for TDRSS-user spacecraft. TDRSS currently consists of five geosynchronous spacecraft and the White Sands Complex (WSC) at White Sands, New Mexico. The Bilateration Ranging Transponder System (BRTS) provides range and Doppler measurements for each TDRS. The ground-based BRTS transponders are tracked as if they were TDRSS-user spacecraft. Since the positions of the BRTS transponders are known, their radiometric tracking measurements can be used to provide a well-determined ephemeris for the TDRS spacecraft. For high-accuracy orbit determination of a TDRSS user, such as the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/Poseidon spacecraft, high-accuracy TDRS orbits are required. This paper reports on successive refinements in improved techniques and procedures leading to more accurate TDRS orbit determination strategies using the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS). These strategies range from the standard operational solution using only the BRTS tracking measurements to a sophisticated iterative process involving several successive simultaneous solutions for multiple TDRSs and a TDRSS-user spacecraft. Results are presented for GTDS-generated TDRS ephemerides produced in simultaneous solutions with the TOPEX/Poseidon spacecraft. Strategies with different user spacecraft, as well as schemes for recovering accurate TDRS orbits following a TDRS maneuver, are also presented. In addition, a comprehensive assessment and evaluation of alternative strategies for TDRS orbit determination, excluding BRTS tracking measurements, are presented.
Material interactions with the low earth orbital environment Accurate reaction rate measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Visentine, J. T.; Leger, L. J.
1985-01-01
Interactions between spacecraft surfaces and atomic oxygen within the low earth orbital (LEO) environment have been observed and measured during Space Shuttle flights over the past 3 yr. The results of these experiments have demonstrated that interaction rates for many materials proposed for spacecraft applications are high and that protective coatings must be developed to enable long-lived operation of spacecraft structures in the LEO environment. A flight experiment discussed herein uses the Space Shuttle as an orbiting exposure laboratory to obtain accurate reaction rate measurements for materials typically used in spacecraft construction. An ion-neutral mass spectrometer, installed in the Orbiter cargo bay, will measure diurnal ambient oxygen densities while material samples are exposed at low altitude (222 km) to the orbital environment. From in situ atomic oxygen density information and postflight material recession measurements, accurate reaction rates can be derived to update the Space Station materials interaction data base. Additionally, gases evolved from a limited number of material surfaces subjected to direct oxygen impingement will be identified using the mass spectrometer. These measurements will aid in mechanistic definitions of chemical reactions which cause atom-surface interactions and in validating results of upcoming degradation studies conducted in ground-based neutral beam laboratories.
DETERMINATION OF ORBITAL ELEMENTS OF SPECTROSCOPIC BINARIES USING HIGH-DISPERSION SPECTROSCOPY
Katoh, Noriyuki; Itoh, Yoichi; Toyota, Eri; Sato, Bun'ei
2013-02-01
Orbital elements of 37 single-lined spectroscopic binary systems (SB1s) and 5 double-lined spectroscopic binary systems (SB2s) were determined using high-dispersion spectroscopy. To determine the orbital elements accurately, we carried out precise Doppler shift measurements using the HIgh Dispersion Echelle Spectrograph mounted on the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory 1.88 m telescope. We achieved a radial-velocity precision of {approx}10 m s{sup -1} over seven years of observations. The targeted binaries have spectral types between F5 and K3, and are brighter than the 7th magnitude in the V band. The orbital elements of 28 SB1s and 5 SB2s were determined at least 10 times more precisely than previous measurements. Among the remaining nine SB1s, five objects were found to be single stars, and the orbital elements of four objects were not determined because our observations did not cover the entire orbital period. We checked the absorption lines from the secondary star for 28 SB1s and found that three objects were in fact SB2s.
Calculation of transition matrix elements by nonsingular orbital transformations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kývala, Mojmír
A general strategy is described for the evaluation of transition matrix elements between pairs of full class CI wave functions built up from mutually nonorthogonal molecular orbitals. A new method is proposed for the counter-transformation of the linear expansion coefficients of a full CI wave function under a nonsingular transformation of the molecular-orbital basis. The method, which consists in a straightforward application of the Cauchy-Binet formula to the definition of a Slater determinant, is shown to be simple and suitable for efficient implementation on current high-performance computers. The new method appears mainly beneficial to the calculation of miscellaneous transition matrix elements among individually optimized CASSCF states and to the re-evaluation of the CASCI expansion coefficients in Slater-determinant bases formed from arbitrarily rotated (e.g., localized or, conversely, delocalized) active molecular orbitals.
The perturbations of the orbital elements of Trojan asteroids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erdi, B.
1981-08-01
An asymptotic solution for the cylindrical coordinates of Trojan asteroids is derived by using a three-variable expansion method in the elliptic restricted three-body problem. The perturbations of the orbital elements are obtained from this solution by applying the formulas of the two-body problem. The main perturbations of the mean motion are studied in detail.
Adaptive particle swarm optimization for optimal orbital elements of binary stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Attia, Abdel-Fattah
2016-10-01
The paper presents an adaptive particle swarm optimization (APSO) as an alternative method to determine the optimal orbital elements of the star η Bootis of MK type G0 IV. The proposed algorithm transforms the problem of finding periodic orbits into the problem of detecting global minimizers as a function, to get a best fit of Keplerian and Phase curves. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach of APSO generally more accurate than the standard particle swarm optimization (PSO) and other published optimization algorithms, in terms of solution accuracy, convergence speed and algorithm reliability.
Time elements for enhanced performance of the Dromo orbit propagator
Baù, Giulio; Bombardelli, Claudio E-mail: claudio.bombardelli@upm.es
2014-09-01
We propose two time elements for the orbit propagator named Dromo. One is linear and the other constant with respect to the independent variable, which coincides with the osculating true anomaly in the Keplerian motion. They are defined from a generalized Kepler's equation written for negative values of the total energy and, unlike the few existing time elements of this kind, are free of singularities. To our knowledge it is the first time that a constant time element is associated with a second-order Sundman time transformation. Numerical tests to assess the performance of the Dromo method equipped with a time element show the remarkable improvement in accuracy for the perturbed bounded motion around the Earth compared to the case in which the physical time is a state variable. Moreover, the method is competitive with and even better than other efficient sets of elements. Finally, we also derive a time element for a null and positive total energy.
Time-varying Geometric Orbital Elements of Saturn's Moons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiscareno, Matthew S.
2013-05-01
Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): The orbital elements of Saturn's moons are a moving target. Not only do they change with time due to gravitational interactions among the moons, but the familiar osculating elements are often not physically meaningful because of Saturn's large oblateness. Starting with numerical orbit integrations constrained by ground-based and spacecraft observations (e.g., Jacobson et al. 2008, AJ), we express the orbits of Saturn's moons in terms of the physically meaningful "epicyclic elements" derived in several papers by Borderies (Rappaport) and Longaretti, obtaining them from the Cartesian position and velocity at each moment in time via the algorithm of Renner and Sicardy (2006, CeMDA). Our purpose is twofold: Firstly, Saturn's rings respond to myriad resonances with the moons, and the location and phase of those resonances depend on each moon's mean motion, argument of pericenter, etc. By obtaining time series for these quantities in forms that directly reflect the motion of the perturbers as seen by the rings, we enable more precise study of ring resonances. Resonances due to Mimas, Janus, and Epimetheus, and perhaps also Prometheus and Pandora, change with time in such a way as to result in observable effects in spiral waves and edge locations (e.g., Tiscareno et al. 2006, ApJL; Spitale and Porco 2009, AJ). Secondly, by means of Fourier analysis and wavelet analysis, we investigate the frequencies that govern the evolution of the geometric orbital elements, and even how those frequencies themselves may change with time, thus casting light on the interactions among moons, as well as on the relation between orbital and rotational motion.
Time-varying Geometric Orbital Elements of Saturn's Moons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiscareno, Matthew S.
2014-11-01
The orbital elements of Saturn's moons are a moving target. Not only do they change with time due to gravitational interactions among the moons, but the familiar osculating elements are often not physically meaningful because of Saturn's large oblateness. Starting with numerical orbit integrations constrained by ground-based and spacecraft observations (e.g., Jacobson et al. 2008, AJ), we express the orbits of Saturn's moons in terms of the physically meaningful "epicyclic elements" derived in several papers by Borderies (Rappaport) and Longaretti, obtaining them from the Cartesian position and velocity at each moment in time via the algorithm of Renner and Sicardy (2006, CeMDA). Our purpose is twofold: Firstly, Saturn's rings respond to myriad resonances with the moons, and the location and phase of those resonances depend on each moon's mean motion, argument of pericenter, etc. By obtaining time series for these quantities in forms that directly reflect the motion of the perturbers as seen by the rings, we enable more precise study of ring resonances. Resonances due to Mimas, Janus, and Epimetheus, and perhaps also Prometheus and Pandora, change with time in such a way as to result in observable effects in spiral waves and edge locations (e.g., Tiscareno et al. 2006, ApJL; Spitale and Porco 2009, AJ). Secondly, by means of Fourier analysis and wavelet analysis, we investigate the frequencies that govern the evolution of the geometric orbital elements, and even how those frequencies themselves may change with time, thus casting light on the interactions among moons, as well as on the relation between orbital and rotational motion.
On Orbital Elements of Extrasolar Planetary Candidates and Spectroscopic Binaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stepinski, T. F.; Black, D. C.
2001-01-01
We estimate probability densities of orbital elements, periods, and eccentricities, for the population of extrasolar planetary candidates (EPC) and, separately, for the population of spectroscopic binaries (SB) with solar-type primaries. We construct empirical cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) in order to infer probability distribution functions (PDFs) for orbital periods and eccentricities. We also derive a joint probability density for period-eccentricity pairs in each population. Comparison of respective distributions reveals that in all cases EPC and SB populations are, in the context of orbital elements, indistinguishable from each other to a high degree of statistical significance. Probability densities of orbital periods in both populations have P(exp -1) functional form, whereas the PDFs of eccentricities can he best characterized as a Gaussian with a mean of about 0.35 and standard deviation of about 0.2 turning into a flat distribution at small values of eccentricity. These remarkable similarities between EPC and SB must be taken into account by theories aimed at explaining the origin of extrasolar planetary candidates, and constitute an important clue us to their ultimate nature.
Generating unaveraged equations of motion in common orbital elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veras, Dimitri
2014-05-01
Cartesian equations of motion must be converted or integrated in order to impart information about the evolution of orbital elements such as the semimajor axis, eccentricity, inclination, longitude of ascending node, argument of pericentre and true anomaly. Alternatively, equations of motion in terms of only these orbital elements can reveal aspects of the motion simply by inspection. I advertise a quick method to generate such equations for perturbed two-body problems, where the perturbation may be arbitrarily large, and where no averaging is involved. I use the method to generate complete unaveraged equations from perturbations due to Poynting-Robertson drag, general relativity, mass loss, Galactic tides, and additional massive bodies under the guise of the general restricted few-body problem.
Study on Orbital Decay of Near Earth Satellites with KS Orthogonal Elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ps, Sandeep
STUDY ON ORBITAL DECAY OF NEAR EARTH SATELLITES WITH KS ORTHOGONAL ELEMENTS SANDEEP P S The knowledge of satellite orbit decay and its expected life prior to launch is necessary for mission planning purpose. Several sets of data for various parametric studies is sought quite often, it is necessary to minimize computational time involved for generating decay predictions, keeping the prediction accuracy normally good. A number of factors play dominant role in perturbation modelling for near earth satellites such as oblateness of the Earth, presence of the atmosphere, luni-solar attraction and solar radiation pressure. This paper concerns with the study of orbital decay of near earth satellites with KS orthogonal elements, which provide accurate orbit predictions at low computational time. Perturbations considered are due to oblateness of the Earth and the atmospheric drag. The Earth’s zonal harmonic terms J2 to J6 are included and the drag is modeled with an analytical diurnally oblate atmosphere. Effect of Earth’s geomagnetic and solar activity is included in density and density scale height computations. JACCHIA77 atmospheric model is utilized. The developed software is validated with the orbital data of decayed objects taken from www.space-track.org.
Modeling of Non-Gravitational Forces for Precise and Accurate Orbit Determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hackel, Stefan; Gisinger, Christoph; Steigenberger, Peter; Balss, Ulrich; Montenbruck, Oliver; Eineder, Michael
2014-05-01
Remote sensing satellites support a broad range of scientific and commercial applications. The two radar imaging satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X provide spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and interferometric SAR data with a very high accuracy. The precise reconstruction of the satellite's trajectory is based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from a geodetic-grade dual-frequency Integrated Geodetic and Occultation Receiver (IGOR) onboard the spacecraft. The increasing demand for precise radar products relies on validation methods, which require precise and accurate orbit products. An analysis of the orbit quality by means of internal and external validation methods on long and short timescales shows systematics, which reflect deficits in the employed force models. Following the proper analysis of this deficits, possible solution strategies are highlighted in the presentation. The employed Reduced Dynamic Orbit Determination (RDOD) approach utilizes models for gravitational and non-gravitational forces. A detailed satellite macro model is introduced to describe the geometry and the optical surface properties of the satellite. Two major non-gravitational forces are the direct and the indirect Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP). The satellite TerraSAR-X flies on a dusk-dawn orbit with an altitude of approximately 510 km above ground. Due to this constellation, the Sun almost constantly illuminates the satellite, which causes strong across-track accelerations on the plane rectangular to the solar rays. The indirect effect of the solar radiation is called Earth Radiation Pressure (ERP). This force depends on the sunlight, which is reflected by the illuminated Earth surface (visible spectra) and the emission of the Earth body in the infrared spectra. Both components of ERP require Earth models to describe the optical properties of the Earth surface. Therefore, the influence of different Earth models on the orbit quality is assessed. The scope of
ACCURATE ORBITAL INTEGRATION OF THE GENERAL THREE-BODY PROBLEM BASED ON THE D'ALEMBERT-TYPE SCHEME
Minesaki, Yukitaka
2013-03-15
We propose an accurate orbital integration scheme for the general three-body problem that retains all conserved quantities except angular momentum. The scheme is provided by an extension of the d'Alembert-type scheme for constrained autonomous Hamiltonian systems. Although the proposed scheme is merely second-order accurate, it can precisely reproduce some periodic, quasiperiodic, and escape orbits. The Levi-Civita transformation plays a role in designing the scheme.
Accurate Orbital Integration of the General Three-body Problem Based on the d'Alembert-type Scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minesaki, Yukitaka
2013-03-01
We propose an accurate orbital integration scheme for the general three-body problem that retains all conserved quantities except angular momentum. The scheme is provided by an extension of the d'Alembert-type scheme for constrained autonomous Hamiltonian systems. Although the proposed scheme is merely second-order accurate, it can precisely reproduce some periodic, quasiperiodic, and escape orbits. The Levi-Civita transformation plays a role in designing the scheme.
Highly accurate adaptive finite element schemes for nonlinear hyperbolic problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oden, J. T.
1992-08-01
This document is a final report of research activities supported under General Contract DAAL03-89-K-0120 between the Army Research Office and the University of Texas at Austin from July 1, 1989 through June 30, 1992. The project supported several Ph.D. students over the contract period, two of which are scheduled to complete dissertations during the 1992-93 academic year. Research results produced during the course of this effort led to 6 journal articles, 5 research reports, 4 conference papers and presentations, 1 book chapter, and two dissertations (nearing completion). It is felt that several significant advances were made during the course of this project that should have an impact on the field of numerical analysis of wave phenomena. These include the development of high-order, adaptive, hp-finite element methods for elastodynamic calculations and high-order schemes for linear and nonlinear hyperbolic systems. Also, a theory of multi-stage Taylor-Galerkin schemes was developed and implemented in the analysis of several wave propagation problems, and was configured within a general hp-adaptive strategy for these types of problems. Further details on research results and on areas requiring additional study are given in the Appendix.
Accurate Determination of Comet and Asteroid Orbits Leading to Collision With Earth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Kay-Bunnell, Linda; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Kumar, Renjith R.; Seywald, Hans; Hausman, Matthew A.
2005-01-01
Movements of the celestial bodies in our solar system inspired Isaac Newton to work out his profound laws of gravitation and motion; with one or two notable exceptions, all of those objects move as Newton said they would. But normally harmonious orbital motion is accompanied by the risk of collision, which can be cataclysmic. The Earth s moon is thought to have been produced by such an event, and we recently witnessed magnificent bombardments of Jupiter by several pieces of what was once Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9. Other comets or asteroids may have met the Earth with such violence that dinosaurs and other forms of life became extinct; it is this possibility that causes us to ask how the human species might avoid a similar catastrophe, and the answer requires a thorough understanding of orbital motion. The two red square flags with black square centers displayed are internationally recognized as a warning of an impending hurricane. Mariners and coastal residents who know the meaning of this symbol and the signs evident in the sky and ocean can act in advance to try to protect lives and property; someone who is unfamiliar with the warning signs or chooses to ignore them is in much greater jeopardy. Although collisions between Earth and large comets or asteroids occur much less frequently than landfall of a hurricane, it is imperative that we learn to identify the harbingers of such collisions by careful examination of an object s path. An accurate determination of the orbit of a comet or asteroid is necessary in order to know if, when, and where on the Earth s surface a collision will occur. Generally speaking, the longer the warning time, the better the chance of being able to plan and execute action to prevent a collision. The more accurate the determination of an orbit, the less likely such action will be wasted effort or, what is worse, an effort that increases rather than decreases the probability of a collision. Conditions necessary for a collision to occur are
Orbital Advection by Interpolation: A Fast and Accurate Numerical Scheme for Super-Fast MHD Flows
Johnson, B M; Guan, X; Gammie, F
2008-04-11
In numerical models of thin astrophysical disks that use an Eulerian scheme, gas orbits supersonically through a fixed grid. As a result the timestep is sharply limited by the Courant condition. Also, because the mean flow speed with respect to the grid varies with position, the truncation error varies systematically with position. For hydrodynamic (unmagnetized) disks an algorithm called FARGO has been developed that advects the gas along its mean orbit using a separate interpolation substep. This relaxes the constraint imposed by the Courant condition, which now depends only on the peculiar velocity of the gas, and results in a truncation error that is more nearly independent of position. This paper describes a FARGO-like algorithm suitable for evolving magnetized disks. Our method is second order accurate on a smooth flow and preserves {del} {center_dot} B = 0 to machine precision. The main restriction is that B must be discretized on a staggered mesh. We give a detailed description of an implementation of the code and demonstrate that it produces the expected results on linear and nonlinear problems. We also point out how the scheme might be generalized to make the integration of other supersonic/super-fast flows more efficient. Although our scheme reduces the variation of truncation error with position, it does not eliminate it. We show that the residual position dependence leads to characteristic radial variations in the density over long integrations.
OSMEAN - OSCULATING/MEAN CLASSICAL ORBIT ELEMENTS CONVERSION (VAX VMS VERSION)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guinn, J. R.
1994-01-01
OSMEAN is a sophisticated FORTRAN algorithm that converts between osculating and mean classical orbit elements. Mean orbit elements are advantageous for trajectory design and maneuver planning since they can be propagated very quickly; however, mean elements cannot describe the exact orbit at any given time. Osculating elements will enable the engineer to give an exact description of an orbit; however, computation costs are significantly higher due to the numerical integration procedure required for propagation. By calculating accurate conversions between osculating and mean orbit elements, OSMEAN allows the engineer to exploit the advantages of each approach for the design and planning of orbital trajectories and maneuver planning. OSMEAN is capable of converting mean elements to osculating elements or vice versa. The conversion is based on modelling of all first order aspherical and lunar-solar gravitation perturbations as well as a second-order aspherical term based on the second degree central body zonal perturbation. OSMEAN is written in FORTRAN 77 for HP 9000 series computers running HP-UX (NPO-18796) and DEC VAX series computers running VMS (NPO-18741). The HP version requires 388K of RAM for execution and the DEC VAX version requires 254K of RAM for execution. Sample input and output are listed in the documentation. Sample input is also provided on the distribution medium. The standard distribution medium for the HP 9000 series version is a .25 inch streaming magnetic IOTAMAT tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. It is also available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format or on a 3.5 inch diskette in UNIX tar format. The standard distribution medium for the DEC VAX version is a 1600 BPI 9-track magnetic tape in DEC VAX BACKUP format. It is also available on a TK50 tape cartridge in DEC VAX BACKUP format. OSMEAN was developed on a VAX 6410 in 1989, and was ported to the HP 9000 series platform in 1991. It is a copyrighted work with
2002 Leonid storm fluxes and related orbital elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep M.; Llorca, Jordi; Lyytinen, Esko; Ortiz, Jose Luis; Caso, Albert Sánchez; Pineda, Carles; Torrell, Sebastià
2004-09-01
We report here the observation of the first peak belonging to the 2002 Leonid meteor storm made during the night of November 18-19, 2002. This feature, produced by a 7-revolution dust trail, was observed from several photographic stations of the Spanish Photographic Meteor Network (SPMN) and one video station operated from the Instituto de Astrofı´sica de Andalucı´a (IAA) in an intensive campaign from the ground working in collaboration with the 2002 Leonid MAC mission. We used photography, slow-scan Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) and video CCD-imaging techniques to deduce the meteoroid flux density profiles in different ranges of masses. Additionally, we present multi-station work, developed during the storm, that allows us to deduce the orbital elements of ten meteoroids associated with this dust trail. We have found a clear similarity between their orbits and the one belonging to a theoretical orbit for particles ejected from 55P/Tempel-Tuttle in 1767.
Orbital theory in terms of KS elements with luni-solar perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sellamuthu, Harishkumar; Sharma, Ram
2016-07-01
Precise orbit computation of Earth orbiting satellites is essential for efficient mission planning of planetary exploration, navigation and satellite geodesy. The third-body perturbations of the Sun and the Moon predominantly affect the satellite motion in the high altitude and elliptical orbits, where the effect of atmospheric drag is negligible. The physics of the luni-solar gravity effect on Earth satellites have been studied extensively over the years. The combined luni-solar gravitational attraction will induce a cumulative effect on the dynamics of satellite orbits, which mainly oscillates the perigee altitude. Though accurate orbital parameters are computed by numerical integration with respect to complex force models, analytical theories are highly valued for the manifold of solutions restricted to relatively simple force models. During close approach, the classical equations of motion in celestial mechanics are almost singular and they are unstable for long-term orbit propagation. A new singularity-free analytical theory in terms of KS (Kustaanheimo and Stiefel) regular elements with respect to luni-solar perturbation is developed. These equations are regular everywhere and eccentric anomaly is the independent variable. Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) algorithm and a Fourier series algorithm are used to compute the accurate positions of the Sun and the Moon, respectively. Numerical studies are carried out for wide range of initial parameters and the analytical solutions are found to be satisfactory when compared with numerically integrated values. The symmetrical nature of the equations allows only two of the nine equations to be solved for computing the state vectors and the time. Only a change in the initial conditions is required to solve the other equations. This theory will find multiple applications including on-board software packages and for mission analysis purposes.
Basis-set extensions for two-component spin-orbit treatments of heavy elements.
Armbruster, Markus K; Klopper, Wim; Weigend, Florian
2006-11-14
The accuracy of standard basis sets of quadruple-zeta and lower quality for the use in two-component self-consistent field procedures including spin-orbit coupling is investigated for the elements In-I and Au-At. Spin-orbit coupling leads to energetic and spatial splittings of inner shells, which are not described accurately with standard basis sets optimized for scalar relativistic calculations. This results in large errors in total atomic energies and significant errors in atomization energies of compounds containing these atoms. We show how these errors can be corrected by adding just a few steep sets of basis functions and demonstrate the quality of the resulting extended basis sets. PMID:17066175
Algorithms for Accurate and Fast Plotting of Contour Surfaces in 3D Using Hexahedral Elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Chandan; Saini, Jaswinder Singh
2016-07-01
In the present study, Fast and accurate algorithms for the generation of contour surfaces in 3D are described using hexahedral elements which are popular in finite element analysis. The contour surfaces are described in the form of groups of boundaries of contour segments and their interior points are derived using the contour equation. The locations of contour boundaries and the interior points on contour surfaces are as accurate as the interpolation results obtained by hexahedral elements and thus there are no discrepancies between the analysis and visualization results.
Alpha Virginis: line-profile variations and orbital elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harrington, David; Koenigsberger, Gloria; Olguín, Enrique; Ilyin, Ilya; Berdyugina, Svetlana V.; Lara, Bruno; Moreno, Edmundo
2016-05-01
Context. Alpha Virginis (Spica) is a B-type binary system whose proximity and brightness allow detailed investigations of the internal structure and evolution of stars undergoing time-variable tidal interactions. Previous studies have led to the conclusion that the internal structure of Spica's primary star may be more centrally condensed than predicted by theoretical models of single stars, raising the possibility that the interactions could lead to effects that are currently neglected in structure and evolution calculations. The key parameters in confirming this result are the values of the orbital eccentricity e, the apsidal period U, and the primary star's radius, R1. Aims: The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact that Spica's line profile variability has on the derivation of its orbital elements and to explore the use of the variability for constraining R1. Methods: We use high signal-to-noise and high spectral resolution observations obtained in 2000, 2008, and 2013 to derive the orbital elements from fits to the radial velocity curves. We produce synthetic line profiles using an ab initio tidal interaction model. Results: The general variations in the line profiles can be understood in terms of the tidal flows, whose large-scale structure is relatively fixed in the rotating binary system reference frame. Fits to the radial velocity curves yield e = 0.108 ± 0.014. However, the analogous RV curves from theoretical line profiles indicate that the distortion in the lines causes the fitted value of e to depend on the argument of periastron; i.e., on the epoch of observation. As a result, the actual value of e may be as high as 0.125. We find that U = 117.9 ± 1.8, which is in agreement with previous determinations. Using the value R1 = 6.8 R⊙ derived by Palate et al. (2013) the value of the observational internal structure constant k2,obs is consistent with theory. We confirm the presence of variability in the line profiles of the secondary star. RV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gopakumar, A.; Iyer, Bala R.
1997-12-01
The post-post-Newtonian (2PN) accurate mass quadrupole moment, for compact binaries of arbitrary mass ratio, moving in general orbits is obtained by the multipolar post Minkowskian approach of Blanchet, Damour, and Iyer. Using this, for binaries in general orbits, the 2PN contributions to the gravitational waveform, and the associated far-zone energy and angular momentum fluxes are computed. For quasielliptic orbits, the energy and angular momentum fluxes are averaged over an orbital period, and employed to determine the 2PN corrections to the rate of decay of the orbital elements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ko, William L.; Olona, Timothy
1987-01-01
The effect of element size on the solution accuracies of finite-element heat transfer and thermal stress analyses of space shuttle orbiter was investigated. Several structural performance and resizing (SPAR) thermal models and NASA structural analysis (NASTRAN) structural models were set up for the orbiter wing midspan bay 3. The thermal model was found to be the one that determines the limit of finite-element fineness because of the limitation of computational core space required for the radiation view factor calculations. The thermal stresses were found to be extremely sensitive to a slight variation of structural temperature distributions. The minimum degree of element fineness required for the thermal model to yield reasonably accurate solutions was established. The radiation view factor computation time was found to be insignificant compared with the total computer time required for the SPAR transient heat transfer analysis.
Synthesis of Survey Questions That Accurately Discriminate the Elements of the TPACK Framework
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jaikaran-Doe, Seeta; Doe, Peter Edward
2015-01-01
A number of validated survey instruments for assessing technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) do not accurately discriminate between the seven elements of the TPACK framework particularly technological content knowledge (TCK) and technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK). By posing simple questions that assess technological,…
Orbit Maneuver Compensation of KAGUYA for Its Safe and Accurate Lunar Transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro; Terada, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Masatoshi; Ohnishi, Takafumi
Reported in this paper are the results of the orbit maneuver compensation in KAGUYA's Lunar transfer. Because of the uncoupled allocation of the attitude control thrusters, extra velocity increment (δv ) is induced whenever KAGUYA performs an orbit maneuver. Since the observed level of δv was unacceptable range from the point of maneuver accuracy requirement, it was compensated by means of deducting estimated δv from the orbit maneuver command. The δv estimation model was updated step-by-step during the Lunar transfer, which leaded to significant improvement of the orbit maneuver accuracy and resulted in the omission of the last trajectory correction maneuver. The method of the compensation and its results are introduced in detail.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hackel, Stefan; Montenbruck, Oliver; Steigenberger, -Peter; Eineder, Michael; Gisinger, Christoph
Remote sensing satellites support a broad range of scientific and commercial applications. The two radar imaging satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X provide spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and interferometric SAR data with a very high accuracy. The increasing demand for precise radar products relies on sophisticated validation methods, which require precise and accurate orbit products. Basically, the precise reconstruction of the satellite’s trajectory is based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from a geodetic-grade dual-frequency receiver onboard the spacecraft. The Reduced Dynamic Orbit Determination (RDOD) approach utilizes models for the gravitational and non-gravitational forces. Following a proper analysis of the orbit quality, systematics in the orbit products have been identified, which reflect deficits in the non-gravitational force models. A detailed satellite macro model is introduced to describe the geometry and the optical surface properties of the satellite. Two major non-gravitational forces are the direct and the indirect Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP). Due to the dusk-dawn orbit configuration of TerraSAR-X, the satellite is almost constantly illuminated by the Sun. Therefore, the direct SRP has an effect on the lateral stability of the determined orbit. The indirect effect of the solar radiation principally contributes to the Earth Radiation Pressure (ERP). The resulting force depends on the sunlight, which is reflected by the illuminated Earth surface in the visible, and the emission of the Earth body in the infrared spectra. Both components of ERP require Earth models to describe the optical properties of the Earth surface. Therefore, the influence of different Earth models on the orbit quality is assessed within the presentation. The presentation highlights the influence of non-gravitational force and satellite macro models on the orbit quality of TerraSAR-X.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vaughan, William W.; Friedman, Mark J.; Monteiro, Anand C.
1993-01-01
In earlier papers, Doedel and the authors have developed a numerical method and derived error estimates for the computation of branches of heteroclinic orbits for a system of autonomous ordinary differential equations in R(exp n). The idea of the method is to reduce a boundary value problem on the real line to a boundary value problem on a finite interval by using a local (linear or higher order) approximation of the stable and unstable manifolds. A practical limitation for the computation of homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits has been the difficulty in obtaining starting orbits. Typically these were obtained from a closed form solution or via a homotopy from a known solution. Here we consider extensions of our algorithm which allow us to obtain starting orbits on the continuation branch in a more systematic way as well as make the continuation algorithm more flexible. In applications, we use the continuation software package AUTO in combination with some initial value software. The examples considered include computation of homoclinic orbits in a singular perturbation problem and in a turbulent fluid boundary layer in the wall region problem.
Optimum satellite orbits for accurate measurement of the earth's radiation budget, summary
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, G. G.; Vonderhaar, T. H.
1978-01-01
The optimum set of orbit inclinations for the measurement of the earth radiation budget from spacially integrating sensor systems was estimated for two and three satellite systems. The best set of the two were satellites at orbit inclinations of 80 deg and 50 deg; of three the inclinations were 80 deg, 60 deg and 50 deg. These were chosen on the basis of a simulation of flat plate and spherical detectors flying over a daily varying earth radiation field as measured by the Nimbus 3 medium resolution scanners. A diurnal oscillation was also included in the emitted flux and albedo to give a source field as realistic as possible. Twenty three satellites with different inclinations and equator crossings were simulated, allowing the results of thousand of multisatellite sets to be intercompared. All were circular orbits of radius 7178 kilometers.
Monte Carlo simulations of the orbital elements and abundances of barium stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Wei-Bin; Niu, Ping; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Jun-Hong; Peng, Qiu-He
2003-07-01
We have carried out a series of Monte Carlo simulations to study the distributions of the orbital elements of normal red giant binary systems and barium stars with the wind accretion model under the condition of total angular momentum conservation. Since barium star systems have evolved from normal red giant binary systems, their distributions of orbital eccentricities and periods exhibit the characteristics of the final orbits of binaries after mass accretion. Our calculations show that in the process of wind accretion and in the mass-losing stage, the system gets bigger, and its orbital period increases, while the orbital eccentricity does not vary much. This can explain the various features in the distributions of the orbital elements of normal red giant binary systems and barium stars, as well as features in the distribution of the heavy-element abundances of barium stars.
Analytical orbit predictions with air drag using K-S uniformly regular canonical elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xavier James Raj, M.; Sharma, R. K.
Accurate orbit prediction of the Earth's satellites is an important requirement for mission planning, satellite geodesy, spacecraft navigation, re-entry and orbital lifetime estimates. For this purpose, it has become necessary to use extremely complex force models to match with the present operational requirements and observational techniques. The problem becomes all the more complicated in the near-Earth environment due to the fact that the satellite is influenced by the non-spherical effects of the Earth's gravitational field as well as the dissipative effects of the Earth's atmosphere. The effects of the atmosphere are difficult to determine since the atmospheric density, and hence the drag, undergoes large modelled fluctuations. Though the accurate ephemeris of a near-Earth satellite can be generated by the numerical integration methods with respect to a complex force model, the analytical solutions, though difficult to obtain for complex force models and limited to relatively simple models, represent a manifold of solutions for a large domain of initial conditions and find indispensable application to mission planning and qualitative analysis. The method of the K-S total-energy element equations (Stiefel & Scheifele, 1971) is a powerful method for numerical solution with respect to any type of perturbing forces, as the equations are less sensitive to round-off and truncation errors in the numerical algorithm. The equations are everywhere regular in contrast with the classical Newtonian equations, which are singular at the collision of the two bodies. The equations are smoothed for eccentric orbits because eccentric anomaly is the independent variable. These equations have been used effectively to generate analytical solution with respect to Earth's zonal harmonic term J2 (Sharma 1997) and air drag perturbations (Sharma 1992). A particular canonical form of the K-S differential equations, known as K-S uniform regular canonical equations, where all the ten
Magnetoresistance in the Spin-Orbit Kondo State of Elemental Bismuth
Craco, Luis; Leoni, Stefano
2015-01-01
Materials with strong spin-orbit coupling, which competes with other particle-particle interactions and external perturbations, offer a promising route to explore novel phases of quantum matter. Using LDA + DMFT we reveal the complex interplay between local, multi-orbital Coulomb and spin-orbit interaction in elemental bismuth. Our theory quantifies the role played by collective dynamical fluctuations in the spin-orbit Kondo state. The correlated electronic structure we derive is promising in the sense that it leads to results that might explain why moderate magnetic fields can generate Dirac valleys and directional-selective magnetoresistance responses within spin-orbit Kondo metals. PMID:26358556
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Bin; Tang, Jingshi; Hou, Xiyun; Liu, Lin
2016-07-01
The eccentricity and the inclination of the satellite in geosynchronous orbit are both small, under this condition, perturbations from the Earth's non-spherical gravitational field result in orbit resonances due to incommensurable small denominators, that is, the problem of small eccentricity, small inclination and commensurability small incommensurable denominator exist simultaneously. Usually we adopt the classic Kepler orbital elements to describe an orbit, However, in the case of small eccentricities and small inclinations, the geometric meaning of the perigee and ascending node of an GEO is no longer clear, and the equations of motion have small denominators which results in the failure of the usual mean orbit element perturbation solution. This phenomenon of singularity is caused by the inappropriate choice of independent variables and has nothing to do with the dynamics. Such singularities can be avoided by choosing the appropriate independent variables (called non-singularity orbital elements). Incommensurable singularity appears in the process of solving the perturbation equations by the mean element methodology. The quasi-average element methodology retains the main advantages of the mean element method and reasonably revises its definition. Quasi-average orbits, without short periodic terms, while including the long-term items are taken as the reference orbit. The reference orbit in this transformation has long-term variations which are similar to the long periodic terms within a short-time duration. So we can avoid the failure of the perturbation solution caused by the periodic terms when using the classical perturbation method or the mean element method. From the perspective of mechanics, it can eliminate the incommensurable singularity, and the perturbation solution will remain valid. This paper aims at introducing the calculation method to eliminate the singularity problem of e=0,i=0 and commensurability singularity by using the quasi-average element
The Road to Accurate Trans-Iron Element Abundances in Ionized Nebulae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sterling, Nicholas C.; Dinerstein, H. L.; Hwang, S.; Redfield, S.; Aguilar, A.; McLaughlin, B.; Bautista, M.; Witthoeft, M. C.; Esteves, D.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Phaneuf, R.; Bilodeau, R. C.; Kallman, T. R.; Ballance, C. P.; Norrington, P. H.
2008-05-01
We present initial results from a program that will dramatically improve the accuracy of trans-iron element abundance determinations in planetary nebulae (PNe) and other ionized nebulae, through new atomic data determinations and multi-wavelength observations. Neutron(n)-capture elements (atomic number Z>30) can be produced in PN progenitor stars by s-process nucleosynthesis during the asymptotic giant branch phase. Abundance determinations of Ge (Sterling et al. 2002, ApJ, 578, L55), Se, and Kr (Sterling & Dinerstein 2008, ApJS, 174, 158) from ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy are uncertain by factors of 2 or 3 for most PNe. These uncertainties arise from: (1) the detection of only one ion of each element, leading to large and uncertain ionization correction factors (ICFs); and (2) the lack of atomic data governing the ionization balance of these elements. We present calculations of photoionization cross-sections and recombination rate coefficients for the four most widely observed n-capture elements in ionized nebulae (Ge, Se, Kr, and Xe), using the atomic structure codes AUTOSTRUCTURE (Badnell 1986, J. Phys. B, 19, 3827) and DARC (Ballance & Griffin 2006, J. Phys. B, 40, 3617). To calibrate these calculations, we have experimentally measured absolute photoionization cross-sections at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron radiation facility, and present results for Se and Xe ions. These new atomic data will be incorporated into state-of-the-art photoionization models to derive robust ICFs for these elements. In addition, we have obtained deep, high resolution optical spectra of 14 s-process enriched PNe. Combined with IR spectra, these measurements enable multiple Se, Kr, and Xe ions to be detected, which reduces the magnitude and uncertainties in their ICFs (and consequently the derived elemental abundances). We will apply these results to determine the n-capture element abundances in PNe more accurately than previously possible, and to study the details of
Distance-based relative orbital elements determination for formation flying system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Yanchao; Xu, Ming; Chen, Xi
2016-01-01
The present paper deals with determination of relative orbital elements based only on distance between satellites in the formation flying system, which has potential application in engineering, especially suited for rapid orbit determination required missions. A geometric simplification is performed to reduce the formation configuration in three-dimensional space to a plane. Then the equivalent actual configuration deviating from its nominal design is introduced to derive a group of autonomous linear equations on the mapping between the relative orbital elements differences and distance errors. The primary linear equations-based algorithm is initially proposed to conduct the rapid and precise determination of the relative orbital elements without the complex computation, which is further improved by least-squares method with more distance measurements taken into consideration. Numerical simulations and comparisons with traditional approaches are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. To assess the performance of the two proposed algorithms, accuracy validation and Monte Carlo simulations are implemented in the presence of noises of distance measurements and the leader's absolute orbital elements. It is demonstrated that the relative orbital elements determination accuracy of two approaches reaches more than 90% and even close to the actual values for the least-squares improved one. The proposed approaches can be alternates for relative orbit determination without assistance of additional facilities in engineering for their fairly high efficiency with accuracy and autonomy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kolomiyets, S. V.
2011-01-01
Some results of the International Heliophysical Year (IHY) Coordinated Investigation Program (CIP) number 65 Meteors in the Earth Atmosphere and Meteoroids in the Solar System are presented. The problem of hyperbolic and near-parabolic orbits is discussed. Some possibilities for the solution of this problem can be obtained from the radar observation of faint meteors. The limiting magnitude of the Kharkov, Ukraine, radar observation program in the 1970 s was +12, resulting in a very large number of meteors being detected. 250,000 orbits down to even fainter limiting magnitude were determined in the 1972-78 period in Kharkov (out of them 7,000 are hyperbolic). The hypothesis of hyperbolic meteors was confirmed. In some radar meteor observations 1 10% of meteors are hyperbolic meteors. Though the Advanced Meteor Orbit Radar (AMOR, New Zealand) and Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR, Canada) have accumulated millions of meteor orbits, there are difficulties in comparing the radar observational data obtained from these three sites (New Zealand, Canada, Kharkov). A new global program International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) has begun in 2010 (http://www.iswi-secretariat.org). Today it is necessary to create the unified radar catalogue of nearparabolic and hyperbolic meteor orbits in the framework of the ISWI, or any other different way, in collaboration of Ukraine, Canada, New Zealand, the USA and, possibly, Japan. Involvement of the Virtual Meteor Observatory (Netherlands) and Meteor Data Centre (Slovakia) is desirable too. International unified radar catalogue of near-parabolic and hyperbolic meteor orbits will aid to a major advance in our understanding of the ecology of meteoroids within the Solar System and beyond.
Leng, Wei; Ju, Lili; Gunzburger, Max; Price, Stephen; Ringler, Todd
2012-01-01
The numerical modeling of glacier and ice sheet evolution is a subject of growing interest, in part because of the potential for models to inform estimates of global sea level change. This paper focuses on the development of a numerical model that determines the velocity and pressure fields within an ice sheet. Our numerical model features a high-fidelity mathematical model involving the nonlinear Stokes system and combinations of no-sliding and sliding basal boundary conditions, high-order accurate finite element discretizations based on variable resolution grids, and highly scalable parallel solution strategies, all of which contribute to a numerical model that can achieve accurate velocity and pressure approximations in a highly efficient manner. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of our model by analytical solution tests, established ice sheet benchmark experiments, and comparisons with other well-established ice sheet models.
Hansen, D Flemming; Westler, William M; Kunze, Micha B A; Markley, John L; Weinhold, Frank; Led, Jens J
2012-03-14
A natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis of unpaired electron spin density in metalloproteins is presented, which allows a fast and robust calculation of paramagnetic NMR parameters. Approximately 90% of the unpaired electron spin density occupies metal-ligand NBOs, allowing the majority of the density to be modeled by only a few NBOs that reflect the chemical bonding environment. We show that the paramagnetic relaxation rate of protons can be calculated accurately using only the metal-ligand NBOs and that these rates are in good agreement with corresponding rates measured experimentally. This holds, in particular, for protons of ligand residues where the point-dipole approximation breaks down. To describe the paramagnetic relaxation of heavy nuclei, also the electron spin density in the local orbitals must be taken into account. Geometric distance restraints for (15)N can be derived from the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement and the Fermi contact shift when local NBOs are included in the analysis. Thus, the NBO approach allows us to include experimental paramagnetic NMR parameters of (15)N nuclei as restraints in a structure optimization protocol. We performed a molecular dynamics simulation and structure determination of oxidized rubredoxin using the experimentally obtained paramagnetic NMR parameters of (15)N. The corresponding structures obtained are in good agreement with the crystal structure of rubredoxin. Thus, the NBO approach allows an accurate description of the geometric structure and the dynamics of metalloproteins, when NMR parameters are available of nuclei in the immediate vicinity of the metal-site.
2012-01-01
A natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis of unpaired electron spin density in metalloproteins is presented, which allows a fast and robust calculation of paramagnetic NMR parameters. Approximately 90% of the unpaired electron spin density occupies metal–ligand NBOs, allowing the majority of the density to be modeled by only a few NBOs that reflect the chemical bonding environment. We show that the paramagnetic relaxation rate of protons can be calculated accurately using only the metal–ligand NBOs and that these rates are in good agreement with corresponding rates measured experimentally. This holds, in particular, for protons of ligand residues where the point-dipole approximation breaks down. To describe the paramagnetic relaxation of heavy nuclei, also the electron spin density in the local orbitals must be taken into account. Geometric distance restraints for 15N can be derived from the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement and the Fermi contact shift when local NBOs are included in the analysis. Thus, the NBO approach allows us to include experimental paramagnetic NMR parameters of 15N nuclei as restraints in a structure optimization protocol. We performed a molecular dynamics simulation and structure determination of oxidized rubredoxin using the experimentally obtained paramagnetic NMR parameters of 15N. The corresponding structures obtained are in good agreement with the crystal structure of rubredoxin. Thus, the NBO approach allows an accurate description of the geometric structure and the dynamics of metalloproteins, when NMR parameters are available of nuclei in the immediate vicinity of the metal-site. PMID:22329704
Accurate Transposable Element Annotation Is Vital When Analyzing New Genome Assemblies
Platt, Roy N.; Blanco-Berdugo, Laura; Ray, David A.
2016-01-01
Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic elements with the ability to replicate themselves throughout the host genome. In some taxa TEs reach copy numbers in hundreds of thousands and can occupy more than half of the genome. The increasing number of reference genomes from nonmodel species has begun to outpace efforts to identify and annotate TE content and methods that are used vary significantly between projects. Here, we demonstrate variation that arises in TE annotations when less than optimal methods are used. We found that across a variety of taxa, the ability to accurately identify TEs based solely on homology decreased as the phylogenetic distance between the queried genome and a reference increased. Next we annotated repeats using homology alone, as is often the case in new genome analyses, and a combination of homology and de novo methods as well as an additional manual curation step. Reannotation using these methods identified a substantial number of new TE subfamilies in previously characterized genomes, recognized a higher proportion of the genome as repetitive, and decreased the average genetic distance within TE families, implying recent TE accumulation. Finally, these finding—increased recognition of younger TEs—were confirmed via an analysis of the postman butterfly (Heliconius melpomene). These observations imply that complete TE annotation relies on a combination of homology and de novo–based repeat identification, manual curation, and classification and that relying on simple, homology-based methods is insufficient to accurately describe the TE landscape of a newly sequenced genome. PMID:26802115
Minesaki, Yukitaka
2013-08-01
For the restricted three-body problem, we propose an accurate orbital integration scheme that retains all conserved quantities of the two-body problem with two primaries and approximately preserves the Jacobi integral. The scheme is obtained by taking the limit as mass approaches zero in the discrete-time general three-body problem. For a long time interval, the proposed scheme precisely reproduces various periodic orbits that cannot be accurately computed by other generic integrators.
Canonical orbital elements in terms of an arbitrary independent variable
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bond, V. R.; Janin, G.
1981-01-01
Within the framework of the Hamiltonian mechanics in the extended phase space, a set of canonical elements of the Delaunay type is developed in terms of an arbitary independent angular variable. Application to the four classical anomalies - eccentric, true, elliptic, and mean - is presented. Particular attention is given to the generalized time equation and its conjugate energy equation.
Element orbitals for Kohn-Sham density functional theory
Lin, Lin; Ying, Lexing
2012-05-08
We present a method to discretize the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian matrix in the pseudopotential framework by a small set of basis functions automatically contracted from a uniform basis set such as planewaves. Each basis function is localized around an element, which is a small part of the global domain containing multiple atoms. We demonstrate that the resulting basis set achieves meV accuracy for 3D densely packed systems with a small number of basis functions per atom. The procedure is applicable to insulating and metallic systems.
Accurate potential energy functions, non-adiabatic and spin-orbit couplings in the ZnH(+) system.
Liang, Guiying; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Xiaomei; Xu, Haifeng; Yan, Bing
2016-03-01
A high-level ab initio calculation on the ZnH(+) cation has been carried out with the multi-reference configuration interaction method plus Davison correction (MRCI+Q). The scalar relativistic effect is included by using the Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) method. The calculated potential energy curves (PECs) of the 7 Λ-S states are associated with the dissociation limits of Zn(+)((2)Sg)+H((2)Sg), Zn((1)Sg)+H(+)((1)Sg), and Zn(+)((2)Pu)+H((2)Sg), respectively (The Λ-S state is labeled as (2S+1)Λ, in which Λ is the quantum number for the projection along the internuclear axis of the total electronic orbital angular momentum and S is the total electron spin). The spectroscopic constants of the bound states are determined and in good agreement with the available theoretical and experimental results. The permanent dipole moments (PDMs) of Λ-S states and the spin-orbit (SO) matrix elements between Λ-S states are also computed. The results show that the abrupt changes of the PDMs and SO matrix elements come into being for the reason of the avoided crossing between the states with the same symmetry. In addition, the non-adiabatic couplings matrix elements between Λ-S states are also evaluated. Finally, the spin-orbit couplings (SOCs) for the low-lying states are considered with Breit-Pauli operator. The SOC effect makes the 7 Λ-S states of the ZnH(+) cation split into 12 Ω states (Ω=Λ+Sz, in which Sz is projection of the total electron spin S along the internuclear Z-axis). For the (3)0(+) state, the two energy minima exhibit in the potential, which could be attributed to the formation of the new avoided crossing point. The transition dipole moments (TDMs), Franck-Condon factors, and the radiative lifetimes of the selected transitions (2)0(+)-X0(+), (3)0(+)-X0(+), (2)1-X0(+) and (3)1-X0(+) have been reported.
Accurate potential energy functions, non-adiabatic and spin-orbit couplings in the ZnH+ system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Guiying; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Xiaomei; Xu, Haifeng; Yan, Bing
2016-03-01
A high-level ab initio calculation on the ZnH+ cation has been carried out with the multi-reference configuration interaction method plus Davison correction (MRCI + Q). The scalar relativistic effect is included by using the Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) method. The calculated potential energy curves (PECs) of the 7 Λ-S states are associated with the dissociation limits of Zn+(2Sg) + H(2Sg), Zn(1Sg) + H+(1Sg), and Zn+(2Pu) + H(2Sg), respectively (The Λ-S state is labeled as 2S + 1Λ, in which Λ is the quantum number for the projection along the internuclear axis of the total electronic orbital angular momentum and S is the total electron spin). The spectroscopic constants of the bound states are determined and in good agreement with the available theoretical and experimental results. The permanent dipole moments (PDMs) of Λ-S states and the spin-orbit (SO) matrix elements between Λ-S states are also computed. The results show that the abrupt changes of the PDMs and SO matrix elements come into being for the reason of the avoided crossing between the states with the same symmetry. In addition, the non-adiabatic couplings matrix elements between Λ-S states are also evaluated. Finally, the spin-orbit couplings (SOCs) for the low-lying states are considered with Breit-Pauli operator. The SOC effect makes the 7 Λ-S states of the ZnH+ cation split into 12 Ω states (Ω = Λ + Sz, in which Sz is projection of the total electron spin S along the internuclear Z-axis). For the (3)0+ state, the two energy minima exhibit in the potential, which could be attributed to the formation of the new avoided crossing point. The transition dipole moments (TDMs), Franck-Condon factors, and the radiative lifetimes of the selected transitions (2)0+-X0+, (3)0+-X0+, (2)1-X0+ and (3)1-X0+ have been reported.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simmons, Daniel; Cools, Kristof; Sewell, Phillip
2016-11-01
Time domain electromagnetic simulation tools have the ability to model transient, wide-band applications, and non-linear problems. The Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the Transmission Line Modeling (TLM) method are both well established numerical techniques for simulating time-varying electromagnetic fields. The former surface based method can accurately describe outwardly radiating fields from piecewise uniform objects and efficiently deals with large domains filled with homogeneous media. The latter volume based method can describe inhomogeneous and non-linear media and has been proven to be unconditionally stable. Furthermore, the Unstructured TLM (UTLM) enables modelling of geometrically complex objects by using triangular meshes which removes staircasing and unnecessary extensions of the simulation domain. The hybridization of BEM and UTLM which is described in this paper is named the Boundary Element Unstructured Transmission-line (BEUT) method. It incorporates the advantages of both methods. The theory and derivation of the 2D BEUT method is described in this paper, along with any relevant implementation details. The method is corroborated by studying its correctness and efficiency compared to the traditional UTLM method when applied to complex problems such as the transmission through a system of Luneburg lenses and the modelling of antenna radomes for use in wireless communications.
Non-Periodic Finite-Element Formulation of Orbital-Free Density Functional Theory
Gavini, V; Knap, J; Bhattacharya, K; Ortiz, M
2006-10-06
We propose an approach to perform orbital-free density functional theory calculations in a non-periodic setting using the finite-element method. We consider this a step towards constructing a seamless multi-scale approach for studying defects like vacancies, dislocations and cracks that require quantum mechanical resolution at the core and are sensitive to long range continuum stresses. In this paper, we describe a local real space variational formulation for orbital-free density functional theory, including the electrostatic terms and prove existence results. We prove the convergence of the finite-element approximation including numerical quadratures for our variational formulation. Finally, we demonstrate our method using examples.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamel, Osman M.; Ammar, M. K.
2006-12-01
Firstly we derive Gauss' perturbation equation for parabolic motion using Murray-Dermott and Kovalevsky procedures. Secondly, we easily deduce the variations of the orbital elements for the parabolic trajectories due to a small impulse at any point along the path and at the vertex of the parabola.
Candel, A.; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Limborg, C.; Ng, C.; Prudencio, E.; Schussman, G.; Uplenchwar, R.; Ko, K.; /SLAC
2009-06-19
Over the past years, SLAC's Advanced Computations Department (ACD), under SciDAC sponsorship, has developed a suite of 3D (2D) parallel higher-order finite element (FE) codes, T3P (T2P) and Pic3P (Pic2P), aimed at accurate, large-scale simulation of wakefields and particle-field interactions in radio-frequency (RF) cavities of complex shape. The codes are built on the FE infrastructure that supports SLAC's frequency domain codes, Omega3P and S3P, to utilize conformal tetrahedral (triangular)meshes, higher-order basis functions and quadratic geometry approximation. For time integration, they adopt an unconditionally stable implicit scheme. Pic3P (Pic2P) extends T3P (T2P) to treat charged-particle dynamics self-consistently using the PIC (particle-in-cell) approach, the first such implementation on a conformal, unstructured grid using Whitney basis functions. Examples from applications to the International Linear Collider (ILC), Positron Electron Project-II (PEP-II), Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and other accelerators will be presented to compare the accuracy and computational efficiency of these codes versus their counterparts using structured grids.
Orbital elements of the material surrounding comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davidsson, B. J. R.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Keller, H. U.; Agarwal, J.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Bodewits, D.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Güttler, C.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kovacs, G.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; La Forgia, F.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Lowry, S.; Magrin, S.; Marzari, F.; Michalik, H.; Moissl-Fraund, R.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Pajola, M.; Snodgrass, C.; Thomas, N.; Tubiana, C.; Vincent, J.-B.
2015-11-01
Context. We investigate the dust coma within the Hill sphere of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Aims: We aim to determine osculating orbital elements for individual distinguishable but unresolved slow-moving grains in the vicinity of the nucleus. In addition, we perform photometry and constrain grain sizes. Methods: We performed astrometry and photometry using images acquired by the OSIRIS Wide Angle Camera on the European Space Agency spacecraft Rosetta. Based on these measurements, we employed standard orbit determination and orbit improvement techniques. Results: Orbital elements and effective diameters of four grains were constrained, but we were unable to uniquely determine them. Two of the grains have light curves that indicate grain rotation. Conclusions: The four grains have diameters nominally in the range 0.14-0.50 m. For three of the grains, we found elliptic orbits, which is consistent with a cloud of bound particles around the nucleus. However, hyperbolic escape trajectories cannot be excluded for any of the grains, and for one grain this is the only known option. One grain may have originated from the surface shortly before observation. These results have possible implications for the understanding of the dispersal of the cloud of bound debris around comet nuclei, as well as for understanding the ejection of large grains far from the Sun.
A Nanoengineered Conductometric Device for Accurate Analysis of Elemental Mercury Vapor.
Griffin, Matthew J; Kabir, K M Mohibul; Coyle, Victoria E; Kandjani, Ahmad Esmaielzadeh; Sabri, Ylias M; Ippolito, Samuel J; Bhargava, Suresh K
2016-02-01
We developed a novel conductometric device with nanostructured gold (Au) sensitive layer which showed high-performance for elemental mercury (Hg(0)) vapor detection under simulated conditions that resemble harsh industrial environments. That is, the Hg(0) vapor sensing performance of the developed sensor was investigated under different operating temperatures (30-130 °C) and working conditions (i.e., humid) as well as in the presence of various interfering gas species, including ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitric oxide (NO), carbon mono-oxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as ethylmercaptan (EM), acetaldehyde (MeCHO) and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) among others. The results indicate that the introduction of Au nanostructures (referred to as nanospikes) on the sensor's surface enhanced the sensitivity toward Hg(0) vapor by up-to 450%. The newly developed sensor exhibited a limit of detection (LoD) (∼35 μg/m(3)), repeatability (∼94%), desorption efficiency (100%) and selectivity (∼93%) when exposed to different concentrations of Hg(0) vapor (0.5 to 9.1 mg/m(3)) and interfering gas species at a chosen operating temperature of 105 °C. Furthermore, the sensor was also found to show 91% average selectivity when exposed toward harsher industrial gases such as NO, CO, CO2, and SO2 along with same concentrations of Hg(0) vapor in similar operating conditions. In fact, this is the first time a conductometric sensor is shown to have high selectivity toward Hg(0) vapor even in the presence of H2S. Overall results indicate that the developed sensor has immense potential to be used as accurate online Hg(0) vapor monitoring technology within industrial processes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raj, Xavier James
2016-07-01
Accurate orbit prediction of an artificial satellite under the influence of air drag is one of the most difficult and untraceable problem in orbital dynamics. The orbital decay of these satellites is mainly controlled by the atmospheric drag effects. The effects of the atmosphere are difficult to determine, since the atmospheric density undergoes large fluctuations. The classical Newtonian equations of motion, which is non linear is not suitable for long-term integration. Many transformations have emerged in the literature to stabilize the equations of motion either to reduce the accumulation of local numerical errors or allowing the use of large integration step sizes, or both in the transformed space. One such transformation is known as KS transformation by Kustaanheimo and Stiefel, who regularized the nonlinear Kepler equations of motion and reduced it into linear differential equations of a harmonic oscillator of constant frequency. The method of KS total energy element equations has been found to be a very powerful method for obtaining numerical as well as analytical solution with respect to any type of perturbing forces, as the equations are less sensitive to round off and truncation errors. The uniformly regular KS canonical equations are a particular canonical form of the KS differential equations, where all the ten KS Canonical elements αi and βi are constant for unperturbed motion. These equations permit the uniform formulation of the basic laws of elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic motion. Using these equations, developed analytical solution for short term orbit predictions with respect to Earth's zonal harmonic terms J2, J3, J4. Further, these equations were utilized to include the canonical forces and analytical theories with air drag were developed for low eccentricity orbits (e < 0.2) with different atmospheric models. Using uniformly regular KS canonical elements developed analytical theory for high eccentricity (e > 0.2) orbits by assuming the
Highly Accurate Beam Torsion Solutions Using the p-Version Finite Element Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, James P.
