Science.gov

Sample records for accurate photometric redshifts

  1. Can Selforganizing Maps Accurately Predict Photometric Redshifts?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, Michael J.; Klose, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We present an unsupervised machine-learning approach that can be employed for estimating photometric redshifts. The proposed method is based on a vector quantization called the self-organizing-map (SOM) approach. A variety of photometrically derived input values were utilized from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's main galaxy sample, luminous red galaxy, and quasar samples, along with the PHAT0 data set from the Photo-z Accuracy Testing project. Regression results obtained with this new approach were evaluated in terms of root-mean-square error (RMSE) to estimate the accuracy of the photometric redshift estimates. The results demonstrate competitive RMSE and outlier percentages when compared with several other popular approaches, such as artificial neural networks and Gaussian process regression. SOM RMSE results (using delta(z) = z(sub phot) - z(sub spec)) are 0.023 for the main galaxy sample, 0.027 for the luminous red galaxy sample, 0.418 for quasars, and 0.022 for PHAT0 synthetic data. The results demonstrate that there are nonunique solutions for estimating SOM RMSEs. Further research is needed in order to find more robust estimation techniques using SOMs, but the results herein are a positive indication of their capabilities when compared with other well-known methods

  2. Can Self-Organizing Maps Accurately Predict Photometric Redshifts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Way, M. J.; Klose, C. D.

    2012-03-01

    We present an unsupervised machine-learning approach that can be employed for estimating photometric redshifts. The proposed method is based on a vector quantization called the self-organizing-map (SOM) approach. A variety of photometrically derived input values were utilized from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey’s main galaxy sample, luminous red galaxy, and quasar samples, along with the PHAT0 data set from the Photo- z Accuracy Testing project. Regression results obtained with this new approach were evaluated in terms of root-mean-square error (RMSE) to estimate the accuracy of the photometric redshift estimates. The results demonstrate competitive RMSE and outlier percentages when compared with several other popular approaches, such as artificial neural networks and Gaussian process regression. SOM RMSE results (using Δz = zphot - zspec) are 0.023 for the main galaxy sample, 0.027 for the luminous red galaxy sample, 0.418 for quasars, and 0.022 for PHAT0 synthetic data. The results demonstrate that there are nonunique solutions for estimating SOM RMSEs. Further research is needed in order to find more robust estimation techniques using SOMs, but the results herein are a positive indication of their capabilities when compared with other well-known methods.

  3. Accurate photometric redshifts for the CFHT legacy survey calibrated using the VIMOS VLT deep survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilbert, O.; Arnouts, S.; McCracken, H. J.; Bolzonella, M.; Bertin, E.; Le Fèvre, O.; Mellier, Y.; Zamorani, G.; Pellò, R.; Iovino, A.; Tresse, L.; Le Brun, V.; Bottini, D.; Garilli, B.; Maccagni, D.; Picat, J. P.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Bardelli, S.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Cucciati, O.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Gavignaud, I.; Guzzo, L.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Mazure, A.; Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Paltani, S.; Pollo, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Zucca, E.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Busarello, G.; de La Torre, S.; Gregorini, L.; Lamareille, F.; Mathez, G.; Merluzzi, P.; Ripepi, V.; Rizzo, D.; Vergani, D.

    2006-10-01

    Aims. We present and release photometric redshifts for a uniquely large and deep sample of 522286 objects with i'_AB≤ 25 in the Canada-France Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) "Deep Survey" fields D1, D2, D3, and D4, which cover a total effective area of 3.2 °^2. Methods: . We use 3241 spectroscopic redshifts with 0 ≤ z ≤ 5 from the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) as a calibration and training set to derive these photometric redshifts. Using the "Le Phare" photometric redshift code, we developed a robust calibration method based on an iterative zero-point refinement combined with a template optimisation procedure and the application of a Bayesian approach. This method removes systematic trends in the photometric redshifts and significantly reduces the fraction of catastrophic errors (by a factor of 2), a significant improvement over traditional methods. We use our unique spectroscopic sample to present a detailed assessment of the robustness of the photometric redshift sample. Results: . For a sample selected at i'_AB≤ 24, we reach a redshift accuracy of σΔ z/(1+z)=0.029 with η=3.8% of catastrophic errors (η is defined strictly as those objects with |Δ z|/(1+z) > 0.15). The reliability of our photometric redshifts decreases for faint objects: we find σΔ z/(1+z)=0.025, 0.034 and η=1.9%, 5.5% for samples selected at i'_AB=17.5-22.5 and 22.5-24 respectively. We find that the photometric redshifts of starburst galaxies are less reliable: although these galaxies represent only 22% of the spectroscopic sample, they are responsible for 50% of the catastrophic errors. An analysis as a function of redshift demonstrates that our photometric redshifts work best in the redshift range 0.2≤ z ≤ 1.5. We find an excellent agreement between the photometric and the VVDS spectroscopic redshift distributions at i'_AB≤ 24. Finally, we compare the redshift distributions of i' selected galaxies on the four CFHTLS deep fields, showing that cosmic variance is

  4. Photometric redshifts for the NGVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Erben, T.; Hildebrandt, H.; Huertas-Company, M.; Ilbert, O.; Licitra, R.; Ball, N. M.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; Chen, Y.-T.; Côté, P.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Duc, P. A.; Durrell, P. R.; Ferrarese, L.; Guhathakurta, P.; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Lancon, A.; Liu, C.; MacArthur, L. A.; Muller, M.; Muñoz, R. P.; Peng, E. W.; Puzia, T. H.; Sawicki, M.; Toloba, E.; Van Waerbeke, L.; Woods, D.; Zhang, H.

    2014-12-01

    We present the photometric redshift catalog for the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS), a 104 deg^2 optical imaging survey centered on the Virgo cluster in the u^*, g, r ,i, z bandpasses at point source depth of 25-26 ABmag. It already is the new optical reference survey for the study of the Virgo cluster, and will be also used for multiple ancillary programs. To obtain photometric redshifts, we perform accurate photometry, through the PSF-homogenization of our data. We then estimate the photometric redshifts using Le Phare and BPZ codes, adding a new prior extended down to i_{AB}=12.5 mag. We assess the accuracy of our photometric redshifts as a function of magnitude and redshift using ˜80,000 spectroscopic redshifts from public surveys. For i_{AB} < 23 mag or z_{phot} < 1 galaxies, we obtain photometric redshifts with |bias| < 0.02, a scatter increasing with magnitude (from 0.02 to 0.05), and less than 5% outliers.

  5. PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS OF SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, Sukanya; Magnelli, Benjamin; Lutz, Dieter; Berta, Stefano; Popesso, Paola; McKee, Christopher F.; Pozzi, Francesca

    2013-08-20

    We use the photometric redshift method of Chakrabarti and McKee to infer photometric redshifts of submillimeter galaxies with far-IR (FIR) Herschel data obtained as part of the PACS Evolutionary Probe program. For the sample with spectroscopic redshifts, we demonstrate the validity of this method over a large range of redshifts (4 {approx}> z {approx}> 0.3) and luminosities, finding an average accuracy in (1 + z{sub phot})/(1 + z{sub spec}) of 10%. Thus, this method is more accurate than other FIR photometric redshift methods. This method is different from typical FIR photometric methods in deriving redshifts from the light-to-gas mass (L/M) ratio of infrared-bright galaxies inferred from the FIR spectral energy distribution, rather than dust temperatures. To assess the dependence of our photometric redshift method on the data in this sample, we contrast the average accuracy of our method when we use PACS data, versus SPIRE data, versus both PACS and SPIRE data. We also discuss potential selection effects that may affect the Herschel sample. Once the redshift is derived, we can determine physical properties of infrared-bright galaxies, including the temperature variation within the dust envelope, luminosity, mass, and surface density. We use data from the GOODS-S field to calculate the star formation rate density (SFRD) of submillimeter bright sources detected by AzTEC and PACS. The AzTEC-PACS sources, which have a threshold 850 {mu}m flux {approx}> 5 mJy, contribute 15% of the SFRD from all ultraluminous infrared galaxies (L{sub IR} {approx}> 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }), and 3% of the total SFRD at z {approx} 2.

  6. Photometric Redshifts of Submillimeter Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Sukanya; Magnelli, Benjamin; McKee, Christopher F.; Lutz, Dieter; Berta, Stefano; Popesso, Paola; Pozzi, Francesca

    2013-08-01

    We use the photometric redshift method of Chakrabarti & McKee to infer photometric redshifts of submillimeter galaxies with far-IR (FIR) Herschel data obtained as part of the PACS Evolutionary Probe program. For the sample with spectroscopic redshifts, we demonstrate the validity of this method over a large range of redshifts (4 >~ z >~ 0.3) and luminosities, finding an average accuracy in (1 + z phot)/(1 + z spec) of 10%. Thus, this method is more accurate than other FIR photometric redshift methods. This method is different from typical FIR photometric methods in deriving redshifts from the light-to-gas mass (L/M) ratio of infrared-bright galaxies inferred from the FIR spectral energy distribution, rather than dust temperatures. To assess the dependence of our photometric redshift method on the data in this sample, we contrast the average accuracy of our method when we use PACS data, versus SPIRE data, versus both PACS and SPIRE data. We also discuss potential selection effects that may affect the Herschel sample. Once the redshift is derived, we can determine physical properties of infrared-bright galaxies, including the temperature variation within the dust envelope, luminosity, mass, and surface density. We use data from the GOODS-S field to calculate the star formation rate density (SFRD) of submillimeter bright sources detected by AzTEC and PACS. The AzTEC-PACS sources, which have a threshold 850 μm flux >~ 5 mJy, contribute 15% of the SFRD from all ultraluminous infrared galaxies (L IR >~ 1012 L ⊙), and 3% of the total SFRD at z ~ 2.

  7. Photometric Redshifts: 50 Years After

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budavári, Tamás

    2012-03-01

    Almost half a century has passed since Baum [1] first applied a novel method to a handful of galaxies. Using the mean spectral energy distribution (SED) of six bright ellipticals in the Virgo cluster, he could accurately estimate the redshifts of other clusters in a comparison that we today call SED fitting or, more generally, photometric redshifts. Owing to the expansion of the Universe, galaxies farther away appear to be redder. Their observed colors are a combination of this redshift and their intrinsic properties. Thanks to the latest detector technology, today we can undertake deep, multicolor surveys to probe statistically meaningful volumes. The yield of photometry in terms of the number of sources is over two orders of magnitude higher than what is achievable by (the more accurate) spectroscopic follow-ups. To exploit the information in the photometric data themselves, several new methods have been developed over the years. One particular successful example is the estimation of photometric redshifts. Baum's motivation for using photometric measurements instead of spectroscopy was the same back then as ours is now: to push the analyses to uncharted territories. His original idea has grown into a research area of its own, which is more important now than ever before. In this chapter, we look at some of the recent advancements of the field. In Section 15.2 we briefly highlight some of the original ideas and the current state of the art in estimating the photometric redshifts. Section 15.3 introduces a Bayesian framework for discussing the traditional methods within a unified context; it explicitly enumerates and identifies their (missing) ingredients. Section 15.4 aims to plant seeds for new ideas for future directions, and Section 15.5 offers some concluding remarks.

  8. Precision Photometric Redshifts for Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capak, Peter

    The growth of structure as measured by weak lensing has been identified as one of the most sensitive probes of dark energy and dark matter, and is one of the three key dark energy experiments proposed for WFIRST. However, the weak lensing measurement depends strongly on robust photometric redshifts, and is highly sensitive to systematic biases in these redshift estimates. Several methods have been proposed to remove systematic biases based on spectroscopic samples and spatial clustering, but none has been demonstrated to perform at the level required for WFIRST. Making the problem more challenging, at least two independent methods must be developed: one to correct the systematic errors, and another to verify the correction and quantify residual error. Here we propose to develop an informed calibration of the color-redshift relation that will minimize the number of spectroscopic redshifts needed for machine learning algorithms and produce accurate Bayesian priors for template fitting algorithms. The proposed method uses our current knowledge of galaxies and galaxy evolution from existing deep surveys to parameterize where in the WFIRST color space the photometric redshifts are well understood, and where they are not. First, we will develop a method to map from the WFIRST N-dimensional color space to redshift. This will determine which regions of color space map to redshift in a well-behaved way, and which have a more complex behavior. We will make use of the fact that higher-dimensional data (narrower band passes, more sensitive data, and larger spectral coverage) are available in select areas of the sky to determine how much uncertainty exists in WFIRST color regions. Finally, we will develop a statistical method to determine how many spectroscopic redshifts are needed in each cell of WFIRST color space to accurately map from color to redshift, and which color space cells should be excised from the weak lensing analysis due to redshift degeneracy. In addition to

  9. CuBANz: Photometric redshift estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samui, Saumyadip; Pal, Shanoli Samui

    2016-09-01

    CuBANz is a photometric redshift estimator code for high redshift galaxies that uses the back propagation neural network along with clustering of the training set, making it very efficient. The training set is divided into several self learning clusters with galaxies having similar photometric properties and spectroscopic redshifts within a given span. The clustering algorithm uses the color information (i.e. u-g, g-r etc.) rather than the apparent magnitudes at various photometric bands, as the photometric redshift is more sensitive to the flux differences between different bands rather than the actual values. The clustering method enables accurate determination of the redshifts. CuBANz considers uncertainty in the photometric measurements as well as uncertainty in the neural network training. The code is written in C.

  10. Photometric Redshifts of Galaxies in COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobasher, B.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N. Z.; Dahlen, T.; Salvato, M.; Aussel, H.; Thompson, D. J.; Feldmann, R.; Tasca, L.; Le Fevre, O.; Lilly, S.; Carollo, C. M.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; McCracken, H.; Mould, J.; Renzini, A.; Sanders, D. B.; Shopbell, P. L.; Taniguchi, Y.; Ajiki, M.; Shioya, Y.; Contini, T.; Giavalisco, M.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Le Brun, V.; Mainieri, V.; Mignoli, M.; Scodeggio, M.

    2007-09-01

    We present photometric redshifts for the COSMOS survey derived from a new code, optimized to yield accurate and reliable redshifts and spectral types of galaxies down to faint magnitudes and redshifts out to z~1.2. The technique uses χ2 template fitting, combined with luminosity function priors and with the option to estimate the internal extinction [or E(B-V)]. The median most probable redshift, best-fit spectral type and reddening, absolute magnitude, and stellar mass are derived in addition to the full redshift probability distributions. Using simulations with sampling and noise similar to those in COSMOS, the accuracy and reliability is estimated for the photometric redshifts as a function of the magnitude limits of the sample, S/N ratios, and the number of bands used. We find from the simulations that the ratio of derived 95% confidence interval in the χ2 probability distribution to the estimated photometric redshift (D95) can be used to identify and exclude the catastrophic failures in the photometric redshift estimates. To evaluate the reliability of the photometric redshifts, we compare the derived redshifts with high-reliability spectroscopic redshifts for a sample of 868 normal galaxies with z<1.2 from zCOSMOS. Considering different scenarios, depending on using prior, no prior, and/or extinction, we compare the photometric and spectroscopic redshifts for this sample. The rms scatter between the estimated photometric redshifts and known spectroscopic redshifts is σ(Δ(z))=0.031, where Δ(z)=(zphot-zspec)/(1+zspec) with a small fraction of outliers (<2.5%) [outliers are defined as objects with Δ(z)>3σ(Δ(z)), where σ(Δ(z)) is the rms scatter in Δ(z)]. We also find good agreement [σ(Δ(z))=0.10] between photometric and spectroscopic redshifts for type II AGNs. We compare results from our photometric redshift procedure with three other independent codes and find them in excellent agreement. We show preliminary results, based on photometric redshifts

  11. Photometric Redshifts in the IRAC Shallow Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Brodwin, M; Brown, M; Ashby, M; Bian, C; Brand, K; Dey, A; Eisenhardt, P; Eisenstein, D; Gonzalez, A; Huang, J; Kochanek, C; McKenzie, E; Pahre, M; Smith, H; Soifer, B; Stanford, S; Stern, D; Elston, R

    2006-06-13

    Accurate photometric redshifts are calculated for nearly 200,000 galaxies to a 4.5 micron flux limit of {approx} 13 {micro}Jy in the 8.5 deg{sup 2} Spitzer/IRAC Shallow survey. Using a hybrid photometric redshift algorithm incorporating both neural-net and template-fitting techniques, calibrated with over 15,000 spectroscopic redshifts, a redshift accuracy of {sigma} = 0.06 (1+z) is achieved for 95% of galaxies at 0 < z < 1.5. The accuracy is {sigma} = 0.12 (1 + z) for 95% of AGN at 0 < z < 3. Redshift probability functions, central to several ongoing studies of the galaxy population, are computed for the full sample. We demonstrate that these functions accurately represent the true redshift probability density, allowing the calculation of valid confidence intervals for all objects. These probability functions have already been used to successfully identify a population of Spitzer-selected high redshift (z > 1) galaxy clusters. We present one such spectroscopically confirmed cluster at = 1.24, ISCS J1434.2+3426. Finally, we present a measurement of the 4.5 {micro}m-selected galaxy redshift distribution.

  12. Cosmology with photometric redshift surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Chris; Bridle, Sarah

    2005-11-01

    We explore the utility of future photometric redshift imaging surveys for delineating the large-scale structure of the Universe, and assess the resulting constraints on the cosmological model. We perform the following two complementary types of analysis. (i) We quantify the statistical confidence and the accuracy with which such surveys will be able to detect and measure characteristic features in the clustering power spectrum such as the acoustic oscillations and the turnover, in a `model-independent' fashion. We show for example that a 10000-deg2 imaging survey with depth r= 22.5 and photometric redshift accuracy δz/(1 +z) = 0.03 will detect the acoustic oscillations with 99.9 per cent confidence, measuring the associated preferred cosmological scale with 2 per cent precision. Such a survey will also detect the turnover with 95 per cent confidence, determining the corresponding scale with 20 per cent accuracy. (ii) By assuming a Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model power spectrum we calculate the confidence with which a non-zero baryon fraction can be deduced from such future galaxy surveys. We quantify `wiggle detection' by calculating the number of standard deviations by which the baryon fraction is measured, after marginalizing over the shape parameter. This is typically a factor of 4 more significant (in terms of number of standard deviations) than the above `model-independent' result. For both analyses, we quantify the variation of the results with magnitude depth and photometric redshift precision, and discuss the prospects for obtaining the required performance with realistic future surveys. We conclude that the precision with which the clustering pattern may be inferred from future photometric redshift surveys will be competitive with contemporaneous spectroscopic redshift surveys, assuming that systematic effects can be controlled. We find that for equivalent wiggle detection power, a photometric redshift survey requires an area approximately 12[δz/(1 +z

  13. Probabilistic Photometric Redshifts in the Era of Petascale Astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Carrasco Kind, Matias

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of large photometric surveys, accurately estimating photometric redshifts, preferably as a probability density function (PDF), and fully understanding the implicit systematic uncertainties in this process has become increasingly important. These surveys are expected to obtain images of billions of distinct galaxies. As a result, storing and analyzing all of these photometric redshift PDFs will be non-trivial, and this challenge becomes even more severe if a survey plans to compute and store multiple different PDFs. In this thesis, we have developed an end-to-end framework that will compute accurate and robust photometric redshift PDFs for massive data sets by using two new, state-of-the-art machine learning techniques that are based on a random forest and a random atlas, respectively. By using data from several photometric surveys, we demonstrate the applicability of these new techniques, and we demonstrate that our new approach is among the best techniques currently available. We also show how different techniques can be combined by using novel Bayesian techniques to improve the photometric redshift precision to unprecedented levels while also presenting new approaches to better identify outliers. In addition, our framework provides supplementary information regarding the data being analyzed, including unbiased estimates of the accuracy of the technique without resorting to a validation data set, identification of poor photometric redshift areas within the parameter space occupied by the spectroscopic training data, and a quantification of the relative importance of the variables used during the estimation process. Furthermore, we present a new approach to represent and store photometric redshift PDFs by using a sparse representation with outstanding compression and reconstruction capabilities. We also demonstrate how this framework can also be directly incorporated into cosmological analyses. The new techniques presented in this thesis are crucial

  14. Galaxy clustering with photometric surveys using PDF redshift information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asorey, J.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Brunner, R. J.; Thaler, J.

    2016-06-01

    Photometric surveys produce large-area maps of the galaxy distribution, but with less accurate redshift information than is obtained from spectroscopic methods. Modern photometric redshift (photo-z) algorithms use galaxy magnitudes, or colours, that are obtained through multiband imaging to produce a probability density function (PDF) for each galaxy in the map. We used simulated data to study the effect of using different photo-z estimators to assign galaxies to redshift bins in order to compare their effects on angular clustering and galaxy bias measurements. We found that if we use the entire PDF, rather than a single-point (mean or mode) estimate, the deviations are less biased, especially when using narrow redshift bins. When the redshift bin widths are Δz = 0.1, the use of the entire PDF reduces the typical measurement bias from 5 per cent, when using single point estimates, to 3 per cent.

  15. Galaxy clustering with photometric surveys using PDF redshift information

    DOE PAGES

    Asorey, J.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; ...

    2016-03-28

    Here, photometric surveys produce large-area maps of the galaxy distribution, but with less accurate redshift information than is obtained from spectroscopic methods. Modern photometric redshift (photo-z) algorithms use galaxy magnitudes, or colors, that are obtained through multi-band imaging to produce a probability density function (PDF) for each galaxy in the map. We used simulated data to study the effect of using different photo-z estimators to assign galaxies to redshift bins in order to compare their effects on angular clustering and galaxy bias measurements. We found that if we use the entire PDF, rather than a single-point (mean or mode) estimate, the deviations are less biased, especially when using narrow redshift bins. When the redshift bin widths aremore » $$\\Delta z=0.1$$, the use of the entire PDF reduces the typical measurement bias from 5%, when using single point estimates, to 3%.« less

  16. Galaxy clustering with photometric surveys using PDF redshift information

    SciTech Connect

    Asorey, J.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Brunner, R. J.; Thaler, J.

    2016-03-28

    Here, photometric surveys produce large-area maps of the galaxy distribution, but with less accurate redshift information than is obtained from spectroscopic methods. Modern photometric redshift (photo-z) algorithms use galaxy magnitudes, or colors, that are obtained through multi-band imaging to produce a probability density function (PDF) for each galaxy in the map. We used simulated data to study the effect of using different photo-z estimators to assign galaxies to redshift bins in order to compare their effects on angular clustering and galaxy bias measurements. We found that if we use the entire PDF, rather than a single-point (mean or mode) estimate, the deviations are less biased, especially when using narrow redshift bins. When the redshift bin widths are $\\Delta z=0.1$, the use of the entire PDF reduces the typical measurement bias from 5%, when using single point estimates, to 3%.

  17. IMPROVED PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS WITH SURFACE LUMINOSITY PRIORS

    SciTech Connect

    Xia Lifang; Cohen, Seth; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Grogin, Norman; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Pirzkal, Nor; Xu Chun

    2009-07-15

    We apply Bayesian statistics with prior probabilities of galaxy surface luminosity (SL) to improve photometric redshifts. We apply the method to a sample of 1266 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the GOODS North and South fields at 0.1 {approx}< z {approx}< 2.0. We start with spectrophotometric redshifts (SPZs) based on Probing Evolution and Reionization Spectroscopically grism spectra, which cover a wavelength range of 6000-9000 A, combined with (U)BViz(JHK) broadband photometry in the GOODS fields. The accuracy of SPZ redshifts is estimated to be {sigma}({delta}(z)) = 0.035 with an systematic offset of -0.026, where {delta}(z) = {delta}z/(1 + z), for galaxies in redshift range of 0.5 {approx}< z {approx}< 1.25. The addition of the SL prior probability helps break the degeneracy of SPZ redshifts between low redshift 4000 A break galaxies and high-redshift Lyman break galaxies which are mostly catastrophic outliers. For the 1138 galaxies at z {approx}< 1.6, the fraction of galaxies with redshift deviation {delta}(z)>0.2 is reduced from 15.0% to 10.4%, while the rms scatter of the fractional redshift error does not change much.

  18. Precision Cosmology with a New Probabilistic Photometric Redshifts Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco Kind, Matias; Brunner, R. J.

    2013-06-01

    A complete understanding of both dark energy and dark matter remains one of most important challenges in astrophysics today. Recent theoretical and numerical computations have made important progress in quantifying the role of these dark components on the formation and evolution of galaxies through cosmic time, but observational verification of these predictions and the development of new, more stringent constraints has not kept pace. It is in this context that, photometric redshifts have become more important with the growth of large imaging surveys, such as DES and LSST, that have been designed to address this issue. But their basic implementation has not changed significantly from their original development, as most techniques provide a single photometric redshift estimate and an associated error for the an extragalactic source. In this work, we present a unique and powerful solution that leverages the full information contained in the photometric data to address this cosmological challenge with a new approach that provides accurate photometric redshift probability density functions (PDF) for galaxies. This new approach, which scales efficiently to massive data, efficiently combines standard template fitting techniques with powerful machine learning methods. Included in this framework is our recently developed technique entitled Trees for PhotoZ (TPZ); a new, robust, parallel photometric redshift code that uses prediction trees and random forests to generate photo-z PDFs in a reliable and fast manner. In addition, our approach also provides ancillary information about the internal structure of the data, including the relative importance of variables used during the redshift estimation, an identification of areas in the training sample that provide poor predictions, and an accurate outlier rejection method. We will also present current results of this approach on a variety of datasets and discuss, by using specific examples, how the full photo-z PDF can be

  19. Photometric Redshift Techniques in Big-data Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Xia; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    Photometric data increase with large survey projects running. The huge volume of data influences the means and methods to deal with them. As such, the techniques of photometric redshift estimation based on photometric data must be developed and improved.

  20. Improving Photometric Redshifts for Hyper Suprime-Cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speagle, Josh S.; Leauthaud, Alexie; Eisenstein, Daniel; Bundy, Kevin; Capak, Peter L.; Leistedt, Boris; Masters, Daniel C.; Mortlock, Daniel; Peiris, Hiranya; HSC Photo-z Team; HSC Weak Lensing Team

    2017-01-01

    Deriving accurate photometric redshift (photo-z) probability distribution functions (PDFs) are crucial science components for current and upcoming large-scale surveys. We outline how rigorous Bayesian inference and machine learning can be combined to quickly derive joint photo-z PDFs to individual galaxies and their parent populations. Using the first 170 deg^2 of data from the ongoing Hyper Suprime-Cam survey, we demonstrate our method is able to generate accurate predictions and reliable credible intervals over ~370k high-quality redshifts. We then use galaxy-galaxy lensing to empirically validate our predicted photo-z's over ~14M objects, finding a robust signal.

  1. A sparse Gaussian process framework for photometric redshift estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almosallam, Ibrahim A.; Lindsay, Sam N.; Jarvis, Matt J.; Roberts, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate photometric redshifts are a lynchpin for many future experiments to pin down the cosmological model and for studies of galaxy evolution. In this study, a novel sparse regression framework for photometric redshift estimation is presented. Synthetic data set simulating the Euclid survey and real data from SDSS DR12 are used to train and test the proposed models. We show that approaches which include careful data preparation and model design offer a significant improvement in comparison with several competing machine learning algorithms. Standard implementations of most regression algorithms use the minimization of the sum of squared errors as the objective function. For redshift inference, this induces a bias in the posterior mean of the output distribution, which can be problematic. In this paper, we directly minimize the target metric Δz = (zs - zp)/(1 + zs) and address the bias problem via a distribution-based weighting scheme, incorporated as part of the optimization objective. The results are compared with other machine learning algorithms in the field such as artificial neural networks (ANN), Gaussian processes (GPs) and sparse GPs. The proposed framework reaches a mean absolute Δz = 0.0026(1 + zs), over the redshift range of 0 ≤ zs ≤ 2 on the simulated data, and Δz = 0.0178(1 + zs) over the entire redshift range on the SDSS DR12 survey, outperforming the standard ANNz used in the literature. We also investigate how the relative size of the training sample affects the photometric redshift accuracy. We find that a training sample of >30 per cent of total sample size, provides little additional constraint on the photometric redshifts, and note that our GP formalism strongly outperforms ANNz in the sparse data regime for the simulated data set.

  2. Photometric Redshift Biases from Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, C. Jonathan; Bernstein, Gary

    2010-04-01

    Proposed cosmological surveys will make use of photometric redshifts of galaxies that are significantly fainter than any complete spectroscopic redshift surveys that exist to train the photo-z methods. We investigate the photo-z biases that result from known differences between the faint and bright populations: a rise in active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity toward higher redshift, and a metallicity difference between intrinsically luminous and faint early-type galaxies. We find that even very small mismatches between the mean photometric target and the training set can induce photo-z biases large enough to corrupt derived cosmological parameters significantly. Our results suggest that a metallicity shift of ∼0.003 dex in an old population, or contamination of any galaxy spectrum with ∼0.2% AGN flux, is sufficient to induce a 10-3 bias in photo-z. These results highlight the danger in extrapolating the behavior of bright galaxies to a fainter population, and the desirability of a spectroscopic training set that spans all of the characteristics of the photo-z targets, i.e., extending to the 25th mag or fainter galaxies that will be used in future surveys.

  3. A new method to search for high-redshift clusters using photometric redshifts

    SciTech Connect

    Castignani, G.; Celotti, A.; Chiaberge, M.; Norman, C.

    2014-09-10

    We describe a new method (Poisson probability method, PPM) to search for high-redshift galaxy clusters and groups by using photometric redshift information and galaxy number counts. The method relies on Poisson statistics and is primarily introduced to search for megaparsec-scale environments around a specific beacon. The PPM is tailored to both the properties of the FR I radio galaxies in the Chiaberge et al. sample, which are selected within the COSMOS survey, and to the specific data set used. We test the efficiency of our method of searching for cluster candidates against simulations. Two different approaches are adopted. (1) We use two z ∼ 1 X-ray detected cluster candidates found in the COSMOS survey and we shift them to higher redshift up to z = 2. We find that the PPM detects the cluster candidates up to z = 1.5, and it correctly estimates both the redshift and size of the two clusters. (2) We simulate spherically symmetric clusters of different size and richness, and we locate them at different redshifts (i.e., z = 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) in the COSMOS field. We find that the PPM detects the simulated clusters within the considered redshift range with a statistical 1σ redshift accuracy of ∼0.05. The PPM is an efficient alternative method for high-redshift cluster searches that may also be applied to both present and future wide field surveys such as SDSS Stripe 82, LSST, and Euclid. Accurate photometric redshifts and a survey depth similar or better than that of COSMOS (e.g., I < 25) are required.

  4. An Improved Technique for Increasing the Accuracy of Photometrically Determined Redshifts for ___Blended___ Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Ashley Marie; /Marietta Coll. /SLAC

    2012-08-24

    The redshift of a galaxy can be determined by one of two methods; photometric or spectroscopic. Photometric is a term for any redshift determination made using the magnitudes of light in different filters. Spectroscopic redshifts are determined by measuring the absorption spectra of the object then determining the difference in wavelength between the 'standard' absorption lines and the measured ones, making it the most accurate of the two methods. The data for this research was collected from SDSS DR8 and then separated into blended and non-blended galaxy sets; the definition of 'blended' is discussed in the Introduction section. The current SDSS photometric redshift determination method does not discriminate between blended and non-blended data when it determines the photometric redshift of a given galaxy. The focus of this research was to utilize machine learning techniques to determine if a considerably more accurate photometric redshift determination method could be found, for the case of the blended and non-blended data being treated separately. The results show a reduction of 0.00496 in the RMS error of photometric redshift determinations for blended galaxies and a more significant reduction of 0.00827 for non-blended galaxies, illustrated in Table 2.

  5. Reconstructing the galaxy density field with photometric redshifts. I. Methodology and validation on stellar mass functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malavasi, N.; Pozzetti, L.; Cucciati, O.; Bardelli, S.; Cimatti, A.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Measuring environment for large numbers of galaxies in the distant Universe is an open problem in astrophysics, as environment is important in determining many properties of galaxies during their formation and evolution. In order to measure galaxy environments, we need galaxy positions and redshifts. Photometric redshifts are more easily available for large numbers of galaxies, but at the price of larger uncertainties than spectroscopic redshifts. Aims: We study how photometric redshifts affect the measurement of galaxy environment and how the reconstruction of the density field may limit an analysis of the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) in different environments. Methods: Through the use of mock galaxy catalogues, we measured galaxy environment with a fixed aperture method, using each galaxy's true and photometric redshifts. We varied the parameters defining the fixed aperture volume and explored different configurations. We also used photometric redshifts with different uncertainties to simulate the case of various surveys. We then computed GSMF of the mock galaxy catalogues as a function of redshift and environment to see how the environmental estimate based on photometric redshifts affects their analysis. Results: We found that the most extreme environments can be reconstructed in a fairly accurate way only when using high-precision photometric redshifts with σΔz/ (1 + z) ≲ 0.01, with a fraction ≥ 60 ÷ 80% of galaxies placed in the correct density quartile and a contamination of ≤10% by opposite quartile interlopers. A length of the volume in the radial direction comparable to the ±1.5σ error of photometric redshifts and a fixed aperture radius of a size similar to the physical scale of the studied environment grant a better reconstruction than other volume configurations. When using this kind of an estimate of the density field, we found that any difference between the starting GSMF (divided accordingly to the true galaxy environment

  6. Data-driven, Interpretable Photometric Redshifts Trained on Heterogeneous and Unrepresentative Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leistedt, Boris; Hogg, David W.

    2017-03-01

    We present a new method for inferring photometric redshifts in deep galaxy and quasar surveys, based on a data-driven model of latent spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and a physical model of photometric fluxes as a function of redshift. This conceptually novel approach combines the advantages of both machine learning methods and template fitting methods by building template SEDs directly from the spectroscopic training data. This is made computationally tractable with Gaussian processes operating in flux–redshift space, encoding the physics of redshifts and the projection of galaxy SEDs onto photometric bandpasses. This method alleviates the need to acquire representative training data or to construct detailed galaxy SED models; it requires only that the photometric bandpasses and calibrations be known or have parameterized unknowns. The training data can consist of a combination of spectroscopic and deep many-band photometric data with reliable redshifts, which do not need to entirely spatially overlap with the target survey of interest or even involve the same photometric bands. We showcase the method on the i-magnitude-selected, spectroscopically confirmed galaxies in the COSMOS field. The model is trained on the deepest bands (from SUBARU and HST) and photometric redshifts are derived using the shallower SDSS optical bands only. We demonstrate that we obtain accurate redshift point estimates and probability distributions despite the training and target sets having very different redshift distributions, noise properties, and even photometric bands. Our model can also be used to predict missing photometric fluxes or to simulate populations of galaxies with realistic fluxes and redshifts, for example.

  7. Exploring the SDSS photometric galaxies with clustering redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mubdi; Mendez, Alexander J.; Ménard, Brice; Scranton, Ryan; Schmidt, Samuel J.; Morrison, Christopher B.; Budavári, Tamás

    2016-07-01

    We apply clustering-based redshift inference to all extended sources from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric catalogue, down to magnitude r = 22. We map the relationships between colours and redshift, without assumption of the sources' spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We identify and locate star-forming quiescent galaxies, and active galactic nuclei, as well as colour changes due to spectral features, such as the 4000 Å break, redshifting through specific filters. Our mapping is globally in good agreement with colour-redshift tracks computed with SED templates, but reveals informative differences, such as the need for a lower fraction of M-type stars in certain templates. We compare our clustering-redshift estimates to photometric redshifts and find these two independent estimators to be in good agreement at each limiting magnitude considered. Finally, we present the global clustering-redshift distribution of all Sloan extended sources, showing objects up to z ˜ 0.8. While the overall shape agrees with that inferred from photometric redshifts, the clustering-redshift technique results in a smoother distribution, with no indication of structure in redshift space suggested by the photometric-redshift estimates (likely artefacts imprinted by their spectroscopic training set). We also infer a higher fraction of high-redshift objects. The mapping between the four observed colours and redshift can be used to estimate the redshift probability distribution function of individual galaxies. This work is an initial step towards producing a general mapping between redshift and all available observables in the photometric space, including brightness, size, concentration, and ellipticity.