1996-01-01
A new treatment of the classical beam torsion boundary value problem is applied. Using the p-version finite element method with shape functions based on Legendre polynomials, torsion solutions for generic cross-sections comprised of isotropic materials are developed. Element shape functions for quadrilateral and triangular elements are discussed, and numerical examples are provided.
Analytical determination of orbital elements using Fourier analysis. I. The radial velocity case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delisle, J.-B.; Ségransan, D.; Buchschacher, N.; Alesina, F.
2016-05-01
We describe an analytical method for computing the orbital parameters of a planet from the periodogram of a radial velocity signal. The method is very efficient and provides a good approximation of the orbital parameters. The accuracy is mainly limited by the accuracy of the computation of the Fourier decomposition of the signal which is sensitive to sampling and noise. Our method is complementary with more accurate (and more expensive in computer time) numerical algorithms (e.g. Levenberg-Marquardt, Markov chain Monte Carlo, genetic algorithms). Indeed, the analytical approximation can be used as an initial condition to accelerate the convergence of these numerical methods. Our method can be applied iteratively to search for multiple planets in the same system.
Higher-order adaptive finite-element methods for orbital-free density functional theory
Motamarri, Phani; Iyer, Mrinal; Knap, Jaroslaw; Gavini, Vikram
2012-08-15
In the present work, we study various numerical aspects of higher-order finite-element discretizations of the non-linear saddle-point formulation of orbital-free density-functional theory. We first investigate the robustness of viable solution schemes by analyzing the solvability conditions of the discrete problem. We find that a staggered solution procedure where the potential fields are computed consistently for every trial electron-density is a robust solution procedure for higher-order finite-element discretizations. We next study the convergence properties of higher-order finite-element discretizations of orbital-free density functional theory by considering benchmark problems that include calculations involving both pseudopotential as well as Coulomb singular potential fields. Our numerical studies suggest close to optimal rates of convergence on all benchmark problems for various orders of finite-element approximations considered in the present study. We finally investigate the computational efficiency afforded by various higher-order finite-element discretizations, which constitutes the main aspect of the present work, by measuring the CPU time for the solution of discrete equations on benchmark problems that include large Aluminum clusters. In these studies, we use mesh coarse-graining rates that are derived from error estimates and an a priori knowledge of the asymptotic solution of the far-field electronic fields. Our studies reveal a significant 100-1000 fold computational savings afforded by the use of higher-order finite-element discretization, alongside providing the desired chemical accuracy. We consider this study as a step towards developing a robust and computationally efficient discretization of electronic structure calculations using the finite-element basis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellmer, Matthias; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten
2016-04-01
Future gravity missions like GRACE-FO and beyond will deliver low-low satellite-to-satellite (ll-sst) ranging measurements of much increased precision. This necessitates a re-evaluation of the processes used in gravity field determination with an eye to numerical stability. When computing gravity fields from ll-sst data, precise positions of both satellites are needed in the setup of the observation equations. These positions thus have an immediate effect on the sought-after gravity field parameters. We use reduced-dynamic orbits which are computed through integration of all accelerations experienced by the satellite, as determined through a priori models and observed through the accelerometer. Our simulations showed that computing the orbit of the satellite through complete integration of all acting forces leads to numeric instabilities magnitudes larger than the expected ranging accuracy. We introduce a numerically stable approach employing a best-fit keplerian reference orbit based on Encke's method. Our investigations revealed that using canonical formulations for the evaluation of the reference keplerian orbit and accelerations lead to insufficient precision, necessitating an alternative formulation like the equinoctial elements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dewangan, D. P.
2008-01-01
We give an exact quantum formula for the z-component of the dipole matrix element between parabolic states of a hydrogen atom in terms of the Jacobi polynomials. The formula extends the range of numerical computation to larger values of the parabolic quantum numbers for which computation from the standard textbook formula, which is in terms of the hypergeometric functions, is defined. We obtain an accurate quantum expression of the z-dipole matrix element in terms of the ordinary Bessel functions for transition between nearby Rydberg parabolic states. We derive for the first time the formula of the z-dipole matrix element of the correspondence principle method directly from the quantum expression, and in the process of derivation, clarify the nature of classical-quantum correspondence. The expressions obtained in this work solve the problem of computation of the z-dipole matrix element of hydrogen to a large extent.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanson, Robert M.
2003-06-01
ORBITAL requires the following software, which is available for free download from the Internet: Netscape Navigator, version 4.75 or higher, or Microsoft Internet Explorer, version 5.0 or higher; Chime Plug-in, version compatible with your OS and browser (available from MDL).
Finite element method for accurate 3D simulation of plasmonic waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burger, Sven; Zschiedrich, Lin; Pomplun, Jan; Schmidt, Frank
2010-02-01
Optical properties of hybrid plasmonic waveguides and of low-Q cavities, formed by waveguides of finite length are investigated numerically. These structures are of interest as building-blocks of plasmon lasers. We use a time-harmonic finite-element package including a propagation-mode solver, a resonance-mode solver and a scattering solver for studying various properties of the system. Numerical convergence of all used methods is demonstrated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansen, Andreas; Liakos, Dimitrios G.; Neese, Frank
2011-12-01
A production level implementation of the high-spin open-shell (spin unrestricted) single reference coupled pair, quadratic configuration interaction and coupled cluster methods with up to doubly excited determinants in the framework of the local pair natural orbital (LPNO) concept is reported. This work is an extension of the closed-shell LPNO methods developed earlier [F. Neese, F. Wennmohs, and A. Hansen, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 114108 (2009), 10.1063/1.3086717; F. Neese, A. Hansen, and D. G. Liakos, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 064103 (2009), 10.1063/1.3173827]. The internal space is spanned by localized orbitals, while the external space for each electron pair is represented by a truncated PNO expansion. The laborious integral transformation associated with the large number of PNOs becomes feasible through the extensive use of density fitting (resolution of the identity (RI)) techniques. Technical complications arising for the open-shell case and the use of quasi-restricted orbitals for the construction of the reference determinant are discussed in detail. As in the closed-shell case, only three cutoff parameters control the average number of PNOs per electron pair, the size of the significant pair list, and the number of contributing auxiliary basis functions per PNO. The chosen threshold default values ensure robustness and the results of the parent canonical methods are reproduced to high accuracy. Comprehensive numerical tests on absolute and relative energies as well as timings consistently show that the outstanding performance of the LPNO methods carries over to the open-shell case with minor modifications. Finally, hyperfine couplings calculated with the variational LPNO-CEPA/1 method, for which a well-defined expectation value type density exists, indicate the great potential of the LPNO approach for the efficient calculation of molecular properties.
CONSTRAINTS ON CHARON'S ORBITAL ELEMENTS FROM THE DOUBLE STELLAR OCCULTATION OF 2008 JUNE 22
Sicardy, B.; Lecacheux, J.; Boissel, Y.; Doressoundiram, A.; Roques, F.; Widemann, T.; Bolt, G.; Broughton, J.; Dobosz, T.; Gault, D.; Kerr, S.; Benard, F.; Peyrot, A.; Teng-Chuen-Yu, J.-P.; Frappa, E.; Beisker, W.; Colas, F.; De Witt, C.; Gruhn, C.
2011-02-15
Pluto and its main satellite, Charon, occulted the same star on 2008 June 22. This event was observed from Australia and La Reunion Island, providing the east and north Charon Plutocentric offset in the sky plane (J2000): X= + 12,070.5 {+-} 4 km (+ 546.2 {+-} 0.2 mas), Y= + 4,576.3 {+-} 24 km (+ 207.1 {+-} 1.1 mas) at 19:20:33.82 UT on Earth, corresponding to JD 2454640.129964 at Pluto. This yields Charon's true longitude L= 153.483 {+-} 0.{sup 0}071 in the satellite orbital plane (counted from the ascending node on J2000 mean equator) and orbital radius r= 19,564 {+-} 14 km at that time. We compare this position to that predicted by (1) the orbital solution of Tholen and Buie (the 'TB97' solution), (2) the PLU017 Charon ephemeris, and (3) the solution of Tholen et al. (the 'T08' solution). We conclude that (1) our result rules out solution TB97, (2) our position agrees with PLU017, with differences of {Delta}L= + 0.073 {+-} 0.{sup 0}071 in longitude, and {Delta}r= + 0.6 {+-} 14 km in radius, and (3) while the difference with the T08 ephemeris amounts to only {Delta}L= 0.033 {+-} 0.{sup 0}071 in longitude, it exhibits a significant radial discrepancy of {Delta}r= 61.3 {+-} 14 km. We discuss this difference in terms of a possible image scale relative error of 3.35 x 10{sup -3}in the 2002-2003 Hubble Space Telescope images upon which the T08 solution is mostly based. Rescaling the T08 Charon semi-major axis, a = 19, 570.45 km, to the TB97 value, a = 19636 km, all other orbital elements remaining the same ('T08/TB97' solution), we reconcile our position with the re-scaled solution by better than 12 km (or 0.55 mas) for Charon's position in its orbital plane, thus making T08/TB97 our preferred solution.
Telfer, Scott; Erdemir, Ahmet; Woodburn, James; Cavanagh, Peter R
2016-01-25
Integration of patient-specific biomechanical measurements into the design of therapeutic footwear has been shown to improve clinical outcomes in patients with diabetic foot disease. The addition of numerical simulations intended to optimise intervention design may help to build on these advances, however at present the time and labour required to generate and run personalised models of foot anatomy restrict their routine clinical utility. In this study we developed second-generation personalised simple finite element (FE) models of the forefoot with varying geometric fidelities. Plantar pressure predictions from barefoot, shod, and shod with insole simulations using simplified models were compared to those obtained from CT-based FE models incorporating more detailed representations of bone and tissue geometry. A simplified model including representations of metatarsals based on simple geometric shapes, embedded within a contoured soft tissue block with outer geometry acquired from a 3D surface scan was found to provide pressure predictions closest to the more complex model, with mean differences of 13.3kPa (SD 13.4), 12.52kPa (SD 11.9) and 9.6kPa (SD 9.3) for barefoot, shod, and insole conditions respectively. The simplified model design could be produced in <1h compared to >3h in the case of the more detailed model, and solved on average 24% faster. FE models of the forefoot based on simplified geometric representations of the metatarsal bones and soft tissue surface geometry from 3D surface scans may potentially provide a simulation approach with improved clinical utility, however further validity testing around a range of therapeutic footwear types is required.
Vavalle, Nicholas A; Moreno, Daniel P; Rhyne, Ashley C; Stitzel, Joel D; Gayzik, F Scott
2013-03-01
This study presents four validation cases of a mid-sized male (M50) full human body finite element model-two lateral sled tests at 6.7 m/s, one sled test at 8.9 m/s, and a lateral drop test. Model results were compared to transient force curves, peak force, chest compression, and number of fractures from the studies. For one of the 6.7 m/s impacts (flat wall impact), the peak thoracic, abdominal and pelvic loads were 8.7, 3.1 and 14.9 kN for the model and 5.2 ± 1.1 kN, 3.1 ± 1.1 kN, and 6.3 ± 2.3 kN for the tests. For the same test setup in the 8.9 m/s case, they were 12.6, 6, and 21.9 kN for the model and 9.1 ± 1.5 kN, 4.9 ± 1.1 kN, and 17.4 ± 6.8 kN for the experiments. The combined torso load and the pelvis load simulated in a second rigid wall impact at 6.7 m/s were 11.4 and 15.6 kN, respectively, compared to 8.5 ± 0.2 kN and 8.3 ± 1.8 kN experimentally. The peak thorax load in the drop test was 6.7 kN for the model, within the range in the cadavers, 5.8-7.4 kN. When analyzing rib fractures, the model predicted Abbreviated Injury Scale scores within the reported range in three of four cases. Objective comparison methods were used to quantitatively compare the model results to the literature studies. The results show a good match in the thorax and abdomen regions while the pelvis results over predicted the reaction loads from the literature studies. These results are an important milestone in the development and validation of this globally developed average male FEA model in lateral impact.
Element Specific Spin and Orbital Moments in Fe1-x Vx Alloys
Guan, Y.; Scheck, C; Bailey, W
2009-01-01
We present transmission-mode X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements of element-specific magnetic moments for Fe and V at the L2,3 edges in polycrystalline Fe1-xVx ultrathin films. We find that the orbital-to-spin moment ratio of Fe does not change within experimental error. The V XMCD is not very informative, and a nearly pure-spin type V impurity moment ({approx}1.0 {mu}{sub B}/atom, antiparallel to the Fe host moment) is assumed to match known magnetization data. Data are further reduced to a two-sublattice model and found to be compatible with known spectroscopic splitting g-factor data in the alloy. The results confirm that the very low Gilbert damping, attained through the introduction of V into epitaxial Fe1-xVx films and found by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), does not result from the reduction of orbital moment content in the alloy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ko, William L.
1988-01-01
Accuracies of solutions (structural temperatures and thermal stresses) obtained from different thermal and structural FEMs set up for the Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO) are compared and discussed. For studying the effect of element size on the solution accuracies of heat-transfer and thermal-stress analyses of the SSO, five SPAR thermal models and five NASTRAN structural models were set up for wing midspan bay 3. The structural temperature distribution over the wing skin (lower and upper) surface of one bay was dome shaped and induced more severe thermal stresses in the chordwise direction than in the spanwise direction. The induced thermal stresses were extremely sensitive to slight variation in structural temperature distributions. Both internal convention and internal radiation were found to have equal effects on the SSO.
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Database of the orbital elements of comets (Rocher, 2007)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rocher, P.
comets.dat is an ASCII file of cometary orbital elements prepared at the "Institut de Mecanique Celeste et de Calcul des Ephemerides" (related to the Bureau des Longitudes, Paris). The research and computing needed to generate comets.dat are funded by the French Ministry of Education. The data can be freely used, provided that their origin (Bureau des longitudes) and the author (P. Rocher) are properly cited. User feed-back is encouraged. Unless otherwise specified, send comments and bug reports to: E-mail : stc@imcce.fr Fax : (33) 1 46 33 28 34 Postal mail : IMCCE - Observatoire de Paris 77 avenue Denfert Rochereau F-75014 PARIS (1 data file).
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Database of the orbital elements of comets (Rocher, 2007)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rocher, P.
2010-09-01
comets.dat is an ASCII file of cometary orbital elements prepared at the "Institut de Mecanique Celeste et de Calcul des Ephemerides" (related to the Bureau des Longitudes, Paris). The research and computing needed to generate comets.dat are funded by the French Ministry of Education. The data can be freely used, provided that their origin (Bureau des longitudes) and the author (P. Rocher) are properly cited. User feed-back is encouraged. Unless otherwise specified, send comments and bug reports to: E-mail : stc@imcce.fr Fax : (33) 1 46 33 28 34 Postal mail : IMCCE - Observatoire de Paris 77 avenue Denfert Rochereau F-75014 PARIS (1 data file).
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Database of the orbital elements of comets (Rocher, 2007)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rocher, P.
2007-09-01
comets.dat is an ASCII file of cometary orbital elements prepared at the "Institut de Mecanique Celeste et de Calcul des Ephemerides" (related to the Bureau des Longitudes, Paris). The research and computing needed to generate comets.dat are funded by the French Ministry of Education. The data can be freely used, provided that their origin (Bureau des longitudes) and the author (P. Rocher) are properly cited. User feed-back is encouraged. Unless otherwise specified, send comments and bug reports to: E-mail : stc@imcce.fr Fax : (33) 1 46 33 28 34 Postal mail : IMCCE - Observatoire de Paris 77 avenue Denfert Rochereau F-75014 PARIS (1 data file).
Arun, K. G.; Blanchet, Luc; Iyer, Bala R.; Sinha, Siddhartha
2009-12-15
The angular-momentum flux from an inspiralling binary system of compact objects moving in quasi-elliptical orbits is computed at the third post-Newtonian (3PN) order using the multipolar post-Minkowskian wave generation formalism. The 3PN angular-momentum flux involves the instantaneous, tail, and tail-of-tails contributions as for the 3PN energy flux, and in addition a contribution due to nonlinear memory. We average the angular-momentum flux over the binary's orbit using the 3PN quasi-Keplerian representation of elliptical orbits. The averaged angular-momentum flux provides the final input needed for gravitational-wave phasing of binaries moving in quasi-elliptical orbits. We obtain the evolution of orbital elements under 3PN gravitational radiation reaction in the quasi-elliptic case. For small eccentricities, we give simpler limiting expressions relevant for phasing up to order e{sup 2}. This work is important for the construction of templates for quasi-eccentric binaries, and for the comparison of post-Newtonian results with the numerical relativity simulations of the plunge and merger of eccentric binaries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teng, H.; Fujiwara, T.; Hoshi, T.; Sogabe, T.; Zhang, S.-L.; Yamamoto, S.
2011-04-01
The need for large-scale electronic structure calculations arises recently in the field of material physics, and efficient and accurate algebraic methods for large simultaneous linear equations become greatly important. We investigate the generalized shifted conjugate orthogonal conjugate gradient method, the generalized Lanczos method, and the generalized Arnoldi method. They are the solver methods of large simultaneous linear equations of the one-electron Schrödinger equation and map the whole Hilbert space to a small subspace called the Krylov subspace. These methods are applied to systems of fcc Au with the NRL tight-binding Hamiltonian [F. Kirchhoff , Phys. Rev. BJCOMEL1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.63.195101 63, 195101 (2001)]. We compare results by these methods and the exact calculation and show them to be equally accurate. The system size dependence of the CPU time is also discussed. The generalized Lanczos method and the generalized Arnoldi method are the most suitable for the large-scale molecular dynamics simulations from the viewpoint of CPU time and memory size.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subramanian, Swetha; Mast, T. Douglas
2015-09-01
Computational finite element models are commonly used for the simulation of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatments. However, the accuracy of these simulations is limited by the lack of precise knowledge of tissue parameters. In this technical note, an inverse solver based on the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is proposed to optimize values for specific heat, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity resulting in accurately simulated temperature elevations. A total of 15 RFA treatments were performed on ex vivo bovine liver tissue. For each RFA treatment, 15 finite-element simulations were performed using a set of deterministically chosen tissue parameters to estimate the mean and variance of the resulting tissue ablation. The UKF was implemented as an inverse solver to recover the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity corresponding to the measured area of the ablated tissue region, as determined from gross tissue histology. These tissue parameters were then employed in the finite element model to simulate the position- and time-dependent tissue temperature. Results show good agreement between simulated and measured temperature.
Subramanian, Swetha; Mast, T Douglas
2015-10-01
Computational finite element models are commonly used for the simulation of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatments. However, the accuracy of these simulations is limited by the lack of precise knowledge of tissue parameters. In this technical note, an inverse solver based on the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is proposed to optimize values for specific heat, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity resulting in accurately simulated temperature elevations. A total of 15 RFA treatments were performed on ex vivo bovine liver tissue. For each RFA treatment, 15 finite-element simulations were performed using a set of deterministically chosen tissue parameters to estimate the mean and variance of the resulting tissue ablation. The UKF was implemented as an inverse solver to recover the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity corresponding to the measured area of the ablated tissue region, as determined from gross tissue histology. These tissue parameters were then employed in the finite element model to simulate the position- and time-dependent tissue temperature. Results show good agreement between simulated and measured temperature. PMID:26352462
Spin-Orbit Coupling Effects in Di-Hydrides of Third-Row Transition Elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koseki, Shiro
2007-11-01
Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effects were investigated for low-lying electronic states in the di-hydrides of third-row transition elements by using MCSCF+MRMP2, +FOCI, and +SOCI methods with the SBKJC basis sets augmented by a set of f functions for transition elements and a set of p functions for hydrogen atoms, where MCSCF, MRMP2, FOCI, and SOCI are abbreviations of multi-configuration self-consistent field, multi-reference second-order Mo/ller-Plesset, first-order configuration interaction, and second-order configuration interaction, respectively. Before the inclusion of SOC effects, six di-hydrides (LaH2, HfH2, TaH2, WH2, OsH2, and IrH2) are lower in energy than the corresponding dissociation limits (transition element and a hydrogen molecule). All of these di-hydrides have bent structures at their energy minima, and the ground states are 2A1, 1A1, 4B1, 5B2, 3B2, and 2A1, respectively. After the inclusion of SOC effects, the ground states are assigned to E1/2, A1, E1/2, A1, A1, and E1/2 in the double-group representation of C2v symmetry. It can be concluded that SOC effects are not so important in LaH2, HfH2, and TaH2, while they become important in describing bending potential energy curves of low-lying electronic states in WH2, OsH2, and IrH2.
Coupling of Sph and Finite Element Codes for Multi-Layer Orbital Debris Shield Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fahrenthold, Eric P.
1997-01-01
Particle-based hydrodynamics models offer distinct advantages over Eulerian and Lagrangian hydrocodes in particular shock physics applications. Particle models are designed to avoid the mesh distortion and state variable diffusion problems which can hinder the effective use of Lagrangian and Eulerian codes respectively. However conventional particle-in-cell and smooth particle hydrodynamics methods employ particles which are actually moving interpolation points. A new particle-based modeling methodology, termed Hamiltonian particle hydrodynamics, was developed by Fahrenthold and Koo (1997) to provide an alternative, fully Lagrangian, energy-based approach to shock physics simulations. This alternative formulation avoids the tensile and boundary instabilities associated with standard smooth particle hydrodynamics formulations and the diffusive grid- to-particle mapping schemes characteristic of particle-in-cell methods. In the work described herein, the method of Fahrenthold and Koo has been extended, by coupling the aforementioned hydrodynamic particle model to a hexahedral finite element based description of the continuum dynamics. The resulting continuum model retains all of the features (including general contact-impact effects) of Hamiltonian particle hydrodynamics, while in addition accounting for tensile strength, plasticity, and damage effects important in the simulation of hypervelocity impact on orbital debris shielding. A three dimensional, vectorized, and autotasked implementation of the extended particle method described here has been coded for application to orbital debris shielding design. Source code for the pre-processor (PREP), analysis code (EXOS), post-processor (POST), and rezoner (ZONE), have been delivered separately, along with a User's Guide describing installation and application of the software.
Spin–orbit DFT with Analytic Gradients and Applications to Heavy Element Compounds
Zhang, Zhiyong
2014-12-01
We have implemented the unrestricted DFT approach with one-electron spin–orbit operators in the massively parallel NWChem program. Also implemented is the analytic gradient in the DFT approach with spin–orbit interactions. The current capabilities include single-point calculations and geometry optimization. Vibrational frequencies can be calculated numerically from the analytically calculated gradients. The implementation is based on the spin–orbit interaction operator derived from the effective core potential approach. The exchange functionals used in the implementation are functionals derived for non-spin–orbit calculations, including GGA as well as hybrid functionals. Spin–orbit Hartree–Fock calculations can also be carried out. We have applied the spin–orbit DFT methods to the Uranyl aqua complexes. We have optimized the structures and calculated the vibrational frequencies of both (UO2 2+)aq and (UO2 +)aq with and without spin–orbit effects. The effects of the spin–orbit interaction on the structures and frequencies of these two complexes are discussed. We also carried out calculations for Th2, and several low-lying electronic states are calculated. Our results indicate that, for open-shell systems, there are significant effects due to the spin–orbit effects and the electronic configurations with and without spin–orbit interactions could change due to the occupation of orbitals of larger spin–orbit interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiefer, F.; Halbwachs, J.-L.; Arenou, F.; Pourbaix, D.; Famaey, B.; Guillout, P.; Lebreton, Y.; Nebot Gómez-Morán, A.; Mazeh, T.; Salomon, J.-B.; Soubiran, C.; Tal-Or, L.
2016-05-01
In anticipation of the Gaia astrometric mission, a large sample of spectroscopic binaries has been observed since 2010 with the Spectrographe pour l'Observation des PHénomènes des Intérieurs Stellaires et des Exoplanètes spectrograph at the Haute-Provence Observatory. Our aim is to derive the orbital elements of double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2s) with an accuracy sufficient to finally obtain the masses of the components with relative errors as small as 1 per cent when the astrometric measurements of Gaia are taken into account. In this paper, we present the results from five years of observations of 10 SB2 systems with periods ranging from 37 to 881 d. Using the TODMOR algorithm, we computed radial velocities from the spectra, and then derived the orbital elements of these binary systems. The minimum masses of the components are then obtained with an accuracy better than 1.2 per cent for the 10 binaries. Combining the radial velocities with existing interferometric measurements, we derived the masses of the primary and secondary components of HIP 87895 with an accuracy of 0.98 and 1.2 per cent, respectively.
Bender, P L; Currie, D G; Poultney, S K; Alley, C O; Dicke, R H; Wilkinson, D T; Eckhardt, D H; Faller, J E; Kaula, W M; Mulholland, J D; Plotkin, H H; Silverberg, E C; Williams, J G
1973-10-19
previously available knowledge of the distance to points on the lunar surface. Already, extremely complex structure has been observed in the lunar rotation and significant improvement has been achieved in our knowledge of lunar orbit. The selenocentric coordinates of the retroreflectors give improved reference points for use in lunar mapping, and new information on the lunar mass distribution has been obtained. Beyond the applications discussed in this article, however, the history of science shows many cases of previously unknown, phenomena discovered as a consequence of major improvements in the accuracy of measurements. It will be interesting to see whether this once again proves the case as we acquire an extended series of lunar distance observations with decimetric and then centimetric accuracy.
Bender, P L; Currie, D G; Poultney, S K; Alley, C O; Dicke, R H; Wilkinson, D T; Eckhardt, D H; Faller, J E; Kaula, W M; Mulholland, J D; Plotkin, H H; Silverberg, E C; Williams, J G
1973-10-19
previously available knowledge of the distance to points on the lunar surface. Already, extremely complex structure has been observed in the lunar rotation and significant improvement has been achieved in our knowledge of lunar orbit. The selenocentric coordinates of the retroreflectors give improved reference points for use in lunar mapping, and new information on the lunar mass distribution has been obtained. Beyond the applications discussed in this article, however, the history of science shows many cases of previously unknown, phenomena discovered as a consequence of major improvements in the accuracy of measurements. It will be interesting to see whether this once again proves the case as we acquire an extended series of lunar distance observations with decimetric and then centimetric accuracy. PMID:17749298
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antonucci, Ester; Fineschi, Silvano; Naletto, Giampiero; Romoli, Marco; Spadaro, Daniele; Nicolini, Gianalfredo; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; Abbo, Lucia; Andretta, Vincenzo; Bemporad, Alessandro; Auchère, Frédéric; Berlicki, Arkadiusz; Bruno, Roberto; Capobianco, Gerardo; Ciaravella, Angela; Crescenzio, Giuseppe; Da Deppo, Vania; D'Amicis, Raffaella; Focardi, Mauro; Frassetto, Fabio; Heinzel, Peter; Lamy, Philippe L.; Landini, Federico; Massone, Giuseppe; Malvezzi, Marco A.; Moses, J. Dan; Pancrazzi, Maurizio; Pelizzo, Maria-Guglielmina; Poletto, Luca; Schühle, Udo H.; Solanki, Sami K.; Telloni, Daniele; Teriaca, Luca; Uslenghi, Michela
2012-09-01
METIS, the “Multi Element Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy”, is a coronagraph selected by the European Space Agency to be part of the payload of the Solar Orbiter mission to be launched in 2017. The unique profile of this mission will allow 1) a close approach to the Sun (up to 0.28 A.U.) thus leading to a significant improvement in spatial resolution; 2) quasi co-rotation with the Sun, resulting in observations that nearly freeze for several days the large-scale outer corona in the plane of the sky and 3) unprecedented out-of-ecliptic view of the solar corona. This paper describes the experiment concept and the observational tools required to achieve the science drivers of METIS. METIS will be capable of obtaining for the first time: • simultaneous imaging of the full corona in polarized visible-light (590-650 nm) and narrow-band ultraviolet HI Lyman α (121.6 nm); • monochromatic imaging of the full corona in the extreme ultraviolet He II Lyman α (30.4 nm); • spectrographic observations of the HI and He II Ly α in corona. These measurements will allow a complete characterization of the three most important plasma components of the corona and the solar wind, that is, electrons, hydrogen, and helium. This presentation gives an overview of the METIS imaging and spectroscopic observational capabilities to carry out such measurements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fernando, G. W.; Cooper, B. R.; Ramana, M. V.; Krakauer, H.; Ma, C. Q.
1986-01-01
An accurate and efficient film linearized muffin-tin orbital (FLMTO) technique for surface electronic-structure calculations is presented which uses only 60-70 basis functions, as opposed to the 300 functions used in the linear augmented plane-wave method. Calculations for three different (3d and 4d) transition-metal films resulted in high quality results for five-layer slabs of Cu(001), Fe(001), and Ru(001), in addition to good results for the work functions and projected density of states. By retaining the LMTO small basis size, computer time and memory are reduced, making practical the study of systems with a larger number of atoms in the two-dimensional unit cell.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohibul Kabir, K. M.; Matthews, Glenn I.; Sabri, Ylias M.; Russo, Salvy P.; Ippolito, Samuel J.; Bhargava, Suresh K.
2016-03-01
Accurate analysis of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices is highly important due to their use in ever-growing applications in electronics, telecommunication and chemical sensing. In this study, a novel approach for analyzing the SAW devices was developed based on a series of two-dimensional finite element method (FEM) simulations, which has been experimentally verified. It was found that the frequency response of the two SAW device structures, each having slightly different bandwidth and center lobe characteristics, can be successfully obtained utilizing the current density of the electrodes via FEM simulations. The two SAW structures were based on XY Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3) substrates and had two and four electrode finger pairs in both of their interdigital transducers, respectively. Later, SAW devices were fabricated in accordance with the simulated models and their measured frequency responses were found to correlate well with the obtained simulations results. The results indicated that better match between calculated and measured frequency response can be obtained when one of the input electrode finger pairs was set at zero volts and all the current density components were taken into account when calculating the frequency response of the simulated SAW device structures.
A Detailed Derivation of Gaussian Orbital-Based Matrix Elements in Electron Structure Calculations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Petersson, T.; Hellsing, B.
2010-01-01
A detailed derivation of analytic solutions is presented for overlap, kinetic, nuclear attraction and electron repulsion integrals involving Cartesian Gaussian-type orbitals. It is demonstrated how s-type orbitals can be used to evaluate integrals with higher angular momentum via the properties of Hermite polynomials and differentiation with…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nurick, W. H.
1974-01-01
An evaluation of reusable thrust chambers for the space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine was conducted. Tests were conducted using subscale injector hot-fire procedures for the injector configurations designed for a regenerative cooled engine. The effect of operating conditions and fuel temperature on combustion chamber performance was determined. Specific objectives of the evaluation were to examine the optimum like-doublet element geometry for operation at conditions consistent with a fuel regeneratively cooled engine (hot fuel, 200 to 250 F) and the sensitivity of the triplet injector element to hot fuels.
Mueller, Thomas L; Christen, David; Sandercott, Steve; Boyd, Steven K; van Rietbergen, Bert; Eckstein, Felix; Lochmüller, Eva-Maria; Müller, Ralph; van Lenthe, G Harry
2011-06-01
High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) is clinically available today and provides a non-invasive measure of 3D bone geometry and micro-architecture with unprecedented detail. In combination with microarchitectural finite element (μFE) models it can be used to determine bone strength using a strain-based failure criterion. Yet, images from only a relatively small part of the radius are acquired and it is not known whether the region recommended for clinical measurements does predict forearm fracture load best. Furthermore, it is questionable whether the currently used failure criterion is optimal because of improvements in image resolution, changes in the clinically measured volume of interest, and because the failure criterion depends on the amount of bone present. Hence, we hypothesized that bone strength estimates would improve by measuring a region closer to the subchondral plate, and by defining a failure criterion that would be independent of the measured volume of interest. To answer our hypotheses, 20% of the distal forearm length from 100 cadaveric but intact human forearms was measured using HR-pQCT. μFE bone strength was analyzed for different subvolumes, as well as for the entire 20% of the distal radius length. Specifically, failure criteria were developed that provided accurate estimates of bone strength as assessed experimentally. It was shown that distal volumes were better in predicting bone strength than more proximal ones. Clinically speaking, this would argue to move the volume of interest for the HR-pQCT measurements even more distally than currently recommended by the manufacturer. Furthermore, new parameter settings using the strain-based failure criterion are presented providing better accuracy for bone strength estimates.
Varghese, Bino; Short, David; Penmetsa, Ravi; Goswami, Tarun; Hangartner, Thomas
2011-04-29
Finite element (FE) models of long bones constructed from computed-tomography (CT) data are emerging as an invaluable tool in the field of bone biomechanics. However, the performance of such FE models is highly dependent on the accurate capture of geometry and appropriate assignment of material properties. In this study, a combined numerical-experimental study is performed comparing FE-predicted surface strains with strain-gauge measurements. Thirty-six major, cadaveric, long bones (humerus, radius, femur and tibia), which cover a wide range of bone sizes, were tested under three-point bending and torsion. The FE models were constructed from trans-axial volumetric CT scans, and the segmented bone images were corrected for partial-volume effects. The material properties (Young's modulus for cortex, density-modulus relationship for trabecular bone and Poisson's ratio) were calibrated by minimizing the error between experiments and simulations among all bones. The R(2) values of the measured strains versus load under three-point bending and torsion were 0.96-0.99 and 0.61-0.99, respectively, for all bones in our dataset. The errors of the calculated FE strains in comparison to those measured using strain gauges in the mechanical tests ranged from -6% to 7% under bending and from -37% to 19% under torsion. The observation of comparatively low errors and high correlations between the FE-predicted strains and the experimental strains, across the various types of bones and loading conditions (bending and torsion), validates our approach to bone segmentation and our choice of material properties.
Frozen Orbital Plane Solutions for Satellites in Nearly Circular Orbit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ulivieri, Carlo; Circi, Christian; Ortore, Emiliano; Bunkheila, Federico; Todino, Francesco
2013-08-01
This paper deals with the determination of the initial conditions (right ascension of the ascending node and inclination) that minimize the orbital plane variation for nearly circular orbits with a semimajor axis between 3 and 10 Earth radii. An analysis of two-line elements over the last 40 years for mid-, geostationary-, and high-Earth orbits has shown, for initially quasi-circular orbits, low eccentricity variations up to the geostationary altitude. This result makes the application of mathematical models based on satellite circular orbits advantageous for a fast prediction of long-term temporal evolution of the orbital plane. To this purpose, a previous model considering the combined effect due to the Earth's oblateness, moon, and sun (both in circular orbit) has been improved in terms of required computational time and accuracy. The eccentricity of the sun and moon and the equinoctial precession have been taken into account. Resonance phenomena with the lunar plane motion have been found in mid-Earth orbit. Dynamical properties concerning the precession motions of the orbital pole have been investigated, and frozen solutions for geosynchronous and navigation satellites have been proposed. Finally, an accurate model validation has also been carried out by comparing the obtained results with two-line elements of abandoned geostationary-Earth orbit and mid-Earth orbit satellites.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep M.; Madiedo, José M.; Llorca, Jordi; Gural, Peter S.; Pujols, Pep; Tezel, Tunc
2007-09-01
By using high-resolution low-scan-rate all-sky CCD cameras, the SPanish Meteor Network (SPMN) detected an outburst of Orionid meteors associated with comet 1P/Halley on 2006 October 20-21. This detection was made possible due to the operational concept of the SPMN that involves continuous monitoring of meteor activity throughout the year. Accurate heliocentric orbits have been obtained for three meteors imaged simultaneously from two stations during the outburst. Additional astrometry of 33 single-station meteors indicates that the activity was produced from a conspicuous geocentric radiant located at α = 922 +/- 05 and δ = +154 +/- 06 which is similar to the radiant observed during the 1993 Orionid outburst despite the fact that the last one peaked on a different date. The radiant position obtained by the SPMN is consistent with that derived from digital pictures taken a few hours before from Ankara (Turkey). The extent of the outburst (a background of bright meteors was observed over several days), its absence in other years, and the orbital period of the three Orionid orbits suggest that the outburst could be produced by meteoroids trapped in resonances with Jupiter but additional data are required. The SPMN's continuous coverage of meteor activity allowed the identification of the main sources of meteors during 2006 October: mostly due to the Orionid stream, the two branches of the Taurid stream associated with comet 2P/Encke, and the δ Aurigids. Surprisingly, once a detailed analysis of the double-station video meteors was completed, some additional minor stream activity was discovered, that is, the ν Aurigids. In consequence, we also present two accurate orbits of this unexpected, but previously identified, minor shower.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plávalová, E.; Solovay, N. A.
2015-07-01
We have carried out an analysis of the motion of an extrasolar planet orbiting in a binary system, as a particular case of the three-body problem. The following assumptions have been made: a) the planet orbits around one of the binary components (the parent star); b) the distance between the stellar components is greater than that between the parent star and the orbiting planet (the ratio of the semi-major axes is a small parameter); c) the mass of the planet is smaller than the mass of the star, but is not negligible. We employed the Hamiltonian of the system without short-period terms, and we expanded it in terms of Legendre polynomials and truncated the expansion after the second-order terms. Such form of the Hamiltonian enables us to solve the differential equations of motion of our system and analyze of the motion of the extrasolar planet. We have applied this theory to the system HD 120136, and described the possible regions in which the planet can move. The theory permits us to calculate an unknown angular orbital element for the planet HD 120136 Ab, the ascending node: Ω1=134°±14°. The motion of the planet is expected to be stable over long time scales.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taff, L. G.; Randall, P. M. S.
1985-01-01
A robust analytical formulation is developed to apply classical initial orbital determination to artificial satellites whose locations are uncertain to about 1 cu km and separated in time by no more than 30 min. An analytical simplification reduces Gauss's method, iteration on the semilatus rectum, iteration on the true anomaly, and the Lambert-Euler technique, to the solution of a single equation in one unknown, instead of the usual coupled triplet of three equations in three unknowns. The method is demonstrated for all common artificial satellite orbits over a variety of time intervals between the two location vectors, and for a varied set of position and distance errors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Lin-Sen
The influence of the electronic induction drag on the variation of the orbital elements of a charged satellite moving in a magnetic-field-free ionosphere are studied. The theoretical result show that the induction drag results in both the secular and periodic variations of the semi-major axis, however the eccentricity, the argument of perigee and the mean longitude of epoch exhibits no secular variation, but only periodic variation. The inclination and the ascending node remain no variation. As example, the secular effect of the induction drag on the orbital semi-major axis at a supposed satellite is calculated. It can be shown that the semi-major axis is contracted due to the induction drag, if this satellite carries many charges in an ionosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grafarend, Erik W.; You, Rey-Jer
2013-04-01
D. Hilbert and A. Einstein in 1916 derived the field equations of Gravitation from the functional "Scalar Curvature of the Riemann Curvature Tensor" in Spacetime. Ever since, Physicists as well as Geodesists have tried to derive the Kepler orbit / the perturbed Kepler orbit from the variational concept minimizing the spatial scalar curvature of the Riemann Curvature Tensor. The Maupertuis Principle of Least Action was the basis to derive the Newton equations of motion of a mass point, namely in the gravitational force field interpreted as a Geodesic Flow in the Maupertuis Manifold. The Maupertuis Manifold is a conformally flat threedimensional manifold with the gravitational potential as the factor of conformality. Here we derive the Kepler orbit / the perturbed Kepler orbit from the immersion of different type of Maupertuis Manifolds. Finally, we establish the link to Kustaanheimo-Stiefel elements in orbit dynamics. An example is the orbit computation of GPS satellites by perturbation theory of first order.
Kerley, G.I.
1988-10-01
Atomic orbital energies and radial expectation values are tabulated for the ground state electronic configuration of all elements with Z less than or equal to 103 and for all orbitals having principal quantum numbers n less than or equal to 8. These tables have been developed for use in a model of electronic excitation and ionization that requires orbital data for both the occupied and unoccupied orbitals. The wavefunctions were calculated by the Dirac-Hartree-Fock-Slater method, with a local exchange potential due to Liberman. This potential has the Coulombic form at large distances from the nucleus, with the result that both the occupied and unoccupied orbitals are bound states. The complete nonlocal exchange expression was used to compute the orbital energies. The results are in good agreement with full Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations for the occupied orbitals. 22 refs., 2 tabs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Castiel, David
1991-01-01
On 5 Nov. 1990, Ellipsat filed with the FCC the first application to provide voice communication services via low earth orbiting (LEO) satellites. The proposed system, ELLIPSO, aims at achieving end-user costs comparable to those in the cellular industry. On 3 Jun. 1991 Ellipsat filed for the second complement of its system. Ellipsat was also the first company to propose combined position determination and mobile voice services via low-earth orbiting satellites. Ellipsat is still the only proponent of elliptical orbits for any commercial system in the United States. ELLIPSO uses a spectrum efficient combination of FDMA and CDMA techniques. Ellipsat's strategy is to tailor required capacity to user demand, reduce initial system costs and investment risks, and allow the provision of services at affordable end-user prices. ELLIPSO offers optimum features in all the components of its system, elliptical orbits, small satellites, integrated protocol and signalling system, integrated end-user electronics, novel marketing approach based on the cooperation with the tenets of mobile communications, end-user costs that are affordable, and a low risk approach as deployment is tailored to the growth of its customer base. The efficient design of the ELLIPSO constellation and system allows estimated end-user costs in the $.50 per minute range, five to six times less than any other system of comparable capability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castiel, David
1991-09-01
On 5 Nov. 1990, Ellipsat filed with the FCC the first application to provide voice communication services via low earth orbiting (LEO) satellites. The proposed system, ELLIPSO, aims at achieving end-user costs comparable to those in the cellular industry. On 3 Jun. 1991 Ellipsat filed for the second complement of its system. Ellipsat was also the first company to propose combined position determination and mobile voice services via low-earth orbiting satellites. Ellipsat is still the only proponent of elliptical orbits for any commercial system in the United States. ELLIPSO uses a spectrum efficient combination of FDMA and CDMA techniques. Ellipsat's strategy is to tailor required capacity to user demand, reduce initial system costs and investment risks, and allow the provision of services at affordable end-user prices. ELLIPSO offers optimum features in all the components of its system, elliptical orbits, small satellites, integrated protocol and signalling system, integrated end-user electronics, novel marketing approach based on the cooperation with the tenets of mobile communications, end-user costs that are affordable, and a low risk approach as deployment is tailored to the growth of its customer base. The efficient design of the ELLIPSO constellation and system allows estimated end-user costs in the $.50 per minute range, five to six times less than any other system of comparable capability.
Technology requirements for an orbiting fuel depot: A necessary element of a space infrastructure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stubbs, R. M.; Corban, R. R.; Willoughby, A. J.
1988-01-01
Advanced planning within NASA has identified several bold space exploration initiatives. The successful implementation of these missions will require a supporting space infrastructure which would include a fuel depot, an orbiting facility to store, transfer and process large quantities of cryogenic fluids. In order to adequately plan the technology development programs required to enable the construction and operation of a fuel depot, a multidisciplinary workshop was convened to assess critical technologies and their state of maturity. Since technology requirements depend strongly on the depot design assumptions, several depot concepts are presented with their effect on criticality ratings. Over 70 depot-related technology areas are addressed.
Technology requirements for an orbiting fuel depot - A necessary element of a space infrastructure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stubbs, R. M.; Corban, R. R.; Willoughby, A. J.
1988-01-01
Advanced planning within NASA has identified several bold space exploration initiatives. The successful implementation of these missions will require a supporting space infrastructure which would include a fuel depot, an orbiting facility to store, transfer and process large quantities of cryogenic fluids. In order to adequately plan the technology development programs required to enable the construction and operation of a fuel depot, a multidisciplinary workshop was convened to assess critical technologies and their state of maturity. Since technology requirements depend strongly on the depot design assumptions, several depot concepts are presented with their effect of criticality ratings. Over 70 depot-related technology areas are addressed.
Gorgiladze, G I; Bukiia, R D; Kalandarishvili, E L; Taktakishvili, A D; Davitashvili, M T; Gelashvili, N Sh; Madzhagaladze, N B; Galkin, V A
2013-01-01
Statocyst epithelial lining of terrestrial pulmonary snail Helix lucorum is a spatially arranged structure consisting of 13 cell ensembles. Each ensemble has a sensory cell surrounded by companion cells. The sensory cell on the anterior statocyst pole is star-shaped due to multiple protoplasmatic protrusions on its body. The remaining 12 polygon-shaped cells form 3 tires along the statocyst internal perimeter: anterior, middle or equatorial and posterior. There are 4 cells in each tire. Topography of every sensory cell on the statocyst internal surface was described as well as cell nuclei size and form, nucleoli number and patterns of cytoplasm vacuolization. Space free of sensory cells is occupied by supporting or intercalary cells. Exposure to space microgravity over 40, 43, 102 and 135 days aboard the orbital station MIR affected morphology of the sensory cells. Specifically, this appeared as reductions in cell height and, consequently, extension of the statocyst cavity internal diameter and volume in the space-flown snails.
Fake molecular-orbital calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harris, Frank E.; Trautwein, Alfred; Delhalle, Joseph
1980-06-01
The FAKE method of approximate molecular-orbital calculations is presented and illustrated by application to a number of molecules. The method is of the extended Huckel type but uses accurately computed kinetic-energy matrix elements and avoids scale factors of the Wolfsberg—Helmholtz type. It also includes neighbor-atom charge effects and single-center off-diagonal matrix elements. These features permit FAKE occupied-orbital energies and charge distributions to come into close agreement with corresponding ab initio quantities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hangele, Tim; Dolg, Michael; Hanrath, Michael; Cao, Xiaoyan; Schwerdtfeger, Peter
2012-06-01
Energy-consistent two-component semi-local pseudopotentials for the superheavy elements with atomic numbers 111-118 have been adjusted to fully relativistic multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations based on the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian, including perturbative corrections for the frequency-dependent Breit interaction in the Coulomb gauge and lowest-order quantum electrodynamic effects. The pseudopotential core includes 92 electrons corresponding to the configuration [Xe]4f 145d105f 14. The parameters for the elements 111-118 were fitted by two-component multi-configuration Hartree-Fock calculations in the intermediate coupling scheme to the total energies of 267 up to 797 J levels arising from 31 up to 62 nonrelativistic configurations, including also anionic and highly ionized states, with mean absolute errors clearly below 0.02 eV for averages corresponding to nonrelativistic configurations. Primitive basis sets for one- and two-component pseudopotential calculations have been optimized for the ground and excited states and exhibit finite basis set errors with respect to the finite-difference Hartree-Fock limit below 0.01 and 0.02 eV, respectively. General contraction schemes have been applied to obtain valence basis sets of polarized valence double- to quadruple-zeta quality. Results of atomic test calculations in the intermediate coupling scheme at the Fock-space coupled-cluster level are in good agreement with those of corresponding fully relativistic all-electron calculations based on the Dirac-Coulomb-Breit Hamiltonian. The results demonstrate besides the well-known need of a relativistic treatment at the Dirac-Coulomb level also the necessity to include higher-order corrections for the superheavy elements.
Hangele, Tim; Dolg, Michael; Hanrath, Michael; Cao, Xiaoyan; Schwerdtfeger, Peter
2012-06-01
Energy-consistent two-component semi-local pseudopotentials for the superheavy elements with atomic numbers 111-118 have been adjusted to fully relativistic multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations based on the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian, including perturbative corrections for the frequency-dependent Breit interaction in the Coulomb gauge and lowest-order quantum electrodynamic effects. The pseudopotential core includes 92 electrons corresponding to the configuration [Xe]4f(14)5d(10)5f(14). The parameters for the elements 111-118 were fitted by two-component multi-configuration Hartree-Fock calculations in the intermediate coupling scheme to the total energies of 267 up to 797 J levels arising from 31 up to 62 nonrelativistic configurations, including also anionic and highly ionized states, with mean absolute errors clearly below 0.02 eV for averages corresponding to nonrelativistic configurations. Primitive basis sets for one- and two-component pseudopotential calculations have been optimized for the ground and excited states and exhibit finite basis set errors with respect to the finite-difference Hartree-Fock limit below 0.01 and 0.02 eV, respectively. General contraction schemes have been applied to obtain valence basis sets of polarized valence double- to quadruple-zeta quality. Results of atomic test calculations in the intermediate coupling scheme at the Fock-space coupled-cluster level are in good agreement with those of corresponding fully relativistic all-electron calculations based on the Dirac-Coulomb-Breit Hamiltonian. The results demonstrate besides the well-known need of a relativistic treatment at the Dirac-Coulomb level also the necessity to include higher-order corrections for the superheavy elements. PMID:22697528
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cannon, I.; Balcer, S.; Cochran, M.; Klop, J.; Peterson, S.
1991-01-01
An Integrated Control and Health Monitoring (ICHM) system was conceived for use on a 20 Klb thrust baseline Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) engine. Considered for space used, the ICHM was defined for reusability requirements for an OTV engine service free life of 20 missions, with 100 starts and a total engine operational time of 4 hours. Functions were derived by flowing down requirements from NASA guidelines, previous OTV engine or ICHM documents, and related contracts. The elements of an ICHM were identified and listed, and these elements were described in sufficient detail to allow estimation of their technology readiness levels. These elements were assessed in terms of technology readiness level, and supporting rationale for these assessments presented. The remaining cost for development of a minimal ICHM system to technology readiness level 6 was estimated. The estimates are within an accuracy range of minus/plus 20 percent. The cost estimates cover what is needed to prepare an ICHM system for use on a focussed testbed for an expander cycle engine, excluding support to the actual test firings.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fanale, F. P.; Salvail, J. R.
1984-01-01
A generalized model for short period comets is developed which integrates in a fairly rigorous manner the isolation history of regions on rotating comets with specified axial orientation and the complex feedback processes involving heat, gas and dust transport, dust mantle development and coma opacity. Attention is focused on development, reconfiguration and partial or complete launching of dust mantles and the reciprocal effects of these three processes on ice surface temperature and gas and dust production. The dust mantle controls the H2O flux not only by its effect on the temperature at the ice interface but (dominantly) by its dynamic stability which strongly influences vapor diffusivity. The model includes the effects of latitude, rotation and spin axis orientation are included and applied to an initially homogeneous sphere of H2O ice and silicate using the orbital parameters of comet Encke. Numerous variations of the model, using combinations of grain size distribution, dust-to-ice ratio, latitude and spin axis orientation, are presented and discussed. Resulted for a similar nonrotating, constant Sun orientation models are also included.
Gorgiladze, G I; Bukiia, R D; Kalandarishvili, E L; Taktakishvili, A D; Davitashvili, M T; Gelashvili, N Sh; Madzhagaladze, N B; Galkin, V A
2013-01-01
Statocyst epithelial lining of terrestrial pulmonary snail Helix lucorum is a spatially arranged structure consisting of 13 cell ensembles. Each ensemble has a sensory cell surrounded by companion cells. The sensory cell on the anterior statocyst pole is star-shaped due to multiple protoplasmatic protrusions on its body. The remaining 12 polygon-shaped cells form 3 tires along the statocyst internal perimeter: anterior, middle or equatorial and posterior. There are 4 cells in each tire. Topography of every sensory cell on the statocyst internal surface was described as well as cell nuclei size and form, nucleoli number and patterns of cytoplasm vacuolization. Space free of sensory cells is occupied by supporting or intercalary cells. Exposure to space microgravity over 40, 43, 102 and 135 days aboard the orbital station MIR affected morphology of the sensory cells. Specifically, this appeared as reductions in cell height and, consequently, extension of the statocyst cavity internal diameter and volume in the space-flown snails. PMID:24490279
Chowdhury, Amor; Sarjaš, Andrej
2016-01-01
The presented paper describes accurate distance measurement for a field-sensed magnetic suspension system. The proximity measurement is based on a Hall effect sensor. The proximity sensor is installed directly on the lower surface of the electro-magnet, which means that it is very sensitive to external magnetic influences and disturbances. External disturbances interfere with the information signal and reduce the usability and reliability of the proximity measurements and, consequently, the whole application operation. A sensor fusion algorithm is deployed for the aforementioned reasons. The sensor fusion algorithm is based on the Unscented Kalman Filter, where a nonlinear dynamic model was derived with the Finite Element Modelling approach. The advantage of such modelling is a more accurate dynamic model parameter estimation, especially in the case when the real structure, materials and dimensions of the real-time application are known. The novelty of the paper is the design of a compact electro-magnetic actuator with a built-in low cost proximity sensor for accurate proximity measurement of the magnetic object. The paper successively presents a modelling procedure with the finite element method, design and parameter settings of a sensor fusion algorithm with Unscented Kalman Filter and, finally, the implementation procedure and results of real-time operation. PMID:27649197
Chowdhury, Amor; Sarjaš, Andrej
2016-01-01
The presented paper describes accurate distance measurement for a field-sensed magnetic suspension system. The proximity measurement is based on a Hall effect sensor. The proximity sensor is installed directly on the lower surface of the electro-magnet, which means that it is very sensitive to external magnetic influences and disturbances. External disturbances interfere with the information signal and reduce the usability and reliability of the proximity measurements and, consequently, the whole application operation. A sensor fusion algorithm is deployed for the aforementioned reasons. The sensor fusion algorithm is based on the Unscented Kalman Filter, where a nonlinear dynamic model was derived with the Finite Element Modelling approach. The advantage of such modelling is a more accurate dynamic model parameter estimation, especially in the case when the real structure, materials and dimensions of the real-time application are known. The novelty of the paper is the design of a compact electro-magnetic actuator with a built-in low cost proximity sensor for accurate proximity measurement of the magnetic object. The paper successively presents a modelling procedure with the finite element method, design and parameter settings of a sensor fusion algorithm with Unscented Kalman Filter and, finally, the implementation procedure and results of real-time operation. PMID:27649197
Chowdhury, Amor; Sarjaš, Andrej
2016-09-15
The presented paper describes accurate distance measurement for a field-sensed magnetic suspension system. The proximity measurement is based on a Hall effect sensor. The proximity sensor is installed directly on the lower surface of the electro-magnet, which means that it is very sensitive to external magnetic influences and disturbances. External disturbances interfere with the information signal and reduce the usability and reliability of the proximity measurements and, consequently, the whole application operation. A sensor fusion algorithm is deployed for the aforementioned reasons. The sensor fusion algorithm is based on the Unscented Kalman Filter, where a nonlinear dynamic model was derived with the Finite Element Modelling approach. The advantage of such modelling is a more accurate dynamic model parameter estimation, especially in the case when the real structure, materials and dimensions of the real-time application are known. The novelty of the paper is the design of a compact electro-magnetic actuator with a built-in low cost proximity sensor for accurate proximity measurement of the magnetic object. The paper successively presents a modelling procedure with the finite element method, design and parameter settings of a sensor fusion algorithm with Unscented Kalman Filter and, finally, the implementation procedure and results of real-time operation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, Ran; Moussawi, Ali; Lubineau, Gilles; Pan, Bing
2016-06-01
Digital image correlation (DIC) is now an extensively applied full-field measurement technique with subpixel accuracy. A systematic drawback of this technique, however, is the smoothening of the kinematic field (e.g., displacement and strains) across interfaces between dissimilar materials, where the deformation gradient is known to be large. This can become an issue when a high level of accuracy is needed, for example, in the interfacial region of composites or joints. In this work, we described the application of global conforming finite-element-based DIC technique to obtain precise kinematic fields at interfaces between dissimilar materials. Speckle images from both numerical and actual experiments processed by the described global DIC technique better captured sharp strain gradient at the interface than local subset-based DIC.
On-orbit spacecraft servicing: An element in the evolution of space robotics applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anders, Carl J.; Roy, Claude H.
1994-01-01
This paper addresses the renewed interest in on-orbit spacecraft servicing (OSS), and how it fits into the evolution of space applications for intelligent robots. Investment in the development of space robotics and associated technologies is growing as nations recognize that it is a critical component of the exploration and commercial development of space. At the same time, changes in world conditions have generated a renewal of the interest in OSS. This is reflected in the level of activity in the U.S., Japan and Europe in the form of studies and technology demonstration programs. OSS is becoming widely accepted as an opportunity in the evolution of space robotics applications. Importantly, it is a feasible proposition with current technologies and the direction of ongoing research and development activities. Interest in OSS dates back more than two decades, and several programs have been initiated, but no operational system has come on line, arguably with the Shuttle as the exception. With new opportunities arising, however, a fresh look at the feasibility of OSS is warranted. This involves the resolution of complex market, technical and political issues, through market studies, economic analyses, mission requirement definitions, trade studies, concept designs and technology demonstrations. System architectures for OSS are strongly dependent on target spacecraft design and launch delivery systems. Performance and cost factors are currently forcing significant changes in these areas. This presents both challenges and opportunities in the provision of OSS services. In conclusion, there is no question OSS will become a reality, but only when the technical feasibility is combined with either economic viability or political will. In the evolution of space robotics satellite servicing can become the next step towards its eventual role in support of planetary exploration and human beings' journey out into the universe.
Orbital Solutions and Absolute Elements of the W UMa Binary MW Pavonis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvarez, Gabriella E.; Sowell, James R.; Williamon, Richard M.; Lapasset, Emilio
2015-08-01
We present differential UBV photoelectric photometry obtained by Williamon of the short-period A-type W UMa binary MW Pav. With the Wilson-Devinney analysis program, we obtained a simultaneous solution of these observations with the UBV photometry of Lapasset, the V measurements by the ASAS program, and the double-lined radial velocity measurements of Rucinski and Duerbeck. Our solution indicates that MW Pav is in an overcontact state, where both components exceed their critical Roche lobes. We derive masses of M1 = 1.514 ± 0.063 Msolar and M2 = 0.327 ± 0.014 Msolar, and equal-volume radii of R1 = 2.412 ± 0.034 Rsolar and R2 = 1.277 ± 0.019 Rsolar for the primary and secondary, respectively. The system is assumed to have a circular orbit and is seen at an inclination of 86.39° ± 0.63°. The effective temperature of the primary was held fixed at 6900 K, whereas the secondary's temperature was found to be 6969 ± 10 K. The asymmetry of the light curves requires a large, single star spot on the smaller, less massive secondary component. A consistent base solution, with different spot characteristics for the Williamon, Lapasset, and ASAS data, was found. The modeled spot varied little during the 40-year range of photometric observations. The combined solution utilized a third light component and found that the period is changing at a rate of dP/dt = (6.50 ± 0.19) × 10-10.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Tao; Fedorov, Dmitri G.; Klobukowski, Mariusz
2010-02-01
Careful spin-orbit multireference studies were carried out for the late p-block elements Tl, Pb, Bi, Po, At, and Rn and their hydrides using the model core potentials developed in the present work. The model core potentials were designed to treat the scalar-relativistic and spin-orbit coupling effects at the Douglas-Kroll level. The variational stability of the spin-orbit coupling operator was discussed in terms of the relativistic kinematic operators and depicted graphically. A detailed analysis of the spin-orbit multireference dissociation curves of the 6p element hydrides as well as of their atomic spectra allowed to establish the accuracy of the model core potentials with respect to all-electron calculations to be within several mÅ for re, meV (ceV) for De at the correlation level of configuration interaction (multireference perturbation theory), 30 cm-1 for ωe, and about 350 cm-1 for the low-lying atomic and molecular term and level energies. These values are expected to be the maximum error limits for the model core potentials of all the np-block elements (n =2-6). Furthermore, a good agreement with experiment requires that many terms be coupled in the spin-orbit coupling calculations. A timing study of Tl and TlH computations indicates that the model core potentials lead to 20-fold (6-fold) speedup at the level of configuration interaction (multireference perturbation theory) calculations.
Grassi, Lorenzo; Väänänen, Sami P; Ristinmaa, Matti; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Isaksson, Hanna
2016-03-21
Subject-specific finite element models have been proposed as a tool to improve fracture risk assessment in individuals. A thorough laboratory validation against experimental data is required before introducing such models in clinical practice. Results from digital image correlation can provide full-field strain distribution over the specimen surface during in vitro test, instead of at a few pre-defined locations as with strain gauges. The aim of this study was to validate finite element models of human femora against experimental data from three cadaver femora, both in terms of femoral strength and of the full-field strain distribution collected with digital image correlation. The results showed a high accuracy between predicted and measured principal strains (R(2)=0.93, RMSE=10%, 1600 validated data points per specimen). Femoral strength was predicted using a rate dependent material model with specific strain limit values for yield and failure. This provided an accurate prediction (<2% error) for two out of three specimens. In the third specimen, an accidental change in the boundary conditions occurred during the experiment, which compromised the femoral strength validation. The achieved strain accuracy was comparable to that obtained in state-of-the-art studies which validated their prediction accuracy against 10-16 strain gauge measurements. Fracture force was accurately predicted, with the predicted failure location being very close to the experimental fracture rim. Despite the low sample size and the single loading condition tested, the present combined numerical-experimental method showed that finite element models can predict femoral strength by providing a thorough description of the local bone mechanical response. PMID:26944687
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bozkaya, Uǧur; Sherrill, C. David
2013-08-01
Orbital-optimized coupled-electron pair theory [or simply "optimized CEPA(0)," OCEPA(0), for short] and its analytic energy gradients are presented. For variational optimization of the molecular orbitals for the OCEPA(0) method, a Lagrangian-based approach is used along with an orbital direct inversion of the iterative subspace algorithm. The cost of the method is comparable to that of CCSD [O(N6) scaling] for energy computations. However, for analytic gradient computations the OCEPA(0) method is only half as expensive as CCSD since there is no need to solve the λ2-amplitude equation for OCEPA(0). The performance of the OCEPA(0) method is compared with that of the canonical MP2, CEPA(0), CCSD, and CCSD(T) methods, for equilibrium geometries, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and hydrogen transfer reactions between radicals. For bond lengths of both closed and open-shell molecules, the OCEPA(0) method improves upon CEPA(0) and CCSD by 25%-43% and 38%-53%, respectively, with Dunning's cc-pCVQZ basis set. Especially for the open-shell test set, the performance of OCEPA(0) is comparable with that of CCSD(T) (ΔR is 0.0003 Å on average). For harmonic vibrational frequencies of closed-shell molecules, the OCEPA(0) method again outperforms CEPA(0) and CCSD by 33%-79% and 53%-79%, respectively. For harmonic vibrational frequencies of open-shell molecules, the mean absolute error (MAE) of the OCEPA(0) method (39 cm-1) is fortuitously even better than that of CCSD(T) (50 cm-1), while the MAEs of CEPA(0) (184 cm-1) and CCSD (84 cm-1) are considerably higher. For complete basis set estimates of hydrogen transfer reaction energies, the OCEPA(0) method again exhibits a substantially better performance than CEPA(0), providing a mean absolute error of 0.7 kcal mol-1, which is more than 6 times lower than that of CEPA(0) (4.6 kcal mol-1), and comparing to MP2 (7.7 kcal mol-1) there is a more than 10-fold reduction in errors. Whereas the MAE for the CCSD method is only 0.1 kcal
Bozkaya, Uğur; Sherrill, C David
2013-08-01
Orbital-optimized coupled-electron pair theory [or simply "optimized CEPA(0)," OCEPA(0), for short] and its analytic energy gradients are presented. For variational optimization of the molecular orbitals for the OCEPA(0) method, a Lagrangian-based approach is used along with an orbital direct inversion of the iterative subspace algorithm. The cost of the method is comparable to that of CCSD [O(N(6)) scaling] for energy computations. However, for analytic gradient computations the OCEPA(0) method is only half as expensive as CCSD since there is no need to solve the λ2-amplitude equation for OCEPA(0). The performance of the OCEPA(0) method is compared with that of the canonical MP2, CEPA(0), CCSD, and CCSD(T) methods, for equilibrium geometries, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and hydrogen transfer reactions between radicals. For bond lengths of both closed and open-shell molecules, the OCEPA(0) method improves upon CEPA(0) and CCSD by 25%-43% and 38%-53%, respectively, with Dunning's cc-pCVQZ basis set. Especially for the open-shell test set, the performance of OCEPA(0) is comparable with that of CCSD(T) (ΔR is 0.0003 Å on average). For harmonic vibrational frequencies of closed-shell molecules, the OCEPA(0) method again outperforms CEPA(0) and CCSD by 33%-79% and 53%-79%, respectively. For harmonic vibrational frequencies of open-shell molecules, the mean absolute error (MAE) of the OCEPA(0) method (39 cm(-1)) is fortuitously even better than that of CCSD(T) (50 cm(-1)), while the MAEs of CEPA(0) (184 cm(-1)) and CCSD (84 cm(-1)) are considerably higher. For complete basis set estimates of hydrogen transfer reaction energies, the OCEPA(0) method again exhibits a substantially better performance than CEPA(0), providing a mean absolute error of 0.7 kcal mol(-1), which is more than 6 times lower than that of CEPA(0) (4.6 kcal mol(-1)), and comparing to MP2 (7.7 kcal mol(-1)) there is a more than 10-fold reduction in errors. Whereas the MAE for the CCSD method is
Zhu, Zunlue; Yu, Wei; Wang, Shuai; Sun, Jinfeng; Shi, Deheng
2014-10-15
The spectroscopic properties of 23 Ω states generated from the 13 Λ-S states of BO radical are studied for the first time for internuclear separations from about 0.07 to 1.0nm. Of the 13 Λ-S states, each of the F(2)Π, 1(2)Φ and 1(2)Δ states is found to possess the double well. Each of the 1(4)Π, C(2)Π, 1(2)Σ(-) and 2(2)Σ(-) states possesses one well with one barrier. The A(2)Π, 1(4)Π and F(2)Π are the inverted states with the spin-orbit coupling effect taken into account. All the states possess the deep well except for the 1(2)Φ. The potential energy curves (PECs) are calculated by the complete active space self-consistent field method, which is followed by the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction approach with the Davidson correction. Core-valence correlation and scalar relativistic corrections are included into the calculations. The PECs are extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. The spin-orbit coupling effect is accounted for by the state interaction approach with the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. The spectroscopic parameters are evaluated, and compared with the available measurements and other theoretical results. The Franck-Condon factors and radiative lifetimes of the transitions from the B(2)Σ(+), C(2)Π, D(2)Σ(+), 1(2)Σ(-) and 1(4)Π Λ-S states to the ground state are calculated for several low vibrational levels, and some necessary discussion is made. Analyses show that the spectroscopic parameters reported in this paper can be expected to be reliably predicted ones. PMID:24820321
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Deheng; Liu, Qionglan; Wang, Shuai; Sun, Jinfeng; Zhu, Zunlue
2015-01-01
The potential energy curves (PECs) of 59 Ω states generated from the 17 Λ-S states (X1Σ+, a3Σ+, 15Σ+, b3Δ, c3Π, 15Π, 25Σ+, 23Δ, 23Π, 33Σ+, A1Π, 23Σ+, 35Σ+, 17Σ+, 15Δ, 25Δ, and 25Π) of AsP molecule are studied for the first time for internuclear separations from about 0.10 to 1.10 nm. All the Λ-S states are contributed to the first three dissociation channels of AsP molecule except for the A1Π. The 23Σ+, 35Σ+, 17Σ+, 15Δ, 25Δ, and 25Π are found to be the repulsive states. The a3Σ+, 15Π, b3Δ, 17Σ+, 15Δ, 25Δ, and 25Π are found to be the inverted states. Each of the 33Σ+, c3Π, 23Π, 15Π, and 15Σ+ states has one potential barrier. The PECs are calculated by the CASSCF method, which is followed by the internally contracted MRCI approach with Davidson correction. Core-valence correlation and scalar relativistic corrections are included. The convergent behavior of present calculations is discussed with respect to the basis set and level of theory. The spin-orbit coupling effect is accounted for. All these PECs are extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. The spectroscopic parameters are evaluated for the bound states involved, and are compared with available measurements. Excellent agreement has been found between the present results and the measurements. It shows that the spectroscopic parameters reported in this paper can be expected to be reliably predicted ones. The conclusion is gained that the effect of spin-orbit coupling on the spectroscopic parameters is not obvious for all the Λ-S bound states except for few ones such as 15Σ+ and c3Π.
Xue, Ming-Feng; Kang, Young Mo; Arbabi, Amir; McKeown, Steven J; Goddard, Lynford L; Jin, Jian-Ming
2014-02-24
A fast and accurate full-wave technique based on the dual-primal finite element tearing and interconnecting method and the second-order transmission condition is presented for large-scale three-dimensional photonic device simulations. The technique decomposes a general three-dimensional electromagnetic problem into smaller subdomain problems so that parallel computing can be performed on distributed-memory computer clusters to reduce the simulation time significantly. With the electric fields computed everywhere, photonic device parameters such as transmission and reflection coefficients are extracted. Several photonic devices, with simulation volumes up to 1.9×10(4) (λ/n(avg))3 and modeled with over one hundred million unknowns, are simulated to demonstrate the application, efficiency, and capability of this technique. The simulations show good agreement with experimental results and in a special case with a simplified two-dimensional simulation.
Boyce, Christopher M; Holland, Daniel J; Scott, Stuart A; Dennis, John S
2013-12-18
Discrete element modeling is being used increasingly to simulate flow in fluidized beds. These models require complex measurement techniques to provide validation for the approximations inherent in the model. This paper introduces the idea of modeling the experiment to ensure that the validation is accurate. Specifically, a 3D, cylindrical gas-fluidized bed was simulated using a discrete element model (DEM) for particle motion coupled with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to describe the flow of gas. The results for time-averaged, axial velocity during bubbling fluidization were compared with those from magnetic resonance (MR) experiments made on the bed. The DEM-CFD data were postprocessed with various methods to produce time-averaged velocity maps for comparison with the MR results, including a method which closely matched the pulse sequence and data processing procedure used in the MR experiments. The DEM-CFD results processed with the MR-type time-averaging closely matched experimental MR results, validating the DEM-CFD model. Analysis of different averaging procedures confirmed that MR time-averages of dynamic systems correspond to particle-weighted averaging, rather than frame-weighted averaging, and also demonstrated that the use of Gaussian slices in MR imaging of dynamic systems is valid. PMID:24478537
2013-01-01
Discrete element modeling is being used increasingly to simulate flow in fluidized beds. These models require complex measurement techniques to provide validation for the approximations inherent in the model. This paper introduces the idea of modeling the experiment to ensure that the validation is accurate. Specifically, a 3D, cylindrical gas-fluidized bed was simulated using a discrete element model (DEM) for particle motion coupled with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to describe the flow of gas. The results for time-averaged, axial velocity during bubbling fluidization were compared with those from magnetic resonance (MR) experiments made on the bed. The DEM-CFD data were postprocessed with various methods to produce time-averaged velocity maps for comparison with the MR results, including a method which closely matched the pulse sequence and data processing procedure used in the MR experiments. The DEM-CFD results processed with the MR-type time-averaging closely matched experimental MR results, validating the DEM-CFD model. Analysis of different averaging procedures confirmed that MR time-averages of dynamic systems correspond to particle-weighted averaging, rather than frame-weighted averaging, and also demonstrated that the use of Gaussian slices in MR imaging of dynamic systems is valid. PMID:24478537
Danel, J.-F.; Blottiau, P.; Kazandjian, L.; Piron, R.; Torrent, M.
2014-10-15
The applicability of quantum molecular dynamics to the calculation of the equation of state of a dense plasma is limited at high temperature by computational cost. Orbital-free molecular dynamics, based on a semiclassical approximation and possibly on a gradient correction, is a simulation method available at high temperature. For a high-Z element such as lutetium, we examine how orbital-free molecular dynamics applied to the equation of state of a dense plasma can be regarded as the limit of quantum molecular dynamics at high temperature. For the normal mass density and twice the normal mass density, we show that the pressures calculated with the quantum approach converge monotonically towards those calculated with the orbital-free approach; we observe a faster convergence when the orbital-free approach includes the gradient correction. We propose a method to obtain an equation of state reproducing quantum molecular dynamics results up to high temperatures where this approach cannot be directly implemented. With the results already obtained for low-Z plasmas, the present study opens the way for reproducing the quantum molecular dynamics pressure for all elements up to high temperatures.
Orbit determination in satellite geodesy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beutler, G.; Schildknecht, T.; Hugentobler, U.; Gurtner, W.
2003-04-01
For centuries orbit determination in Celestial Mechanics was a synonym for the determination of six so-called Keplerian elements of the orbit of a minor planet or a comet based on a short series of (three or more) astrometric places observed from one or more observatories on the Earth's surface. With the advent of the space age the problem changed considerably in several respects: (1) orbits have to be determined for a new class of celestial objects, namely for artificial Earth satellites; (2) new observation types, in particular topocentric distances and radial velocities, are available for the establishment of highly accurate satellite orbits; (3) even for comparatively short arcs (up to a few revolutions) the orbit model that has to be used is much more complicated than for comparable problems in the planetary system: in addition to the gravitational perturbations due to Moon and planets higher-order terms in the Earth's gravity field have to be taken into account as well as non-gravitational effects like atmospheric drag and/or radiation pressure; (4) the parameter space is often of higher than the sixth dimension, because not only the six osculating elements referring to the initial epoch of an arc, but dynamical parameters defining the (a priori imperfectly known) force field have to be determined, as well. It may even be necessary to account for stochastic velocity changes. Orbit determination is not a well-known task in satellit geodesy. This is mainly due to the fact that orbit determination is often imbedded in a much more general parameter estimation problem, where other parameter types (referred to station positions, Earth rotation, atmosphere, etc.) have to be determined, as well. Three examples of "pure" orbit determination problems will be discussed subsequently: ⊎ The first problem intends to optimize the observation process of one Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) observatory. It is a filter problem, where the orbit is improved in real time with the
Chen, Zhenhua; Chen, Xun; Wu, Wei
2013-04-28
In this series, the n-body reduced density matrix (n-RDM) approach for nonorthogonal orbitals and their applications to ab initio valence bond (VB) methods are presented. As the first paper of this series, Hamiltonian matrix elements between internally contracted VB wave functions are explicitly provided by means of nonorthogonal orbital based RDM approach. To this end, a more generalized Wick's theorem, called enhanced Wick's theorem, is presented both in arithmetical and in graphical forms, by which the deduction of expressions for the matrix elements between internally contracted VB wave functions is dramatically simplified, and the matrix elements are finally expressed in terms of tensor contractions of electronic integrals and n-RDMs of the reference VB self-consistent field wave function. A string-based algorithm is developed for the purpose of evaluating n-RDMs in an efficient way. Using the techniques presented in this paper, one is able to develop new methods and efficient algorithms for nonorthogonal orbital based many-electron theory much easier than by use of the first quantized formulism.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhenhua; Chen, Xun; Wu, Wei
2013-04-01
In this series, the n-body reduced density matrix (n-RDM) approach for nonorthogonal orbitals and their applications to ab initio valence bond (VB) methods are presented. As the first paper of this series, Hamiltonian matrix elements between internally contracted VB wave functions are explicitly provided by means of nonorthogonal orbital based RDM approach. To this end, a more generalized Wick's theorem, called enhanced Wick's theorem, is presented both in arithmetical and in graphical forms, by which the deduction of expressions for the matrix elements between internally contracted VB wave functions is dramatically simplified, and the matrix elements are finally expressed in terms of tensor contractions of electronic integrals and n-RDMs of the reference VB self-consistent field wave function. A string-based algorithm is developed for the purpose of evaluating n-RDMs in an efficient way. Using the techniques presented in this paper, one is able to develop new methods and efficient algorithms for nonorthogonal orbital based many-electron theory much easier than by use of the first quantized formulism.
Chen, Zhenhua; Chen, Xun; Wu, Wei
2013-04-28
In this series, the n-body reduced density matrix (n-RDM) approach for nonorthogonal orbitals and their applications to ab initio valence bond (VB) methods are presented. As the first paper of this series, Hamiltonian matrix elements between internally contracted VB wave functions are explicitly provided by means of nonorthogonal orbital based RDM approach. To this end, a more generalized Wick's theorem, called enhanced Wick's theorem, is presented both in arithmetical and in graphical forms, by which the deduction of expressions for the matrix elements between internally contracted VB wave functions is dramatically simplified, and the matrix elements are finally expressed in terms of tensor contractions of electronic integrals and n-RDMs of the reference VB self-consistent field wave function. A string-based algorithm is developed for the purpose of evaluating n-RDMs in an efficient way. Using the techniques presented in this paper, one is able to develop new methods and efficient algorithms for nonorthogonal orbital based many-electron theory much easier than by use of the first quantized formulism. PMID:23635123
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1978-01-01
The methodology and rationale used in the development of costs for engineering, manufacturing, testing and operating a low thrust system for placing automated shuttle payloads into earth orbits are described. Cost related information for the recommended propulsion approach is included.
Element specific spin and orbital moments of nanoscale CoFeB amorphous thin films on GaAs(100)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Yu; Lu, Cong; Tu, Hongqing; Lu, Xianyang; Liu, Wenqing; Wang, Junlin; Ye, Lei; Will, Iain; Kuerbanjiang, Balati; Lazarov, Vlado K.; Wu, Jing; Wong, Johnny; You, Biao; Du, Jun; Zhang, Rong; Xu, Yongbing
2016-09-01
Nanoscale CoFeB amorphous films have been synthesized on GaAs(100) and studied with X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We have found that the ratios of the orbital to spin magnetic moments of both the Co and Fe in the ultrathin amorphous film have been enhanced by more than 300% compared with those of the bulk crystalline Co and Fe, and in specifically, a large orbital moment of 0.56*10^-6 B from the Co atoms has been observed and at the same time the spin moment of the Co atoms remains comparable to that of the bulk hcp Co. The results indicate that the large uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA) observed in the ultrathin CoFeB film on GaAs(100) is related to the enhanced spin-orbital coupling of the Co atoms in the CoFeB. This work offers experimental evidences of the correlation between the UMA and the elementary specific spin and orbital moments in the CoFeB amorphous film on the GaAs(100) substrate, which is significant for spintronics applications.
Orbital elements of 4U 0115+63 and the nature of the hard X-ray transients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rappaport, S.; Clark, G. W.; Cominsky, L.; Li, F.; Joss, P. C.
1978-01-01
Extended SAS 3 timing observations of the hard transient X-ray source 4U 0115+63 are reported, and a definitive measurement of the binary orbit of this transient source is presented. It is shown that this source is in a long orbit (period of approximately 24.3 days) that is moderately eccentric (e about 0.34) and that the mean value of the rate of decrease of the pulse period is consistent with the expected spinup of a rotating neutron star that is accreting from a disk. A distance of about 2.5 kpc is inferred, and the B-star optical counterpart is estimated to have an absolute magnitude of approximately -1.5 and a mass of at least 5 solar masses. It is suggested that the companion is a Be star which does not fill its Roche lobe and that the eccentricity and transient nature of the source result from the large orbital separation. It is proposed that hard X-ray transients as a class are collapsed stars (perhaps all neutron stars) in binary systems that are substantially wider than the more persistent X-ray binaries and that the large orbital separation, the small radius of the companion, or both, result in episodic rather than continuous mass transfer onto the X-ray star.
STS mission duration enhancement study: (orbiter habitability)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, A. D.
1979-01-01
Habitability improvements for early flights that could be implemented with minimum impact were investigated. These included: (1) launching the water dispenser in the on-orbit position instead of in a locker; (2) the sleep pallet concept; and (3) suction cup foot restraints. Past studies that used volumetric terms and requirements for crew size versus mission duration were reviewed and common definitions of key habitability terms were established. An accurately dimensioned drawing of the orbiter mid-deck, locating all of the known major elements was developed. Finally, it was established that orbiter duration and crew size can be increased with minimum modification and impact to the crew module. Preliminary concepts of the aft med-deck, external versions of expanded tunnel adapters (ETA), and interior concepts of ETA-3 were developed and comparison charts showing the various factors of volume, weight, duration, size, impact to orbiter, and number of sleep stations were generated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whipple, Arthur L.; Hemenway, Paul D.; Ingram, Doug
1991-01-01
Refinements of the orbital elements for 24 minor planets that will be observed with the Fine Guidance Sensors (FGSs) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are presented. The accuracy of these orbits is discussed in the context of the ephemeris requirements for target acquisition with the FGSs. Comparisons with standard catalog orbits are made to evaluate the suitability of the use of the catalog orbits for HST pointing. It is found that the orbits published in the most recent Minor Planet Circulars are capable of positional predictions that are accurate at the 1-arcsec level. However, there are still many orbits that have not been revised in the last 10 yr and these should not be used for critical pointing ephemerides. In many cases, the orbital elements will have to be refined using recent ground-based observations before a minor planet can be reliably observed by HST.
An M-dwarf star in the transition disk of Herbig HD 142527. Physical parameters and orbital elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lacour, S.; Biller, B.; Cheetham, A.; Greenbaum, A.; Pearce, T.; Marino, S.; Tuthill, P.; Pueyo, L.; Mamajek, E. E.; Girard, J. H.; Sivaramakrishnan, A.; Bonnefoy, M.; Baraffe, I.; Chauvin, G.; Olofsson, J.; Juhasz, A.; Benisty, M.; Pott, J.-U.; Sicilia-Aguilar, A.; Henning, T.; Cardwell, A.; Goodsell, S.; Graham, J. R.; Hibon, P.; Ingraham, P.; Konopacky, Q.; Macintosh, B.; Oppenheimer, R.; Perrin, M.; Rantakyrö, F.; Sadakuni, N.; Thomas, S.
2016-05-01
Aims: HD 42527A is one of the most studied Herbig Ae/Be stars with a transitional disk, as it has the largest imaged gap in any protoplanetary disk: the gas is cleared from 30 to 90 AU. The HD 142527 system is also unique in that it has a stellar companion with a small mass compared to the mass of the primary star. This factor of ≈20 in mass ratio between the two objects makes this binary system different from any other YSO. The HD 142527 system could therefore provide a valuable test bed for understanding the impact of a lower mass companion on disk structure. This low-mass stellar object may be responsible for both the gap and dust trapping observed by ALMA at longer distances. Methods: We observed this system with the NACO and GPI instruments using the aperture masking technique. Aperture masking is ideal for providing high dynamic range even at very small angular separations. We present the spectral energy distribution (SED) for HD 142527A and B. Brightness of the companion is now known from the R band up to the M' band. We also followed the orbital motion of HD 142527B over a period of more than two years. Results: The SED of the companion is compatible with a T = 3000 ± 100 K object in addition to a 1700 K blackbody environment (likely a circum-secondary disk). From evolution models, we find that it is compatible with an object of mass 0.13 ± 0.03 M⊙, radius 0.90 ± 0.15 R⊙, and age Myr. This age is significantly younger than the age previously estimated for HD 142527A. Computations to constrain the orbital parameters found a semimajor axis of mas, an eccentricity of 0.5 ± 0.2, an inclination of 125 ± 15 degrees, and a position angle of the right ascending node of -5 ± 40 degrees. Inclination and position angle of the ascending node are in agreement with an orbit coplanar with the inner disk, not coplanar with the outer disk. Despite its high eccentricity, it is unlikely that HD 142527B is responsible for truncating the inner edge of the outer disk.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Falk, A. Y.
1976-01-01
An analytical and experimental investigation was conducted to develop an understanding of the mechanisms that cause reactive stream separation, commonly called blowapart, for hypergolic propellants. The investigation was limited to a N2O4/MMH propellant combination and to a range of engine-operating conditions applicable to the space tug and space shuttle attitude control and orbital maneuvering engines. Primary test variables were: chamber pressure (1 to 20 atm), fuel injection temperature (283 to 400 K)m and propellant injection velocity (9 to 50 m/s). The injector configuration studied was the unlike doublet. The reactive stream separation experiments were conducted using special combustors designed to permit photography of the near-injector spray combustion flow field. Analysis of color motion pictures provided the means of determining the occurrence of reactive stream separation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drury, A. J.; Westerhold, T.; Frederichs, T.; Wilkens, R.; Channell, J. E. T.; Evans, H. F.; Hodell, D. A.; John, C. M.; Lyle, M. W.; Roehl, U.; Tian, J.
2015-12-01
In the 8-6 Ma interval, the late Miocene is characterised by a long-term -0.3 ‰ reduction in benthic foraminiferal δ18O and distinctive short-term δ18O cycles, possibly related to dynamic Antarctic ice sheet variability. In addition, the late Miocene carbon isotope shift (LMCIS) marks a permanent long-term -1 ‰ shift in oceanic δ13CDIC, which is the largest, long-term perturbation in the global marine carbon cycle since the mid Miocene Monterey excursion. Accurate age control is crucial to investigate the origin of the δ18O cyclicity and determine the precise onset of the LMCIS. The current Geological Time Scale in the 8-6 Ma interval is constructed using astronomical tuning of sedimentary cycles in Mediterranean outcrops. However, outside of the Mediterranean, a comparable high-resolution chemo-, magneto-, and cyclostratigraphy at a single DSDP/ODP/IODP site does not exist. Generating an accurate astronomically-calibrated chemo- and magneto-stratigraphy in the 8-6 Ma interval became possible with retrieval of equatorial Pacific IODP Sites U1337 and U1338, as both sites have sedimentation rates ~2 cm/kyr, high biogenic carbonate content, and magnetic polarity stratigraphies. Here we present high-resolution correlation of Sites U1337 and U1338 using Milankovitch-related cycles in core images and X-ray fluorescence core scanning data. By combining inclination and declination data from ~400 new discrete samples with shipboard measurements, we are able to identify 14 polarity reversals at Site U1337 from the young end of Chron C3An.1n (~6.03 Ma) to the onset of Chron C4n.2n (~8.11 Ma). New high-resolution (<1.5 kyr) stable isotope records from Site U1337 correlate highly with Site U1338 records, enabling construction of a high-resolution stack. Initial orbital tuning of the U1337-U1338 records show that the δ18O cyclicity is obliquity driven, indicating high-latitude climate forcing. The LMCIS starts ~7.55 Ma and is anchored in Chron C4n.1n, which is
Nash, C.S.; Bursten, B.E.
1999-01-21
Relativistic effective core potentials and spin-orbit operators are used in relativistic configuration interaction calculations to explore the effects of spin-orbit coupling on the electronic structures of atoms and molecules of elements 114 and 118. The monohydrides of group IVA and the tetrafluorides of group VIIIA are examined in order to provide examples of trends within families among the various periods. The spin-orbit effect is found to play a dominant role in the determination of atomic and molecular properties. Several nonintuitive consequences of spin-orbit coupling are presented, including the depiction of element 114 as a closed-shell noble atom and the suggestion that the VSEPR theory in inadequate to describe the geometry of the rare gas tetrafluoride, (118)F{sub 4}.
Piper, L.; Cho, S; Zhang, Y; DeMasi, A; Smith, K; Matsuura, A; McGuinness, C
2010-01-01
The electronic structure of copper hexadecafluorophthalocyanine (F{sub 16}CuPc) has been measured using soft x-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the C, N, and F K edges. Our element- and orbital-specific measurements confirm that substitution of hydrogen for fluorine leads to profound changes in the electronic environment of the carbon atoms in contrast to that of the nitrogen atoms. These findings are supported by simulated x-ray absorption and emission spectra of F{sub 16}CuPc calculated by density-functional theory methods. The experimental results are directly compared with those of CuPc. Additional information regarding specific carbon sites is obtained from the evolution of the C K-edge resonant x-ray emission spectra of F{sub 16}CuPc.
Menendez, J.; Poves, A.
2009-10-15
We discuss the variation of the nuclear matrix element (NME) for the neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay of {sup 76}Ge when the wave functions are constrained to reproduce the experimental occupancies of the two nuclei involved in the transition. In the interacting shell model description the value of the NME is enhanced about 15% compared to previous calculations, whereas in the QRPA the NME's are reduced by 20%-30%. This diminishes the discrepancies between both approaches. In addition, we discuss the effect of the short-range correlations on the NME in light of the recently proposed parametrizations based on a consistent renormalization of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} transition operator.
Using GEO Optical Observations to Infer Orbit Populations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matney, Mark; Africano, John
2002-01-01
NASA's Orbital Debris measurements program has a goal to characterize the small debris environment in the geosynchronous Earth-orbit (GEO) region using optical telescopes ("small" refers to objects too small to catalog and track with current systems). Traditionally, observations of GEO and near-GEO objects involve following the object with the telescope long enough to obtain an orbit. When observing very dim objects with small field-of-view telescopes, though, the observations are generally too short to obtain accurate orbital elements. However, it is possible to use such observations to statistically characterize the small object environment. A telescope pointed at a particular spot could potentially see objects in a number of different orbits. Inevitably, when looking at one region for certain types of orbits, there are objects in other types of orbits that cannot be seen. Observation campaigns are designed with these limitations in mind and are set up to span a number of regions of the sky, making it possible to sample all potential orbits under consideration. Each orbit is not seen with the same probability, however, so there are observation biases intrinsic to any observation campaign. Fortunately, it is possible to remove such biases and reconstruct a meaningful estimate of the statistical orbit populations of small objects in GEO. This information, in turn, can be used to investigate the nature of debris sources and to characterize the risk to GEO spacecraft. This paper describes these statistical tools and presents estimates of small object GEO populations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yee, Jennifer C.; Johnson, John Asher; Skowron, Jan; Gould, Andrew; Pineda, J. Sebastian; Eastman, Jason; Vanderburg, Andrew; Howard, Andrew
2016-04-01
Light curves of microlensing events involving stellar binaries and planetary systems can provide information about the orbital elements of the system due to orbital modulations of the caustic structure. Accurately measuring the orbit in either the stellar or planetary case requires detailed modeling of subtle deviations in the light curve. At the same time, the natural, Cartesian parameterization of a microlensing binary is partially degenerate with the microlens parallax. Hence, it is desirable to perform independent tests of the predictions of microlens orbit models using radial velocity (RV) time series of the lens binary system. To this end, we present 3.5 years of RV monitoring of the binary lens system OGLE-2009-BLG-020 L, for which Skowron et al. constrained all internal parameters of the 200-700 day orbit. Our RV measurements reveal an orbit that is consistent with the predictions of the microlens light curve analysis, thereby providing the first confirmation of orbital elements inferred from microlensing events.
Mardirossian, Narbe; Head-Gordon, Martin
2016-09-13
The 14 Minnesota density functionals published between the years 2005 and early 2016 are benchmarked on a comprehensive database of 4986 data points (84 data sets) involving molecules composed of main-group elements. The database includes noncovalent interactions, isomerization energies, thermochemistry, and barrier heights, as well as equilibrium bond lengths and equilibrium binding energies of noncovalent dimers. Additionally, the sensitivity of the Minnesota density functionals to the choice of basis set and integration grid is explored for both noncovalent interactions and thermochemistry. Overall, the main strength of the hybrid Minnesota density functionals is that the best ones provide very good performance for thermochemistry (e.g., M06-2X), barrier heights (e.g., M08-HX, M08-SO, MN15), and systems heavily characterized by self-interaction error (e.g., M06-2X, M08-HX, M08-SO, MN15), while the main weakness is that none of them are state-of-the-art for the full spectrum of noncovalent interactions and isomerization energies (although M06-2X is recommended from the 10 hybrid Minnesota functionals). Similarly, the main strength of the local Minnesota density functionals is that the best ones provide very good performance for thermochemistry (e.g., MN15-L), barrier heights (e.g., MN12-L), and systems heavily characterized by self-interaction error (e.g., MN12-L and MN15-L), while the main weakness is that none of them are state-of-the-art for the full spectrum of noncovalent interactions and isomerization energies (although M06-L is clearly the best from the four local Minnesota functionals). As an overall guide, M06-2X and MN15 are perhaps the most broadly useful hybrid Minnesota functionals, while M06-L and MN15-L are perhaps the most broadly useful local Minnesota functionals, although each has different strengths and weaknesses.
Mardirossian, Narbe; Head-Gordon, Martin
2016-09-13
The 14 Minnesota density functionals published between the years 2005 and early 2016 are benchmarked on a comprehensive database of 4986 data points (84 data sets) involving molecules composed of main-group elements. The database includes noncovalent interactions, isomerization energies, thermochemistry, and barrier heights, as well as equilibrium bond lengths and equilibrium binding energies of noncovalent dimers. Additionally, the sensitivity of the Minnesota density functionals to the choice of basis set and integration grid is explored for both noncovalent interactions and thermochemistry. Overall, the main strength of the hybrid Minnesota density functionals is that the best ones provide very good performance for thermochemistry (e.g., M06-2X), barrier heights (e.g., M08-HX, M08-SO, MN15), and systems heavily characterized by self-interaction error (e.g., M06-2X, M08-HX, M08-SO, MN15), while the main weakness is that none of them are state-of-the-art for the full spectrum of noncovalent interactions and isomerization energies (although M06-2X is recommended from the 10 hybrid Minnesota functionals). Similarly, the main strength of the local Minnesota density functionals is that the best ones provide very good performance for thermochemistry (e.g., MN15-L), barrier heights (e.g., MN12-L), and systems heavily characterized by self-interaction error (e.g., MN12-L and MN15-L), while the main weakness is that none of them are state-of-the-art for the full spectrum of noncovalent interactions and isomerization energies (although M06-L is clearly the best from the four local Minnesota functionals). As an overall guide, M06-2X and MN15 are perhaps the most broadly useful hybrid Minnesota functionals, while M06-L and MN15-L are perhaps the most broadly useful local Minnesota functionals, although each has different strengths and weaknesses. PMID:27537680
Chen, Zhenhua; Chen, Xun; Wu, Wei
2013-04-28
In this paper, by applying the reduced density matrix (RDM) approach for nonorthogonal orbitals developed in the first paper of this series, efficient algorithms for matrix elements between VB structures and energy gradients in valence bond self-consistent field (VBSCF) method were presented. Both algorithms scale only as nm(4) for integral transformation and d(2)n(β)(2) for VB matrix elements and 3-RDM evaluation, while the computational costs of other procedures are negligible, where n, m, d, and n(β )are the numbers of variable occupied active orbitals, basis functions, determinants, and active β electrons, respectively. Using tensor properties of the energy gradients with respect to the orbital coefficients presented in the first paper of this series, a partial orthogonal auxiliary orbital set was introduced to reduce the computational cost of VBSCF calculation in which orbitals are flexibly defined. Test calculations on the Diels-Alder reaction of butadiene and ethylene have shown that the novel algorithm is very efficient for VBSCF calculations. PMID:23635124
Efficient orbit integration by orbital longitude methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukushima, Toshio
Recently we developed a new formulation of numerical integration of orbital motion named manifold correction methods. The main trick is to keep rigorously the consistency of some physical relations such as that of the orbital energy, of the orbital angular momentum, or of the Laplace integral of a binary subsystem. This maintenance is done by applying a sort of correction to the integrated variables at every integration step. Typical methods of correction are certain geometric transformation such as the spatial scaling and the spatial rotation, which are commonly used in the comparison of reference frames, or mathematically-reasonable operations such as the modularization of angle variables into the standard domain [-π, π). The finally-evolved form of the manifold correction methods is the orbital longitude methods, which enable us to conduct an extremely precise integration of orbital motions. In the unperturbed orbits, the integration errors are suppressed at the machine epsilon level for an infinitely long period. In the perturbed cases, on the other hand, the errors initially grow in proportion to the square root of time and then increase more rapidly, the onset time of which depends on the type and the magnitude of perturbations. This feature is also realized for highly eccentric orbits by applying the same idea to the KS-regularization. Expecially the introduction of time element greatly enhances the performance of numerical integration of KS-regularized orbits whether the scaling is applied or not.
Thermal stress analysis of space shuttle orbiter subjected to reentry aerodynamic heating
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ko, William L.; Fields, Roger A.
1987-01-01
A structural performance and resizing (SPAR) finite-element computer program and NASA structural analysis (NASTRAN) finite-element computer programs were used in the thermal stress analysis of the space shuttle orbiter subjected to reentry aerodynamic heating. A SPAR structural model was set up for the entire left wing of the orbiter, and NASTRAN structural models were set up for: (1) a wing segment located at midspan of the orbiter left wing, and (2) a fuselage segment located at midfuselage. The thermal stress distributions in the orbiter structure were obtained and the critical high thermal stress regions were identified. It was found that the thermal stresses induced in the orbiter structure during reentry were relatively low. The thermal stress predictions from the whole wing model were considered to be more accurate than those from the wing segment model because the former accounts for temperature and stress effects throughout the entire wing.
[Orbital decompression for Graves' ophthalmopathy].
Boulétreau, P; Breton, P; Freidel, M
2005-04-01
Graves' ophthalmopathy is a complex orbital condition with a controversial pathogenesis. It is the clinical expression of a discordance between the inextensible orbit and hypertrophic muscular and fatty elements within the orbit responding to immunological stimulation. The relationship between the orbital and its content can be improved by surgical expansion which increases the useful volume of the orbit. This procedure can be combined with lipectomy to decrease the volume of the orbital contents. We briefly recall the history of surgical decompression techniques and present our experience with Graves' ophthalmopathy patients.
Gaussian-2 (G2) theory for third-row elements: A systematic study of the effect of the 3d orbitals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duke, Brian J.; Radom, Leo
1998-09-01
The importance of the inclusion of the 3d orbitals on third-row atoms in the correlation space in G2 theory has been systematically examined through calculations on the third-row G2 test set. Compared with standard G2, this G2(d) approach gives better agreement with experiment for the evaluation of ionization energies, a slightly poorer agreement for atomization energies, and much the same agreement for the very small sub-set of electron affinities and proton affinities. Overall, there is only slightly better agreement with experiment. However, when mixing of the 3d orbitals of the third-row atom with valence orbitals on the adjacent atoms is strong, inclusion of the 3d orbitals in the correlation space becomes a prerequisite to obtaining reliable results. Standard G2 theory is unsuitable in these circumstances. Similar conclusions pertain for the more economical G2(MP2)(d) method and for the full G2(QCI)(d) method. Inclusion of the 3d orbitals in the correlation space greatly increases the computer time required for a G2 calculation so some simple additive corrections to the G2 energy to approximate the effect of this inclusion have been investigated. These additivity methods generally underestimate the effect of the 3d orbitals but give reasonable agreement with the full G2(d) calculations in most cases. They cannot be used, however, in situations where the 3d orbital mixing is strong.
Ferrat, Marion; Weiss, Dominik J; Strekopytov, Stanislav
2012-05-15
The geochemical provenancing of atmospheric dust deposited in terrestrial archives such as peat bogs using trace elements is central to the study of atmospheric deposition over the continents and at the heart of many climate and environmental studies. The use of a single digestion method on all sample types involved in such a study (dust archive and sources) minimizes the contribution of the total analytical error when comparing sample compositions and attributing a source to the deposited dust. To date, this factor is limiting progress in geographical areas where the compositional variations between the sources and within the archive are small. Here, seven microwave and hot plate digestion methods were tested on rock, soil and plant reference materials to establish a unique method optimizing precision and accuracy in all sample types. The best results were obtained with a hot plate closed-vessel digestion with 2 ml HF and 0.5 ml HNO(3) for 0.1g of sample, which allowed the precise, accurate and low blank quantification of the trace elements La-Yb, Sc, Y, Th and Pb by ICP-MS. This method was tested in a climate study in central Asia and temporal changes in the dominant dust source were for the first time successfully linked to changes in atmospheric circulation patterns above this region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergeron, R. P.
1980-07-01
Orbital transfer vehicle propulsion options for SPS include both chemical (COTV) and electrical (EOTV) options. The proposed EOTV construction method is similar to that of the SPS and, by the addition of a transmitting antenna, may serve as a demonstration or precursor satellite option. The results of the studies led to the selection of a single stage COTV for crew and priority cargo transfer. An EOTV concept is favored for cargo transfer because of the more favorable orbital burden factor over chemical systems. The gallium arsenide solar array is favored over the silicon array because of its self annealing characteristics of radiation damage encountered during multiple transitions through the Van Allen radiation belt. Transportation system operations are depicted. A heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) delivers cargo and propellants to LEO, which are transferred to a dedicated EOTV by means of an intraorbit transfer vehicle (IOTV) for subsequent transfer to GEO. The space shuttle is used for crew transfer from Earth to LEO. At the LEO base, the crew module is removed from the shuttle cargo bay and mated to a COTV for transfer to GEO. Upon arrival at GEO, the SPS construction cargo is transferred from the EOTV to the SPS construction base by IOTV. Crew consumables and resupply propellants are transported to GEO by the EOTV. Transportation requirements are dominated by the vast quantity of materials to be transported to LEO and GEO.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olevic, D.; Cvetkovic, Z.
In this paper the orbits of binaries WDS 10093+2020 = A 2145, WDS 21074-0814 = BU 368 AB and WDS 22288-0001 = STF 2909 AB are recalculated because of significant deviations of more recent observations from the ephemerides. For binaries WDS 22384-0754 = A 2695, WDS 23474-7118 = FIN 375 Aa and WDS 23578+2508 = McA 76 the orbital elements are calculated for the first time.
THE ORBITS OF THE OUTER URANIAN SATELLITES
Brozovic, M.; Jacobson, R. A.
2009-04-15
We report on the numerically integrated orbits for the nine outer Uranian satellites. The orbits are calculated based on fits to the astrometric observations for the period from 1984 to 2006. The results include the state vectors, post-fit residuals, and mean orbital elements. We also assess the accuracy of the orbital fits and discuss the need for future measurements.
Kepler does not orbit the Earth, rather it orbits the Sun in concert with the Earth, slowly drifting away from Earth. Every 61 Earth years, Kepler and Earth will pass by each other. Throughout the ...
Efficient orbit integration by orbital longitude methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukushima, T.
2005-09-01
Triggered by the desire to investigate numerically the planetary precession through a long-term numerical integration of the solar system, we developed a new formulation of numerical integration of orbital motion named manifold correction methods. The main trick is to keep rigorously the consistency of some physical relations such as that of the orbital energy, of the orbital angular momentum, or of the Laplace integral of a binary subsystem. This maintenance is done by applying a sort of correction to the integrated variables at every integration step. Typical methods of correction are certain geometric transformation such as the spatial scaling and the spatial rotation, which are commonly used in the comparison of reference frames, or mathematically-reasonable operations such as the modularization of angle variables into the standard domain [-π,π). The finally-evolved form of the manifold correction methods is the orbital longitude methods, which enable us to conduct an extremely precise integration of orbital motions. In the unperturbed orbits, the integration errors are suppressed at the machine epsilon level for an infinitely long period. In the perturbed cases, on the other hand, the errors initially grow in proportion to the square root of time and then increase more rapidly, the onset time of which depends on the type and the magnitude of perturbations. This feature is also realized for highly eccentric orbits by applying the same idea to the KS-regularization. Especially the introduction of time element greatly enhances the performance of numerical integration of KS-regularized orbits whether the scaling is applied or not.
Short- and Long-Term Propagation of Spacecraft Orbits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, John C., Jr.; Sweetser, Theodore; Chung, Min-Kun; Yen, Chen-Wan L.; Roncoli, Ralph B.; Kwok, Johnny H.; Vincent, Mark A.
2008-01-01
The Planetary Observer Planning Software (POPS) comprises four computer programs for use in designing orbits of spacecraft about planets. These programs are the Planetary Observer High Precision Orbit Propagator (POHOP), the Planetary Observer Long-Term Orbit Predictor (POLOP), the Planetary Observer Post Processor (POPP), and the Planetary Observer Plotting (POPLOT) program. POHOP and POLOP integrate the equations of motion to propagate an initial set of classical orbit elements to a future epoch. POHOP models shortterm (one revolution) orbital motion; POLOP averages out the short-term behavior but requires far less processing time than do older programs that perform long-term orbit propagations. POPP postprocesses the spacecraft ephemeris created by POHOP or POLOP (or optionally can use a less accurate internal ephemeris) to search for trajectory-related geometric events including, for example, rising or setting of a spacecraft as observed from a ground site. For each such event, POPP puts out such user-specified data as the time, elevation, and azimuth. POPLOT is a graphics program that plots data generated by POPP. POPLOT can plot orbit ground tracks on a world map and can produce a variety of summaries and generic ordinate-vs.-abscissa plots of any POPP data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kıran, E.; Harmanec, P.; Değirmenci, Ö. L.; Wolf, M.; Nemravová, J.; Šlechta, M.; Koubský, P.
2016-03-01
Context. The fact that eclipsing binaries belong to a stellar group is useful, because the former can be used to estimate distance and additional properties of the latter, and vice versa. Aims: Our goal is to analyse new spectroscopic observations of BD+ 36°3317 along with the photometric observations from the literature and, for the first time, to derive all basic physical properties of this binary. We aim to find out whether the binary is indeed a member of the δ Lyr open cluster. Methods: The spectra were reduced using the IRAF program and the radial velocities were measured with the program SPEFO. The line spectra of both components were disentangled with the program KOREL and compared to a grid of synthetic spectra. The final combined radial-velocity and photometric solution was obtained with the program PHOEBE. Results: We obtained the following physical elements of BD+36°3317: M1 = 2.24 ± 0.07 M⊙, M2 = 1.52 ± 0.03 M⊙, R1 = 1.76 ± 0.01 R⊙, R2 = 1.46 ± 0.01 R⊙, log L1 = 1.52 ± 0.08 L⊙, log L2 = 0.81 ± 0.07 L⊙. We derived the effective temperatures Teff,1 = 10 450 ± 420 K, Teff,2 = 7623 ± 328 K. Both components are located close to zero age main sequence in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram and their masses and radii are consistent with the predictions of stellar evolutionary models. Our results imply the average distance to the system d̅ = 330 ± 29 pc. We re-investigated the membership of BD+ 36°3317 in the δ Lyr cluster and confirmed it. The distance to BD+ 36°3317, given above, therefore represents an accurate estimate of the true distance for δ Lyr cluster. Conclusions: The reality of the δ Lyr cluster and the cluster membership of BD+ 36°3317 have been reinforced.
Dynamic and thermal analyses of flexible structures in orbit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Chijie
Due to the launch cost and functional requirements, space structures, such as satellite antenna, deployable structures, solar sails, the space station, and solar panels, are necessarily built lightweight, large, and very flexible. These space structures undergo large orbital rigid body motions as well as large structural deformations caused by gravitational force and other disturbances, such as shuttle jet impingement loading, deployment factor, thermal effects, and debris impact. It is of utmost importance to study thoroughly the dynamic behavior of flexible structures in orbit under various external forces. In this study, first a finite element methodology program based on the absolute nodal coordinate formulation is developed to determine the coupled structural and orbital response of the flexible structure under gravitational and external loading, i.e., gravitational force, impact force, and jet impingement, and thermal loading. It is found from the simulation results that pitch and structural response of the flexible structures are greatly impacted by the initial and loading conditions, such as orbit eccentricity, initial misalignment, etc. The absolute nodal coordinate formulation may lead to inaccurate results due to the fact that the orbit radius is used for element coordinate, which is much greater than the amplitude of the pitch (attitude) motion and deformations of the orbiting structures. Therefore, to improve the accuracy of structural response in the simulation, a floating (moving) frame that is attached with the orbiting structure's center of mass and that moves parallel to the inertia frame fixed at the Earth's center is introduced to separate the attitude motion and structural deformation from the orbit radius. The finite element formulation is developed in this parallel reference frame system for two and three dimensional beam structures. It is then used to study dynamic response of flexible structures in two and three dimensional orbits. In some
Osbahr, Inga; Krause, Joachim; Bachmann, Kai; Gutzmer, Jens
2015-10-01
Identification and accurate characterization of platinum-group minerals (PGMs) is usually a very cumbersome procedure due to their small grain size (typically below 10 µm) and inconspicuous appearance under reflected light. A novel strategy for finding PGMs and quantifying their composition was developed. It combines a mineral liberation analyzer (MLA), a point logging system, and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). As a first step, the PGMs are identified using the MLA. Grains identified as PGMs are then marked and coordinates recorded and transferred to the EPMA. Case studies illustrate that the combination of MLA, point logging, and EPMA results in the identification of a significantly higher number of PGM grains than reflected light microscopy. Analysis of PGMs by EPMA requires considerable effort due to the often significant overlaps between the X-ray spectra of almost all platinum-group and associated elements. X-ray lines suitable for quantitative analysis need to be carefully selected. As peak overlaps cannot be avoided completely, an offline overlap correction based on weight proportions has been developed. Results obtained with the procedure proposed in this study attain acceptable totals and atomic proportions, indicating that the applied corrections are appropriate.
Navigation and attitude reference for autonomous satellite launch and orbital operations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kau, S. P.
1979-01-01
The navigation and attitude reference performance of a strapdown system are investigated for applications to autonomous satellite launch and orbital operations. It is assumed that satellite payloads are integrated into existing missile systems and that the boost, orbit insertion, and in-orbit operation of the satellite are performed autonomously without relying on external support facilities. Autonomous and long term accurate navigation and attitude reference are provided by a strapdown inertial navigation system aided by a star sensor and earth landmark sensor. Sensor measurement geometry and navigation and attitude update mechanizations are discussed. Performance analysis data are presented for following functional elements: (1) prelaunch alignment; (2) boost navigation and attitude reference; (3) post boost stellar attitude and navigation updates; (4) orbital navigation update using sensor landmark measurements; and (5) in-orbit stellar attitude update and gyro calibration. The system performances are shown to satisfy the requirements of a large class of satellite payload applications.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Colombo, O. L.
1984-01-01
The nature of the orbit error and its effect on the sea surface heights calculated with satellite altimetry are explained. The elementary concepts of celestial mechanics required to follow a general discussion of the problem are included. Consideration of errors in the orbits of satellites with precisely repeating ground tracks (SEASAT, TOPEX, ERS-1, POSEIDON, amongst past and future altimeter satellites) are detailed. The theoretical conclusions are illustrated with the numerical results of computer simulations. The nature of the errors in this type of orbits is such that this error can be filtered out by using height differences along repeating (overlapping) passes. This makes them particularly valuable for the study and monitoring of changes in the sea surface, such as tides. Elements of tidal theory, showing how these principles can be combined with those pertinent to the orbit error to make direct maps of the tides using altimetry are presented.
Harmonically excited orbital variations
Morgan, T.
1985-08-06
Rephrasing the equations of motion for orbital maneuvers in terms of Lagrangian generalized coordinates instead of Newtonian rectangular cartesian coordinates can make certain harmonic terms in the orbital angular momentum vector more readily apparent. In this formulation the equations of motion adopt the form of a damped harmonic oscillator when torques are applied to the orbit in a variationally prescribed manner. The frequencies of the oscillator equation are in some ways unexpected but can nonetheless be exploited through resonant forcing functions to achieve large secular variations in the orbital elements. Two cases are discussed using a circular orbit as the control case: (1) large changes in orbital inclination achieved by harmonic excitation rather than one impulsive velocity change, and (2) periodic and secular changes to the longitude of the ascending node using both stable and unstable excitation strategies. The implications of these equations are also discussed for both artificial satellites and natural satellites. For the former, two utilitarian orbits are suggested, each exploiting a form of harmonic excitation. 5 refs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hui; Shi, Deheng; Sun, Jinfeng; Zhu, Zunlue
2013-01-01
The potential energy curves (PECs) of 15 Ω states generated from five Λ-S states (A2Π, 14Σ+, 14Π, 24Π and 16Σ+) of AlO radical are studied in detail using high level ab initio quantum chemical method for the first time. All the PEC calculations are made by the complete active space self-consistent field method, which is followed by the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction approach with the Davidson modification (MRCI + Q). The spin-orbit coupling effect is included by the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian with the aug-cc-pCVTZ basis set. Convergent behavior is discussed and excellent convergence has been observed with respect to the basis sets and level of theory. To improve the quality of PECs, core-valence correlation and scalar relativistic corrections are taken into account. Core-valence correlation corrections are included employing a cc-pCVQZ basis set. Scalar relativistic corrections are calculated by the third-order Douglas-Kroll Hamiltonian approximation at the level of a cc-pV5Z basis set. All the PECs are extrapolated to the complete basis set limit by the total-energy extrapolation scheme. With these PECs including all the corrections used here, on the one hand, the spectroscopic parameters of all the Λ-S and Ω states are calculated, which are in reasonable agreement with the experimental and other theoretical results; on the other hand, the vibrational levels and inertial rotation constants of X2Σ+, A2Π, B2Σ+ Λ-S states as well as A2Π3/2 and A2Π1/2 Ω states are determined, which also agree well with the measurements. The vibrational levels and inertial rotation constants of A2Π3/2 and A2Π1/2 Ω states as well as the spectroscopic parameters of four Λ-S states (14Σ+, 14Π, 24Π and 16Σ+) and their corresponding 13 Ω states can be expected to be reliable predicted ones.
Information Measures for Statistical Orbit Determination
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mashiku, Alinda K.
2013-01-01
The current Situational Space Awareness (SSA) is faced with a huge task of tracking the increasing number of space objects. The tracking of space objects requires frequent and accurate monitoring for orbit maintenance and collision avoidance using methods for statistical orbit determination. Statistical orbit determination enables us to obtain…
Orbit determination methods in view of the PODET project
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deleflie, F.; Coulot, D.; Decosta, R.; Richard, P.
2013-11-01
We present an orbit determination method based on genetic algorithms. Contrary to usual estimation methods mainly based on least-squares methods, these algorithms do not require any a priori knowledge of the initial state vector to be estimated. These algorithms can be applied when a new satellite is launched or for uncatalogued objects We show in this paper preliminary results obtained from an SLR satellite, for which tracking data acquired by the ILRS network enable to build accurate orbital arcs at a few centimeter level, which can be used as a reference orbit. The method is carried out in several steps: (i) an analytical propagation of the equations of motion, (ii) an estimation kernel based on genetic algorithms, which follows the usual steps of such approaches: initialization and evolution of a selected population, so as to determine the best parameters. Each parameter to be estimated, namely each initial keplerian element, has to be searched among an interval that is preliminary chosen.
Numerical Analysis of Orbital Perturbation Effects on Inclined Geosynchronous SAR.