  8. CHARACTERIZING AND PROPAGATING MODELING UNCERTAINTIES IN PHOTOMETRICALLY DERIVED REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamse, Augusta; Knox, Lloyd; Schmidt, Samuel; Thorman, Paul; Anthony Tyson, J.; Zhan Hu

    2011-06-10

    The uncertainty in the redshift distributions of galaxies has a significant potential impact on the cosmological parameter values inferred from multi-band imaging surveys. The accuracy of the photometric redshifts measured in these surveys depends not only on the quality of the flux data, but also on a number of modeling assumptions that enter into both the training set and spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting methods of photometric redshift estimation. In this work we focus on the latter, considering two types of modeling uncertainties: uncertainties in the SED template set and uncertainties in the magnitude and type priors used in a Bayesian photometric redshift estimation method. We find that SED template selection effects dominate over magnitude prior errors. We introduce a method for parameterizing the resulting ignorance of the redshift distributions, and for propagating these uncertainties to uncertainties in cosmological parameters.

  9. Photometric redshifts for the SDSS Data Release 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Róbert; Dobos, László; Budavári, Tamás; Szalay, Alexander S.; Csabai, István

    2016-08-01

    We present the methodology and data behind the photometric redshift data base of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 12. We adopt a hybrid technique, empirically estimating the redshift via local regression on a spectroscopic training set, then fitting a spectrum template to obtain K-corrections and absolute magnitudes. The SDSS spectroscopic catalogue was augmented with data from other, publicly available spectroscopic surveys to mitigate target selection effects. The training set is comprised of 1976 978 galaxies, and extends up to redshift z ≈ 0.8, with a useful coverage of up to z ≈ 0.6. We provide photometric redshifts and realistic error estimates for the 208 474 076 galaxies of the SDSS primary photometric catalogue. We achieve an average bias of overline{Δ z_{norm}} = {5.84 × 10^{-5}}, a standard deviation of σ(Δznorm) = 0.0205, and a 3σ outlier rate of Po = 4.11 per cent when cross-validating on our training set. The published redshift error estimates and photometric error classes enable the selection of galaxies with high-quality photometric redshifts. We also provide a supplementary error map that allows additional, sophisticated filtering of the data.

  10. THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. XV. THE PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT ESTIMATION FOR BACKGROUND SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Huertas-Company, M.; Licitra, R.; Erben, T.; Hildebrandt, H.; Ilbert, O.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; Ball, N. M.; Côté, P.; Ferrarese, L.; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Chen, Y.-T.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Duc, P. A.; Guhathakurta, P.; and others

    2014-12-20

    The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) is an optical imaging survey covering 104 deg{sup 2} centered on the Virgo cluster. Currently, the complete survey area has been observed in the u*giz bands and one third in the r band. We present the photometric redshift estimation for the NGVS background sources. After a dedicated data reduction, we perform accurate photometry, with special attention to precise color measurements through point-spread function homogenization. We then estimate the photometric redshifts with the Le Phare and BPZ codes. We add a new prior that extends to i {sub AB} = 12.5 mag. When using the u* griz bands, our photometric redshifts for 15.5 mag ≤ i ≲ 23 mag or z {sub phot} ≲ 1 galaxies have a bias |Δz| < 0.02, less than 5% outliers, a scatter σ{sub outl.rej.}, and an individual error on z {sub phot} that increases with magnitude (from 0.02 to 0.05 and from 0.03 to 0.10, respectively). When using the u*giz bands over the same magnitude and redshift range, the lack of the r band increases the uncertainties in the 0.3 ≲ z {sub phot} ≲ 0.8 range (–0.05 < Δz < –0.02, σ{sub outl.rej} ∼ 0.06, 10%-15% outliers, and z {sub phot.err.} ∼ 0.15). We also present a joint analysis of the photometric redshift accuracy as a function of redshift and magnitude. We assess the quality of our photometric redshifts by comparison to spectroscopic samples and by verifying that the angular auto- and cross-correlation function w(θ) of the entire NGVS photometric redshift sample across redshift bins is in agreement with the expectations.

  11. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. XV. The Photometric Redshift Estimation for Background Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Erben, T.; Hildebrandt, H.; Huertas-Company, M.; Ilbert, O.; Licitra, R.; Ball, N. M.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; Chen, Y.-T.; Côté, P.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Duc, P. A.; Durrell, P. R.; Ferrarese, L.; Guhathakurta, P.; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Lançon, A.; Liu, C.; MacArthur, L. A.; Muller, M.; Muñoz, R. P.; Peng, E. W.; Puzia, T. H.; Sawicki, M.; Toloba, E.; Van Waerbeke, L.; Woods, D.; Zhang, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) is an optical imaging survey covering 104 deg2 centered on the Virgo cluster. Currently, the complete survey area has been observed in the u*giz bands and one third in the r band. We present the photometric redshift estimation for the NGVS background sources. After a dedicated data reduction, we perform accurate photometry, with special attention to precise color measurements through point-spread function homogenization. We then estimate the photometric redshifts with the Le Phare and BPZ codes. We add a new prior that extends to i AB = 12.5 mag. When using the u* griz bands, our photometric redshifts for 15.5 mag <= i <~ 23 mag or z phot <~ 1 galaxies have a bias |Δz| < 0.02, less than 5% outliers, a scatter σoutl.rej., and an individual error on z phot that increases with magnitude (from 0.02 to 0.05 and from 0.03 to 0.10, respectively). When using the u*giz bands over the same magnitude and redshift range, the lack of the r band increases the uncertainties in the 0.3 <~ z phot <~ 0.8 range (-0.05 < Δz < -0.02, σoutl.rej ~ 0.06, 10%-15% outliers, and z phot.err. ~ 0.15). We also present a joint analysis of the photometric redshift accuracy as a function of redshift and magnitude. We assess the quality of our photometric redshifts by comparison to spectroscopic samples and by verifying that the angular auto- and cross-correlation function w(θ) of the entire NGVS photometric redshift sample across redshift bins is in agreement with the expectations.

  12. EXTENDED PHOTOMETRY FOR THE DEEP2 GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEY: A TESTBED FOR PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Daniel J.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Coil, Alison L.; Cooper, Michael C.; Gwyn, Stephen D. J. E-mail: janewman@pitt.edu E-mail: m.cooper@uci.edu

    2013-02-15

    This paper describes a new catalog that supplements the existing DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey photometric and spectroscopic catalogs with ugriz photometry from two other surveys: the Canada-France-Hawaii Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Each catalog is cross-matched by position on the sky in order to assign ugriz photometry to objects in the DEEP2 catalogs. We have recalibrated the CFHTLS photometry where it overlaps DEEP2 in order to provide a more uniform data set. We have also used this improved photometry to predict DEEP2 BRI photometry in regions where only poorer measurements were available previously. In addition, we have included improved astrometry tied to SDSS rather than USNO-A2.0 for all DEEP2 objects. In total this catalog contains {approx}27, 000 objects with full ugriz photometry as well as robust spectroscopic redshift measurements, 64% of which have r > 23. By combining the secure and accurate redshifts of the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey with ugriz photometry, we have created a catalog that can be used as an excellent testbed for future photo-z studies, including tests of algorithms for surveys such as LSST and DES.

  13. Photometric redshift techniques of quasars in big-data era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanxia

    2015-08-01

    With the availability of the huge amounts of data from ground- and space-based large multiband photometric surveys, photometric redshifts provide an estimate for the distance of an astronomical object and have become a crucial tool for extragalactic astronomy and cosmology. Various phtometric redshift approaches are in bloom. Their performance and efficiency not only depend on completeness and quality of data, but also on the volume of data. The increase of data volume lead to different choice of techniques. We present various data mining methods used for photometric redshift estimation of quasars and compare their advantages and disadvantages. In the big-data era, the methods fit for large-scale data are in great requirement.

  14. Measuring photometric redshifts using galaxy images and Deep Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, B.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a new method to estimate the photometric redshift of galaxies by using the full galaxy image in each measured band. This method draws from the latest techniques and advances in machine learning, in particular Deep Neural Networks. We pass the entire multi-band galaxy image into the machine learning architecture to obtain a redshift estimate that is competitive, in terms of the measured point prediction metrics, with the best existing standard machine learning techniques. The standard techniques estimate redshifts using post-processed features, such as magnitudes and colours, which are extracted from the galaxy images and are deemed to be salient by the user. This new method removes the user from the photometric redshift estimation pipeline. However we do note that Deep Neural Networks require many orders of magnitude more computing resources than standard machine learning architectures, and as such are only tractable for making predictions on datasets of size ≤50k before implementing parallelisation techniques.

  15. Photometric Redshifts for High Resolution Radio Galaxies in the SuperCLASS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Sinclaire; Casey, Caitlin; Battye, Richard; Hales, Christopher A.; Chapman, Scott; Smail, Ian; SuperCLASS Team

    2017-01-01

    SuperCLASS (the Super-Cluster Assisted Shear Survey) is a deep, wide-area (~2 square degrees) extragalactic field with high resolution (0.1”) radio continuum coverage from e-MERLIN (Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network.) The combination of sensitivity and spatial resolution make e-MERLIN an ideal tool to trace spatially resolved star-formation in heavily obscured, dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs). Plus, thanks to the tight relationship between radio continuum and far-IR observations we have an observationally inexpensive and accurate method of mapping star formation density in distant galaxies. We present a photometric redshift catalog for DSFGs located in the SuperCLASS field. Multiwavelength photometric data was obtained with Subaru SuprimeCam (B,V,r,i,z) and photometric redshifts were generated using the public photometric redshift code, EAZY. With these redshifts we aim to conduct the first large sample morphological analysis of z~1-3 obscured galaxies. We plan to address two important questions: 1) Are the majority of obscured SFR>50 Msolar/yr galaxies driven by major collisions? and 2) do luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) play a crucial role in the quenching of highly obscured star-formation? These photometric redshifts are crucial in determining the physical origins of our DSFG sample and to also conduct radio weak lensing experiments with the e-MERLIN dataset.

  16. A Model-independent Photometric Redshift Estimator for Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun

    2007-01-01

    The use of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) as cosmological standard candles is fundamental in modern observational cosmology. In this Letter, we derive a simple empirical photometric redshift estimator for SNe Ia using a training set of SNe Ia with multiband (griz) light curves and spectroscopic redshifts obtained by the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). This estimator is analytical and model-independent it does not use spectral templates. We use all the available SNe Ia from SNLS with near-maximum photometry in griz (a total of 40 SNe Ia) to train and test our photometric redshift estimator. The difference between the estimated redshifts zphot and the spectroscopic redshifts zspec, (zphot-zspec)/(1+zspec), has rms dispersions of 0.031 for 20 SNe Ia used in the training set, and 0.050 for 20 SNe Ia not used in the training set. The dispersion is of the same order of magnitude as the flux uncertainties at peak brightness for the SNe Ia. There are no outliers. This photometric redshift estimator should significantly enhance the ability of observers to accurately target high-redshift SNe Ia for spectroscopy in ongoing surveys. It will also dramatically boost the cosmological impact of very large future supernova surveys, such as those planned for the Advanced Liquid-mirror Probe for Astrophysics, Cosmology, and Asteroids (ALPACA) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST).

  17. METAPHOR: a machine-learning-based method for the probability density estimation of photometric redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavuoti, S.; Amaro, V.; Brescia, M.; Vellucci, C.; Tortora, C.; Longo, G.

    2017-02-01

    A variety of fundamental astrophysical science topics require the determination of very accurate photometric redshifts (photo-z). A wide plethora of methods have been developed, based either on template models fitting or on empirical explorations of the photometric parameter space. Machine-learning-based techniques are not explicitly dependent on the physical priors and able to produce accurate photo-z estimations within the photometric ranges derived from the spectroscopic training set. These estimates, however, are not easy to characterize in terms of a photo-z probability density function (PDF), due to the fact that the analytical relation mapping the photometric parameters on to the redshift space is virtually unknown. We present METAPHOR (Machine-learning Estimation Tool for Accurate PHOtometric Redshifts), a method designed to provide a reliable PDF of the error distribution for empirical techniques. The method is implemented as a modular workflow, whose internal engine for photo-z estimation makes use of the MLPQNA neural network (Multi Layer Perceptron with Quasi Newton learning rule), with the possibility to easily replace the specific machine-learning model chosen to predict photo-z. We present a summary of results on SDSS-DR9 galaxy data, used also to perform a direct comparison with PDFs obtained by the LE PHARE spectral energy distribution template fitting. We show that METAPHOR is capable to estimate the precision and reliability of photometric redshifts obtained with three different self-adaptive techniques, i.e. MLPQNA, Random Forest and the standard K-Nearest Neighbors models.

  18. Catastrophic photometric redshift errors: Weak-lensing survey requirements

    DOE PAGES

    Bernstein, Gary; Huterer, Dragan

    2010-01-11

    We study the sensitivity of weak lensing surveys to the effects of catastrophic redshift errors - cases where the true redshift is misestimated by a significant amount. To compute the biases in cosmological parameters, we adopt an efficient linearized analysis where the redshift errors are directly related to shifts in the weak lensing convergence power spectra. We estimate the number Nspec of unbiased spectroscopic redshifts needed to determine the catastrophic error rate well enough that biases in cosmological parameters are below statistical errors of weak lensing tomography. While the straightforward estimate of Nspec is ~106 we find that using onlymore » the photometric redshifts with z ≤ 2.5 leads to a drastic reduction in Nspec to ~ 30,000 while negligibly increasing statistical errors in dark energy parameters. Therefore, the size of spectroscopic survey needed to control catastrophic errors is similar to that previously deemed necessary to constrain the core of the zs – zp distribution. We also study the efficacy of the recent proposal to measure redshift errors by cross-correlation between the photo-z and spectroscopic samples. We find that this method requires ~ 10% a priori knowledge of the bias and stochasticity of the outlier population, and is also easily confounded by lensing magnification bias. In conclusion, the cross-correlation method is therefore unlikely to supplant the need for a complete spectroscopic redshift survey of the source population.« less

  19. PhotoRApToR: PHOTOmetric Research APplication TO Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brescia, Massimo; Cavuoti, Stefano

    2014-08-01

    PhotoRApToR (PHOTOmetric Research APplication TO Redshifts) solves regression and classification problems and is specialized for photo-z estimation. PhotoRApToR offers data table manipulation capabilities and 2D and 3D graphics tools for data visualization; it also provides a statistical report for both classification and regression experiments. The code is written in Java; the machine learning model is in C++ to increase the core execution speed.

  20. Improved photometric redshifts via enhanced estimates of system response, galaxy templates and magnitude priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Samuel J.; Thorman, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Wide, deep photometric surveys require robust photometric redshift estimates (photo-zs) for studies of large-scale structure. These estimates depend critically on accurate photometry. We describe the improvements to the photometric calibration and the photo-z estimates in the Deep Lens Survey (DLS) from correcting three of the inputs to the photo-z calculation: the system response as a function of wavelength, the spectral energy distribution templates and template prior probabilities as a function of magnitude. We model the system response with a physical model of the MOSAIC camera's CCD, which corrects a 0.1 mag discrepancy in the colours of type M2 and later stars relative to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey z photometry. We provide our estimated z response function for the use of other surveys that used MOSAIC before its recent detector upgrade. The improved throughput curve, template set and Bayesian prior lead to general improvement in the predicted photometric redshifts, including a 20 per cent reduction in photo-z scatter at low redshift and a reduction of the bias by a factor of more than 2 at high redshift. This paper serves as both a photo-z data release description for DLS and a guide for testing the quality of photometry and resulting photo-zs generally.

  1. Photo-z with CuBANz: An improved photometric redshift estimator using Clustering aided Back propagation Neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samui, Saumyadip; Samui Pal, Shanoli

    2017-02-01

    We present an improved photometric redshift estimator code, CuBANz, that is publicly available at https://goo.gl/fpk90V. It uses the back propagation neural network along with clustering of the training set, which makes it more efficient than existing neural network codes. In CuBANz, the training set is divided into several self learning clusters with galaxies having similar photometric properties and spectroscopic redshifts within a given span. The clustering algorithm uses the color information (i.e. u - g , g - r etc.) rather than the apparent magnitudes at various photometric bands as the photometric redshift is more sensitive to the flux differences between different bands rather than the actual values. Separate neural networks are trained for each cluster using all possible colors, magnitudes and uncertainties in the measurements. For a galaxy with unknown redshift, we identify the closest possible clusters having similar photometric properties and use those clusters to get the photometric redshifts using the particular networks that were trained using those cluster members. For galaxies that do not match with any training cluster, the photometric redshifts are obtained from a separate network that uses entire training set. This clustering method enables us to determine the redshifts more accurately. SDSS Stripe 82 catalog has been used here for the demonstration of the code. For the clustered sources with redshift range zspec < 0.7, the residual error (<(zspec -zphot) 2 > 1 / 2) in the training/testing phase is as low as 0.03 compared to the existing ANNz code that provides residual error on the same test data set of 0.05. Further, we provide a much better estimate of the uncertainty of the derived photometric redshift.

  2. A joint analysis for cosmology and photometric redshift calibration using cross-correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Michael; Balan, Sreekumar T.; Abdalla, Filipe B.

    2017-04-01

    We present a method of calibrating the properties of photometric redshift bins as part of a larger nested sampling analysis for the inference of cosmological parameters. The redshift bins are characterized by their mean and variance, which are varied as free parameters and marginalized over when obtaining the cosmological parameters. We demonstrate that the likelihood function for cross-correlations in an angular power spectrum framework tightly constrains the properties of bins such that they may be well determined, reducing their influence on cosmological parameters and avoiding the bias from poorly estimated redshift distributions. We demonstrate that even with only three photometric and three spectroscopic bins, we can recover accurate estimates of the mean redshift of a bin to within Δμ ≈ 3-4 × 10-3 and the width of the bin to Δσ ≈ 1 × 10-3 for galaxies near z = 1. This indicates that we may be able to bring down the photometric redshift errors to a level which is in line with the requirements for the next generation of cosmological experiments.

  3. CFHTLenS and RCSLenS: testing photometric redshift distributions using angular cross-correlations with spectroscopic galaxy surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, A.; Heymans, C.; Blake, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Duncan, C. A. J.; Erben, T.; Nakajima, R.; Van Waerbeke, L.; Viola, M.

    2016-12-01

    We determine the accuracy of galaxy redshift distributions as estimated from photometric redshift probability distributions p(z). Our method utilizes measurements of the angular cross-correlation between photometric galaxies and an overlapping sample of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts. We describe the redshift leakage from a galaxy photometric redshift bin j into a spectroscopic redshift bin i using the sum of the p(z) for the galaxies residing in bin j. We can then predict the angular cross-correlation between photometric and spectroscopic galaxies due to intrinsic galaxy clustering when i ≠ j as a function of the measured angular cross-correlation when i = j. We also account for enhanced clustering arising from lensing magnification using a halo model. The comparison of this prediction with the measured signal provides a consistency check on the validity of using the summed p(z) to determine galaxy redshift distributions in cosmological analyses, as advocated by the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). We present an analysis of the photometric redshifts measured by CFHTLenS, which overlaps the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). We also analyse the Red-sequence Cluster Lensing Survey, which overlaps both BOSS and the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. We find that the summed p(z) from both surveys are generally biased with respect to the true underlying distributions. If unaccounted for, this bias would lead to errors in cosmological parameter estimation from CFHTLenS by less than ˜4 per cent. For photometric redshift bins which spatially overlap in 3D with our spectroscopic sample, we determine redshift bias corrections which can be used in future cosmological analyses that rely on accurate galaxy redshift distributions.

  4. Mapping the Galaxy Color-Redshift Relation: Optimal Photometric Redshift Calibration Strategies for Cosmology Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Daniel; Capak, Peter; Stern, Daniel; Ilbert, Olivier; Salvato, Mara; Schmidt, Samuel; Longo, Giuseppe; Rhodes, Jason; Paltani, Stephane; Mobasher, Bahram; Hoekstra, Henk; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Coupon, Jean; Steinhardt, Charles; Speagle, Josh; Faisst, Andreas; Kalinich, Adam; Brodwin, Mark; Brescia, Massimo; Cavuoti, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Calibrating the photometric redshifts of ≳109 galaxies for upcoming weak lensing cosmology experiments is a major challenge for the astrophysics community. The path to obtaining the required spectroscopic redshifts for training and calibration is daunting, given the anticipated depths of the surveys and the difficulty in obtaining secure redshifts for some faint galaxy populations. Here we present an analysis of the problem based on the self-organizing map, a method of mapping the distribution of data in a high-dimensional space and projecting it onto a lower-dimensional representation. We apply this method to existing photometric data from the COSMOS survey selected to approximate the anticipated Euclid weak lensing sample, enabling us to robustly map the empirical distribution of galaxies in the multidimensional color space defined by the expected Euclid filters. Mapping this multicolor distribution lets us determine where—in galaxy color space—redshifts from current spectroscopic surveys exist and where they are systematically missing. Crucially, the method lets us determine whether a spectroscopic training sample is representative of the full photometric space occupied by the galaxies in a survey. We explore optimal sampling techniques and estimate the additional spectroscopy needed to map out the color-redshift relation, finding that sampling the galaxy distribution in color space in a systematic way can efficiently meet the calibration requirements. While the analysis presented here focuses on the Euclid survey, similar analysis can be applied to other surveys facing the same calibration challenge, such as DES, LSST, and WFIRST.

  5. MAPPING THE GALAXY COLOR–REDSHIFT RELATION: OPTIMAL PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT CALIBRATION STRATEGIES FOR COSMOLOGY SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, Daniel; Steinhardt, Charles; Faisst, Andreas; Capak, Peter; Stern, Daniel; Rhodes, Jason; Ilbert, Olivier; Salvato, Mara; Schmidt, Samuel; Longo, Giuseppe; Paltani, Stephane; Coupon, Jean; Mobasher, Bahram; Hoekstra, Henk; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Speagle, Josh; Kalinich, Adam; Brodwin, Mark; Brescia, Massimo; Cavuoti, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Calibrating the photometric redshifts of ≳10{sup 9} galaxies for upcoming weak lensing cosmology experiments is a major challenge for the astrophysics community. The path to obtaining the required spectroscopic redshifts for training and calibration is daunting, given the anticipated depths of the surveys and the difficulty in obtaining secure redshifts for some faint galaxy populations. Here we present an analysis of the problem based on the self-organizing map, a method of mapping the distribution of data in a high-dimensional space and projecting it onto a lower-dimensional representation. We apply this method to existing photometric data from the COSMOS survey selected to approximate the anticipated Euclid weak lensing sample, enabling us to robustly map the empirical distribution of galaxies in the multidimensional color space defined by the expected Euclid filters. Mapping this multicolor distribution lets us determine where—in galaxy color space—redshifts from current spectroscopic surveys exist and where they are systematically missing. Crucially, the method lets us determine whether a spectroscopic training sample is representative of the full photometric space occupied by the galaxies in a survey. We explore optimal sampling techniques and estimate the additional spectroscopy needed to map out the color–redshift relation, finding that sampling the galaxy distribution in color space in a systematic way can efficiently meet the calibration requirements. While the analysis presented here focuses on the Euclid survey, similar analysis can be applied to other surveys facing the same calibration challenge, such as DES, LSST, and WFIRST.

  6. A new method to assign galaxy cluster membership using photometric redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castignani, G.; Benoist, C.

    2016-11-01

    We introduce a new effective strategy to assign group and cluster membership probabilities Pmem to galaxies using photometric redshift information. Large dynamical ranges both in halo mass and cosmic time are considered. The method takes into account the magnitude distribution of both cluster and field galaxies as well as the radial distribution of galaxies in clusters using a non-parametric formalism, and relies on Bayesian inference to take photometric redshift uncertainties into account. We successfully test the method against 1208 galaxy clusters within redshifts z = 0.05-2.58 and masses 1013.29-14.80M⊙ drawn from wide field simulated galaxy mock catalogs mainly developed for the forthcoming Euclid mission. Median purity and completeness values of and are reached for galaxies brighter than 0.25 L∗ within r200 of each simulated halo and for a statistical photometric redshift accuracy σ((zs-zp)/(1 + zs)) = 0.03. The mean values p̅=56% and c̅=93% are consistent with the median and have negligible sub-percent uncertainties. Accurate photometric redshifts (σ((zs-zp)/(1 + zs)) ≲ 0.05) and robust estimates for the cluster redshift and cluster center coordinates are required. The dependence of the assignments on photometric redshift accuracy, galaxy magnitude and distance from the halo center, and halo properties such as mass, richness, and redshift are investigated. Variations in the mean values of both purity and completeness are globally limited to a few percent. The largest departures from the mean values are found for galaxies associated with distant z ≳ 1.5 halos, faint ( 0.25 L∗) galaxies, and those at the outskirts of the halo (at cluster-centric projected distances r200) for which the purity is decreased, Δp ≃ 20% at most, with respect to the mean value. The proposed method is applied to derive accurate richness estimates. A statistical comparison between the true (Ntrue) vs. estimated richness (λ = ∑ Pmem) yields on average to unbiased

  7. GPZ: non-stationary sparse Gaussian processes for heteroscedastic uncertainty estimation in photometric redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almosallam, Ibrahim A.; Jarvis, Matt J.; Roberts, Stephen J.

    2016-10-01

    The next generation of cosmology experiments will be required to use photometric redshifts rather than spectroscopic redshifts. Obtaining accurate and well-characterized photometric redshift distributions is therefore critical for Euclid, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and the Square Kilometre Array. However, determining accurate variance predictions alongside single point estimates is crucial, as they can be used to optimize the sample of galaxies for the specific experiment (e.g. weak lensing, baryon acoustic oscillations, supernovae), trading off between completeness and reliability in the galaxy sample. The various sources of uncertainty in measurements of the photometry and redshifts put a lower bound on the accuracy that any model can hope to achieve. The intrinsic uncertainty associated with estimates is often non-uniform and input-dependent, commonly known in statistics as heteroscedastic noise. However, existing approaches are susceptible to outliers and do not take into account variance induced by non-uniform data density and in most cases require manual tuning of many parameters. In this paper, we present a Bayesian machine learning approach that jointly optimizes the model with respect to both the predictive mean and variance we refer to as Gaussian processes for photometric redshifts (GPZ). The predictive variance of the model takes into account both the variance due to data density and photometric noise. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR12 data, we show that our approach substantially outperforms other machine learning methods for photo-z estimation and their associated variance, such as TPZ and ANNZ2. We provide a MATLAB and PYTHON implementations that are available to download at https://github.com/OxfordML/GPz.

  8. Catastrophic photometric redshift errors: Weak-lensing survey requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Gary; Huterer, Dragan

    2010-01-11

    We study the sensitivity of weak lensing surveys to the effects of catastrophic redshift errors - cases where the true redshift is misestimated by a significant amount. To compute the biases in cosmological parameters, we adopt an efficient linearized analysis where the redshift errors are directly related to shifts in the weak lensing convergence power spectra. We estimate the number Nspec of unbiased spectroscopic redshifts needed to determine the catastrophic error rate well enough that biases in cosmological parameters are below statistical errors of weak lensing tomography. While the straightforward estimate of Nspec is ~106 we find that using only the photometric redshifts with z ≤ 2.5 leads to a drastic reduction in Nspec to ~ 30,000 while negligibly increasing statistical errors in dark energy parameters. Therefore, the size of spectroscopic survey needed to control catastrophic errors is similar to that previously deemed necessary to constrain the core of the zs – zp distribution. We also study the efficacy of the recent proposal to measure redshift errors by cross-correlation between the photo-z and spectroscopic samples. We find that this method requires ~ 10% a priori knowledge of the bias and stochasticity of the outlier population, and is also easily confounded by lensing magnification bias. In conclusion, the cross-correlation method is therefore unlikely to supplant the need for a complete spectroscopic redshift survey of the source population.

  9. Using Gamma Regression for Photometric Redshifts of Survey Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J.; de Souza, R. S.; Krone-Martins, A.; Cameron, E.; Ishida, E. E. O.; Hilbe, J.

    Machine learning techniques offer a plethora of opportunities in tackling big data within the astronomical community. We present the set of Generalized Linear Models as a fast alternative for determining photometric redshifts of galaxies, a set of tools not commonly applied within astronomy, despite being widely used in other professions. With this technique, we achieve catastrophic outlier rates of the order of ˜ 1%, that can be achieved in a matter of seconds on large datasets of size ˜ 1,000,000. To make these techniques easily accessible to the astronomical community, we developed a set of libraries and tools that are publicly available.

  10. Photometric Properties of the Most Massive High-Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Brant; Li, Yuexing; Cox, Thomas J.; Hernquist, Lars; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2007-09-01

    We calculate the observable properties of the most massive high-redshift galaxies in the hierarchical formation scenario where stellar spheroid and supermassive black hole growth are fueled by gas-rich mergers. Combining high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations of the hierarchical formation of a z~6 quasar, stellar population synthesis models, template active galactic nucleus (AGN) spectra, prescriptions for interstellar and intergalactic absorption, and the response of modern telescopes, the photometric evolution of galaxies destined to host z~6 quasars is modeled at redshifts z~4-14. These massive galaxies, with enormous stellar masses of M*~1011.5-1012 Msolar and star formation rates of SFR~103-104 Msolar yr-1 at z>~7, satisfy a variety of photometric selection criteria based on Lyman break techniques, including V-band dropouts at z>~5, i-band dropouts at z>~6, and z-band dropouts at z>~7. The observability of the most massive high-redshift galaxies is assessed and compared with a wide range of existing and proposed photometric surveys, including the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS)/Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), National Optical Astronomy Observatory Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS), UKIRT Infared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS), Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) Shallow Survey, Ultradeep Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA), Dark Universe Explorer (DUNE), Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS), Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP). Massive stellar spheroids descended from z~6 quasars will likely be detected at z~4 by existing surveys, but owing to their low number densities the discovery of quasar progenitor galaxies at z>7 will likely require future surveys of large portions of the sky (>~0.5%) at wavelengths λ>~1 μm. The detection of rare, starbursting, massive galaxies at redshifts z>~6 would provide support for the

  11. A Photometric redshift galaxy catalog from the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Yee, H.K.C.; Lin, H.; Gladders, M.D.; /Carnegie Inst. Observ.

    2005-02-01

    The Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS) provides a large and deep photometric catalog of galaxies in the z' and R{sub c} bands for 90 square degrees of sky, and supplemental V and B data have been obtained for 33.6 deg{sup 2}. They compile a photometric redshift catalog from these 4-band data by utilizing the empirical quadratic polynomial photometric redshift fitting technique in combination with CNOC2 and GOODS/HDF-N redshift data. The training set includes 4924 spectral redshifts. The resulting catalog contains more than one million galaxies with photometric redshifts < 1.5 and R{sub c} < 24, giving an rms scatter {delta}({Delta}z) < 0.06 within the redshift range 0.2 < z < 0.5 and {sigma}({Delta}z) < 0.11 for galaxies at 0.0 < z < 1.5. They describe the empirical quadratic polynomial photometric redshift fitting technique which they use to determine the relation between red-shift and photometry. A kd-tree algorithm is used to divide up the sample to improve the accuracy of the catalog. They also present a method for estimating the photometric redshift error for individual galaxies. They show that the redshift distribution of the sample is in excellent agreement with smaller and much deeper photometric and spectroscopic redshift surveys.

  12. The SDSS-IV Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: The Clustering of Luminous Red Galaxies Using Photometric Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Abhishek; SDSS-IV/eBOSS

    2017-01-01

    SDSS-IV/eBOSS survey will allow a ˜1% measurement of the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) scale and a 4.0%Redshift Space Distortion (RSD) measurement using a relatively uniform set of luminous, early-type galaxies in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 1. In this talk, I will present the 3D real space clustering of a sample of ~600,000 LRGs measured by the SDSS/eBOSS, using photometric redshifts. These galaxies have accurate photometric redshifts with an average error of z = 0.028. These LRGs range from redshift z = 0.6 to 1.0 over 10,000 deg2 of the sky, making it the largest volume ever used for galaxy clustering measurements. We measure the angular clusteringpower spectrum in different redshift slices and use well-calibrated redshift distributions to combine these into a high precision 3D real space clustering. i will present an evidence for BAO in the 2-point correlation function. The detection of BAO also allows the measurement of the comoving distance to z = 1.0. Traditionally, spectroscopic redshifts are used to estimate distances to the galaxies and, in turn, to measuregalaxy clustering. However, acquiring spectroscopic redshifts is a time consuming and expensive process even with modern multi-fiber spectrographs. Although photometric redshifts are less accurate, they are signicantly easier to obtain, and for a constant amount of time, one can image both wider areas and deeper volumes than would be possible with spectroscopy, allowing one to probe both larger scales and larger volumes. The ability to make precise clustering measurements with photometric data has been well demonstrated by Padmanabhan et al. (2007).

  13. The 2-degree Field Lensing Survey: photometric redshifts from a large new training sample to r < 19.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, C.; Johnson, A. S.; Bilicki, M.; Blake, C.; Amon, A.; Erben, T.; Glazebrook, K.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Joudaki, S.; Klaes, D.; Kuijken, K.; Lidman, C.; Marin, F.; Parkinson, D.; Poole, G.

    2017-04-01

    We present a new training set for estimating empirical photometric redshifts of galaxies, which was created as part of the 2-degree Field Lensing Survey project. This training set is located in a ∼700 deg2 area of the Kilo-Degree-Survey South field and is randomly selected and nearly complete at r < 19.5. We investigate the photometric redshift performance obtained with ugriz photometry from VST-ATLAS and W1/W2 from WISE, based on several empirical and template methods. The best redshift errors are obtained with kernel-density estimation (KDE), as are the lowest biases, which are consistent with zero within statistical noise. The 68th percentiles of the redshift scatter for magnitude-limited samples at r < (15.5, 17.5, 19.5) are (0.014, 0.017, 0.028). In this magnitude range, there are no known ambiguities in the colour-redshift map, consistent with a small rate of redshift outliers. In the fainter regime, the KDE method produces p(z) estimates per galaxy that represent unbiased and accurate redshift frequency expectations. The p(z) sum over any subsample is consistent with the true redshift frequency plus Poisson noise. Further improvements in redshift precision at r < 20 would mostly be expected from filter sets with narrower passbands to increase the sensitivity of colours to small changes in redshift.

  14. Pan-STARRS1 variability of XMM-COSMOS AGN. I. Impact on photometric redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simm, T.; Saglia, R.; Salvato, M.; Bender, R.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Draper, P. W.; Flewelling, H.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

    2015-12-01

    Aims: Upcoming large area sky surveys like Euclid and eROSITA, which are dedicated to studying the role of dark energy in the expansion history of the Universe and the three-dimensional mass distribution of matter, crucially depend on accurate photometric redshifts. The identification of variable sources, such as active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the achievable redshift accuracy for varying objects are important in view of the science goals of the Euclid and eROSITA missions. Methods: We probe AGN optical variability for a large sample of X-ray-selected AGNs in the XMM-COSMOS field, using the multi-epoch light curves provided by the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) 3π and Medium Deep Field surveys. To quantify variability we employed a simple statistic to estimate the probability of variability and the normalized excess variance to measure the variability amplitude. Utilizing these two variability parameters, we defined a sample of varying AGNs for every PS1 band. We investigated the influence of variability on the calculation of photometric redshifts by applying three different input photometry sets for our fitting procedure. For each of the five PS1 bands gP1, rP1, iP1, zP1, and yP1, we chose either the epochs minimizing the interval in observing time, the median magnitude values, or randomly drawn light curve points to compute the redshift. In addition, we derived photometric redshifts using PS1 photometry extended by GALEX/IRAC bands. Results: We find that the photometry produced by the 3π survey is sufficient to reliably detect variable sources provided that the fractional variability amplitude is at least ~3%. Considering the photometric redshifts of variable AGNs, we observe that minimizing the time spacing of the chosen points yields superior photometric redshifts in terms of the percentage of outliers (33%) and accuracy (0.07), outperforming the other two approaches. Drawing random points from the light curve gives rise to typically 57% of outliers and an accuracy of

  15. The SDSS Coadd: A Galaxy Photometric Redshift Catalog

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, Ribamar R.R.; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Annis, James; Dodelson, Scott; Hao, Jiangang; Johnston, David; Kubo, Jeffrey; Lin, Huan; Seo, Hee-Jong; Simet, Melanie; /Chicago U.