Dong, Xichao; Hu, Cheng; Long, Teng; Li, Yuanhao
2016-01-01
The geosynchronous synthetic aperture radar (GEO SAR) is susceptible to orbit perturbations, leading to orbit drifts and variations. The influences behave very differently from those in low Earth orbit (LEO) SAR. In this paper, the impacts of perturbations on GEO SAR orbital elements are modelled based on the perturbed dynamic equations, and then, the focusing is analyzed theoretically and numerically by using the Systems Tool Kit (STK) software. The accurate GEO SAR slant range histories can be calculated according to the perturbed orbit positions in STK. The perturbed slant range errors are mainly the first and second derivatives, leading to image drifts and defocusing. Simulations of the point target imaging are performed to validate the aforementioned analysis. In the GEO SAR with an inclination of 53° and an argument of perigee of 90°, the Doppler parameters and the integration time are different and dependent on the geometry configurations. Thus, the influences are varying at different orbit positions: at the equator, the first-order phase errors should be mainly considered; at the perigee and apogee, the second-order phase errors should be mainly considered; at other positions, first-order and second-order exist simultaneously. PMID:27598168
Numerical Analysis of Orbital Perturbation Effects on Inclined Geosynchronous SAR
Dong, Xichao; Hu, Cheng; Long, Teng; Li, Yuanhao
2016-01-01
The geosynchronous synthetic aperture radar (GEO SAR) is susceptible to orbit perturbations, leading to orbit drifts and variations. The influences behave very differently from those in low Earth orbit (LEO) SAR. In this paper, the impacts of perturbations on GEO SAR orbital elements are modelled based on the perturbed dynamic equations, and then, the focusing is analyzed theoretically and numerically by using the Systems Tool Kit (STK) software. The accurate GEO SAR slant range histories can be calculated according to the perturbed orbit positions in STK. The perturbed slant range errors are mainly the first and second derivatives, leading to image drifts and defocusing. Simulations of the point target imaging are performed to validate the aforementioned analysis. In the GEO SAR with an inclination of 53° and an argument of perigee of 90°, the Doppler parameters and the integration time are different and dependent on the geometry configurations. Thus, the influences are varying at different orbit positions: at the equator, the first-order phase errors should be mainly considered; at the perigee and apogee, the second-order phase errors should be mainly considered; at other positions, first-order and second-order exist simultaneously. PMID:27598168
Numerical Analysis of Orbital Perturbation Effects on Inclined Geosynchronous SAR.
Dong, Xichao; Hu, Cheng; Long, Teng; Li, Yuanhao
2016-09-02
The geosynchronous synthetic aperture radar (GEO SAR) is susceptible to orbit perturbations, leading to orbit drifts and variations. The influences behave very differently from those in low Earth orbit (LEO) SAR. In this paper, the impacts of perturbations on GEO SAR orbital elements are modelled based on the perturbed dynamic equations, and then, the focusing is analyzed theoretically and numerically by using the Systems Tool Kit (STK) software. The accurate GEO SAR slant range histories can be calculated according to the perturbed orbit positions in STK. The perturbed slant range errors are mainly the first and second derivatives, leading to image drifts and defocusing. Simulations of the point target imaging are performed to validate the aforementioned analysis. In the GEO SAR with an inclination of 53° and an argument of perigee of 90°, the Doppler parameters and the integration time are different and dependent on the geometry configurations. Thus, the influences are varying at different orbit positions: at the equator, the first-order phase errors should be mainly considered; at the perigee and apogee, the second-order phase errors should be mainly considered; at other positions, first-order and second-order exist simultaneously.
Deceleration Orbit Improvements
Church, M.
1991-04-26
During the accelerator studies period of 12/90-1/91 much study time was dedicated to improving the E760 deceleration ramps. 4 general goals were in mind: (1) Reduce the relative orbit deviations from the nominal reference orbit as much as possible. This reduces the potential error in the orbit length calculation - which is the primary source of error in the beam energy calculation. (2) Maximize the transverse apertures. This minimizes beam loss during deceleration and during accidental beam blow-ups. (3) Measure and correct lattice parameters. Knowledge of {gamma}{sub T}, {eta}, Q{sub h}, Q{sub v}, and the dispersion in the straight sections allows for a more accurate energy calculation and reliable SYNCH calculations. (4) Minimize the coupling. This allows one to discern between horizontal and vertical tunes.
Techniques of orbital decay and long-term ephemeris prediction for satellites in earth orbit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barry, B. F.; Pimm, R. S.; Rowe, C. K.
1971-01-01
In the special perturbation method, Cowell and variation-of-parameters formulations of the motion equations are implemented and numerically integrated. Variations in the orbital elements due to drag are computed using the 1970 Jacchia atmospheric density model, which includes the effects of semiannual variations, diurnal bulge, solar activity, and geomagnetic activity. In the general perturbation method, two-variable asymptotic series and automated manipulation capabilities are used to obtain analytical solutions to the variation-of-parameters equations. Solutions are obtained considering the effect of oblateness only and the combined effects of oblateness and drag. These solutions are then numerically evaluated by means of a FORTRAN program in which an updating scheme is used to maintain accurate epoch values of the elements. The atmospheric density function is approximated by a Fourier series in true anomaly, and the 1970 Jacchia model is used to periodically update the Fourier coefficients. The accuracy of both methods is demonstrated by comparing computed orbital elements to actual elements over time spans of up to 8 days for the special perturbation method and up to 356 days for the general perturbation method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Syusina, O. M.; Chernitsov, A. M.; Tamarov, V. A.; Baturin, A. P.
2011-07-01
The analysis various systems of initial orbital elements of comet Herschel-Rigollet defined in bases on different sample of observations was given. In spite of slight quantity of first appearance observations the introduction of weighting coefficients and the new rejection algorithm is allowed to define the most precise system of orbital elements with the least value of volume confidence region.
Rolling Element Bearing Stiffness Matrix Determination (Presentation)
Guo, Y.; Parker, R.
2014-01-01
Current theoretical bearing models differ in their stiffness estimates because of different model assumptions. In this study, a finite element/contact mechanics model is developed for rolling element bearings with the focus of obtaining accurate bearing stiffness for a wide range of bearing types and parameters. A combined surface integral and finite element method is used to solve for the contact mechanics between the rolling elements and races. This model captures the time-dependent characteristics of the bearing contact due to the orbital motion of the rolling elements. A numerical method is developed to determine the full bearing stiffness matrix corresponding to two radial, one axial, and two angular coordinates; the rotation about the shaft axis is free by design. This proposed stiffness determination method is validated against experiments in the literature and compared to existing analytical models and widely used advanced computational methods. The fully-populated stiffness matrix demonstrates the coupling between bearing radial, axial, and tilting bearing deflections.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okane, T.; Ohkochi, T.; Inami, T.; Takeda, Y.; Fujimori, S.-I.; Kawamura, N.; Suzuki, M.; Tsutsui, S.; Yamagami, H.; Fujimori, A.; Tanaka, A.; Aoki, D.; Homma, Y.; Shiokawa, Y.; Yamamoto, E.; Haga, Y.; Nakamura, A.; Ōnuki, Y.
2009-09-01
X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) experiments were performed at the NpM4,5 and the GaK absorption edges of NpNiGa5 to investigate the temperature-dependent changes of magnetic properties of Np5f and Ga4p electron states. By the sum-rule analysis of the NpM4,5 XMCD data, the orbital magnetic moment μL and the spin magnetic moment μS were estimated for the Np5f3 and 5f4 electronic configurations and their comparison to the previous magnetization and neutron-scattering experiments suggests that the 5f4 configuration is more likely than the 5f3 configuration in NpNiGa5 . It was found that |μL/μS| tends to increase from the high-temperature low-moment ordered state to the low-temperature high-moment ordered state. The result of the GaK XMCD indicates that the Ga4p electrons are magnetically polarized and the temperature and magnetic-field dependences of the Ga4p orbital moment are proportional to those of the magnetization measurements.
Formation design and relative navigation in high Earth orbits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lane, Christopher Morgan
This dissertation focuses on three key elements of precision satellite formation flying: formation design; relative navigation; and sensor and measurement modeling. Formation flying in high Earth orbit (HEO) is complicated by the difficulty of accurately modeling relative dynamics in highly eccentric orbits and the sparse nature of tracking data at high altitudes. This research develops a formation design tool and extended Kalman filter that mitigate these factors by representing the relative motion in Keplerian element space rather than conventional rectangular position and velocity coordinates and presents the measurement models and preliminary data generation techniques necessary for processing reflected GPS and reflected crosslink observations in a relative navigation filter. Geometrical methods for formation design based on simple relative motion models originally intended for rendezvous in low Earth orbit (LEO) have been previously developed and used to specify desired relative motions in near circular orbits. A comparable set of geometrical relationships for formations in eccentric orbits are developed here. This approach offers valuable insight into the relative motion and allows for the rapid design of satellite configurations to achieve mission specific requirements, such as vehicle separation at perigee or apogee, minimum separations, or a particular geometric shape. The expressions formulate the relative motion in terms of a constant set of Keplerian element differences and are valid for arbitrary eccentricities. The use of these relationships to investigate formation designs and their evolution in time is demonstrated. In addition, the long-term effects of unmodeled perturbations on the desired formation geometry are shown in several examples. Formation flying in HEO relies on accurate relative navigation information for precise formation control and accurate interpretation of science data. An extended Kalman filter for relative navigation in HEO is
First Orbits for Five Binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cvetković, Z.
2008-10-01
In this paper, new orbital elements are given for five binaries. For all of them—Washington Double Star (WDS) 00469+4339 = HDS 102, WDS 02186+4017 = EGG 2Aa, WDS 05542 - 2909 = FIN 382, WDS 06493- 0216 = FIN 322, and WDS 11495 - 4604 = FIN 366—the orbital elements are calculated for the first time. One of the five binaries, HDS 102, was discovered during the Hipparcos mission, whereas the remaining four were discovered between 1952 and 1965. All measured separations are less than 0farcs3 and most of the measures were done using the interferometric techniques. The orbital periods calculated are between 28 and 109 years. In addition to the orbital elements, the (O - C) residuals in θ and ρ, masses, dynamical parallaxes, absolute magnitudes, and ephemerides for the next five years are also given in this paper.
Orbital spacecraft resupply technology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eberhardt, R. N.; Tracey, T. R.; Bailey, W. J.
1986-01-01
The resupplying of orbital spacecraft using the Space Shuttle, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle, Orbital Transfer Vehicle or a depot supply at a Space Station is studied. The governing factor in fluid resupply designs is the system size with respect to fluid resupply quantities. Spacecraft propellant management for tankage via diaphragm or surface tension configurations is examined. The capabilities, operation, and application of adiabatic ullage compression, ullage exchange, vent/fill/repressurize, and drain/vent/no-vent fill/repressurize, which are proposed transfer methods for spacecraft utilizing tankage configurations, are described. Selection of the appropriate resupply method is dependent on the spacecraft design features. Hydrazine adiabatic compression/detonation, liquid-free vapor venting to prevent freezing, and a method for no-vent liquid filling are analyzed. Various procedures for accurate measurements of propellant mass in low gravity are evaluated; a system of flowmeters with a PVT system was selected as the pressurant solubility and quantity gaging technique. Monopropellant and bipropellant orbital spacecraft consumable resupply system tanks which resupply 3000 lb of hydrazine and 7000 lb of MMH/NTO to spacecraft on orbit are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2005-01-01
The structure of NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft is constructed from composite panels of carbon layers over aluminum honeycomb, lightweight yet strong. This forms a basic structure or skeleton on which the instruments, electronics, propulsion and power systems can be mounted. The propellant tank is contained in the center of the orbiter's structure. This photo was taken at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, during construction of the spacecraft.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, J. Darryl; Ungar, Eugene K.; Holt, James M.; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The International Space Station (ISS) employs an Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) comprised of several single-phase water coolant loops. These coolant loops are distributed throughout the ISS pressurized elements. The primary element coolant loops (i.e., US Laboratory module) contain a fluid accumulator to accommodate thermal expansion of the system. Other element coolant loops are parasitic (i.e., Airlock), have no accumulator, and require an alternative approach to insure that the system Maximum Design Pressure (MDP) is not exceeded during the Launch to Activation phase. During this time the element loop is a stand alone closed individual system. The solution approach for accommodating thermal expansion was affected by interactions of system components and their particular limitations. The mathematical solution approach was challenged by the presence of certain unknown or not readily obtainable physical and thermodynamic characteristics of some system components and processes. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of a few of the solutions that evolved over time, a novel mathematical solution to eliminate some of the unknowns or derive the unknowns experimentally, and the testing and methods undertaken.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, Darryl; Ungar, Eugene K.; Holt, James M.
2002-01-01
The International Space Station (ISS) employs an Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) comprised of several single-phase water coolant loops. These coolant loops are distributed throughout the ISS pressurized elements. The primary element coolant loops (i.e. U.S. Laboratory module) contain a fluid accumulator to accomodate thermal expansion of the system. Other element coolant loops are parasitic (i.e. Airlock), have no accumulator, and require an alternative approach to insure that the system maximum design pressure (MDP) is not exceeded during the Launch to Activation (LTA) phase. During this time the element loops is a stand alone closed system. The solution approach for accomodating thermal expansion was affected by interactions of system components and their particular limitations. The mathematical solution approach was challenged by the presence of certain unknown or not readily obtainable physical and thermodynamic characteristics of some system components and processes. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of a few of the solutions that evolved over time, a novel mathematical solution to eliminate some of the unknowns or derive the unknowns experimentally, and the testing and methods undertaken.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, G. J.
1997-10-01
To determine how a planetary body formed and evolved, we must determine the chemical compositions of distinctive geologic regions on it. It is never possible to obtain enough samples of a planet to do this job thoroughly, so planetary scientists have searched for ways of determining chemical compositions from orbit, which would allow chemical mapping of the entire surface. A team at the University of Hawaii has developed a method to determine the amount of titanium and iron on the lunar surface from the amount of sunlight reflected at different wavelengths. Most recently, David Blewett, Paul Lucey, B. Ray Hawke (University of Hawaii), and Bradley Jolliff (Washington University in St. Louis) have used Apollo rock samples to carefully calibrate the technique, allowing surprisingly accurate measurements of iron and titanium. These two elements are especially useful in understanding the origin and geological evolution of the Moon.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorbunova, I.; Khabibullin, R.; Chernyakin, S.; Starinova, O.
2016-04-01
This paper discusses the research of functioning of different construction types for the spacecraft with a solar sail. Two types of the solar sail are considered, such as frame-type and rotary-type. The research is performed by means of application of the computer-assisted design system. The movement simulation of the spacecraft center mass and the forces acting on the solar sail is described. The finite element models of the two solar sail constructions are developed and compared.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kostadinov, T. S.; Gilb, R.
2014-06-01
Milankovitch theory postulates that periodic variability of Earth's orbital elements is a major climate forcing mechanism, causing, for example, the contemporary glacial-interglacial cycles. There are three Milankovitch orbital parameters: orbital eccentricity, precession and obliquity. The interaction of the amplitudes, periods and phases of these parameters controls the spatio-temporal patterns of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the timing and duration of the seasons. This complexity makes Earth-Sun geometry and Milankovitch theory difficult to teach effectively. Here, we present "Earth Orbit v2.1": an astronomically precise and accurate model that offers 3-D visualizations of Earth's orbital geometry, Milankovitch parameters and the ensuing insolation forcing. The model is developed in MATLAB® as a user-friendly graphical user interface. Users are presented with a choice between the Berger (1978a) and Laskar et al. (2004) astronomical solutions for eccentricity, obliquity and precession. A "demo" mode is also available, which allows the Milankovitch parameters to be varied independently of each other, so that users can isolate the effects of each parameter on orbital geometry, the seasons, and insolation. A 3-D orbital configuration plot, as well as various surface and line plots of insolation and insolation anomalies on various time and space scales are produced. Insolation computations use the model's own orbital geometry with no additional a priori input other than the Milankovitch parameter solutions. Insolation output and the underlying solar declination computation are successfully validated against the results of Laskar et al. (2004) and Meeus (1998), respectively. The model outputs some ancillary parameters as well, e.g., Earth's radius-vector length, solar declination and day length for the chosen date and latitude. Time-series plots of the Milankovitch parameters and several relevant paleoclimatological data sets can be produced. Both
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kostadinov, T. S.; Gilb, R.
2013-11-01
Milankovitch theory postulates that periodic variability of Earth's orbital elements is a major climate forcing mechanism, causing, for example, the contemporary glacial-interglacial cycles. There are three Milankovitch orbital parameters: orbital eccentricity, precession and obliquity. The interaction of the amplitudes, periods and phases of these parameters controls the spatio-temporal patterns of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the timing of the seasons with respect to perihelion. This complexity makes Earth-Sun geometry and Milankovitch theory difficult to teach effectively. Here, we present "Earth Orbit v2.1": an astronomically precise and accurate model that offers 3-D visualizations of Earth's orbital geometry, Milankovitch parameters and the ensuing insolation forcing. The model is developed in MATLAB® as a user-friendly graphical user interface. Users are presented with a choice between the Berger (1978a) and Laskar et al. (2004) astronomical solutions for eccentricity, obliquity and precession. A "demo" mode is also available, which allows the Milankovitch parameters to be varied independently of each other, so that users can isolate the effects of each parameter on orbital geometry, the seasons, and insolation. A 3-D orbital configuration plot, as well as various surface and line plots of insolation and insolation anomalies on various time and space scales are produced. Insolation computations use the model's own orbital geometry with no additional a priori input other than the Milankovitch parameter solutions. Insolation output and the underlying solar declination computation are successfully validated against the results of Laskar et al. (2004) and Meeus (1998), respectively. The model outputs some ancillary parameters as well, e.g. Earth's radius-vector length, solar declination and day length for the chosen date and latitude. Time-series plots of the Milankovitch parameters and EPICA ice core CO2 and temperature data can be produced. Both
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teodoro, M.; Damineli, A.; Heathcote, B.; Richardson, N. D.; Moffat, A. F. J.; St-Jean, L.; Russell, C.; Gull, T. R.; Madura, T. I.; Pollard, K. R.; Walter, F.; Coimbra, A.; Prates, R.; Fernández-Lajús, E.; Gamen, R. C.; Hickel, G.; Henrique, W.; Navarete, F.; Andrade, T.; Jablonski, F.; Luckas, P.; Locke, M.; Powles, J.; Bohlsen, T.; Chini, R.; Corcoran, M. F.; Hamaguchi, K.; Groh, J. H.; Hillier, D. J.; Weigelt, G.
2016-03-01
Eta Carinae (η Car) is an extremely massive binary system in which rapid spectrum variations occur near periastron. Most notably, near periastron the He ii λ4686 line increases rapidly in strength, drops to a minimum value, then increases briefly before fading away. To understand this behavior, we conducted an intense spectroscopic monitoring of the He ii λ4686 emission line across the 2014.6 periastron passage using ground- and space-based telescopes. Comparison with previous data confirmed the overall repeatability of the line equivalent width (EW), radial velocities, and the timing of the minimum, though the strongest peak was systematically larger in 2014 than in 2009 by 26%. The EW variations, combined with other measurements, yield an orbital period of 2022.7 ± 0.3 days. The observed variability of the EW was reproduced by a model in which the line flux primarily arises at the apex of the wind-wind collision and scales inversely with the square of the stellar separation, if we account for the excess emission as the companion star plunges into the hot inner layers of the primary’s atmosphere, and including absorption from the disturbed primary wind between the source and the observer. This model constrains the orbital inclination to 135°-153°, and the longitude of periastron to 234°-252°. It also suggests that periastron passage occurred on {T}0=2456874.4\\quad (+/- 1.3 days). Our model also reproduced EW variations from a polar view of the primary star as determined from the observed He ii λ 4686 emission scattered off the Homunculus nebula. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program numbers 11506, 12013, 12508, 12750, and 13054. Support for program numbers 12013, 12508, and 12750 was provided by NASA
An Analytical Satellite Orbit Predictor (ASOP)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1979-01-01
The documentation and user's guide are presented for the analytical satellite orbit predictor computer program which is intended to be used for computation of near-earth orbits including those of the shuttle orbiter and its payloads. The Poincare-Similar elements used make it possible to compute near-earth orbits to within an accuracy of a few meters. Recursive equations are used instead of complicated formulas. Execution time is on the order of a few milliseconds.
Orbit propagation in Minkowskian geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roa, Javier; Peláez, Jesús
2015-09-01
The geometry of hyperbolic orbits suggests that Minkowskian geometry, and not Euclidean, may provide the most adequate description of the motion. This idea is explored in order to derive a new regularized formulation for propagating arbitrarily perturbed hyperbolic orbits. The mathematical foundations underlying Minkowski space-time are exploited to describe hyperbolic orbits. Hypercomplex numbers are introduced to define the rotations, vectors, and metrics in the problem: the evolution of the eccentricity vector is described on the Minkowski plane in terms of hyperbolic numbers, and the orbital plane is described on the inertial reference using quaternions. A set of eight orbital elements is introduced, namely a time-element, the components of the eccentricity vector in , the semimajor axis, and the components of the quaternion defining the orbital plane. The resulting formulation provides a deep insight into the geometry of hyperbolic orbits. The performance of the formulation in long-term propagations is studied. The orbits of four hyperbolic comets are integrated and the accuracy of the solution is compared to other regularized formulations. The resulting formulation improves the stability of the integration process and it is not affected by the perihelion passage. It provides a level of accuracy that may not be reached by the compared formulations, at the cost of increasing the computational time.
Mission analysis data for inclined geosynchronous orbits, part 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Graf, O. F., Jr.; Wang, K. C.
1980-01-01
Data needed for preliminary design of inclined geosynchronous missions are provided. The inertial and Earth fixed coordinate systems are described, as well as orbit parameters and elements. The complete family of geosynchronous orbits is discussed. It is shown that circular inclined geosynchronous orbits comprise only one set in this family. The major orbit perturbation and their separate effects on the geosynchronous orbit are discussed. Detailed information on the orbit perturbation of inclined circular geosynchronous orbits is given, with emphasis on time history data of certain orbital elements. Orbit maintenance delta velocity (V) requirements to counteract the major orbit perturbations are determined in order to provide order of magnitude estimates and to show the effects of orbit inclination on delta V. Some of the considerations in mission design for a multisatellite system, such as a halo orbit constellation, are discussed.
Navigation Accuracy Guidelines for Orbital Formation Flying Missions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carpenter, J. Russell; Alfriend, Kyle T.
2003-01-01
Some simple guidelines based on the accuracy in determining a satellite formation's semi-major axis differences are useful in making preliminary assessments of the navigation accuracy needed to support such missions. These guidelines are valid for any elliptical orbit, regardless of eccentricity. Although maneuvers required for formation establishment, reconfiguration, and station-keeping require accurate prediction of the state estimate to the maneuver we, and hence are directly affected by errors in all the orbital elements, experience has shown that determination of orbit plane orientation and orbit shape to acceptable levels is less challenging than the determination of orbital period or semi-major axis. Furthermore, any differences among the member s semi-major axes are undesirable for a satellite formation, since it will lead to differential along-track drift due to period differences. Since inevitable navigation errors prevent these differences from ever being zero, one may use the guidelines this paper presents to determine how much drift will result from a given relative navigation accuracy, or conversely what navigation accuracy is required to limit drift to a given rate. Since the guidelines do not account for non-two-body perturbations, they may be viewed as useful preliminary design tools, rather than as the basis for mission navigation requirements, which should be based on detailed analysis of the mission configuration, including all relevant sources of uncertainty.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kessler, D. J. (Compiler); Su, S. Y. (Compiler)
1985-01-01
Earth orbital debris issues and recommended future activities are discussed. The workshop addressed the areas of environment definition, hazards to spacecraft, and space object management. It concluded that orbital debris is a potential problem for future space operations. However, before recommending any major efforts to control the environment, more data are required. The most significant required data are on the population of debris smaller than 4 cm in diameter. New damage criteria are also required. When these data are obtained, they can be combined with hypervelocity data to evaluate the hazards to future spacecraft. After these hazards are understood, then techniques to control the environment can be evaluated.
Lageos orbit and solar eclipses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubincam, D. P.
1984-01-01
The objective was to assess the importance of solar eclipses on Lageos' orbit. Solar radiation pressure perturbs the orbit of the Lageos satellite. The GEODYN orbit determination computer program includes solar radiation pressure as one of the forces operating on the satellite as it integrates the orbit. GEODYN also takes into account the extinction of sunlight when Lageos moves into the Earth's shadow. The effect of solar eclipses on the semimajor axis of Lageos' orbit was computed analytically by assuming Lageos to be in a circular orbit, the Sun and the Moon to be in the plane of the orbit, and the Moon to be stationary in the sky in front of the Sun. Also, the magnitude of the radiation pressure is assumed to be linearly related to the angular separation of the Sun and Moon, and that Lageos is a perfect absorber of radiation. The computation indicates that an eclipse of the Sun by the Moon as seen by Lageos can affect the semimajor axis at the 1 centimeter (1 cm) level. Such a change is significant enough to include in GEODYN, in order to get an accurate orbit for Lageos.
General relativity and satellite orbits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubincam, D. P.
1975-01-01
The general relativistic correction to the position of a satellite is found by retaining Newtonian physics for an observer on the satellite and introducing a potential. The potential is expanded in terms of the Keplerian elements of the orbit and substituted in Lagrange's equations. Integration of the equations shows that a typical earth satellite with small orbital eccentricity is displaced by about 17 cm. from its unperturbed position after a single orbit, while the periodic displacement over the orbit reaches a maximum of about 3 cm. The moon is displaced by about the same amounts. Application of the equations to Mercury gives a total displacement of about 58 km. after one orbit and a maximum periodic displacement of about 12 km.
Accurate Excited State Geometries within Reduced Subspace TDDFT/TDA.
Robinson, David
2014-12-01
A method for the calculation of TDDFT/TDA excited state geometries within a reduced subspace of Kohn-Sham orbitals has been implemented and tested. Accurate geometries are found for all of the fluorophore-like molecules tested, with at most all valence occupied orbitals and half of the virtual orbitals included but for some molecules even fewer orbitals. Efficiency gains of between 15 and 30% are found for essentially the same level of accuracy as a standard TDDFT/TDA excited state geometry optimization calculation. PMID:26583218
The spectroscopic orbit of Capella revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weber, M.; Strassmeier, K. G.
2011-07-01
Context. Capella is among the few binary stars with two evolved giant components. The hotter component is a chromospherically active star within the Hertzsprung gap, while the cooler star is possibly helium-core burning. Aims: The known inclination of the orbital plane from astrometry in combination with precise radial velocities will allow very accurate masses to be determined for the individual Capella stars. This will constrain their evolutionary stage and possibly the role of the active star's magnetic field on the dynamical evolution of the binary system. Methods: We obtained a total of 438 high-resolution échelle spectra during the years 2007-2010 and used the measured velocities to recompute the orbital elements. Our double-lined orbital solution yields average residuals of 64 m s-1 for the cool component and 297 m s-1 for the more rapidly rotating hotter component. Results: The semi-amplitude of the cool component is smaller by 0.045 km s-1 than the orbit determination of Torres et al. from data taken during 1996-1999 but more precise by a factor of 5.5, while for the hotter component it is larger by 0.580 km s-1 and more precise by a factor of 3.6. This corresponds to masses of 2.573 ± 0.009 M⊙ and 2.488 ± 0.008 M⊙ for the cool and hot component, respectively. Their relative errors of 0.34% and 0.30% are about half of the values given in Torres et al. for a combined literature-data solution but with absolute values different by 4% and 2% for the two components, respectively. The mass ratio of the system is therefore q = MA/MB = 0.9673 ± 0.0020. Conclusions: Our orbit is the most precise and also likely to be the most accurate ever obtained for Capella. Based on data obtained with the STELLA robotic telescope in Tenerife, an AIP facility jointly operated by AIP and IAC.Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/531/A89
Autonomous orbital navigation using Kepler's equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boltz, F. W.
1974-01-01
A simple method of determining the six elements of elliptic satellite orbits has been developed for use aboard manned and unmanned spacecraft orbiting the earth, moon, or any planet. The system requires the use of a horizon sensor or other device for determining the local vertical, a precision clock or timing device, and Apollo-type navigation equipment including an inertial measurement unit (IMU), a digital computer, and a coupling data unit. The three elements defining the in-plane motion are obtained from simultaneous measurements of central angle traversed around the planet and elapsed flight time using a linearization of Kepler's equation about a reference orbit. It is shown how Kalman filter theory may also be used to determine the in-plane orbital elements. The three elements defining the orbit orientation are obtained from position angles in celestial coordinates derived from the IMU with the spacecraft vertically oriented after alignment of the IMU to a known inertial coordinate frame.
Seceleanu, Andreea; Szabo, I; Călugăru, M; Dudea, S M; Preda, D
2004-01-01
The purpose of this study was to point out a case with orbital venous abnormalities at the left eye, associated with varices of the legs. The clinical picture of this case was: intermittent exophthalmos, venous malformations at the level of the lids and episclera, elevated ocular pressure. All this signs reveal an abnormality at the level of venous wall, indicating a constitutional weakness of the venous system. The case was investigated by imagistic methods: ultrasound examination, Doppler -ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. According to the facts offered by clinical and imagistic investigation this case can be included into the first type of orbital varices, associated with secondary glaucoma provoked by an elevated episcleral venous pressure. PMID:15598045
Orbitals: Some Fiction and Some Facts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Autschbach, Jochen
2012-01-01
The use of electron orbitals in quantum theory and chemistry is discussed. Common misconceptions are highlighted. Suggestions are made how chemistry educators may describe orbitals in the first and second year college curriculum more accurately without introducing unwanted technicalities. A comparison is made of different ways of graphically…
Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound wand (transducer) is placed against the front surface ...
Solid Propulsion De-Orbiting and Re-Orbiting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schonenborg, R. A. C.; Schoyer, H. F. R.
2009-03-01
With many "innovative" de-orbit systems (e.g. tethers, aero breaking, etc.) and with natural de-orbit, the place of impact of unburned spacecraft debris on Earth can not be determined accurately. The idea that satellites burn up completely upon re-entry is a common misunderstanding. To the best of our knowledge only rocket motors are capable of delivering an impulse that is high enough, to conduct a de-orbit procedure swiftly, hence to de-orbit at a specific moment that allows to predict the impact point of unburned spacecraft debris accurately in remote areas. In addition, swift de-orbiting will reduce the on-orbit time of the 'dead' satellite, which reduces the chance of the dead satellite being hit by other dead or active satellites, while spiralling down to Earth during a slow, 25 year, or more, natural de-orbit process. Furthermore the reduced on-orbit time reduces the chance that spacecraft batteries, propellant tanks or other components blow up and also reduces the time that the object requires tracking from Earth.The use of solid propellant for the de-orbiting of spacecraft is feasible. The main advantages of a solid propellant based system are the relatively high thrust and the facts that the system can be made autonomous quite easily and that the system can be very reliable. The latter is especially desirable when one wants to de-orbit old or 'dead' satellites that might not be able to rely anymore on their primary systems. The disadvantage however, is the addition of an extra system to the spacecraft as well as a (small) mass penalty. [1]This paper describes the above mentioned system and shows as well, why such a system can also be used to re-orbit spacecraft in GEO, at the end of their life to a graveyard orbit.Additionally the system is theoretically compared to an existing system, of which performance data is available.A swift market analysis is performed as well.
Accurate monotone cubic interpolation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huynh, Hung T.
1991-01-01
Monotone piecewise cubic interpolants are simple and effective. They are generally third-order accurate, except near strict local extrema where accuracy degenerates to second-order due to the monotonicity constraint. Algorithms for piecewise cubic interpolants, which preserve monotonicity as well as uniform third and fourth-order accuracy are presented. The gain of accuracy is obtained by relaxing the monotonicity constraint in a geometric framework in which the median function plays a crucial role.
Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodrich, John W.
1996-01-01
Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.
Michelotti, L.
1995-01-01
The past fifteen years have witnessed a remarkable development of methods for analyzing single particle orbit dynamics in accelerators. Unlike their more classic counterparts, which act upon differential equations, these methods proceed by manipulating Poincare maps directly. This attribute makes them well matched for studying accelerators whose physics is most naturally modelled in terms of maps, an observation that has been championed most vigorously by Forest. In the following sections the author sketchs a little background, explains some of the physics underlying these techniques, and discusses the best computing strategy for implementing them in conjunction with modeling accelerators.
Jupiter-family comets in near-Earth orbits: Dynamical histories and potential source regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández, J.; Sosa, A.
2014-07-01
We analyze the dynamical histories of a sample of 58 Jupiter-family comets (JFCs) coming close to the Earth, namely with perihelion distances q < 1.3 au at the time of their discovery. We carry out orbit integrations for these objects for 10^4 yr in the past and in the future, considering the orbital elements provided by the NASA/JPL Small Body Database, and 50 clones of each comet whose orbital elements were taken randomly within their error bars. We find that most orbits are chaotic, where comets are subject to frequent close encounters with Jupiter. Therefore, it is difficult to follow accurately the trajectory of a given comet beyond a few hundred years. We then define a likely dynamical path, which is computed as the average of the orbits of a given comet and the set of 50 clones. In particular we measure the degree of instability of a comet orbit by the time it takes the average perihelion distance q of a comet and its 50 clones to decrease by 1 au previous to the discovery time. We define this time scale as the capture time within the near-Earth region. We find that most JFCs have short capture times, of a few hundred to a couple of thousands of years, suggesting a recent incorporation to the near-Earth region. This is what one should expect for bodies whose typical lifetimes as active comets should not exceed a few 10^3 yr. This behavior is in sharp contrast with near-Earth asteroids that show more stable orbits with much longer residence times in the near-Earth region. The most likely source region of most JFCs is the transneptunian region. On the other hand, we find that a few JFCs move on stable orbits over the studied period with capture times > 10^4 yr. These objects might have a different source region, probably the outer asteroid belt or the Jupiter Trojans.
Quasiparticle virtual orbitals in electron propagator calculations.
Flores-Moreno, R; Ortiz, J V
2008-04-28
The computational limits of accurate electron propagator methods for the calculation of electron binding energies of large molecules are usually determined by the rank of the virtual orbital space. Electron density difference matrices that correspond to these transition energies in the second-order quasiparticle approximation may be used to obtain a virtual orbital space of reduced rank that introduces only minor deviations with respect to the results produced with the full, original set of virtual orbitals. Numerical tests show the superior accuracy and efficiency of this approach compared to the usual practice of omission of virtual orbitals with the highest energies.
The accuracy of Halley's cometary orbits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hughes, D. W.
The accuracy of a scientific computation depends in the main on the data fed in and the analysis method used. This statement is certainly true of Edmond Halley's cometary orbit work. Considering the 420 comets that had been seen before Halley's era of orbital calculation (1695 - 1702) only 24, according to him, had been observed well enough for their orbits to be calculated. Two questions are considered in this paper. Do all the orbits listed by Halley have the same accuracy? and, secondly, how accurate was Halley's method of calculation?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoyt, Robert (Inventor); Slostad, Jeffrey T. (Inventor); Frank, Scott (Inventor); Barnes, Ian M. (Inventor)
2016-01-01
Orbital winch having: lower and upper frames; spool having upper and lower flanges with lower flange attached to lower frame; axial tether guide mounted to upper frame; secondary slewing ring coaxial with spool and rotatably mounted to upper frame, wherein secondary slewing ring's outer surface has gearing; upper tether guide mounted to inner surface of secondary slewing ring; linear translation means having upper end mounted to upper frame and lower end mounted on lower frame; primary slewing ring rotatably mounted within linear translation means allowing translation axially between flanges, wherein primary slewing ring's outer surface has gearing; lower tether guide mounted on primary slewing ring's inner surface; pinion rod having upper end mounted to upper frame and lower end mounted to lower frame, wherein pinion rod's teeth engage primary and secondary slewing rings' outer surface teeth; and tether passing through axial, upper, and lower tether guides and winding around spool.
Accuracy Assessment of Geostationary-Earth-Orbit with Simplified Perturbations Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Lihua; Xu, Xiaojun; Pang, Feng
2016-06-01
A two-line element set (TLE) is a data format encoding orbital elements of an Earth-orbiting object for a given epoch. Using suitable prediction formula, the motion state of the object can be obtained at any time. The TLE data representation is specific to the simplified perturbations models, so any algorithm using a TLE as a data source must implement one of these models to correctly compute the state at a specific time. Accurately adjustment of antenna direction on the earth station is the key to satellite communications. With the TLE set topocentric elevation and azimuth direction angles can be calculated. The accuracy of perturbations models directly affect communication signal quality. Therefore, finding the error variations of the satellite orbits is really meaningful. In this present paper, the authors investigate the accuracy of the Geostationary-Earth-Orbit (GEO) with simplified perturbations models. The coordinate residuals of the simplified perturbations models in this paper can give references for engineers to predict the satellite orbits with TLE.
Elements of orbit-determination theory - Textbook
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Solloway, C. B.
1971-01-01
Text applies to solution of various optimization problems. Concepts are logically introduced and refinements and complexities for computerized numerical solutions are avoided. Specific topics and essential equivalence of several different approaches to various aspects of the problem are given.
Orbiter active thermal control system description
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Laubach, G. E.
1975-01-01
A brief description of the Orbiter Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) including (1) major functional requirements of heat load, temperature control and heat sink utilization, (2) the overall system arrangement, and (3) detailed description of the elements of the ATCS.
GPS as an orbit determination subsystems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fennessey, Richard; Roberts, Pat; Knight, Robin; Vanvolkinburg, Bart
1995-01-01
This paper evaluates the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers as a primary source of tracking data for low-Earth orbit satellites. GPS data is an alternative to using range, azimuth, elevation, and range-rate (RAER) data from the Air Force Satellite Control Network antennas, the Space Ground Link System (SGLS). This evaluation is applicable to missions such as Skipper, a joint U.S. and Russian atmosphere research mission, that will rely on a GPS receiver as a primary tracking data source. The Detachment 2, Space and Missile Systems Center's Test Support Complex (TSC) conducted the evaluation based on receiver data from the Space Test Experiment Platform Mission O (STEP-O) and Advanced Photovoltaic and Electronics Experiments (APEX) satellites. The TSC performed orbit reconstruction and prediction on the STEP-0 and APEX vehicles using GPS receiver navigation solution data, SGLS RAER data, and SGLS anglesonly (azimuth and elevation) data. For the STEP-O case, the navigation solution based orbits proved to be more accurate than SGLS RAER based orbits. For the APEX case, navigation solution based orbits proved to be less accurate than SGLS RAER based orbits for orbit prediction, and results for orbit reconstruction were inconclusive due to the lack of a precise truth orbit. After evaluating several different GPS data processing methods, the TSC concluded that using GPS navigation solution data is a viable alternative to using SGLS RAER data.
Accurate quantum chemical calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.
1989-01-01
An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.
ORBITAL SOLUTIONS FOR TWO YOUNG, LOW-MASS SPECTROSCOPIC BINARIES IN OPHIUCHUS
Rosero, V.; Prato, L.; Wasserman, L. H.; Rodgers, B. E-mail: lprato@lowell.edu E-mail: brodgers@gemini.edu
2011-01-15
We report the orbital parameters for ROXR1 14 and RX J1622.7-2325Nw, two young, low-mass, and double-lined spectroscopic binaries recently discovered in the Ophiuchus star-forming region. Accurate orbital solutions were determined from over a dozen high-resolution spectra taken with the Keck II and Gemini South telescopes. These objects are T Tauri stars with mass ratios close to unity and periods of {approx}5 and {approx}3 days, respectively. In particular, RX J1622.7-2325Nw shows a non-circularized orbit with an eccentricity of 0.30, higher than any other short-period pre-main-sequence (PMS) spectroscopic binary known to date. We speculate that the orbit of RX J1622.7-2325Nw has not yet circularized because of the perturbing action of a {approx}1'' companion, itself a close visual pair. A comparison of known young spectroscopic binaries (SBs) and main-sequence (MS) SBs in the eccentricity-period plane shows an indistinguishable distribution of the two populations, implying that orbital circularization occurs in the first 1 Myr of a star's lifetime. With the results presented in this paper we increase by {approx}4% the small sample of PMS spectroscopic binary stars with known orbital elements.
Electronic structure interpolation via atomic orbitals.
Chen, Mohan; Guo, G-C; He, Lixin
2011-08-17
We present an efficient scheme for accurate electronic structure interpolation based on systematically improvable optimized atomic orbitals. The atomic orbitals are generated by minimizing the spillage value between the atomic basis calculations and the converged plane wave basis calculations on some coarse k-point grid. They are then used to calculate the band structure of the full Brillouin zone using the linear combination of atomic orbitals algorithms. We find that usually 16-25 orbitals per atom can give an accuracy of about 10 meV compared to the full ab initio calculations, and the accuracy can be systematically improved by using more atomic orbitals. The scheme is easy to implement and robust, and works equally well for metallic systems and systems with complicated band structures. Furthermore, the atomic orbitals have much better transferability than Shirley's basis and Wannier functions, which is very useful for perturbation calculations.
Environmental dynamics at orbital altitudes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karr, G. R.
1976-01-01
The influence of real satellite aerodynamics on the determination of upper atmospheric density was investigated. A method of analysis of satellite drag data is presented which includes the effect of satellite lift and the variation in aerodynamic properties around the orbit. The studies indicate that satellite lift may be responsible for the observed orbit precession rather than a super rotation of the upper atmosphere. The influence of simplifying assumptions concerning the aerodynamics of objects in falling sphere analysis were evaluated and an improved method of analysis was developed. Wind tunnel data was used to develop more accurate drag coefficient relationships for studying altitudes between 80 and 120 Km. The improved drag coefficient relationships revealed a considerable error in previous falling sphere drag interpretation. These data were reanalyzed using the more accurate relationships. Theoretical investigations of the drag coefficient in the very low speed ratio region were also conducted.
Orbital operation for large automated satellites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lusk, J. L.; Biro, V.
1974-01-01
Orbital operations concepts for the shuttle launched Large Automated Satellites (LAS) are discussed. It includes the orbital operations elements and the major options for accomplishing each element. This study is based on the preliminary payload information available in Level I and II documents and on orbital operations methods used on past programs, both manned and unmanned. It includes a definition of detailed trade studies which need to be performed as satellite design details and organization responsibilities are defined. The major objectives of this study were to define operational methods and requirements for the long duration LAS missions which are effective and primarily economical to implement.
Accurate Optical Reference Catalogs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zacharias, N.
2006-08-01
Current and near future all-sky astrometric catalogs on the ICRF are reviewed with the emphasis on reference star data at optical wavelengths for user applications. The standard error of a Hipparcos Catalogue star position is now about 15 mas per coordinate. For the Tycho-2 data it is typically 20 to 100 mas, depending on magnitude. The USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC) observing program was completed in 2004 and reductions toward the final UCAC3 release are in progress. This all-sky reference catalogue will have positional errors of 15 to 70 mas for stars in the 10 to 16 mag range, with a high degree of completeness. Proper motions for the about 60 million UCAC stars will be derived by combining UCAC astrometry with available early epoch data, including yet unpublished scans of the complete set of AGK2, Hamburg Zone astrograph and USNO Black Birch programs. Accurate positional and proper motion data are combined in the Naval Observatory Merged Astrometric Dataset (NOMAD) which includes Hipparcos, Tycho-2, UCAC2, USNO-B1, NPM+SPM plate scan data for astrometry, and is supplemented by multi-band optical photometry as well as 2MASS near infrared photometry. The Milli-Arcsecond Pathfinder Survey (MAPS) mission is currently being planned at USNO. This is a micro-satellite to obtain 1 mas positions, parallaxes, and 1 mas/yr proper motions for all bright stars down to about 15th magnitude. This program will be supplemented by a ground-based program to reach 18th magnitude on the 5 mas level.
Precision orbit determination of altimetric satellites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shum, C. K.; Ries, John C.; Tapley, Byron D.
1994-11-01
The ability to determine accurate global sea level variations is important to both detection and understanding of changes in climate patterns. Sea level variability occurs over a wide spectrum of temporal and spatial scales, and precise global measurements are only recently possible with the advent of spaceborne satellite radar altimetry missions. One of the inherent requirements for accurate determination of absolute sea surface topography is that the altimetric satellite orbits be computed with sub-decimeter accuracy within a well defined terrestrial reference frame. SLR tracking in support of precision orbit determination of altimetric satellites is significant. Recent examples are the use of SLR as the primary tracking systems for TOPEX/Poseidon and for ERS-1 precision orbit determination. The current radial orbit accuracy for TOPEX/Poseidon is estimated to be around 3-4 cm, with geographically correlated orbit errors around 2 cm. The significance of the SLR tracking system is its ability to allow altimetric satellites to obtain absolute sea level measurements and thereby provide a link to other altimetry measurement systems for long-term sea level studies. SLR tracking allows the production of precise orbits which are well centered in an accurate terrestrial reference frame. With proper calibration of the radar altimeter, these precise orbits, along with the altimeter measurements, provide long term absolute sea level measurements. The U.S. Navy's Geosat mission is equipped with only Doppler beacons and lacks laser retroreflectors. However, its orbits, and even the Geosat orbits computed using the available full 40-station Tranet tracking network, yield orbits with significant north-south shifts with respect to the IERS terrestrial reference frame. The resulting Geosat sea surface topography will be tilted accordingly, making interpretation of long-term sea level variability studies difficult.
Optimum Low Thrust Elliptic Orbit Transfer Using Numerical Averaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarzi, Zahi Bassem
Low-thrust electric propulsion is increasingly being used for spacecraft missions primarily due to its high propellant efficiency. Since analytical solutions for general low-thrust transfers are not available, a simple and fast method for low-thrust trajectory optimization is of great value for preliminary mission planning. However, few low-thrust trajectory tools are appropriate for preliminary mission design studies. The method presented in this paper provides quick and accurate solutions for a wide range of transfers by using numerical orbital averaging to improve solution convergence and include orbital perturbations. Thus allowing preliminary trajectories to be obtained for transfers which involve many revolutions about the primary body. This method considers minimum fuel transfers using first order averaging to obtain the fuel optimum rates of change of the equinoctial orbital elements in terms of each other and the Lagrange multipliers. Constraints on thrust and power, as well as minimum periapsis, are implemented and the equations are averaged numerically using a Gaussian quadrature. The use of numerical averaging allows for more complex orbital perturbations to be added without great difficulty. Orbital perturbations due to solar radiation pressure, atmospheric drag, a non-spherical central body, and third body gravitational effects have been included. These perturbations have not been considered by previous methods using analytical averaging. Thrust limitations due to shadowing have also been considered in this study. To allow for faster convergence of a wider range of problems, the solution to a transfer which minimizes the square of the thrust magnitude is used as a preliminary guess for the minimum fuel problem. Thus, this method can be quickly applied to many different types of transfers which may include various perturbations. Results from this model are shown to provide a reduction in propellant mass required over previous minimum fuel solutions
Microsurgical anatomy of the orbit: the rule of seven.
Martins, Carolina; Costa E Silva, Isabel Eugênia; Campero, Alvaro; Yasuda, Alexandre; Aguiar, Luiz Roberto; Tatagiba, Marcos; Rhoton, Albert
2011-01-01
The orbits are paired structures, located on the anterior part of the face. Morphologically, each orbit is a four sided pyramid with a posterior apex and anterior base. In the orbit, all openings are arranged around the base, apex or between the orbital walls. An anatomical characteristic of the orbit is that structures are arranged in groups of seven: there are seven bones, seven intraorbital muscles and seven nerves in the orbit. Tumors confined within the periorbita in the anterior two thirds of the orbit can often be approached extracranially, but those located in the apical area, and especially those on the medial side of the optic nerve, often require a transcranial approach. Thus, knowledge of orbital osteology is paramount in adequately choosing and performing an orbital approach. Understanding the critical topographical elements in this area helps to classify an orbital lesion and provides for a solid basis in choosing the most adequate intraorbital route for its treatment. PMID:22567293
Asteroid orbital error analysis: Theory and application
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Muinonen, K.; Bowell, Edward
1992-01-01
We present a rigorous Bayesian theory for asteroid orbital error estimation in which the probability density of the orbital elements is derived from the noise statistics of the observations. For Gaussian noise in a linearized approximation the probability density is also Gaussian, and the errors of the orbital elements at a given epoch are fully described by the covariance matrix. The law of error propagation can then be applied to calculate past and future positional uncertainty ellipsoids (Cappellari et al. 1976, Yeomans et al. 1987, Whipple et al. 1991). To our knowledge, this is the first time a Bayesian approach has been formulated for orbital element estimation. In contrast to the classical Fisherian school of statistics, the Bayesian school allows a priori information to be formally present in the final estimation. However, Bayesian estimation does give the same results as Fisherian estimation when no priori information is assumed (Lehtinen 1988, and reference therein).
Procedure for the Determination of Orbits of Astronomical Bodies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Birnbaum, David
1977-01-01
Presents a procedure for finding the elements of the orbit of an astronomical object from three or more observations. From a set of assumed elements an ephemeris is calculated and compared to the observations. (MLH)
Lunar Orbit Stability for Small Satellite Mission Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dono, Andres
2015-01-01
The irregular nature of the lunar gravity field will severely affect the orbit lifetime and behavior of future lunar small satellite missions. These spacecraft need stable orbits that do not require large deltaV budgets for station-keeping maneuvers. The initial classical elements of any lunar orbit are critical to address its stability and to comply with mission requirements. This publication identifies stable regions according to different initial conditions at the time of lunar orbit insertion (LOI). High fidelity numerical simulations with two different gravity models were performed. We focus in low altitude orbits where the dominant force in orbit propagation is the existence of unevenly distributed lunar mass concentrations. These orbits follow a periodic oscillation in some of the classical elements that is particularly useful for mission design. A set of orbital maintenance strategies for various mission concepts is presented.
SCIAMACHY In-orbit Operations until 2013
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gottwald, Manfred; Krieg, Eckhart; Lichtenberg, Günter; Noël, Stefan; Bramstedt, Klaus; Bovensmann, Heinrich
In 2010 ENVISAT enters its next mission extension phase when a manoeuvre transfers the plat-form from its nominal into a modified orbit. This modified orbit is not only characterized by the lower altitude but also by slightly drifting parameters such as e.g. the inclination or the Mean Local Solar Time at ascending node crossing. Thus all SCIAMACHY measurements requiring an accurate pointing knowledge are affected. How the line-of-sight evolves along the orbit de-pends on orbit altitude and orbital period. Therefore adjustments to SCIAMACHY's on-board instrument configuration are necessary reflecting this orbit chance. Based on a detailed analysis simulating SCIAMACHY operations in the modified orbit until the end of 2013, the impacts on nadir, limb and solar and lunar occultation measurements when orbiting the Earth at a reduced altitude was studied. By modifying SCIAMACHY's configuration these impacts can be compensated for. Thus the current performance of instrument operations, including the pointing knowledge, can be maintained. It ensures acquisition of high quality measurement data for the entire duration of the mission. This presentation describes how the instrument will be configured for achieving successful operations until the end of 2013. In addition a brief outlook is given how the drifting modified orbit may impact an operations phase even beyond 2013 and potential corrective countermeasures.
Orbit Design Based on the Global Maps of Telecom Metrics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Charles H.; Cheung, Kar-Ming; Edwards, Chad; Noreen, Gary K.; Vaisnys, Arvydas
2004-01-01
In this paper we describe an orbit design aide tool, called Telecom Orbit Analysis and Simulation Tool(TOAST). Although it can be used for studying and selecting orbits for any planet, we solely concentrate on its use for Mars. By specifying the six orbital elements for an orbit, a time frame of interest, a horizon mask angle, and some telecom parameters such as the transmitting power, frequency, antenna gains, antenna losses, link margin, received threshold powers for the rates, etc. this tool enables the user to view the animation of the orbit in two and three-dimensional different telecom metrics at any point on the Mars, namely the global planetary map.
On-orbit spacecraft reliability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bloomquist, C.; Demars, D.; Graham, W.; Henmi, P.
1978-01-01
Operational and historic data for 350 spacecraft from 52 U.S. space programs were analyzed for on-orbit reliability. Failure rates estimates are made for on-orbit operation of spacecraft subsystems, components, and piece parts, as well as estimates of failure probability for the same elements during launch. Confidence intervals for both parameters are also given. The results indicate that: (1) the success of spacecraft operation is only slightly affected by most reported incidents of anomalous behavior; (2) the occurrence of the majority of anomalous incidents could have been prevented piror to launch; (3) no detrimental effect of spacecraft dormancy is evident; (4) cycled components in general are not demonstrably less reliable than uncycled components; and (5) application of product assurance elements is conductive to spacecraft success.
Orbital analysis of the inner Uranian satellites from Hubble images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
French, Robert S.; Showalter, Mark R.; de Pater, Imke; Lissauer, Jack J.
2015-11-01
The thirteen inner moons of Uranus form a densely-packed and possibly chaotic system. Numerical simulations show that several groups of moons exhibit complex resonant interactions, and Mab shows as-yet unexplained variations in its orbit. However, the masses of these moons are currently unknown, limiting the insights that can be gained from numerical simulations. Using over 650 long-exposure images taken during 2003-2013 by the Hubble Space Telescope through broadband filters, we have obtained astrometry for eleven of Uranus’s inner moons, comprising the Portia group (Bianca to Perdita) plus Puck and Mab; attempts to measure the positions of Cordelia and Ophelia are on-going. Using these measurements, which are frequently accurate to 0.05 pixels or less, we have derived Keplerian orbital elements including the influence of Uranus’s oblateness. The elements show year-to-year variations that are statistically significant and indicate the role of mutual perturbations among the moons. We are also using this information to place new constraints on the masses of these moons. We will present our most recent findings.
Improved SB2 orbits for HIP 12081 and HIP 87895
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halbwachs, J.-L.; Arenou, F.; Guillout, P.; Pourbaix, D.; Tal-Or, L.; Famaey, B.; Lebreton, Y.; Mazeh, T.
2013-11-01
We are observing a selection of about 70 double-lined binaries (SB2s) with the T193/SOPHIE in order to improve their orbital elements. Our goal is to obtain the masses of the components with a 1 % accuracy when the astrometric observations of Gaia are available. After 6 semesters of observations, the two best observed stars are HIP 12081 and HIP 87895. These stars are used to verify that the 1 % accuracy could really be obtained at the end of the programme. The radial velocities of their components were derived using the TODMOR algorithm, and their orbital elements were calculated. It appears that the minimum masses of the components of HIP 12081 are already both obtained with an accuracy around 0.5 %. For HIP 87895, the relative precisions of the minimum masses of the primary and of the secondary component are 2.7 and 1.5 %, respectively, but they were obtained from only 9 spectra and they should be improved once more observations have been obtained. Ancient interferometric observations of HIP 87895 are also taken into account and the actual masses of the components are derived. Although these measurements are far from being as accurate as those expected from Gaia, the relative errors of the masses are only 2.6 and 1.5 % respectively. We thus conclude that our programme would lead to masses with the announced accuracy if the observations are continued.
Theory of satellite orbit-orbit resonance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blitzer, L.; Anderson, J. D.
1981-01-01
On the basis of the strong mathematical and physical parallels between orbit-orbit and spin-orbit resonances, the dynamics of mutual orbit perturbations between two satellites about a massive planet are examined, exploiting an approach previously adopted in the study of spin-orbit coupling. Resonances are found to exist when the mean orbital periods are commensurable with respect to some rotating axis, which condition also involves the apsidal and nodal motions of both satellites. In any resonant state the satellites are effectively trapped in separate potential wells, and a single variable is found to describe the simultaneous librations of both satellites. The librations in longitude are 180 deg out-of-phase, with fixed amplitude ratio that depends only on their relative masses and semimajor axes. The theory is applicable to Saturn's resonant pairs Titan-Hyperion and Mimas-Tethys, and in these cases the calculated libration periods are in reasonably good agreement with the observed periods.
Post-aerocapture orbit selection and maintenance for the Aerofast mission to Mars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pontani, Mauro; Teofilatto, Paolo
2012-10-01
Aerofast is the abbreviation of “aerocapture for future space transportation” and represents a project aimed at developing aerocapture techniques with regard to an interplanetary mission to Mars, in the context of the 7th Framework Program, with the financial support of the European Union. This paper describes the fundamental characteristics of the operational orbit after aerocapture for the mission of interest, as well as the related maintenance strategy. The final orbit selection depends on the desired lighting conditions, maximum revisit time of specific target regions, and feasibility of the orbit maintenance strategy. A sunsynchronous, frozen, repeating-ground-track orbit is chosen. First, the period of repetition is such that adjacent ascending node crossings (over the Mars surface) have a separation compatible with the swath of the optical payload. Secondly, the sunsynchronism condition ensures that a given latitude is periodically visited at the same local time, which condition is essential for comparing images of the same region at different epochs. Lastly, the fulfillment of the frozen condition guarantees improved orbit stability with respect to perturbations due to the zonal harmonics of Mars gravitational field. These three fundamental features of the operational orbit lead to determining its mean orbital elements. The evaluation of short and long period effects (e.g., those due to the sectorial harmonics of the gravitational field or to the aerodynamic drag) requires the determination of the osculating orbital elements at an initial reference time. This research describes a simple and accurate approach that leads to numerically determining these initial values, without employing complicated analytical developments. Numerical simulations demonstrate the long-period stability of the orbit when a significant number of harmonics of the gravitational field are taken into account. However, aerodynamic drag produces a relatively slow orbital decay at the
Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slojkowski, Steven E.
2014-01-01
Results from operational OD produced by the NASA Goddard Flight Dynamics Facility for the LRO nominal and extended mission are presented. During the LRO nominal mission, when LRO flew in a low circular orbit, orbit determination requirements were met nearly 100% of the time. When the extended mission began, LRO returned to a more elliptical frozen orbit where gravity and other modeling errors caused numerous violations of mission accuracy requirements. Prediction accuracy is particularly challenged during periods when LRO is in full-Sun. A series of improvements to LRO orbit determination are presented, including implementation of new lunar gravity models, improved spacecraft solar radiation pressure modeling using a dynamic multi-plate area model, a shorter orbit determination arc length, and a constrained plane method for estimation. The analysis presented in this paper shows that updated lunar gravity models improved accuracy in the frozen orbit, and a multiplate dynamic area model improves prediction accuracy during full-Sun orbit periods. Implementation of a 36-hour tracking data arc and plane constraints during edge-on orbit geometry also provide benefits. A comparison of the operational solutions to precision orbit determination solutions shows agreement on a 100- to 250-meter level in definitive accuracy.
Astrometric orbits of SB^9 stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jancart, S.; Jorissen, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Pourbaix, D.
2005-10-01
Hipparcos Intermediate Astrometric Data (IAD) have been used to derive astrometric orbital elements for spectroscopic binaries from the newly released Ninth Catalogue of Spectroscopic Binary Orbits (SB^9). This endeavour is justified by the fact that (i) the astrometric orbital motion is often difficult to detect without the prior knowledge of the spectroscopic orbital elements, and (ii) such knowledge was not available at the time of the construction of the Hipparcos Catalogue for the spectroscopic binaries which were recently added to the SB^9 catalogue. Among the 1374 binaries from SB^9 which have an HIP entry (excluding binaries with visual companions, or DMSA/C in the Double and Multiple Stars Annex), 282 have detectable orbital astrometric motion (at the 5% significance level). Among those, only 70 have astrometric orbital elements that are reliably determined (according to specific statistical tests), and for the first time for 20 systems. This represents a 8.5% increase of the number of astrometric systems with known orbital elements (The Double and Multiple Systems Annex contains 235 of those DMSA/O systems). The detection of the astrometric orbital motion when the Hipparcos IAD are supplemented by the spectroscopic orbital elements is close to 100% for binaries with only one visible component, provided that the period is in the 50-1000 d range and the parallax is >5 mas. This result is an interesting testbed to guide the choice of algorithms and statistical tests to be used in the search for astrometric binaries during the forthcoming ESA Gaia mission. Finally, orbital inclinations provided by the present analysis have been used to derive several astrophysical quantities. For instance, 29 among the 70 systems with reliable astrometric orbital elements involve main sequence stars for which the companion mass could be derived. Some interesting conclusions may be drawn from this new set of stellar masses, like the enigmatic nature of the companion to the
Orbit Response Matrix Analysis Applied at PEP-II
Steier, C.; Wolski, A.; Ecklund, S.; Safranek, J.A.; Tenenbaum, P.; Terebilo, A.; Turner, J.L.; Yocky, G.; /SLAC
2005-05-17
The analysis of orbit response matrices has been used very successfully to measure and correct the gradient and skew gradient distribution in many accelerators. It allows determination of an accurately calibrated model of the coupled machine lattice, which then can be used to calculate the corrections necessary to improve coupling, dynamic aperture and ultimately luminosity. At PEP-II, the Matlab version of LOCO has been used to analyze coupled response matrices for both the LER and the HER. The large number of elements in PEP-II and the very complicated interaction region present unique challenges to the data analysis. All necessary tools to make the analysis method useable at PEP-II have been implemented and LOCO can now be used as a routine tool for lattice diagnostic.
Chalupský, Jakub Yanai, Takeshi
2013-11-28
The derivation, implementation, and validation of a new approximation to the two-electron spin–orbit coupling (SOC) terms is reported. The approximation, referred to as flexible nuclear screening spin–orbit, is based on the effective one-electron spin–orbit operator and accounts for two-electron SOC effects by screening nuclear charges. A highly flexible scheme for the nuclear screening is developed, mainly using parameterization based on ab initio atomic SOC calculations. Tabulated screening parameters are provided for contracted and primitive Gaussian-type basis functions of the ANO-RCC basis set for elements from H to Cm. The strategy for their adaptation to any other Gaussian basis set is presented and validated. A model to correct for the effect of splitting of transition metal d orbitals on their SOC matrix elements is introduced. The method is applied to a representative set of molecules, and compared to exact treatment and other approximative approaches at the same level of relativistic theory. The calculated SOC matrix elements are in very good agreement with their “exact” values; deviation below 1% is observed on average. The presented approximation is considered to be generally applicable, simple to implement, highly efficient, and accurate.
Effects of DeOrbitSail as applied to Lifetime predictions of Low Earth Orbit Satellites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afful, Andoh; Opperman, Ben; Steyn, Herman
2016-07-01
Orbit lifetime prediction is an important component of satellite mission design and post-launch space operations. Throughout its lifetime in space, a spacecraft is exposed to risk of collision with orbital debris or operational satellites. This risk is especially high within the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) region where the highest density of space debris is accumulated. This paper investigates orbital decay of some LEO micro-satellites and accelerating orbit decay by using a deorbitsail. The Semi-Analytical Liu Theory (SALT) and the Satellite Toolkit was employed to determine the mean elements and expressions for the time rates of change. Test cases of observed decayed satellites (Iridium-85 and Starshine-1) are used to evaluate the predicted theory. Results for the test cases indicated that the theory fitted observational data well within acceptable limits. Orbit decay progress of the SUNSAT micro-satellite was analysed using relevant orbital parameters derived from historic Two Line Element (TLE) sets and comparing with decay and lifetime prediction models. This paper also explored the deorbit date and time for a 1U CubeSat (ZACUBE-01). The use of solar sails as devices to speed up the deorbiting of LEO satellites is considered. In a drag sail mode, the deorbitsail technique significantly increases the effective cross-sectional area of a satellite, subsequently increasing atmospheric drag and accelerating orbit decay. The concept proposed in this study introduced a very useful technique of orbit decay as well as deorbiting of spacecraft.
Snyder, James W.; Hohenstein, Edward G.; Luehr, Nathan; Martínez, Todd J.
2015-10-21
We recently presented an algorithm for state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) orbital optimization that capitalizes on sparsity in the atomic orbital basis set to reduce the scaling of computational effort with respect to molecular size. Here, we extend those algorithms to calculate the analytic gradient and nonadiabatic coupling vectors for SA-CASSCF. Combining the low computational scaling with acceleration from graphical processing units allows us to perform SA-CASSCF geometry optimizations for molecules with more than 1000 atoms. The new approach will make minimal energy conical intersection searches and nonadiabatic dynamics routine for molecular systems with O(10{sup 2}) atoms.
Asteroids in Retrograde Orbits: Interesting Cases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kankiewicz, Paweł; Włodarczyk, Ireneusz
2014-12-01
We present the most interesting examples of the orbital evolution of asteroids in retrograde orbits (i > 90°). First, we used the latest observational data to determine nominal and averaged orbital elements of these objects. Next, the equations of motion of these asteroids were integrated backward 1 My, taking into account the propagation of observational errors. We used so-called 'cloning' procedure to reproduce the reliability of initial data. We obtained some possible scenarios of the orbit inversion in the past, what is often caused by the long-term influence of outer planets. For two most interesting cases (Apollo and Amor type) we did additional calculations: 100 My in the future. Additionally, we investigated the potential influence of Yarkovski/YORP effects on the long-time orbital evolution.
Advanced propulsion concepts for orbital transfer vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cooper, L. P.
1982-01-01
Studies of the United States Space Transportation System show that in the mid-to-late 1990s expanded capabilities for Orbital Transfer Vehicles (OTV) will be needed to meet increased payload requirements for transporting materials and possible men to geosynchronous orbit. NASA is conducting a technology program in support of an advanced propulsion system for future OTVs. This program is briefly described with results to date of the first program element, the Conceptual Design and Technology Definition studies.
Inclusion of Higher Order Harmonics in the Modeling of Optimal Low-Thrust Orbit Transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kéchichian, Jean A.
2008-03-01
The higher fidelity modeling of minimum-time transfers using continuous constant acceleration low-thrust is depicted by including the higher zonal harmonics J 3 and J 4for the Earth gravity model. The inclusion of these higher order harmonics is of great benefit in carrying out accurate transfer simulations, especially for long duration flights dwelling in low altitudes where the effects of these zonals are greatest. The analysis presented here can also be coded in the flight guidance computer of spacecraft for autonomous operations and on ground computers for solution uploads and resetting during low-thrust transfers. Equinoctial elements are used to avoid singularities when orbits are circular or equatorial and the applicability of the theory is of a general nature regardless of the size, shape and spatial orientation of the orbits provided they are not of the parabolic or hyperbolic types. To this end, two sets of dynamic and adjoint differential equations in terms of nonsingular orbital elements are derived by further considering a more accurate perturbation model in the form of the higher order Earth zonal harmonics J 3and J 4. Previous analyses involved only the first-order J 2 term in order to model optimal lowthrust transfers between any two given circular or elliptic orbits. The first formulation uses the eccentric longitude as the sixth element of an equinoctial set of elements while describing the thrust as well as the zonal accelerations in the so called direct equinoctial frame. The second formulation makes use of the true longitude as the sixth element instead while resolving the thrust and the zonal accelerations in the rotating Euler-Hill frame simplifying considerably the algebraic derivations leading to the generation of the nonsingular differential equations that are also free of any singularity for the important zero eccentricity and zero inclination cases often encountered in Earth orbit transfer problems. The derivations of both nonsingular
Spectroscopic Orbits for 15 Late-type Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Willmarth, Daryl W.; Fekel, Francis C.; Abt, Helmut A.; Pourbaix, Dimitri
2016-08-01
Spectroscopic orbital elements are determined for 15 stars with periods from 8 to 6528 days with six orbits computed for the first time. Improved astrometric orbits are computed for two stars and one new orbit is derived. Visual orbits were previously determined for four stars, four stars are members of multiple systems, and five stars have Hipparcos “G” designations or have been resolved by speckle interferometry. For the nine binaries with previous spectroscopic orbits, we determine improved or comparable elements. For HD 28271 and HD 200790, our spectroscopic results support the conclusions of previous authors that the large values of their mass functions and lack of detectable secondary spectrum argue for the secondary in each case being a pair of low-mass dwarfs. The orbits given here may be useful in combination with future interferometric and Gaia satellite observations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1988-01-01
One of the prime reasons for establishing a manned lunar presence is the possibility of using the potential lunar resources. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is a lunar orbiting platform whose mission is to prospect and explore the Moon from orbit in support of early lunar colonization and exploitation efforts. The LOP mission is divided into three primary phases: transport from Earth to low lunar orbit (LLO), operation in lunar orbit, and platform servicing in lunar orbit. The platform alters its orbit to obtain the desired surface viewing, and the orbit can be changed periodically as needed. After completion of the inital remote sensing mission, more ambitious and/or complicated prospecting and exploration missions can be contemplated. A refueled propulsion module, updated instruments, or additional remote sensing packages can be flown up from the lunar base to the platform.
The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Charles E.
2005-01-01
CO2 is the principal human generated driver of climate change. Accurate forecasting of future climate requires an improved understanding of the global carbon cycle and its interaction with the climate system. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) will make global, space-based observations of atmospheric CO2 with the precision, resolution, and coverage needed to understand sources and sinks. OCO data will provide critical information for decision makers including the scientific basis for policy formulation, guide for carbon management strategies and treaty monitoring.
Is It Time to Retire the Hybrid Atomic Orbital?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grushow, Alexander
2011-01-01
A rationale for the removal of the hybrid atomic orbital from the chemistry curriculum is examined. Although the hybrid atomic orbital model does not accurately predict spectroscopic energies, many chemical educators continue to use and teach the model despite the confusion it can cause for students. Three arguments for retaining the model in the…
NNLOPS accurate associated HW production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Astill, William; Bizon, Wojciech; Re, Emanuele; Zanderighi, Giulia
2016-06-01
We present a next-to-next-to-leading order accurate description of associated HW production consistently matched to a parton shower. The method is based on reweighting events obtained with the HW plus one jet NLO accurate calculation implemented in POWHEG, extended with the MiNLO procedure, to reproduce NNLO accurate Born distributions. Since the Born kinematics is more complex than the cases treated before, we use a parametrization of the Collins-Soper angles to reduce the number of variables required for the reweighting. We present phenomenological results at 13 TeV, with cuts suggested by the Higgs Cross section Working Group.
Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oostra, Benjamin
2015-01-01
Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pauling, Linus; McClure, Vance
1970-01-01
Amplifies and clarifies a previous paper on pyramidal d orbitals. Discusses two sets of pyramid d orbitals with respect to their maximum bond strength and their symmetry. Authors described the oblate and prolate pentagonal antiprisms arising from the two sets of five equivalent d orbitals. (RR)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rea, F. G.; Warmke, J. M.
1976-01-01
Addition were made to Battelle's Interactive Graphics Orbit Selection (IGOS) program; IGOS was exercised via telephone lines from JPL, and candidate SEASAT orbits were analyzed by Battelle. The additions to the program enable clear understanding of the implications of a specific orbit to the diverse desires of the SEASAT user community.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barker, Edwin S.; Matney, M. J.; Liou, J.-C.; Abercromby, K. J.; Rodriquez, H. M.; Seitzer, P.
2006-01-01
Since 2002 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has carried out an optical survey of the debris environment in the geosynchronous Earth-orbit (GEO) region with the Michigan Orbital Debris Survey Telescope (MODEST) in Chile. The survey coverage has been similar for 4 of the 5 years allowing us to follow the orbital evolution of Correlated Targets (CTs), both controlled and un-controlled objects, and Un-Correlated Targets (UCTs). Under gravitational perturbations the distributions of uncontrolled objects, both CTs and UCTs, in GEO orbits will evolve in predictable patterns, particularly evident in the inclination and right ascension of the ascending node (RAAN) distributions. There are several clusters (others have used a "cloud" nomenclature) in observed distributions that show evolution from year to year in their inclination and ascending node elements. However, when MODEST is in survey mode (field-of-view approx.1.3deg) it provides only short 5-8 minute orbital arcs which can only be fit under the assumption of a circular orbit approximation (ACO) to determine the orbital parameters. These ACO elements are useful only in a statistical sense as dedicated observing runs would be required to obtain sufficient orbital coverage to determine a set of accurate orbital elements and then to follow their evolution. Identification of the source(s) for these "clusters of UCTs" would be advantageous to the overall definition of the GEO orbital debris environment. This paper will set out to determine if the ACO elements can be used to in a statistical sense to identify the source of the "clustering of UCTs" roughly centered on an inclination of 12deg and a RAAN of 345deg. The breakup of the Titan 3C-4 transtage on February 21, 1992 has been modeled using NASA s LEGEND (LEO-to-GEO Environment Debris) code to generate a GEO debris cloud. Breakup fragments are created based on the NASA Standard Breakup Model (including fragment size, area-to-mass (A/M), and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barker, E.; Matney, M. J.; Liou, J.-C.; Abercromby, K.; Rodriguez, H.; Seitzer, P.
Since 2002 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has carried out an optical survey of the debris environment in the geosynchronous Earth-orbit (GEO) region with the Michigan Orbital Debris Survey Telescope (MODEST) in Chile. The survey coverage has been similar for 4 of the 5 years allowing us to follow the orbital evolution of Correlated Targets (CTs), both controlled and un-controlled objects, and Un-Correlated Targets (UCTs). Under gravitational perturbations the distributions of uncontrolled objects, both CTs and UCTs, in GEO orbits will evolve in predictable patterns, particularly evident in the inclination and right ascension of the ascending node (RAAN) distributions. There are several clusters (others have used a "cloud" nomenclature) in observed distributions that show evolution from year to year in their inclination and ascending node elements. However, when MODEST is in survey mode (field-of-view ~1.3°) it provides only short 5-8 minute orbital arcs which can only be fit under the assumption of a circular orbit approximation (ACO) to determine the orbital parameters. These ACO elements are useful only in a statistical sense as dedicated observing runs would be required to obtain sufficient orbital coverage to determine a set of accurate orbital elements and then to follow their evolution. Identification of the source(s) for these "clusters of UCTs" would be advantageous to the overall definition of the GEO orbital debris environment. This paper will set out to determine if the ACO elements can be used to in a statistical sense to identify the source of the "clustering of UCTs" roughly centered on an inclination of 12° and a RAAN of 345°. The breakup of the Titan 3C-4 transtage on February 21, 1992 has been modeled using NASA's LEGEND (LEO-to-GEO Environment Debris) code to generate a GEO debris cloud. Breakup fragments are created based on the NASA Standard Breakup Model (including fragment size, area-to-mass (A/M), and delta
Efficient orbit integration by manifold correction methods.
Fukushima, Toshio
2005-12-01
Triggered by a desire to investigate, numerically, the planetary precession through a long-term numerical integration of the solar system, we developed a new formulation of numerical integration of orbital motion named manifold correct on methods. The main trick is to rigorously retain the consistency of physical relations, such as the orbital energy, the orbital angular momentum, or the Laplace integral, of a binary subsystem. This maintenance is done by applying a correction to the integrated variables at each integration step. Typical methods of correction are certain geometric transformations, such as spatial scaling and spatial rotation, which are commonly used in the comparison of reference frames, or mathematically reasonable operations, such as modularization of angle variables into the standard domain [-pi, pi). The form of the manifold correction methods finally evolved are the orbital longitude methods, which enable us to conduct an extremely precise integration of orbital motions. In unperturbed orbits, the integration errors are suppressed at the machine epsilon level for an indefinitely long period. In perturbed cases, on the other hand, the errors initially grow in proportion to the square root of time and then increase more rapidly, the onset of which depends on the type and magnitude of the perturbations. This feature is also realized for highly eccentric orbits by applying the same idea as used in KS-regularization. In particular, the introduction of time elements greatly enhances the performance of numerical integration of KS-regularized orbits, whether the scaling is applied or not.
Space missions orbits around small worlds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardoso dos Santos, Josué; dos Santos Carvalho, Jean Paulo; Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho; Bertachini de Almeida Prado, Antônio Fernando
2015-08-01
Space missions under study to visit icy moons and small worlds in our solar system will requires orbits with low-altitude and high inclinations. These orbits provides a better coverage to map the surface and to analyse the gravitational and magnetic fields. In this context, obtain these orbits has become important in planning of these missions. Celestial bodies like Haumea, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Enceladus, Titan and Triton are among the objects under study study to receive missions in a near future. In order to obtain low-altitude and high inclined orbits for future exploration of these bodies, this work aims to present an analytical study to describe and evaluate gravitational disturbances over a spacecraft's orbit around a minor body. An analytical model for the third-body perturbation is presented. Perturbations due to the non-sphericity of the minor body are considered. The effects on spacecraft's orbital elements are analyzed to provide the the more useful and desired orbits. The dynamic of these orbits is explored by numerical simulations. The results present good accordance with the literature.
Accurate basis set truncation for wavefunction embedding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnes, Taylor A.; Goodpaster, Jason D.; Manby, Frederick R.; Miller, Thomas F.
2013-07-01
Density functional theory (DFT) provides a formally exact framework for performing embedded subsystem electronic structure calculations, including DFT-in-DFT and wavefunction theory-in-DFT descriptions. In the interest of efficiency, it is desirable to truncate the atomic orbital basis set in which the subsystem calculation is performed, thus avoiding high-order scaling with respect to the size of the MO virtual space. In this study, we extend a recently introduced projection-based embedding method [F. R. Manby, M. Stella, J. D. Goodpaster, and T. F. Miller III, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 8, 2564 (2012)], 10.1021/ct300544e to allow for the systematic and accurate truncation of the embedded subsystem basis set. The approach is applied to both covalently and non-covalently bound test cases, including water clusters and polypeptide chains, and it is demonstrated that errors associated with basis set truncation are controllable to well within chemical accuracy. Furthermore, we show that this approach allows for switching between accurate projection-based embedding and DFT embedding with approximate kinetic energy (KE) functionals; in this sense, the approach provides a means of systematically improving upon the use of approximate KE functionals in DFT embedding.
Radiology of the eye and orbit
Newton, T.H.; Bilaniuk, L.T.
1990-01-01
This book reports on the use of magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, and computed tomography to evaluate ocular and orbital disorders. The book gives a complete understanding of the capabilities of these techniques, the normal orbital anatomy shown by each modality, and the radiologic features and clinical aspects of orbital diseases, enabling radiologists and clinicians to choose the optimum diagnostic modality and accurately interpret abnormalities seen on scans. Included are more than 900 detail-revealing scans depicting normal anatomy and pathologic finds. For each of the three imaging modalities, a clear explanation of technique is followed by chapters thoroughly describing and illustrating ocular and orbital anatomy and pathology. The chapters on pathology discuss radiologic differential diagnosis in detail and briefly describe disease entities and their clinical manifestations.
Space Shuttle Orbiter descent navigation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montez, M. N.; Madden, M. F.
1982-01-01
The entry operational sequence (OPS 3) begins approximately 2 hours prior to the deorbit maneuver and continues through atmospheric entry, terminal area energy management (TAEM), approach and landing, and rollout. During this flight phase, the navigation state vector is estimated by the Space Shuttle Orbiter onboard navigation system. This estimate is computed using a six-element sequential Kalman filter, which blends inertial measurement unit (IMU) delta-velocity data with external navaid data. The external navaids available to the filter are tactical air navigation (TACAN), barometric altimeter, and microwave scan beam landing system (MSBLS). Attention is given to the functional design of the Orbiter navigation system, the descent navigation sensors and measurement processing, predicted Kalman gains, correlation coefficients, and current flights navigation performance.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Osgood, Cathy; Williams, Kevin; Gentry, Philip; Brownfield, Dana; Hallstrom, John; Stuit, Tim
2012-01-01
Orbit Software Suite is used to support a variety of NASA/DM (Dependable Multiprocessor) mission planning and analysis activities on the IPS (Intrusion Prevention System) platform. The suite of Orbit software tools (Orbit Design and Orbit Dynamics) resides on IPS/Linux workstations, and is used to perform mission design and analysis tasks corresponding to trajectory/ launch window, rendezvous, and proximity operations flight segments. A list of tools in Orbit Software Suite represents tool versions established during/after the Equipment Rehost-3 Project.
Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slojkowski, Steven E.
2014-01-01
LRO definitive and predictive accuracy requirements were easily met in the nominal mission orbit, using the LP150Q lunar gravity model. center dot Accuracy of the LP150Q model is poorer in the extended mission elliptical orbit. center dot Later lunar gravity models, in particular GSFC-GRAIL-270, improve OD accuracy in the extended mission. center dot Implementation of a constrained plane when the orbit is within 45 degrees of the Earth-Moon line improves cross-track accuracy. center dot Prediction accuracy is still challenged during full-Sun periods due to coarse spacecraft area modeling - Implementation of a multi-plate area model with definitive attitude input can eliminate prediction violations. - The FDF is evaluating using analytic and predicted attitude modeling to improve full-Sun prediction accuracy. center dot Comparison of FDF ephemeris file to high-precision ephemeris files provides gross confirmation that overlap compares properly assess orbit accuracy.
Lukasik, S; Betkowski, A; Cyran-Rymarz, A; Szuber, D
1995-01-01
Diseases of the orbital cavity require more attention because of its specific anatomic structure and placement. Their curing requires cooperation of many medical specialties. Analysis consider orbital fractures, mainly caused by car accidents (69.2%). The next half of them consider inflammatory processes and tumor in equal numbers. Malignant tumors of orbital cavity occur most frequently (48.0%), less frequent are pseudotumors--pseudotumor orbitae (36.0%) and rare--malignant ones (16.0%). Malignant tumors more frequently infiltrate the orbit in neighborhood (63.3%), less frequently they come out from orbit tissue (16.7%). It should be emphasized that the number of orbit inflammations decreases in subsequent years, whereas occurrence of orbit tumors increases. PMID:9454170
Computing Rydberg Electron Transport Rates via Classical Periodic Orbits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sattari, Sulimon; Mitchell, Kevin
2016-05-01
Electron transport properties of chaotic atomic systems may be computable from classical periodic orbits. This technique allows for replacing a Monte Carlo simulation launching millions of orbits with a sum over tens or hundreds of properly chosen periodic orbits. A firm grasp of the structure of the periodic orbits is required to obtain accurate transport rates. We apply a technique called homotopic lobe dynamics (HLD) to understand the structure of periodic orbits to compute the ionization rate of a hydrogen atom in strong parallel electric and magnetic fields. HLD uses information encoded in the intersections of stable and unstable manifolds of a few orbits to compute all relevant periodic orbits in the system. The ionization rate computed from periodic orbits using HLD converges exponentially to the true value as a function of the highest period used. We then use periodic orbit continuation to accurately compute the ionization rate when the field strengths are varied. The ability to use periodic orbits in a mixed phase space could allow for studying transport in even more complex few body systems.
Radiometrically accurate thermal imaging in the Landsat program
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lansing, Jack C., Jr.
1988-01-01
Methods of calibrating Landsat TM thermal IR data have been developed so that the residual error is reduced to 0.9 K (1 standard deviation). Methods for verifying the radiometric performance of TM on orbit and ground calibration methods are discussed. The preliminary design of the enhanced TM for Landsat-6 is considered. A technique for accurately reducing raw data from the Landsat-5 thermal band is described in detail.
Fitting orbits to tidal streams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Binney, James
2008-05-01
Recent years have seen the discovery of many tidal streams through the Galaxy. Relatively straightforward observations of a stream allow one to deduce three phase-space coordinates of an orbit. An algorithm is presented that reconstructs the missing phase-space coordinates from these data. The reconstruction starts from assumed values of the Galactic potential and a distance to one point on the orbit, but with noise-free data the condition that energy be conserved on the orbit enables one to reject incorrect assumptions. The performance of the algorithm is investigated when errors are added to the input data that are comparable to those in published data for the streams of Pal 5. It is found that the algorithm returns distances and proper motions that are accurate to of the order of 1 per cent, and enables one to reject quite resonable but incorrect trial potentials. In practical applications, it will be important to minimize errors in the imput data, and there is considerable scope for doing this.
Computer-assisted orbital surgery.
Klimek, L; Wenzel, M; Mösges, R
1993-06-01
In orbital surgery, deep lesions must be operated on through extremely small approaches. We developed a method (Computer Assisted Surgery or CAS) designed to achieve safer and more precise surgery by providing highly accurate intraoperative information regarding the location of the surgical instrument. The device involved consists of a high-capacity computer that processes computed tomographic (CT) data in real time, connected to a mechanical measuring arm attached to the surgical instrument. From the CT data, the computer calculates a three-dimensional reconstruction and displays the tip of the instrument as a reticle in this model. Using the CAS system, the surgeon is continuously apprised of the precise position of the surgical instrument vis-a-vis all relevant anatomical structures. We have used CAS successfully in 21 cases of orbital surgery. We have found the system especially useful in dealing with deep-seated tumors, either for biopsy or surgery; in performing orbital and optic nerve decompression; in localizing deep-seated foreign bodies; and in all cases of impaired orientation due to severe bleeding, tumor-destroyed landmarks, or preoperated anatomy. Although the number of patients is too small to yield statistically significant data allowing a comparison of patient outcomes with and without using the system, we have just begun a large prospective clinical trial designed to provide such data. PMID:8336894
Mutual Orbits of Transneptunian Binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grundy, William M.; Noll, K. S.; Roe, H. G.; Porter, S. B.; Trujillo, C. A.; Benecchi, S. D.; Buie, M. W.
2012-10-01
We report the latest results from a program of high spatial resolution imaging to resolve the individual components of binary transneptunian objects. These observations use Hubble Space Telescope and also laser guide star adaptive optics systems on Keck and Gemini telescopes on Mauna Kea. From relative astrometry over multiple epochs, we determine the mutual orbits of the components, and thus the total masses of the systems. Accurate masses anchor subsequent detailed investigations into the physical characteristics of these systems. For instance, dynamical masses enable computation of bulk densities for systems where the component sizes can be estimated from other measurements. Additionally, patterns in the ensemble characteristics of binary orbits offer clues to circumstances in the protoplanetary nebula when these systems formed, as well as carrying imprints of various subsequent dynamical evolution processes. The growing ensemble of known orbits shows intriguing patterns that can shed light on the evolution of this population of distant objects. This work has been supported by an NSF Planetary Astronomy grant and by several Hubble Space Telescope and NASA Keck data analysis grants. The research makes use of data from the Gemini Observatory obtained through NOAO survey program 11A-0017, from a large number of Hubble Space Telescope programs, and from several NASA Keck programs.
Modeling radiation forces acting on TOPEX/Poseidon for precision orbit determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marshall, J. A.; Luthcke, S. B.; Antreasian, P. G.; Rosborough, G. W.
1992-06-01
Geodetic satellites such as GEOSAT, SPOT, ERS-1, and TOPEX/Poseidon require accurate orbital computations to support the scientific data they collect. Until recently, gravity field mismodeling was the major source of error in precise orbit definition. However, albedo and infrared re-radiation, and spacecraft thermal imbalances produce in combination no more than a 6-cm radial root-mean-square (RMS) error over a 10-day period. This requires the development of nonconservative force models that take the satellite's complex geometry, attitude, and surface properties into account. For TOPEX/Poseidon, a 'box-wing' satellite form was investigated that models the satellite as a combination of flat plates arranged in a box shape with a connected solar array. The nonconservative forces acting on each of the eight surfaces are computed independently, yielding vector accelerations which are summed to compute the total aggregate effect on the satellite center-of-mass. In order to test the validity of this concept, 'micro-models' based on finite element analysis of TOPEX/Poseidon were used to generate acceleration histories in a wide variety of orbit orientations. These profiles are then compared to the box-wing model. The results of these simulations and their implication on the ability to precisely model the TOPEX/Poseidon orbit are discussed.
Modeling radiation forces acting on TOPEX/Poseidon for precision orbit determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marshall, J. A.; Luthcke, S. B.; Antreasian, P. G.; Rosborough, G. W.
1992-01-01
Geodetic satellites such as GEOSAT, SPOT, ERS-1, and TOPEX/Poseidon require accurate orbital computations to support the scientific data they collect. Until recently, gravity field mismodeling was the major source of error in precise orbit definition. However, albedo and infrared re-radiation, and spacecraft thermal imbalances produce in combination no more than a 6-cm radial root-mean-square (RMS) error over a 10-day period. This requires the development of nonconservative force models that take the satellite's complex geometry, attitude, and surface properties into account. For TOPEX/Poseidon, a 'box-wing' satellite form was investigated that models the satellite as a combination of flat plates arranged in a box shape with a connected solar array. The nonconservative forces acting on each of the eight surfaces are computed independently, yielding vector accelerations which are summed to compute the total aggregate effect on the satellite center-of-mass. In order to test the validity of this concept, 'micro-models' based on finite element analysis of TOPEX/Poseidon were used to generate acceleration histories in a wide variety of orbit orientations. These profiles are then compared to the box-wing model. The results of these simulations and their implication on the ability to precisely model the TOPEX/Poseidon orbit are discussed.
James Webb Space Telescope Orbit Determination Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yoon, Sungpil; Rosales, Jose; Richon, Karen
2014-01-01
The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is designed to study and answer fundamental astrophysical questions from an orbit about the Sun-Earth/Moon L2 libration point, 1.5 million km away from Earth. This paper describes the results of an orbit determination (OD) analysis of the JWST mission emphasizing the challenges specific to this mission in various mission phases. Three mid-course correction (MCC) maneuvers during launch and early orbit phase and transfer orbit phase are required for the spacecraft to reach L2. These three MCC maneuvers are MCC-1a at Launch+12 hours, MCC-1b at L+2.5 days and MCC-2 at L+30 days. Accurate OD solutions are needed to support MCC maneuver planning. A preliminary analysis shows that OD performance with the given assumptions is adequate to support MCC maneuver planning. During the nominal science operations phase, the mission requires better than 2 cm/sec velocity estimation performance to support stationkeeping maneuver planning. The major challenge to accurate JWST OD during the nominal science phase results from the unusually large solar radiation pressure force acting on the huge sunshield. Other challenges are stationkeeping maneuvers at 21-day intervals to keep JWST in orbit around L2, frequent attitude reorientations to align the JWST telescope with its targets and frequent maneuvers to unload momentum accumulated in the reaction wheels. Monte Carlo analysis shows that the proposed OD approach can produce solutions that meet the mission requirements.
James Webb Space Telescope Orbit Determination Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yoon, Sungpil; Rosales, Jose; Richon, Karen
2014-01-01
The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is designed to study and answer fundamental astrophysical questions from an orbit about the Sun-EarthMoon L2 libration point, 1.5 million km away from Earth. Three mid-course correction (MCC) maneuvers during launch and early orbit phase and transfer orbit phase are required for the spacecraft to reach L2. These three MCC maneuvers are MCC-1a at Launch+12 hours, MCC-1b at L+2.5 days and MCC-2 at L+30 days. Accurate orbit determination (OD) solutions are needed to support MCC maneuver planning. A preliminary analysis shows that OD performance with the given assumptions is adequate to support MCC maneuver planning. During the nominal science operations phase, the mission requires better than 2 cmsec velocity estimation performance to support stationkeeping maneuver planning. The major challenge to accurate JWST OD during the nominal science phase results from the unusually large solar radiation pressure force acting on the huge sunshield. Other challenges are stationkeeping maneuvers at 21-day intervals to keep JWST in orbit around L2, frequent attitude reorientations to align the JWST telescope with its targets and frequent maneuvers to unload momentum accumulated in the reaction wheels. Monte Carlo analysis shows that the proposed OD approach can produce solutions that meet the mission requirements.
The Orbits of the Inner Uranian Satellites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brozovic, Marina; Jacobson, R. A.
2009-05-01
We report on the numerically integrated orbits for the thirteen inner Uranian satellites. Our dataset includes Voyager imaging data as well as HST and Earth-based astrometric data. The observations span time period from 1985 to 2003. Our model of the inner moons' orbits accounts for the equatorial bulge of Uranus, the perturbations from the external bodies and the perturbations from the large moons of Uranus (Miranda, Umbriel, Ariel, Oberon, and Titania). The inner satellites were initially considered massless, but we found that this assumption may need to be revised in order to fine-tune the system's dynamics and obtain the orbital solutions with adequate residuals.The results are given in terms of state vectors,post-fit residuals and mean orbital elements.
Designing the Orbital Space Tourism Experience
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Webber, Derek
2006-01-01
Sub-orbital space tourism is now well on its way to becoming a reality, with offerings by Virgin Galactic, Rocketplane, and others soon to be made available. Orbital space tourism is harder to achieve, but, if successful as a business model, will make significant contributions towards improved operational efficiencies, reusability, reliability and economies of scale to the world of crewed space flight. Some responses to the President's Vision for Space Exploration have included public space travel in low Earth orbit as sustaining and enabling elements of the vision in a post-Shuttle space architecture. This paper addresses the steps necessary to make possible such a US-based orbital space tourism business, and will assist commercial and government agencies concerned with the development of this new sector.
Spinning compact binary dynamics and chameleon orbits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gergely, László Árpád; Keresztes, Zoltán
2015-01-01
We analyze the conservative evolution of spinning compact binaries to second post-Newtonian (2PN) order accuracy, with leading-order spin-orbit, spin-spin and mass quadrupole-monopole contributions included. As a main result we derive a closed system of first-order differential equations in a compact form, for a set of dimensionless variables encompassing both orbital elements and spin angles. These evolutions are constrained by conservation laws holding at 2PN order. As required by the generic theory of constrained dynamical systems we perform a consistency check and prove that the constraints are preserved by the evolution. We apply the formalism to show the existence of chameleon orbits, whose local, orbital parameters evolve from elliptic (in the Newtonian sense) near pericenter, towards hyperbolic at large distances. This behavior is consistent with the picture that general relativity predicts stronger gravity at short distances than Newtonian theory does.
Orbital refill of propulsion vehicle tankage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merino, F.; Risberg, J. A.; Hill, M.
1980-01-01
Techniques for orbital refueling of space based vehicles were developed and experimental programs to verify these techniques were identified. Orbital refueling operations were developed for two cryogenic orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's) and an Earth storable low thrust liquid propellant vehicle. Refueling operations were performed assuming an orbiter tanker for near term missions and an orbital depot. Analyses were conducted using liquid hydrogen and N2O4. The influence of a pressurization system and acquisition device on operations was also considered. Analyses showed that vehicle refill operations will be more difficult with a cryogen than with an earth storable. The major elements of a successful refill with cryogens include tank prechill and fill. Propellant quantities expended for tank prechill appear to to insignificant. Techniques were identified to avoid loss of liquid or excessive tank pressures during refill. It was determined that refill operations will be similar whether or not an orbiter tanker or orbital depot is available. Modeling analyses were performed for prechill and fill tests to be conducted assuming the Spacelab as a test bed, and a 1/10 scale model OTV (with LN2 as a test fluid) as an experimental package.
THE STATISTICAL MECHANICS OF PLANET ORBITS
Tremaine, Scott
2015-07-10
The final “giant-impact” phase of terrestrial planet formation is believed to begin with a large number of planetary “embryos” on nearly circular, coplanar orbits. Mutual gravitational interactions gradually excite their eccentricities until their orbits cross and they collide and merge; through this process the number of surviving bodies declines until the system contains a small number of planets on well-separated, stable orbits. In this paper we explore a simple statistical model for the orbit distribution of planets formed by this process, based on the sheared-sheet approximation and the ansatz that the planets explore uniformly all of the stable region of phase space. The model provides analytic predictions for the distribution of eccentricities and semimajor axis differences, correlations between orbital elements of nearby planets, and the complete N-planet distribution function, in terms of a single parameter, the “dynamical temperature,” that is determined by the planetary masses. The predicted properties are generally consistent with N-body simulations of the giant-impact phase and with the distribution of semimajor axis differences in the Kepler catalog of extrasolar planets. A similar model may apply to the orbits of giant planets if these orbits are determined mainly by dynamical evolution after the planets have formed and the gas disk has disappeared.
The optimization of the orbital Hohmann transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El Mabsout, Badaoui; Kamel, Osman M.; Soliman, Adel S.
2009-10-01
There are four bi-impulsive distinct configurations for the generalized Hohmann orbit transfer. In this case the terminal orbits as well as the transfer orbit are elliptic and coplanar. The elements of the initial orbit a1, e1 and the semi-major axis a2 of the terminal orbit are uniquely given quantities. For optimization procedure, minimization is relevant to the independent parameter eT, the eccentricity of the transfer orbit. We are capable of the assignment of minimum rocket fuel expenditure by using ordinary calculus condition of minimization for |ΔVA|+|ΔVB|=S. We exposed in detail the multi-steps of the optimization procedure. We constructed the variation table of S(eT) which proved that S(eT) is a decreasing function of eT in the admissible interval [e,e]. Our analysis leads to the fact that e2=1 for eT=e, i.e. the final orbit is a parabolic trajectory.
Orbit Determination of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Torrence, M. H.; Lemoine, F. G.; Zuber, M. T.
2011-01-01
We present the results on precision orbit determination from the radio science investigation of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft. We describe the data, modeling and methods used to achieve position knowledge several times better than the required 50-100m (in total position), over the period from 13 July 2009 to 31 January 2011. In addition to the near-continuous radiometric tracking data, we include altimetric data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) in the form of crossover measurements, and show that they strongly improve the accuracy of the orbit reconstruction (total position overlap differences decrease from approx.70m to approx.23 m). To refine the spacecraft trajectory further, we develop a lunar gravity field by combining the newly acquired LRO data with the historical data. The reprocessing of the spacecraft trajectory with that model shows significantly increased accuracy (approx.20m with only the radiometric data, and approx.14m with the addition of the altimetric crossovers). LOLA topographic maps and calibration data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera were used to supplement the results of the overlap analysis and demonstrate the trajectory accuracy.
Semi-Major Axis Knowledge and GPS Orbit Determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carpenter, J. Russell; Schiesser, Emil R.; Bauer, F. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
In recent years spacecraft designers have increasingly sought to use onboard Global Positioning System receivers for orbit determination. The superb positioning accuracy of GPS has tended to focus more attention on the system's capability to determine the spacecraft's location at a particular epoch than on accurate orbit determination, per se. The determination of orbit plane orientation and orbit shape to acceptable levels is less challenging than the determination of orbital period or semi-major axis. It is necessary to address semi-major axis mission requirements and the GPS receiver capability for orbital maneuver targeting and other operations that require trajectory prediction. Failure to determine semi-major axis accurately can result in a solution that may not be usable for targeting the execution of orbit adjustment and rendezvous maneuvers. Simple formulas, charts, and rules of thumb relating position, velocity, and semi-major axis are useful in design and analysis of GPS receivers for near circular orbit operations, including rendezvous and formation flying missions. Space Shuttle flights of a number of different GPS receivers, including a mix of unfiltered and filtered solution data and Standard and Precise Positioning, Service modes, have been accomplished. These results indicate that semi-major axis is often not determined very accurately, due to a poor velocity solution and a lack of proper filtering to provide good radial and speed error correlation.
Semi-Major Axis Knowledge and GPS Orbit Determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carpenter, J. Russell; Schiesser, Emil R.; Bauer, F. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
In recent years spacecraft designers have increasingly sought to use onboard Global Positioning System receivers for orbit determination. The superb positioning accuracy of GPS has tended to focus more attention on the system's capability to determine the spacecraft's location at a particular epoch than on accurate orbit determination, per se. The determination of orbit plane orientation and orbit shape to acceptable levels is less challenging than the determination of orbital period or semi-major axis. It is necessary to address semi-major axis mission requirements and the GPS receiver capability for orbital maneuver targeting and other operations that require trajectory prediction. Failure to determine semi-major axis accurately can result in a solution that may not be usable for targeting the execution of orbit adjustment and rendezvous maneuvers. Simple formulas, charts, and rules of thumb relating position, velocity, and semi-major axis are useful in design and analysis of GPS receivers for near circular orbit operations, including rendezvous and formation flying missions. Space Shuttle flights of a number of different GPS receivers, including a mix of unfiltered and filtered solution data and Standard and Precise Positioning Service modes, have been accomplished. These results indicate that semi-major axis is often not determined very accurately, due to a poor velocity solution and a lack of proper filtering to provide good radial and speed error correlation.
Precision orbit determination at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Putney, B.; Kolenkiewicz, R.; Smith, D.; Dunn, P.; Torrence, M. H.
1990-01-01
This paper describes the GEODYN computer program developed by the Geodynamics Branch at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and outlines the procedure for accurate satellite orbit and tracking-data analyses. The capabilities of the program allow the development of gravity fields as large as 90 by 90, and a complete modeling of tidal parameters. It is also feasible to numerically integrate a continuous orbit of a satellite such as Lageos for up to 12 years. The evolution of the orbit can be studied, and, by comparison with locally determined orbits, force model improvements can be made. The GEODYN flow diagrams are presented.
The Orbit of Pheobe from Earthbased and Voyager Observations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobson, R. A.
1996-01-01
This article presents the results of a fit of a numerically integrated orbit for the Saturnian satellite Pheobe to Earthbased astrometric observations (from 1904 to 1996) and imaging data acquired by the Voyager 2 spacecraft during its encounter with Saturn. The primary results are the epoch state vector used in the integration and a set of mean elements which provide a geometrical representation of the orbit. We also assess the quality of the fit and the accuracy of the orbit.
Recalculated Orbits of 8 Double Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olevic, D.; Popovic, G.; Jovanovic, P.
The authors present new orbital elements for the following pairs: ADS 1227, ADS 3317, ADS 8128, ADS 8239, ADS 8242, ADS 8539, ADS 8949 and McA 61. Individual masses for these pairs are also calculated. For the pairs ADS 8128, ADS 8239, ADS 8539 and ADS 8949 calculated parallaxes are in accordance with the corresponding parallaxes of the Hipparchos Program.
Autogenous dermis-fat "baseball" orbital implant.
Bullock, J D
1987-01-01
A new procedure has been devised for the construction of an autogenous dermis-fat orbital implant, in which two figure-eight-shaped dermis-fat grafts are sutured together into a baseball shape. Correct implant size can be determined by preplacement of different-sized Mule spheres and testing for accurate fit. The "baseball" implant eliminates deep orbital fat which is distant from a vascular supply, and because it is covered with dermis, it maximizes graft vascularization, thus promoting survival of the implanted tissues. In eight patients, followed postoperatively for as long as 28 months, baseball implants have produced highly satisfactory results.
Orbital inflammation: Corticosteroids first.
Dagi Glass, Lora R; Freitag, Suzanne K
2016-01-01
Orbital inflammation is common, and may affect all ages and both genders. By combining a thorough history and physical examination, targeted ancillary laboratory testing and imaging, a presumptive diagnosis can often be made. Nearly all orbital inflammatory pathology can be empirically treated with corticosteroids, thus obviating the need for histopathologic diagnosis prior to initiation of therapy. In addition, corticosteroids may be effective in treating concurrent systemic disease. Unless orbital inflammation responds atypically or incompletely, patients can be spared biopsy.
An Overview of the Jupiter Europa Orbiter Concept's Europa Science Phase Orbit Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lock, Robert E.; Ludwinski, Jan M.; Petropoulos, Anastassios E.; Clark, Karla B.; Pappalardo, Robert T.
2009-01-01
Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), the proposed NASA element of the proposed joint NASA-ESA Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), could launch in February 2020 and conceivably arrive at Jupiter in December of 2025. The concept is to perform a multi-year study of Europa and the Jupiter system, including 30 months of Jupiter system science and a comprehensive Europa orbit phase of 9 months. This paper provides an overview of the JEO concept and describes the Europa Science phase orbit design and the related science priorities, model pay-load and operations scenarios needed to conduct the Europa Science phase. This overview is for planning and discussion purposes only.
Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Orbit
This animation shows the orbits of Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, a Solar-Terrestrial Probe mission comprising of four identically instrumented spacecraft that will study the Earth's magn...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Portree, Davis S. F. (Editor); Loftus, Joseph P., Jr. (Editor)
1999-01-01
This chronology covers the 37-year history of orbital debris concerns. It tracks orbital debris hazard creation, research, observation, experimentation, management, mitigation, protection, and policy. Included are debris-producing, events; U.N. orbital debris treaties, Space Shuttle and space station orbital debris issues; ASAT tests; milestones in theory and modeling; uncontrolled reentries; detection system development; shielding development; geosynchronous debris issues, including reboost policies: returned surfaces studies, seminar papers reports, conferences, and studies; the increasing effect of space activities on astronomy; and growing international awareness of the near-Earth environment.
Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oostra, Benjamin
2015-12-01
Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is small, and its only effect on the seasons is their unequal durations. Here I show a pleasant way to guide students to the actual value of Earth's orbital eccentricity, starting from the durations of the four seasons. The date of perihelion is also found.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2008-01-01
This image shows the paths of three spacecraft currently in orbit around Mars, as well as the path by which NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will approach and land on the planet. The t-shaped crosses show where the orbiters will be when Phoenix enters the atmosphere, while the x-shaped crosses show their location at landing time.
All three orbiters, NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, NASA's Mars Odyssey and the European Space Agency's Mars Express, will be monitoring Phoenix during the final steps of its journey to the Red Planet.
Phoenix will land just south of Mars's north polar ice cap.
Unique human orbital morphology compared with that of apes
Denion, Eric; Hitier, Martin; Guyader, Vincent; Dugué, Audrey-Emmanuelle; Mouriaux, Frédéric
2015-01-01
Humans’ and apes’ convergent (front-facing) orbits allow a large overlap of monocular visual fields but are considered to limit the lateral visual field extent. However, humans can greatly expand their lateral visual fields using eye motion. This study aimed to assess whether the human orbital morphology was unique compared with that of apes in avoiding lateral visual field obstruction. The orbits of 100 human skulls and 120 ape skulls (30 gibbons; 30 orangutans; 30 gorillas; 30 chimpanzees and bonobos) were analyzed. The orbital width/height ratio was calculated. Two orbital angles representing orbital convergence and rearward position of the orbital margin respectively were recorded using a protractor and laser levels. Humans have the largest orbital width/height ratio (1.19; p < 0.001). Humans and gibbons have orbits which are significantly less convergent than those of chimpanzees / bonobos, gorillas and orangutans (p < 0.001). These elements suggest a morphology favoring lateral vision in humans. More specifically, the human orbit has a uniquely rearward temporal orbital margin (107.1°; p < 0.001), suitable for avoiding visual obstruction and promoting lateral visual field expansion through eye motion. Such an orbital morphology may have evolved mainly as an adaptation to open-country habitat and bipedal locomotion. PMID:26111067
Adaptive control and orbit determination for elliptical rendezvous
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Lijia; Hu, Yong; Jiang, Tiantian
2016-10-01
In this paper, we study the control and orbit determination problems for elliptical rendezvous. Autonomous rendezvous is achieved by the proposed adaptive control based on the measurements of relative position and velocity between the chaser and target spacecraft. Moreover, the target orbital elements can be estimated during the rendezvous process. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is illustrated by simulations.
Introducing the Moon's Orbital Eccentricity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oostra, Benjamin
2014-01-01
I present a novel way to introduce the lunar orbital eccentricity in introductory astronomy courses. The Moon is perhaps the clearest illustration of the general orbital elements such as inclination, ascending node, eccentricity, perigee, and so on. Furthermore, I like the students to discover astronomical phenomena for themselves, by means of a…
Astrometric Models of the Phobos Orbiter TV Cameras
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duxbury, T. C.
1993-01-01
Astrometric models of the 3 Phobos Orbiter TV cameras, their pointing in inertial space, the position of the Phobos Orbiter with respect to Mars, Phobos and Deimos, and transformations from inertial to body-fixed coordinates are needed to transform between the image coordinates of a picture element (.
Orbit determination using dual crossing arc altimetry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Born, G. H.; Tapley, B. D.; Santee, M. L.
1986-01-01
Accurate knowledge of the position of an altimetric satellite is required for the altimeter range data to be effective in measuring ocean topography. This study addresses the use of high-precision altimeter data from NASA's TOPEX Mission in reducing the radial component of the orbit of the U.S. Navy's N-ROSS satellite. Simulated altimeter crossing arc residuals between the TOPEX and N-ROSS orbits are minimized using both geometric and dynamic techniques in an effort to reduce the N-ROSS radial error to a level comparable to that of TOPEX. Tracking of N-ROSS by the Navy's NAVSPASUR system is simulated, and crossover residuals are created from the TOPEX and N-ROSS orbits. A simple geometric fit is shown to reduce the radial component of the NAVSPASUR N-ROSS orbit error from 350 m RMS to below 10 m RMS. In comparison, the dynamic approach of estimating the initial conditions of the N-ROSS orbit using a twentieth degree and order gravity field and a combined data set of tracking and altimeter crossover data yields a 6 m RMS residual error. Sub-meter accuracy can be attained by geometrically fitting these residuals to remove long wavelength orbit error.
Transition Metal Configurations and Limitations of the Orbital Approximation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scerri, Eric R.
1989-01-01
Points out a misconception that is reinforced in many elementary and advanced chemistry texts. Discusses the general limitations of the orbital concept. Notes misconceptions related to the transition elements and their first ionization energies. (MVL)
Asteroid orbital inversion using uniform phase-space sampling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muinonen, K.; Pentikäinen, H.; Granvik, M.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Virtanen, J.
2014-07-01
We review statistical inverse methods for asteroid orbit computation from a small number of astrometric observations and short time intervals of observations. With the help of Markov-chain Monte Carlo methods (MCMC), we present a novel inverse method that utilizes uniform sampling of the phase space for the orbital elements. The statistical orbital ranging method (Virtanen et al. 2001, Muinonen et al. 2001) was set out to resolve the long-lasting challenges in the initial computation of orbits for asteroids. The ranging method starts from the selection of a pair of astrometric observations. Thereafter, the topocentric ranges and angular deviations in R.A. and Decl. are randomly sampled. The two Cartesian positions allow for the computation of orbital elements and, subsequently, the computation of ephemerides for the observation dates. Candidate orbital elements are included in the sample of accepted elements if the χ^2-value between the observed and computed observations is within a pre-defined threshold. The sample orbital elements obtain weights based on a certain debiasing procedure. When the weights are available, the full sample of orbital elements allows the probabilistic assessments for, e.g., object classification and ephemeris computation as well as the computation of collision probabilities. The MCMC ranging method (Oszkiewicz et al. 2009; see also Granvik et al. 2009) replaces the original sampling algorithm described above with a proposal probability density function (p.d.f.), and a chain of sample orbital elements results in the phase space. MCMC ranging is based on a bivariate Gaussian p.d.f. for the topocentric ranges, and allows for the sampling to focus on the phase-space domain with most of the probability mass. In the virtual-observation MCMC method (Muinonen et al. 2012), the proposal p.d.f. for the orbital elements is chosen to mimic the a posteriori p.d.f. for the elements: first, random errors are simulated for each observation, resulting in
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Axelrad, Penina; Speed, Eden; Leitner, Jesse A. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This report summarizes the efforts to date in processing GPS measurements in High Earth Orbit (HEO) applications by the Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research (CCAR). Two specific projects were conducted; initialization of the orbit propagation software, GEODE, using nominal orbital elements for the IMEX orbit, and processing of actual and simulated GPS data from the AMSAT satellite using a Doppler-only batch filter. CCAR has investigated a number of approaches for initialization of the GEODE orbit estimator with little a priori information. This document describes a batch solution approach that uses pseudorange or Doppler measurements collected over an orbital arc to compute an epoch state estimate. The algorithm is based on limited orbital element knowledge from which a coarse estimate of satellite position and velocity can be determined and used to initialize GEODE. This algorithm assumes knowledge of nominal orbital elements, (a, e, i, omega, omega) and uses a search on time of perigee passage (tau(sub p)) to estimate the host satellite position within the orbit and the approximate receiver clock bias. Results of the method are shown for a simulation including large orbital uncertainties and measurement errors. In addition, CCAR has attempted to process GPS data from the AMSAT satellite to obtain an initial estimation of the orbit. Limited GPS data have been received to date, with few satellites tracked and no computed point solutions. Unknown variables in the received data have made computations of a precise orbit using the recovered pseudorange difficult. This document describes the Doppler-only batch approach used to compute the AMSAT orbit. Both actual flight data from AMSAT, and simulated data generated using the Satellite Tool Kit and Goddard Space Flight Center's Flight Simulator, were processed. Results for each case and conclusion are presented.
A new approach to compute accurate velocity of meteors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Egal, Auriane; Gural, Peter; Vaubaillon, Jeremie; Colas, Francois; Thuillot, William
2016-10-01
The CABERNET project was designed to push the limits of meteoroid orbit measurements by improving the determination of the meteors' velocities. Indeed, despite of the development of the cameras networks dedicated to the observation of meteors, there is still an important discrepancy between the measured orbits of meteoroids computed and the theoretical results. The gap between the observed and theoretic semi-major axis of the orbits is especially significant; an accurate determination of the orbits of meteoroids therefore largely depends on the computation of the pre-atmospheric velocities. It is then imperative to dig out how to increase the precision of the measurements of the velocity.In this work, we perform an analysis of different methods currently used to compute the velocities and trajectories of the meteors. They are based on the intersecting planes method developed by Ceplecha (1987), the least squares method of Borovicka (1990), and the multi-parameter fitting (MPF) method published by Gural (2012).In order to objectively compare the performances of these techniques, we have simulated realistic meteors ('fakeors') reproducing the different error measurements of many cameras networks. Some fakeors are built following the propagation models studied by Gural (2012), and others created by numerical integrations using the Borovicka et al. 2007 model. Different optimization techniques have also been investigated in order to pick the most suitable one to solve the MPF, and the influence of the geometry of the trajectory on the result is also presented.We will present here the results of an improved implementation of the multi-parameter fitting that allow an accurate orbit computation of meteors with CABERNET. The comparison of different velocities computation seems to show that if the MPF is by far the best method to solve the trajectory and the velocity of a meteor, the ill-conditioning of the costs functions used can lead to large estimate errors for noisy
Profitable capitation requires accurate costing.
West, D A; Hicks, L L; Balas, E A; West, T D
1996-01-01
In the name of costing accuracy, nurses are asked to track inventory use on per treatment basis when more significant costs, such as general overhead and nursing salaries, are usually allocated to patients or treatments on an average cost basis. Accurate treatment costing and financial viability require analysis of all resources actually consumed in treatment delivery, including nursing services and inventory. More precise costing information enables more profitable decisions as is demonstrated by comparing the ratio-of-cost-to-treatment method (aggregate costing) with alternative activity-based costing methods (ABC). Nurses must participate in this costing process to assure that capitation bids are based upon accurate costs rather than simple averages. PMID:8788799
Analyzing Shuttle Orbiter Trajectories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lear, W. M.
1986-01-01
LRBET4 program best-estimated-of-trajectory (BET) calculation for post-flight trajectory analysis of Shuttle orbiter. Produces estimated measurements for comparing predicted and actual trajectory of Earth-orbiting spacecraft. Kalman filter and smoothing filter applied to input data to estimate state vector, reduce noise, and produce BET. LRBET4 written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.
Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sittler Jr., E. C.; Acuna, M.; Burchell, M. J.; Coates, A.; Farrell, W.; Flasar, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Gorevan, S.; Hartle, R. E.; Johnson, W. T. K.