    2011-11-01

    We present and describe a catalog of galaxy photometric redshifts (photo-z's) for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Coadd Data. We use the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique to calculate photo-z's and the Nearest Neighbor Error (NNE) method to estimate photo-z errors for {approx} 13 million objects classified as galaxies in the coadd with r < 24.5. The photo-z and photo-z error estimators are trained and validated on a sample of {approx} 89, 000 galaxies that have SDSS photometry and spectroscopic redshifts measured by the SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7), the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology Field Galaxy Survey (CNOC2), the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe Data Release 3(DEEP2 DR3), the SDSS-III's Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), the Visible imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph - Very Large Telescope Deep Survey (VVDS) and the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. For the best ANN methods we have tried, we find that 68% of the galaxies in the validation set have a photo-z error smaller than {sigma}{sub 68} = 0.036. After presenting our results and quality tests, we provide a short guide for users accessing the public data.

  16. PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS FOR QUASARS IN MULTI-BAND SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Brescia, M.; Mercurio, A.; Cavuoti, S.; Longo, G.; D'Abrusco, R.

    2013-08-01

    The Multi Layer Perceptron with Quasi Newton Algorithm (MLPQNA) is a machine learning method that can be used to cope with regression and classification problems on complex and massive data sets. In this paper, we give a formal description of the method and present the results of its application to the evaluation of photometric redshifts for quasars. The data set used for the experiment was obtained by merging four different surveys (Sloan Digital Sky Survey, GALEX, UKIDSS, and WISE), thus covering a wide range of wavelengths from the UV to the mid-infrared. The method is able (1) to achieve a very high accuracy, (2) to drastically reduce the number of outliers and catastrophic objects, and (3) to discriminate among parameters (or features) on the basis of their significance, so that the number of features used for training and analysis can be optimized in order to reduce both the computational demands and the effects of degeneracy. The best experiment, which makes use of a selected combination of parameters drawn from the four surveys, leads, in terms of {Delta}z{sub norm} (i.e., (z{sub spec} - z{sub phot})/(1 + z{sub spec})), to an average of {Delta}z{sub norm} = 0.004, a standard deviation of {sigma} = 0.069, and a median absolute deviation, MAD = 0.02, over the whole redshift range (i.e., z{sub spec} {<=} 3.6), defined by the four-survey cross-matched spectroscopic sample. The fraction of catastrophic outliers, i.e., of objects with photo-z deviating more than 2{sigma} from the spectroscopic value, is <3%, leading to {sigma} = 0.035 after their removal, over the same redshift range. The method is made available to the community through the DAMEWARE Web application.

  17. PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS AND QUASAR PROBABILITIES FROM A SINGLE, DATA-DRIVEN GENERATIVE MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Bovy, Jo; Hogg, David W.; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Myers, Adam D.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; McMahon, Richard G.; Schiminovich, David; Sheldon, Erin S.; Brinkmann, Jon; Schneider, Donald P.

    2012-04-10

    We describe a technique for simultaneously classifying and estimating the redshift of quasars. It can separate quasars from stars in arbitrary redshift ranges, estimate full posterior distribution functions for the redshift, and naturally incorporate flux uncertainties, missing data, and multi-wavelength photometry. We build models of quasars in flux-redshift space by applying the extreme deconvolution technique to estimate the underlying density. By integrating this density over redshift, one can obtain quasar flux densities in different redshift ranges. This approach allows for efficient, consistent, and fast classification and photometric redshift estimation. This is achieved by combining the speed obtained by choosing simple analytical forms as the basis of our density model with the flexibility of non-parametric models through the use of many simple components with many parameters. We show that this technique is competitive with the best photometric quasar classification techniques-which are limited to fixed, broad redshift ranges and high signal-to-noise ratio data-and with the best photometric redshift techniques when applied to broadband optical data. We demonstrate that the inclusion of UV and NIR data significantly improves photometric quasar-star separation and essentially resolves all of the redshift degeneracies for quasars inherent to the ugriz filter system, even when included data have a low signal-to-noise ratio. For quasars spectroscopically confirmed by the SDSS 84% and 97% of the objects with Galaxy Evolution Explorer UV and UKIDSS NIR data have photometric redshifts within 0.1 and 0.3, respectively, of the spectroscopic redshift; this amounts to about a factor of three improvement over ugriz-only photometric redshifts. Our code to calculate quasar probabilities and redshift probability distributions is publicly available.

  18. Photometric redshifts and quasar probabilities from a single, data-driven generative model

    SciTech Connect

    Bovy, Jo; Myers, Adam D.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Hogg, David W.; McMahon, Richard G.; Schiminovich, David; Sheldon, Erin S.; Brinkmann, Jon; Schneider, Donald P.; Weaver, Benjamin A.

    2012-03-20

    We describe a technique for simultaneously classifying and estimating the redshift of quasars. It can separate quasars from stars in arbitrary redshift ranges, estimate full posterior distribution functions for the redshift, and naturally incorporate flux uncertainties, missing data, and multi-wavelength photometry. We build models of quasars in flux-redshift space by applying the extreme deconvolution technique to estimate the underlying density. By integrating this density over redshift, one can obtain quasar flux densities in different redshift ranges. This approach allows for efficient, consistent, and fast classification and photometric redshift estimation. This is achieved by combining the speed obtained by choosing simple analytical forms as the basis of our density model with the flexibility of non-parametric models through the use of many simple components with many parameters. We show that this technique is competitive with the best photometric quasar classification techniques—which are limited to fixed, broad redshift ranges and high signal-to-noise ratio data—and with the best photometric redshift techniques when applied to broadband optical data. We demonstrate that the inclusion of UV and NIR data significantly improves photometric quasar-star separation and essentially resolves all of the redshift degeneracies for quasars inherent to the ugriz filter system, even when included data have a low signal-to-noise ratio. For quasars spectroscopically confirmed by the SDSS 84% and 97% of the objects with Galaxy Evolution Explorer UV and UKIDSS NIR data have photometric redshifts within 0.1 and 0.3, respectively, of the spectroscopic redshift; this amounts to about a factor of three improvement over ugriz-only photometric redshifts. Our code to calculate quasar probabilities and redshift probability distributions is publicly available.

  19. The Impact of JWST Broadband Filter Choice on Photometric Redshift Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisigello, L.; Caputi, K. I.; Colina, L.; Le Fèvre, O.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Pye, J.; van der Werf, P.; Ilbert, O.; Grogin, N.; Koekemoer, A.

    2016-12-01

    The determination of galaxy redshifts in the James Webb Space Telescope’s (JWST) blank-field surveys will mostly rely on photometric estimates, based on the data provided by JWST’s Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) at 0.6-5.0 μm and Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) at λ \\gt 5.0 μ {{m}}. In this work we analyze the impact of choosing different combinations of NIRCam and MIRI broadband filters (F070W to F770W), as well as having ancillary data at λ \\lt 0.6 μ {{m}}, on the derived photometric redshifts (z phot) of a total of 5921 real and simulated galaxies, with known input redshifts z = 0-10. We found that observations at λ \\lt 0.6 μ {{m}} are necessary to control the contamination of high-z samples by low-z interlopers. Adding MIRI (F560W and F770W) photometry to the NIRCam data mitigates the absence of ancillary observations at λ \\lt 0.6 μ {{m}} and improves the redshift estimation. At z = 7-10, accurate z phot can be obtained with the NIRCam broadbands alone when {{S}}/{{N}}≥slant 10, but the z phot quality significantly degrades at {{S}}/{{N}}≤slant 5. Adding MIRI photometry with 1 mag brighter depth than the NIRCam depth allows for a redshift recovery of 83%-99%, depending on spectral energy distribution type, and its effect is particularly noteworthy for galaxies with nebular emission. The vast majority of NIRCam galaxies with [F150W] = 29 AB mag at z = 7-10 will be detected with MIRI at [F560W, F770W] \\lt 28 mag if these sources are at least mildly evolved or have spectra with emission lines boosting the mid-infrared fluxes.

  20. Getting leverage on inflation with a large photometric redshift survey

    SciTech Connect

    Basse, Tobias; Hannestad, Steen; Hamann, Jan; Wong, Yvonne Y.Y. E-mail: jan.hamann@cern.ch E-mail: yvonne.y.wong@unsw.edu.au

    2015-06-01

    We assess the potential of a future large-volume photometric redshift survey to constrain observational inflationary parameters using three large-scale structure observables: the angular shear and galaxy power spectra, and the cluster mass function measured through weak lensing. When used in combination with Planck-like CMB measurements, we find that the spectral index n{sub s} can be constrained to a 1 σ precision of up to 0.0025. The sensitivity to the running of the spectral index can potentially improve to 0.0017, roughly a factor of five better than the present 1σ constraint from Planck and auxiliary CMB data, allowing us to test the assumptions of the slow-roll scenario with unprecedented accuracy. Interestingly, neither CMB+shear nor CMB+galaxy nor CMB+clusters alone can achieve this level of sensitivity; it is the combined power of all three probes that conspires to break the different parameter degeneracies inherent in each type of observations. We make our forecast software publicly available via download or upon request from the authors.

  1. Spectroscopic failures in photometric redshift calibration: cosmological biases and survey requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Cunha, Carlos E.; Huterer, Dragan; Lin, Huan; Busha, Michael T.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2014-10-11

    We use N-body-spectro-photometric simulations to investigate the impact of incompleteness and incorrect redshifts in spectroscopic surveys to photometric redshift training and calibration and the resulting effects on cosmological parameter estimation from weak lensing shear-shear correlations. The photometry of the simulations is modeled after the upcoming Dark Energy Survey and the spectroscopy is based on a low/intermediate resolution spectrograph with wavelength coverage of 5500{\\AA} < {\\lambda} < 9500{\\AA}. The principal systematic errors that such a spectroscopic follow-up encounters are incompleteness (inability to obtain spectroscopic redshifts for certain galaxies) and wrong redshifts. Encouragingly, we find that a neural network-based approach can effectively describe the spectroscopic incompleteness in terms of the galaxies' colors, so that the spectroscopic selection can be applied to the photometric sample. Hence, we find that spectroscopic incompleteness yields no appreciable biases to cosmology, although the statistical constraints degrade somewhat because the photometric survey has to be culled to match the spectroscopic selection. Unfortunately, wrong redshifts have a more severe impact: the cosmological biases are intolerable if more than a percent of the spectroscopic redshifts are incorrect. Moreover, we find that incorrect redshifts can also substantially degrade the accuracy of training set based photo-z estimators. The main problem is the difficulty of obtaining redshifts, either spectroscopically or photometrically, for objects at z > 1.3. We discuss several approaches for reducing the cosmological biases, in particular finding that photo-z error estimators can reduce biases appreciably.

  2. The ALHAMBRA survey: accurate merger fractions derived by PDF analysis of photometrically close pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Sanjuan, C.; Cenarro, A. J.; Varela, J.; Viironen, K.; Molino, A.; Benítez, N.; Arnalte-Mur, P.; Ascaso, B.; Díaz-García, L. A.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Jiménez-Teja, Y.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Moles, M.; Pović, M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Alfaro, E.; Aparicio-Villegas, T.; Broadhurst, T.; Cabrera-Caño, J.; Castander, F. J.; Cepa, J.; Cerviño, M.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; Del Olmo, A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Husillos, C.; Infante, L.; Martínez, V. J.; Perea, J.; Prada, F.; Quintana, J. M.

    2015-04-01

    Aims: Our goal is to develop and test a novel methodology to compute accurate close-pair fractions with photometric redshifts. Methods: We improved the currently used methodologies to estimate the merger fraction fm from photometric redshifts by (i) using the full probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the sources in redshift space; (ii) including the variation in the luminosity of the sources with z in both the sample selection and the luminosity ratio constrain; and (iii) splitting individual PDFs into red and blue spectral templates to reliably work with colour selections. We tested the performance of our new methodology with the PDFs provided by the ALHAMBRA photometric survey. Results: The merger fractions and rates from the ALHAMBRA survey agree excellently well with those from spectroscopic work for both the general population and red and blue galaxies. With the merger rate of bright (MB ≤ -20-1.1z) galaxies evolving as (1 + z)n, the power-law index n is higher for blue galaxies (n = 2.7 ± 0.5) than for red galaxies (n = 1.3 ± 0.4), confirming previous results. Integrating the merger rate over cosmic time, we find that the average number of mergers per galaxy since z = 1 is Nmred = 0.57 ± 0.05 for red galaxies and Nmblue = 0.26 ± 0.02 for blue galaxies. Conclusions: Our new methodology statistically exploits all the available information provided by photometric redshift codes and yields accurate measurements of the merger fraction by close pairs from using photometric redshifts alone. Current and future photometric surveys will benefit from this new methodology. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA) at Heidelberg and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).The catalogues, probabilities, and figures of the ALHAMBRA close pairs detected in Sect. 5.1 are available at http://https://cloud.iaa.csic.es/alhambra/catalogues/ClosePairs

  3. Dissecting Photometric Redshift for Active Galactic Nucleus Using XMM- and Chandra-COSMOS Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvato, M.; Ilbert, O.; Hasinger, G.; Rau, A.; Civano, F.; Zamorani, G.; Brusa, M.; Elvis, M.; Vignali, C.; Aussel, H.; Comastri, A.; Fiore, F.; Le Floc'h, E.; Mainieri, V.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Capak, P.; Caputi, K.; Cappelluti, N.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Fotopoulou, S.; Fruscione, A.; Gilli, R.; Halliday, C.; Kneib, J.-P.; Kakazu, Y.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Kovac, K.; Ideue, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Impey, C. D.; Le Fevre, O.; Lamareille, F.; Lanzuisi, G.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Lilly, S.; Maier, C.; Manohar, S.; Masters, D.; McCracken, H.; Messias, H.; Mignoli, M.; Mobasher, B.; Nagao, T.; Pello, R.; Puccetti, S.; Perez-Montero, E.; Renzini, A.; Sargent, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Scodeggio, M.; Scoville, N.; Shopbell, P.; Silvermann, J.; Taniguchi, Y.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Trump, J. R.; Zucca, E.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we release accurate photometric redshifts for 1692 counterparts to Chandra sources in the central square degree of the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field. The availability of a large training set of spectroscopic redshifts that extends to faint magnitudes enabled photometric redshifts comparable to the highest quality results presently available for normal galaxies. We demonstrate that morphologically extended, faint X-ray sources without optical variability are more accurately described by a library of normal galaxies (corrected for emission lines) than by active galactic nucleus (AGN) dominated templates, even if these sources have AGN-like X-ray luminosities. Preselecting the library on the bases of the source properties allowed us to reach an accuracy \\sigma _{\\Delta z/(1+z_{spec})}\\sim 0.015 with a fraction of outliers of 5.8% for the entire Chandra-COSMOS sample. In addition, we release revised photometric redshifts for the 1735 optical counterparts of the XMM-detected sources over the entire 2 deg2 of COSMOS. For 248 sources, our updated photometric redshift differs from the previous release by Δz > 0.2. These changes are predominantly due to the inclusion of newly available deep H-band photometry (H AB = 24 mag). We illustrate once again the importance of a spectroscopic training sample and how an assumption about the nature of a source together, with the number and the depth of the available bands, influences the accuracy of the photometric redshifts determined for AGN. These considerations should be kept in mind when defining the observational strategies of upcoming large surveys targeting AGNs, such as eROSITA at X-ray energies and the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder Evolutionary Map of the Universe in the radio band. Based on observations by the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of the National Aeronautics Space Administration under

  4. Photometric Redshifts for the Large-Area Stripe 82X Multiwavelength Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasnim Ananna, Tonima; Salvato, Mara; Urry, C. Megan; LaMassa, Stephanie M.; STRIPE 82X

    2016-06-01

    The Stripe 82X survey currently includes 6000 X-ray sources in 31.3 square degrees of XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray coverage, most of which are AGN. Using a maximum-likelihood approach, we identified optical and infrared counterparts in the SDSS, VHS K-band and WISE W1-band catalogs. 1200 objects which had different best associations in different catalogs were checked by eye. Our most recent paper provided the multiwavelength catalogs for this sample. More than 1000 counterparts have spectroscopic redshifts, either from SDSS spectroscopy or our own follow-up program. Using the extensive multiwavelength data in this field, we provide photometric redshift estimates for most of the remaining sources, which are 80-90% accurate according to the training set. Our sample has a large number of candidates that are very faint in optical and bright in IR. We expect a large fraction of these objects to be the obscured AGN sample we need to complete the census on black hole growth at a range of redshifts.

  5. Photometric Redshifts for the Dark Energy Survey and VISTA and Implications for Large Scale Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Banerji, Manda; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Lahav, Ofer; Lin, Huan; /Fermilab

    2007-11-01

    We conduct a detailed analysis of the photometric redshift requirements for the proposed Dark Energy Survey (DES) using two sets of mock galaxy simulations and an artificial neural network code-ANNz. In particular, we examine how optical photometry in the DES grizY bands can be complemented with near infra-red photometry from the planned VISTA Hemisphere Survey (VHS) in the JHK{sub s} bands in order to improve the photometric redshift estimate by a factor of two at z > 1. We draw attention to the effects of galaxy formation scenarios such as reddening on the photo-z estimate and using our neural network code, calculate A{sub v} for these reddened galaxies. We also look at the impact of using different training sets when calculating photometric redshifts. In particular, we find that using the ongoing DEEP2 and VVDS-Deep spectroscopic surveys to calibrate photometric redshifts for DES, will prove effective. However we need to be aware of uncertainties in the photometric redshift bias that arise when using different training sets as these will translate into errors in the dark energy equation of state parameter, w. Furthermore, we show that the neural network error estimate on the photometric redshift may be used to remove outliers from our samples before any kind of cosmological analysis, in particular for large-scale structure experiments. By removing all galaxies with a 1{sigma} photo-z scatter greater than 0.1 from our DES+VHS sample, we can constrain the galaxy power spectrum out to a redshift of 2 and reduce the fractional error on this power spectrum by {approx}15-20% compared to using the entire catalogue.

  6. The overlooked potential of Generalized Linear Models in astronomy-II: Gamma regression and photometric redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J.; de Souza, R. S.; Krone-Martins, A.; Cameron, E.; Ishida, E. E. O.; Hilbe, J.

    2015-04-01

    Machine learning techniques offer a precious tool box for use within astronomy to solve problems involving so-called big data. They provide a means to make accurate predictions about a particular system without prior knowledge of the underlying physical processes of the data. In this article, and the companion papers of this series, we present the set of Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) as a fast alternative method for tackling general astronomical problems, including the ones related to the machine learning paradigm. To demonstrate the applicability of GLMs to inherently positive and continuous physical observables, we explore their use in estimating the photometric redshifts of galaxies from their multi-wavelength photometry. Using the gamma family with a log link function we predict redshifts from the PHoto-z Accuracy Testing simulated catalogue and a subset of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey from Data Release 10. We obtain fits that result in catastrophic outlier rates as low as ∼1% for simulated and ∼2% for real data. Moreover, we can easily obtain such levels of precision within a matter of seconds on a normal desktop computer and with training sets that contain merely thousands of galaxies. Our software is made publicly available as a user-friendly package developed in Python, R and via an interactive web application. This software allows users to apply a set of GLMs to their own photometric catalogues and generates publication quality plots with minimum effort. By facilitating their ease of use to the astronomical community, this paper series aims to make GLMs widely known and to encourage their implementation in future large-scale projects, such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  7. The High-Redshift Clustering of Photometrically Selected Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timlin, John

    2017-01-01

    We present the data from the Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES) along with our first high-redshift (2.9redshift quasars. Using the infrared data from SpIES and SHELA, and the deep optical data from SDSS, we employ the multi-dimensional Bayesian selection algorithm outlined in Richards et al. 2015 to identify ~5000 high-redshift quasar candidates in this field. We then combine these candidates with spectroscopically confirmed high-redshift quasars and measure the redshift space correlation function and the projected correlation function. Finally, using these results, we compute the linear bias to try to constrain quasar feedback models akin to those in Hopkins et al. 2007.

  8. SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS AND SED PARAMETERS: IMPROVED TECHNIQUES AND A REALISTIC ERROR BUDGET

    SciTech Connect

    Acquaviva, Viviana; Raichoor, Anand

    2015-05-01

    We seek to improve the accuracy of joint galaxy photometric redshift estimation and spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. By simulating different sources of uncorrected systematic errors, we demonstrate that if the uncertainties in the photometric redshifts are estimated correctly, so are those on the other SED fitting parameters, such as stellar mass, stellar age, and dust reddening. Furthermore, we find that if the redshift uncertainties are over(under)-estimated, the uncertainties in SED parameters tend to be over(under)-estimated by similar amounts. These results hold even in the presence of severe systematics and provide, for the first time, a mechanism to validate the uncertainties on these parameters via comparison with spectroscopic redshifts. We propose a new technique (annealing) to re-calibrate the joint uncertainties in the photo-z and SED fitting parameters without compromising the performance of the SED fitting + photo-z estimation. This procedure provides a consistent estimation of the multi-dimensional probability distribution function in SED fitting + z parameter space, including all correlations. While the performance of joint SED fitting and photo-z estimation might be hindered by template incompleteness, we demonstrate that the latter is “flagged” by a large fraction of outliers in redshift, and that significant improvements can be achieved by using flexible stellar populations synthesis models and more realistic star formation histories. In all cases, we find that the median stellar age is better recovered than the time elapsed from the onset of star formation. Finally, we show that using a photometric redshift code such as EAZY to obtain redshift probability distributions that are then used as priors for SED fitting codes leads to only a modest bias in the SED fitting parameters and is thus a viable alternative to the simultaneous estimation of SED parameters and photometric redshifts.

  9. Simultaneous constraints on cosmology and photometric redshift bias from weak lensing and galaxy clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuroff, S.; Troxel, M. A.; Bridle, S. L.; Zuntz, J.; MacCrann, N.; Krause, E.; Eifler, T.; Kirk, D.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the expected cosmological constraints from a combination of cosmic shear and large-scale galaxy clustering using realistic photometric redshift distributions. Introducing a systematic bias in the lensing distributions (of 0.05 in redshift) produces a >2σ bias in the recovered matter power spectrum amplitude and dark energy equation of state for preliminary Stage III surveys. We demonstrate that cosmological error can be largely removed by marginalizing over biases in the assumed weak-lensing redshift distributions. Furthermore, the cosmological constraining power is retained despite removing much of the information on the lensing redshift biases. This finding relies upon high-quality redshift estimates for the clustering sample, but does not require spectroscopy. All galaxies in this analysis can thus be assumed to come from a single photometric survey. We show that this internal constraint on redshift biases arises from complementary degeneracy directions between cosmic shear and the combination of galaxy clustering and shear-density cross-correlations. Finally we examine a case where the assumed redshift distributions differ from the truth by more than a simple uniform bias. We find that the effectiveness of this self-calibration method will depend on the survey details and the nature of the uncertainties on the estimated redshift distributions.

  10. The Herschel Multi-Tiered Extragalactic Survey: SPIRE-mm Photometric Redshifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roseboom, I. G.; Ivison, R. J.; Greve, T. R.; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Auld, R.; Aussel, H.; Bethermin, M.; Blain, A.; Bock, J.; Boselli, A.; Brisbin, D.; Buat, V.; Burgarella, D.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Cava, A.; Chanial, P.; Chapin, E.; Chapman, S.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conversi, L.; Cooray, A.; Dowell, C. D.; Dwek, E.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the potential of submm-mm and submm-mm-radio photometric red-shifts using a sample of mm-selected sources as seen at 250, 350 and 500 micrometers by the SPIRE instrument on Herschel. From a sample of 63 previously identified mm-sources with reliable radio identifications in the GOODS-N and Lockman Hole North fields 46 (73 per cent) are found to have detections in at least one SPIRE band. We explore the observed submm/mm colour evolution with redshift, finding that the colours of mm-sources are adequately described by a modified blackbody with constant optical depth Tau = (nu/nu(0))beta where beta = +1.8 and nu(0) = c/100 micrometers. We find a tight correlation between dust temperature and IR luminosity. Using a single model of the dust temperature and IR luminosity relation we derive photometric redshift estimates for the 46 SPIRE detected mm-sources. Testing against the 22 sources with known spectroscopic, or good quality optical/near-IR photometric, redshifts we find submm/mm photometric redshifts offer a redshift accuracy of |delta z|/(1+z) = 0.16 (less than |delta z| greater than = 0.51). Including constraints from the radio-far IR correlation the accuracy is improved to |delta z|/(1 + z) = 0.15 (less than |delta z| greater than = 0.45). We estimate the redshift distribution of mm-selected sources finding a significant excess at z greater than 3 when compared to 850 micrometer selected samples.

  11. The Herschel Multi-Tiered Extragalactic Survey: SPIRE-mm Photometric Redshifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roseboom, I. G.; Ivison, R. J.; Greve, T. R.; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Auld, R.; Aussel, H.; Bethermin, M.; Blain, A.; Block, J.; Boselli, A.; Brisbin, D.; Buat, V.; Burgarella, D.; Castro-Rodriquez, N.; Cava, A.; Chanial, P.; Chapin, E.; Chapman, S.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conversi, L.; Dowell, C. D.; Dunlop, J. S.; Dwek, E.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the potential of submm-mm and submm-mm-radio photometric redshifts using a sample of mm-selected sources as seen at 250, 350 and 500 micron by the SPIRE instrument on Herschel. From a sample of 63 previously identified mm sources with reliable radio identifications in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North and Lockman Hole North fields, 46 (73 per cent) are found to have detections in at least one SPIRE band. We explore the observed submm/mm color evolution with redshift, finding that the colors of mm sources are adequately described by a modified blackbody with constant optical depth Tau = (Nu/nu(sub 0))(exp Beta), where Beta = +1.8 and nu(sub 0) = c/100 micron. We find a tight correlation between dust temperature and IR luminosity. Using a single model of the dust temperature and IR luminosity relation, we derive photometric redshift estimates for the 46 SPIRE-detected mm sources. Testing against the 22 sources with known spectroscopic or good quality optical/near-IR photometric redshifts, we find submm/mm photometric redshifts offer a redshift accuracy of (absolute value of Delta sub (z))/(1 + z) = 0.16 (absolute value of Delta sub (z)) = 0.51). Including constraints from the radio-far-IR correlation, the accuracy is improved to (absolute value of Delta sub (z))/(1 + z) = 0.14 (((absolute value of Delta sub (z))) = 0.45). We estimate the redshift distribution of mm-selected sources finding a significant excess at Z > 3 when compared to approx 8S0 micron selected samples.

  12. The ASTRODEEP Frontier Fields catalogues. II. Photometric redshifts and rest frame properties in Abell-2744 and MACS-J0416

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, M.; Amorín, R.; Merlin, E.; Fontana, A.; McLure, R. J.; Mármol-Queraltó, E.; Mortlock, A.; Parsa, S.; Dunlop, J. S.; Elbaz, D.; Balestra, I.; Boucaud, A.; Bourne, N.; Boutsia, K.; Brammer, G.; Bruce, V. A.; Buitrago, F.; Capak, P.; Cappelluti, N.; Ciesla, L.; Comastri, A.; Cullen, F.; Derriere, S.; Faber, S. M.; Giallongo, E.; Grazian, A.; Grillo, C.; Mercurio, A.; Michałowski, M. J.; Nonino, M.; Paris, D.; Pentericci, L.; Pilo, S.; Rosati, P.; Santini, P.; Schreiber, C.; Shu, X.; Wang, T.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: We present the first public release of photometric redshifts, galaxy rest frame properties and associated magnification values in the cluster and parallel pointings of the first two Frontier Fields, Abell-2744 and MACS-J0416. The released catalogues aim to provide a reference for future investigations of extragalactic populations in these legacy fields: from lensed high-redshift galaxies to cluster members themselves. Methods: We exploit a multiwavelength catalogue, ranging from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to ground-based K and Spitzer IRAC, which is specifically designed to enable detection and measurement of accurate fluxes in crowded cluster regions. The multiband information is used to derive photometric redshifts and physical properties of sources detected either in the H-band image alone, or from a stack of four WFC3 bands. To minimize systematics, median photometric redshifts are assembled from six different approaches to photo-z estimates. Their reliability is assessed through a comparison with available spectroscopic samples. State-of-the-art lensing models are used to derive magnification values on an object-by-object basis by taking into account sources positions and redshifts. Results: We show that photometric redshifts reach a remarkable ~3-5% accuracy. After accounting for magnification, the H-band number counts are found to be in agreement at bright magnitudes with number counts from the CANDELS fields, while extending the presently available samples to galaxies that, intrinsically, are as faint as H ~ 32-33, thanks to strong gravitational lensing. The Frontier Fields allow the galaxy stellar mass distribution to be probed, depending on magnification, at 0.5-1.5 dex lower masses with respect to extragalactic wide fields, including sources at Mstar ~ 107-108 M⊙ at z > 5. Similarly, they allow the detection of objects with intrinsic star formation rates (SFRs) >1 dex lower than in the CANDELS fields reaching 0.1-1 M⊙/yr at z ~ 6-10. The

  13. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): colour- and luminosity-dependent clustering from calibrated photometric redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulou, L.; Eminian, C.; Loveday, J.; Norberg, P.; Baldry, I. K.; Hurley, P. D.; Driver, S. P.; Bamford, S. P.; Hopkins, A. M.; Liske, J.; Peacock, J. A.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Cameron, E.; Conselice, C. J.; Croom, S. M.; Frenk, C. S.; Gunawardhana, M.; Jones, D. H.; Kelvin, L. S.; Kuijken, K.; Nichol, R. C.; Parkinson, H.; Pimbblet, K. A.; Popescu, C. C.; Prescott, M.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Sharp, R. G.; Sutherland, W. J.; Taylor, E. N.; Thomas, D.; Tuffs, R. J.; van Kampen, E.; Wijesinghe, D.

    2012-09-01

    We measure the two-point angular correlation function of a sample of 4289 223 galaxies with r < 19.4 mag from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) as a function of photometric redshift, absolute magnitude and colour down to Mr - 5 log h = -14 mag. Photometric redshifts are estimated from ugriz model magnitudes and two Petrosian radii using the artificial neural network package ANNz, taking advantage of the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) spectroscopic sample as our training set. These photometric redshifts are then used to determine absolute magnitudes and colours. For all our samples, we estimate the underlying redshift and absolute magnitude distributions using Monte Carlo resampling. These redshift distributions are used in Limber's equation to obtain spatial correlation function parameters from power-law fits to the angular correlation function. We confirm an increase in clustering strength for sub-L* red galaxies compared with ˜L* red galaxies at small scales in all redshift bins, whereas for the blue population the correlation length is almost independent of luminosity for ˜L* galaxies and fainter. A linear relation between relative bias and log luminosity is found to hold down to luminosities L ˜ 0.03L*. We find that the redshift dependence of the bias of the L* population can be described by the passive evolution model of Tegmark & Peebles. A visual inspection of a random sample from our r < 19.4 sample of SDSS galaxies reveals that about 10 per cent are spurious, with a higher contamination rate towards very faint absolute magnitudes due to over-deblended nearby galaxies. We correct for this contamination in our clustering analysis.

  14. A cooperative approach among methods for photometric redshifts estimation: an application to KiDS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavuoti, S.; Tortora, C.; Brescia, M.; Longo, G.; Radovich, M.; Napolitano, N. R.; Amaro, V.; Vellucci, C.; La Barbera, F.; Getman, F.; Grado, A.

    2017-04-01

    Photometric redshifts (photo-z) are fundamental in galaxy surveys to address different topics, from gravitational lensing and dark matter distribution to galaxy evolution. The Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS), i.e. the European Southern Observatory (ESO) public survey on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST), provides the unprecedented opportunity to exploit a large galaxy data set with an exceptional image quality and depth in the optical wavebands. Using a KiDS subset of about 25000 galaxies with measured spectroscopic redshifts, we have derived photo-z using (i) three different empirical methods based on supervised machine learning; (ii) the Bayesian photometric redshift model (or BPZ); and (iii) a classical spectral energy distribution (SED) template fitting procedure (LE PHARE). We confirm that, in the regions of the photometric parameter space properly sampled by the spectroscopic templates, machine learning methods provide better redshift estimates, with a lower scatter and a smaller fraction of outliers. SED fitting techniques, however, provide useful information on the galaxy spectral type, which can be effectively used to constrain systematic errors and to better characterize potential catastrophic outliers. Such classification is then used to specialize the training of regression machine learning models, by demonstrating that a hybrid approach, involving SED fitting and machine learning in a single collaborative framework, can be effectively used to improve the accuracy of photo-z estimates.

  15. Photometric redshifts and clustering of emission line galaxies selected jointly by DES and eBOSS

    SciTech Connect

    Jouvel, S.; et al.

    2015-09-23

    We present the results of the first test plates of the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. This paper focuses on the emission line galaxies (ELG) population targetted from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) photometry. We analyse the success rate, efficiency, redshift distribution, and clustering properties of the targets. From the 9000 spectroscopic redshifts targetted, 4600 have been selected from the DES photometry. The total success rate for redshifts between 0.6 and 1.2 is 71\\% and 68\\% respectively for a bright and faint, on average more distant, samples including redshifts measured from a single strong emission line. We find a mean redshift of 0.8 and 0.87, with 15 and 13\\% of unknown redshifts respectively for the bright and faint samples. In the redshift range 0.6redshifts, the mean redshift for the bright and faint sample is 0.85 and 0.9 respectively. Star contamination is lower than 2\\%. We measure a galaxy bias averaged on scales of 1 and 10~Mpc/h of 1.72 \\pm 0.1 for the bright sample and of 1.78 \\pm 0.12 for the faint sample. The error on the galaxy bias have been obtained propagating the errors in the correlation function to the fitted parameters. This redshift evolution for the galaxy bias is in agreement with theoretical expectations for a galaxy population with MB-5\\log h < -21.0. We note that biasing is derived from the galaxy clustering relative to a model for the mass fluctuations. We investigate the quality of the DES photometric redshifts and find that the outlier fraction can be reduced using a comparison between template fitting and neural network, or using a random forest algorithm.

  16. Photometric redshift estimation based on data mining with PhotoRApToR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavuoti, S.; Brescia, M.; De Stefano, V.; Longo, G.

    2015-03-01

    Photometric redshifts (photo-z) are crucial to the scientific exploitation of modern panchromatic digital surveys. In this paper we present PhotoRApToR (Photometric Research Application To Redshift): a Java/C ++ based desktop application capable to solve non-linear regression and multi-variate classification problems, in particular specialized for photo-z estimation. It embeds a machine learning algorithm, namely a multi-layer neural network trained by the Quasi Newton learning rule, and special tools dedicated to pre- and post-processing data. PhotoRApToR has been successfully tested on several scientific cases. The application is available for free download from the DAME Program web site.