2001-01-01
We propose a combined Titan orbiter and Titan Aerorover mission with an emphasis on both in situ and remote sensing measurements of Titan's surface, atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetospheric interaction. The biological aspect of the Titan environment will be emphasized by the mission (i.e., search for organic materials which may include simple organics to 'amono' analogues of amino acids and possibly more complex, lightening detection and infrared, ultraviolet, and charged particle interactions with Titan's surface and atmosphere). An international mission is assumed to control costs. NASA will provide the orbiter, launch vehicle, DSN coverage and operations, while international partners will provide the Aerorover and up to 30% of the cost for the scientific instruments through collaborative efforts. To further reduce costs we propose a single PI for orbiter science instruments and a single PI for Aerorover science instruments. This approach will provide single command/data and power interface between spacecraft and orbiter instruments that will have redundant central DPU and power converter for their instruments. A similar approach could be used for the Aerorover. The mission profile will be constructed to minimize conflicts between Aerorover science, orbiter radar science, orbiter radio science, orbiter imaging science, and orbiter fields and particles (FP) science. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
Orbital Shape Representations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kikuchi, Osamu; Suzuki, Keizo
1985-01-01
Discusses the use of orbital shapes for instructional purposes, emphasizing that differences between polar, contour, and three-dimensional plots must be made clear to students or misconceptions will occur. Also presents three-dimensional contour surfaces for the seven 4f atomic orbitals of hydrogen and discusses their computer generation. (JN)
Accurate, reliable prototype earth horizon sensor head
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwarz, F.; Cohen, H.
1973-01-01
The design and performance is described of an accurate and reliable prototype earth sensor head (ARPESH). The ARPESH employs a detection logic 'locator' concept and horizon sensor mechanization which should lead to high accuracy horizon sensing that is minimally degraded by spatial or temporal variations in sensing attitude from a satellite in orbit around the earth at altitudes in the 500 km environ 1,2. An accuracy of horizon location to within 0.7 km has been predicted, independent of meteorological conditions. This corresponds to an error of 0.015 deg-at 500 km altitude. Laboratory evaluation of the sensor indicates that this accuracy is achieved. First, the basic operating principles of ARPESH are described; next, detailed design and construction data is presented and then performance of the sensor under laboratory conditions in which the sensor is installed in a simulator that permits it to scan over a blackbody source against background representing the earth space interface for various equivalent plant temperatures.
Method to integrate full particle orbit in toroidal plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, X. S.; Xiao, Y.; Kuley, A.; Lin, Z.
2015-09-01
It is important to integrate full particle orbit accurately when studying charged particle dynamics in electromagnetic waves with frequency higher than cyclotron frequency. We have derived a form of the Boris scheme using magnetic coordinates, which can be used effectively to integrate the cyclotron orbit in toroidal geometry over a long period of time. The new method has been verified by a full particle orbit simulation in toroidal geometry without high frequency waves. The full particle orbit calculation recovers guiding center banana orbit. This method has better numeric properties than the conventional Runge-Kutta method for conserving particle energy and magnetic moment. The toroidal precession frequency is found to match that from guiding center simulation. Many other important phenomena in the presence of an electric field, such as E × B drift, Ware pinch effect and neoclassical polarization drift are also verified by the full orbit simulation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1998-01-01
The purpose of this mission is to study the climate history and the water distribution of Mars. Beautiful panoramic views of the shuttle on the launch pad, engine ignition, Rocket launch, and the separation and burnout of the Solid Rocket Boosters are shown. The footage also includes an animation of the mission. Detailed views of the path that the Orbiter traversed were shown. Once the Orbiter lands on the surface of Mars, it will dig a six to eight inch hole and collect samples from the planets' surface. The animation also included the prospective return of the Orbiter to Earth over the desert of Utah. The remote sensor on the Orbiter helps in finding the exact location of the Orbiter so that scientists may collect the sample and analyze it.
Remote Controlled Orbiter Capability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garske, Michael; delaTorre, Rafael
2007-01-01
The Remote Control Orbiter (RCO) capability allows a Space Shuttle Orbiter to perform an unmanned re-entry and landing. This low-cost capability employs existing and newly added functions to perform key activities typically performed by flight crews and controllers during manned re-entries. During an RCO landing attempt, these functions are triggered by automation resident in the on-board computers or uplinked commands from flight controllers on the ground. In order to properly route certain commands to the appropriate hardware, an In-Flight Maintenance (IFM) cable was developed. Currently, the RCO capability is reserved for the scenario where a safe return of the crew from orbit may not be possible. The flight crew would remain in orbit and await a rescue mission. After the crew is rescued, the RCO capability would be used on the unmanned Orbiter in an attempt to salvage this national asset.
THE ORBIT OF CHARON IS CIRCULAR
Buie, Marc W.; Tholen, David J.; Grundy, William M. E-mail: tholen@ifa.hawaii.edu
2012-07-15
We present a detailed analysis of the orbit of Charon where we show its orbit to be circular. This analysis explores the effects of surface albedo variations on the astrometry and the resulting errors in the orbital elements. We present two new epochs of data from the Hubble Space Telescope taken in 2008 and 2010 and combine that with a re-analysis of previously published data from 1992 and 2002. Our adopted two-body Keplerian orbital elements for Charon are P = 6.3872273 {+-} 0.0000003 days, a = 19573 {+-} 2 km, e = 0., i = 96.218 {+-} 0.008 deg, L = 4.50177 {+-} 0.00018 rad, and {Omega} = 3.89249 {+-} 0.00012 rad for an epoch of JDT = 2452600.5 in the J2000 reference frame. The 1{sigma} upper limit to the eccentricity is 7.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}. The predicted uncertainty in the position of Charon relative to Pluto at the time of the New Horizons encounter based on this orbit is 8 km.
Three Orbital Burns to Molniya Orbit Via Shuttle_Centaur G Upper Stage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Craig H.
2015-01-01
An unclassified analytical trajectory design, performance, and mission study was done for the 1982 to 1986 joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-United States Air Force (USAF) Shuttle/Centaur G upper stage development program to send performance-demanding payloads to high orbits such as Molniya using an unconventional orbit transfer. This optimized three orbital burn transfer to Molniya orbit was compared to the then-baselined two burn transfer. The results of the three dimensional trajectory optimization performed include powered phase steering data and coast phase orbital element data. Time derivatives of the orbital elements as functions of thrust components were evaluated and used to explain the optimization's solution. Vehicle performance as a function of parking orbit inclination was given. Performance and orbital element data was provided for launch windows as functions of launch time. Ground track data was given for all burns and coasts including variation within the launch window. It was found that a Centaur with fully loaded propellant tanks could be flown from a 37 deg inclination low Earth parking orbit and achieve Molniya orbit with comparable performance to the baselined transfer which started from a 57 deg inclined orbit: 9,545 versus 9,552 lb of separated spacecraft weight, respectively. There was a significant reduction in the need for propellant launch time reserve for a 1 hr window: only 78 lb for the three burn transfer versus 320 lb for the two burn transfer. Conversely, this also meant that longer launch windows over more orbital revolutions could be done for the same amount of propellant reserve. There was no practical difference in ground tracking station or airborne assets needed to secure telemetric data, even though the geometric locations of the burns varied considerably. There was a significant adverse increase in total mission elapsed time for the three versus two burn transfer (12 vs. 1-1/4 hr), but could be
Three Orbital Burns to Molniya Orbit via Shuttle Centaur G Upper Stage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Craig H.
2014-01-01
An unclassified analytical trajectory design, performance, and mission study was done for the 1982-86 joint NASA-USAF Shuttle/Centaur G upper stage development program to send performance-demanding payloads to high orbits such as Molniya using an unconventional orbit transfer. This optimized three orbital burn transfer to Molniya orbit was compared to the then-baselined two burn transfer. The results of the three dimensional trajectory optimization performed include powered phase steering data and coast phase orbital element data. Time derivatives of the orbital elements as functions of thrust components were evaluated and used to explain the optimization's solution. Vehicle performance as a function of parking orbit inclination was given. Performance and orbital element data was provided for launch windows as functions of launch time. Ground track data was given for all burns and coasts including variation within the launch window. It was found that a Centaur with fully loaded propellant tanks could be flown from a 37deg inclination low Earth parking orbit and achieve Molniya orbit with comparable performance to the baselined transfer which started from a 57deg inclined orbit: 9,545 lb vs. 9,552 lb of separated spacecraft weight respectively. There was a significant reduction in the need for propellant launch time reserve for a one hour window: only 78 lb for the three burn transfer vs. 320 lb for the two burn transfer. Conversely, this also meant that longer launch windows over more orbital revolutions could be done for the same amount of propellant reserve. There was no practical difference in ground tracking station or airborne assets needed to secure telemetric data, even though the geometric locations of the burns varied considerably. There was a significant adverse increase in total mission elapsed time for the three vs. two burn transfer (12 vs. 11/4 hrs), but could be accommodated by modest modifications to Centaur systems. Future applications were
Orbital Causes of Incomitant Strabismus
Lueder, Gregg T.
2015-01-01
Strabismus may result from abnormal innervation, structure, or function of the extraocular muscles. Abnormalities of the orbital bones or masses within the orbit may also cause strabismus due to indirect effects on the extraocular muscles. This paper reviews some disorders of the orbit that are associated with strabismus, including craniofacial malformations, orbital masses, trauma, and anomalous orbital structures. PMID:26180465
Lageos orbit and the albedo problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubincam, D. P.
1984-01-01
The objective was to obtain an analytic expression for the radiation pressure force on a satellite due to sunlight reflected from the Earth. The Lageos satellite undergoes unexplained along-track accelerations. These accelerations are believed to be due mainly to terrestrial radiation pressure. The effect of sunlight reflected off the surface of the Earth must thus be modeled to insure an accurate orbit for Lageos. An accurate orbit is necessary for carrying out Lageos' mission of measuring tectonic plate motion, polar motion, and Earth rotation. The present investigation focuses on a spherical harmonic approach to the problem. An equation for the force was obtained by assuming the Earth's surface reflects sunlight according to Lambert's law. The equation is an integral over the whole Earth's surface. Expressions occurring inside the integral are expressed in terms of spherical harmonics. The problem is thus reduced to integrating products of spherical harmonics.
Uncertainties in MARS Meteor Orbit Radar Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolomiyets, S. V.
2015-03-01
The uncertainties in meteor radar data and the problem of hyperbolic meteors are interconnected. Meteor orbital data, obtained by the Meteor Automatic Radar System (MARS) at the Kharkiv Institute of Radio Electronics, Ukraine, was used to develop the algorithm to determine the uncertainties of the orbital elements obtained by radar systems such as MARS. We have constructed the empirical model of the distribution of uncertainties in the orbital elements of meteor radar data. MARS had a high effective sensitivity (the limiting magnitude of observed meteors was close to 12 ^ M) and was capable to carry out comprehensive geophysical and astronomical studies of meteors. When we register meteor numbers, radiants, meteoroid velocities, we can talk about astronomical observations. The main objective of meteor astronomy research is to determine the orbit of the meteoroid, in other words, to study a meteoroid as an astronomical object of the Solar System. Sometimes meteoroids may have an interstellar origin. Such meteoroids usually have hyperbolic orbits (i.e. with eccentricities e>1). However, hyperbolic orbits of meteoroids may have another origin, e.g. arise due to errors of observations (primarily due to the errors of eccentricities - σe). To correctly interpret the astronomical data, it is necessary to know how the errors are calculated. In this paper, we estimated the uncertainties in the Kharkiv meteor radar data (the average σe ~0.2) and discussed their connection to the problem of hyperbolic meteors. We obtained ~0.8% of total number of meteoroid orbits in 1975, which we named "real" hyperboles, i.e. with eccentricities more or equal 1+2σe.
Orbits for Eight Hipparcos Double Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cvetković, Z.; Pavlović, R.; Ninković, S.
2014-03-01
In this paper, we analyze new orbital elements and the quantities that follow from them for eight binaries: WDS 00101+3825 = HDS 23Da,Db, WDS 00321-1218 = HDS 71, WDS 04287+2613 = HDS 576, WDS 04389-1207 = HDS 599, WDS 16206+4535 = HDS 2309, WDS 17155+1052 = HDS 2440, WDS 22161-0705 = HDS 3158, and WDS 23167+3441 = HDS 3315. For seven of them, the orbital elements are calculated for the first time. Binaries, denoted as HDS, were discovered during the Hipparcos mission, and their first observational epoch is 1991.25, the same as the mean epoch of the Hipparcos catalog. We found all other measurements of these binaries in databases. They were obtained in the last 15 yr using the speckle interferometric technique. All studied pairs are close, and all measured separations are less than 0.''4. The resulting orbital periods fall within 26 and 80 yr. In addition to the orbital elements, we also give (O - C) residuals in θ and ρ, masses, dynamical parallaxes, absolute magnitudes, spectral types, and ephemerides for the next 5 yr.
Orbits for eight Hipparcos double stars
Cvetković, Z.; Pavlović, R.; Ninković, S.
2014-03-01
In this paper, we analyze new orbital elements and the quantities that follow from them for eight binaries: WDS 00101+3825 = HDS 23Da,Db, WDS 00321–1218 = HDS 71, WDS 04287+2613 = HDS 576, WDS 04389–1207 = HDS 599, WDS 16206+4535 = HDS 2309, WDS 17155+1052 = HDS 2440, WDS 22161–0705 = HDS 3158, and WDS 23167+3441 = HDS 3315. For seven of them, the orbital elements are calculated for the first time. Binaries, denoted as HDS, were discovered during the Hipparcos mission, and their first observational epoch is 1991.25, the same as the mean epoch of the Hipparcos catalog. We found all other measurements of these binaries in databases. They were obtained in the last 15 yr using the speckle interferometric technique. All studied pairs are close, and all measured separations are less than 0.''4. The resulting orbital periods fall within 26 and 80 yr. In addition to the orbital elements, we also give (O – C) residuals in θ and ρ, masses, dynamical parallaxes, absolute magnitudes, spectral types, and ephemerides for the next 5 yr.
Accurate measurement of unsteady state fluid temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaremkiewicz, Magdalena
2016-07-01
In this paper, two accurate methods for determining the transient fluid temperature were presented. Measurements were conducted for boiling water since its temperature is known. At the beginning the thermometers are at the ambient temperature and next they are immediately immersed into saturated water. The measurements were carried out with two thermometers of different construction but with the same housing outer diameter equal to 15 mm. One of them is a K-type industrial thermometer widely available commercially. The temperature indicated by the thermometer was corrected considering the thermometers as the first or second order inertia devices. The new design of a thermometer was proposed and also used to measure the temperature of boiling water. Its characteristic feature is a cylinder-shaped housing with the sheath thermocouple located in its center. The temperature of the fluid was determined based on measurements taken in the axis of the solid cylindrical element (housing) using the inverse space marching method. Measurements of the transient temperature of the air flowing through the wind tunnel using the same thermometers were also carried out. The proposed measurement technique provides more accurate results compared with measurements using industrial thermometers in conjunction with simple temperature correction using the inertial thermometer model of the first or second order. By comparing the results, it was demonstrated that the new thermometer allows obtaining the fluid temperature much faster and with higher accuracy in comparison to the industrial thermometer. Accurate measurements of the fast changing fluid temperature are possible due to the low inertia thermometer and fast space marching method applied for solving the inverse heat conduction problem.
Bayesian Statistical Approach To Binary Asteroid Orbit Determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dmitrievna Kovalenko, Irina; Stoica, Radu S.
2015-08-01
Orbit determination from observations is one of the classical problems in celestial mechanics. Deriving the trajectory of binary asteroid with high precision is much more complicate than the trajectory of simple asteroid. Here we present a method of orbit determination based on the algorithm of Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC). This method can be used for the preliminary orbit determination with relatively small number of observations, or for adjustment of orbit previously determined.The problem consists on determination of a conditional a posteriori probability density with given observations. Applying the Bayesian statistics, the a posteriori probability density of the binary asteroid orbital parameters is proportional to the a priori and likelihood probability densities. The likelihood function is related to the noise probability density and can be calculated from O-C deviations (Observed minus Calculated positions). The optionally used a priori probability density takes into account information about the population of discovered asteroids. The a priori probability density is used to constrain the phase space of possible orbits.As a MCMC method the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm has been applied, adding a globally convergent coefficient. The sequence of possible orbits derives through the sampling of each orbital parameter and acceptance criteria.The method allows to determine the phase space of every possible orbit considering each parameter. It also can be used to derive one orbit with the biggest probability density of orbital elements.
Orbital Evolution of Jupiter-Family Comets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ipatov, S. I.; Mather, J. S.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We investigated the evolution for periods of at least 5-10 Myr of 2500 Jupiter-crossing objects (JCOs) under the gravitational influence of all planets, except for Mercury and Pluto (without dissipative factors). In the first series we considered N=2000 orbits near the orbits of 30 real Jupiter-family comets with period less than 10 yr, and in the second series we took 500 orbits close to the orbit of Comet 10P Tempel 2. We calculated the probabilities of collisions of objects with the terrestrial planets, using orbital elements obtained with a step equal to 500 yr and then summarized the results for all time intervals and all bodies, obtaining the total probability P(sub sigma) of collisions with a planet and the total time interval T(sub sigma) during which perihelion distance of bodies was less than a semimajor axis of the planet. The values of P = 10(exp 6)P(sub sigma)/N and T = T(sub sigma)/1000 yr are presented in Table together with the ratio r of the total time interval when orbits were of Apollo type (at e less than 0.999) to that of Amor type.
The long-term prediction of artificial satellite orbits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cefola, P. J.; Long, A. C.; Holloway, G., Jr.
1974-01-01
Survey of averaging and multirevolution methods for long-term orbit prediction. A technical approach with the following features is recommended: (1) averaged variation-of-parameter equations, (2) analytical expressions for oblateness and third-body effects, (3) definite integrals for atmospheric drag and lunar effects (for long-period orbits), (4) nonsingular equinoctial element formulation, (5) multistep numerical integration processes, and (6) precise osculating-to-mean element transformation. Several orbital predictions illustrate the contribution of this technical approach to overall accuracy and efficiency. Future development of the analytical averaging method in nonsingular coordinates by automated manipulation of literal series is discussed.
Visualization of atom's orbits.
Kim, Byungwhan
2014-02-01
High-resolution imaging techniques have been used to obtain views of internal shapes of single atoms or columns of atoms. This review article focuses on the visualization of internal atomic structures such as the configurations of electron orbits confined to atoms. This is accomplished by applying visualization techniques to the reported images of atoms or molecules as well as static and dynamic ions in a plasma. It was found that the photon and electron energies provide macroscopic and microscopic views of the orbit structures of atoms, respectively. The laser-imaged atoms showed a rugged orbit structure, containing alternating dark and bright orbits believed to be the pathways for an externally supplied laser energy and internally excited electron energy, respectively. By contrast, the atoms taken by the electron microscopy provided a structure of fine electron orbits, systematically formed in increasing order of grayscale representing the energy state of an orbit. This structure was identical to those of the plasma ions. The visualized electronic structures played a critical role in clarifying vague postulates made in the Bohr model. Main features proposed in the atomic model are the dynamic orbits absorbing an externally supplied electromagnetic energy, electron emission from them while accompanying light radiation, and frequency of electron waves not light. The light-accompanying electrons and ionic speckles induced by laser light signify that light is composed of electrons and ions.
Cunnane, Mary Beth; Curtin, Hugh David
2016-01-01
Diseases of the orbit can be categorized in many ways, but in this chapter we shall group them according to etiology. Inflammatory diseases of the orbits may be infectious or noninfectious. Of the infections, orbital cellulitis is the most common and typically arises as a complication of acute sinusitis. Of the noninfectious, inflammatory conditions, thyroid orbitopathy is the most common and results in enlargement of the extraocular muscles and proliferation of the orbital fat. Idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome is another cause of inflammation in the orbit, which may mimic thyroid orbitopathy or even neoplasm, but typically presents with pain. Masses in the orbit may be benign or malignant and the differential diagnosis primarily depends on the location of the mass lesion, and on the age of the patient. Lacrimal gland tumors may be lymphomas or epithelial lesions of salivary origin. Extraocular muscle tumors may represent lymphoma or metastases. Tumors of the intraconal fat are often benign, typically hemangiomas or schwannomas. Finally, globe tumors may be retinoblastomas (in children), or choroidal melanomas or metastases in adults. PMID:27432687
Orbit Stabilization of Nanosat
JOHNSON,DAVID J.
1999-12-01
An algorithm is developed to control a pulsed {Delta}V thruster on a small satellite to allow it to fly in formation with a host satellite undergoing time dependent atmospheric drag deceleration. The algorithm uses four short thrusts per orbit to correct for differences in the average radii of the satellites due to differences in drag and one thrust to symmetrize the orbits. The radial difference between the orbits is the only input to the algorithm. The algorithm automatically stabilizes the orbits after ejection and includes provisions to allow azimuthal positional changes by modifying the drag compensation pulses. The algorithm gives radial and azimuthal deadbands of 50 cm and 3 m for a radial measurement accuracy of {+-} 5 cm and {+-} 60% period variation in the drag coefficient of the host. Approaches to further reduce the deadbands are described. The methodology of establishing a stable orbit after ejection is illustrated in an appendix. The results show the optimum ejection angle to minimize stabilization thrust is upward at 86{sup o} from the orbital velocity. At this angle the stabilization velocity that must be supplied by the thruster is half the ejection velocity. An ejection velocity of 0.02 m/sat 86{sup o} gives an azimuthal separation after ejection and orbit stabilization of 187 m. A description of liquid based gas thrusters suitable for the satellite control is included in an appendix.
Measurement of the first ionization potential of lawrencium, element 103.
Sato, T K; Asai, M; Borschevsky, A; Stora, T; Sato, N; Kaneya, Y; Tsukada, K; Düllmann, Ch E; Eberhardt, K; Eliav, E; Ichikawa, S; Kaldor, U; Kratz, J V; Miyashita, S; Nagame, Y; Ooe, K; Osa, A; Renisch, D; Runke, J; Schädel, M; Thörle-Pospiech, P; Toyoshima, A; Trautmann, N
2015-04-01
The chemical properties of an element are primarily governed by the configuration of electrons in the valence shell. Relativistic effects influence the electronic structure of heavy elements in the sixth row of the periodic table, and these effects increase dramatically in the seventh row--including the actinides--even affecting ground-state configurations. Atomic s and p1/2 orbitals are stabilized by relativistic effects, whereas p3/2, d and f orbitals are destabilized, so that ground-state configurations of heavy elements may differ from those of lighter elements in the same group. The first ionization potential (IP1) is a measure of the energy required to remove one valence electron from a neutral atom, and is an atomic property that reflects the outermost electronic configuration. Precise and accurate experimental determination of IP1 gives information on the binding energy of valence electrons, and also, therefore, on the degree of relativistic stabilization. However, such measurements are hampered by the difficulty in obtaining the heaviest elements on scales of more than one atom at a time. Here we report that the experimentally obtained IP1 of the heaviest actinide, lawrencium (Lr, atomic number 103), is 4.96(+0.08)(-0.07) electronvolts. The IP1 of Lr was measured with (256)Lr (half-life 27 seconds) using an efficient surface ion-source and a radioisotope detection system coupled to a mass separator. The measured IP1 is in excellent agreement with the value of 4.963(15) electronvolts predicted here by state-of-the-art relativistic calculations. The present work provides a reliable benchmark for theoretical calculations and also opens the way for IP1 measurements of superheavy elements (that is, transactinides) on an atom-at-a-time scale.
Measurement of the first ionization potential of lawrencium, element 103
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, T. K.; Asai, M.; Borschevsky, A.; Stora, T.; Sato, N.; Kaneya, Y.; Tsukada, K.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eberhardt, K.; Eliav, E.; Ichikawa, S.; Kaldor, U.; Kratz, J. V.; Miyashita, S.; Nagame, Y.; Ooe, K.; Osa, A.; Renisch, D.; Runke, J.; Schädel, M.; Thörle-Pospiech, P.; Toyoshima, A.; Trautmann, N.
2015-04-01
The chemical properties of an element are primarily governed by the configuration of electrons in the valence shell. Relativistic effects influence the electronic structure of heavy elements in the sixth row of the periodic table, and these effects increase dramatically in the seventh row--including the actinides--even affecting ground-state configurations. Atomic s and p1/2 orbitals are stabilized by relativistic effects, whereas p3/2, d and f orbitals are destabilized, so that ground-state configurations of heavy elements may differ from those of lighter elements in the same group. The first ionization potential (IP1) is a measure of the energy required to remove one valence electron from a neutral atom, and is an atomic property that reflects the outermost electronic configuration. Precise and accurate experimental determination of IP1 gives information on the binding energy of valence electrons, and also, therefore, on the degree of relativistic stabilization. However, such measurements are hampered by the difficulty in obtaining the heaviest elements on scales of more than one atom at a time. Here we report that the experimentally obtained IP1 of the heaviest actinide, lawrencium (Lr, atomic number 103), is electronvolts. The IP1 of Lr was measured with 256Lr (half-life 27 seconds) using an efficient surface ion-source and a radioisotope detection system coupled to a mass separator. The measured IP1 is in excellent agreement with the value of 4.963(15) electronvolts predicted here by state-of-the-art relativistic calculations. The present work provides a reliable benchmark for theoretical calculations and also opens the way for IP1 measurements of superheavy elements (that is, transactinides) on an atom-at-a-time scale.
Measurement of the first ionization potential of lawrencium, element 103.
Sato, T K; Asai, M; Borschevsky, A; Stora, T; Sato, N; Kaneya, Y; Tsukada, K; Düllmann, Ch E; Eberhardt, K; Eliav, E; Ichikawa, S; Kaldor, U; Kratz, J V; Miyashita, S; Nagame, Y; Ooe, K; Osa, A; Renisch, D; Runke, J; Schädel, M; Thörle-Pospiech, P; Toyoshima, A; Trautmann, N
2015-04-01
The chemical properties of an element are primarily governed by the configuration of electrons in the valence shell. Relativistic effects influence the electronic structure of heavy elements in the sixth row of the periodic table, and these effects increase dramatically in the seventh row--including the actinides--even affecting ground-state configurations. Atomic s and p1/2 orbitals are stabilized by relativistic effects, whereas p3/2, d and f orbitals are destabilized, so that ground-state configurations of heavy elements may differ from those of lighter elements in the same group. The first ionization potential (IP1) is a measure of the energy required to remove one valence electron from a neutral atom, and is an atomic property that reflects the outermost electronic configuration. Precise and accurate experimental determination of IP1 gives information on the binding energy of valence electrons, and also, therefore, on the degree of relativistic stabilization. However, such measurements are hampered by the difficulty in obtaining the heaviest elements on scales of more than one atom at a time. Here we report that the experimentally obtained IP1 of the heaviest actinide, lawrencium (Lr, atomic number 103), is 4.96(+0.08)(-0.07) electronvolts. The IP1 of Lr was measured with (256)Lr (half-life 27 seconds) using an efficient surface ion-source and a radioisotope detection system coupled to a mass separator. The measured IP1 is in excellent agreement with the value of 4.963(15) electronvolts predicted here by state-of-the-art relativistic calculations. The present work provides a reliable benchmark for theoretical calculations and also opens the way for IP1 measurements of superheavy elements (that is, transactinides) on an atom-at-a-time scale. PMID:25855457
van Meer, R; Gritsenko, O V; Baerends, E J
2014-10-14
In recent years, several benchmark studies on the performance of large sets of functionals in time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations of excitation energies have been performed. The tested functionals do not approximate exact Kohn-Sham orbitals and orbital energies closely. We highlight the advantages of (close to) exact Kohn-Sham orbitals and orbital energies for a simple description, very often as just a single orbital-to-orbital transition, of molecular excitations. Benchmark calculations are performed for the statistical average of orbital potentials (SAOP) functional for the potential [J. Chem. Phys. 2000, 112, 1344; 2001, 114, 652], which approximates the true Kohn-Sham potential much better than LDA, GGA, mGGA, and hybrid potentials do. An accurate Kohn-Sham potential does not only perform satisfactorily for calculated vertical excitation energies of both valence and Rydberg transitions but also exhibits appealing properties of the KS orbitals including occupied orbital energies close to ionization energies, virtual-occupied orbital energy gaps very close to excitation energies, realistic shapes of virtual orbitals, leading to straightforward interpretation of most excitations as single orbital transitions. We stress that such advantages are completely lost in time-dependent Hartree-Fock and partly in hybrid approaches. Many excitations and excitation energies calculated with local density, generalized gradient, and hybrid functionals are spurious. There is, with an accurate KS, or even the LDA or GGA potentials, nothing problematic about the "band gap" in molecules: the HOMO-LUMO gap is close to the first excitation energy (the optical gap).
Precise and Accurate Density Determination of Explosives Using Hydrostatic Weighing
B. Olinger
2005-07-01
Precise and accurate density determination requires weight measurements in air and water using sufficiently precise analytical balances, knowledge of the densities of air and water, knowledge of thermal expansions, availability of a density standard, and a method to estimate the time to achieve thermal equilibrium with water. Density distributions in pressed explosives are inferred from the densities of elements from a central slice.
Accurate documentation and wound measurement.
Hampton, Sylvie
This article, part 4 in a series on wound management, addresses the sometimes routine yet crucial task of documentation. Clear and accurate records of a wound enable its progress to be determined so the appropriate treatment can be applied. Thorough records mean any practitioner picking up a patient's notes will know when the wound was last checked, how it looked and what dressing and/or treatment was applied, ensuring continuity of care. Documenting every assessment also has legal implications, demonstrating due consideration and care of the patient and the rationale for any treatment carried out. Part 5 in the series discusses wound dressing characteristics and selection.
Atoms in parallel fields: Analysis with diffractive periodic orbits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owen, S. M.; Monteiro, T. S.; Dando, P. A.
2000-11-01
We show that fluctuations in the density of states of nonhydrogenic atoms in parallel fields are strongly influenced by diffractive periodic orbits. Unlike typical systems with a diffractive point scatterer, the atomic core of small atoms like lithium and helium is best understood as a combined geometric and diffractive scatterer. Each Gutzwiller (geometric) periodic orbit is paired with a diffractive orbit of the same action. We investigate, particularly, amplitudes for contributions from repetitions, and multiple scattering orbits. We find that periodic orbit repetitions are described by ``hybrid'' orbits, combining both diffractive and geometric core scatters, and that by including all possible permutations we can obtain excellent agreement between the semiclassical model and accurate fully quantal calculations. For high repetitions, we find even one-scatter diffractive contributions become of the same order as those of the geometric periodic orbit for repetition numbers n~ħ-1/2. Although the contribution of individual diffractive orbits is suppressed by O(ħ1/2) relative to the geometric periodic orbits, the proliferation of diffractive orbits with increasing period means that the diffractive effect for the atom can persist in the ħ-->0 limit.
Reconstruction of internal orbital fractures with Vitallium mesh.
Sargent, L A; Fulks, K D
1991-07-01
Trauma to the face frequently results in internal orbital fractures that may produce large orbital defects involving multiple walls. Accurate anatomic reconstruction of the bony orbit is essential to maintain normal appearance and function of the eye following such injuries. Autogenous bone grafts do not always produce predictable long-term support of the globe. Displacement and varying amounts of bone-graft resorption can lead to enophthalmos. This study examines the use of Vitallium mesh in the acute reconstruction of internal orbital defects. Fifty-four patients with 66 orbits underwent reconstruction of internal orbital defects with Vitallium mesh. Associated fractures were anatomically reduced and rigidly fixed. Forty-six patients and 57 orbits had adequate follow-up for analysis of results. The average follow-up was 9 months, with 85 percent of the patients followed 6 months or longer. There were no postoperative orbital infections, and none of the Vitallium mesh required removal. Large internal orbital defects can be reconstructed using Vitallium mesh with good results and little risk of infection. Vitallium mesh appears to be well tolerated in spite of free communication with the sinuses. Stable reconstruction of the internal orbit can be achieved and predictable eye position maintained without donor-site morbidity.
Orbital Debris Observations with WFCAM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kendrick, R.; Mann, B.; Read, M.; Kerr, T.; Irwin, M.; Cross, N.; Bold, M.,; Varricatt, W.; Madsen, G.
2014-09-01
The United Kingdom Infrared Telescope has been operating for 35 years on the summit of Mauna Kea as a premier Infrared astronomical facility. In its 35th year the telescope has been turned over to a new operating group consisting of University of Arizona, University of Hawaii and the LM Advanced Technology Center. UKIRT will continue its astronomical mission with a portion of observing time dedicated to orbital debris and Near Earth Object detection and characterization. During the past 10 years the UKIRT Wide Field CAMera (WFCAM) has been performing large area astronomical surveys in the J, H and K bands. The data for these surveys have been reduced by the Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit in Cambridge, England and archived by the Wide Field Astronomy Unit in Edinburgh, Scotland. During January and February of 2014 the Wide Field CAMera (WFCAM) was used to scan through the geostationary satellite belt detecting operational satellites as well as nearby debris. Accurate photometric and astrometric parameters have been developed by CASU for each of the detections and all data has been archived by WFAU. This paper will present the January and February results of the orbital debris surveys with WFCAM.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montanaro, Matthew; Gerace, Aaron D.
2012-06-01
The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) will continue thermal band measurements of the Earth for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The instrument is a dual-channel, push-broom imager that consists of 1850 detector elements per band spanning the 15-degree cross track field of view. The push-broom configuration of the instrument presents several challenges to ensure that the instrument meets uniformity and linearity requirements across the field of view. Each detector element may have a slightly different spectral and radiometric response resulting from variations in pixel-to-pixel gain, bias, and spectral band shape. These differences must be measured and corrected for in order to provide a radiometrically accurate data product necessary for the Landsat science mission. During pre-launch testing, calibration ground support equipment (CGSE) is used to uniformly illuminate the TIRS field of view with various source radiances. Calibration routines are created to convert the raw detector signal from these uniform sources into accurate at-sensor radiances. During the on-orbit life of the instrument, vicarious calibration techniques such as the side-slither method may be used to check the pixel-to-pixel uniformity. To demonstrate the value of this technique for TIRS, the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) tool is utilized to simulate on-orbit TIRS data. Appropriate sites on the Earth are identified and side-slither data is generated. The simulated on-orbit data is then compared to pre-launch calibration data to determine whether this calibration approach is viable to track the calibration of TIRS over its orbital lifetime.
Effects of Low Activity Solar Cycle on Orbital Debris Lifetime
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cable, Samual B.; Sutton, Eric K.; Lin, chin S.; Liou, J.-C.
2011-01-01
Long duration of low solar activity in the last solar minimum has an undesirable consequence of extending the lifetime of orbital debris. The AFRL TacSat-2 satellite decommissioned in 2008 has finally re-entered into the atmosphere on February 5th after more than one year overdue. Concerning its demise we have monitored its orbital decay and monthly forecasted Tacsat-2 re-entry since September 2010 by using the Orbital Element Prediction (OEP) model developed by the AFRL Orbital Drag Environment program. The model combines estimates of future solar activity with neutral density models, drag coefficient models, and an orbit propagator to predict satellite lifetime. We run the OEP model with solar indices forecast by the NASA Marshall Solar Activity Future Estimation model, and neutral density forecast by the MSIS-00 neutral density model. Based on the two line elements in 2010 up to mid September, we estimated at a 50% confidence level TacSat-2's re-entry time to be in early February 2011, which turned out to be in good agreement with Tacsat-2's actual re-entry date. The potential space weather effects of the coming low activity solar cycle on satellite lifetime and orbital debris population are examined. The NASA long-term orbital debris evolutionary model, LEGEND, is used to quantify the effects of solar flux on the orbital debris population in the 200-600 km altitude environment. The results are discussed for developing satellite orbital drag application product.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matney, M.; Barker, E.; Seitzer, P.; Abercromby, K. J.; Rodriquez, H. M.
2006-01-01
NASA's Orbital Debris measurements program has a goal to characterize the small debris environment in the geosynchronous Earth-orbit (GEO) region using optical telescopes ("small" refers to objects too small to catalog and track with current systems). Traditionally, observations of GEO and near-GEO objects involve following the object with the telescope long enough to obtain an orbit suitable for tracking purposes. Telescopes operating in survey mode, however, randomly observe objects that pass through their field of view. Typically, these short-arc observation are inadequate to obtain detailed orbits, but can be used to estimate approximate circular orbit elements (semimajor axis, inclination, and ascending node). From this information, it should be possible to make statistical inferences about the orbital distributions of the GEO population bright enough to be observed by the system. The Michigan Orbital Debris Survey Telescope (MODEST) has been making such statistical surveys of the GEO region for four years. During that time, the telescope has made enough observations in enough areas of the GEO belt to have had nearly complete coverage. That means that almost all objects in all possible orbits in the GEO and near- GEO region had a non-zero chance of being observed. Some regions (such as those near zero inclination) have had good coverage, while others are poorly covered. Nevertheless, it is possible to remove these statistical biases and reconstruct the orbit populations within the limits of sampling error. In this paper, these statistical techniques and assumptions are described, and the techniques are applied to the current MODEST data set to arrive at our best estimate of the GEO orbit population distribution.
Orbit Determination Issues for Libration Point Orbits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beckman, Mark; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Libration point mission designers require knowledge of orbital accuracy for a variety of analyses including station keeping control strategies, transfer trajectory design, and formation and constellation control. Past publications have detailed orbit determination (OD) results from individual libration point missions. This paper collects both published and unpublished results from four previous libration point missions (ISEE (International Sun-Earth Explorer) -3, SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory), ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) and MAP (Microwave Anisotropy Probe)) supported by Goddard Space Flight Center's Guidance, Navigation & Control Center. The results of those missions are presented along with OD issues specific to each mission. All past missions have been limited to ground based tracking through NASA ground sites using standard range and Doppler measurement types. Advanced technology is enabling other OD options including onboard navigation using seaboard attitude sensors and the use of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) measurement Delta Differenced One-Way Range (DDOR). Both options potentially enable missions to reduce coherent dedicated tracking passes while maintaining orbital accuracy. With the increased projected loading of the DSN (Deep Space Network), missions must find alternatives to the standard OD scenario.
Centralized Dynamics and Control of Novel Orbiting Formations of Tethered Spacecraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quadrelli, Marco B.; Hadaegh, Fred Y.
acting as leader of the tethered formation. An application of this problem arises when a distributed sensor array formed by a chain of tethered data-gathering vehicles is being commanded to reconfigure from a remote location by the formation leader. Another application is in radar mapping where multiple free-flying vehicles synthesize multiple apertures with the main tethered vehicle for increased coverage. In this way, a centralized control architecture distributes the information flow among the members of the sensor array. Defining an orbiting formation as an ensemble of orbiting spacecraft performing a cooperative task, we point out that, until now, only spacecraft modeled as rigid bodies have been analyzed in the literature of orbiting formations and constellations. After the formation is in place, one may identify what is known as the virtual truss, i.e. the connection between the elements of the formation, which provides structural rigidity on account of the information flow between them. Our problem is different than conventional formation dynamics problems in that the presence of a tethered spacecraft within the formation demands an investigation of the dynamics coupling between spacecraft caused by tether viscoelasticity. The dynamics model takes into account the orbital and spacecraft dynamics of each vehicle. The control architecture features a separated spacecraft, which has visibility to the entire group of tethered vehicles. This vehicle is the leader of the formation, and ensures that the spacecraft on the tether remain connected and move according to a pre-specified program. The control system design consists of a proportional-derivative feedback plus acceleration feedforward. This ensures that modeling errors are compensated appropriately, and that the commanded slew is tracked accurately. The leader is also where the centralized estimator is located. This estimator continuously updates the state of the formation and estimates inter
Orbital perturbations of low orbiters in a dusty Martian atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haranas, Ioannis Iraklis
2010-12-01
A study of a low-orbit polar satellite around Mars is carried out using Lagrangian mechanics principles and Lagrange's planetary equations in which both conservative and non-conservative forces are modelled. Our work differs from state-of-the-art Newtonian and Gaussian methods and enhances the modelling of the perturbing potentials arising from areopotential anomalies: atmospheric drag, dust drag, solar radiation pressure, relativistic effects, third-body, and solid-body tides on Mars. Because we are interested in analytical/numerical expressions and results, the Lagrangian method constitutes a more suitable analytical approach than does the traditional Gaussian. The resulting system of equations of motion for the satellite provides the time derivatives of the orbital elements as functions of the gravitational harmonic coefficients and all the perturbing effects we considered. When the time derivatives of the orbital elements are available from satellite tracking observations, the equations can be used in a least-squares estimation process to provide, the gravitational field in terms of harmonic coefficients. To understand the utility of the derived equations of motion, we obtain analytical expressions for the gravitational harmonics of degree and order six. These expressions involve, among other variables, the inclination and eccentricity functions and their time derivatives. In particular, the numerical calculation of high-degree/order eccentricity and inclination functions are known to be numerically unstable. To remove such instabilities, we use an effective and efficient transformation that relates the eccentricity functions to Hansen coefficients, using Bessel functions of the first kind. Similarly, the inclination functions are transformed into hypergeometric series. Analytical and numerical tests show that the transformed inclination and eccentricity functions are remarkably stable up to degree/order eighty. This is very important when the Lagrangian method
Distributed earth model/orbiter simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geisler, Erik; Mcclanahan, Scott; Smith, Gary
1989-01-01
Distributed Earth Model/Orbiter Simulation (DEMOS) is a network based application developed for the UNIX environment that visually monitors or simulates the Earth and any number of orbiting vehicles. Its purpose is to provide Mission Control Center (MCC) flight controllers with a visually accurate three dimensional (3D) model of the Earth, Sun, Moon and orbiters, driven by real time or simulated data. The project incorporates a graphical user interface, 3D modelling employing state-of-the art hardware, and simulation of orbital mechanics in a networked/distributed environment. The user interface is based on the X Window System and the X Ray toolbox. The 3D modelling utilizes the Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System (PHIGS) standard and Raster Technologies hardware for rendering/display performance. The simulation of orbiting vehicles uses two methods of vector propagation implemented with standard UNIX/C for portability. Each part is a distinct process that can run on separate nodes of a network, exploiting each node's unique hardware capabilities. The client/server communication architecture of the application can be reused for a variety of distributed applications.
Tidal deformation, Orbital Dynamics and JIMO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ratcliff, J. T.; Wu, X.; Williams, J. G.
2003-12-01
Observations of Europa, Ganymede and Callisto obtained from encounters by the Galileo spacecraft strongly suggest the possibility of liquid oceans under the icy shells of these Jovian satellites. The strong tidal environments in which these moons are found and the fact that a planetary body with internal fluid undergoes greater deformation than an otherwise solid body make a compelling case for using tidal observations as a method for ocean detection. Given the high degree of uncertainty in our knowledge of the interiors of these moons, a comprehensive geodetic program measuring different physical signatures related to tidal deformation and interior structure is preferred to using separate and various interior parameters that may not be as closely tied to actual measurable quantities. Potential and displacement tidal Love numbers, libration amplitudes of the surface ice shell and rocky mantle, static topography and gravity fields and other quantities should all be included in the measurement objectives. Many geodetic techniques rely heavily upon orbital positions of the spacecraft. Their accurate determination depend on factors such as the orbital configuration, the gravity fields of the icy moons, as well as the duration and geometry of tracking. Given the competing science, engineering and planetary protection demands, orbital accuracy subject to constraints has become a critical mission design issue. Orbit determination simulations and covariance analyses will be used to investigate the achievable accuracies of spacecraft position and geodetic signatures under different orbital and tracking scenarios.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1989-01-01
The success of space endeavors depends upon a space environment sufficiently free of debris to enable the safe and dependable operation of spacecraft. An environment overly cluttered with debris would threaten the ability to utilize space for a wide variety of scientific, technological, military, and commercial purposes. Man made space debris (orbital debris) differs from natural meteoroids because it remains in earth orbit during its lifetime and is not transient through the space around the Earth. The orbital debris environment is considered. The space environment is described along with sources of orbital debris. The current national space policy is examined, along with ways to minimize debris generation and ways to survive the debris environment. International efforts, legal issues and commercial regulations are also examined.
Orbiter thermal protection system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dotts, R. L.; Curry, D. M.; Tillian, D. J.
1985-01-01
The major material and design challenges associated with the orbiter thermal protection system (TPS), the various TPS materials that are used, the different design approaches associated with each of the materials, and the performance during the flight test program are described. The first five flights of the Orbiter Columbia and the initial flight of the Orbiter Challenger provided the data necessary to verify the TPS thermal performance, structural integrity, and reusability. The flight performance characteristics of each TPS material are discussed, based on postflight inspections and postflight interpretation of the flight instrumentation data. Flights to date indicate that the thermal and structural design requirements for the orbiter TPS are met and that the overall performance is outstanding.
Habitability study shuttle orbiter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1972-01-01
Studies of the habitability of the space shuttle orbiter are briefly summarized. Selected illustrations and descriptions are presented for: crew compartment, hygiene facilities, food system and galley, and storage systems.
NASA's THEMIS spacecraft have completed their mission and are still working perfectly, so NASA is re-directing the outermost two spacecraft to special orbits around the Moon. Now called ARTEMIS, th...
This animation shows the orbits of Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS)mission, a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising of fouridentically instrumented spacecraft that will study the Earthâsm...
The resonant orbit of the Lost City meteorite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, J. G.
1975-01-01
An integration of the long-period perturbations of Jupiter and Saturn on the orbit of the Lost City meteorite shows that the average nodal rate of the meteorite was nearly the same as the nodal rates of Jupiter and Saturn. This near equality of rates led to a large resonant variation in the inclination of the meteorite's orbit with a period on the order of 1 million years. The resonance makes the orbital evolution too sensitive to the deficiencies of the perturbation calculations and to the values of the elements at impact to allow definitive calculations. It is shown that an orbit similar to the meteorite's orbit can spend approximately 88% of its time with an eccentricity too small to allow for intersections with the earth's orbit. The ordinary cosmic ray exposure age of the Lost City meteorite does not suggest that its collisional lifetime was unusual, but the role of resonances in determining the lifetime of typical meteorites is unknown.
King-Hele, D.
1992-01-01
In this book, the author describes how orbital research developed to yield a rich harvest of knowledge about the earth and its atmosphere. King-Hele relates a personal account of this research based on analysis of satellite orbits between 1957 and 1990 conducted from the Royal Aircraft Establishment in Farnborough England. The early research methods used before the launch of Sputnik in 1957 are discussed.
SPLASH: Accurate OH maser positions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walsh, Andrew; Gomez, Jose F.; Jones, Paul; Cunningham, Maria; Green, James; Dawson, Joanne; Ellingsen, Simon; Breen, Shari; Imai, Hiroshi; Lowe, Vicki; Jones, Courtney
2013-10-01
The hydroxyl (OH) 18 cm lines are powerful and versatile probes of diffuse molecular gas, that may trace a largely unstudied component of the Galactic ISM. SPLASH (the Southern Parkes Large Area Survey in Hydroxyl) is a large, unbiased and fully-sampled survey of OH emission, absorption and masers in the Galactic Plane that will achieve sensitivities an order of magnitude better than previous work. In this proposal, we request ATCA time to follow up OH maser candidates. This will give us accurate (~10") positions of the masers, which can be compared to other maser positions from HOPS, MMB and MALT-45 and will provide full polarisation measurements towards a sample of OH masers that have not been observed in MAGMO.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Redd, Frank J.; Cantrell, James N.; Mccurdy, Greg
1992-01-01
The establishment of lunar bases will not end the need for remote sensing of the lunar surface by orbiting platforms. Human and robotic surface exploration will necessarily be limited to some proximate distance from the support base. Near real-time, high-resolution, global characterization of the lunar surface by orbiting sensing systems will continue to be essential to the understanding of the Moon's geophysical structure and the location of exploitable minerals and deposits of raw materials. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is an orbiting sensing platform capable of supporting a variety of modular sensing packages. Serviced by a lunar-based shuttle, the LOP will permit the exchange of instrument packages to meet evolving mission needs. The ability to recover, modify, and rotate sensing packages allows their reuse in varying combinations. Combining this flexibility with robust orbit modification capabilities and near real-time telemetry links provides considerable system responsiveness. Maintenance and modification of the LOP orbit are accomplished through use of an onboard propulsion system that burns lunar-supplied oxygen and aluminum. The relatively low performance of such a system is more than compensated for by the elimination of the need for Earth-supplied propellants. The LOP concept envisions a continuous expansion of capability through the incorporation of new instrument technologies and the addition of platforms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Redd, Frank J.; Cantrell, James N.; McCurdy, Greg
1992-09-01
The establishment of lunar bases will not end the need for remote sensing of the lunar surface by orbiting platforms. Human and robotic surface exploration will necessarily be limited to some proximate distance from the support base. Near real-time, high-resolution, global characterization of the lunar surface by orbiting sensing systems will continue to be essential to the understanding of the Moon's geophysical structure and the location of exploitable minerals and deposits of raw materials. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is an orbiting sensing platform capable of supporting a variety of modular sensing packages. Serviced by a lunar-based shuttle, the LOP will permit the exchange of instrument packages to meet evolving mission needs. The ability to recover, modify, and rotate sensing packages allows their reuse in varying combinations. Combining this flexibility with robust orbit modification capabilities and near real-time telemetry links provides considerable system responsiveness. Maintenance and modification of the LOP orbit are accomplished through use of an onboard propulsion system that burns lunar-supplied oxygen and aluminum. The relatively low performance of such a system is more than compensated for by the elimination of the need for Earth-supplied propellants. The LOP concept envisions a continuous expansion of capability through the incorporation of new instrument technologies and the addition of platforms.
Accurate thickness measurement of graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shearer, Cameron J.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Stapleton, Andrew J.; Shapter, Joseph G.; Gibson, Christopher T.
2016-03-01
Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.
Accurate thickness measurement of graphene.
Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Stapleton, Andrew J; Shapter, Joseph G; Gibson, Christopher T
2016-03-29
Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.
THE ORBITS OF NEPTUNE'S OUTER SATELLITES
Brozovic, Marina; Jacobson, Robert A.; Sheppard, Scott S. E-mail: raj@jpl.nasa.gov
2011-04-15
In 2009, we used the Subaru telescope to observe all the faint irregular satellites of Neptune for the first time since 2004. These observations extend the data arcs for Halimede, Psamathe, Sao, Laomedeia, and Neso from a few years to nearly a decade. We also report on a search for unknown Neptune satellites in a half-square degree of sky and a limiting magnitude of 26.2 in the R band. No new satellites of Neptune were found. We numerically integrate the orbits for the five irregulars and summarize the results of the orbital fits in terms of the state vectors, post-fit residuals, and mean orbital elements. Sao and Neso are confirmed to be Kozai librators, while Psamathe is a 'reverse circulator'. Halimede and Laomedeia do not seem to experience any strong resonant effects.
GOCE Reduced-dynamic Orbits - Inter-agency Comparisons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bock, H.; Jaeggi, A.; Meyer, U.; van den IJssel, J.; Visser, P. N.; Swatschina, P.; Montenbruck, O.
2011-12-01
The Gravity and Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) mission of the European Space Agency is now in orbit since more than two years. The 12-channel, dual-frequency GPS receiver delivers high-quality data for determination of precise orbits. These orbit solutions are used to accurately geolocate the gradiometer observations and to provide complementary information for the long-wavelength gravity field part. Operational orbit products are routinely generated by the Department of Earth Observation and Space Systems at Delft University of Technology (DEOS, Rapid Science Orbit, RSO) and the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB, Precise Science Orbit, PSO) using different software packages (GEODYN/GHOST, BERNESE) and analysis strategies. Internal orbit comparisons and external validations with independent Satellite Laser Ranging measurements demonstrate that both orbit products fully meet the corresponding mission accuracy requirements of 50 cm (RSO) and 2 cm (PSO), respectively. For an independent performance assessment, orbit solutions are, furthermore, generated at Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) on a best effort basis using the GHOST software. In addition to the RSO product, post-processed orbit solutions based on GEODYN are generated at DEOS as well. We provide an overview of the adopted analysis strategies and present inter-agency comparisons of the individual reduced-dynamic orbit solutions based on one year of data. A cross-comparison of the various orbits indicates a good agreement of a few cm 3D rms accuracy, but reveals small systematic biases, e.g., in the radial direction. Special emphasis will be given to the assessment and discussion of the systematic biases, which are related to different orbit modeling strategies used to cope with non-gravitational accelerations.
Kim, Ghangho; Kim, Chongwon; Kee, Changdon
2015-01-01
A practical algorithm is proposed for determining the orbit of a geostationary orbit (GEO) satellite using single-epoch measurements from a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver under the sparse visibility of the GPS satellites. The algorithm uses three components of a state vector to determine the satellite's state, even when it is impossible to apply the classical single-point solutions (SPS). Through consideration of the characteristics of the GEO orbital elements and GPS measurements, the components of the state vector are reduced to three. However, the algorithm remains sufficiently accurate for a GEO satellite. The developed algorithm was tested on simulated measurements from two or three GPS satellites, and the calculated maximum position error was found to be less than approximately 40 km or even several kilometers within the geometric range, even when the classical SPS solution was unattainable. In addition, extended Kalman filter (EKF) tests of a GEO satellite with the estimated initial state were performed to validate the algorithm. In the EKF, a reliable dynamic model was adapted to reduce the probability of divergence that can be caused by large errors in the initial state. PMID:25835299
First Attempt of Orbit Determination of SLR Satellites and Space Debris Using Genetic Algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deleflie, F.; Coulot, D.; Descosta, R.; Fernier, A.; Richard, P.
2013-08-01
We present an orbit determination method based on genetic algorithms. Contrary to usual estimation methods mainly based on least-squares methods, these algorithms do not require any a priori knowledge of the initial state vector to be estimated. These algorithms can be applied when a new satellite is launched or for uncatalogued objects that appear in images obtained from robotic telescopes such as the TAROT ones. We show in this paper preliminary results obtained from an SLR satellite, for which tracking data acquired by the ILRS network enable to build accurate orbital arcs at a few centimeter level, which can be used as a reference orbit ; in this case, the basic observations are made up of time series of ranges, obtained from various tracking stations. We show as well the results obtained from the observations acquired by the two TAROT telescopes on the Telecom-2D satellite operated by CNES ; in that case, the observations are made up of time series of azimuths and elevations, seen from the two TAROT telescopes. The method is carried out in several steps: (i) an analytical propagation of the equations of motion, (ii) an estimation kernel based on genetic algorithms, which follows the usual steps of such approaches: initialization and evolution of a selected population, so as to determine the best parameters. Each parameter to be estimated, namely each initial keplerian element, has to be searched among an interval that is preliminary chosen. The algorithm is supposed to converge towards an optimum over a reasonable computational time.
Overall view of the Orbiter Servicing Structure within the Orbiter ...
Overall view of the Orbiter Servicing Structure within the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. Can you see any hint of the Orbiter Discovery? It is in there. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX
Shuttle Orbiter Contingency Abort Aerodynamics: Real-Gas Effects and High Angles of Attack
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Papadopoulos, Periklis E.; Davies, Carol B.; Wright, Michael J.; McDaniel, Ryan D.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Wercinski, Paul F.
2005-01-01
An important element of the Space Shuttle Orbiter safety improvement plan is the improved understanding of its aerodynamic performance so as to minimize the "black zones" in the contingency abort trajectories [1]. These zones are regions in the launch trajectory where it is predicted that, due to vehicle limitations, the Orbiter will be unable to return to the launch site in a two or three engine-out scenario. Reduction of these zones requires accurate knowledge of the aerodynamic forces and moments to better assess the structural capability of the vehicle. An interesting aspect of the contingency abort trajectories is that the Orbiter would need to achieve angles of attack as high as 60deg. Such steep attitudes are much higher than those for a nominal flight trajectory. The Orbiter is currently flight certified only up to an angle of attack of 44deg at high Mach numbers and has never flown at angles of attack larger than this limit. Contingency abort trajectories are generated using the data in the Space Shuttle Operational Aerodynamic Data Book (OADB) [2]. The OADB, a detailed document of the aerodynamic environment of the current Orbiter, is primarily based on wind-tunnel measurements (over a wide Mach number and angle-of-attack range) extrapolated to flight conditions using available theories and correlations, and updated with flight data where available. For nominal flight conditions, i.e., angles of attack of less than 45deg, the fidelity of the OADB is excellent due to the availability of flight data. However, at the off-nominal conditions, such as would be encountered on contingency abort trajectories, the fidelity of the OADB is less certain. The primary aims of a recent collaborative effort (completed in the year 2001) between NASA and Boeing were to determine: 1) accurate distributions of pressure and shear loads on the Orbiter at select points in the contingency abort trajectory space; and 2) integrated aerodynamic forces and moments for the entire
Biomechanical modeling of eye trauma for different orbit anthropometries.
Weaver, Ashley A; Loftis, Kathryn L; Duma, Stefan M; Stitzel, Joel D
2011-04-29
In military, automotive, and sporting safety, there is concern over eye protection and the effects of facial anthropometry differences on risk of eye injury. The objective of this study is to investigate differences in orbital geometry and analyze their effect on eye impact injury. Clinical measurements of the orbital aperture, brow protrusion angle, eye protrusion, and the eye location within the orbit were used to develop a matrix of simulations. A finite element (FE) model of the orbit was developed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of an average male and transformed to model 27 different anthropometries. Impacts were modeled using an eye model incorporating lagrangian-eulerian fluid flow for the eye, representing a full eye for evaluation of omnidirectional impact and interaction with the orbit. Computational simulations of a Little League (CD25) baseball impact at 30.1m/s were conducted to assess the effect of orbit anthropometry on eye injury metrics. Parameters measured include stress and strain in the corneoscleral shell, internal dynamic eye pressure, and contact forces between the orbit, eye, and baseball. The location of peak stresses and strains was also assessed. Main effects and interaction effects identified in the statistical analysis illustrate the complex relationship between the anthropometric variation and eye response. The results of the study showed that the eye is more protected from impact with smaller orbital apertures, more brow protrusion, and less eye protrusion, provided that the orbital aperture is large enough to deter contact of the eye with the orbit.