  17. The Efficacy of Galaxy Shape Parameters in Photometric Redshift Estimation: A Neural Network Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Singal, J.; Shmakova, M.; Gerke, B.; Griffith, R.L.; Lotz, J.; /NOAO, Tucson

    2011-05-20

    We present a determination of the effects of including galaxy morphological parameters in photometric redshift estimation with an artificial neural network method. Neural networks, which recognize patterns in the information content of data in an unbiased way, can be a useful estimator of the additional information contained in extra parameters, such as those describing morphology, if the input data are treated on an equal footing. We show that certain principal components of the morphology information are correlated with galaxy type. However, we find that for the data used the inclusion of morphological information does not have a statistically significant benefit for photometric redshift estimation with the techniques employed here. The inclusion of these parameters may result in a trade-off between extra information and additional noise, with the additional noise becoming more dominant as more parameters are added.

  18. Photometric redshift analysis in the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, C.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Lin, H.; Miquel, R.; Abdalla, F. B.; Amara, A.; Banerji, M.; Bonnett, C.; Brunner, R.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero, A.; Castander, F. J.; da Costa, L. A. N.; Cunha, C.; Fausti, A.; Gerdes, D.; Greisel, N.; Gschwend, J.; Hartley, W.; Jouvel, S.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marti, P.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Ostrovski, F.; Pellegrini, P.; Rau, M. M.; Sadeh, I.; Seitz, S.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sypniewski, A.; de Vicente, J.; Abbot, T.; Allam, S. S.; Atlee, D.; Bernstein, G.; Bernstein, J. P.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D.; Childress, M. J.; Davis, T.; DePoy, D. L.; Dey, A.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A.; Fernandez, E.; Finley, D.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Glazebrook, K.; Honscheid, K.; Kim, A.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lidman, C.; Makler, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Nichol, R. C.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B. X.; Sako, M.; Scalzo, R.; Smith, R. C.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D. L.; Uddin, S. A.; Valdes, F.; Walker, A.; Yuan, F.; Zuntz, J.

    2014-10-08

    We present results from a study of the photometric redshift performance of the Dark Energy Survey (DES), using the early data from a Science Verification period of observations in late 2012 and early 2013 that provided science-quality images for almost 200 sq. deg. at the nominal depth of the survey. We assess the photometric redshift (photo-z) performance using about 15 000 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts available from other surveys. These galaxies are used, in different configurations, as a calibration sample, and photo-z's are obtained and studied using most of the existing photo-z codes. A weighting method in a multidimensional colour–magnitude space is applied to the spectroscopic sample in order to evaluate the photo-z performance with sets that mimic the full DES photometric sample, which is on average significantly deeper than the calibration sample due to the limited depth of spectroscopic surveys. Empirical photo-z methods using, for instance, artificial neural networks or random forests, yield the best performance in the tests, achieving core photo-z resolutions σ68 ~ 0.08. Moreover, the results from most of the codes, including template-fitting methods, comfortably meet the DES requirements on photo-z performance, therefore, providing an excellent precedent for future DES data sets.

  19. Photometric redshift analysis in the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, C.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Lin, H.; Miquel, R.; Abdalla, F. B.; Amara, A.; Banerji, M.; Bonnett, C.; Brunner, R.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero, A.; Castander, F. J.; da Costa, L. A. N.; Cunha, C.; Fausti, A.; Gerdes, D.; Greisel, N.; Gschwend, J.; Hartley, W.; Jouvel, S.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Martí, P.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Ostrovski, F.; Pellegrini, P.; Rau, M. M.; Sadeh, I.; Seitz, S.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sypniewski, A.; de Vicente, J.; Abbot, T.; Allam, S. S.; Atlee, D.; Bernstein, G.; Bernstein, J. P.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D.; Childress, M. J.; Davis, T.; DePoy, D. L.; Dey, A.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A.; Fernández, E.; Finley, D.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Glazebrook, K.; Honscheid, K.; Kim, A.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lidman, C.; Makler, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Nichol, R. C.; Roodman, A.; Sánchez, E.; Santiago, B. X.; Sako, M.; Scalzo, R.; Smith, R. C.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D. L.; Uddin, S. A.; Valdés, F.; Walker, A.; Yuan, F.; Zuntz, J.

    2014-12-01

    We present results from a study of the photometric redshift performance of the Dark Energy Survey (DES), using the early data from a Science Verification period of observations in late 2012 and early 2013 that provided science-quality images for almost 200 sq. deg. at the nominal depth of the survey. We assess the photometric redshift (photo-z) performance using about 15 000 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts available from other surveys. These galaxies are used, in different configurations, as a calibration sample, and photo-z's are obtained and studied using most of the existing photo-z codes. A weighting method in a multidimensional colour-magnitude space is applied to the spectroscopic sample in order to evaluate the photo-z performance with sets that mimic the full DES photometric sample, which is on average significantly deeper than the calibration sample due to the limited depth of spectroscopic surveys. Empirical photo-z methods using, for instance, artificial neural networks or random forests, yield the best performance in the tests, achieving core photo-z resolutions σ68 ˜ 0.08. Moreover, the results from most of the codes, including template-fitting methods, comfortably meet the DES requirements on photo-z performance, therefore, providing an excellent precedent for future DES data sets.

  20. THE NEWFIRM MEDIUM-BAND SURVEY: PHOTOMETRIC CATALOGS, REDSHIFTS, AND THE BIMODAL COLOR DISTRIBUTION OF GALAXIES OUT TO z {approx} 3

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, Katherine E.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Brammer, Gabriel; Muzzin, Adam; Bezanson, Rachel; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Lundgren, Britt; Nelson, Erica J.; Tal, Tomer; Wake, David A.; Labbe, Ivo; Williams, Rik J.; Kriek, Mariska; Marchesini, Danilo; Quadri, Ryan F.; Franx, Marijn; Illingworth, Garth D.

    2011-07-10

    We present deep near-IR (NIR) medium-bandwidth photometry over the wavelength range 1-1.8 {mu}m in the All-wavelength Extended Groth strip International Survey (AEGIS) and Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) fields. The observations were carried out using the NOAO Extremely Wide-Field Infrared Imager (NEWFIRM) on the Mayall 4 m Telescope on Kitt Peak as part of the NEWFIRM Medium-Band Survey (NMBS), an NOAO survey program. In this paper, we describe the full details of the observations, data reduction, and photometry for the survey. We also present a public K-selected photometric catalog, along with accurate photometric redshifts. The redshifts are computed with 37 (20) filters in the COSMOS (AEGIS) fields, combining the NIR medium-bandwidth data with existing UV (Galaxy Evolution Explorer), visible and NIR (Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and Subaru Telescope), and mid-IR (Spitzer/IRAC) imaging. We find excellent agreement with publicly available spectroscopic redshifts, with {sigma}{sub z}/(1 + z) {approx} 1%-2% for {approx}4000 galaxies at z = 0-3. The NMBS catalogs contain {approx}13,000 galaxies at z > 1.5 with accurate photometric redshifts and rest-frame colors. Due to the increased spectral resolution obtained with the five NIR medium-band filters, the median 68% confidence intervals of the photometric redshifts of both quiescent and star-forming galaxies are a factor of about two times smaller when comparing catalogs with medium-band NIR photometry to NIR broadband photometry. We show evidence for a clear bimodal color distribution between quiescent and star-forming galaxies that persists to z {approx} 3, a higher redshift than has been probed so far.

  1. A PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT OF z {approx} 9.4 FOR GRB 090429B

    SciTech Connect

    Cucchiara, A.; Fox, D. B.; Wu, X. F.; Toma, K.; Levan, A. J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Rowlinson, A.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Berger, E.; Kruehler, T.; Greiner, J.; Olivares, F. E.; Yoldas, A. Kuepcue; Amati, L.; Sakamoto, T.; Roth, K.; Stephens, A.; Fritz, Alexander; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Hjorth, J.

    2011-07-20

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) serve as powerful probes of the early universe, with their luminous afterglows revealing the locations and physical properties of star-forming galaxies at the highest redshifts, and potentially locating first-generation (Population III) stars. Since GRB afterglows have intrinsically very simple spectra, they allow robust redshifts from low signal-to-noise spectroscopy, or photometry. Here we present a photometric redshift of z {approx} 9.4 for the Swift detected GRB 090429B based on deep observations with Gemini-North, the Very Large Telescope, and the GRB Optical and Near-infrared Detector. Assuming a Small Magellanic Cloud dust law (which has been found in a majority of GRB sight lines), the 90% likelihood range for the redshift is 9.06 < z < 9.52, although there is a low-probability tail toward somewhat lower redshifts. Adopting Milky Way or Large Magellanic Cloud dust laws leads to very similar conclusions, while a Maiolino law does allow somewhat lower redshift solutions, though in all cases the most likely redshift is found to be z > 7. The non-detection of the host galaxy to deep limits (Y(AB) {approx} 28, which would correspond roughly to 0.001L* at z = 1) in our late-time optical and infrared observations with the Hubble Space Telescope strongly supports the extreme-redshift origin of GRB 090429B, since we would expect to have detected any low-z galaxy, even if it were highly dusty. Finally, the energetics of GRB 090429B are comparable to those of other GRBs and suggest that its progenitor is not greatly different from those of lower redshift bursts.

  2. Cosmology with photometric weak lensing surveys: Constraints with redshift tomography of convergence peaks and moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, Andrea; May, Morgan; Haiman, Zoltán

    2016-09-01

    Weak gravitational lensing is becoming a mature technique for constraining cosmological parameters, and future surveys will be able to constrain the dark energy equation of state w . When analyzing galaxy surveys, redshift information has proven to be a valuable addition to angular shear correlations. We forecast parameter constraints on the triplet (Ωm,w ,σ8) for a LSST-like photometric galaxy survey, using tomography of the shear-shear power spectrum, convergence peak counts and higher convergence moments. We find that redshift tomography with the power spectrum reduces the area of the 1 σ confidence interval in (Ωm,w ) space by a factor of 8 with respect to the case of the single highest redshift bin. We also find that adding non-Gaussian information from the peak counts and higher-order moments of the convergence field and its spatial derivatives further reduces the constrained area in (Ωm,w ) by factors of 3 and 4, respectively. When we add cosmic microwave background parameter priors from Planck to our analysis, tomography improves power spectrum constraints by a factor of 3. Adding moments yields an improvement by an additional factor of 2, and adding both moments and peaks improves by almost a factor of 3 over power spectrum tomography alone. We evaluate the effect of uncorrected systematic photometric redshift errors on the parameter constraints. We find that different statistics lead to different bias directions in parameter space, suggesting the possibility of eliminating this bias via self-calibration.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: LESS photometric redshift survey (Wardlow+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardlow, J. L.; Smail, I.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Alexander, D. M.; Brandt, W. N.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Luo, B.; Swinbank, A. M.; Walter, F.; Weiss, A.; Xue, Y. Q.; Zibetti, S.; Bertoldi, F.; Biggs, A. D.; Chapman, S. C.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dunlop, J. S.; Gawiser, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Knudsen, K. K.; Kovacs, A.; Lacey, C. G.; Menten, K. M.; Padilla, N.; Rix, H.-W.; van der Werf, P. P.

    2012-02-01

    SMGs typically have faint optical and near-IR counterparts (e.g. Ivison et al. 2002MNRAS.337....1I), so we require deep photometry for accurate photometric redshift estimates. The ECDF-S was chosen for this survey because it is an exceptionally well-studied field and as such we are able to utilize data from extensive archival imaging and spectroscopic surveys. For completeness and uniformity, we only consider surveys that cover a large fraction of the ECDF-S rather than the smaller and deeper central Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) region. Therefore, we utilize the MUltiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC; Gawiser et al. 2006, Cat. J/ApJS/162/1) near-IR survey for U- to K-band imaging (Taylor et al. 2009, Cat. J/ApJS/183/295), and the Spitzer IRAC/MUSYC Public Legacy in ECDF-S (SIMPLE) imaging for Spitzer IRAC data (Damen et al. 2011, cat. J/ApJ/727/1). We also include U-band data from the deep GOODS/VIMOS imaging survey of the CDF-S (Nonino et al. 2009ApJS..183..244N); although this covers only ~60 per cent of LESS SMGs, it is valuable for galaxies that are undetected at short wavelengths in the shallower MUSYC survey. In addition, we have carried out deep near-IR observations in the J and Ks bands with the HAWK-I at the ESO-VLT (ID: 082.A-0890, PI: N. Padilla). (2 data files).

  4. Analytic photometric redshift estimator for Type Ia supernovae from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun; Gjergo, E.; Kuhlmann, S.

    2015-08-01

    Accurate and precise photometric redshifts (photo-zs) of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) can enable the use of SNe Ia, measured only with photometry, to probe cosmology. This dramatically increases the science return of supernova surveys planned for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). In this paper we describe a significantly improved version of the simple analytic photo-z estimator proposed by Wang and further developed by Wang, Narayan & Wood-Vasey. We apply it to 55 422 simulated SNe Ia generated using the SNANA package with the LSST filters. We find that the estimated errors on the photo-zs, σ _{z_phot}/(1+z_phot), can be used as filters to produce a set of photo-zs that have high precision, accuracy, and purity. Using SN Ia colours as well as SN Ia peak magnitude in the i band, we obtain a set of photo-zs with 2 per cent accuracy (with σ(zphot - zspec)/(1 + zspec) = 0.02), a bias in zphot (the mean of zphot - zspec) of -9 × 10-5, and an outlier fraction (with |(zphot - zspec)/(1 + zspec)| > 0.1) of 0.23 per cent, with the requirement that σ _{z_phot}/(1+z_phot)<0.01. Using the SN Ia colours only, we obtain a set of photo-zs with similar quality by requiring that σ _{z_phot}/(1+z_phot)<0.007; this leads to a set of photo-zs with 2 per cent accuracy, a bias in zphot of 5.9 × 10-4, and an outlier fraction of 0.32 per cent.

  5. Photometric redshifts and model spectral energy distributions of galaxies from the SDSS-III BOSS DR10 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greisel, N.; Seitz, S.; Drory, N.; Bender, R.; Saglia, R. P.; Snigula, J.

    2015-08-01

    We construct a set of model spectra specifically designed to match the colours of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey CMASS galaxies and to be used with photometric redshift template fitting techniques. As a basis, we use a set of spectral energy distributions(SEDs) of single and composite stellar population models. These models cannot describe well the whole colour range populated by the CMASS galaxies at all redshifts, wherefore we modify them by multiplying the SEDs with λ-β for λ > λi for different values of λi and β. When fitting these SEDs to the colours of the CMASS sample, with a burst and dust components in superposition, we can recreate the location in colour spaces inhabited by the CMASS galaxies. From the best-fitting models, we select a small subset in a two-dimensional plane, whereto the galaxies were mapped by a self-organizing map. These models are used for the estimation of photometric redshifts with a Bayesian template fitting code. The photometric redshifts with the novel templates have a very small outlier rate of 0.22 per cent, a low bias <Δz/(1 + z)> = 2.0 × 10-3, and scatter of σ68 = 0.026 in the rest frame. Using our models, the galaxy colours are reproduced to a better extent with the photometric redshifts of this work than with photometric redshifts of Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

  6. Photometric redshifts as a tool for studying the Coma cluster galaxy populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, C.; Ilbert, O.; Pelló, R.; Cuillandre, J. C.; Durret, F.; Mazure, A.; Picat, J. P.; Ulmer, M. P.

    2008-12-01

    Aims: We apply photometric redshift techniques to an investigation of the Coma cluster galaxy luminosity function (GLF) at faint magnitudes, in particular in the u* band where basically no studies are presently available at these magnitudes. Methods: Cluster members were selected based on probability distribution function from photometric redshift calculations applied to deep u^*, B, V, R, I images covering a region of almost 1 deg2 (completeness limit R ~ 24). In the area covered only by the u* image, the GLF was also derived after a statistical background subtraction. Results: Global and local GLFs in the B, V, R, and I bands obtained with photometric redshift selection are consistent with our previous results based on a statistical background subtraction. The GLF in the u* band shows an increase in the faint end slope towards the outer regions of the cluster. The analysis of the multicolor type spatial distribution reveals that late type galaxies are distributed in clumps in the cluster outskirts, where X-ray substructures are also detected and where the GLF in the u* band is steeper. Conclusions: We can reproduce the GLFs computed with classical statistical subtraction methods by applying a photometric redshift technique. The u* GLF slope is steeper in the cluster outskirts, varying from α ~ -1 in the cluster center to α ~ -2 in the cluster periphery. The concentrations of faint late type galaxies in the cluster outskirts could explain these very steep slopes, assuming a short burst of star formation in these galaxies when entering the cluster. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is also partly based on data products produced at

  7. The first analytical expression to estimate photometric redshifts suggested by a machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krone-Martins, A.; Ishida, E. E. O.; de Souza, R. S.

    2014-09-01

    We report the first analytical expression purely constructed by a machine to determine photometric redshifts (zphot) of galaxies. A simple and reliable functional form is derived using 41 214 galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 (SDSS-DR10) spectroscopic sample. The method automatically dropped the u and z bands, relying only on g, r and i for the final solution. Applying this expression to other 1417 181 SDSS-DR10 galaxies, with measured spectroscopic redshifts (zspec), we achieved a mean <(zphot - zspec)/(1 + zspec)> ≲ 0.0086 and a scatter σ(zphot - zspec)/(1 + zspec) ≲ 0.045 when averaged up to z ≲ 1.0. The method was also applied to the PHAT0 data set, confirming the competitiveness of our results when faced with other methods from the literature. This is the first use of symbolic regression in cosmology, representing a leap forward in astronomy-data-mining connection.

  8. Cosmology with photometric weak lensing surveys: Constraints with redshift tomography of convergence peaks and moments

    SciTech Connect

    Petri, Andrea; May, Morgan; Haiman, Zoltán

    2016-09-30

    Weak gravitational lensing is becoming a mature technique for constraining cosmological parameters, and future surveys will be able to constrain the dark energy equation of state w. When analyzing galaxy surveys, redshift information has proven to be a valuable addition to angular shear correlations. We forecast parameter constraints on the triplet (Ωm,w,σ8) for a LSST-like photometric galaxy survey, using tomography of the shear-shear power spectrum, convergence peak counts and higher convergence moments. Here we find that redshift tomography with the power spectrum reduces the area of the 1σ confidence interval in (Ωm,w) space by a factor of 8 with respect to the case of the single highest redshift bin. We also find that adding non-Gaussian information from the peak counts and higher-order moments of the convergence field and its spatial derivatives further reduces the constrained area in (Ωm,w) by factors of 3 and 4, respectively. When we add cosmic microwave background parameter priors from Planck to our analysis, tomography improves power spectrum constraints by a factor of 3. Adding moments yields an improvement by an additional factor of 2, and adding both moments and peaks improves by almost a factor of 3 over power spectrum tomography alone. We evaluate the effect of uncorrected systematic photometric redshift errors on the parameter constraints. In conclusion, we find that different statistics lead to different bias directions in parameter space, suggesting the possibility of eliminating this bias via self-calibration.

  9. Can We Detect the Color-Density Relation with Photometric Redshifts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chuan-Chin; Lin, Lihwai; Jian, Hung-Yu; Chiueh, Tzi-Hong; Merson, Alex; Baugh, Carlton M.; Foucaud, Sebastien; Chen, Chin-Wei; Chen, Wen-Ping

    2016-07-01

    A variety of methods have been proposed to define and to quantify galaxy environments. While these techniques work well in general with spectroscopic redshift samples, their application to photometric redshift surveys remains uncertain. To investigate whether galaxy environments can be robustly measured with photo-z samples, we quantify how the density measured with the nearest-neighbor approach is affected by photo-z uncertainties by using the Durham mock galaxy catalogs in which the 3D real-space environments and the properties of galaxies are known exactly. Furthermore, we present an optimization scheme in the choice of parameters used in the 2D projected measurements that yield the tightest correlation with respect to the 3D real-space environments. By adopting the optimized parameters in the density measurements, we show that the correlation between the 2D projected optimized density and the real-space density can still be revealed, and the color-density relation is also visible out to z ˜ 0.8 even for a photo-z uncertainty ({σ }{{{Δ }}z/(1+z)}) up to 0.06. We find that at redshifts 0.3 < z < 0.5 a deep (i ˜ 25) photometric redshift survey with {σ }{{{Δ }}z/(1+z)} = 0.02 yields a performance in small-scale density measurement that is comparable to a shallower i ˜ 22.5 spectroscopic sample with ˜10% sampling rate. Finally, we discuss the application of the local density measurements to the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey (PS-MDS), one of the largest deep optical imaging surveys. Using data from ˜5 square degrees of survey area, our results show that it is possible to measure local density and to probe the color-density relation with 3σ confidence level out to z ˜ 0.8 in the PS-MDS. The color-density relation, however, quickly degrades for data covering smaller areas.

  10. Cosmology with photometric weak lensing surveys: Constraints with redshift tomography of convergence peaks and moments

    DOE PAGES

    Petri, Andrea; May, Morgan; Haiman, Zoltán

    2016-09-30

    Weak gravitational lensing is becoming a mature technique for constraining cosmological parameters, and future surveys will be able to constrain the dark energy equation of state w. When analyzing galaxy surveys, redshift information has proven to be a valuable addition to angular shear correlations. We forecast parameter constraints on the triplet (Ωm,w,σ8) for a LSST-like photometric galaxy survey, using tomography of the shear-shear power spectrum, convergence peak counts and higher convergence moments. Here we find that redshift tomography with the power spectrum reduces the area of the 1σ confidence interval in (Ωm,w) space by a factor of 8 with respectmore » to the case of the single highest redshift bin. We also find that adding non-Gaussian information from the peak counts and higher-order moments of the convergence field and its spatial derivatives further reduces the constrained area in (Ωm,w) by factors of 3 and 4, respectively. When we add cosmic microwave background parameter priors from Planck to our analysis, tomography improves power spectrum constraints by a factor of 3. Adding moments yields an improvement by an additional factor of 2, and adding both moments and peaks improves by almost a factor of 3 over power spectrum tomography alone. We evaluate the effect of uncorrected systematic photometric redshift errors on the parameter constraints. In conclusion, we find that different statistics lead to different bias directions in parameter space, suggesting the possibility of eliminating this bias via self-calibration.« less

  11. Galaxy clustering, photometric redshifts and diagnosis of systematics in the DES Science Verification data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocce, M.; Carretero, J.; Bauer, A. H.; Ross, A. J.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Giannantonio, T.; Sobreira, F.; Sanchez, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Kind, M. Carrasco; Sánchez, C.; Bonnett, C.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Brunner, R. J.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Cawthon, R.; Fosalba, P.; Hartley, W.; Kim, E. J.; Leistedt, B.; Miquel, R.; Peiris, H. V.; Percival, W. J.; Rosenfeld, R.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sánchez, E.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Banerji, M.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Castander, F. J.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Neto, A. Fausti; Fernandez, E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Neilsen, E.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Sako, M.; Santiago, B.; Schubnell, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Weller, J.; Zuntz, J.; DES Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    We study the clustering of galaxies detected at i < 22.5 in the Science Verification observations of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Two-point correlation functions are measured using 2.3 × 106 galaxies over a contiguous 116 deg2 region in five bins of photometric redshift width Δz = 0.2 in the range 0.2 < z < 1.2. The impact of photometric redshift errors is assessed by comparing results using a template-based photo-z algorithm (BPZ) to a machine-learning algorithm (TPZ). A companion paper presents maps of several observational variables (e.g. seeing, sky brightness) which could modulate the galaxy density. Here we characterize and mitigate systematic errors on the measured clustering which arise from these observational variables, in addition to others such as Galactic dust and stellar contamination. After correcting for systematic effects, we measure galaxy bias over a broad range of linear scales relative to mass clustering predicted from the Planck Λ cold dark matter model, finding agreement with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) measurements with χ2 of 4.0 (8.7) with 5 degrees of freedom for the TPZ (BPZ) redshifts. We test a `linear bias' model, in which the galaxy clustering is a fixed multiple of the predicted non-linear dark matter clustering. The precision of the data allows us to determine that the linear bias model describes the observed galaxy clustering to 2.5 per cent accuracy down to scales at least 4-10 times smaller than those on which linear theory is expected to be sufficient.

  12. Galaxy Clustering, Photometric Redshifts and Diagnosis of Systematics in the DES Science Verification Data

    DOE PAGES

    Crocce, M.

    2015-12-09

    We study the clustering of galaxies detected at i < 22.5 in the Science Verification observations of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Two-point correlation functions are measured using 2.3 × 106 galaxies over a contiguous 116 deg2 region in five bins of photometric redshift width Δz = 0.2 in the range 0.2 < z < 1.2. The impact of photometric redshift errors is assessed by comparing results using a template-based photo-zalgorithm (BPZ) to a machine-learning algorithm (TPZ). A companion paper presents maps of several observational variables (e.g. seeing, sky brightness) which could modulate the galaxy density. Here we characterize andmore » mitigate systematic errors on the measured clustering which arise from these observational variables, in addition to others such as Galactic dust and stellar contamination. After correcting for systematic effects, we then measure galaxy bias over a broad range of linear scales relative to mass clustering predicted from the Planck Λ cold dark matter model, finding agreement with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) measurements with χ2 of 4.0 (8.7) with 5 degrees of freedom for the TPZ (BPZ) redshifts. Furthermore, we test a ‘linear bias’ model, in which the galaxy clustering is a fixed multiple of the predicted non-linear dark matter clustering. The precision of the data allows us to determine that the linear bias model describes the observed galaxy clustering to 2.5 percent accuracy down to scales at least 4–10 times smaller than those on which linear theory is expected to be sufficient.« less

  13. Galaxy Clustering, Photometric Redshifts and Diagnosis of Systematics in the DES Science Verification Data

    SciTech Connect

    Crocce, M.

    2015-12-09

    We study the clustering of galaxies detected at i < 22.5 in the Science Verification observations of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Two-point correlation functions are measured using 2.3 × 106 galaxies over a contiguous 116 deg2 region in five bins of photometric redshift width Δz = 0.2 in the range 0.2 < z < 1.2. The impact of photometric redshift errors is assessed by comparing results using a template-based photo-zalgorithm (BPZ) to a machine-learning algorithm (TPZ). A companion paper presents maps of several observational variables (e.g. seeing, sky brightness) which could modulate the galaxy density. Here we characterize and mitigate systematic errors on the measured clustering which arise from these observational variables, in addition to others such as Galactic dust and stellar contamination. After correcting for systematic effects, we then measure galaxy bias over a broad range of linear scales relative to mass clustering predicted from the Planck Λ cold dark matter model, finding agreement with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) measurements with χ2 of 4.0 (8.7) with 5 degrees of freedom for the TPZ (BPZ) redshifts. Furthermore, we test a ‘linear bias’ model, in which the galaxy clustering is a fixed multiple of the predicted non-linear dark matter clustering. The precision of the data allows us to determine that the linear bias model describes the observed galaxy clustering to 2.5 percent accuracy down to scales at least 4–10 times smaller than those on which linear theory is expected to be sufficient.

  14. How Accurate Are Infrared Luminosities from Monochromatic Photometric Extrapolation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zesen; Fang, Guanwen; Kong, Xu

    2016-12-01

    Template-based extrapolations from only one photometric band can be a cost-effective method to estimate the total infrared (IR) luminosities ({L}{IR}) of galaxies. By utilizing multi-wavelength data that covers across 0.35-500 μm in GOODS-North and GOODS-South fields, we investigate the accuracy of this monochromatic extrapolated {L}{IR} based on three IR spectral energy distribution (SED) templates out to z˜ 3.5. We find that the Chary & Elbaz template provides the best estimate of {L}{IR} in Herschel/Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) bands, while the Dale & Helou template performs best in Herschel/Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) bands. To estimate {L}{IR}, we suggest that extrapolations from the available longest wavelength PACS band based on the Chary & Elbaz template can be a good estimator. Moreover, if the PACS measurement is unavailable, extrapolations from SPIRE observations but based on the Dale & Helou template can also provide a statistically unbiased estimate for galaxies at z≲ 2. The emission with a rest-frame 10-100 μm range of IR SED can be well described by all three templates, but only the Dale & Helou template shows a nearly unbiased estimate of the emission of the rest-frame submillimeter part.

  15. Deep CFHT Y-band Imaging of VVDS-F22 Field. I. Data Products and Photometric Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dezi; Yang, Jinyi; Yuan, Shuo; Wu, Xue-Bing; Fan, Zuhui; Shan, Huanyuan; Yan, Haojing; Zheng, Xianzhong

    2017-02-01

    We present our deep Y-band imaging data of a 2 square degree field within the F22 region of the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey. The observations were conducted using the WIRCam instrument mounted at the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). The total on-sky time was 9 hr, distributed uniformly over 18 tiles. The scientific goals of the project are to select faint quasar candidates at redshift z> 2.2 and constrain the photometric redshifts for quasars and galaxies. In this paper, we present the observation and the image reduction, as well as the photometric redshifts that we derived by combining our Y-band data with the CFHTLenS {u}* g\\prime r\\prime i\\prime z\\prime optical data and UKIDSS DXS JHK near-infrared data. With the J-band image as a reference, a total of ∼80,000 galaxies are detected in the final mosaic down to a Y-band 5σ point-source limiting depth of 22.86 mag. Compared with the ∼3500 spectroscopic redshifts, our photometric redshifts for galaxies with z< 1.5 and i\\prime ≲ 24.0 mag have a small systematic offset of | {{Δ }}z| ≲ 0.2, 1σ scatter 0.03< {σ }{{Δ }z}< 0.06, and less than 4.0% of catastrophic failures. We also compare with the CFHTLenS photometric redshifts and find that ours are more reliable at z≳ 0.6 because of the inclusion of the near-infrared bands. In particular, including the Y-band data can improve the accuracy at z∼ 1.0{--}2.0 because the location of the 4000 Å break is better constrained. The Y-band images, the multiband photometry catalog, and the photometric redshifts are released at http://astro.pku.edu.cn/astro/data/DYI.html.

  16. THE MULTIWAVELENGTH SURVEY BY YALE-CHILE (MUSYC): DEEP MEDIUM-BAND OPTICAL IMAGING AND HIGH-QUALITY 32-BAND PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS IN THE ECDF-S

    SciTech Connect

    Cardamone, Carolin N.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Urry, C. Megan; Brammer, Gabriel; Taniguchi, Yoshi; Gawiser, Eric; Bond, Nicholas; Taylor, Edward; Damen, Maaike; Treister, Ezequiel; Cobb, Bethany E.; Schawinski, Kevin; Lira, Paulina; Murayama, Takashi; Saito, Tomoki; Sumikawa, Kentaro

    2010-08-15

    We present deep optical 18-medium-band photometry from the Subaru telescope over the {approx}30' x 30' Extended Chandra Deep Field-South, as part of the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC). This field has a wealth of ground- and space-based ancillary data, and contains the GOODS-South field and the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. We combine the Subaru imaging with existing UBVRIzJHK and Spitzer IRAC images to create a uniform catalog. Detecting sources in the MUSYC 'BVR' image we find {approx}40,000 galaxies with R {sub AB} < 25.3, the median 5{sigma} limit of the 18 medium bands. Photometric redshifts are determined using the EAzY code and compared to {approx}2000 spectroscopic redshifts in this field. The medium-band filters provide very accurate redshifts for the (bright) subset of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts, particularly at 0.1 < z < 1.2 and at z {approx}> 3.5. For 0.1 < z < 1.2, we find a 1{sigma} scatter in {Delta}z/(1 + z) of 0.007, similar to results obtained with a similar filter set in the COSMOS field. As a demonstration of the data quality, we show that the red sequence and blue cloud can be cleanly identified in rest-frame color-magnitude diagrams at 0.1 < z < 1.2. We find that {approx}20% of the red sequence galaxies show evidence of dust emission at longer rest-frame wavelengths. The reduced images, photometric catalog, and photometric redshifts are provided through the public MUSYC Web site.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: COSMOS photometric redshift catalog (Ilbert+, 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilbert, O.; Capak, P.; Salvato, M.; Aussel, H.; McCracken, H. J.; Sanders, D. B.; Scoville, N.; Kartaltepe, J.; Arnouts, S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Mobasher, B.; Taniguchi, Y.; Lamareille, F.; Leauthaud, A.; Sasaki, S.; Thompson, D.; Zamojski, M.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Brusa, M.; Caputi, K. I.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Cook, R.; Coppa, G.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Hasinger, G.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Kneib, J.-P.; Knobel, C.; Kovac, K.; Le Borgne, J. F.; Le Brun, V.; Fevre, O. L.; Lilly, S.; Looper, D.; Maier, C.; Mainieri, V.; Mellier, Y.; Mignoli, M.; Murayama, T.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez-Montero, E.; Renzini, A.; Ricciardelli, E.; Schiminovich, D.; Scodeggio, M.; Shioya, Y.; Silverman, J.; Surace, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.

    2017-03-01

    Compared with the previous optical/NIR catalog (Capak et al., 2007ApJS..172...99C, Cat. II/284), the new photometry implements 14 new medium/narrowband data from the Subaru Telescope, deep ground-based NIR data (J and K bands), and Spitzer-IRAC data. The spectroscopic sample used to calibrate/test the photo-z is 10 times larger at i+AB<22.5 than that of Mobasher et al. (2007ApJS..172..117M). The spectroscopic sample is supplemented with faint IR selected sources and a deep, faint spectroscopic sample at z>1.5. Hereafter, we detail the photometric and spectroscopic data used to measure the photo-z. Fluxes are measured in 30 bands from data taken on the Subaru (4200-9000Åg), CFHT (3900-21500Å), UKIRT (12500Å), Spitzer (3.6-8um), and GALEX (1500.2300Å) telescopes. We refer to P. Capak et al. (2008, in preparation) for a complete description of the observations, data reduction, and the photometry catalog. Photometric catalogue from P. Capak Photo-z catalogue from O. Ilbert PIs of the photometric data: D.B. Sanders, N. Scoville, Y. Tanigushi Data reducers: H. Aussel, P. Capak, H. McCracken, M. Salvato, S. Sasaki,D. Thompson, O. Ilbert, J. Kartaltepe, E. Le Floc'h, D. Looper, D.B. Sanders, N. Scoville Spectroscopic redshifts for validation from the zCOSMOS team (PI S. Lilly), from J. Kartaltepe and from P. Capak Identification of the Xray sources in the optical catalogue M. Brusa, G. Hasinger and the COSMOS/XMM team. (1 data file).

  18. CANDELS/GOODS-S, CDFS, and ECDFS: photometric redshifts for normal and X-ray-detected galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Li-Ting; Salvato, Mara; Nandra, Kirpal; Brusa, Marcella; Bender, Ralf; Buchner, Johannes; Brightman, Murray; Georgakakis, Antonis; Donley, Jennifer L.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Guo, Yicheng; Barro, Guillermo; Faber, Sandra M.; Rangel, Cyprian; Willner, S. P.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Budavári, Tamás; Szalay, Alexander S.; Dahlen, Tomas; and others

    2014-11-20

    We present photometric redshifts and associated probability distributions for all detected sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS). This work makes use of the most up-to-date data from the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and the Taiwan ECDFS Near-Infrared Survey (TENIS) in addition to other data. We also revisit multi-wavelength counterparts for published X-ray sources from the 4 Ms CDFS and 250 ks ECDFS surveys, finding reliable counterparts for 1207 out of 1259 sources (∼96%). Data used for photometric redshifts include intermediate-band photometry deblended using the TFIT method, which is used for the first time in this work. Photometric redshifts for X-ray source counterparts are based on a new library of active galactic nuclei/galaxy hybrid templates appropriate for the faint X-ray population in the CDFS. Photometric redshift accuracy for normal galaxies is 0.010 and for X-ray sources is 0.014 and outlier fractions are 4% and 5.2%, respectively. The results within the CANDELS coverage area are even better, as demonstrated both by spectroscopic comparison and by galaxy-pair statistics. Intermediate-band photometry, even if shallow, is valuable when combined with deep broadband photometry. For best accuracy, templates must include emission lines.

  19. ESTIMATING PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS OF QUASARS VIA THE k-NEAREST NEIGHBOR APPROACH BASED ON LARGE SURVEY DATABASES

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yanxia; Ma He; Peng Nanbo; Zhao Yongheng; Wu Xuebing

    2013-08-01

    We apply one of the lazy learning methods, the k-nearest neighbor (kNN) algorithm, to estimate the photometric redshifts of quasars based on various data sets from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS), and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; the SDSS sample, the SDSS-UKIDSS sample, the SDSS-WISE sample, and the SDSS-UKIDSS-WISE sample). The influence of the k value and different input patterns on the performance of kNN is discussed. kNN performs best when k is different with a special input pattern for a special data set. The best result belongs to the SDSS-UKIDSS-WISE sample. The experimental results generally show that the more information from more bands, the better performance of photometric redshift estimation with kNN. The results also demonstrate that kNN using multiband data can effectively solve the catastrophic failure of photometric redshift estimation, which is met by many machine learning methods. Compared with the performance of various other methods of estimating the photometric redshifts of quasars, kNN based on KD-Tree shows superiority, exhibiting the best accuracy.

  20. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY CO-ADD: A GALAXY PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, Ribamar R. R.; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Annis, James; Dodelson, Scott; Hao Jiangang; Johnston, David; Kubo, Jeffrey; Lin Huan; Seo, Hee-Jong; Simet, Melanie

    2012-03-01

    We present and describe a catalog of galaxy photometric redshifts (photo-z) for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Co-add Data. We use the artificial neural network (ANN) technique to calculate the photo-z and the nearest neighbor error method to estimate photo-z errors for {approx}13 million objects classified as galaxies in the co-add with r < 24.5. The photo-z and photo-z error estimators are trained and validated on a sample of {approx}83,000 galaxies that have SDSS photometry and spectroscopic redshifts measured by the SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7), the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology Field Galaxy Survey, the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe Data Release 3, the VIsible imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph-Very Large Telescope Deep Survey, and the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. For the best ANN methods we have tried, we find that 68% of the galaxies in the validation set have a photo-z error smaller than {sigma}{sub 68} = 0.031. After presenting our results and quality tests, we provide a short guide for users accessing the public data.

  1. BL Lacertae Objects Beyond Redshift 1.3 - UV-to-NIR Photometry and Photometric Redshift for Fermi/LAT Blazars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rau, A.; Schady, P.; Greiner, J.; Salvato, M.; Ajello, M.; Bottacini, E.; Gehrels, N.; Afonso, P. M. J.; Elliott, J.; Filgas, R.; Kann, D. A.; Klose, S.; Kruehler, T.; Nardini, M.; Guelbenzu, A. Nicuesa; OlivaresE, F.; Rossi, A.; Sudilovsky. V.; Updike, A. C.; Hartmann, D. H.

    2011-01-01

    Context. Observations of the gamma-ray sky with Fermi led to significant advances towards understanding blazars, the most extreme class of Active Galactic Nuclei. A large fraction of the population detected by Fermi is formed by BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects, whose sample has always suffered from a severe redshift incompleteness due to the quasi-featureless optical spectra. Aims. Our goal is to provide a significant increase of the number of confirmed high-redshift BL Lac objects contained in the 2 LAC Fermi/LAT catalog. Methods. For 103 Fermi/LAT blazars, photometric redshifts using spectral energy distribution fitting have been obtained. The photometry includes 13 broad-band filters from the far ultraviolet to the near-IR observed with Swift/UVOT and the multi-channel imager GROND at the MPG/ESO 2.2m telescope. Data have been taken quasi-simultaneously and the remaining source-intrinsic variability has been corrected for. Results. We release the UV-to-near-IR 13-band photometry for all 103 sources and provide redshift constraints for 75 sources without previously known redshift. Out of those, eight have reliable photometric redshifts at z > or approx. 1.3, while for the other 67 sources we provide upper limits. Six of the former eight are BL Lac objects, which quadruples the sample of confirmed high-redshift BL Lac. This includes three sources with redshifts higher than the previous record for BL Lac, including CRATES J0402-2615, with the best-fit solution at z approx. = 1.9.

  2. Photometric Redshifts and Systematic Variations in the Spectral Energy Distributions of Luminous Red Galaxies from SDSS DR7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greisel, N.; Seitz, S.; Drory, N.; Bender, R.; Saglia, R. P.; Snigula, J.

    2013-05-01

    We describe the construction of a template set of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for the estimation of photometric redshifts of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) with a Bayesian template fitting method. By examining the color properties of several publicly available SED sets within a redshift range of 0 < z <~ 0.5 and comparing them to Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 data, we show that only some of the investigated SEDs approximately match the colors of the LRG data throughout the redshift range, however not at the quantitative level required for precise photometric redshifts. This is because the SEDs of galaxies evolve with time (and redshift) and because at fixed redshift the LRG colors have an intrinsic spread such that they cannot be matched by one SED only. We generate new SEDs by superposing model SEDs of composite stellar populations with a burst model, allowing both components to be reddened by dust, in order to match the data in five different redshift bins. We select a set of SEDs which represents the LRG data in color space within five redshift bins, thus defining our new SED template set for photometric redshift estimates. The results we obtain with the new template set and our Bayesian template fitting photometric redshift code (PhotoZ) are nearly unbiased, with a scatter of σΔz = 0.027 (including outliers), a fraction of catastrophic outliers (|z phot - z spec|/(1 + z spec) > 0.15) of η = 0.12%, and a normalized median absolute rest frame deviation (NMAD) of σNMAD = 1.48 × MAD = 0.017 for non-outliers. We show that templates that optimally describe the brightest galaxies (-24.5 <= MR <= -22.7) indeed vary from z = 0.1 to z = 0.5, consistent with aging of the stellar population. Furthermore, we find that templates that optimally describe galaxies at z < 0.1 strongly differ as a function of the absolute magnitude of the galaxies, indicating an increase in star formation activity for less luminous galaxies. Our findings based on the

  3. UVUDF: Ultraviolet Through Near-infrared Catalog and Photometric Redshifts of Galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafelski, Marc; Teplitz, Harry I.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Coe, Dan; Bond, Nicholas A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman; Kurczynski, Peter; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Bourque, Matthew; Atek, Hakim; Brown, Thomas M.; Colbert, James W.; Codoreanu, Alex; Ferguson, Henry C.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Gawiser, Eric; Giavalisco, Mauro; Gronwall, Caryl; Hanish, Daniel J.; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Mehta, Vihang; de Mello, Duilia F.; Ravindranath, Swara; Ryan, Russell E.; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian; Soto, Emmaris; Voyer, Elysse N.

    2015-07-01

    We present photometry and derived redshifts from up to eleven bandpasses for 9927 galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep field (UDF), covering an observed wavelength range from the near-ultraviolet (NUV) to the near-infrared (NIR) with Hubble Space Telescope observations. Our Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3)/UV F225W, F275W, and F336W image mosaics from the ultra-violet UDF (UVUDF) imaging campaign are newly calibrated to correct for charge transfer inefficiency, and use new dark calibrations to minimize background gradients and pattern noise. Our NIR WFC3/IR image mosaics combine the imaging from the UDF09 and UDF12 campaigns with CANDELS data to provide NIR coverage for the entire UDF field of view. We use aperture-matched point-spread function corrected photometry to measure photometric redshifts in the UDF, sampling both the Lyman break and Balmer break of galaxies at z˜ 0.8-3.4, and one of the breaks over the rest of the redshift range. Our comparison of these results with a compilation of robust spectroscopic redshifts shows an improvement in the galaxy photometric redshifts by a factor of two in scatter and a factor three in outlier fraction (OLF) over previous UDF catalogs. The inclusion of the new NUV data is responsible for a factor of two decrease in the OLF compared to redshifts determined from only the optical and NIR data, and improves the scatter at z\\lt 0.5 and at z\\gt 2. The panchromatic coverage of the UDF from the NUV through the NIR yields robust photometric redshifts of the UDF, with the lowest OLF available.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Revised SWIRE photometric redshifts (Rowan-Robinson+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan-Robinson, M.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Vaccari, M.; Marchetti, L.

    2013-11-01

    The revised SWIRE photometric redshift catalogues for the Lockman, EN1, EN2 and XMM-LSS areas (plus original catalogues for ES1, CDFS, VVDS and SXDS areas). There are 1009607 lines of data (EN1: 204421, EN2: 116195, Lock: 217461, XMM-LSS: 280478, CDFS: 149766, ES1: 41757) The methodology is based on Rowan-Robinson et al. (2008MNRAS.386..697R). The main change here is the incorporation of SDSS and UKIDSS data into the solution. The details of how this was done will be reported in Rowan-Robinson et al. (2013MNRAS.428.1958R) but the main features are: (1) WFC data treated as in RR08 (Cat. II/290), but revised WFS data of Gonzalez-Solares et al. (2011MNRAS.416..927G) used for EN1, EN2, Lockman. New Megacam data used for XMM-LSS. (2) SDSS model magnitudes used, aperture corrected by forcing r-band magnitude to be same as r-WFC. (3) 2MASS point-source magnitudes used if available, aperture corrected by using a multiple (0.8) of the WFC r-band aperture correction. If not, UKIDSS point-source magnitudes used, aperture corrected by using a multiple (1.1) of the WFC r-band aperture correction. (4) IRAC fluxes are aperture corrected as in Rowan-Robinson et al. (2008MNRAS.386..697R). (5) Lockman data are from 2008 reduction, with requirement that S(3.6)>7.5μJy. (6) SXDS sources with new Megacam data are reanalyzed using Subaru+Megacam data (40553 sources). The remainder (13655 sources) are from the 2008 reduction. New spectroscopic redshifts from Chris Simpson (2012 in prep) are incorporated. (7) For quasars we have added AGN dust torus templates to our 3 QSO templates, with amplitudes corresponding to Ltor/Lopt = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, and used 1.25-8.0μm data in the redshift solution. This improves the outlier rejection (see the paper for details). (8) Although the redshifts have not changed greatly from the 2008 catalogue, it was necessary to rerun the infrared template fitting in order to register the correct infrared luminosity, ir sed type and derived quantities

  5. The need for accurate redshifts in supernova cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcino, Josh; Davis, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    Recent papers have shown that a small systematic redshift shift (Δ z~ 10‑5) in measurements of type Ia supernovae can cause a significant bias (~1%) in the recovery of cosmological parameters. Such a redshift shift could be caused, for example, by a gravitational redshift due to the density of our local environment. The sensitivity of supernova data to redshift shifts means supernovae make excellent probes of inhomogeneities. We therefore invert the analysis, and try to diagnose the nature of our local gravitational environment by fitting for Δ z as an extra free parameter alongside the usual cosmological parameters. Using the Joint Light-curve SN Ia dataset we find the best fit includes a systematic redshift shift of Δ z = (2.6+2.7‑2.8) × 10‑4. This is a larger shift than would be expected due to gravitational redshifts in a standard Λ-Cold Dark Matter universe (though still consistent with zero), and would correspond to a monopole Doppler shift of about 100 km s‑1 moving away from the Milky-Way. However, since most supernova measurements are made to a redshift precision of no better than 10‑3, it is possible that a systematic error smaller than the statistical error remains in the data and is responsible for the shift; or that it is an insignificant statistical fluctuation. We find that when Δ z is included as a free parameter while fitting to the JLA SN Ia data, the constraints on the matter density shifts to Ωm = 0.313+0.042‑0.040, bringing it into better agreement with the CMB cosmological parameter constraints from Planck. A positive Δ z~ 2.6×10‑4 would also cause us to overestimate the supernova measurement of Hubble's constant by Δ H0 ~ 1 kms‑1Mpc‑1. However this overestimation should diminish as one increases the low-redshift cutoff, and this is not seen in the most recent data.

  6. The DAFT/FADA survey. I.Photometric redshifts along lines of sight to clusters in the z=[0.4,0.9] interval

    SciTech Connect

    Guennou, L.; Adami, C.; Ulmer, M.P.; LeBrun, V.; Durret, F.; Johnston, D.; Ilbert, O.; Clowe, D.; Gavazzi, R.; Murphy, K.; Schrabback, T.; /Leiden Observ. /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    As a contribution to the understanding of the dark energy concept, the Dark energy American French Team (DAFT, in French FADA) has started a large project to characterize statistically high redshift galaxy clusters, infer cosmological constraints from Weak Lensing Tomography, and understand biases relevant for constraining dark energy and cluster physics in future cluster and cosmological experiments. Aims. The purpose of this paper is to establish the basis of reference for the photo-z determination used in all our subsequent papers, including weak lensing tomography studies. This project is based on a sample of 91 high redshift (z {ge} 0.4), massive ({approx}> 3 x 10{sup 14} M{sub {circle_dot}}) clusters with existing HST imaging, for which we are presently performing complementary multi-wavelength imaging. This allows us in particular to estimate spectral types and determine accurate photometric redshifts for galaxies along the lines of sight to the first ten clusters for which all the required data are available down to a limit of I{sub AB} = 24./24.5 with the LePhare software. The accuracy in redshift is of the order of 0.05 for the range 0.2 {le} z {le} 1.5. We verified that the technique applied to obtain photometric redshifts works well by comparing our results to with previous works. In clusters, photo-z accuracy is degraded for bright absolute magnitudes and for the latest and earliest type galaxies. The photo-z accuracy also only slightly varies as a function of the spectral type for field galaxies. As a consequence, we find evidence for an environmental dependence of the photo-z accuracy, interpreted as the standard used Spectral Energy Distributions being not very well suited to cluster galaxies. Finally, we modeled the LCDCS 0504 mass with the strong arcs detected along this line of sight.

  7. ANNz2: Photometric Redshift and Probability Distribution Function Estimation using Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeh, I.; Abdalla, F. B.; Lahav, O.

    2016-10-01

    We present ANNz2, a new implementation of the public software for photometric redshift (photo-z) estimation of Collister & Lahav, which now includes generation of full probability distribution functions (PDFs). ANNz2 utilizes multiple machine learning methods, such as artificial neural networks and boosted decision/regression trees. The objective of the algorithm is to optimize the performance of the photo-z estimation, to properly derive the associated uncertainties, and to produce both single-value solutions and PDFs. In addition, estimators are made available, which mitigate possible problems of non-representative or incomplete spectroscopic training samples. ANNz2 has already been used as part of the first weak lensing analysis of the Dark Energy Survey, and is included in the experiment's first public data release. Here we illustrate the functionality of the code using data from the tenth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. The code is available for download at http://github.com/IftachSadeh/ANNZ.

  8. Apples to apples A2 - I. Realistic galaxy simulated catalogues and photometric redshift predictions for next-generation surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascaso, B.; Mei, S.; Benítez, N.

    2015-11-01

    We present new mock catalogues for two of the largest Stage IV next-generation surveys in the optical and infrared: Large Synoptic Sky Telescope (LSST) and Euclid, based on an N-body simulation+semi-analytical cone with a posterior modification with PHOTREAL. This technique modifies the original photometry by using an empirical library of spectral templates to make it more realistic. The reliability of the catalogues is confirmed by comparing the obtained colour-magnitude relation, the luminosity and mass function and the angular correlation function with those of real data. Consistent comparisons between the expected photometric redshifts for different surveys are also provided. Very deep near-infrared surveys such as Euclid will provide very good performance (Δz/(1 + z) ˜ 0.025-0.053) down to H ˜ 24 AB mag and up to z ˜ 3 depending on the optical observations available from the ground, whereas extremely deep optical surveys such as LSST will obtain an overall lower photometric redshift resolution (Δz/(1 + z) ˜ 0.045) down to i ˜ 27.5 AB mag, being considerably improved (Δz/(1 + z) ˜ 0.035) if we restrict the sample down to i ˜ 24 AB mag. Those numbers can be substantially upgraded by selecting a subsample of galaxies with the best quality photometric redshifts. We finally discuss the impact that these surveys will have for the community in terms of photometric redshift legacy. This is the first of a series of papers where we set a framework for comparability between mock catalogues and observations with a particular focus on cluster surveys. The Euclid and LSST mocks are made publicly available.

  9. Machine-learning-based photometric redshifts for galaxies of the ESO Kilo-Degree Survey data release 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavuoti, S.; Brescia, M.; Tortora, C.; Longo, G.; Napolitano, N. R.; Radovich, M.; Barbera, F. La; Capaccioli, M.; de Jong, J. T. A.; Getman, F.; Grado, A.; Paolillo, M.

    2015-09-01

    We have estimated photometric redshifts (zphot) for more than 1.1 million galaxies of the public European Southern Observatory (ESO) Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS) data release 2. KiDS is an optical wide-field imaging survey carried out with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) Survey Telescope (VST) and the OmegaCAM camera, which aims to tackle open questions in cosmology and galaxy evolution, such as the origin of dark energy and the channel of galaxy mass growth. We present a catalogue of photometric redshifts obtained using the Multi-Layer Perceptron with Quasi-Newton Algorithm (MLPQNA) model, provided within the framework of the DAta Mining and Exploration Web Application REsource (DAMEWARE). These photometric redshifts are based on a spectroscopic knowledge base that was obtained by merging spectroscopic data sets from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) data release 2 and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) data release 9. The overall 1σ uncertainty on Δz = (zspec - zphot)/(1 + zspec) is ˜0.03, with a very small average bias of ˜0.001, a normalized median absolute deviation of ˜0.02 and a fraction of catastrophic outliers (|Δz| > 0.15) of ˜0.4 per cent.

  10. The VIPERS Multi-Lambda Survey. I. UV and near-IR observations, multi-colour catalogues, and photometric redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutard, T.; Arnouts, S.; Ilbert, O.; Coupon, J.; Hudelot, P.; Vibert, D.; Comte, V.; Conseil, S.; Davidzon, I.; Guzzo, L.; Llebaria, A.; Martin, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Milliard, B.; Morrison, G.; Schiminovich, D.; Treyer, M.; Van Werbaeke, L.

    2016-05-01

    We present observations collected in the CFHTLS-VIPERS region in the ultraviolet with the GALEX satellite (far- and near-ultraviolet channels) and in the near-infrared with the CFHT/WIRCam camera (Ks band) over an area of 22 and 27 deg2, respectively. The depth of the photometry was optimised to measure the physical properties (e.g., star formation rate, stellar masses) of all the galaxies in the VIPERS spectroscopic survey. The large volume explored by VIPERS will enable a unique investigation of the relationship between the galaxy properties and their environment (density field and cosmic web) at high redshift (0.5 ≤ z ≤ 1.2). In this paper, we present the observations, the data reductions, and the build-up of the multi-colour catalogues. The CFHTLS-T0007 (gri-χ2) images are used as reference to detect and measure the Ks-band photometry, while the T0007 u∗-selected sources are used as priors to perform the GALEX photometry based on a dedicated software (EMphot). Our final sample reaches NUVAB ~ 25 (at 5σ) and KAB ~ 22 (at 3σ). The large spectroscopic sample (~51 000 spectroscopic redshifts) allows us to highlight the robustness of our star/galaxy separation and the reliability of our photometric redshifts with a typical accuracy of σz ≤ 0.04 and a fraction of catastrophic failures η ≤ 2% down to i ~ 23. We present various tests on the Ks-band completeness and photometric redshift accuracy by comparing our results with existing overlapping deep photometric catalogues. Finally, we discuss the BzK sample of passive and active galaxies at high redshift and the evolution of galaxy morphology in the (NUV-r) vs. (r-Ks) diagram at low redshift (z ≤ 0.25) based on the high image quality of the CFHTLS. The catalogue is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/590/A102The images, catalogues, and photometric redshifts for 1.5 million sources (down to NUV

  11. Photometric Redshifts in the Hawaii-Hubble Deep Field-North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Xue, Yongquan

    2015-08-01

    We derive photometric redshifts (\\zp) for sources in the entire (˜0.4 deg^2) Hawaii-Hubble Deep Field-North (H-HDF-N) field with the EAzY code, based on point spread function-matched photometry of 15 broad bands from the ultraviolet to mid-infrared (IRAC 4.5um). Our catalog consists of a total of 131,678 sources. We evaluate the \\zp~quality by comparing \\zp~with spectroscopic redshifts (\\zs) when available, and find a value of normalized median absolute deviation \\sigm=0.029 and an outlier fraction of 5.5\\% (outliers are defined as sources having |\\zp - \\zs|/(1+\\zs)>0.15) for non-X-ray sources. More specifically, we obtain \\sigm=0.024 with 2.7\\% outliers for sources brighter than R=23mag, \\sigm=0.035 with 7.4\\% outliers for sources fainter than R=23mag, \\sigm=0.026 with 3.9\\% outliers for sources having z<1, and \\sigm=0.034 with 9.0\\% outliers for sources having z>1. Our \\zp\\ quality shows an overall improvement over an earlier \\zp\\ work that focused only on the central H-HDF-N area. We also classify each object as star or galaxy through template spectral energy distribution fitting and complementary morphological parametrization, resulting in 4959 stars and 126,719 galaxies. Furthermore, we match our catalog with the 2Ms Chandra Deep Field-North main X-ray catalog. For the 462 matched non-stellar X-ray sources (281 having \\zs), we improve their \\zp~quality by adding three additional AGN templates, achieving \\sigm=0.035 and an outlier fraction of 12.5\\%. We make our catalog publicly available presenting both photometry and \\zp, and provide guidance on how to make use of our catalog. (This work has been published as Yang, Xue, et al. 2014, ApJS, 215, 27; December 2014.)

  12. PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS IN THE HAWAII-HUBBLE DEEP FIELD-NORTH (H-HDF-N)

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, G.; Xue, Y. Q.; Kong, X.; Wang, J.-X.; Yuan, Y.-F.; Zhou, H. Y.; Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Cui, W.; Lehmer, B. D.; Wu, X.-B.; Yuan, F. E-mail: xuey@ustc.edu.cn

    2015-01-01

    We derive photometric redshifts (z {sub phot}) for sources in the entire (∼0.4 deg{sup 2}) Hawaii-Hubble Deep Field-North (H-HDF-N) field with the EAzY code, based on point-spread-function-matched photometry of 15 broad bands from the ultraviolet (U band) to mid-infrared (IRAC 4.5 μm). Our catalog consists of a total of 131,678 sources. We evaluate the z {sub phot} quality by comparing z {sub phot} with spectroscopic redshifts (z {sub spec}) when available, and find a value of normalized median absolute deviation σ{sub NMAD} = 0.029 and an outlier fraction of 5.5% (outliers are defined as sources having |z{sub phot} – z{sub spec} |/(1 + z{sub spec} ) > 0.15) for non-X-ray sources. More specifically, we obtain σ{sub NMAD} = 0.024 with 2.7% outliers for sources brighter than R = 23 mag, σ{sub NMAD} = 0.035 with 7.4% outliers for sources fainter than R = 23 mag, σ{sub NMAD} = 0.026 with 3.9% outliers for sources having z < 1, and σ{sub NMAD} = 0.034 with 9.0% outliers for sources having z > 1. Our z {sub phot} quality shows an overall improvement over an earlier z {sub phot} work that focused only on the central H-HDF-N area. We also classify each object as a star or galaxy through template spectral energy distribution fitting and complementary morphological parameterization, resulting in 4959 stars and 126,719 galaxies. Furthermore, we match our catalog with the 2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-North main X-ray catalog. For the 462 matched non-stellar X-ray sources (281 having z {sub spec}), we improve their z {sub phot} quality by adding three additional active galactic nucleus templates, achieving σ{sub NMAD} = 0.035 and an outlier fraction of 12.5%. We make our catalog publicly available presenting both photometry and z {sub phot}, and provide guidance on how to make use of our catalog.

  13. Photometric Redshifts in the Hawaii-Hubble Deep Field-North (H-HDF-N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, G.; Xue, Y. Q.; Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Cui, W.; Kong, X.; Lehmer, B. D.; Wang, J.-X.; Wu, X.-B.; Yuan, F.; Yuan, Y.-F.; Zhou, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    We derive photometric redshifts (z phot) for sources in the entire (~0.4 deg2) Hawaii-Hubble Deep Field-North (H-HDF-N) field with the EAzY code, based on point-spread-function-matched photometry of 15 broad bands from the ultraviolet (U band) to mid-infrared (IRAC 4.5 μm). Our catalog consists of a total of 131,678 sources. We evaluate the z phot quality by comparing z phot with spectroscopic redshifts (z spec) when available, and find a value of normalized median absolute deviation σNMAD = 0.029 and an outlier fraction of 5.5% (outliers are defined as sources having |zphot - zspec |/(1 + zspec ) > 0.15) for non-X-ray sources. More specifically, we obtain σNMAD = 0.024 with 2.7% outliers for sources brighter than R = 23 mag, σNMAD = 0.035 with 7.4% outliers for sources fainter than R = 23 mag, σNMAD = 0.026 with 3.9% outliers for sources having z < 1, and σNMAD = 0.034 with 9.0% outliers for sources having z > 1. Our z phot quality shows an overall improvement over an earlier z phot work that focused only on the central H-HDF-N area. We also classify each object as a star or galaxy through template spectral energy distribution fitting and complementary morphological parameterization, resulting in 4959 stars and 126,719 galaxies. Furthermore, we match our catalog with the 2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-North main X-ray catalog. For the 462 matched non-stellar X-ray sources (281 having z spec), we improve their z phot quality by adding three additional active galactic nucleus templates, achieving σNMAD = 0.035 and an outlier fraction of 12.5%. We make our catalog publicly available presenting both photometry and z phot, and provide guidance on how to make use of our catalog.

  14. 3D-HST WFC3-SELECTED PHOTOMETRIC CATALOGS IN THE FIVE CANDELS/3D-HST FIELDS: PHOTOMETRY, PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS, AND STELLAR MASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Skelton, Rosalind E.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Bezanson, Rachel; Leja, Joel; Nelson, Erica J.; Oesch, Pascal; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Labbé, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Van der Wel, Arjen; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Maseda, Michael V.; Förster Schreiber, Natascha; Kriek, Mariska; Lundgren, Britt F.; Magee, Daniel; Marchesini, Danilo; and others

    2014-10-01

    The 3D-HST and CANDELS programs have provided WFC3 and ACS spectroscopy and photometry over ≈900 arcmin{sup 2} in five fields: AEGIS, COSMOS, GOODS-North, GOODS-South, and the UKIDSS UDS field. All these fields have a wealth of publicly available imaging data sets in addition to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data, which makes it possible to construct the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of objects over a wide wavelength range. In this paper we describe a photometric analysis of the CANDELS and 3D-HST HST imaging and the ancillary imaging data at wavelengths 0.3-8 μm. Objects were selected in the WFC3 near-IR bands, and their SEDs were determined by carefully taking the effects of the point-spread function in each observation into account. A total of 147 distinct imaging data sets were used in the analysis. The photometry is made available in the form of six catalogs: one for each field, as well as a master catalog containing all objects in the entire survey. We also provide derived data products: photometric redshifts, determined with the EAZY code, and stellar population parameters determined with the FAST code. We make all the imaging data that were used in the analysis available, including our reductions of the WFC3 imaging in all five fields. 3D-HST is a spectroscopic survey with the WFC3 and ACS grisms, and the photometric catalogs presented here constitute a necessary first step in the analysis of these grism data. All the data presented in this paper are available through the 3D-HST Web site (http://3dhst.research.yale.edu)

  15. Exploring photometric redshifts as an optimization problem: an ensemble MCMC and simulated annealing-driven template-fitting approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speagle, Joshua S.; Capak, Peter L.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Masters, Daniel C.; Steinhardt, Charles L.

    2016-10-01

    Using a 4D grid of ˜2 million model parameters (Δz = 0.005) adapted from Cosmological Origins Survey photometric redshift (photo-z) searches, we investigate the general properties of template-based photo-z likelihood surfaces. We find these surfaces are filled with numerous local minima and large degeneracies that generally confound simplistic gradient-descent optimization schemes. We combine ensemble Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling with simulated annealing to robustly and efficiently explore these surfaces in approximately constant time. Using a mock catalogue of 384 662 objects, we show our approach samples ˜40 times more efficiently compared to a `brute-force' counterpart while maintaining similar levels of accuracy. Our results represent first steps towards designing template-fitting photo-z approaches limited mainly by memory constraints rather than computation time.

  16. Evolution of the real-space correlation function from next generation cluster surveys. Recovering the real-space correlation function from photometric redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, Srivatsan; Maurogordato, Sophie; Benoist, Christophe; Cappi, Alberto; Marulli, Federico

    2017-03-01

    Context. The next generation of galaxy surveys will provide cluster catalogues probing an unprecedented range of scales, redshifts, and masses with large statistics. Their analysis should therefore enable us to probe the spatial distribution of clusters with high accuracy and derive tighter constraints on the cosmological parameters and the dark energy equation of state. However, for the majority of these surveys, redshifts of individual galaxies will be mostly estimated by multiband photometry which implies non-negligible errors in redshift resulting in potential difficulties in recovering the real-space clustering. Aims: We investigate to which accuracy it is possible to recover the real-space two-point correlation function of galaxy clusters from cluster catalogues based on photometric redshifts, and test our ability to detect and measure the redshift and mass evolution of the correlation length r0 and of the bias parameter b(M,z) as a function of the uncertainty on the cluster redshift estimate. Methods: We calculate the correlation function for cluster sub-samples covering various mass and redshift bins selected from a 500 deg2 light-cone limited to H < 24. In order to simulate the distribution of clusters in photometric redshift space, we assign to each cluster a redshift randomly extracted from a Gaussian distribution having a mean equal to the cluster cosmological redshift and a dispersion equal to σz. The dispersion is varied in the range σ(z=0)=\\frac{σz{1+z_c} = 0.005,0.010,0.030} and 0.050, in order to cover the typical values expected in forthcoming surveys. The correlation function in real-space is then computed through estimation and deprojection of wp(rp). Four mass ranges (from Mhalo > 2 × 1013h-1M⊙ to Mhalo > 2 × 1014h-1M⊙) and six redshift slices covering the redshift range [0, 2] are investigated, first using cosmological redshifts and then for the four photometric redshift configurations. Results: From the analysis of the light-cone in

  17. SPIDERz: SuPport vector classification for IDEntifying Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Evan; Singal, J.

    2016-08-01

    SPIDERz (SuPport vector classification for IDEntifying Redshifts) applies powerful support vector machine (SVM) optimization and statistical learning techniques to custom data sets to obtain accurate photometric redshift (photo-z) estimations. It is written for the IDL environment and can be applied to traditional data sets consisting of photometric band magnitudes, or alternatively to data sets with additional galaxy parameters (such as shape information) to investigate potential correlations between the extra galaxy parameters and redshift.

  18. Upper bound of 0.28 eV on neutrino masses from the largest photometric redshift survey.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Shaun A; Abdalla, Filipe B; Lahav, Ofer

    2010-07-16

    We present a new limit of ∑m(v) ≤ 0.28 (95% CL) on the sum of the neutrino masses assuming a flat ΛCDM cosmology. This relaxes slightly to ∑m(ν) ≤ 0.34 and ∑m(v) ≤ 0.47 when quasinonlinear scales are removed and w≠ -1, respectively. These are derived from a new photometric catalogue of over 700,000 luminous red galaxies (MegaZ DR7) with a volume of 3.3  (Gpc h(-1))(3) and redshift range 0.45 < z < 0.65. The data are combined with WMAP 5-year CMB, baryon acoustic oscillations, supernovae, and a Hubble Space Telescope prior on h. When combined with WMAP these data are as constraining as adding all supernovae and baryon oscillation data available. The upper limit is one of the tightest constraints on the neutrino from cosmology or particle physics. Further, if these bounds hold, they all predict that current-to-next generation neutrino experiments, such as KATRIN, are unlikely to obtain a detection.

  19. Self-calibration of photometric redshift scatter in weak-lensing surveys

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Pengjie; Pen, Ue -Li; Bernstein, Gary

    2010-06-11

    Photo-z errors, especially catastrophic errors, are a major uncertainty for precision weak lensing cosmology. We find that the shear-(galaxy number) density and density-density cross correlation measurements between photo-z bins, available from the same lensing surveys, contain valuable information for self-calibration of the scattering probabilities between the true-z and photo-z bins. The self-calibration technique we propose does not rely on cosmological priors nor parameterization of the photo-z probability distribution function, and preserves all of the cosmological information available from shear-shear measurement. We estimate the calibration accuracy through the Fisher matrix formalism. We find that, for advanced lensing surveys such as themore » planned stage IV surveys, the rate of photo-z outliers can be determined with statistical uncertainties of 0.01-1% for z < 2 galaxies. Among the several sources of calibration error that we identify and investigate, the galaxy distribution bias is likely the most dominant systematic error, whereby photo-z outliers have different redshift distributions and/or bias than non-outliers from the same bin. This bias affects all photo-z calibration techniques based on correlation measurements. As a result, galaxy bias variations of O(0.1) produce biases in photo-z outlier rates similar to the statistical errors of our method, so this galaxy distribution bias may bias the reconstructed scatters at several-σ level, but is unlikely to completely invalidate the self-calibration technique.« less

  20. Self-calibration of photometric redshift scatter in weak-lensing surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Pengjie; Pen, Ue -Li; Bernstein, Gary

    2010-06-11

    Photo-z errors, especially catastrophic errors, are a major uncertainty for precision weak lensing cosmology. We find that the shear-(galaxy number) density and density-density cross correlation measurements between photo-z bins, available from the same lensing surveys, contain valuable information for self-calibration of the scattering probabilities between the true-z and photo-z bins. The self-calibration technique we propose does not rely on cosmological priors nor parameterization of the photo-z probability distribution function, and preserves all of the cosmological information available from shear-shear measurement. We estimate the calibration accuracy through the Fisher matrix formalism. We find that, for advanced lensing surveys such as the planned stage IV surveys, the rate of photo-z outliers can be determined with statistical uncertainties of 0.01-1% for z < 2 galaxies. Among the several sources of calibration error that we identify and investigate, the galaxy distribution bias is likely the most dominant systematic error, whereby photo-z outliers have different redshift distributions and/or bias than non-outliers from the same bin. This bias affects all photo-z calibration techniques based on correlation measurements. As a result, galaxy bias variations of O(0.1) produce biases in photo-z outlier rates similar to the statistical errors of our method, so this galaxy distribution bias may bias the reconstructed scatters at several-σ level, but is unlikely to completely invalidate the self-calibration technique.

  1. A PUBLIC K{sub s} -SELECTED CATALOG IN THE COSMOS/ULTRAVISTA FIELD: PHOTOMETRY, PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS, AND STELLAR POPULATION PARAMETERS {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn; Labbe, Ivo; Marchesini, Danilo; Stefanon, Mauro; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Dunlop, James S.; Brammer, Gabriel; Van Dokkum, Pieter

    2013-05-01

    We present a catalog covering 1.62 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS/UltraVISTA field with point-spread function (PSF) matched photometry in 30 photometric bands. The catalog covers the wavelength range 0.15-24 {mu}m including the available GALEX, Subaru, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, VISTA, and Spitzer data. Catalog sources have been selected from the DR1 UltraVISTA K{sub s} band imaging that reaches a depth of K {sub s,tot} = 23.4 AB (90% completeness). The PSF-matched catalog is generated using position-dependent PSFs ensuring accurate colors across the entire field. Also included is a catalog of photometric redshifts (z {sub phot}) for all galaxies computed with the EAZY code. Comparison with spectroscopy from the zCOSMOS 10k bright sample shows that up to z {approx} 1.5 the z {sub phot} are accurate to {Delta}z/(1 + z) = 0.013, with a catastrophic outlier fraction of only 1.6%. The z {sub phot} also show good agreement with the z {sub phot} from the NEWFIRM Medium Band Survey out to z {approx} 3. A catalog of stellar masses and stellar population parameters for galaxies determined using the FAST spectral energy distribution fitting code is provided for all galaxies. Also included are rest-frame U - V and V - J colors, L {sub 2800} and L {sub IR}. The UVJ color-color diagram confirms that the galaxy bi-modality is well-established out to z {approx} 2. Star-forming galaxies also obey a star-forming 'main sequence' out to z {approx} 2.5, and this sequence evolves in a manner consistent with previous measurements. The COSMOS/UltraVISTA K{sub s} -selected catalog covers a unique parameter space in both depth, area, and multi-wavelength coverage and promises to be a useful tool for studying the growth of the galaxy population out to z {approx} 3-4.