Biomechanical modeling of eye trauma for different orbit anthropometries.
Weaver, Ashley A; Loftis, Kathryn L; Duma, Stefan M; Stitzel, Joel D
2011-04-29
In military, automotive, and sporting safety, there is concern over eye protection and the effects of facial anthropometry differences on risk of eye injury. The objective of this study is to investigate differences in orbital geometry and analyze their effect on eye impact injury. Clinical measurements of the orbital aperture, brow protrusion angle, eye protrusion, and the eye location within the orbit were used to develop a matrix of simulations. A finite element (FE) model of the orbit was developed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of an average male and transformed to model 27 different anthropometries. Impacts were modeled using an eye model incorporating lagrangian-eulerian fluid flow for the eye, representing a full eye for evaluation of omnidirectional impact and interaction with the orbit. Computational simulations of a Little League (CD25) baseball impact at 30.1m/s were conducted to assess the effect of orbit anthropometry on eye injury metrics. Parameters measured include stress and strain in the corneoscleral shell, internal dynamic eye pressure, and contact forces between the orbit, eye, and baseball. The location of peak stresses and strains was also assessed. Main effects and interaction effects identified in the statistical analysis illustrate the complex relationship between the anthropometric variation and eye response. The results of the study showed that the eye is more protected from impact with smaller orbital apertures, more brow protrusion, and less eye protrusion, provided that the orbital aperture is large enough to deter contact of the eye with the orbit. PMID:21316057
[Orbital complications of sinusitis].
Šuchaň, M; Horňák, M; Kaliarik, L; Krempaská, S; Koštialová, T; Kovaľ, J
2014-12-01
Orbital complications categorised by Chandler are emergency. They need early diagnosis and agresive treatment. Stage and origin of orbital complications are identified by rhinoendoscopy, ophtalmologic examination and CT of orbite and paranasal sinuses. Periorbital cellulitis and early stage of orbital cellulitis can be treated conservatively with i. v. antibiotics. Monitoring of laboratory parameters and ophtalmologic symptoms is mandatory. Lack of improvement or worsening of symptoms within 24-48 hours and advanced stages of orbital complications are indicated for surgery. The purpose of the study is to evaluate epidemiology, clinical features and management of sinogenic orbital complications. Retrospective data of 8 patients with suspicion of orbital complication admited to hospital from 2008 to 2013 were evaluated. Patients were analyzed in terms of gender, age, CT findings, microbiology, clinical features, stage and treatment. Male and female were afected in rate 1,66:1. Most of patients were young adult in 3rd. and 4th. decade of life (62,5 %). Acute and chronic sinusitis were cause of orbital complication in the same rate. The most common origin of orbital complication was ethmoiditis (62,5 %), than maxillary (25 %) and frontal (12,5 %) sinusitis. Polysinusitis with affection of ethmoidal, maxillary and frontal sinuses (75 %) was usual CT finding. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus were etiological agens in half of cases. Periorbital oedema (100 %), proptosis, chemosis (50 %), diplopia and glaucoma (12,5 %) were observed. Based on examinations, diagnosis of periorbital oedema/preseptal cellulitis was made in 3 (37,5 %), orbital cellulitis in 3 (37,5 %) and subperiosteal abscess in 2 cases (25 %). All patients underwent combined therapy - i. v. antibiotics and surgery within 24 hours. Eradication of disease from ostiomeatal complex (OMC), drainage of affected sinuses and drainage of subperiosteal abscess were done via fuctional endonasal
Constrained orbital intercept-evasion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zatezalo, Aleksandar; Stipanovic, Dusan M.; Mehra, Raman K.; Pham, Khanh
2014-06-01
An effective characterization of intercept-evasion confrontations in various space environments and a derivation of corresponding solutions considering a variety of real-world constraints are daunting theoretical and practical challenges. Current and future space-based platforms have to simultaneously operate as components of satellite formations and/or systems and at the same time, have a capability to evade potential collisions with other maneuver constrained space objects. In this article, we formulate and numerically approximate solutions of a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) intercept-maneuver problem in terms of game-theoretic capture-evasion guaranteed strategies. The space intercept-evasion approach is based on Liapunov methodology that has been successfully implemented in a number of air and ground based multi-player multi-goal game/control applications. The corresponding numerical algorithms are derived using computationally efficient and orbital propagator independent methods that are previously developed for Space Situational Awareness (SSA). This game theoretical but at the same time robust and practical approach is demonstrated on a realistic LEO scenario using existing Two Line Element (TLE) sets and Simplified General Perturbation-4 (SGP-4) propagator.
Fungal infections of the orbit
Mukherjee, Bipasha; Raichura, Nirav Dilip; Alam, Md. Shahid
2016-01-01
Fungal infections of the orbit can lead to grave complications. Although the primary site of inoculation of the infective organism is frequently the sinuses, the patients can initially present to the ophthalmologist with ocular signs and symptoms. Due to its varied and nonspecific clinical features, especially in the early stages, patients are frequently misdiagnosed and even treated with steroids which worsen the situation leading to dire consequences. Ophthalmologists should be familiar with the clinical spectrum of disease and the variable presentation of this infection, as early diagnosis and rapid institution of appropriate therapy are crucial elements in the management of this invasive sino-orbital infection. In this review, relevant clinical, microbiological, and imaging findings are discussed along with the current consensus on local and systemic management. We review the recent literature and provide a comprehensive analysis. In the immunocompromised, as well as in healthy patients, a high index of suspicion must be maintained as delay in diagnosis of fungal pathology may lead to disfiguring morbidity or even mortality. Obtaining adequate diagnostic material for pathological and microbiological examination is critical. Newer methods of therapy, particularly oral voriconazole and topical amphotericin B, may be beneficial in selected patients. PMID:27380972
Introducing the Moon's Orbital Eccentricity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oostra, Benjamin
2014-11-01
I present a novel way to introduce the lunar orbital eccentricity in introductory astronomy courses. The Moon is perhaps the clearest illustration of the general orbital elements such as inclination, ascending node, eccentricity, perigee, and so on. Furthermore, I like the students to discover astronomical phenomena for themselves, by means of a guided exercise, rather than just telling them the facts.1 The inclination and nodes may be found by direct observation, monitoring carefully the position of the Moon among the stars. Even the regression of the nodes may be discovered in this way2 To find the eccentricity from students' observations is also possible,3 but that requires considerable time and effort. if a whole class should discover it in a short time, here is a method more suitable for a one-day class or home assignment. The level I aim at is, more or less, advanced high school or first-year college students. I assume them to be acquainted with celestial coordinates and the lunar phases, and to be able to use algebra and trigonometry.
Mars Geoscience Orbiter and Lunar Geoscience Orbiter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fuldner, W. V.; Kaskiewicz, P. F.
1983-01-01
The feasibility of using the AE/DE Earth orbiting spacecraft design for the LGO and/or MGO missions was determined. Configurations were developed and subsystems analysis was carried out to optimize the suitability of the spacecraft to the missions. The primary conclusion is that the basic AE/DE spacecraft can readily be applied to the LGO mission with relatively minor, low risk modifications. The MGO mission poses a somewhat more complex problem, primarily due to the overall maneuvering hydrazine budget and power requirements of the sensors and their desired duty cycle. These considerations dictate a modification (scaling up) of the structure to support mission requirements.
Density functional theory for comprehensive orbital energy calculations.
Nakata, Ayako; Tsuneda, Takao
2013-08-14
This study reveals the reason core 1s orbital energies and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energies of hydrogen and rare gas atoms are underestimated by long-range corrected (LC) density functional theory (DFT), which quantitatively reproduces the HOMO energies of other systems and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies. Applying the pseudospectral regional (PR) self-interaction correction (SIC) drastically improved the underestimated orbital energies in LC-DFT calculations, while maintaining or improving the accuracies in the calculated valence HOMO and LUMO energies. This indicates that the self-interaction error in exchange functionals causes the underestimations of core 1s orbital energies and the HOMO energies of hydrogen and rare gas atoms in LC-DFT calculations. To clarify the reason for the improvement, the fractional occupation dependences of total electronic energies and orbital energies were examined. The calculated results clearly showed that the LC-PR functional gives almost linear dependences of total electronic energies for a slight decrease in the occupation number of core 1s orbitals, although this linear dependence disappears for significant decrease due to the shrinking of exchange self-interaction regions. It was also clarified that the PRSIC hardly affects the occupation number dependences of the total electronic energies and orbital energies for the fractional occupations of HOMOs and LUMOs. As a result, it was concluded that core orbital energies are obtained accurately by combining LC-DFT with PRSIC.
A special perturbation method in orbital dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peláez, Jesús; Hedo, José Manuel; Rodríguez de Andrés, Pedro
2007-02-01
The special perturbation method considered in this paper combines simplicity of computer implementation, speed and precision, and can propagate the orbit of any material particle. The paper describes the evolution of some orbital elements based in Euler parameters, which are constants in the unperturbed problem, but which evolve in the time scale imposed by the perturbation. The variation of parameters technique is used to develop expressions for the derivatives of seven elements for the general case, which includes any type of perturbation. These basic differential equations are slightly modified by introducing one additional equation for the time, reaching a total order of eight. The method was developed in the Grupo de Dinámica de Tethers (GDT) of the UPM, as a tool for dynamic simulations of tethers. However, it can be used in any other field and with any kind of orbit and perturbation. It is free of singularities related to small inclination and/or eccentricity. The use of Euler parameters makes it robust. The perturbation forces are handled in a very simple way: the method requires their components in the orbital frame or in an inertial frame. A comparison with other schemes is performed in the paper to show the good performance of the method.
Accurate Cross Sections for Microanalysis
Rez, Peter
2002-01-01
To calculate the intensity of x-ray emission in electron beam microanalysis requires a knowledge of the energy distribution of the electrons in the solid, the energy variation of the ionization cross section of the relevant subshell, the fraction of ionizations events producing x rays of interest and the absorption coefficient of the x rays on the path to the detector. The theoretical predictions and experimental data available for ionization cross sections are limited mainly to K shells of a few elements. Results of systematic plane wave Born approximation calculations with exchange for K, L, and M shell ionization cross sections over the range of electron energies used in microanalysis are presented. Comparisons are made with experimental measurement for selected K shells and it is shown that the plane wave theory is not appropriate for overvoltages less than 2.5 V. PMID:27446747
Role of core-scattered closed orbits in nonhydrogenic atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dando, P. A.; Monteiro, T. S.; Delande, D.; Taylor, K. T.
1996-07-01
While both diamagnetic and Stark spectra of hydrogen can be analyzed accurately in terms of classical orbits, in nonhydrogenic atoms the multielectron core induces additional spectral modulations that cannot be analyzed reliably in terms of standard periodic orbit-type theories. However, by extending closed-orbit theory to include core-scattered waves consistently, both diamagnetic and Stark photoabsorption spectra of nonhydrogenic Rydberg atoms at constant scaled energy can be analyzed semiclassically using only the closed orbits of the corresponding hydrogenic systems. Frequencies and amplitudes of the core-scattered modulations, as well as corrected amplitudes for contributions from repetitions of primitive hydrogenic orbits, are found to be in excellent agreement with quantum results. We consider whether these nonhydrogenic systems correspond to quantum chaos.
Precise orbit computation for the Geosat Exact Repeat Mission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haines, Bruce J.; Born, George H.; Rosborough, George W.; Marsh, James G.; Williamson, Ronald G.
1990-01-01
Results are reported from an extensive investigation of orbit-determination strategies for the Geosat Exact Repeat Mission (ERM). The goal is to establish optimum geodetic parameters and procedures for the computation of the most accurate Geosat orbits possible and to apply these procedures for routine computation during the ERM for the following purposes: (1) to enhance the value of the Geosat oceanographic investigations by providing the user community with improved ephemerides, (2) to develop orbit determination techniques for the upcoming altimetric mission Topex/Poseidon, and (3) to assess the radial orbit accuracy obtainable with recently developed gravity models. To this end, ephemerides for the entire first year of the ERM have been computed using the GEODYN II orbit program on the Cyber 205 supercomputer system at the NASA Goddard.
Precise orbit computation for the Geosat Exact Repeat Mission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haines, Bruce J.; Born, George H.; Rosborough, George W.; Marsh, James G.; Williamson, Ronald G.
1990-03-01
Results are reported from an extensive investigation of orbit-determination strategies for the Geosat Exact Repeat Mission (ERM). The goal is to establish optimum geodetic parameters and procedures for the computation of the most accurate Geosat orbits possible and to apply these procedures for routine computation during the ERM for the following purposes: (1) to enhance the value of the Geosat oceanographic investigations by providing the user community with improved ephemerides, (2) to develop orbit determination techniques for the upcoming altimetric mission Topex/Poseidon, and (3) to assess the radial orbit accuracy obtainable with recently developed gravity models. To this end, ephemerides for the entire first year of the ERM have been computed using the GEODYN II orbit program on the Cyber 205 supercomputer system at the NASA Goddard.
Chong, V F H
2006-01-01
Primary malignant lesions in the orbit are relatively uncommon. However, the orbits are frequently involved in haematogeneous metastasis or by direct extension from malignancies originating from the adjacent nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses. This paper focuses on the more commonly encountered primary orbital malignancies and the mapping of tumour spread into the orbits. PMID:17114076
Elliptical Orbit Performance Computer Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Myler, T.
1984-01-01
Elliptical Orbit Performance (ELOPE) computer program for analyzing orbital performance of space boosters uses orbit insertion data obtained from trajectory simulation to generate parametric data on apogee and perigee altitudes as function of payload data. Data used to generate presentation plots that display elliptical orbit performance capability of space booster.
Simple control laws for low-thrust orbit transfers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Petropoulos, Anastassios E.
2003-01-01
Two methods are presented by which to determine both a thrust direction and when to apply thrust to effect specified changes in any of the orbit elements except for true anomaly, which is assumed free. The central body is assumed to be a point mass, and the initial and final orbits are assumed closed. Thrust, when on, is of a constant value, and specific impulse is constant. The thrust profiles derived from the two methods are not propellant-optimal, but are based firstly on the optimal thrust directions and location on the osculating orbit for changing each of the orbit elements and secondly on the desired changes in the orbit elements. Two examples of transfers are presented, one in semimajor axis and inclination, and one in semimajor axis and eccentricity. The latter compares favourably with a propellant-optimized transfer between the same orbits. The control laws have few input parameters, but can still capture the complexity of a wide variety of orbit transfers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abercromby, K. J.; Seitzer, P.; Cowardin, H. M.; Barker, E. S.; Matney, M. J.
2011-01-01
NASA uses the Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope (MODEST), the University of Michigan's 0.61-m aperture Curtis-Schmidt telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile, to help characterize the debris environment in geosynchronous orbit; this began in February 2001 and continues to the present day. Detected objects that are found to be on the U.S. Space Surveillance Network cataloged objects list are termed correlated targets (CTs), while those not found on the list are called uncorrelated targets (UCTs). This Johnson Space Center report provides details of observational and data-reduction processes for the entire MODEST dataset acquired in calendar years (CYs) 2007, 2008, and 2009. Specifically, this report describes the collection and analysis of 36 nights of data collected in CY 2007, 43 nights of data collected in CY 2008, and 43 nights of data collected in CY 2009. MODEST is equipped with a 2048 x 2048-pixel charged coupled device camera with a 1.3 by 1.3 deg field of view. This system is capable of detecting objects fainter than 18th magnitude (R filter) using a 5-s integration. This corresponds to a 20-cm diameter, 0.175-albedo object at 36,000 km altitude assuming a diffuse Lambertian phase function. The average number of detections each night over all 3 years was 26. The percentage of this number that represented the UCT population ranged from 34% to 18%, depending on the observing strategy and the field center location. Due to the short orbital arc over which observations are made, the eccentricity of the object s orbit is extremely difficult to measure accurately. Therefore, a circular orbit was assumed when calculating the orbital elements. A comparison of the measured inclination (INC), right ascension of ascending node (RAAN), and mean motion to the quantities for CTs from the U.S. Space Surveillance Network shows acceptable errors. This analysis lends credibility to the determination of the UCT orbital distributions. Figure 1
Spin-orbit interaction in InSb nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Weperen, I.; Tarasinski, B.; Eeltink, D.; Pribiag, V. S.; Plissard, S. R.; Bakkers, E. P. A. M.; Kouwenhoven, L. P.; Wimmer, M.
2015-05-01
We use magnetoconductance measurements in dual-gated InSb nanowire devices, together with a theoretical analysis of weak antilocalization, to accurately extract spin-orbit strength. In particular, we show that magnetoconductance in our three-dimensional wires is very different compared to wires in two-dimensional electron gases. We obtain a large Rashba spin-orbit strength of 0.5 -1 eVÅ corresponding to a spin-orbit energy of 0.25 -1 meV . These values underline the potential of InSb nanowires in the study of Majorana fermions in hybrid semiconductor-superconductor devices.
Decimation and harmonic inversion of periodic orbit signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Main, J.; Dando, P. A.; Belkic, Dz; Taylor, H. S.
2000-02-01
We present and compare three generically applicable signal processing methods for periodic orbit quantization via harmonic inversion of semiclassical recurrence functions. In a first step of each method, a band-limited decimated periodic orbit signal is obtained by analytical frequency windowing of the periodic orbit sum. In a second step, the frequencies and amplitudes of the decimated signal are determined by either decimated linear predictor, decimated Padé approximant, or decimated signal diagonalization. These techniques, which would have been numerically unstable without the windowing, provide numerically more accurate semiclassical spectra than does the filter diagonalization method.
Beyond Periodic Orbits: An Example in Nonhydrogenic Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dando, P. A.; Monteiro, T. S.; Delande, D.; Taylor, K. T.
1995-02-01
The spectrum of hydrogen in a magnetic field is a paradigm of quantum chaos and may be analyzed accurately by periodic-orbit-type theories. In nonhydrogenic atoms, the core induces pure quantum effects, especially additional spectral modulations, which cannot be analyzed reliably in terms of classical orbits and their stability parameters. Provided core-scattered waves are included consistently, core-scattered modulations as well as corrected amplitudes for primitive orbits are in excellent agreement with quantum results. We consider whether these systems correspond to quantum chaos.
Orbit control at the ALS based on sensitivity matrices
Nishimura, H.; Schachinger, L.; Ohgaki, H.
1995-04-01
A third-generation synchrotron-light source storage ring requires accurate orbit correction because its lattice is very sensitive to magnet imperfections and misalignments. If model-based control is used, calibration of this model is required in advance. Therefore, it is preferable to prepare some kind of model-free orbit control scheme that is complementary to model-based control. A sensitivity matrix (S matrix) works effectively as the kernel of a model-free orbit control system for a given optics of a lattice. This paper describes recent efforts in this respect at Advanced Light Source (ALS).
Orbiter subsystem hardware/software interaction analysis. Volume 8: Forward reaction control system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, D. D.
1980-01-01
The results of the orbiter hardware/software interaction analysis for the AFT reaction control system are presented. The interaction between hardware failure modes and software are examined in order to identify associated issues and risks. All orbiter subsystems and interfacing program elements which interact with the orbiter computer flight software are analyzed. The failure modes identified in the subsystem/element failure mode and effects analysis are discussed.
Orbital Fluid Resupply Assessment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eberhardt, Ralph N.
1989-01-01
Orbital fluid resupply can significantly increase the cost-effectiveness and operational flexibility of spacecraft, satellites, and orbiting platforms and observatories. Reusable tankers are currently being designed for transporting fluids to space. A number of options exist for transporting the fluids and propellant to the space-based user systems. The fluids can be transported to space either in the Shuttle cargo bay or using expendable launch vehicles (ELVs). Resupply can thus be accomplished either from the Shuttle bay, or the tanker can be removed from the Shuttle bay or launched on an ELV and attached to a carrier such as the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) or Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) for transport to the user to be serviced. A third option involves locating the tanker at the space station or an unmanned platform as a quasi-permanent servicing facility or depot which returns to the ground for recycling once its tanks are depleted. Current modular tanker designs for monopropellants, bipropellants, and water for space station propulsion are discussed. Superfluid helium tankers are addressed, including trade-offs in tanker sizes, shapes to fit the range of ELVs currently available, and boil-off losses associated with longer-term (greater than 6-month) space-basing. It is concluded that the mixed fleet approach to on-orbit consumables resupply offers significant advantages to the overall logistics requirements.
Mars Telecommunications Orbiter, Artist's Concept
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2005-01-01
This illustration depicts a concept for NASA's Mars Telecommunications Orbiter in flight around Mars. The orbiter is in development to be the first spacecraft with a primary function of providing communication links while orbiting a foreign planet. The project's plans call for launch in September 2009, arrival at Mars in August 2010 and a mission of six to 10 years while in orbit. Mars Telecommunication Orbiter would serve as the Mars hub for an interplanetery Internet, greatly increasing the information payoff from other future Mars missions. The mission is designed to orbit Mars more than 10 times farther from the planet than orbiters dedicated primarily to science. The high-orbit design minimizes the time that Mars itself blocks the orbiter from communicating with Earth and maximizes the time that the orbiter is above the horizon -- thus capable of communications relay -- for rovers and stationary landers on Mars' surface.
Artificial Sun synchronous frozen orbit control scheme design based on J 2 perturbation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Gong-Bo; Meng, Yun-He; Zheng, Wei; Tang, Guo-Jian
2011-10-01
Sun synchronous orbit and frozen orbit formed due to J 2 perturbation have very strict constraints on orbital parameters, which have restricted the application a lot. In this paper, several control strategies were illustrated to realize Sun synchronous frozen orbit with arbitrary orbital elements using continuous low-thrust. Firstly, according to mean element method, the averaged rate of change of the orbital elements, originating from disturbing constant accelerations over one orbital period, was derived from Gauss' variation of parameters equations. Then, we proposed that binormal acceleration could be used to realize Sun synchronous orbit, and radial or transverse acceleration could be adopted to eliminate the rotation of the argument of the perigee. Finally, amending methods on the control strategies mentioned above were presented to eliminate the residual secular growth. Simulation results showed that the control strategies illustrated in this paper could realize Sun synchronous frozen orbit with arbitrary orbital elements, and can save much more energy than the schemes presented in previous studies, and have no side effect on other orbital parameters' secular motion.
Eight new and three recalculated orbits for binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cvetković, Z.; Novaković, B.
2010-03-01
In this paper new orbital elements are given for eleven binaries. For eight of them, WDS 00003-4417 = I 1477, WDS 00106-7313 = I 43 AB, WDS 00366+5609 = A 914, WDS 00519-4343 = I 47, WDS 01315+1521 = BU 506, WDS 01577+4434 = A 1526, WDS 08144-4550 = FIN 113 AB and WDS 08291-4756 = FIN 315 Aa-Ab, the orbital elements are calculated for the first time. For three of them, WDS 04422+2257 = MCA 16 Aa-Ab, WDS 08275-5501 = FIN 116 and WDS 14567-6247 = FIN 372, the orbital elements are recalculated. One of the eleven binaries, MCA 16 Aa-Ab, was discovered by McAlister in 1980 by speckle interferometry and four pairs were discovered by Finsen between 1929 and 1960. For these five pairs, all measured separations are less than 0".4 and most of the observations were done by using the interferometric techniques. The orbital periods calculated here are between 39 and 270 years. The remaining six pairs were discovered between 1878 and 1926 and most of the observations are visual. They have longer orbital periods, between 384 and 1637 years. In addition to the orbital elements the masses, dynamical parallaxes, absolute magnitudes and ephemerides for the next five years are also given in this paper.
Neptune Polar Orbiter with Probes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bienstock, Bernard; Atkinson, David; Baines, Kevin; Mahaffy, Paul; Steffes, Paul; Atreya, Sushil; Stern, Alan; Wright, Michael; Willenberg, Harvey; Smith, David; Frampton, Robert; Sichi, Steve; Peltz, Leora; Masciarelli, James; VanCleve, Jeffey
2005-01-01
The giant planets of the outer solar system divide into two distinct classes: the gas giants Jupiter and Saturn, which consist mainly of hydrogen and helium; and the ice giants Uranus and Neptune, which are believed to contain significant amounts of the heavier elements oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon and sulfur. Detailed comparisons of the internal structures and compositions of the gas giants with those of the ice giants will yield valuable insights into the processes that formed the solar system and, perhaps, other planetary systems. By 2012, Galileo, Cassini and possibly a Jupiter Orbiter mission with microwave radiometers, Juno, in the New Frontiers program, will have yielded significant information on the chemical and physical properties of Jupiter and Saturn. A Neptune Orbiter with Probes (NOP) mission would deliver the corresponding key data for an ice giant planet. Such a mission would ideally study the deep Neptune atmosphere to pressures approaching and possibly exceeding 1000 bars, as well as the rings, Triton, Nereid, and Neptune s other icy satellites. A potential source of power would be nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). Such an ambitious mission requires that a number of technical issues be investigated, however, including: (1) atmospheric entry probe thermal protection system (TPS) design, (2) probe structural design including seals, windows, penetrations and pressure vessel, (3) digital, RF subsystem, and overall communication link design for long term operation in the very extreme environment of Neptune's deep atmosphere, (4) trajectory design allowing probe release on a trajectory to impact Neptune while allowing the spacecraft to achieve a polar orbit of Neptune, (5) and finally the suite of science instruments enabled by the probe technology to explore the depths of the Neptune atmosphere. Another driving factor in the design of the Orbiter and Probes is the necessity to maintain a fully operational flight system during the lengthy transit time
Accurate stress resultants equations for laminated composite deep thick shells
Qatu, M.S.
1995-11-01
This paper derives accurate equations for the normal and shear force as well as bending and twisting moment resultants for laminated composite deep, thick shells. The stress resultant equations for laminated composite thick shells are shown to be different from those of plates. This is due to the fact the stresses over the thickness of the shell have to be integrated on a trapezoidal-like shell element to obtain the stress resultants. Numerical results are obtained and showed that accurate stress resultants are needed for laminated composite deep thick shells, especially if the curvature is not spherical.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
The Periodic Table of the elements will now have to be updated. An international team of researchers has added element 110 to the Earth's armory of elements. Though short-lived—of the order of microseconds, element 110 bottoms out the list as the heaviest known element on the planet. Scientists at the Heavy Ion Research Center in Darmstadt, Germany, made the 110-proton element by colliding a lead isotope with nickel atoms. The element, which is yet to be named, has an atomic mass of 269.
In-Orbit Lifetime Prediction for LEO and HEO Based on Orbit Determination from TLE Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agueda, A.; Aivar, L.; Tirado, J.; Dolado, J. C.
2013-08-01
Objects in Low-Earth Orbits (LEO) and Highly Elliptical Orbits (HEO) are subjected to decay and re-entry into the atmosphere due mainly to the drag force. While being this process the best solution to avoid the proliferation of debris in space and ensure the sustainability of future space activities, it implies a threat to the population on ground. Thus, the prediction of the in-orbit lifetime of an object and the evaluation of the risk on population and ground assets constitutes a crucial task. This paper will concentrate on the first of these tasks. Unfortunately the lifetime of an object in space is remarkably difficult to predict. This is mainly due to the dependence of the atmospheric drag on a number of uncertain elements such as the density profile and its dependence on the solar activity, the atmospheric conditions, the mass and surface area of the object (very difficult to evaluate), its uncontrolled attitude, etc. In this paper we will present a method for the prediction of this lifetime based on publicly available Two-Line Elements (TLEs) from the American USSTRATCOM's Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC). TLEs constitute an excellent source to access routinely orbital information for thousands of objects even though of their reduced and unpredictable accuracy. Additionally, the implementation of the method on a CNES's Java-based tool will be presented. This tool (OPERA) is executed routinely at CNES to predict the orbital lifetime of a whole catalogue of objects.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weeks, C. J.
1986-01-01
The Comet Rendezvous/Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission is the first of the Mariner Mark II mission set, designed to explore the outer solar system. Major objectives of orbit determination will be determine the positions and masses of the comet and asteroid and the relative position of the spacecraft, which is important to accurate pointing of the scan platform on which the narrow angle camera and scientific instruments are positioned. Position prediction is also important, since continuous commuication with the spacecraft will not be possible. The small gravitational attractions and poorly known ephemerides of the comet and asteroid, and the small, slow spacecraft orbit about the comet, pose significant new problems for orbit determination. Results of simulations studying the effectiveness of key data types, the accuracies of estimates, and prediction capabilities, are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pepper, Stephen V.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Kingsbury, Edward; Jansen, Mark J.
2007-01-01
The spiral orbit tribometer (SOT) bridges the gap between full-scale life testing and typically unrealistic accelerated life testing of ball-bearing lubricants in conjunction with bearing ball and race materials. The SOT operates under realistic conditions and quickly produces results, thereby providing information that can guide the selection of lubricant, ball, and race materials early in a design process. The SOT is based upon a simplified, retainerless thrust bearing comprising one ball between flat races (see figure). The SOT measures lubricant consumption and degradation rates and friction coefficients in boundary lubricated rolling and pivoting contacts. The ball is pressed between the lower and upper races with a controlled force and the lower plate is rotated. The combination of load and rotation causes the ball to move in a nearly circular orbit that is, more precisely, an opening spiral. The spiral s pitch is directly related to the friction coefficient. At the end of the orbit, the ball contacts the guide plate, restoring the orbit to its original radius. The orbit is repeatable throughout the entire test. A force transducer, mounted in-line with the guide plate, measures the force between the ball and the guide plate, which directly relates to the friction coefficient. The SOT, shown in the figure, can operate in under ultra-high vacuum (10(exp -9) Torr) or in a variety of gases at atmospheric pressure. The load force can be adjusted between 45 and 450 N. By varying the load force and ball diameter, mean Hertzian stresses between 0.5 and 5.0 GPa can be obtained. The ball s orbital speed range is between 1 and 100 rpm.
Hooke, orbital motion, and Newton's Principia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nauenberg, Michael
1994-04-01
A detailed analysis is given of a 1685 graphical construction by Robert Hooke for the polygonal path of a body moving in a periodically pulsed radial field of force. In this example the force varies linearly with the distance from the center. Hooke's method is based directly on his original idea from the mid-1660s that the orbital motion of a planet is determined by compounding its tangential velocity with a radial velocity impressed by the gravitational attraction of the sun at the center. This hypothesis corresponds to the second law of motion, as formulated two decades later by Newton, and its geometrical implementation constitutes the cornerstone of Newton's Principia. Hooke's diagram represents the first known accurate graphical evaluation of an orbit in a central field of force, and it gives evidence that he demonstrated that his resulting discrete orbit is an approximate ellipse centered at the origin of the field of force. A comparable calculation to obtain orbits for an inverse square force, which Hooke had conjectured to be the gravitational force, has not been found among his unpublished papers. Such a calculation is carried out here numerically with the Newton-Hooke geometrical construction. It is shown that for orbits of comparable or larger eccentricity than Hooke's example, a graphical approach runs into convergence difficulties due to the singularity of the gravitational force at the origin. This may help resolve the long-standing mystery why Hooke never published his controversial claim that he had demonstrated that an attractive force, which is ``...in a duplicate proportion to the Distance from the Center Reciprocall...'' implies elliptic orbits.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zuber, Maria T.
1997-01-01
The objective of this study was to support the rebuild and implementation of the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) investigation and to perform scientific analysis of current Mars data relevant to the investigation. The instrument is part of the payload of the NASA Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission. The instrument is a rebuild of the Mars Observer Laser Altimeter that was originally flown on the ill-fated Mars Observer mission. The instrument is currently in orbit around Mars and has so far returned remarkable data.
Oppenheimer, Adam J.; Monson, Laura A.; Buchman, Steven R.
2013-01-01
It is wise to recall the dictum “children are not small adults” when managing pediatric orbital fractures. In a child, the craniofacial skeleton undergoes significant changes in size, shape, and proportion as it grows into maturity. Accordingly, the craniomaxillofacial surgeon must select an appropriate treatment strategy that considers both the nature of the injury and the child's stage of growth. The following review will discuss the management of pediatric orbital fractures, with an emphasis on clinically oriented anatomy and development. PMID:24436730
Accurate transition rates for intercombination lines of singly ionized nitrogen
Tayal, S. S.
2011-01-15
The transition energies and rates for the 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 2} {sup 3}P{sub 1,2}-2s2p{sup 3} {sup 5}S{sub 2}{sup o} and 2s{sup 2}2p3s-2s{sup 2}2p3p intercombination transitions have been calculated using term-dependent nonorthogonal orbitals in the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock approach. Several sets of spectroscopic and correlation nonorthogonal functions have been chosen to describe adequately term dependence of wave functions and various correlation corrections. Special attention has been focused on the accurate representation of strong interactions between the 2s2p{sup 3} {sup 1,3}P{sub 1}{sup o} and 2s{sup 2}2p3s {sup 1,3}P{sub 1}{sup o}levels. The relativistic corrections are included through the one-body mass correction, Darwin, and spin-orbit operators and two-body spin-other-orbit and spin-spin operators in the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. The importance of core-valence correlation effects has been examined. The accuracy of present transition rates is evaluated by the agreement between the length and velocity formulations combined with the agreement between the calculated and measured transition energies. The present results for transition probabilities, branching fraction, and lifetimes have been compared with previous calculations and experiments.
Accurate SHAPE-directed RNA structure determination
Deigan, Katherine E.; Li, Tian W.; Mathews, David H.; Weeks, Kevin M.
2009-01-01
Almost all RNAs can fold to form extensive base-paired secondary structures. Many of these structures then modulate numerous fundamental elements of gene expression. Deducing these structure–function relationships requires that it be possible to predict RNA secondary structures accurately. However, RNA secondary structure prediction for large RNAs, such that a single predicted structure for a single sequence reliably represents the correct structure, has remained an unsolved problem. Here, we demonstrate that quantitative, nucleotide-resolution information from a SHAPE experiment can be interpreted as a pseudo-free energy change term and used to determine RNA secondary structure with high accuracy. Free energy minimization, by using SHAPE pseudo-free energies, in conjunction with nearest neighbor parameters, predicts the secondary structure of deproteinized Escherichia coli 16S rRNA (>1,300 nt) and a set of smaller RNAs (75–155 nt) with accuracies of up to 96–100%, which are comparable to the best accuracies achievable by comparative sequence analysis. PMID:19109441
The calculation of orbital positioning using standard orbital parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pritchard, W.
1999-08-01
Practical difficulties arise solving the deceptively simple Kepler's equation. Kepler's equation can be solved easily using the method Newton developed for doing so. The authors recommend that this method be used in any general approach to orbital calculations. Another practical point to be reckoned with, is the variation in true orbital parameters. It is important to note that inclined orbits, eccentric orbits, and low orbits all suffer from rapid changes in their parameters. They can be ignored only for simple calculations for just a few orbits. Any calculation covering a longer period of time must take these changes into account.
ARTEMIS Lunar Orbit Insertion and Science Orbit Design Through 2013
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Broschart, Stephen B.; Sweetser, Theodore H.; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Folta, David; Woodard, Mark
2015-01-01
As of late-July 2011, the ARTEMIS mission is transferring two spacecraft from Lissajous orbits around Earth-Moon Lagrange Point #1 into highly-eccentric lunar science orbits. This paper presents the trajectory design for the transfer from Lissajous orbit to lunar orbit insertion, the period reduction maneuvers, and the science orbits through 2013. The design accommodates large perturbations from Earth's gravity and restrictive spacecraft capabilities to enable opportunities for a range of heliophysics and planetary science measurements. The process used to design the highly-eccentric ARTEMIS science orbits is outlined. The approach may inform the design of future planetary moon missions.
Orbiting space debris: Dangers, measurement and mitigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McNutt, Ross T.
1992-06-01
Space debris is a growing environmental problem. Accumulation of objects in earth orbit threatens space systems through the possibility of collisions and runaway debris multiplication. The amount of debris in orbit is uncertain due to the lack of information on the population of debris between 1 and 10 centimeters diameter. Collisions with debris even smaller than 1 cm can be catastrophic due to the high orbital velocities involved. Research efforts are under way at NASA, United States Space Command and the Air Force Phillips Laboratory to detect and catalog the debris population in near-earth space. Current international and national laws are inadequate to control the proliferation of space debris. Space debris is a serious problem with large economic, military, technical and diplomatic components. Actions need to be taken now to: determine the full extent of the orbital debris problem; accurately predict the future evolution of the debris population; decide the extent of the debris mitigation procedures required; implement these policies on a global basis via an international treaty. Action must be initiated now, before the loss of critical space systems such as the space shuttle or the space station.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cordelli, E.; Vananti, A.; Schildknecht, T.
2016-05-01
An in-depth study, using simulations and covariance analysis, is performed to identify the optimal sequence of observations to obtain the most accurate orbit propagation. The accuracy of the results of an orbit determination/improvement process depends on: tracklet length, number of observations, type of orbit, astrometric error, time interval between tracklets and observation geometry. The latter depends on the position of the object along its orbit and the location of the observing station. This covariance analysis aims to optimize the observation strategy taking into account the influence of the orbit shape, of the relative object-observer geometry and the interval between observations.
Ethmoid osteoma as a culprit of orbital emphysema: a case report.
Zhuang, Ai; Li, Yinwei; Lin, Ming; Shi, Wodong; Fan, Xianqun
2015-05-01
Orbital emphysema is generally recognized as a complication of orbital fractures involving any paranasal sinuses. The recognition about its etiology has extended beyond sole trauma, but few articles mentioned tumors to be a possible cause.In this case report, we present a patient with orbital emphysema associated with ethmoid osteoma without orbital cellulitis or trauma history. The patient developed sudden proptosis, eyelid swelling, and movement limitation of the left eye, peripheral diplopia, and left periorbital crepitus after a vigorous nose blowing.Complete surgical resection of ethmoid osteoma followed by repair of the orbital medial wall was performed with assistance of combined endoscopy and navigational techniques. Twelve-month follow-up showed no residual lesion or recurrence; the orbital medial wall was accurately repaired with good visual function and facial symmetry.Tumors should be considered for differential diagnosis of orbital emphysema, and combined endoscopy and navigational techniques may improve safety, accuracy, and effectiveness of orbital surgeries.
Orbit Determination of Spacecraft in Earth-Moon L1 and L2 Libration Point Orbits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodard, Mark; Cosgrove, Daniel; Morinelli, Patrick; Marchese, Jeff; Owens, Brandon; Folta, David
2011-01-01
measurements that would be needed to meet the required orbit determination accuracies. Analysts used the Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS) to perform covariance analyses using various tracking data schedules. From this analysis, it was determined that 3.5 hours of DSN TRK-2-34 range and Doppler tracking data every other day would suffice to meet the predictive orbit knowledge accuracies in the Lissajous region. The results of this analysis are presented. Both GTDS and ODTK have high-fidelity environmental orbit force models that allow for very accurate orbit estimation in the lunar Lissajous regime. These models include solar radiation pressure, Earth and Moon gravity models, third body gravitational effects from the Sun, and to a lesser extent third body gravitational effects from Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, and Mars. Increased position and velocity uncertainties following each maneuver, due to small execution performance errors, requires that several days of post-maneuver tracking data be processed to converge on an accurate post-maneuver orbit solution. The effects of maneuvers on orbit determination accuracy will be presented, including a comparison of the batch least squares technique to the extended Kalman filter/smoother technique. We will present the maneuver calibration results derived from processing post-maneuver tracking data. A dominant error in the orbit estimation process is the uncertainty in solar radiation pressure and the resultant force on the spacecraft. An estimation of this value can include many related factors, such as the uncertainty in spacecraft reflectivity and surface area which is a function of spacecraft orientation (spin-axis attitude), uncertainty in spacecraft wet mass, and potential seasonal variability due to the changing direction of the Sun line relative to the Earth-Moon Lissajous reference frame. In addition, each spacecraft occasionally enters into Earth or Moon penumbra or umbra and these shadow crossings reduche solar
Europa Orbiter Exploration Strategies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, T. V.
2001-01-01
The Europa Orbiter mission is planned as the next stage of Europa exploration. Its primary goals are to search for definitive evidence of a subsurface ocean, to characterize the ice crust and ice/water interface, and to prepare for future surface/sub-surface missions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
This animation shows the location of the newly discovered planet-like object, dubbed 'Sedna,' in relation to the rest of the solar system. Starting at the inner solar system, which includes the orbits of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars (all in yellow), the view pulls away through the asteroid belt and the orbits of the outer planets beyond (green). Pluto and the distant Kuiper Belt objects are seen next until finally Sedna comes into view. As the field widens the full orbit of Sedna can be seen along with its current location. Sedna is nearing its closest approach to the Sun; its 10,000 year orbit typically takes it to far greater distances. Moving past Sedna, what was previously thought to be the inner edge of the Oort cloud appears. The Oort cloud is a spherical distribution of cold, icy bodies lying at the limits of the Sun's gravitational pull. Sedna's presence suggests that this Oort cloud is much closer than scientists believed.
Symon, K.
1987-11-01
There are various reasons for preferring local (e.g., three bump) orbit correction methods to global corrections. One is the difficulty of solving the mN equations for the required mN correcting bumps, where N is the number of superperiods and m is the number of bumps per superperiod. The latter is not a valid reason for avoiding global corrections, since, we can take advantage of the superperiod symmetry to reduce the mN simultaneous equations to N separate problems, each involving only m simultaneous equations. Previously, I have shown how to solve the general problem when the machine contains unknown magnet errors of known probability distribution; we made measurements of known precision of the orbit displacements at a set of points, and we wish to apply correcting bumps to minimize the weighted rms orbit deviations. In this report, we will consider two simpler problems, using similar methods. We consider the case when we make M beam position measurements per superperiod, and we wish to apply an equal number M of orbit correcting bumps to reduce the measured position errors to zero. We also consider the problem when the number of correcting bumps is less than the number of measurements, and we wish to minimize the weighted rms position errors. We will see that the latter problem involves solving equations of a different form, but involving the same matrices as the former problem.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wallace, R. A.; Spilker, T. R.
1998-01-01
This paper describes the results of new analyses and mission/system designs for a low cost Neptune Orbiter mission. Science and measurement objectives, instrumentation, and mission/system design options are described and reflect an aggressive approach to the application of new advanced technologies expected to be available and developed over the next five to ten years.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1998-01-01
The Mars Surveyor '98 Climate Orbiter is shown here during acoustic tests that simulate launch conditions. The orbiter was to conduct a two year primary mission to profile the Martian atmosphere and map the surface. To carry out these scientific objectives, the spacecraft carried a rebuilt version of the pressure modulated infrared radiometer, lost with the Mars Observer spacecraft, and a miniaturized dual camera system the size of a pair of binoculars, provided by Malin Space Science Systems, Inc., San Diego, California. During its primary mission, the orbiter was to monitor Mars atmosphere and surface globally on a daily basis for one Martian year (two Earth years), observing the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterizing seasonal changes of the planet's surface. Imaging of the surface morphology would also provide important clues about the planet's climate in its early history. The mission was part of NASA's Mars Surveyor program, a sustained program of robotic exploration of the red planet, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. Lockheed Martin Astronautics was NASA's industrial partner in the mission. Unfortunately, Mars Climate Orbiter burned up in the Martian atmosphere on September 23, 1999, due to a metric conversion error that caused the spacecraft to be off course.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardano, Filippo; Marrucci, Lorenzo
2015-12-01
Spin-orbit optical phenomena involve the interaction of the photon spin with the light wave propagation and spatial distribution, mediated by suitable optical media. Here we present a short overview of the emerging photonic applications that rely on such effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monaco, Pierluigi; Theuns, Tom; Taffoni, Giuliano
2002-04-01
pinocchio (PINpointing Orbit-Crossing Collapsed HIerarchical Objects) is a new algorithm proposed recently by Monaco et al. (Paper I) for identifying dark matter haloes in a given numerical realization of the linear density field in a hierarchical universe. Mass elements are assumed to have collapsed after undergoing orbit crossing, as computed using perturbation theory. It is shown that Lagrangian perturbation theory, and in particular its ellipsoidal truncation, is able to predict accurately the collapse, in the orbit-crossing sense, of generic mass elements. Collapsed points are grouped into haloes using an algorithm that mimics the hierarchical growth of structure through accretion and mergers. Some points that have undergone orbit crossing are assigned to the network of filaments and sheets that connects the haloes; it is demonstrated that this network resembles closely that found in N -body simulations. The code generates a catalogue of dark matter haloes with known mass, position, velocity, merging history and angular momentum. It is shown that the predictions of the code are very accurate when compared with the results of large N -body simulations that cover a range of cosmological models, box sizes and numerical resolutions. The mass function is recovered with an accuracy of better than 10 per cent in number density for haloes with at least 30-50 particles. A similar accuracy is reached in the estimate of the correlation length r 0 . The good agreement is still valid on the object-by-object level, with 70-100 per cent of the objects with more than 50 particles in the simulations also identified by our algorithm. For these objects the masses are recovered with an error of 20-40 per cent, and positions and velocities with a root mean square error of ~1-2Mpc (0.5-2 grid lengths) and ~100kms-1 , respectively. The recovery of the angular momentum of haloes is considerably noisier, and accuracy at the statistical level is achieved only by introducing free
The orbital evolution of NEA 30825 1900 TG1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Timoshkova, E. I.
2008-02-01
The orbital evolution of the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 30825 1990 TG1 has been studied by numerical integration of the equations of its motion over the 100 000-year time interval with allowance for perturbations from eight major planets and Pluto, and the variations in its osculating orbit over this time interval were determined. The numerical integrations were performed using two methods: the Bulirsch-Stoer method and the Everhart method. The comparative analysis of the two resulting orbital evolutions of motion is presented for the time interval examined. The evolution of the asteroid motion is qualitatively the same for both variants, but the rate of evolution of the orbital elements is different. Our research confirms the known fact that the application of different integrators to the study of the long-term evolution of the NEA orbit may lead to different evolution tracks.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnston, A. S., (Nick); Ryder, Mel; Tyler, Tony R.
1998-01-01
An automated fluid and power interface system needs to be developed for future space missions which require on orbit consumable replenishment. Current method of fluid transfer require manned vehicles and extravehicular activity. Currently the US does not have an automated capability for consumable transfer on-orbit. This technology would benefit both Space Station and long duration satellites. In order to provide this technology the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) was developed. The AFIS project was an advanced development program aimed at developing a prototype satellite servicer for future space operations. This mechanism could transfer propellants, cryogens, fluids, gasses, electrical power, and communications from a tanker unit to the orbiting satellite. The development of this unit was a cooperative effort between Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and Moog, Inc. in East Aurora, New York. An engineering model was built and underwent substantial development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). While the AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit. The lessons learned from testing the AFIS provided the foundation for the next generation fluid transfer mechanism, the Orbital Fluid Transfer System (OFTS). The OFTS project was a study contract with MSFC and Moog, Inc. The OFTS was designed for the International Space Station (ISS), but its flexible design could used for long duration satellite missions and other applications. The OFTS was designed to be used after docking. The primary function was to transfer bipropellants and high pressure gases. The other items addressed by this task included propellant storage, hardware integration, safety and control system issues. A new concept for high pressure couplings was also developed. The results of the AFIS testing provided an excellent basis for the OFTS design. The OFTS
White, J A; Dutton, A W; Schmidt, J A; Roemer, R B
2000-01-01
An automated three-element meshing method for generating finite element based models for the accurate thermal analysis of blood vessels imbedded in tissue has been developed and evaluated. The meshing method places eight noded hexahedral elements inside the vessels where advective flows exist, and four noded tetrahedral elements in the surrounding tissue. The higher order hexahedrals are used where advective flow fields occur, since high accuracy is required and effective upwinding algorithms exist. Tetrahedral elements are placed in the remaining tissue region, since they are computationally more efficient and existing automatic tetrahedral mesh generators can be used. Five noded pyramid elements connect the hexahedrals and tetrahedrals. A convective energy equation (CEE) based finite element algorithm solves for the temperature distributions in the flowing blood, while a finite element formulation of a generalized conduction equation is used in the surrounding tissue. Use of the CEE allows accurate solutions to be obtained without the necessity of assuming ad hoc values for heat transfer coefficients. Comparisons of the predictions of the three-element model to analytical solutions show that the three-element model accurately simulates temperature fields. Energy balance checks show that the three-element model has small, acceptable errors. In summary, this method provides an accurate, automatic finite element gridding procedure for thermal analysis of irregularly shaped tissue regions that contain important blood vessels. At present, the models so generated are relatively large (in order to obtain accurate results) and are, thus, best used for providing accurate reference values for checking other approximate formulations to complicated, conjugated blood heat transfer problems.
Plasma conditions inside Io's orbit - Voyager measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bagenal, F.
1985-01-01
The Voyager 1 ion data that were obtained inside the orbit of Io allow accurate determination of convective velocity, temperature, and density of the major ionic species (S+, O+, S2+ and O2+ ions). The irregular radial profiles of ion temperature and flux tube content are not consistent with simple models of radial transport of plasma from a source near Io. The evidence of a source of ions well inside Io's orbit is provided by the detection of molecular (SO2+) ions at 5.3 RJ, the prevalence of non-Maxwellian tails to the ion distribution functions, the persistent presence of oxygen ions throughout the inner torus, and a 1 - 3% lag behind corotation outside 5.4 RJ.
Ni-cd Battery Life Expectancy in Geosynchronous Orbit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Broderick, R. J.
1984-01-01
The feasibility of using nickel cadmium batteries as an alternate if flight qualified NiH2 batteries are not available is explored. Battery life expectancy data being a key element of power system design, an attempt is made to review the literature, life test data and in orbit performance data to develop an up to date estimate of life expectancy for NiCd batteries in a geosynchronous orbit.
The challenge of precise orbit determination for STSAT-2C using extremely sparse SLR data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Young-Rok; Park, Eunseo; Kucharski, Daniel; Lim, Hyung-Chul; Kim, Byoungsoo
2016-03-01
The Science and Technology Satellite (STSAT)-2C is the first Korean satellite equipped with a laser retro-reflector array for satellite laser ranging (SLR). SLR is the only on-board tracking source for precise orbit determination (POD) of STSAT-2C. However, POD for the STSAT-2C is a challenging issue, as the laser measurements of the satellite are extremely sparse, largely due to the inaccurate two-line element (TLE)-based orbit predictions used by the SLR tracking stations. In this study, POD for the STSAT-2C using extremely sparse SLR data is successfully implemented, and new laser-based orbit predictions are obtained. The NASA/GSFC GEODYN II software and seven-day arcs are used for the SLR data processing of two years of normal points from March 2013 to May 2015. To compensate for the extremely sparse laser tracking, the number of estimation parameters are minimized, and only the atmospheric drag coefficients are estimated with various intervals. The POD results show that the weighted root mean square (RMS) post-fit residuals are less than 10 m, and the 3D day boundaries vary from 30 m to 3 km. The average four-day orbit overlaps are less than 20/330/20 m for the radial/along-track/cross-track components. The quality of the new laser-based prediction is verified by SLR observations, and the SLR residuals show better results than those of previous TLE-based predictions. This study demonstrates that POD for the STSAT-2C can be successfully achieved against extreme sparseness of SLR data, and the results can deliver more accurate predictions.
Trends in Ionization Energy of Transition-Metal Elements
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Matsumoto, Paul S.
2005-01-01
A rationale for the difference in the periodic trends in the ionization energy of the transition-metal elements versus the main-group elements is presented. The difference is that in the transition-metal elements, the electrons enter an inner-shell electron orbital, while in the main-group elements, the electrons enter an outer-shell electron…
38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...
38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...
38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...
38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...
38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...
Orbital construction support equipment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1977-01-01
Approximately 200 separate construction steps were defined for the three solar power satellite (SPS) concepts. Detailed construction scenarios were developed which describe the specific tasks to be accomplished, and identify general equipment requirements. The scenarios were used to perform a functional analysis, which resulted in the definition of 100 distinct SPS elements. These elements are the components, parts, subsystems, or assemblies upon which construction activities take place. The major SPS elements for each configuration are shown. For those elements, 300 functional requirements were identified in seven generic processes. Cumulatively, these processes encompass all functions required during SPS construction/assembly. Individually each process is defined such that it includes a specific type of activity. Each SPS element may involve activities relating to any or all of the generic processes. The processes are listed, and examples of the requirements defined for a typical element are given.
Integrated magnetometer-horizon sensor low-earth orbit determination using UKF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farahanifar, Mohammad; Assadian, Nima
2015-01-01
The estimation of the satellite orbital elements using the integrated magnetometer and horizon sensors data has been investigated in this study. These sensors are generally employed for attitude estimation. The magnetometer and the horizon sensor measure the Earth's magnetic field as well as the Earth's center direction in the body frame, respectively. The magnitude of the magnetic field and the angle between two vectors have been used for orbit estimation purpose. This excludes the knowledge of the attitude in the orbit determination. The Gaussian variation of parameters equations is used for the orbital motion dynamical model to have the orbital elements as the states of the system. Since the dynamics of the system and the measurement model are nonlinear, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is utilized. Moreover, the magnetometer is subjected to scale factor and bias errors and these parameters are also estimated together with the orbital elements. It has been revealed that the UKF-based orbit determination algorithm can determine the sensor error parameters as well as the Keplerian orbital elements. The sensitivity analysis results show that this approach is insensitive to inclination and eccentricity for most orbits and can be adopted for near equatorial as well as near circular orbits.
Chemical characterization of bohrium (element 107)
Eichler; Bruchle; Dressler; Dullmann; Eichler; Gaggeler; Gregorich; Hoffman; Hubener; Jost; Kirbach; Laue; Lavanchy; Nitsche; Patin; Piguet; Schadel; Shaughnessy; Strellis; Taut; Tobler; Tsyganov; Turler; Vahle; Wilk; Yakushev
2000-09-01
The arrangement of the chemical elements in the periodic table highlights resemblances in chemical properties, which reflect the elements' electronic structure. For the heaviest elements, however, deviations in the periodicity of chemical properties are expected: electrons in orbitals with a high probability density near the nucleus are accelerated by the large nuclear charges to relativistic velocities, which increase their binding energies and cause orbital contraction. This leads to more efficient screening of the nuclear charge and corresponding destabilization of the outer d and f orbitals: it is these changes that can give rise to unexpected chemical properties. The synthesis of increasingly heavy elements, now including that of elements 114, 116 and 118, allows the investigation of this effect, provided sufficiently long-lived isotopes for chemical characterization are available. In the case of elements 104 and 105, for example, relativistic effects interrupt characteristic trends in the chemical properties of the elements constituting the corresponding columns of the periodic table, whereas element 106 behaves in accordance with the expected periodicity. Here we report the chemical separation and characterization of six atoms of element 107 (bohrium, Bh), in the form of its oxychloride. We find that this compound is less volatile than the oxychlorides of the lighter elements of group VII, thus confirming relativistic calculations that predict the behaviour of bohrium, like that of element 106, to coincide with that expected on the basis of its position in the periodic table.
Chemical characterization of bohrium (element 107)
Eichler; Bruchle; Dressler; Dullmann; Eichler; Gaggeler; Gregorich; Hoffman; Hubener; Jost; Kirbach; Laue; Lavanchy; Nitsche; Patin; Piguet; Schadel; Shaughnessy; Strellis; Taut; Tobler; Tsyganov; Turler; Vahle; Wilk; Yakushev
2000-09-01
The arrangement of the chemical elements in the periodic table highlights resemblances in chemical properties, which reflect the elements' electronic structure. For the heaviest elements, however, deviations in the periodicity of chemical properties are expected: electrons in orbitals with a high probability density near the nucleus are accelerated by the large nuclear charges to relativistic velocities, which increase their binding energies and cause orbital contraction. This leads to more efficient screening of the nuclear charge and corresponding destabilization of the outer d and f orbitals: it is these changes that can give rise to unexpected chemical properties. The synthesis of increasingly heavy elements, now including that of elements 114, 116 and 118, allows the investigation of this effect, provided sufficiently long-lived isotopes for chemical characterization are available. In the case of elements 104 and 105, for example, relativistic effects interrupt characteristic trends in the chemical properties of the elements constituting the corresponding columns of the periodic table, whereas element 106 behaves in accordance with the expected periodicity. Here we report the chemical separation and characterization of six atoms of element 107 (bohrium, Bh), in the form of its oxychloride. We find that this compound is less volatile than the oxychlorides of the lighter elements of group VII, thus confirming relativistic calculations that predict the behaviour of bohrium, like that of element 106, to coincide with that expected on the basis of its position in the periodic table. PMID:10993071
Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.
2013-01-01
The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.
Unusual sclerosing orbital pseudotumor infiltrating orbits and maxillofacial regions.
Toprak, Huseyin; Aralaşmak, Ayşe; Yılmaz, Temel Fatih; Ozdemir, Huseyin
2014-01-01
Idiopathic orbital pseudotumor (IOP) is a benign inflammatory condition of the orbit without identifiable local or systemic causes. Bilateral massive orbital involvement and extraorbital extension of the IOP is very rare. We present an unusual case of IOP with bilateral massive orbital infiltration extending into maxillofacial regions and discuss its distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features that help to exclude other entities during differential diagnoses.
Unusual Sclerosing Orbital Pseudotumor Infiltrating Orbits and Maxillofacial Regions
Toprak, Huseyin; Aralaşmak, Ayşe; Yılmaz, Temel Fatih; Ozdemir, Huseyin
2014-01-01
Idiopathic orbital pseudotumor (IOP) is a benign inflammatory condition of the orbit without identifiable local or systemic causes. Bilateral massive orbital involvement and extraorbital extension of the IOP is very rare. We present an unusual case of IOP with bilateral massive orbital infiltration extending into maxillofacial regions and discuss its distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features that help to exclude other entities during differential diagnoses. PMID:24991481
Comparison of Low Earth Orbit and Geosynchronous Earth Orbits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Drummond, J. E.