  2. UV-TO-FIR ANALYSIS OF SPITZER/IRAC SOURCES IN THE EXTENDED GROTH STRIP. II. PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS, STELLAR MASSES, AND STAR FORMATION RATES

    SciTech Connect

    Barro, G.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Gallego, J.; Villar, V.; Zamorano, J.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Kajisawa, M.; Yamada, T.; Miyazaki, S.

    2011-04-01

    Based on the ultraviolet to far-infrared photometry already compiled and presented in a companion paper (Paper I), we present a detailed spectral energy distribution (SED) analysis of nearly 80,000 IRAC 3.6 + 4.5 {mu}m selected galaxies in the Extended Groth Strip. We estimate photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and star formation rates (SFRs) separately for each galaxy in this large sample. The catalog includes 76,936 sources with [3.6] {<=} 23.75 (85% completeness level of the IRAC survey) over 0.48 deg{sup 2}. The typical photometric redshift accuracy is {Delta}z/(1 + z) = 0.034, with a catastrophic outlier fraction of just 2%. We quantify the systematics introduced by the use of different stellar population synthesis libraries and initial mass functions in the calculation of stellar masses. We find systematic offsets ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 dex, with a typical scatter of 0.3 dex. We also provide UV- and IR-based SFRs for all sample galaxies, based on several sets of dust emission templates and SFR indicators. We evaluate the systematic differences and goodness of the different SFR estimations using the deep FIDEL 70 {mu}m data available in the Extended Groth Strip. Typical random uncertainties of the IR-bases SFRs are a factor of two, with non-negligible systematic effects at z {approx}> 1.5 observed when only MIPS 24 {mu}m data are available. All data products (SEDs, postage stamps from imaging data, and different estimations of the photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and SFRs of each galaxy) described in this and the companion paper are publicly available, and they can be accessed through our the Web interface utility Rainbow-navigator.

  3. C3R2 - Complete Calibration of the Color-Redshift Relation: Keck spectroscopy to train photometric redshifts for Euclid and WFIRST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Daniel; C3R2 Team

    2017-01-01

    A primary objective of both WFIRST and Euclid is to provide a 3D map of the distribution of matter across a significant fraction of the universe from the weak lensing shear field, but to do so requires robust distances to billions of galaxies. I will report on a multi-semester program, expected to total approximately 40 nights with Keck over the next two years. This program, supporting both the NASA PCOS and COR science goals, will obtain the necessary galaxy spectroscopy to calibrate the color-redshift relation for the Euclid mission, and make significant progress towards the WFIRST requirements. The program, called C3R2 or Complete Calibration of the Color-Redshift Relation, already encompasses 10 allocated nights of NASA Keck Key Strategic Mission Support (PI D. Stern), 12 allocated nights from Caltech (PI J. Cohen), 3 allocated nights from the University of Hawaii (PI D. Sanders), and 1.5 allocated nights from UC-Riverside (PI B. Mobasher). We are also pursuing opportunities at additional 8- to 10-meter class telescopes, including Magellan, VLT and GCT. I will present the motivation for this program, the plans, and current results.

  4. Measuring Redshifts of Emission-line Galaxies Using Ramp Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesser, Ryan William; Bohman, John; McNeff, Mathew; Holden, Marcus; Moody, Joseph; Joner, Michael D.; Barnes, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Photometric redshifts are routinely obtained for galaxies without emission using broadband photometry. It is possible in theory to derive reasonably accurate (< 200 km/sec) photometric redshift values for emission-line objects using "ramp" filters with a linearly increasing/decreasing transmission through the bandpass. To test this idea we have obtained a set of filters tuned for isolating H-alpha at a redshift range of 0-10,000 km/sec. These filters consist of two that vary close to linearly in transmission, have opposite slope, and cover the wavelength range from 655nm - 685nm, plus a Stromgren y and 697nm filter to measure the continuum. Redshifts are derived from the ratio of the ramp filters indices after the continuum has been subtracted out. We are finishing the process of obtaining photometric data on a set of about 100 galaxies with known redshift to calibrate the technique and will report on our results.

  5. Towards an accurate model of redshift-space distortions: a bivariate Gaussian description for the galaxy pairwise velocity distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Davide; Chiesa, Matteo; Guzzo, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    As a step towards a more accurate modelling of redshift-space distortions (RSD) in galaxy surveys, we develop a general description of the probability distribution function of galaxy pairwise velocities within the framework of the so-called streaming model. For a given galaxy separation , such function can be described as a superposition of virtually infinite local distributions. We characterize these in terms of their moments and then consider the specific case in which they are Gaussian functions, each with its own mean μ and variance σ2. Based on physical considerations, we make the further crucial assumption that these two parameters are in turn distributed according to a bivariate Gaussian, with its own mean and covariance matrix. Tests using numerical simulations explicitly show that with this compact description one can correctly model redshift-space distorsions on all scales, fully capturing the overall linear and nonlinear dynamics of the galaxy flow at different separations. In particular, we naturally obtain Gaussian/exponential, skewed/unskewed distribution functions, depending on separation as observed in simulations and data. Also, the recently proposed single-Gaussian description of redshift-space distortions is included in this model as a limiting case, when the bivariate Gaussian is collapsed to a two-dimensional Dirac delta function. More work is needed, but these results indicate a very promising path to make definitive progress in our program to improve RSD estimators.

  6. Photometric properties of intermediate-redshift Type Ia supernovae observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takanashi, N.; Doi, M.; Yasuda, N.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Konishi, K.; Schneider, D. P.; Cinabro, D.; Marriner, J.

    2017-02-01

    We have analysed multiband light curves of 328 intermediate-redshift (0.05 ≤ z < 0.24) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey. The multiband light curves were parametrized by using the multiband stretch method, which can simply parametrize light-curve shapes and peak brightness without dust extinction models. We found that most of the SNe Ia that appeared in red host galaxies (u - r > 2.5) do not have a broad light-curve width and the SNe Ia that appeared in blue host galaxies (u - r < 2.0) have a variety of light-curve widths. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test shows that the colour distribution of SNe Ia appearing in red/blue host galaxies is different (a significance level of 99.9 per cent). We also investigate the extinction law of host galaxy dust. As a result, we find that the value of Rv derived from SNe Ia with medium light-curve widths is consistent with the standard Galactic value, whereas the value of Rv derived from SNe Ia that appear in red host galaxies becomes significantly smaller. These results indicate that there may be two types of SNe Ia with different intrinsic colours, and that they are obscured by host galaxy dust with two different properties.

  7. Photometric properties of intermediate-redshift Type Ia supernovae observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey

    DOE PAGES

    Takanashi, N.; Doi, M.; Yasuda, N.; ...

    2016-12-06

    We have analyzed multi-band light curves of 328 intermediate redshift (0.05 <= z < 0.24) type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey (SDSS-II SN Survey). The multi-band light curves were parameterized by using the Multi-band Stretch Method, which can simply parameterize light curve shapes and peak brightness without dust extinction models. We found that most of the SNe Ia which appeared in red host galaxies (u - r > 2.5) don't have a broad light curve width and the SNe Ia which appeared in blue host galaxies (u - r < 2.0) havemore » a variety of light curve widths. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test shows that the colour distribution of SNe Ia appeared in red / blue host galaxies is different (significance level of 99.9%). We also investigate the extinction law of host galaxy dust. As a result, we find the value of Rv derived from SNe Ia with medium light curve width is consistent with the standard Galactic value. On the other hand, the value of Rv derived from SNe Ia that appeared in red host galaxies becomes significantly smaller. Furthermore, these results indicate that there may be two types of SNe Ia with different intrinsic colours, and they are obscured by host galaxy dust with two different properties.« less

  8. Photometric properties of intermediate-redshift Type Ia supernovae observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Takanashi, N.; Doi, M.; Yasuda, N.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Konishi, K.; Schneider, D. P.; Cinabro, D.; Marriner, J.

    2016-12-06

    We have analyzed multi-band light curves of 328 intermediate redshift (0.05 <= z < 0.24) type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey (SDSS-II SN Survey). The multi-band light curves were parameterized by using the Multi-band Stretch Method, which can simply parameterize light curve shapes and peak brightness without dust extinction models. We found that most of the SNe Ia which appeared in red host galaxies (u - r > 2.5) don't have a broad light curve width and the SNe Ia which appeared in blue host galaxies (u - r < 2.0) have a variety of light curve widths. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test shows that the colour distribution of SNe Ia appeared in red / blue host galaxies is different (significance level of 99.9%). We also investigate the extinction law of host galaxy dust. As a result, we find the value of Rv derived from SNe Ia with medium light curve width is consistent with the standard Galactic value. On the other hand, the value of Rv derived from SNe Ia that appeared in red host galaxies becomes significantly smaller. Furthermore, these results indicate that there may be two types of SNe Ia with different intrinsic colours, and they are obscured by host galaxy dust with two different properties.

  9. Cosmology with large galaxy redshift surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodré, Laerte, Jr.

    2012-10-01

    Galaxy redshift surveys are a major tool to address the most challenging cosmological problems facing cosmology, like the nature of dark energy and properties dark matter. The same observations are useful for a much larger variety of scientific applications, from the study of small bodies in the solar system, to properties of tidal streams in the Milky Way halo, to galaxy formation and evolution. Here I briefly discuss what is a redshift survey and how it can be used to attack astrophysical and cosmological problems. I finish with a brief description of a new survey, the Javalambre Physics of the Accelerating Universe Astrophysical Survey (JPAS), which will use an innovative system of 56 filters to map ~ 8000 square degrees on the sky. JPAS photometric system, besides providing accurate photometric redshifts useful for cosmological parameter estimation, will deliver a low-resolution spectrum at each pixel on the sky, allowing for the first time an almost all-sky IFU science.

  10. Probing the sparse tails of redshift distributions with Voronoi tessellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granett, B. R.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce an empirical galaxy photometric redshift algorithm based upon the Voronoi tessellation density estimator in the space of redshift and photometric parameters. Our aim is to use sparse survey datasets to estimate the full shape of the redshift distribution that is defined by the degeneracies in galaxy photometric properties and redshift. We describe the algorithm implementation and provide a proof of concept using the first public data release from the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS PDR-1). We validate the method by comparing against the standard empirical redshift distribution code Trees for Photo-Z (TPZ) on both mock and real data. We find that the Voronoi tessellation algorithm accurately recovers the full shape of the redshift distribution quantified by its second moment and inferred redshift confidence intervals. The analysis allows us to properly account for galaxies in the tails of the distributions that would otherwise be classified as catastrophic outliers. The source code is publicly available at http://bitbucket.org/bengranett/tailz.

  11. Predicting the Quasar Photometric Reshift with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Filter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubacher, Emily M.; York, Donald G.

    1999-10-01

    Photometric data were obtained for a set of known quasars (QSOs) in five bands with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) filter system for the purpose of testing the ability of the SDSS system to accurately predict the photometric redshift of QSOs. The initial plot of the SDSS photometric redshift versus the measured redshift shows a good relationship, but a lot of scatter. A literature search was conducted on a selected sampling of 49 QSOs, 26 with redshift z <= 0.5 and 23 with 0.5 < z < 2.6, to confirm their accurate identifications as QSOs with their advertised redshifts. This search revealed 10 rejected QSOs which were not QSOs but rather Seyfert galaxies or Narrow Line Objects. Additionally, 11 QSOs were either Broad Absorption Line Systems or had spectra that were in some way incomplete, and therefore, their QSO identification could not be confirmed. The revised plot, with the rejected and unconfirmed QSOs removed, gives an excellent straight line with very little scatter. Although these results are preliminary and for only a small sampling of QSOs, they show that further study of the relationship is warranted and that eventually the SDSS method may be used to accurately predict the photometric redshift of QSOs.

  12. The FourStar Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE): Ultraviolet to Far-infrared Catalogs, Medium-bandwidth Photometric Redshifts with Improved Accuracy, Stellar Masses, and Confirmation of Quiescent Galaxies to z ˜ 3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straatman, Caroline M. S.; Spitler, Lee R.; Quadri, Ryan F.; Labbé, Ivo; Glazebrook, Karl; Persson, S. Eric; Papovich, Casey; Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Cowley, Michael; Tomczak, Adam; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Alcorn, Leo; Allen, Rebecca; Broussard, Adam; van Dokkum, Pieter; Forrest, Ben; van Houdt, Josha; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Kawinwanichakij, Lalitwadee; Kelson, Daniel D.; Lee, Janice; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Mehrtens, Nicola; Monson, Andrew; Murphy, David; Rees, Glen; Tilvi, Vithal; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2016-10-01

    The FourStar galaxy evolution survey (ZFOURGE) is a 45 night legacy program with the FourStar near-infrared camera on Magellan and one of the most sensitive surveys to date. ZFOURGE covers a total of 400 arcmin2 in cosmic fields CDFS, COSMOS and UDS, overlapping CANDELS. We present photometric catalogs comprising >70,000 galaxies, selected from ultradeep K s -band detection images (25.5-26.5 AB mag, 5σ, total), and >80% complete to K s < 25.3-25.9 AB. We use 5 near-IR medium-bandwidth filters (J 1, J 2, J 3, H s , H l ) as well as broad-band K s at 1.05-2.16 μm to 25-26 AB at a seeing of ˜0.″5. Each field has ancillary imaging in 26-40 filters at 0.3-8 μm. We derive photometric redshifts and stellar population properties. Comparing with spectroscopic redshifts indicates a photometric redshift uncertainty σ z = 0.010, 0.009, and 0.011 in CDFS, COSMOS, and UDS. As spectroscopic samples are often biased toward bright and blue sources, we also inspect the photometric redshift differences between close pairs of galaxies, finding σ z,pairs = 0.01-0.02 at 1 < z < 2.5. We quantify how σ z,pairs depends on redshift, magnitude, spectral energy distribution type, and the inclusion of FourStar medium bands. σ z,pairs is smallest for bright, blue star-forming samples, while red star-forming galaxies have the worst σ z,pairs. Including FourStar medium bands reduces σ z,pairs by 50% at 1.5 < z < 2.5. We calculate star formation rates (SFRs) based on ultraviolet and ultradeep far-IR Spitzer/MIPS and Herschel/PACS data. We derive rest-frame U - V and V - J colors, and illustrate how these correlate with specific SFR and dust emission to z = 3.5. We confirm the existence of quiescent galaxies at z ˜ 3, demonstrating their SFRs are suppressed by > ×15. This paper contains data gathered with the 6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas observatory, Chile

  13. Photometric brown-dwarf classification. I. A method to identify and accurately classify large samples of brown dwarfs without spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypek, N.; Warren, S. J.; Faherty, J. K.; Mortlock, D. J.; Burgasser, A. J.; Hewett, P. C.

    2015-02-01

    Aims: We present a method, named photo-type, to identify and accurately classify L and T dwarfs onto the standard spectral classification system using photometry alone. This enables the creation of large and deep homogeneous samples of these objects efficiently, without the need for spectroscopy. Methods: We created a catalogue of point sources with photometry in 8 bands, ranging from 0.75 to 4.6 μm, selected from an area of 3344 deg2, by combining SDSS, UKIDSS LAS, and WISE data. Sources with 13.0 0.8, were then classified by comparison against template colours of quasars, stars, and brown dwarfs. The L and T templates, spectral types L0 to T8, were created by identifying previously known sources with spectroscopic classifications, and fitting polynomial relations between colour and spectral type. Results: Of the 192 known L and T dwarfs with reliable photometry in the surveyed area and magnitude range, 189 are recovered by our selection and classification method. We have quantified the accuracy of the classification method both externally, with spectroscopy, and internally, by creating synthetic catalogues and accounting for the uncertainties. We find that, brighter than J = 17.5, photo-type classifications are accurate to one spectral sub-type, and are therefore competitive with spectroscopic classifications. The resultant catalogue of 1157 L and T dwarfs will be presented in a companion paper.

  14. Spectrophotometric Redshifts in the Faint Infrared Grism Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pharo, John; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.

    2016-06-01

    We have combined HST grism spectroscopy and deep broadband imaging to measure spectro-photometric redshifts (SPZs) of faint galaxies. Using a technique pioneered by Ryan et al. 2007, one can combine spectra and photometry to yield an SPZ that is more accurate than pure photometric redshifts, and can probe more deeply than ground-based spectroscopic redshifts. By taking mid-resolution spectra from the HST Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS), SPZs can be found for measurements potentially down to 27th magnitude (the typical brightness of a dwarf galaxy at redshift ˜1.5). A galaxy’s redshift is vital for understanding its place in the growth and evolution of the universe. The measurement of high-accuracy SPZs for FIGS sources will improve the faint-end and high-redshift portions of the luminosity function, and make possible a robust analysis of the FIGS fields for signs of Large Scale Structure (LSS). The improved redshift and distance measurements allowed for the identification of a structure at z=0.83 in one of the FIGS fields.

  15. A direct probe of cosmological power spectra of the peculiar velocity field and the gravitational lensing magnification from photometric redshift surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Nusser, Adi; Feix, Martin; Branchini, Enzo E-mail: branchin@fis.uniroma3.it

    2013-01-01

    The cosmological peculiar velocity field (deviations from the pure Hubble flow) of matter carries significant information on dark energy, dark matter and the underlying theory of gravity on large scales. Peculiar motions of galaxies introduce systematic deviations between the observed galaxy redshifts z and the corresponding cosmological redshifts z{sub c{sub o{sub s}}}. A novel method for estimating the angular power spectrum of the peculiar velocity field based on observations of galaxy redshifts and apparent magnitudes m (or equivalently fluxes) is presented. This method exploits the fact that a mean relation between z{sub c{sub o{sub s}}} and m of galaxies can be derived from all galaxies in a redshift-magnitude survey. Given a galaxy magnitude, it is shown that the z{sub c{sub o{sub s}}}(m) relation yields its cosmological redshift with a 1σ error of σ{sub z} ∼ 0.3 for a survey like Euclid ( ∼ 10{sup 9} galaxies at z∼<2), and can be used to constrain the angular power spectrum of z−z{sub c{sub o{sub s}}}(m) with a high signal-to-noise ratio. At large angular separations corresponding to l∼<15, we obtain significant constraints on the power spectrum of the peculiar velocity field. At 15∼

  16. High-precision Photometric Redshifts from Spitzer/IRAC: Extreme [3.6] - [4.5] Colors Identify Galaxies in the Redshift Range z ˜ 6.6 - 6.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Renske; Bouwens, Rychard J.; Franx, Marijn; Oesch, Pascal A.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Labbé, Ivo; Holwerda, Benne; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Huang, J.-S.

    2015-03-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of studying galaxies in the z≳ 7 universe is the infrequent confirmation of their redshifts through spectroscopy, a phenomenon thought to occur from the increasing opacity of the intergalactic medium to Lyα photons at z\\gt 6.5. The resulting redshift uncertainties inhibit the efficient search for [C ii] in z˜ 7 galaxies with sub-millimeter instruments such as ALMA, given their limited scan speed for faint lines. One means by which to improve the precision of the inferred redshifts is to exploit the potential impact of strong nebular emission lines on the colors of z ˜ 4 - 8 galaxies as observed by Spitzer/IRAC. At z˜ 6.8, galaxies exhibit IRAC colors as blue as [3.6]-[4.5]˜ -1, likely due to the contribution of [O iii]+Hβ to the 3.6 μm flux combined with the absence of line contamination in the 4.5 μm band. In this paper we explore the use of extremely blue [3.6]-[4.5] colors to identify galaxies in the narrow redshift window z ˜ 6.6 - 6.9. When combined with an I-dropout criterion, we demonstrate that we can plausibly select a relatively clean sample of z˜ 6.8 galaxies. Through a systematic application of this selection technique to our catalogs from all five CANDELS fields, we identify 20 probable z ˜ 6.6 - 6.9 galaxies. We estimate that our criteria select the ˜50% strongest line emitters at z˜ 6.8 and from the IRAC colors we estimate a typical [O iii]+Hβ rest-frame equivalent width of 1085 Å for this sample. The small redshift uncertainties on our sample make it particularly well suited for follow-up studies with facilities such as ALMA.

  17. The Photometric Classification Server of PanSTARRS1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saglia, R. P.

    2008-12-01

    The Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 (PanSTARRS1) project is on his way to start science operations early 2009. In the next 3.5 years it will produce a grizy survey of 3/4 of the sky, 2 mag deeper than Sloan. The Photometric Classification Server is responsibile for the object classification as star, galaxy or quasar, based on multiband photometry. Accordingly, it t should also deliver accurate and timely stellar parameters or photometric redshifts. Several science projects rely on the output of the server, from transit planet search, to transient detections, the structure of the Milky Way, high redshift Quasars, galaxy evolution, cosmological shear, baryonic oscillations and galaxy cluster searches.

  18. PHOTOMETRIC CONSTRAINTS ON THE REDSHIFT OF z {approx} 10 CANDIDATE UDFj-39546284 FROM DEEPER WFC3/IR+ACS+IRAC OBSERVATIONS OVER THE HUDF

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwens, R. J.; Labbe, I.; Franx, M.; Smit, R.; Oesch, P. A.; Illingworth, G. D.; Magee, D.; Gonzalez, V.; Brammer, G.; Spitler, L. R.; Trenti, M.; Carollo, C. M.

    2013-03-01

    Ultra-deep WFC3/IR observations on the HUDF from the HUDF09 program revealed just one plausible z {approx} 10 candidate, UDFj-39546284. UDFj-39546284 had all the properties expected of a galaxy at z {approx} 10 showing (1) no detection in the deep ACS+WFC3 imaging data blueward of the F160W band, exhibiting (2) a blue spectral slope redward of the break, and showing (3) no prominent detection in deep IRAC observations. The new, similarly deep WFC3/IR HUDF12 F160W observations over the HUDF09/XDF allow us to further assess this candidate. These observations show that this candidate, previously only detected at {approx}5.9{sigma} in a single band, clearly corresponds to a real source. It is detected at {approx}5.3{sigma} in the new H{sub 160}-band data and at {approx}7.8{sigma} in the full 85-orbit H{sub 160}-band stack. Interestingly, the non-detection of the source (<1{sigma}) in the new F140W observations suggests a higher redshift. Formally, the best-fit redshift of the source utilizing all the WFC3+ACS (and IRAC+K{sub s} -band) observations is 11.8 {+-} 0.3. However, we consider the z {approx} 12 interpretation somewhat unlikely, since the source would either need to be {approx}20 Multiplication-Sign more luminous than expected or show very high-EW Ly{alpha} emission (which seems improbable given the extensive neutral gas prevalent early in the reionization epoch). Lower-redshift solutions fail if only continuum models are allowed. Plausible lower-redshift solutions require that the H{sub 160}-band flux be dominated by line emission such as H{alpha} or [O III] with extreme EWs. The tentative detection of line emission at 1.6 {mu}m in UDFj-39546284 in a companion paper suggests that such emission may have already been found.

  19. Photometric Lunar Surface Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nefian, Ara V.; Alexandrov, Oleg; Morattlo, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Beyer, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate photometric reconstruction of the Lunar surface is important in the context of upcoming NASA robotic missions to the Moon and in giving a more accurate understanding of the Lunar soil composition. This paper describes a novel approach for joint estimation of Lunar albedo, camera exposure time, and photometric parameters that utilizes an accurate Lunar-Lambertian reflectance model and previously derived Lunar topography of the area visualized during the Apollo missions. The method introduced here is used in creating the largest Lunar albedo map (16% of the Lunar surface) at the resolution of 10 meters/pixel.

  20. Cosmology from High Redshift Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnavich, Peter

    The discovery of a correlation between the light curve shape and intrinsic b rightness has made Type Ia supernovae exceptionally accurate distance indicators out to cosmologically interesting redshifts. Ground-based searches and follow-up as well as Hubble S pace Telescope observations of Type Ia supernovae have produced a significant number of object s with redshifts between 0.3 and 1.0. The distant SNe, when combined with a local samp le analyzed in the same way, provide reliable constraints on the deceleration and age of th e Universe. Early this year, an analysis of a handful of Type Ia events indicated that the deceleration was too small for gravitating matter alone to make a flat Universe. A larger sa mple of supernovae gives the surprising result that the Universe is accelerating, implying the exi stence of a cosmological constant or some other exotic form of energy. The success of this research has depended on the development of algorithms and software to register, scale and subtract CCD images taken weeks apart and to search for var iable objects. A good fraction of the point-sources identified are asteroids, variable stars, or AGN, so spectra are needed to confirm the identification as a Type Ia supernova and obt ain a redshift. The best candidates are followed photometrically to construct light curves. The steps to transform the observed light curves into cosmologically interestin g results will also be described.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Imperial IRAS-FSC redshift catalogue (IIFSCz) (Wang+, 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    2010-04-01

    We present a new catalogue, the Imperial IRAS-FSC Redshift Catalogue (IIFSCz), of 60303 galaxies selected at 60um from the IRAS Faint Source Catalogue (FSC). The IIFSCz consists of accurate position, optical, near-infrared and/or radio identifications, spectroscopic redshift (if available) or photometric redshift (if possible), predicted far-infrared (FIR) and submillimetre (submm) fluxes ranging from 12 to 1380um based upon the best-fitting infrared template. About 55% of the galaxies in the IIFSCz have spectroscopic redshifts, and a further 20% have photometric redshifts obtained through either the training set or the template-fitting method. For S(60)>0.36Jy, the 90% completeness limit of the FSC, 90% of the sources have either spectroscopic or photometric redshifts. Scientific applications of the IIFSCz include validation of current and forthcoming infrared and submm/mm surveys such as AKARI, Planck and Herschel, follow-up studies of rare source populations, large-scale structure and galaxy bias, local multiwavelength luminosity functions and source counts. The catalogue is publicly available at http://astro.imperial.ac.uk/~mrr/fss/. (2 data files).

  2. Application of a modified Haug and Lantzsch method for the rapid and accurate photometrical phytate determination in soybean, wheat, and maize meals.

    PubMed

    Reichwald, Kirsten; Hatzack, Frank

    2008-05-14

    A modified version of the Haug and Lantzsch method for rapid photometrical phytate determination was applied for the analysis of phytate in soybean, wheat, and maize meals. In comparison to the original protocol, the amount of the toxic reagent thioglycolic acid is reduced substantially to minimize potential health risks for laboratory personnel. Different extraction conditions for soybean meal were tested, and boiling for at least 30 min was found to be necessary to remove an interfering compound in soybean meal extracts. Phytate contents determined according to the modified Haug and Lantzsch method did not differ from those obtained by measuring total precipitated phosphorus or by sensitive and specific high-performance ion chromatography. Applicability and accuracy of the modified method for phytate analysis in major feed substrates, including soy-based textured vegetable protein, were demonstrated.

  3. BLAST: THE REDSHIFT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Eales, Stephen; Dye, Simon; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Raymond, Gwenifer; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas; Devlin, Mark J.; Rex, Marie; Semisch, Christopher; Truch, Matthew D. P.; Hughes, David H.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Viero, Marco P.; Patanchon, Guillaume; Siana, Brian

    2009-12-20

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has recently surveyed approx =8.7 deg{sup 2} centered on Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South at 250, 350, and 500 mum. In Dye et al., we presented the catalog of sources detected at 5sigma in at least one band in this field and the probable counterparts to these sources in other wavebands. In this paper, we present the results of a redshift survey in which we succeeded in measuring redshifts for 82 of these counterparts. The spectra show that the BLAST counterparts are mostly star-forming galaxies but not extreme ones when compared to those found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Roughly one quarter of the BLAST counterparts contain an active nucleus. We have used the spectroscopic redshifts to carry out a test of the ability of photometric redshift methods to estimate the redshifts of dusty galaxies, showing that the standard methods work well even when a galaxy contains a large amount of dust. We have also investigated the cases where there are two possible counterparts to the BLAST source, finding that in at least half of these there is evidence that the two galaxies are physically associated, either because they are interacting or because they are in the same large-scale structure. Finally, we have made the first direct measurements of the luminosity function in the three BLAST bands. We find strong evolution out to z = 1, in the sense that there is a large increase in the space density of the most luminous galaxies. We have also investigated the evolution of the dust-mass function, finding similar strong evolution in the space density of the galaxies with the largest dust masses, showing that the luminosity evolution seen in many wavebands is associated with an increase in the reservoir of interstellar matter in galaxies.

  4. Sloan Digital Sky Survey Photometric Calibration Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Marriner, John; /Fermilab

    2012-06-29

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey calibration is revisited to obtain the most accurate photometric calibration. A small but significant error is found in the flat-fielding of the Photometric telescope used for calibration. Two SDSS star catalogs are compared and the average difference in magnitude as a function of right ascension and declination exhibits small systematic errors in relative calibration. The photometric transformation from the SDSS Photometric Telescope to the 2.5 m telescope is recomputed and compared to synthetic magnitudes computed from measured filter bandpasses.

  5. Plasma Redshift Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brynjolfsson, Ari

    2011-04-01

    The newly discovered plasma redshift cross section explains a long range of phenomena; including the cosmological redshift, and the intrinsic redshift of Sun, stars, galaxies and quasars. It explains the beautiful black body spectrum of the CMB, and it predicts correctly: a) the observed XRB, b) the magnitude redshift relation for supernovae, and c) the surface- brightness-redshift relation for galaxies. There is no need for Big Bang, Inflation, Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Accelerated Expansion, and Black Holes. The universe is quasi-static and can renew itself forever (for details, see: http://www.plasmaredshift.org). There is no cosmic time dilation. In intergalactic space, the average electron temperature is T = 2.7 million K, and the average electron density is N = 0.0002 per cubic cm. Plasma redshift is derived theoretically from conventional axioms of physics by using more accurate methods than those conventionally used. The main difference is: 1) the proper inclusion of the dielectric constant, 2) more exact calculations of imaginary part of the dielectric constant, and as required 3) a quantum mechanical treatment of the interactions.

  6. Photometric Supernova Classification with Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lochner, Michelle; McEwen, Jason D.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Lahav, Ofer; Winter, Max K.

    2016-08-01

    Automated photometric supernova classification has become an active area of research in recent years in light of current and upcoming imaging surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, given that spectroscopic confirmation of type for all supernovae discovered will be impossible. Here, we develop a multi-faceted classification pipeline, combining existing and new approaches. Our pipeline consists of two stages: extracting descriptive features from the light curves and classification using a machine learning algorithm. Our feature extraction methods vary from model-dependent techniques, namely SALT2 fits, to more independent techniques that fit parametric models to curves, to a completely model-independent wavelet approach. We cover a range of representative machine learning algorithms, including naive Bayes, k-nearest neighbors, support vector machines, artificial neural networks, and boosted decision trees (BDTs). We test the pipeline on simulated multi-band DES light curves from the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. Using the commonly used area under the curve (AUC) of the Receiver Operating Characteristic as a metric, we find that the SALT2 fits and the wavelet approach, with the BDTs algorithm, each achieve an AUC of 0.98, where 1 represents perfect classification. We find that a representative training set is essential for good classification, whatever the feature set or algorithm, with implications for spectroscopic follow-up. Importantly, we find that by using either the SALT2 or the wavelet feature sets with a BDT algorithm, accurate classification is possible purely from light curve data, without the need for any redshift information.

  7. REAL OR INTERLOPER? THE REDSHIFT LIKELIHOODS OF z > 8 GALAXIES IN THE HUDF12

    SciTech Connect

    Pirzkal, Nor; Ryan, Russell; Coe, Dan; Noeske, Kai; Rothberg, Barry; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James

    2013-09-20

    In the absence of spectra, the technique of fitting model galaxy template spectra to observed photometric fluxes has become the workhorse method for determining the redshifts and other properties for high-z galaxy candidates. In this paper, we present an analysis of the most recent and possibly most distant galaxies (z {approx} 8-12) discovered in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) using a more robust method of redshift estimation based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) fitting, in contrast to the ''best fit'' models obtained using simpler {chi}{sup 2} minimization techniques. The advantage of MCMC fitting is the ability to accurately estimate the probability density function of the redshift for each object as well as any input model parameters. This makes it possible to derive accurate, credible intervals by properly marginalizing over all other input model parameters. We apply our method to 13 recently identified sources in the HUDF and show that, despite claims based on {chi}{sup 2} minimization, none of these sources can be securely ruled out as low redshift interlopers (z < 4) due to the low signal-to-noise of currently available observations. There is an average probability of 21% that these sources are low redshift interlopers.

  8. Fast and accurate estimation for astrophysical problems in large databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Joseph W.

    2010-10-01

    A recent flood of astronomical data has created much demand for sophisticated statistical and machine learning tools that can rapidly draw accurate inferences from large databases of high-dimensional data. In this Ph.D. thesis, methods for statistical inference in such databases will be proposed, studied, and applied to real data. I use methods for low-dimensional parametrization of complex, high-dimensional data that are based on the notion of preserving the connectivity of data points in the context of a Markov random walk over the data set. I show how this simple parameterization of data can be exploited to: define appropriate prototypes for use in complex mixture models, determine data-driven eigenfunctions for accurate nonparametric regression, and find a set of suitable features to use in a statistical classifier. In this thesis, methods for each of these tasks are built up from simple principles, compared to existing methods in the literature, and applied to data from astronomical all-sky surveys. I examine several important problems in astrophysics, such as estimation of star formation history parameters for galaxies, prediction of redshifts of galaxies using photometric data, and classification of different types of supernovae based on their photometric light curves. Fast methods for high-dimensional data analysis are crucial in each of these problems because they all involve the analysis of complicated high-dimensional data in large, all-sky surveys. Specifically, I estimate the star formation history parameters for the nearly 800,000 galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 spectroscopic catalog, determine redshifts for over 300,000 galaxies in the SDSS photometric catalog, and estimate the types of 20,000 supernovae as part of the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. Accurate predictions and classifications are imperative in each of these examples because these estimates are utilized in broader inference problems

  9. Correcting cosmological parameter biases for all redshift surveys induced by estimating and reweighting redshift distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Markus Michael; Hoyle, Ben; Paech, Kerstin; Seitz, Stella

    2017-04-01

    Photometric redshift uncertainties are a major source of systematic error for ongoing and future photometric surveys. We study different sources of redshift error caused by choosing a suboptimal redshift histogram bin width and propose methods to resolve them. The selection of a too large bin width is shown to oversmooth small-scale structure of the radial distribution of galaxies. This systematic error can significantly shift cosmological parameter constraints by up to 6σ for the dark energy equation-of-state parameter w. Careful selection of bin width can reduce this systematic by a factor of up to 6 as compared with commonly used current binning approaches. We further discuss a generalized resampling method that can correct systematic and statistical errors in cosmological parameter constraints caused by uncertainties in the redshift distribution. This can be achieved without any prior assumptions about the shape of the distribution or the form of the redshift error. Our methodology allows photometric surveys to obtain unbiased cosmological parameter constraints using a minimum number of spectroscopic calibration data. For a DES-like galaxy clustering forecast, we obtain unbiased results with respect to errors caused by suboptimal histogram bin width selection, using only 5k representative spectroscopic calibration objects per tomographic redshift bin.

  10. Photometric Determination of Quasar Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, S.; Philip, N. S.

    2010-12-01

    We describe an efficient and fast method for the detection and classification of quasars using a machine learning tool, making use of photometric information from SDSS DR7 data release. The photometric information used are the ten independent colours that can be derived from the 5 filters available with SDSS and the machine learning algorithm used is a difference boosting neural network (DBNN) that uses Bayesian classification rule. An adaptive learning algorithm was used to prepare the training sample for each region. Cross validations were done with SDSS spectroscopy and it was found that the method could detect quasars with above 96.96% confidence regarding their true classification. The completeness at this stage was 99.01%. Contaminants were mainly stars and the incorrectly classified quasars belonged to a few specific patches of redshifts. Color plots indicated that the colors of some stars and quasars in those redshits were indistinguishable from each other and was the major cause of their incorrect classification. A confidence value (computed posterior Bayesian belief of the network) was assigned to every object that was classified. Most of the incorrect classifications had a low confidence value. This information may be used to filter out contaminants and improve the classification accuracy at the cost of reduced completeness.

  11. PHOTOMETRICALLY TRIGGERED KECK SPECTROSCOPY OF FERMI BL LACERTAE OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Michael S.; Romani, Roger W.

    2013-11-01

    We report on Keck spectra of 10 Fermi blazars. J0622+3326, previously unobserved, is shown to be a flat-spectrum radio quasar at redshift z = 1.062. The others are known BL Lac type objects that have resisted previous attempts to secure redshifts. Using a photometric monitoring campaign with the 0.76 m Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope at Lick Observatory, we identified epochs when the relativistic jet emission was fainter than usual, thus triggering the Keck spectroscopy. This strategy gives improved sensitivity to stars and ionized gas in the host galaxy, thereby providing improved redshift constraints for seven of these sources.

  12. CONSTRAINING SOURCE REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTIONS WITH GRAVITATIONAL LENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, D.; Dawson, W. A.

    2012-09-10

    We introduce a new method for constraining the redshift distribution of a set of galaxies, using weak gravitational lensing shear. Instead of using observed shears and redshifts to constrain cosmological parameters, we ask how well the shears around clusters can constrain the redshifts, assuming fixed cosmological parameters. This provides a check on photometric redshifts, independent of source spectral energy distribution properties and therefore free of confounding factors such as misidentification of spectral breaks. We find that {approx}40 massive ({sigma}{sub v} = 1200 km s{sup -1}) cluster lenses are sufficient to determine the fraction of sources in each of six coarse redshift bins to {approx}11%, given weak (20%) priors on the masses of the highest-redshift lenses, tight (5%) priors on the masses of the lowest-redshift lenses, and only modest (20%-50%) priors on calibration and evolution effects. Additional massive lenses drive down uncertainties as N{sub lens}{sup -1/2}, but the improvement slows as one is forced to use lenses further down the mass function. Future large surveys contain enough clusters to reach 1% precision in the bin fractions if the tight lens-mass priors can be maintained for large samples of lenses. In practice this will be difficult to achieve, but the method may be valuable as a complement to other more precise methods because it is based on different physics and therefore has different systematic errors.

  13. Spectra of High-Redshift Type Ia Supernovae and a Comparison withtheir Low-Redshift Counterparts

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, I.M.; Howell, D.A.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Burns,M.S.; Conley, A.; Deustua, S.E.; Ellis, R.; Fabbro, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Folatelli, G.; Garavini, G.; Gibbons, R.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.E.; Kim, A.G.; Knop, R.A.; Kowalski, M.; Lidman, C.; Nobili, S.; Nugent, P.E.; Pain, R.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Perlmutter, S.; Ruiz-Lapuente,P.; Sainton, G.; Schaefer, B.E.; Smith, E.; Spadafora, A.L.; Stanishev,V.; Thomas, R.C.; Walton, N.A.; Wang, L.; Wood-Vasey, W.M.

    2005-07-20

    We present spectra for 14 high-redshift (0.17 < z < 0.83) supernovae, which were discovered by the Supernova Cosmology Project as part of a campaign to measure cosmological parameters. The spectra are used to determine the redshift and classify the supernova type, essential information if the supernovae are to be used for cosmological studies. Redshifts were derived either from the spectrum of the host galaxy or from the spectrum of the supernova itself. We present evidence that these supernovae are of Type Ia by matching to spectra of nearby supernovae. We find that the dates of the spectra relative to maximum light determined from this fitting process are consistent with the dates determined from the photometric light curves, and moreover the spectral time-sequence for SNe Type Ia at low and high redshift is indistinguishable. We also show that the expansion velocities measured from blueshifted Ca H&K are consistent with those measured for low-redshift Type Ia supernovae. From these first-level quantitative comparisons we find no evidence for evolution in SNIa properties between these low- and high-redshift samples. Thus even though our samples may not be complete, we conclude that there is a population of SNe Ia at high redshift whose spectral properties match those at low redshift.

  14. THE PHOTOMETRIC CLASSIFICATION SERVER FOR Pan-STARRS1

    SciTech Connect

    Saglia, R. P.; Bender, R.; Seitz, S.; Senger, R.; Snigula, J.; Phleps, S.; Wilman, D.; Tonry, J. L.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Heasley, J. N.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Morgan, J. S.; Greisel, N.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Klement, R. J.; Rix, H.-W.; Smith, K.; Green, P. J.; and others

    2012-02-20

    The Pan-STARRS1 survey is obtaining multi-epoch imaging in five bands (g{sub P1} r{sub P1} i{sub P1} z{sub P1} y{sub P1}) over the entire sky north of declination -30 deg. We describe here the implementation of the Photometric Classification Server (PCS) for Pan-STARRS1. PCS will allow the automatic classification of objects into star/galaxy/quasar classes based on colors and the measurement of photometric redshifts for extragalactic objects, and will constrain stellar parameters for stellar objects, working at the catalog level. We present tests of the system based on high signal-to-noise photometry derived from the Medium-Deep Fields of Pan-STARRS1, using available spectroscopic surveys as training and/or verification sets. We show that the Pan-STARRS1 photometry delivers classifications and photometric redshifts as good as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometry to the same magnitude limits. In particular, our preliminary results, based on this relatively limited data set down to the SDSS spectroscopic limits, and therefore potentially improvable, show that stars are correctly classified as such in 85% of cases, galaxies in 97%, and QSOs in 84%. False positives are less than 1% for galaxies, Almost-Equal-To 19% for stars, and Almost-Equal-To 28% for QSOs. Moreover, photometric redshifts for 1000 luminous red galaxies up to redshift 0.5 are determined to 2.4% precision (defined as 1.48 Multiplication-Sign Median|z{sub phot} - z{sub spec}|/(1 + z)) with just 0.4% catastrophic outliers and small (-0.5%) residual bias. For bluer galaxies up to the same redshift, the residual bias (on average -0.5%) trend, percentage of catastrophic failures (1.2%), and precision (4.2%) are higher, but still interestingly small for many science applications. Good photometric redshifts (to 5%) can be obtained for at most 60% of the QSOs of the sample. PCS will create a value-added catalog with classifications and photometric redshifts for eventually many millions of sources.

  15. Using cross correlations to calibrate lensing source redshift distributions: Improving cosmological constraints from upcoming weak lensing surveys

    SciTech Connect

    De Putter, Roland; Doré, Olivier; Das, Sudeep

    2014-01-10

    Cross correlations between the galaxy number density in a lensing source sample and that in an overlapping spectroscopic sample can in principle be used to calibrate the lensing source redshift distribution. In this paper, we study in detail to what extent this cross-correlation method can mitigate the loss of cosmological information in upcoming weak lensing surveys (combined with a cosmic microwave background prior) due to lack of knowledge of the source distribution. We consider a scenario where photometric redshifts are available and find that, unless the photometric redshift distribution p(z {sub ph}|z) is calibrated very accurately a priori (bias and scatter known to ∼0.002 for, e.g., EUCLID), the additional constraint on p(z {sub ph}|z) from the cross-correlation technique to a large extent restores the cosmological information originally lost due to the uncertainty in dn/dz(z). Considering only the gain in photo-z accuracy and not the additional cosmological information, enhancements of the dark energy figure of merit of up to a factor of four (40) can be achieved for a SuMIRe-like (EUCLID-like) combination of lensing and redshift surveys, where SuMIRe stands for Subaru Measurement of Images and Redshifts). However, the success of the method is strongly sensitive to our knowledge of the galaxy bias evolution in the source sample and we find that a percent level bias prior is needed to optimize the gains from the cross-correlation method (i.e., to approach the cosmology constraints attainable if the bias was known exactly).

  16. Anomaly detection for machine learning redshifts applied to SDSS galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, Ben; Rau, Markus Michael; Paech, Kerstin; Bonnett, Christopher; Seitz, Stella; Weller, Jochen

    2015-10-01

    We present an analysis of anomaly detection for machine learning redshift estimation. Anomaly detection allows the removal of poor training examples, which can adversely influence redshift estimates. Anomalous training examples may be photometric galaxies with incorrect spectroscopic redshifts, or galaxies with one or more poorly measured photometric quantity. We select 2.5 million `clean' SDSS DR12 galaxies with reliable spectroscopic redshifts, and 6730 `anomalous' galaxies with spectroscopic redshift measurements which are flagged as unreliable. We contaminate the clean base galaxy sample with galaxies with unreliable redshifts and attempt to recover the contaminating galaxies using the Elliptical Envelope technique. We then train four machine learning architectures for redshift analysis on both the contaminated sample and on the preprocessed `anomaly-removed' sample and measure redshift statistics on a clean validation sample generated without any preprocessing. We find an improvement on all measured statistics of up to 80 per cent when training on the anomaly removed sample as compared with training on the contaminated sample for each of the machine learning routines explored. We further describe a method to estimate the contamination fraction of a base data sample.

  17. THE CARNEGIE SUPERNOVA PROJECT: FIRST PHOTOMETRY DATA RELEASE OF LOW-REDSHIFT TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras, Carlos; Phillips, M. M.; Folatelli, Gaston; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Boldt, Luis; Gonzalez, Sergio; Krzeminski, Wojtek; Morrell, Nidia; Roth, Miguel; Salgado, Francisco; Hamuy, Mario; Maureira, MarIa Jose; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Persson, S. E.; Burns, Christopher R.; Freedman, W. L.; Madore, Barry F.; Murphy, David; Wyatt, Pamela

    2010-02-15

    The Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP) is a five-year survey being carried out at the Las Campanas Observatory to obtain high-quality light curves of {approx}100 low-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in a well-defined photometric system. Here we present the first release of photometric data that contains the optical light curves of 35 SNe Ia, and near-infrared light curves for a subset of 25 events. The data comprise 5559 optical (ugriBV) and 1043 near-infrared (Y JHK{sub s} ) data points in the natural system of the Swope telescope. Twenty-eight SNe have pre-maximum data, and for 15 of these, the observations begin at least 5 days before B maximum. This is one of the most accurate data sets of low-redshift SNe Ia published to date. When completed, the CSP data set will constitute a fundamental reference for precise determinations of cosmological parameters, and serve as a rich resource for comparison with models of SNe Ia.

  18. THE ALHAMBRA PHOTOMETRIC SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Villegas, T. Aparicio; Alfaro, E. J.; Cabrera-Cano, J. E-mail: emilio@iaa.es

    2010-03-15

    This paper presents the characterization of the optical range of the ALHAMBRA photometric system, a 20 contiguous, equal-width, medium-band CCD system with wavelength coverage from 3500 A to 9700 A. The photometric description of the system is done by presenting the full response curve as a product of the filters, CCD, and atmospheric transmission curves, and using some first- and second-order moments of this response function. We also introduce the set of standard stars that defines the system, formed by 31 classic spectrophotometric standard stars which have been used in the calibration of other known photometric systems, and 288 stars, flux calibrated homogeneously, from the Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL). Based on the NGSL, we determine the transformation equations between Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz photometry and the ALHAMBRA photometric system, in order to establish some relations between both systems. Finally, we develop and discuss a strategy to calculate the photometric zero points of the different pointings in the ALHAMBRA project.

  19. Three-dimensional stereo by photometric ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, L.B.; Angelopoulou, E.

    1994-11-01

    We present a methodology for corresponding a dense set of points on an object surface from photometric values for three-dimensional stereo computation of depth. The methodology utilizes multiple stereo pairs of images, with each stereo pair being taken of the identical scene but under different illumination. With just two stereo pairs of images taken under two different illumination conditions, a stereo pair of ratio images can be produced, one for the ratio of left-hand images and one for the ratio of right-hand images. We demonstrate how the photometric ratios composing these images can be used for accurate correspondence of object points. Object points having the same photometric ratio with respect to two different illumination conditions constitute a well-defined equivalence class of physical constraints defined by local surface orientation relative to illumination conditions. We formally show that for diffuse reflection the photometric ratio is invariant to varying camera characteristics, surface albedo, and viewpoint and that therefore the same photometric ratio in both images of a stereo pair implies the same equivalence class of physical constraints. The correspondence of photometric ratios along epipolar lines in a stereo pair of images under different illumination conditions is a correspondence of equivalent physical constraints, and the determination of depth from stereo can be performed. Whereas illumination planning is required, our photometric-based stereo methodology does not require knowledge of illumination conditions in the actual computation of three-dimensional depth and is applicable to perspective views. This technique extends the stereo determination of three-dimensional depth to smooth featureless surfaces without the use of precisely calibrated lighting. We demonstrate experimental depth maps from a dense set of points on smooth objects of known ground-truth shape, determined to within 1% depth accuracy.

  20. Sacrificing information for the greater good: how to select photometric bands for optimal accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stensbo-Smidt, Kristoffer; Gieseke, Fabian; Igel, Christian; Zirm, Andrew; Steenstrup Pedersen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale surveys make huge amounts of photometric data available. Because of the sheer amount of objects, spectral data cannot be obtained for all of them. Therefore, it is important to devise techniques for reliably estimating physical properties of objects from photometric information alone. These estimates are needed to automatically identify interesting objects worth a follow-up investigation as well as to produce the required data for a statistical analysis of the space covered by a survey. We argue that machine learning techniques are suitable to compute these estimates accurately and efficiently. This study promotes a feature selection algorithm, which selects the most informative magnitudes and colours for a given task of estimating physical quantities from photometric data alone. Using k-nearest neighbours regression, a well-known non-parametric machine learning method, we show that using the found features significantly increases the accuracy of the estimations compared to using standard features and standard methods. We illustrate the usefulness of the approach by estimating specific star formation rates (sSFRs) and redshifts (photo-z's) using only the broad-band photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). For estimating sSFRs, we demonstrate that our method produces better estimates than traditional spectral energy distribution fitting. For estimating photo-z's, we show that our method produces more accurate photo-z's than the method employed by SDSS. The study highlights the general importance of performing proper model selection to improve the results of machine learning systems and how feature selection can provide insights into the predictive relevance of particular input features.

  1. Star formation and mass assembly in high redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, P.; Fontana, A.; Grazian, A.; Salimbeni, S.; Fiore, F.; Fontanot, F.; Boutsia, K.; Castellano, M.; Cristiani, S.; de Santis, C.; Gallozzi, S.; Giallongo, E.; Menci, N.; Nonino, M.; Paris, D.; Pentericci, L.; Vanzella, E.

    2009-09-01

    Aims: The goal of this work is to infer the star formation properties and the mass assembly process of high redshift (0.3 ≤ z < 2.5) galaxies from their IR emission using the 24 μm band of MIPS-Spitzer. Methods: We used an updated version of the GOODS-MUSIC catalog, which has multiwavelength coverage from 0.3 to 24 μm and either spectroscopic or accurate photometric redshifts. We describe how the catalog has been extended by the addition of mid-IR fluxes derived from the MIPS 24 μm image. We compared two different estimators of the star formation rate (SFR hereafter). One is the total infrared emission derived from 24 μm, estimated using both synthetic and empirical IR templates. The other one is a multiwavelength fit to the full galaxy SED, which automatically accounts for dust reddening and age-star formation activity degeneracies. For both estimates, we computed the SFR density and the specific SFR. Results: We show that the two SFR indicators are roughly consistent, once the uncertainties involved are taken into account. However, they show a systematic trend, IR-based estimates exceeding the fit-based ones as the star formation rate increases. With this new catalog, we show that: a) at z>0.3, the star formation rate is correlated well with stellar mass, and this relationship seems to steepen with redshift if one relies on IR-based estimates of the SFR; b) the contribution to the global SFRD by massive galaxies increases with redshift up to ≃ 2.5, more rapidly than for galaxies of lower mass, but appears to flatten at higher z; c) despite this increase, the most important contributors to the SFRD at any z are galaxies of about, or immediately lower than, the characteristic stellar mass; d) at z≃ 2, massive galaxies are actively star-forming, with a median {SFR} ≃ 300 M_⊙ yr-1. During this epoch, our targeted galaxies assemble a substantial part of their final stellar mass; e) the specific SFR (SSFR) shows a clear bimodal distribution. Conclusions

  2. Photometric microdetermination of malathion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kallman, B.J.

    1962-01-01

    Carboxylic esters and lactones react with alkaline hydroxylamine to yield hydroxamates; these in acidic solution form colored iron(III) complexes. A photometric determination of such esters and lactones is thus permitted and has been extensively applied ( I-6). Hestrin ( 3) utilized this method for the microdetermination of acetylcholine and his procedure is much used for the in vitro study of cholinesterase activity and inhibition (4-6).

  3. Standard Asteroid Photometric Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piironen, J.; Lagerkvist, C.-I.; Torppa, J.; Kaasalainen, M.; Warner, B.

    2001-12-01

    The Asteroid Photometric Catalogue (APC) is now in its fifth update with over 8600 lightcurves of more than 1000 asteroids in the database. The APC also has references of over one thousand lightcurves not in digital format. The catalogue has been published by Uppsala University Observatory and is distributed by request (contact: classe@astro.uu.se). The new update also includes a list of known asteroid rotational periods and a CD-ROM containing all the existing digital data in the APC. The total number of observed lightcurves is growing rapidly, not the least because of the new state-of-the-art equipment and growing interest among amateur astronomers. The photometric database is now so large that the present format must be altered to facilitate a user-friendly on-line service for the down- and uploading of data. We are proposing (and have started to construct) a new Internet-based Standard Asteroid Photometric Catalogue (SAPC). The website is planned to open during the first half of the year 2002. In addition to the data files, the site would contain the index and guide to the catalogue, a web-form for reporting observations, and some general observing guidelines (e.g., on filters, timing, etc.). There would also be a list of asteroids for which more observations are needed, together with recommended observing periods. This would be accompanied by an up-to-date collection of physical asteroid models based on photometric data, as well as links to observer network pages and other sites that work in collaboration with the catalogue project. Our aim is to develop this site into a global standard service used by everyone involved in asteroid photometry.

  4. Voyager photometry of Triton - Haze and surface photometric properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillier, J.; Helfenstein, P.; Verbiscer, A.; Veverka, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Voyager whole-disk observations of Triton at 0.41, 0.48, and 0.56 micron filter wavelengths are analyzed using a model which combines an improved version of Hapke's photometric equation with a thin atmospheric haze layer in the appropriate spherical geometry. The model is shown to describe accurately the phase curves over a range of phase angles and to agree with disk-resolved brightness scans along the photometric equator and mirror meridian. According to the model, the photometric parameters of Triton's regolith are reasonably typical of icy satellites, except for the extremely high (close to unity) single-scattering albedo.

  5. Measuring galaxy environment with the synergy of future photometric and spectroscopic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucciati, O.; Marulli, F.; Cimatti, A.; Merson, A. I.; Norberg, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Baugh, C. M.; Branchini, E.

    2016-10-01

    We exploit the synergy between low-resolution spectroscopy and photometric redshifts to study environmental effects on galaxy evolution in slitless spectroscopic surveys from space. As a test case, we consider the future Euclid Deep survey (˜40 deg2), which combines a slitless spectroscopic survey limited at Hα flux ≥5 × 10-17 erg cm-2 s-1 and a photometric survey limited in H band (H ≤ 26). We use Euclid-like galaxy mock catalogues, in which we anchor the photometric redshifts to the 3D galaxy distribution of the available spectroscopic redshifts. We then estimate the local density contrast by counting objects in cylindrical cells with radius from 1 to 10 h-1Mpc, over the redshift range 0.9 < z < 1.8. We compare this density field with the one computed in a mock catalogue with the same depth as the Euclid Deep survey (H = 26) but without redshift measurement errors. We find that our method successfully separates high- from low-density environments (the last from the first quintile of the density distribution), with higher efficiency at low redshift and large cells: the fraction of low-density regions mistaken by high-density peaks is <1 per cent for all scales and redshifts explored, but for scales of 1 h-1Mpc for which is a few per cent. These results show that we can efficiently study environment in photometric samples if spectroscopic information is available for a smaller sample of objects that sparsely samples the same volume. We demonstrate that these studies are possible in the Euclid Deep survey, i.e. in a redshift range in which environmental effects are different from those observed in the local Universe, hence providing new constraints for galaxy evolution models.

  6. Galaxies at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Fournon, I.; Balcells, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Sánchez, F.

    2010-08-01

    Participants; Group photograph; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Galaxy formation and evolution: recent progress R. Ellis; 2. Galaxies at high redshift M. Dickinson; 3. High-redshift galaxies: the far-infrared and sub-millimeter view A. Franceschini; 4. Quasar absorption lines J. Bechtold; 5. Stellar population synthesis models at low and high redshift G. Bruzual A.; 6. Elliptical galaxies K. C. Freeman; 7. Disk galaxies K. C. Freeman; 8. Dark matter in disk galaxies K. C. Freeman.

  7. Supernova Photometric Lightcurve Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Tayeb; Narayan, Gautham

    2016-01-01

    This is a preliminary report on photometric supernova classification. We first explore the properties of supernova light curves, and attempt to restructure the unevenly sampled and sparse data from assorted datasets to allow for processing and classification. The data was primarily drawn from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) simulated data, created for the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. This poster shows a method for producing a non-parametric representation of the light curve data, and applying a Random Forest classifier algorithm to distinguish between supernovae types. We examine the impact of Principal Component Analysis to reduce the dimensionality of the dataset, for future classification work. The classification code will be used in a stage of the ANTARES pipeline, created for use on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope alert data and other wide-field surveys. The final figure-of-merit for the DES data in the r band was 60% for binary classification (Type I vs II).Zaidi was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  8. Sloan Digital Sky Survey III photometric quasar clustering: probing the initial conditions of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Shirley; Agarwal, Nishant; Myers, Adam D.; Lyons, Richard; Disbrow, Ashley; Seo, Hee-Jong; Ross, Ashley; Hirata, Christopher; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; O'Connell, Ross; Huff, Eric; Schlegel, David; Slosar, Anže; Weinberg, David; Strauss, Michael; Ross, Nicholas P.; Schneider, Donald P.; Bahcall, Neta; Brinkmann, J.; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Yèche, Christophe

    2015-05-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has surveyed 14,555 square degrees of the sky, and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present the large-scale clustering of 1.6 million quasars between z=0.5 and z=2.5 that have been classified from this imaging, representing the highest density of quasars ever studied for clustering measurements. This data set spans 0~ 11,00 square degrees and probes a volume of 80 h-3 Gpc3. In principle, such a large volume and medium density of tracers should facilitate high-precision cosmological constraints. We measure the angular clustering of photometrically classified quasars using an optimal quadratic estimator in four redshift slices with an accuracy of ~ 25% over a bin width of δl ~ 10-15 on scales corresponding to matter-radiation equality and larger (0l ~ 2-3). Observational systematics can strongly bias clustering measurements on large scales, which can mimic cosmologically relevant signals such as deviations from Gaussianity in the spectrum of primordial perturbations. We account for systematics by employing a new method recently proposed by Agarwal et al. (2014) to the clustering of photometrically classified quasars. We carefully apply our methodology to mitigate known observational systematics and further remove angular bins that are contaminated by unknown systematics. Combining quasar data with the photometric luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample of Ross et al. (2011) and Ho et al. (2012), and marginalizing over all bias and shot noise-like parameters, we obtain a constraint on local primordial non-Gaussianity of fNL = -113+154-154 (1σ error). We next assume that the bias of quasar and galaxy distributions can be obtained independently from quasar/galaxy-CMB lensing cross-correlation measurements (such as those in Sherwin et al. (2013)). This can be facilitated by spectroscopic observations of the sources, enabling the redshift distribution to be completely determined, and allowing precise estimates of the bias

  9. Properties of the redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tifft, William G.; Cocke, W. J.

    1990-01-01

    Central to any analysis of dynamical systems, or large scale motion, is the interpretation of redshifts of galaxies as classical Doppler velocity shifts. This is a testable assumption and for many years evidence has accumulated that is inconsistent with the assumption. Here, the authors review recent evidence suggesting systematic radial dependence and temporal variation of redshifts.

  10. The magnitude-redshift relation for 561 Abell clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postman, M.; Huchra, J. P.; Geller, M. J.; Henry, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    The Hubble diagram for the 561 Abell clusters with measured redshifts has been examined using Abell's (1958) corrected photo-red magnitudes for the tenth-ranked cluster member (m10). After correction for the Scott effect and K dimming, the data are in good agreement with a linear magnitude-redshift relation with a slope of 0.2 out to z = 0.1. New redshift data are also presented for 20 Abell clusters. Abell's m10 is suitable for redshift estimation for clusters with m10 of no more than 16.5. At fainter m10, the number of foreground galaxies expected within an Abell radius is large enough to make identification of the tenth-ranked galaxy difficult. Interlopers bias the estimated redshift toward low values at high redshift. Leir and van den Bergh's (1977) redshift estimates suffer from this same bias but to a smaller degree because of the use of multiple cluster parameters. Constraints on deviations of cluster velocities from the mean cosmological flow require greater photometric accuracy than is provided by Abell's m10 magnitudes.

  11. The number density of quiescent compact galaxies at intermediate redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Damjanov, Ivana; Hwang, Ho Seong; Geller, Margaret J.; Chilingarian, Igor

    2014-09-20

    Massive compact systems at 0.2 < z < 0.6 are the missing link between the predominantly compact population of massive quiescent galaxies at high redshift and their analogs and relics in the local volume. The evolution in number density of these extreme objects over cosmic time is the crucial constraining factor for the models of massive galaxy assembly. We select a large sample of ∼200 intermediate-redshift massive compacts from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) spectroscopy by identifying point-like Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric sources with spectroscopic signatures of evolved redshifted galaxies. A subset of our targets have publicly available high-resolution ground-based images that we use to augment the dynamical and stellar population properties of these systems by their structural parameters. We confirm that all BOSS compact candidates are as compact as their high-redshift massive counterparts and less than half the size of similarly massive systems at z ∼ 0. We use the completeness-corrected numbers of BOSS compacts to compute lower limits on their number densities in narrow redshift bins spanning the range of our sample. The abundance of extremely dense quiescent galaxies at 0.2 < z < 0.6 is in excellent agreement with the number densities of these systems at high redshift. Our lower limits support the models of massive galaxy assembly through a series of minor mergers over the redshift range 0 < z < 2.

  12. The Number Density of Quiescent Compact Galaxies at Intermediate Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damjanov, Ivana; Hwang, Ho Seong; Geller, Margaret J.; Chilingarian, Igor

    2014-09-01

    Massive compact systems at 0.2 < z < 0.6 are the missing link between the predominantly compact population of massive quiescent galaxies at high redshift and their analogs and relics in the local volume. The evolution in number density of these extreme objects over cosmic time is the crucial constraining factor for the models of massive galaxy assembly. We select a large sample of ~200 intermediate-redshift massive compacts from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) spectroscopy by identifying point-like Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric sources with spectroscopic signatures of evolved redshifted galaxies. A subset of our targets have publicly available high-resolution ground-based images that we use to augment the dynamical and stellar population properties of these systems by their structural parameters. We confirm that all BOSS compact candidates are as compact as their high-redshift massive counterparts and less than half the size of similarly massive systems at z ~ 0. We use the completeness-corrected numbers of BOSS compacts to compute lower limits on their number densities in narrow redshift bins spanning the range of our sample. The abundance of extremely dense quiescent galaxies at 0.2 < z < 0.6 is in excellent agreement with the number densities of these systems at high redshift. Our lower limits support the models of massive galaxy assembly through a series of minor mergers over the redshift range 0 < z < 2.

  13. An Enhanced Multiwavelength Photometric Catalog for the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyland, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Although our knowledge of the physics of galaxy evolution has made great strides over the past few decades, we still lack a complete understanding of the formation and growth of galaxies at high redshift. The Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS) aims to address this issue through deep Spitzer observations at [3.6] and [4.5] microns of 4 million sources distributed over five well-studied “deep fields” with abundant ancillary data from ground-based near-infrared surveys. The large SERVS footprint covers 18 square degrees and will provide a census of the multiwavelength properties of massive galaxies in the redshift range z = 1-6. A critical aspect of the scientific success and legacy value of SERVS is the construction of a robust source catalog. While multiwavelength source catalogs of the SERVS fields have been generated using traditional techniques, the photometric accuracy of these catalogs is limited by their inability to correctly measure fluxes of individual sources that are blended and/or inherently faint in the IRAC bands. To improve upon this shortfall and maximize the scientific impact of SERVS, we are using The Tractor image modeling code to produce a more accurate and complete multiwavelength source catalog. The Tractor optimizes a likelihood for the source properties given an image cut-out, light profile model, and the PSF information. Thus, The Tractor uses the source properties at the fiducial, highest-resolution band as a prior to more accurately measure the source properties in the lower-resolution images at longer wavelengths. We provide an overview of our parallelized implementation of The Tractor, discuss the subsequent improvements to the SERVS photometry, and suggest future applications.

  14. High Redshift Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin S.

    1996-01-01

    The report for this period includes three papers: 'Associated Absorption at Low and High Redshift'; 'Strong X-ray Absorption in a Broad Absorption Line Quasar: PHL5200'; and 'ASCA and ROSAT X-ray Spectra of High-Redshift Radio-Loud Quasars'. The first gives examples from both low and high redshift for combining information on absorbing material in active galactic nuclei from both x-ray and the UV. The second presents ASCA observations of the z = 1.98 prototype broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO): PHL 5200, detected with both the solid-state imaging spectrometers and the gas imaging spectometers. The third paper presents results on the x-ray properties of 9 high-redshift radio-loud quasars observed by ASCA and ROSAT, including ASCA observations of S5 0014+81 (z = 3.38) and S5 0836+71 (z = 2.17) and ROSAT observations of PKS 2126-158.

  15. MARZ: Redshifting Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinton, Samuel

    2016-05-01

    MARZ analyzes objects and produces high quality spectroscopic redshift measurements. Spectra not matched correctly by the automatic algorithm can be redshifted manually by cycling automatic results, manual template comparison, or marking spectral features. The software has an intuitive interface and powerful automatic matching capabilities on spectra, and can be run interactively or from the command line, and runs as a Web application. MARZ can be run on a local server; it is also available for use on a public server.

  16. AN X-RAY-SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTER IN THE LOCKMAN HOLE AT REDSHIFT 1.753

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Henry, J.; Salvato, Mara; Hasinger, Guenther; Finoguenov, Alexis; Brunner, Hermann; Burwitz, Vadim; Buschkamp, Peter; Foerster-Schreiber, Natasha; Genzel, Reinhard; Rovilos, Manolis; Szokoly, Gyula; Bouche, Nicolas; Egami, Eiichi; Fotopoulou, Sotiria; Mainieri, Vincenzo

    2010-12-10

    We have discovered an X-ray-selected galaxy cluster with a spectroscopic redshift of 1.753. The redshift is of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG), which is coincident with the peak of the X-ray surface brightness. We also have concordant photometric redshifts for seven additional candidate cluster members. The X-ray luminosity of the cluster is (3.68 {+-} 0.70) x 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} in the 0.1-2.4 keV band. The optical/IR properties of the BCG imply that its formation redshift was {approx}5 if its stars formed in a short burst. This result continues the trend from lower redshift in which the observed properties of BCGs are most simply explained by a single monolithic collapse at very high redshift instead of the theoretically preferred gradual hierarchical assembly at later times. However, the models corresponding to different formation redshifts are more clearly separated as our observation epoch approaches the galaxy formation epoch. Although our infrared photometry is not deep enough to define a red sequence, we do identify a few galaxies at the cluster redshift that have the expected red sequence photometric properties.

  17. AN ACCURATE NEW METHOD OF CALCULATING ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES AND K-CORRECTIONS APPLIED TO THE SLOAN FILTER SET

    SciTech Connect

    Beare, Richard; Brown, Michael J. I.; Pimbblet, Kevin

    2014-12-20

    We describe an accurate new method for determining absolute magnitudes, and hence also K-corrections, that is simpler than most previous methods, being based on a quadratic function of just one suitably chosen observed color. The method relies on the extensive and accurate new set of 129 empirical galaxy template spectral energy distributions from Brown et al. A key advantage of our method is that we can reliably estimate random errors in computed absolute magnitudes due to galaxy diversity, photometric error and redshift error. We derive K-corrections for the five Sloan Digital Sky Survey filters and provide parameter tables for use by the astronomical community. Using the New York Value-Added Galaxy Catalog, we compare our K-corrections with those from kcorrect. Our K-corrections produce absolute magnitudes that are generally in good agreement with kcorrect. Absolute griz magnitudes differ by less than 0.02 mag and those in the u band by ∼0.04 mag. The evolution of rest-frame colors as a function of redshift is better behaved using our method, with relatively few galaxies being assigned anomalously red colors and a tight red sequence being observed across the whole 0.0 < z < 0.5 redshift range.

  18. GTC Photometric Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Cesare, M. A.; Hammersley, P. L.; Rodriguez Espinosa, J. M.

    2006-06-01

    We are currently developing the calibration programme for GTC using techniques similar to the ones use for the space telescope calibration (Hammersley et al. 1998, A&AS, 128, 207; Cohen et al. 1999, AJ, 117, 1864). We are planning to produce a catalogue with calibration stars which are suitable for a 10-m telescope. These sources will be not variable, non binary and do not have infrared excesses if they are to be used in the infrared. The GTC science instruments require photometric calibration between 0.35 and 2.5 microns. The instruments are: OSIRIS (Optical System for Imaging low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy), ELMER and EMIR (Espectrógrafo Multiobjeto Infrarrojo) and the Acquisition and Guiding boxes (Di Césare, Hammersley, & Rodriguez Espinosa 2005, RevMexAA Ser. Conf., 24, 231). The catalogue will consist of 30 star fields distributed in all of North Hemisphere. We will use fields containing sources over the range 12 to 22 magnitude, and spanning a wide range of spectral types (A to M) for the visible and near infrared. In the poster we will show the method used for selecting these fields and we will present the analysis of the data on the first calibration fields observed.

  19. Photometric Passive Range Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argueta-Diaz, Victor; García-Valenzuela, Augusto

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we present a passive optical ranging method that consists of taking several photometric measurements from the light radiated by an object and deriving the range from these measurements. This passive ranging device uses an iris of radius a, a lens of radius larger than a, and a photodetector of radius p

  20. Probing dark energy with lensing magnification in photometric surveys.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Michael D

    2014-02-14

    I present an estimator for the angular cross correlation of two tracers of the cosmological large-scale structure that utilizes redshift information to isolate separate physical contributions. The estimator is derived by solving the Limber equation for a reweighting of the foreground tracer that nulls either clustering or lensing contributions to the cross correlation function. Applied to future photometric surveys, the estimator can enhance the measurement of gravitational lensing magnification effects to provide a competitive independent constraint on the dark energy equation of state.

  1. The redshift evolution of clustering in the Hubble Deep Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magliocchetti, M.; Maddox, S. J.