1980-01-01
The technological, environmental, social, and political ramifications of low Earth orbits as compared to geosynchronous Earth orbits for the solar power satellite (SPS) are assessed. The capital cost of the transmitting facilities is dependent on the areas of the antenna and rectenna relative to the requirement of high efficiency power transmission. The salient features of a low orbit Earth orbits are discussed in terms of cost reduction efforts.
Shuttle on-orbit rendezvous targeting: Circular orbits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bentley, E. L.
1972-01-01
The strategy and logic used in a space shuttle on-orbit rendezvous targeting program are described. The program generates ascent targeting conditions for boost to insertion into an intermediate parking orbit, and generates on-orbit targeting and timeline bases for each maneuver to effect rendezvous with a space station. Time of launch is determined so as to eliminate any plane change, and all work was performed for a near-circular space station orbit.
Challenges in the development of the orbiter atmosphere revitalization subsystem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prince, R. N.; Swider, J.; Wojnarowski, J.; Decrisantis, A.; Ord, G. R.; Walleshauser, J. J.; Gibb, J. W.
1985-01-01
The space shuttle orbiter atmospheric revitalization subsystem provides thermal and contaminant control as well as total- and oxygen partial-pressure control of the environment within the orbiter crew cabin. Challenges that occurred during the development of this subsystem for the space shuttle orbiter are described. The design of the rotating hardware elements of the system (pumps, fans, etc.) required significant development to meet the requirements of long service life, maintainability, and high cycle-fatigue life. As a result, a stringent development program, particularly in the areas of bearing life and heat dissipation, was required. Another area requiring significant development was cabin humidity control and condensate collection.
Analytic toy model for the innermost stable circular orbit shift
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hod, Shahar
2013-01-01
A simple black-hole-ring system is proposed as a toy model for the two-body problem in general relativity. This toy-model yields the fractional shift ΔΩisco/Ωisco=(29)/(812)η in the Schwarzschild ISCO (innermost stable circular orbit) frequency, where η≡m/Mir≪1 is the dimensionless ratio between the mass of the particle and the irreducible mass of the black hole. Our model suggests that the second-order spin-orbit interaction between the black hole and the orbiting particle (the dragging of inertial frames) is the main element determining the observed value of the ISCO shift.
Orbits of the ten small satellites of Uranus
Owen, W.M. Jr.; Synnott, S.P.
1987-05-01
Orbital elements are presented for the ten small satellites discovered by Voyager 2 at Uranus. These ten new satellites, whose provisional IAU designations are 1985UI and 1986UI through 1986U9, lie for the most part in equatorial, circular orbits; the most notable exception is 1986U8, the outer epsilon-ring shepherd, whose eccentricity e = 0.0101. Unlike the Voyager discoveries at Saturn, which included two co-orbiting satellites and three librators, the ten small Uranian satellites all have quite different semimajor axes. 11 references.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helser, Terry L.
2003-04-01
This puzzle uses the symbols of 39 elements to spell the names of 25 animals found in zoos. Underlined spaces and the names of the elements serve as clues. To solve the puzzle, students must find the symbols that correspond to the elemental names and rearrange them into the animals' names.
Close up view of the Orbiter Discovery in the Orbiter ...
Close up view of the Orbiter Discovery in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The view is a detail of the aft, starboard landing gear and a general view of the Thermal Protection System tiles around the landing-gear housing. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Visentine, James T.; Leger, Lubert J.
1987-01-01
To resolve uncertainties in estimated LEO atomic oxygen fluence and provide reaction product composition data for comparison to data obtained in ground-based simulation laboratories, a flight experiment has been proposed for the space shuttle which utilizes an ion-neutral mass spectrometer to obtain in-situ ambient density measurements and identify reaction products from modeled polymers exposed to the atomic oxygen environment. An overview of this experiment is presented and the methodology of calibrating the flight mass spectrometer in a neutral beam facility prior to its use on the space shuttle is established. The experiment, designated EOIM-3 (Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials, third series), will provide a reliable materials interaction data base for future spacecraft design and will furnish insight into the basic chemical mechanisms leading to atomic oxygen interactions with surfaces.
Mars Observer Orbit Insertion Briefing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1993-01-01
Steve Wall is the host of this video entitled, "Return to the Red Planet". Live animation of the Mars Observer orbiting Mars is presented. Steve Wall explains the spacecraft insertion maneuver and also explains the purpose for the Mars Observer launch. Live coverage of the Cape Canaveral launch of the Mars Observer is also presented. Suzanne Dodd, Chief of the Mission Planning team describes the burn start and how the spacecraft will be captured by Mars' gravity. Glenn Cunningham, Mars Observer Project Manager, gives background information on the Mars Observer and describes the organizations behind the Mars Observer Spacecraft, such as the Deep Space Network, the Mission Operation Support Office, Science Investigators, the Flight Engineering Office, Operations Office, and the Ground Data System Office. Dr. William Piotrowski, Acting Director, Solar System Exploration Division, NASA, talks about the purpose of the Mars Pathfinder which is to develop the technology and systems for landing small science packages on Mars. Mr. Roger Gibbs, Former Mars Observer Spacecraft Systems Engineer, tells us how the Mars Observer was built and describes the structural elements on the Mars Observer. The 11-month cruise period for the spacecraft is given by Joseph Beerer, Manager of the Engineering office. The thrust for the Mars Orbit Insertion is described by Ronald Klemetson, Technical Manager, Propulsion Subsystem Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). George Chen, Lead Engineer Attitude and Articulation Subsystem Spacecraft Team, explains the importance of the attitude control engines on the Spacecraft. Marvin Traxler, Manager of Tracking and Data Acquisition, describes how searching for a signal from the Mars Observer works. See NONP-NASA-VT-2000081555 for a continuation of this discussion with Marvin Traxler.
Helioseismology with Solar Orbiter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Löptien, Björn; Birch, Aaron C.; Gizon, Laurent; Schou, Jesper; Appourchaux, Thierry; Blanco Rodríguez, Julián; Cally, Paul S.; Dominguez-Tagle, Carlos; Gandorfer, Achim; Hill, Frank; Hirzberger, Johann; Scherrer, Philip H.; Solanki, Sami K.
2015-12-01
The Solar Orbiter mission, to be launched in July 2017, will carry a suite of remote sensing and in-situ instruments, including the Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager (PHI). PHI will deliver high-cadence images of the Sun in intensity and Doppler velocity suitable for carrying out novel helioseismic studies. The orbit of the Solar Orbiter spacecraft will reach a solar latitude of up to 21∘ (up to 34∘ by the end of the extended mission) and thus will enable the first local helioseismology studies of the polar regions. Here we consider an array of science objectives to be addressed by helioseismology within the baseline telemetry allocation (51 Gbit per orbit, current baseline) and within the science observing windows (baseline 3×10 days per orbit). A particularly important objective is the measurement of large-scale flows at high latitudes (rotation and meridional flow), which are largely unknown but play an important role in flux transport dynamos. For both helioseismology and feature tracking methods convection is a source of noise in the measurement of longitudinally averaged large-scale flows, which decreases as T -1/2 where T is the total duration of the observations. Therefore, the detection of small amplitude signals (e.g., meridional circulation, flows in the deep solar interior) requires long observation times. As an example, one hundred days of observations at lower spatial resolution would provide a noise level of about three m/s on the meridional flow at 80∘ latitude. Longer time-series are also needed to study temporal variations with the solar cycle. The full range of Earth-Sun-spacecraft angles provided by the orbit will enable helioseismology from two vantage points by combining PHI with another instrument: stereoscopic helioseismology will allow the study of the deep solar interior and a better understanding of the physics of solar oscillations in both quiet Sun and sunspots. We have used a model of the PHI instrument to study its
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1991-01-01
The debris problem has reached a stage at which the risk to satellites and spacecraft has become substantial in low Earth orbit (LEO). This research discovered that small particles posed little threat to spacecraft because shielding can effectively prevent these particles from damaging the spacecraft. The research also showed that, even though collision with a large piece of debris could destroy the spacecraft, the large pieces of debris pose little danger because they can be tracked and the spacecraft can be maneuvered away from these pieces. Additionally, there are many current designs to capture and remove large debris particles from the space environment. From this analysis, it was decided to concentrate on the removal of medium-sized orbital debris, that is, those pieces ranging from 1 cm to 50 cm in size. The current design incorporates a transfer vehicle and a netting vehicle to capture the medium-sized debris. The system is based near an operational space station located at 28.5 deg inclination and 400 km altitude. The system uses ground-based tracking to determine the location of a satellite breakup or debris cloud. These data are uploaded to the transfer vehicle, which proceeds to rendezvous with the debris at a lower altitude parking orbit. Next, the netting vehicle is deployed, tracks the targeted debris, and captures it. After expending the available nets, the netting vehicle returns to the transfer vehicle for a new netting module and continues to capture more debris in the target area. Once all the netting modules are expended, the transfer vehicle returns to the space station's orbit where it is resupplied with new netting modules from a space shuttle load. The new modules are launched by the shuttle from the ground and the expended modules are taken back to Earth for removal of the captured debris, refueling, and repacking of the nets. Once the netting modules are refurbished, they are taken back into orbit for reuse. In a typical mission, the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
The debris problem has reached a stage at which the risk to satellites and spacecraft has become substantial in low Earth orbit (LEO). This research discovered that small particles posed little threat to spacecraft because shielding can effectively prevent these particles from damaging the spacecraft. The research also showed that, even though collision with a large piece of debris could destroy the spacecraft, the large pieces of debris pose little danger because they can be tracked and the spacecraft can be maneuvered away from these pieces. Additionally, there are many current designs to capture and remove large debris particles from the space environment. From this analysis, it was decided to concentrate on the removal of medium-sized orbital debris, that is, those pieces ranging from 1 cm to 50 cm in size. The current design incorporates a transfer vehicle and a netting vehicle to capture the medium-sized debris. The system is based near an operational space station located at 28.5 deg inclination and 400 km altitude. The system uses ground-based tracking to determine the location of a satellite breakup or debris cloud. These data are uploaded to the transfer vehicle, which proceeds to rendezvous with the debris at a lower altitude parking orbit. Next, the netting vehicle is deployed, tracks the targeted debris, and captures it. After expending the available nets, the netting vehicle returns to the transfer vehicle for a new netting module and continues to capture more debris in the target area. Once all the netting modules are expended, the transfer vehicle returns to the space station's orbit where it is resupplied with new netting modules from a space shuttle load. The new modules are launched by the shuttle from the ground and the expended modules are taken back to Earth for removal of the captured debris, refueling, and repacking of the nets. Once the netting modules are refurbished, they are taken back into orbit for reuse. In a typical mission, the
Comerci, M; Elefante, A; Strianese, D; Senese, R; Bonavolontà, P; Alfano, B; Bonavolontà, B; Brunetti, A
2013-08-01
This study was designed to validate a novel semi-automated segmentation method to measure regional intra-orbital fat tissue volume in Graves' ophthalmopathy. Twenty-four orbits from 12 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy, 24 orbits from 12 controls, ten orbits from five MRI study simulations and two orbits from a digital model were used. Following manual region of interest definition of the orbital volumes performed by two operators with different levels of expertise, an automated procedure calculated intra-orbital fat tissue volumes (global and regional, with automated definition of four quadrants). In patients with Graves' disease, clinical activity score and degree of exophthalmos were measured and correlated with intra-orbital fat volumes. Operator performance was evaluated and statistical analysis of the measurements was performed. Accurate intra-orbital fat volume measurements were obtained with coefficients of variation below 5%. The mean operator difference in total fat volume measurements was 0.56%. Patients had significantly higher intra-orbital fat volumes than controls (p<0.001 using Student's t test). Fat volumes and clinical score were significantly correlated (p<0.001). The semi-automated method described here can provide accurate, reproducible intra-orbital fat measurements with low inter-operator variation and good correlation with clinical data.
LRO Enters Lunar Orbit (Highlights)
After a four and a half day journey from the Earth, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, or LRO, successfully entered orbit around the moon. Engineers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbel...
Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission Highlights
Since launch on June 18, 2009 as a precursor mission, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has remained in orbit around the moon, collecting vast amounts of science data in support of NASA's expl...
The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanchard, R. C.; Hendrix, M. K.; Fox, J. C.; Thomas, D. J.; Nicholson, J.
The hardware and software of NASA's proposed Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) are described. The OARE is to provide aerodynamic acceleration measurements along the Orbiter's principal axis in the free-molecular flow-flight regime at orbital attitude and in the transition regime during reentry. Models considering the effects of electromagnetic effects, solar radiation pressure, orbiter mass attraction, gravity gradient, orbital centripetal acceleration, out-of-orbital-plane effects, orbiter angular velocity, structural noise, mass expulsion signal sources, crew motion, and bias on acceleration are examined. The experiment contains an electrostatically balanced cylindrical proofmass accelerometer sensor with three orthogonal sensing axis outputs. The components and functions of the experimental calibration system and signal processor and control subsystem are analyzed. The development of the OARE software is discussed. The experimental equipment will be enclosed in a cover assembly that will be mounted in the Orbiter close to the center of gravity.
The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blanchard, R. C.; Hendrix, M. K.; Fox, J. C.; Thomas, D. J.; Nicholson, J.
1986-01-01
The hardware and software of NASA's proposed Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) are described. The OARE is to provide aerodynamic acceleration measurements along the Orbiter's principal axis in the free-molecular flow-flight regime at orbital attitude and in the transition regime during reentry. Models considering the effects of electromagnetic effects, solar radiation pressure, orbiter mass attraction, gravity gradient, orbital centripetal acceleration, out-of-orbital-plane effects, orbiter angular velocity, structural noise, mass expulsion signal sources, crew motion, and bias on acceleration are examined. The experiment contains an electrostatically balanced cylindrical proofmass accelerometer sensor with three orthogonal sensing axis outputs. The components and functions of the experimental calibration system and signal processor and control subsystem are analyzed. The development of the OARE software is discussed. The experimental equipment will be enclosed in a cover assembly that will be mounted in the Orbiter close to the center of gravity.
Planck Surveyor On Its Way to Orbit
Borrill, Julian
2016-07-12
An Ariane 5 rocket carried the Planck Surveyor and a companion satellite into space May 14, 2009 from the European Space Agency (ESA) base on the northwest coast of South America. Once in orbit beyond the moon, Planck will produce the most accurate measurements ever made of the relic radiation from the big bang, plus the largest set of CMB data ever recorded. Berkeley Labs long and continuing involvement with Planck began when George Smoot of the Physics Division proposed Plancks progenitor to ESA and continues with preparations for ongoing data analysis for the U.S. Planck team at NERSC, led by Julian Borrill, co-leader of the Computational Cosmology Center.
Planck Surveyor On Its Way to Orbit
None
2016-07-12
An Ariane 5 rocket carried the Planck Surveyor and a companion satellite into space May 14, 2009 from the European Space Agency (ESA) base on the northwest coast of South America. Once in orbit beyond the moon, Planck will produce the most accurate measurements ever made of the relic radiation from the big bang, plus the largest set of CMB data ever recorded. Berkeley Labs long and continuing involvement with Planck began when George Smoot of the Physics Division proposed Plancks progenitor to ESA and continues with preparations for ongoing data analysis for the U.S. Planck team at NERSC, led by Julian Borrill, co-leader of the Computational Cosmology Center
Planck Surveyor On Its Way to Orbit
2009-05-14
An Ariane 5 rocket carried the Planck Surveyor and a companion satellite into space May 14, 2009 from the European Space Agency (ESA) base on the northwest coast of South America. Once in orbit beyond the moon, Planck will produce the most accurate measurements ever made of the relic radiation from the big bang, plus the largest set of CMB data ever recorded. Berkeley Labs long and continuing involvement with Planck began when George Smoot of the Physics Division proposed Plancks progenitor to ESA and continues with preparations for ongoing data analysis for the U.S. Planck team at NERSC, led by Julian Borrill, co-leader of the Computational Cosmology Center
Planck Surveyor On Its Way to Orbit
Borrill, Julian
2009-01-01
An Ariane 5 rocket carried the Planck Surveyor and a companion satellite into space May 14, 2009 from the European Space Agency (ESA) base on the northwest coast of South America. Once in orbit beyond the moon, Planck will produce the most accurate measurements ever made of the relic radiation from the big bang, plus the largest set of CMB data ever recorded. Berkeley Labs long and continuing involvement with Planck began when George Smoot of the Physics Division proposed Plancks progenitor to ESA and continues with preparations for ongoing data analysis for the U.S. Planck team at NERSC, led by Julian Borrill, co-leader of the Computational Cosmology Center.
Studies of an orbital gradiometer mission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schutz, B. E.; Lundberg, J. B.; Bettadpur, S.; Tapley, B. D.
1989-01-01
The goal of using an orbital gradiometer mission to provide an accurate (1 to 2 mgal), high resolution (1 by 1 deg), global map of the earth's geopotential is currently being investigated. This investigation involves the simulation of the satellite ephemeris and the corresponding gradiometer measurements which can be used in the study of various techniques and methodologies that were proposed to recover the parameters used in modeling the geopotential. Also, the effects on the mission of various time varying forces acting on the spacecraft were included in the studies.
Bounds on dark matter in solar orbit
Anderson, J.D.; Lau, E.L.; Taylor, A.H.; Dicus, D.A.; Teplitz, D.C.; Texas Univ., Austin; Maryland Univ., College Park )
1989-07-01
The possibility is considered that a spherical distribution of dark matter (DM), matter not visible with current instruments, is trapped in the sun's gravitational field. Bounds are placed from the motion of Uranus and Neptune, on the amount of DM that could be so trapped within the radius of those planets' orbits, as follows: from the Voyager 2, Uranus-flyby data new, more accurate ephemeris values are generated. Trapped DM mass is bounded by noting that such a distribution would increase the effective mass of the sun as seen by the outer planets and by using the new ephemeris values to bound such an increase. 34 refs.
Very Precise Orbits of 1998 Leonid Meteors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Betlem, Hans; Jenniskens, Peter; vantLeven, Jaap; terKuile, Casper; Johannink, Carl; Zhao, Hai-Bin; Lei, Chen-Ming; Li, Guan-You; Zhu, Jin; Evans, Steve; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)
1999-01-01
Seventy-five orbits of Leonid meteors obtained during the 1998 outburst are presented. Thirty-eight are precise enough to recognize significant dispersion in orbital elements. Results from the nights of 1998 November 16/17 and 17/18 differ, in agreement with the dominant presence of different dust components. The shower rate profile of 1998 November 16/17 was dominated by a broad component, rich in bright meteors. The radiant distribution is compact. The semimajor axis is confined to values close to that of the parent comet, whereas the distribution of inclination has a central condensation in a narrow range. On the other hand, 1998 November 17/18 was dominated by dust responsible for a more narrow secondary peak in the flux curve. The declination of the radiant and the inclination of the orbit are more widely dispersed. The argument of perihelion, inclination, and the perihelion distance are displaced. These data substantiate the hypothesis that trapping in orbital resonances is important for the dynamical evolution of the broad component.
Orbitals and orbital energies in DFT and TDDFT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baerends, Evert Jan
The status and meaning of orbitals and orbital energies in the Kohn-Sham one-electron model of DFT has been controversial, in contrast to Hartree-Fock orbitals and orbital energies. We will argue the opposite: the exact Kohn-Sham orbitals of DFT are ''better'' than HF orbitals and their orbital energies are much closer to ionization energies than HF orbital energies are. This follows from the relation between the KS potential and the wavefunction, which can be cast in the form vs =vc , kin +vH +vxchole +vresp, where each term depends on the KS orbitals and the wavefunction (the one- or two-particle density matrices). The response potential vresp (r) = ∑ j ∞|/dj(r) | 2 ρ (r) Ij - ∑ i H|/ψs , i(r) | 2 ρ (r) (-ɛi) (dj is the Dyson orbital corresponding to ion state ΨjN - 1 , ψs , i is a Kohn-Sham orbital) enables the connection between ionization energies Ii and orbital energies ɛi to be made. For virtual orbitals and orbital energies similar statements can be made: the shapes and energies of the (exact) KS orbitals are much more realistic than those of the Hartree-Fock model or hybrid functionals. The HOMO-LUMO gap in molecules is very close to the optical gap, and very different from the fundamental gap. In solids the situation is very different, which is the well-known ''KS gap problem''. Again the response potential vresp (a good approximation to it) helps to solve this problem, affording a straigtforward correction method of the KS gap to the fundamental gap.
Spin-orbit evolution of Mercury revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noyelles, Benoît; Frouard, Julien; Makarov, Valeri V.; Efroimsky, Michael
2014-10-01
yet formed by the time of trapping. We also provide a critical analysis of the hypothesis by Wieczorek et al. (Wieczorek, M.A., Correia, A.C.M., Le Feuvre, M., Laskar, J., Rambaux, N. [2012]. Nat. Geosci., 5, 18-21) that the early Mercury might had been retrograde, whereafter it synchronised its spin and then accelerated it to the 3:2 resonance. Accurate processing of the available data on cratering does not support that hypothesis, while the employment of a realistic rheology invalidates a key element of the hypothesis, an intermediate pseudosynchronous state needed to spin-up to the 3:2 resonance.
Orbital Debris Observations with WFCAM
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bold, Matthew; Cross, Nick; Irwin, Mike; Kendrick, Richard; Kerr, Thomas; Lederer, Susan; Mann, Robert; Sutorius, Eckhard
2014-01-01
The United Kingdom Infrared Telescope has been operating for 35 years on the summit of Mauna Kea as a premier Infrared astronomical facility. In its 35th year the telescope has been turned over to a new operating group consisting of University of Arizona, University of Hawaii and the LM Advanced Technology Center. UKIRT will continue its astronomical mission with a portion of observing time dedicated to orbital debris and Near Earth Object detection and characterization. During the past 10 years the UKIRT Wide Field CAMera (WFCAM) has been performing large area astronomical surveys in the J, H and K bands. The data for these surveys have been reduced by the Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit in Cambridge, England and archived by the Wide Field Astronomy Unit in Edinburgh, Scotland. During January and February of 2014 the Wide Field CAMera (WFCAM) was used to scan through the geostationary satellite belt detecting operational satellites as well as nearby debris. Accurate photometric and astrometric parameters have been developed by CASU for each of the detections and all data has been archived by WFAU.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, J. S.
2011-03-01
It has been over half a century since the launch of the first artificial satellite Sputnik in 1957, which marks the beginning of the Space Age. During the past 50 years, with the development and innovations in various fields and technologies, satellite application has grown more and more intensive and extensive. This thesis is based on three major research projects which the author joined in. These representative projects cover main aspects of satellite orbit theory and application of precise orbit determination (POD), and also show major research methods and important applications in orbit dynamics. Chapter 1 is an in-depth research on analytical theory of satellite orbits. This research utilizes general transformation theory to acquire high-order analytical solutions when mean-element method is not applicable. These solutions can be used in guidance and control or rapid orbit forecast within the accuracy of 10-6. We also discuss other major perturbations, each of which is considered with improved models, in pursuit of both convenience and accuracy especially when old models are hardly applicable. Chapter 2 is POD research based on observations. Assuming a priori force model and estimation algorithm have reached their accuracy limits, we introduce empirical forces to Shenzhou-type orbit in order to compensate possible unmodeled or mismodeled perturbations. Residuals are analyzed first and only empirical force models with actual physical background are considered. This not only enhances a posteriori POD accuracy, but also considerably improves the accuracy of orbit forecast. This chapter also contains theoretical discussions on modeling of empirical forces, computation of partial derivatives and propagation of various errors. Error propagation helps to better evaluate orbital accuracy in future missions. Chapter 3 is an application of POD in space geodesy. GRACE satellites are used to obtain Antarctic temporal gravity field between 2004 and 2007. Various changes
Adult orbital trapdoor fracture.
Kum, Clarissa; McCulley, Timothy J; Yoon, Michael K; Hwang, Thomas N
2009-01-01
Trapdoor fractures occur almost exclusively in the pediatric population. The authors describe an adult with an entrapped inferior rectus muscle sheath in a trapdoor fracture. A 37-year-old man presented with persistent diplopia 3 weeks after blunt right orbital trauma. The only abnormal findings on clinical examination were limited vertical ductions. No bony defect or displacement was evident on CT. However, several small pockets of air were visible adjacent to the inferior rectus muscle. On surgical exploration, a linear nondisplaced orbital floor fracture was confirmed, and the entrapped inferior rectus muscle was released. One month postoperatively, extraocular motility had improved with no diplopia in primary or reading positions. This case demonstrates that trapdoor fractures can occur in adults and should be considered when suggestive findings are encountered. Clinicians should be aware of this because timely diagnosis and treatment might achieve more favorable outcomes.
Mercury orbiter transport study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Friedlander, A. L.; Feingold, H.
1977-01-01
A data base and comparative performance analyses of alternative flight mode options for delivering a range of payload masses to Mercury orbit are provided. Launch opportunities over the period 1980-2000 are considered. Extensive data trades are developed for the ballistic flight mode option utilizing one or more swingbys of Venus. Advanced transport options studied include solar electric propulsion and solar sailing. Results show the significant performance tradeoffs among such key parameters as trip time, payload mass, propulsion system mass, orbit size, launch year sensitivity and relative cost-effectiveness. Handbook-type presentation formats, particularly in the case of ballistic mode data, provide planetary program planners with an easily used source of reference information essential in the preliminary steps of mission selection and planning.
Constant attitude orbit transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cress, Peter; Evans, Michael
A two-impulse orbital transfer technique is described in which the spacecraft attitude remains constant for both burns, eliminating the need for attitude maneuvers between the burns. This can lead to significant savings in vehicle weight, cost and complexity. Analysis is provided for a restricted class of applications of this transfer between circular orbits. For those transfers with a plane change less than 30 deg, the total velocity cost of the maneuver is less than twelve percent greater than that of an optimum plane split Hohmann transfer. While this maneuver does not minimize velocity requirement, it does provide a means of achieving necessary transfer while substantially reducing the cost and complexity of the spacecraft.
Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bender, Peter L.; Vincent, Mark A.
1989-01-01
The accuracy of solar system tests of gravitational theory could be very much improved by range and Doppler measurements to a Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter. A nearly circular orbit at roughly 2400 km altitude is assumed in order to minimize problems with orbit determination and thermal radiation from the surface. The spacecraft is spin-stabilized and has a 30 cm diameter de-spun antenna. With K-band and X-band ranging systems using a 50 MHz offset sidetone at K-band, a range accuracy of 3 cm appears to be realistically achievable. The estimated spacecraft mass is 50 kg. A consider-covariance analysis was performed to determine how well the Earth-Mercury distance as a function of time could be determined with such a Relativity Orbiter. The minimum data set is assumed to be 40 independent 8-hour arcs of tracking data at selected times during a two year period. The gravity field of Mercury up through degree and order 10 is solved for, along with the initial conditions for each arc and the Earth-Mercury distance at the center of each arc. The considered parameters include the gravity field parameters of degree 11 and 12 plus the tracking station coordinates, the tropospheric delay, and two parameters in a crude radiation pressure model. The conclusion is that the Earth-Mercury distance can be determined to 6 cm accuracy or better. From a modified worst-case analysis, this would lead to roughly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in the knowledge of the precession of perihelion, the relativistic time delay, and the possible change in the gravitational constant with time.
Spatial orbital tether constructions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kogan, A. Yu.
2016-09-01
This paper is concerned with the problem of shape-retaining spatial tether configurations in a circular Keplerian orbit. Sufficient conditions of shape retention are described, which are imposed on the geometry of the structure, distribution of mass in the nodes, and parameters of rotation. The paper also mentions classes of structures with different properties of symmetry and motion, as well as specific examples of shaperetaining structures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1969-01-01
View of the Apollo 9 Lunar Module 'Spider' in a lunar landing configuration photographed by Command Module pilot David Scott inside the Command/Service Module 'Gumdrop' on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The landing gear on 'Spider' has been deployed. lunar surface probes (sensors) extend out from the landing gear foot pads. Inside the 'Spider' were astronauts James A. McDivitt, Apollo 9 Commander; and Russell L. Schweickart, Lunar Module pilot.
Spectrophotovoltaic orbital power generation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Onffroy, J. R.
1980-01-01
The feasibilty of a spectrophotovoltaic orbital power generation system that optically concentrates solar energy is demonstrated. A dichroic beam-splitting mirror is used to divide the solar spectrum into two wavebands. Absorption of these wavebands by GaAs and Si solar cell arrays with matched energy bandgaps increases the cell efficiency while decreasing the amount of heat that must be rejected. The projected cost per peak watt if this system is $2.50/W sub p.
Circular-Orbit Maintenance Strategies for Primitive Body Orbiters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wallace, Mark S.; Broschart, Stephen
2013-01-01
For missions to smaller primitive bodies, solar radiation pressure (SRP) is a significant perturbation to Keplerian dynamics. For most orbits, SRP drives large oscillations in orbit eccentricity, which leads to large perturbations from the irregular gravity field at periapsis. Ultimately, chaotic motion results that often escapes or impacts that body. This paper presents an orbit maintenance strategy to keep the orbit eccentricity small, thus avoiding the destabilizing secondary interaction with the gravity field. An estimate of the frequency and magnitude of the required maneuvers as a function of the orbit and body parameters is derived from the analytic perturbation equations.
An Orbit Plan toward AKATSUKI Venus Reencounter and Orbit Injection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro; Campagnola, Stefano; Hirose, Chikako; Ishii, Nobuaki
2012-01-01
On December 7, 2010, AKATSUKI, the Japanese Venus explorer reached its destination and tried to inject itself into Venus orbit. However, due to a malfunction of the propulsion system, the maneuver was interrupted and AKATSUKI again escaped out from the Venus into an interplanetary orbit. Telemetry data from AKATSUKI suggests the possibility to perform orbit maneuvers to reencounter the Venus and retry Venus orbit injection. Reported in this paper is an orbit plan investigated under this situation. The latest results reflecting the maneuvers conducted in the autumn 2011 is introduced as well.
Real-Time and Post-Processed Orbit Determination and Positioning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bar-Sever, Yoaz E. (Inventor); Bertiger, William I. (Inventor); Dorsey, Angela R. (Inventor); Harvey, Nathaniel E. (Inventor); Lu, Wenwen (Inventor); Miller, Kevin J. (Inventor); Miller, Mark A. (Inventor); Romans, Larry J. (Inventor); Sibthorpe, Anthony J. (Inventor); Weiss, Jan P. (Inventor); Garcia Fernandez, Miquel (Inventor); Gross, Jason (Inventor)
2015-01-01
Novel methods and systems for the accurate and efficient processing of real-time and latent global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) data are described. Such methods and systems can perform orbit determination of GNSS satellites, orbit determination of satellites carrying GNSS receivers, positioning of GNSS receivers, and environmental monitoring with GNSS data.
Real-Time and Post-Processed Orbit Determination and Positioning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bar-Sever, Yoaz E. (Inventor); Bertiger, William I. (Inventor); Dorsey, Angela R. (Inventor); Harvey, Nathaniel E. (Inventor); Lu, Wenwen (Inventor); Miller, Kevin J. (Inventor); Miller, Mark A. (Inventor); Romans, Larry J. (Inventor); Sibthorpe, Anthony J. (Inventor); Weiss, Jan P. (Inventor); Garcia Fernandez, Miquel (Inventor); Gross, Jason (Inventor)
2016-01-01
Novel methods and systems for the accurate and efficient processing of real-time and latent global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) data are described. Such methods and systems can perform orbit determination of GNSS satellites, orbit determination of satellites carrying GNSS receivers, positioning of GNSS receivers, and environmental monitoring with GNSS data.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Saputra, Andrian; Canaval, Lorentz R.; Sunyono; Fadiawati, Noor; Diawati, Chansyanah; Setyorini, M.; Kadaritna, Nina; Kadaryanto, Budi
2015-01-01
Quick and real-time plotting equations using the Winplot software can be employed to create accurate hybrid atomic orbitals without complicated scripting. Performing this task on their own, students can more easily understand and remember hybrid atomic orbitals, in terms of shape and orientation.
Interactive Web-Based Pointillist Visualization of Hydrogenic Orbitals Using Jmol
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tully, Shane P.; Stitt, Thomas M.; Caldwell, Robert D.; Hardock, Brian J.; Hanson, Robert M.; Maslak, Przemyslaw
2013-01-01
A Monte Carlo method is used to generate interactive pointillist displays of electron density in hydrogenic orbitals. The Web applet incorporating Jmol viewer allows for clear and accurate presentation of three-dimensional shapes and sizes of orbitals up to "n" = 5, where "n" is the principle quantum number. The obtained radial…
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Orbits of Minor Planets and Comets (Bowell+ 2006)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bowell, E.
2006-03-01
astorb.dat is an ASCII file of high-precision osculating orbital elements, ephemeris uncertainties, and some additional data for all the numbered asteroids and the vast majority of unnumbered asteroids (multi-apparition and single-apparition) for which it is possible to make reasonably determinate computations. It contains 30769 orbits computed by the author. Each orbit, based on astrometric observations downloaded from the Minor Planet Center, occupies one 264-column record. comets.dat is an ASCII file of cometary orbital elements prepared at the "Institut de Mecanique Celeste et de Calcul des Ephemerides" (related to the Bureau des Longitudes, Paris). (2 data files).
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Orbits of Minor Planets and Comets (Bowell+ 2005)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bowell, E.
1996-10-01
astorb.dat is an ASCII file of high-precision osculating orbital elements, ephemeris uncertainties, and some additional data for all the numbered asteroids and the vast majority of unnumbered asteroids (multi-apparition and single-apparition) for which it is possible to make reasonably determinate computations. It contains 30769 orbits computed by the author. Each orbit, based on astrometric observations downloaded from the Minor Planet Center, occupies one 264-column record. comets.dat is an ASCII file of cometary orbital elements prepared at the "Institut de Mecanique Celeste et de Calcul des Ephemerides" (related to the Bureau des Longitudes, Paris). (2 data files).
Radiation Propulsion For Maintaining Orbits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richter, Robert
1995-01-01
Brief report proposes radiative propulsion systems for maintaining precise orbits of spacecraft. Radiation from electrical heaters directed outward by paraboloidal reflectors to produce small forces to oppose uncontrolled drag and solar-radiative forces perturbing orbits. Minimizes or eliminates need to fire rocket thrusters to correct orbits.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Halterman, R.
1976-01-01
The design, build, and test of an engineering breadboard Ku band quadraphase shift keyed and wideband frequency modulated transmitter are described. This orbiter Ku band transmitter drawer is to simulate the orbiter transmitter and meet the functional requirements of the orbiter communication link.
Atmospheric Science Data Center
2014-12-08
... platform that carries MISR and other scientific instruments flies at an altitude of 705 km above sea level on a sun-synchronous orbit. It ... completes an orbit and initiates the next one, it actually flies over quite different regions. The orbit number thus also indicates the ...
Orbiter Autoland reliability analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Welch, D. Phillip
1993-01-01
The Space Shuttle Orbiter is the only space reentry vehicle in which the crew is seated upright. This position presents some physiological effects requiring countermeasures to prevent a crewmember from becoming incapacitated. This also introduces a potential need for automated vehicle landing capability. Autoland is a primary procedure that was identified as a requirement for landing following and extended duration orbiter mission. This report documents the results of the reliability analysis performed on the hardware required for an automated landing. A reliability block diagram was used to evaluate system reliability. The analysis considers the manual and automated landing modes currently available on the Orbiter. (Autoland is presently a backup system only.) Results of this study indicate a +/- 36 percent probability of successfully extending a nominal mission to 30 days. Enough variations were evaluated to verify that the reliability could be altered with missions planning and procedures. If the crew is modeled as being fully capable after 30 days, the probability of a successful manual landing is comparable to that of Autoland because much of the hardware is used for both manual and automated landing modes. The analysis indicates that the reliability for the manual mode is limited by the hardware and depends greatly on crew capability. Crew capability for a successful landing after 30 days has not been determined yet.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mashiku, Alinda; Garrison, James L.; Carpenter, J. Russell
2012-01-01
The tracking of space objects requires frequent and accurate monitoring for collision avoidance. As even collision events with very low probability are important, accurate prediction of collisions require the representation of the full probability density function (PDF) of the random orbit state. Through representing the full PDF of the orbit state for orbit maintenance and collision avoidance, we can take advantage of the statistical information present in the heavy tailed distributions, more accurately representing the orbit states with low probability. The classical methods of orbit determination (i.e. Kalman Filter and its derivatives) provide state estimates based on only the second moments of the state and measurement errors that are captured by assuming a Gaussian distribution. Although the measurement errors can be accurately assumed to have a Gaussian distribution, errors with a non-Gaussian distribution could arise during propagation between observations. Moreover, unmodeled dynamics in the orbit model could introduce non-Gaussian errors into the process noise. A Particle Filter (PF) is proposed as a nonlinear filtering technique that is capable of propagating and estimating a more complete representation of the state distribution as an accurate approximation of a full PDF. The PF uses Monte Carlo runs to generate particles that approximate the full PDF representation. The PF is applied in the estimation and propagation of a highly eccentric orbit and the results are compared to the Extended Kalman Filter and Splitting Gaussian Mixture algorithms to demonstrate its proficiency.
SELENE: The Moon-Orbiting Observatory Mission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizutani, H.; Kato, M.; Sasaki, S.; Iijima, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Takizawa, Y.
The Moon-orbiting SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer) mission is prepared in Japan for lunar science and technology development. The launch target has been changed from 2005 to 2006 because of the launch failure of H2A rocket in 2003. The spacecraft consists of a main orbiting satellite at about 100 km altitude in the polar orbit and two sub-satellites in the elliptical orbits. The scientific objectives of the mission are; 1) study of the origin and evolution of the Moon, 2) in-situ measurement of the lunar environment, and 3) observation of the solar-terrestrial plasma environment. SELENE carries the instruments for scientific investigation, including mapping of lunar topography and surface composition, measurement of the gravity and magnetic fields, and observation of lunar and solar-terrestrial plasma environment. The total mass of scientific payload is about 300 kg. The mission period will be 1 year. If extra fuel is available, the mission will be extended in a lower orbit around 50 km. The elemental abundances are measured by x-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers. Alpha particles from the radon gas and polonium are detected by an alpha particle spectrometer. The mineralogical abundance is characterized by a multi-band imager. The mineralogical composition is identified by a spectral profiler which is a continuous spectral analyzer. The surface topographic data are obtained by a high resolution terrain camera and a laser altimeter. The inside structure up to 5 km below the lunar surface is observed by the radar sounder experiment using a 5 MHz radio wave. A magnetometer and an electron reflectometer provides data on the lunar surface magnetic field. Doppler tracking of the orbiter via the sub-satellite when the orbiter is in the far side is used to determine the gravity field of the far side. Radio sources on the two sub-satellites are used to conduct differential VLBI observation from the ground stations. The lunar environment of high energy particles
A Semi-Analytical Orbit Propagator Program for Highly Elliptical Orbits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lara, M.; San-Juan, J. F.; Hautesserres, D.
2016-05-01
A semi-analytical orbit propagator to study the long-term evolution of spacecraft in Highly Elliptical Orbits is presented. The perturbation model taken into account includes the gravitational effects produced by the first nine zonal harmonics and the main tesseral harmonics affecting to the 2:1 resonance, which has an impact on Molniya orbit-types, of Earth's gravitational potential, the mass-point approximation for third body perturbations, which on ly include the Legendre polynomial of second order for the sun and the polynomials from second order to sixth order for the moon, solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag. Hamiltonian formalism is used to model the forces of gravitational nature so as to avoid time-dependence issues the problem is formulated in the extended phase space. The solar radiation pressure is modeled as a potential and included in the Hamiltonian, whereas the atmospheric drag is added as a generalized force. The semi-analytical theory is developed using perturbation techniques based on Lie transforms. Deprit's perturbation algorithm is applied up to the second order of the second zonal harmonics, J2, including Kozay-type terms in the mean elements Hamiltonian to get "centered" elements. The transformation is developed in closed-form of the eccentricity except for tesseral resonances and the coupling between J_2 and the moon's disturbing effects are neglected. This paper describes the semi-analytical theory, the semi-analytical orbit propagator program and some of the numerical validations.
Single stage management of complex fronto-orbital mucoceles.
Weitzel, Erik K; Hollier, Larry H; Calzada, Gabriel; Manolidis, Spiros
2002-11-01
Mucoceles arising in the frontal and/or ethmoid sinuses are clinically silent and often involve both the orbit and the anterior cranial fossa extensively. Five patients with advanced mucoceles of the frontal sinus involving the orbitocranial skeleton (OCM), as a result of recurrent sinusitis or trauma, were identified during a 36-month period in a major academic US institution. The range of pathology encountered involved brain herniations, CSF leaks, and extensive orbital involvement. These patients required major reconstructive efforts to restore proper orbital skeletal anatomy and function with the use of multiple calvarial bone grafts. The secondary effects of the pathologic process, such as orbital dystopia, ocular dysfunction, and CSF leak among others, resolved in all patients without further problems. Follow-up by repeat computed tomography and examination scan ranged from 6 weeks to 29 months. Adequate reconstruction of extensive OCMs involves four principles: 1) cranialization of the frontal sinus for adequate intracranial and orbital roof access; 2) complete removal of all mucosal elements from the frontal sinus, orbit, and dura; 3) precise restoration of orbital volume with calvarial bone grafts; and 4) reattachment of the medial canthal ligament to the bone grafts to avoid orbital dystopia. The results of the surgery are gratifying, but long-term follow-up is essential due to the risk of recurrence.
Weight-lattice discretization of Weyl-orbit functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hrivnák, Jiří; Walton, Mark A.
2016-08-01
Weyl-orbit functions have been defined for each simple Lie algebra, and permit Fourier-like analysis on the fundamental region of the corresponding affine Weyl group. They have also been discretized, using a refinement of the coweight lattice, so that digitized data on the fundamental region can be Fourier-analyzed. The discretized orbit function has arguments that are redundant if related by the affine Weyl group, while its labels, the Weyl-orbit representatives, invoke the dual affine Weyl group. Here we discretize the orbit functions in a novel way, by using the weight lattice. A cleaner theory results with symmetry between the arguments and labels of the discretized orbit functions. Orthogonality of the new discretized orbit functions is proved, and leads to the construction of unitary, symmetric matrices with Weyl-orbit-valued elements. For one type of orbit function, the matrix coincides with the Kac-Peterson modular S matrix, important for Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten conformal field theory.
Elliptical multi-sun-synchronous orbits for Mars exploration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Circi, Christian; Ortore, Emiliano; Bunkheila, Federico; Ulivieri, Carlo
2012-11-01
The multi-sun-synchronous orbits allow cycles of observation of the same area in which solar illumination repetitively changes according to the value of the orbit elements and returns to the initial condition after a temporal interval multiple of the repetition of observation. This paper generalizes the concept of multi-sun-synchronous orbits, whose classical sun-synchronous orbits represent particular solutions, taking into consideration the elliptical case. The feasibility of using this typology of orbits, referred to as elliptical periodic multi-sun-synchronous orbits, has been investigated for the exploration of Mars and particular solutions have been selected. Such solutions considerably reduce the manoeuvre of velocity variation at the end of the interplanetary transfer with respect to the case of a target circular orbit around Mars. They are based on the use of quasi-critical inclinations in order to minimize the apsidal line motion and thus reduce orbit maintenance costs. Moreover, in the case of high eccentricities, the argument of pericentre may be set in order to obtain, around the apocentre, a condition of quasi-synchronism with the planet (the footprint of the probe on the surface presents a small shift with respect to a fixed point on the Martian surface). The low altitude of pericentre allows observation of the planet at a higher spatial resolution, while the orbit arc around the apocentre may be used to observe Mars with a wide spatial coverage in quasi-stationary conditions. This latter characteristic is useful for analysing atmospheric and meteorological phenomena and it allows for most of the orbital period a link between a rover on the surface of Mars and a probe orbiting around the planet.
Cassini Orbit Determination Results: January 2006 - End of Prime Mission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antreasian, P. G.; Ardalan, S. M.; Bordi, J. J.; Criddle, K. E.; Ionasescu, R.; Jacobson, R. A.; Jones, J. B.; Mackenzie, R. A.; Parcher, D. W.; Pelletier, F. J.; Roth, D. C.; Thompson, P. F.; Vaughan, A. T.
2008-01-01
After the forty-fifth flyby of Titan, the Cassini spacecraft has successfully completed the planned four-year prime mission tour of the Saturnian system. This paper reports on the orbit determination performance of the Cassini spacecraft over two years spanning 2006 - 2008. In this time span, Cassini's orbit progressed through the magnetotail and pi-transfer phases of the mission. Thirty-four accurate close encounters of Titan, one close flyby of Iapetus and one 50 km flyby of Enceladus were performed during this period. The Iapetus and Enceladus flybys were especially challenging and so the orbit determination supporting these encounters will be discussed in more detail. This paper will show that in most cases orbit determination has exceeded the navigation requirements for targeting flybys and predicting science instrument pointing during these encounters.
French Meteor Network for High Precision Orbits of Meteoroids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atreya, P.; Vaubaillon, J.; Colas, F.; Bouley, S.; Gaillard, B.; Sauli, I.; Kwon, M. K.
2011-01-01
There is a lack of precise meteoroids orbit from video observations as most of the meteor stations use off-the-shelf CCD cameras. Few meteoroids orbit with precise semi-major axis are available using film photographic method. Precise orbits are necessary to compute the dust flux in the Earth s vicinity, and to estimate the ejection time of the meteoroids accurately by comparing them with the theoretical evolution model. We investigate the use of large CCD sensors to observe multi-station meteors and to compute precise orbit of these meteoroids. An ideal spatial and temporal resolution to get an accuracy to those similar of photographic plates are discussed. Various problems faced due to the use of large CCD, such as increasing the spatial and the temporal resolution at the same time and computational problems in finding the meteor position are illustrated.
THE ORBITS OF THE NEPTUNIAN SATELLITES AND THE ORIENTATION OF THE POLE OF NEPTUNE
Jacobson, R. A.
2009-05-15
This paper reports on an update to the orientation of Neptune's pole and to the orbits of the Neptunian satellites, Triton, Nereid, and Proteus. We determined the new pole and orbits in the International Celestial Reference Frame by fitting them to all available observations through the opposition of 2008. The new data in the fit are high-quality modern astrometry and constitute a 19 year extension of the previous data arc. We assess the accuracy of the orbits and compare them with our earlier orbits. We also provide mean elements as a geometrical description for the orbits.
Determination of intrack orbital position from earth and sun sensor data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shear, M.
1975-01-01
By intrack orbital error is meant a constant time adjustment that is applied to a set of ephemeris data which is otherwise correct. The ephemeris data may be in the form of an orbit tape or in the form of orbital elements with an associated orbit generator. The time adjustment is simply added to the time before the ephemeris routine is accessed. It is implicit here that the time adjustment is a constant throughout the pass of data that are considered, where the pass of data is typically a fraction of one orbit.
Double-line spectroscopic orbit for Capella
Shen, L.-Z.; Beavers, W.I.; Eitter, J.J.; Salzer, J.J.
1985-08-01
Radial-velocity spectrometer measurements of both components of the double-line Capella system have been combined with earlier radial-velocity measurements from four previous studies to produce an improved double-line orbit. The resulting mass ratio M1/M2 = 1.18 + or - 0.02 differs by only 2 percent from the virtually ignored previous determination by Struve (1939). Combining the new radial-velocity elements with McAlister's (1981) recent interferometric orbit allows the determination of the individual masses of M1 = 3.31 + or 0.08 solar mass and M2 = 2.80 + or - 0.05 solar mass. This mass difference is perhaps too great for both stars to be on the first crossing of the Hertzsprung gap as proposed by Boesgaard (1971). 38 references.
Minty, M.; Hulsart, R.; Marusic, A.; Michnoff, R.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Satogata, T.
2010-05-23
For improved reproducibility of good operating conditions and ramp commissioning efficiency, new dual-plane slow orbit feedback during the energy ramp was implemented during run-10 in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The orbit feedback is based on steering the measured orbit, after subtraction of the dispersive component, to either a design orbit or to a previously saved reference orbit. Using multiple correctors and beam position monitors, an SVD-based algorithm is used for determination of the applied corrections. The online model is used as a basis for matrix computations. In this report we describe the feedback design, review the changes made to realize its implementation, and assess system performance.
Orbital maneuvers and space rendezvous
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butikov, Eugene I.
2015-12-01
Several possibilities of launching a space vehicle from the orbital station are considered and compared. Orbital maneuvers discussed in the paper can be useful in designing a trajectory for a specific space mission. The relative motion of orbiting bodies is investigated on examples of spacecraft rendezvous with the space station that stays in a circular orbit around the Earth. An elementary approach is illustrated by an accompanying simulation computer program and supported by a mathematical treatment based on fundamental laws of physics and conservation laws. Material is appropriate for engineers and other personnel involved in space exploration, undergraduate and graduate students studying classical physics and orbital mechanics.
Hypersonic Navier Stokes Comparisons to Orbiter Flight Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, Charles H.; Nompelis, Ioannis; Candler, Graham; Barnhart, Michael; Yoon, Seokkwan
2009-01-01
Hypersonic chemical nonequilibrium simulations of low earth orbit entry flow fields are becoming increasingly commonplace as software and computational capabilities become more capable. However, development of robust and accurate software to model these environments will always encounter a significant barrier in developing a suite of high quality calibration cases. The US3D hypersonic nonequilibrium Navier Stokes analysis capability has been favorably compared to a number of wind tunnel test cases. Extension of the calibration basis for this software to Orbiter flight conditions will provide an incremental increase in confidence. As part of the Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment and the Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements project, NASA is performing entry flight testing on the Orbiter to provide valuable aerothermodynamic heating data. An increase in interest related to orbiter entry environments is resulting from this activity. With the advent of this new data, comparisons of the US3D software to the new flight testing data is warranted. This paper will provide information regarding the framework of analyses that will be applied with the US3D analysis tool. In addition, comparisons will be made to entry flight testing data provided by the Orbiter BLT Flight Experiment and HYTHIRM projects. If data from digital scans of the Orbiter windward surface become available, simulations will also be performed to characterize the difference in surface heating between the CAD reference OML and the digitized surface provided by the surface scans.
Discovery of orbital decay in SMC X-1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levine, A.; Rappaport, S.; Boynton, P.; Deeter, J.; Nagase, F.
1992-01-01
The results are reported of three observations of the binary X ray pulsar SMC X-1 with the Ginga satellite. Timing analyses of the 0.71 s X ray pulsations yield Doppler delay curves which, in turn, provide the most accurate determination of the SMC X-1 orbital parameters available to date. The orbital phase of the 3.9 day orbit is determined in May 1987, Aug. 1988, and Aug. 1988 with accuracies of 11, 1, and 3.5 s, respectively. These phases are combined with two previous determinations of the orbital phase to yield the rate of change in the orbital period: P sub orb/P sub orb = (-3.34 + or - 0.023) x 10(exp -6)/yr. An interpretation of this measurement and the known decay rate for the orbit of Cen X-3 is made in the context of tidal evolution. Finally, a discussion is presented of the relation among the stellar evolution, orbital decay, and neutron star spinup time scales for the SMC X-1 system.
PSEUDO-NEWTONIAN POTENTIALS FOR NEARLY PARABOLIC ORBITS
Wegg, Christopher
2012-04-20
We describe a pseudo-Newtonian potential which, to within 1% error at all angular momenta, reproduces the precession due to general relativity of particles whose specific orbital energy is small compared to c{sup 2} in the Schwarzschild metric. For bound orbits, the constraint of low energy is equivalent to requiring the apoapsis of a particle to be large compared to the Schwarzschild radius. Such low-energy orbits are ubiquitous close to supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei, but the potential is relevant in any context containing particles on low-energy orbits. Like the more complex post-Newtonian expressions, the potential correctly reproduces the precession in the far field, but also correctly reproduces the position and magnitude of the logarithmic divergence in precession for low angular momentum orbits. An additional advantage lies in its simplicity, both in computation and implementation. We also provide two simpler, but less accurate potentials, for cases where orbits always remain at large angular momenta, or when the extra accuracy is not needed. In all of the presented cases, the accuracy in precession in low-energy orbits exceeds that of the well-known potential of Paczynski and Wiita, which has {approx}30% error in the precession at all angular momenta.
Nozomi Cis-Lunar Phase Orbit Determination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ryne, Mark; Criddle, Kevin
2000-01-01
solutions based on data collected from their respective tracking networks. Spacecraft events, such as sequence uplinks and maneuvers, were generally scheduled during passes at the Usuda tracking station in Japan. As a result, maneuver design and reconstruction was derived from MMNAV solutions based on JPL tracking data obtained immediately prior to or following maneuvers. Data was also exchanged between ISAS and MMNAV so orbit determination could be performed on joint data sets in support of critical targeting late in the cis-lunar phase. In this paper, information regarding the MMNAV orbit determination effort for the first six months of the mission is presented. The spacecraft trajectory is characterized first, followed by a discussion of the orbit determination estimation procedure and models. Results from selected orbit solutions are presented and compared against reconstructed trajectories. One area of emphasis in this paper is orbit determination in the vicinity of the weak stability boundary. Precise navigation was necessary to target the second lunar swingby and the powered Earth swingby. Delivery accuracy of 150 m was required for these critical encounters, but a number of factors contributed to the general degradation of orbit determination accuracy. This included the fact that the spacecraft was at apogee, at a range of 1.7 million km and moving at less than I km/sec perpendicular to the line of sight. Nozomi was also close to zero degrees declination where there are known limitations on orbit determination performance. Finally, S-band tracking data was acquired through the Nozomi backup low gain antenna. This antenna is offset from the axis of this spin stabilized spacecraft and superimposed large signatures in the Doppler and range data. These difficulties were overcome by combining long data arcs, spanning several maneuvers, with a high fidelity solar pressure model. The model included a physically accurate representation of the spacecraft structure and a high
Elemental analysis in biotechnology.
Hann, Stephan; Dernovics, Mihaly; Koellensperger, Gunda
2015-02-01
This article focuses on analytical strategies integrating atomic spectroscopy in biotechnology. The rationale behind developing such methods is inherently linked to unique features of the key technique in elemental analysis, which is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: (1) the high sensitivity and selectivity of state of the art instrumentation, (2) the possibility of accurate absolute quantification even in complex matrices, (3) the capability of combining elemental detectors with chromatographic separation methods and the versatility of the latter approach, (4) the complementarity of inorganic and organic mass spectrometry, (5) the multi-element capability and finally (6) the capability of isotopic analysis. The article highlights the most recent bio-analytical developments exploiting these methodological advantages and shows the potential in biotechnological applications.
A 3D Visualization and Analysis Model of the Earth Orbit, Milankovitch Cycles and Insolation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kostadinov, Tihomir; Gilb, Roy
2013-04-01
Milankovitch theory postulates that periodic variability of Earth's orbital elements is a major climate forcing mechanism. Although controversies remain, ample geologic evidence supports the major role of the Milankovitch cycles in climate, e.g. glacial-interglacial cycles. There are three Milankovitch orbital parameters: orbital eccentricity (main periodicities of ~100,000 and ~400,000 years), precession (quantified as the longitude of perihelion, main periodicities 19,000-24,000 years) and obliquity of the ecliptic (Earth's axial tilt, main periodicity 41,000 years). The combination of these parameters controls the spatio-temporal patterns of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the timing of the seasons with respect to perihelion, as well as season duration. The complex interplay of the Milankovitch orbital parameters on various time scales makes assessment and visualization of Earth's orbit and insolation variability challenging. It is difficult to appreciate the pivotal importance of Kepler's laws of planetary motion in controlling the effects of Milankovitch cycles on insolation patterns. These factors also make Earth-Sun geometry and Milankovitch theory difficult to teach effectively. Here, an astronomically precise and accurate Earth orbit visualization model is presented. The model offers 3D visualizations of Earth's orbital geometry, Milankovitch parameters and the ensuing insolation forcings. Both research and educational uses are envisioned for the model, which is developed in Matlab® as a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). We present the user with a choice between the Berger et al. (1978) and Laskar et al. (2004) astronomical solutions for eccentricity, obliquity and precession. A "demo" mode is also available, which allows the three Milankovitch parameters to be varied independently of each other (and over much larger ranges than the naturally occurring ones), so the user can isolate the effects of each parameter on orbital geometry
Lunar Prospector Orbit Determination Results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beckman, Mark; Concha, Marco
1998-01-01
The orbit support for Lunar Prospector (LP) consists of three main areas: (1) cislunar orbit determination, (2) rapid maneuver assessment using Doppler residuals, and (3) routine mapping orbit determination. The cislunar phase consisted of two trajectory correction maneuvers during the translunar cruise followed by three lunar orbit insertion burns. This paper will detail the cislunar orbit determination accuracy and the real-time assessment of the cislunar trajectory correction and lunar orbit insertion maneuvers. The non-spherical gravity model of the Moon is the primary influence on the mapping orbit determination accuracy. During the first two months of the mission, the GLGM-2 lunar potential model was used. After one month in the mapping orbit, a new potential model was developed that incorporated LP Doppler data. This paper will compare and contrast the mapping orbit determination accuracy using these two models. LP orbit support also includes a new enhancement - a web page to disseminate all definitive and predictive trajectory and mission planning information. The web site provides definitive mapping orbit ephemerides including moon latitude and longitude, and four week predictive products including: ephemeris, moon latitude/longitude, earth shadow, moon shadow, and ground station view periods. This paper will discuss the specifics of this web site.