    1999-07-01

    We present a correlation function analysis for the catalogue of photometric redshifts obtained from the Hubble Deep Field image by Fernandez-Soto, Lanzetta & Yahil. By dividing the catalogue into redshift bins of width Deltaz=0.4 we measured the angular correlation function w(theta) as a function of redshift up to z~4.8. From these measurements we derive the trend of the correlation length r_0. We find that r_0(z) is roughly constant with look-back time up to z~=2, and then increases to higher values at z>~2.4. We estimate the values of r_0, assuming xi(r,z)=[rr_0(z)]^-gamma, gamma=1.8 and various geometries. For Omega_0=1 we find r_0(z=3)~=7.00+/-4.87h^-1Mpc, in good agreement with the values obtained from analysis of the Lyman break galaxies.

  2. Radio-loud high-redshift protogalaxy canidates in Bootes

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, S; van Breugel, W; Brown, M J; de Vries, W; Dey, A; Eisenhardt, P; Jannuzi, B; Rottgering, H; Stanford, S A; Stern, D; Willner, S P

    2007-07-20

    We used the Near Infrared Camera (NIRC) on Keck I to obtain K{sub s}-band images of four candidate high-redshift radio galaxies selected using optical and radio data in the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey in Bootes. Our targets have 1.4 GHz radio flux densities greater than 1 mJy, but are undetected in the optical. Spectral energy distribution fitting suggests that three of these objects are at z > 3, with radio luminosities near the FR-I/FR-II break. The other has photometric redshift z{sub phot} = 1.2, but may in fact be at higher redshift. Two of the four objects exhibit diffuse morphologies in K{sub s}-band, suggesting that they are still in the process of forming.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Trumpler 5 photometric BV catalog (Donati+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, P.; Cocozza, G.; Bragaglia, A.; Pancino, E.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carrera, R.; Tosi, M.

    2014-11-01

    We combined high-quality photometric observations obtained with WFI and high-resolution spectra obtained with FLAMES to determine accurate cluster parameters, namely age, distance, reddening, and metallicity. (2 data files).

  4. Photometric Supernova Cosmology with BEAMS and SDSS-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlozek, Renée; Kunz, Martin; Bassett, Bruce; Smith, Mat; Newling, James; Varughese, Melvin; Kessler, Rick; Bernstein, Joseph P.; Campbell, Heather; Dilday, Ben; Falck, Bridget; Frieman, Joshua; Kuhlmann, Steve; Lampeitl, Hubert; Marriner, John; Nichol, Robert C.; Riess, Adam G.; Sako, Masao; Schneider, Donald P.

    2012-06-01

    Supernova (SN) cosmology without spectroscopic confirmation is an exciting new frontier, which we address here with the Bayesian Estimation Applied to Multiple Species (BEAMS) algorithm and the full three years of data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II Supernova Survey (SDSS-II SN). BEAMS is a Bayesian framework for using data from multiple species in statistical inference when one has the probability that each data point belongs to a given species, corresponding in this context to different types of SNe with their probabilities derived from their multi-band light curves. We run the BEAMS algorithm on both Gaussian and more realistic SNANA simulations with of order 104 SNe, testing the algorithm against various pitfalls one might expect in the new and somewhat uncharted territory of photometric SN cosmology. We compare the performance of BEAMS to that of both mock spectroscopic surveys and photometric samples that have been cut using typical selection criteria. The latter typically either are biased due to contamination or have significantly larger contours in the cosmological parameters due to small data sets. We then apply BEAMS to the 792 SDSS-II photometric SNe with host spectroscopic redshifts. In this case, BEAMS reduces the area of the Ω m , ΩΛ contours by a factor of three relative to the case where only spectroscopically confirmed data are used (297 SNe). In the case of flatness, the constraints obtained on the matter density applying BEAMS to the photometric SDSS-II data are ΩBEAMS m = 0.194 ± 0.07. This illustrates the potential power of BEAMS for future large photometric SN surveys such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  5. PHOTOMETRIC SUPERNOVA COSMOLOGY WITH BEAMS AND SDSS-II

    SciTech Connect

    Hlozek, Renee; Kunz, Martin; Bassett, Bruce; Smith, Mat; Newling, James; Varughese, Melvin; Kessler, Rick; Frieman, Joshua; Bernstein, Joseph P.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Marriner, John; Campbell, Heather; Lampeitl, Hubert; Nichol, Robert C.; Dilday, Ben; Falck, Bridget; Riess, Adam G.; Sako, Masao; Schneider, Donald P.

    2012-06-20

    Supernova (SN) cosmology without spectroscopic confirmation is an exciting new frontier, which we address here with the Bayesian Estimation Applied to Multiple Species (BEAMS) algorithm and the full three years of data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II Supernova Survey (SDSS-II SN). BEAMS is a Bayesian framework for using data from multiple species in statistical inference when one has the probability that each data point belongs to a given species, corresponding in this context to different types of SNe with their probabilities derived from their multi-band light curves. We run the BEAMS algorithm on both Gaussian and more realistic SNANA simulations with of order 10{sup 4} SNe, testing the algorithm against various pitfalls one might expect in the new and somewhat uncharted territory of photometric SN cosmology. We compare the performance of BEAMS to that of both mock spectroscopic surveys and photometric samples that have been cut using typical selection criteria. The latter typically either are biased due to contamination or have significantly larger contours in the cosmological parameters due to small data sets. We then apply BEAMS to the 792 SDSS-II photometric SNe with host spectroscopic redshifts. In this case, BEAMS reduces the area of the {Omega}{sub m}, {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} contours by a factor of three relative to the case where only spectroscopically confirmed data are used (297 SNe). In the case of flatness, the constraints obtained on the matter density applying BEAMS to the photometric SDSS-II data are {Omega}{sup BEAMS}{sub m} = 0.194 {+-} 0.07. This illustrates the potential power of BEAMS for future large photometric SN surveys such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  6. SHELS: Complete Redshift Surveys of Two Widely Separated Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Margaret J.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Dell'Antonio, Ian P.; Zahid, Harus Jabran; Kurtz, Michael J.; Fabricant, Daniel G.

    2016-05-01

    The Smithsonian Hectospec Lensing Survey (SHELS) is a complete redshift survey covering two well-separated fields (F1 and F2) of the Deep Lens Survey (DLS). Both fields are more than 94% complete to a Galactic extinction corrected R 0 = 20.2. Here, we describe the redshift survey of the F1 field centered at R.A.2000 = 00h53m25.ˢ3 and decl.2000 = 12°33‧55″ like F2, the F1 field covers ˜4 deg2. The redshift survey of the F1 field includes 9426 new galaxy redshifts measured with Hectospec on the MMT (published here). As a guide to future uses of the combined survey, we compare the mass metallicity relation and the distributions of D n 4000 as a function of stellar mass and redshift for the two fields. The mass-metallicity relations differ by an insignificant 1.6σ. For galaxies in the stellar mass range 1010-1011 M ⊙, the increase in the star-forming fraction with redshift is remarkably similar in the two fields. The seemingly surprising 31%-38% difference in the overall galaxy counts in F1 and F2 is probably consistent with the expected cosmic variance given the subtleties of the relative systematics in the two surveys. We also review the DLS cluster detections in the two fields: poorer photometric data for F1 precluded secure detection of the single massive cluster at z = 0.35 that we find in SHELS. Taken together, the two fields include 16,055 redshifts for galaxies with {R}0≤slant 20.2 and 20,754 redshifts for galaxies with R ≤ 20.6. These dense surveys in two well-separated fields provide a basis for future investigations of galaxy properties and large-scale structure.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VUDS Dicovery of a high-redshift protocluster (Lemaux+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaux, B. C.; Cucciati, O.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Le Fevre, O.; Zamorani, G.; Cassata, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Maccagni, D.; Pentericci, L.; Thomas, R.; Vanzella, E.; Zucca, E.; Amorin, R.; Bardelli, S.; Capak, P.; Cassara, L.; Castellano, M.; Cimatti, A.; Cuby, J. G.; de la Torre, S.; Durkalec, A.; Fontana, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Grazian, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Ilbert, O.; Moreau, C.; Paltani, S.; Ribeiro, B.; Salvato, M.; Schaerer, D.; Scodeggio, M.; Sommariva, V.; Talia, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Wang, P. W.; Charlot, S.; Contini, T.; Fotopoulou, S.; Gal, R. R.; Kocevski, D. D.; Lopez-Sanjuan, C.; Lubin, L. M.; Mellier, Y.; Sadibekova, T.; Scoville, N.

    2014-08-01

    Parameters for the 19 secure spectroscopic members and the 6 questionable spectroscopic members of Cl J0227-0421. The given parameters are galaxy equatorial coordinates, all optical and NIR magnitudes, spectroscopic redshifts with a corresponding confidence flag, photometric redshifts, absolute magnitudes in the NUV, r', & J bands, stellar mass, and star formation rate. The latter four quantities only available when the photometry allowed for a fit. Magnitudes are either MAG_AUTO (optical+JHK) or aperture-corrected total magnitudes (Spitzer Channels 1 & 2) and are corrected for Galactic extinction. Stellar masses and SFRs are calculated for a Chabrier (2003PASP..115..763C) initial mass function. Best-fit values from the spectral energy distribution fitting are adopted. For galaxies with a confidence flag 1 or 9, the redshift was not fixed in the spectral energy distribution fitting process. For all other galaxies the redshift was fixed to the spectroscopic redshift. (1 data file).

  8. Spectroscopic identification of a redshift 1.55 supernova host galaxy from the Subaru Deep Field Supernova Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederiksen, Teddy F.; Graur, Or; Hjorth, Jens; Maoz, Dan; Poznanski, Dovi

    2014-03-01

    Context. The Subaru Deep Field (SDF) Supernova Survey discovered ten Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the redshift range 1.5 < z < 2.0, determined solely from photometric redshifts of the host galaxies. However, photometric redshifts might be biased, and the SN sample could be contaminated by active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Aims: We aim to obtain the first robust redshift measurement and classification of a z > 1.5 SDF SN Ia host galaxy candidate. Methods: We use the X-shooter (U-to-K-band) spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope to allow the detection of different emission lines in a wide spectral range. Results: We measure a spectroscopic redshift of 1.54563 ± 0.00027 of hSDF0705.25, consistent with its photometric redshift of 1.552 ± 0.018. From the strong emission-line spectrum we rule out AGN activity, thereby confirming the optical transient as a SN. The host galaxy follows the fundamental metallicity relation showing that the properties of this high-redshift SN Ia host galaxy is similar to other field galaxies. Conclusions: Spectroscopic confirmation of additional SDF SN hosts would be required to confirm the cosmic SN rate evolution measured in the SDF. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program ID 089.A-0739.

  9. A Photometrically Selected Galaxy Cluster Catalog from the SDSS DR4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, B. P.; McKay, T. A.; Evrard, A. E.; Becker, M.; Bleem, L.; Annis, J.; Wechsler, R. H.; Sheldon, E. S.; Johnston, D.; Scranton, R.; Miller, C. J.; Nichol, R. C.

    2005-12-01

    We present an overview of a new BCG/red-sequence galaxy cluster catalog drawn from the Data Release 4 sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging. Galaxy clusters are selected by calculating the likelihood that each observed galaxy is a brightest cluster galaxy based on its color and magnitude, along with the degree to which galaxies cluster around it in color, magnitude, and space. This method provides a list of cluster locations together with estimates of their total galaxy content and accurate photometric redshifts (σ z < 0.02). The catalog covers the range 0.1 < z < 0.3 and includes 50,000 objects containing ten or more galaxies brighter than 0.4 L*. It successfully recovers luminous X-ray clusters, optically-selected clusters, and massive halos in mock galaxy catalogs with a low false-positive rate. Further details of the cluster finding algorithm and its performance, together with a description of the properties of the derived catalog will be presented.

  10. Photometric Selection of a Massive Galaxy Catalog with z ≥ 0.55

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, Carolina; Spergel, David N.; Ho, Shirley

    2017-02-01

    We present the development of a photometrically selected massive galaxy catalog, targeting Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) and massive blue galaxies at redshifts of z≥slant 0.55. Massive galaxy candidates are selected using infrared/optical color–color cuts, with optical data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and infrared data from “unWISE” forced photometry derived from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The selection method is based on previously developed techniques to select LRGs with z> 0.5, and is optimized using receiver operating characteristic curves. The catalog contains 16,191,145 objects, selected over the full SDSS DR10 footprint. The redshift distribution of the resulting catalog is estimated using spectroscopic redshifts from the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey and photometric redshifts from COSMOS. Restframe U ‑ B colors from DEEP2 are used to estimate LRG selection efficiency. Using DEEP2, the resulting catalog has an average redshift of z = 0.65, with a standard deviation of σ =2.0, and an average restframe of U-B=1.0, with a standard deviation of σ =0.27. Using COSMOS, the resulting catalog has an average redshift of z = 0.60, with a standard deviation of σ =1.8. We estimate 34 % of the catalog to be blue galaxies with z≥slant 0.55. An estimated 9.6 % of selected objects are blue sources with redshift z< 0.55. Stellar contamination is estimated to be 1.8%.

  11. Photometric Parallaxes and Subdwarf Identification for M Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Dayna L.; Robertson, T. H.; Thompson, S. K.

    2013-06-01

    Advances have been made in the detection of M dwarf stars over the last two decades giving more complete CMDs and therefore more accurate photometric parallaxes. Distance estimations that are obtained using these photometric parallaxes are essential when modeling the spatial distribution of stars in our Galaxy. This is especially important for M-type stars, as they make up more than half of the mass of the Milky Way. Photometric data on the Kron-Cousins photometric system have been obtained for new late K to middle M-type stars with known distances. These data have been used to obtain absolute red magnitudes, to construct a CMD, and to compute a polynomial function for disk dwarf stars in the color range 1.5 ≤ R-I < 2.0, which can be used to compute absolute red magnitudes to be used for photometric parallaxes. Subdwarf stars that lie close to the disk dwarf sequence have higher systematic velocities and proper motions than disk dwarf stars. This makes them key targets for the proper-motion surveys, and although approximately 99.7% of stars in the Milky Way make up the disk main sequence, statistically there will be more subdwarfs in the sample. Therefore, intermediate-band CaH observations have been obtained to distinguish subdwarf stars from disk dwarfs for 0.9 < R-I < 1.4.

  12. Accurate PSF-matched photometry for the J-PAS survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Teja, Yolanda; Benitez, Txitxo; Dupke, Renato a.

    2015-08-01

    The Javalambre-PAU Astrophysical Survey (J-PAS) is expected to map 8,600 squared-degrees of the sky using 54 narrow and 5 broad band filters. Carried out by a Spanish-Brazilian consortium, the main goal of this survey is to measure Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAOs) with photometric redshifts. The expectation is measuring these photometric redshifts with a precision of dz/(1 + z) ~ 0.003 for 100 million galaxies and a few millions of quasars, and reaching an accuracy of dz/(1 + z) ~ 0.01 for other 300 million galaxies. With these numbers, it will be possible to determine w in the Dark Energy (DE) equation of state with an accuracy of < 4%. To achieve such precision and measure the radial BAOs, not only an advanced technical setup but also special data processing tools are required. These tools must be accurate as well as suitable to be implemented in fully automated and computationally efficient algorithms.The factor that most influences the photometric redshift precision is the quality of the photometry. For that reason we have developed a new technique based on the Chebyshev-Fourier bases (CHEFs, Jiménez-Teja & Benítez 2012, ApJ, 745, 150) to obtain a highly precise multicolor photometry without PSF consideration, thus saving a considerable amount of time and circumventing severe problems such as the PSF variability across the images. The CHEFs are a set of mathematical orthonormal bases with different scale and resolution levels, originally designed to fit the surface light distribution of galaxies. They have proved to be able to model any kind of morphology, including spirals, highly elliptical, or irregular galaxies, including isophotal twists and fine substructure. They also fit high signal-to-noise images, lensing arcs and stars with great accuracy. We can calculate optimal, unbiased, total magnitudes directly through these CHEFs models and, thus, colors without needing the PSF.We compare our photometry with widely-used codes such as SExtractor (Bertin

  13. SHARDS: AN OPTICAL SPECTRO-PHOTOMETRIC SURVEY OF DISTANT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo G.; Cava, Antonio; Barro, Guillermo; Villar, Victor; Cardiel, Nicolas; Espino, Nestor; Gallego, Jesus; Ferreras, Ignacio; Rodriguez-Espinosa, Jose Miguel; Balcells, Marc; Cepa, Jordi; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Cenarro, Javier; Charlot, Stephane; Cimatti, Andrea; Conselice, Christopher J.; Daddi, Emmanuele; Elbaz, David; Gobat, R. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA and others

    2013-01-01

    We present the Survey for High-z Absorption Red and Dead Sources (SHARDS), an ESO/GTC Large Program carried out using the OSIRIS instrument on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). SHARDS is an ultra-deep optical spectro-photometric survey of the GOODS-N field covering 130 arcmin{sup 2} at wavelengths between 500 and 950 nm with 24 contiguous medium-band filters (providing a spectral resolution R {approx} 50). The data reach an AB magnitude of 26.5 (at least at a 3{sigma} level) with sub-arcsec seeing in all bands. SHARDS' main goal is to obtain accurate physical properties of intermediate- and high-z galaxies using well-sampled optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with sufficient spectral resolution to measure absorption and emission features, whose analysis will provide reliable stellar population and active galactic nucleus (AGN) parameters. Among the different populations of high-z galaxies, SHARDS' principal targets are massive quiescent galaxies at z > 1, whose existence is one of the major challenges facing current hierarchical models of galaxy formation. In this paper, we outline the observational strategy and include a detailed discussion of the special reduction and calibration procedures which should be applied to the GTC/OSIRIS data. An assessment of the SHARDS data quality is also performed. We present science demonstration results on the detection and study of emission-line galaxies (star-forming objects and AGNs) at z = 0-5. We also analyze the SEDs for a sample of 27 quiescent massive galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the range 1.0 < z {approx}< 1.4. We discuss the improvements introduced by the SHARDS data set in the analysis of their star formation history and stellar properties. We discuss the systematics arising from the use of different stellar population libraries, typical in this kind of study. Averaging the results from the different libraries, we find that the UV-to-MIR SEDs of the massive quiescent galaxies at z = 1

  14. High Redshift GRBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.

    2012-01-01

    The Swift mission has opened a new, high redshift window on the universe. In this review we provide an overview of gamma-ray burst (GRB) science, describe the Swift mission, discuss high-z GRBs and tools for high-z studies, and look forward at future capabilities. A new mission concept - Lobster - is described that would monitor the X-ray sky at order of magnitude higher sensitivity than current missions.

  15. On the gravitational redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Klaus; Dwivedi, Bhola N.

    2014-08-01

    The study of the gravitational redshift-a relative wavelength increase of ≈2×10-6 was predicted for solar radiation by Einstein in 1908-is still an important subject in modern physics. In a dispute whether or not atom interferometry experiments can be employed for gravitational redshift measurements, two research teams have recently disagreed on the physical cause of the shift. Regardless of any discussion on the interferometer aspect-we find that both groups of authors miss the important point that the ratio of gravitational to the electrostatic forces is generally very small. For instance, the ratio of the gravitational force acting on an electron in a hydrogen atom situated in the Sun’s photosphere to the electrostatic force between the proton and the electron in such an atom is approximately 3×10-21. A comparison of this ratio with the predicted and observed solar redshift indicates a discrepancy of many orders of magnitude. With Einstein’s early assumption that the frequencies of spectral lines depend only on the generating ions themselves as starting point, we show that a solution can be formulated based on a two-step process in analogy with Fermi’s treatment of the Doppler effect. It provides a sequence of physical processes in line with the conservation of energy and momentum resulting in the observed shift and does not employ a geometric description. The gravitational field affects the release of the photon and not the atomic transition. The control parameter is the speed of light. The atomic emission is then contrasted with the gravitational redshift of matter-antimatter annihilation events.

  16. High redshift blazars .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.

    Blazars are sources whose jet is pointing at us. Since their jets are relativistic, the flux is greatly amplified in the direction of motion, making blazars the most powerful persistent objects in the Universe. This is true at all frequencies, but especially where their spectrum peaks. Although the spectrum of moderate powerful sources peaks in the ˜GeV range, extremely powerful sources at high redshifts peak in the ˜MeV band. This implies that the hard X-ray band is the optimal one to find powerful blazars beyond a redshift of ˜4. First indications strongly suggest that powerful high-z blazars harbor the most massive and active early black holes, exceeding a billion solar masses. Since for each detected blazars there must exist hundreds of similar, but misaligned, sources, the search for high-z blazars is becoming competitive with the search of early massive black holes using radio-quiet quasars. Finding how the two populations of black holes (one in jetted sources, the other in radio-quiet objects) evolve in redshift will shed light on the growth of the most massive black holes and possibly on the feedback between the central engine and the rest of the host galaxy.

  17. High-Redshift Quasars Found in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Commissioning Data

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, X.; Strauss, M.A.; Schneider, D.P.; Gunn, J.E.; Lupton, R.H.; Yanny, B.; Anderson, S.F.; Anderson, J.E. Jr.; Annis, J.; Bahcall, N.A.; Bakken, J.A.; Bastian, S.; Berman, E.; Boroski, W.N.; Briegel, C.; Briggs, J.W.; Brinkmann, J.; Carr, M.A.; Colestock, P.L.; Connolly, A.J.; Crocker, J.H.; Csabai, I. |; Davis, J.E.; and others

    1999-07-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of 15 high-redshift quasars (z{gt}3.6) discovered from {approximately}140 deg{sup 2} of five-color ({ital u}{prime}, {ital g}{prime}, {ital r}{prime}, {ital i}{prime}, and {ital z}{prime}) imaging data taken by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) during its commissioning phase. The quasars are selected by their distinctive colors in SDSS multicolor space. Four of the quasars have redshifts higher than 4.6 (z=4.63, 4.75, 4.90, and 5.00, the latter being the highest redshift quasar yet known). In addition, two previously known z{gt}4 objects were recovered from the data. The quasars all have i{sup *} {lt}20 and have luminosities comparable to that of 3C 273. The spectra of the quasars have similar features (strong, broad emission lines and substantial absorption blueward of the Ly{alpha} emission line) seen in previously known high-redshift quasars. Although the photometric accuracy and image quality fail to meet the final survey requirements, our success rate for identifying high-redshift quasars (17 quasars from 27 candidates) is much higher than that of previous multicolor surveys. However, the numbers of high-redshift quasars found is in close accord with the number density inferred from previous surveys. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1999.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  18. Low X-Ray Luminosity Galaxy Clusters: Main Goals, Sample Selection, Photometric and Spectroscopic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilo Castellón, José Luis; Alonso, M. Victoria; García Lambas, Diego; Valotto, Carlos; O'Mill, Ana Laura; Cuevas, Héctor; Carrasco, Eleazar R.; Ramírez, Amelia; Astudillo, José M.; Ramos, Felipe; Jaque Arancibia, Marcelo; Ulloa, Natalie; Órdenes, Yasna

    2016-06-01

    We present our study of 19 low X-ray luminosity galaxy clusters (L{}X ˜ 0.5-45 × 1043 erg s-1), selected from the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counters Pointed Observations and the revised version of Mullis et al. in the redshift range of 0.16-0.7. This is the introductory paper of a series presenting the sample selection, photometric and spectroscopic observations, and data reduction. Photometric data in different passbands were taken for eight galaxy clusters at Las Campanas Observatory; three clusters at Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory; and eight clusters at the Gemini Observatory. Spectroscopic data were collected for only four galaxy clusters using Gemini telescopes. Using the photometry, the galaxies were defined based on the star-galaxy separation taking into account photometric parameters. For each galaxy cluster, the catalogs contain the point-spread function and aperture magnitudes of galaxies within the 90% completeness limit. They are used together with structural parameters to study the galaxy morphology and to estimate photometric redshifts. With the spectroscopy, the derived galaxy velocity dispersion of our clusters ranged from 507 km s-1 for [VMF98]022 to 775 km s-1 for [VMF98]097 with signs of substructure. Cluster membership has been extensively discussed taking into account spectroscopic and photometric redshift estimates. In this sense, members are the galaxies within a projected radius of 0.75 Mpc from the X-ray emission peak and with clustercentric velocities smaller than the cluster velocity dispersion or 6000 km s-1, respectively. These results will be used in forthcoming papers to study, among the main topics, the red cluster sequence, blue cloud and green populations, the galaxy luminosity function, and cluster dynamics.

  19. Photometric classification of type Ia supernovae in the SuperNova Legacy Survey with supervised learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, A.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Leloup, C.; Neveu, J.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Rich, J.; Carlberg, R.; Lidman, C.; Pritchet, C.

    2016-12-01

    In the era of large astronomical surveys, photometric classification of supernovae (SNe) has become an important research field due to limited spectroscopic resources for candidate follow-up and classification. In this work, we present a method to photometrically classify type Ia supernovae based on machine learning with redshifts that are derived from the SN light-curves. This method is implemented on real data from the SNLS deferred pipeline, a purely photometric pipeline that identifies SNe Ia at high-redshifts (0.2 < z < 1.1). Our method consists of two stages: feature extraction (obtaining the SN redshift from photometry and estimating light-curve shape parameters) and machine learning classification. We study the performance of different algorithms such as Random Forest and Boosted Decision Trees. We evaluate the performance using SN simulations and real data from the first 3 years of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS), which contains large spectroscopically and photometrically classified type Ia samples. Using the Area Under the Curve (AUC) metric, where perfect classification is given by 1, we find that our best-performing classifier (Extreme Gradient Boosting Decision Tree) has an AUC of 0.98.We show that it is possible to obtain a large photometrically selected type Ia SN sample with an estimated contamination of less than 5%. When applied to data from the first three years of SNLS, we obtain 529 events. We investigate the differences between classifying simulated SNe, and real SN survey data. In particular, we find that applying a thorough set of selection cuts to the SN sample is essential for good classification. This work demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of machine learning classification in a high-z SN survey with application to real SN data.

  20. The Redshift Distribution of Dusty Star-forming Galaxies from the SPT Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strandet, M. L.; Weiss, A.; Vieira, J. D.; de Breuck, C.; Aguirre, J. E.; Aravena, M.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Béthermin, M.; Bradford, C. M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chapman, S. C.; Crawford, T. M.; Everett, W.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Furstenau, R. M.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Greve, T. R.; Gullberg, B.; Hezaveh, Y.; Kamenetzky, J. R.; Litke, K.; Ma, J.; Malkan, M.; Marrone, D. P.; Menten, K. M.; Murphy, E. J.; Nadolski, A.; Rotermund, K. M.; Spilker, J. S.; Stark, A. A.; Welikala, N.

    2016-05-01

    We use the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Cycle 1 to determine spectroscopic redshifts of high-redshift dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected by their 1.4 mm continuum emission in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) survey. We present ALMA 3 mm spectral scans between 84 and 114 GHz for 15 galaxies and targeted ALMA 1 mm observations for an additional eight sources. Our observations yield 30 new line detections from CO, [C i], [N ii], H2O and NH3. We further present Atacama Pathfinder Experiment [C ii] and CO mid-J observations for seven sources for which only a single line was detected in spectral-scan data from ALMA Cycle 0 or Cycle 1. We combine the new observations with previously published and new millimeter/submillimeter line and photometric data of the SPT-selected DSFGs to study their redshift distribution. The combined data yield 39 spectroscopic redshifts from molecular lines, a success rate of >85%. Our sample represents the largest data set of its kind today and has the highest spectroscopic completeness among all redshift surveys of high-z DSFGs. The median of the redshift distribution is z = 3.9 ± 0.4, and the highest-redshift source in our sample is at z = 5.8. We discuss how the selection of our sources affects the redshift distribution, focusing on source brightness, selection wavelength, and strong gravitational lensing. We correct for the effect of gravitational lensing and find the redshift distribution for 1.4 mm selected sources with a median redshift of z = 3.1 ± 0.3. Comparing to redshift distributions selected at shorter wavelengths from the literature, we show that selection wavelength affects the shape of the redshift distribution.

  1. UV Properties and Evolution of High-redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzoni, Alberto

    I assess the problem of morphological and photometric evolution of high-redshift galaxies in the ultraviolet wavelength range. My discussion will partly rely on a new set of template galaxy models, in order to infer the expected changes along the Hubble morphological sequence at the different cosmic epochs. The impact of evolution on the faint-end galaxy luminosity function at z~1 and beyond will also be evaluated and briefly discussed. See http://www.merate.mi.astro.it/~eps/home.html for more info and model retrieval.

  2. USING THE 1.6 {mu}m BUMP TO STUDY REST-FRAME NEAR-INFRARED-SELECTED GALAXIES AT REDSHIFT 2

    SciTech Connect

    Sorba, Robert; Sawicki, Marcin

    2010-10-01

    We explore the feasibility and limitations of using the 1.6 {mu}m bump as a photometric redshift indicator and selection technique, and use it to study the rest-frame H-band galaxy luminosity and stellar mass functions (SMFs) at redshift z {approx} 2. We use publicly available Spitzer/IRAC images in the GOODS fields and find that color selection in the IRAC bandpasses alone is comparable in completeness and contamination to BzK selection. We find that the shape of the 1.6 {mu}m bump is robust, and photometric redshifts are not greatly affected by choice of model parameters. Comparison with spectroscopic redshifts shows photometric redshifts to be reliable. We create a rest-frame NIR-selected catalog of galaxies at z {approx} 2 and construct a galaxy SMF. Comparisons with other SMFs at approximately the same redshift but determined using shorter wavelengths show good agreement. This agreement suggests that selection at bluer wavelengths does not miss a significant amount of stellar mass in passive galaxies. Comparison with SMFs at other redshifts shows evidence for the downsizing scenario of galaxy evolution. We conclude by pointing out the potential for using the 1.6 {mu}m bump technique to select high-redshift galaxies with the JWST, whose {lambda}>0.6 {mu}m coverage will not be well suited to selecting galaxies using techniques that require imaging at shorter wavelengths.

  3. Optimizing Spectroscopic and Photometric Galaxy Surveys: Same-Sky Benefits for Dark Energy and Modified Gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, Donnacha; Lahav, Ofer; Bridle, Sarah; Jouvel, Stephanie; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Frieman, Joshua A.

    2015-08-21

    The combination of multiple cosmological probes can produce measurements of cosmological parameters much more stringent than those possible with any individual probe. We examine the combination of two highly correlated probes of late-time structure growth: (i) weak gravitational lensing from a survey with photometric redshifts and (ii) galaxy clustering and redshift space distortions from a survey with spectroscopic redshifts. We choose generic survey designs so that our results are applicable to a range of current and future photometric redshift (e.g. KiDS, DES, HSC, Euclid) and spectroscopic redshift (e.g. DESI, 4MOST, Sumire) surveys. Combining the surveys greatly improves their power to measure both dark energy and modified gravity. An independent, non-overlapping combination sees a dark energy figure of merit more than 4 times larger than that produced by either survey alone. The powerful synergies between the surveys are strongest for modified gravity, where their constraints are orthogonal, producing a non-overlapping joint figure of merit nearly 2 orders of magnitude larger than either alone. Our projected angular power spectrum formalism makes it easy to model the cross-correlation observable when the surveys overlap on the sky, producing a joint data vector and full covariance matrix. We calculate a same-sky improvement factor, from the inclusion of these cross-correlations, relative to non-overlapping surveys. We find nearly a factor of 4 for dark energy and more than a factor of 2 for modified gravity. The exact forecast figures of merit and same-sky benefits can be radically affected by a range of forecasts assumption, which we explore methodically in a sensitivity analysis. We show that that our fiducial assumptions produce robust results which give a good average picture of the science return from combining photometric and spectroscopic surveys.

  4. SPECTROSCOPIC REDSHIFTS OF GALAXIES WITHIN THE FRONTIER FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Ebeling, Harald; Ma, Cheng-Jiun; Barrett, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    We present a catalog of 1921 spectroscopic redshifts measured in the fields of the massive galaxy clusters MACSJ0416.1–2403 (z = 0.397), MACSJ0717.5+3745 (z = 0.546), and MACSJ1149.5+2223 (z = 0.544), i.e., three of the four clusters selected by Space Telescope Science Institute as the targets of the Frontier Fields (FFs) initiative for studies of the distant Universe via gravitational lensing. Compiled in the course of the Massive Cluster Survey project (MACS) that detected the FF clusters, this catalog is provided to the community for three purposes: (1) to allow the identification of cluster members for studies of the galaxy population of these extreme systems, (2) to facilitate the removal of unlensed galaxies and thus reduce shear dilution in weak-lensing analyses, and (3) to improve the calibration of photometric redshifts based on both ground- and spacebased observations of the FF clusters.

  5. Galaxy Redshifts from Discrete Optimization of Correlation Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Benjamin C. G.; Budavári, Tamás; Basu, Amitabh; Rahman, Mubdi

    2016-12-01

    We propose a new method of constraining the redshifts of individual extragalactic sources based on celestial coordinates and their ensemble statistics. Techniques from integer linear programming (ILP) are utilized to optimize simultaneously for the angular two-point cross- and autocorrelation functions. Our novel formalism introduced here not only transforms the otherwise hopelessly expensive, brute-force combinatorial search into a linear system with integer constraints but also is readily implementable in off-the-shelf solvers. We adopt Gurobi, a commercial optimization solver, and use Python to build the cost function dynamically. The preliminary results on simulated data show potential for future applications to sky surveys by complementing and enhancing photometric redshift estimators. Our approach is the first application of ILP to astronomical analysis.

  6. Photometric Variability of Y Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trucks, Jesica; Cushing, M.; Hardegree-Ullman, K.; Gelino, C. R.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Mace, G. N.; Gizis, J.; Marley, M. S.; Morley, C.; Fortney, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Condensate clouds are present in brown dwarf atmospheres due to their low surface temperatures. As the coolest (Teff < 600 K) class of brown dwarfs currently known, Y dwarfs allow us to study the unique atmospheric physics that occur at these temperatures including the formation of sulfide, chloride, and water clouds. Dynamic inhomogeneities in cloud cover should manifest as photometric variabilities in the observed light curves of brown dwarfs. This phenomenon was originally documented in two brown-dwarfs by Morales-Calderón et al. (2006) at 4.5 microns, and in one brown dwarf by Heinze et al. (2013) at 3.6 microns. We describe our ongoing program to monitor fourteen Y dwarfs for photometric variability at 3.6 and 4.5 microns with the Spitzer Space Telescope and present initial results including the first detection of Y dwarf variability.

  7. Photometric variability in earthshine observations.

    PubMed

    Langford, Sally V; Wyithe, J Stuart B; Turner, Edwin L

    2009-04-01

    The identification of an extrasolar planet as Earth-like will depend on the detection of atmospheric signatures or surface non-uniformities. In this paper we present spatially unresolved flux light curves of Earth for the purpose of studying a prototype extrasolar terrestrial planet. Our monitoring of the photometric variability of earthshine revealed changes of up to 23% per hour in the brightness of Earth's scattered light at around 600 nm, due to the removal of specular reflection from the view of the Moon. This variability is accompanied by reddening of the spectrum and results from a change in surface properties across the continental boundary between the Indian Ocean and Africa's east coast. Our results based on earthshine monitoring indicate that specular reflection should provide a useful tool in determining the presence of liquid water on extrasolar planets via photometric observations.

  8. Photometrics at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    McWilliams, J.Y.; Hill, R.A.; Hughes, R.L.

    1990-07-01

    This report highlights Sandia National Laboratories' work in the following areas: photometrics and optical development; still and time-lapse photography; real-time motion photography; high-speed photography; image-motion photography; schlieren photography; ultra-high-speed photography; electronic imaging; shuttered video and high-speed video; infrared imaging radiometry; exoatmospheric photography and videography; microdensitometry and image analysis; and optical system design and development.

  9. Identifying high-redshift gamma-ray bursts with RATIR

    SciTech Connect

    Littlejohns, O. M.; Butler, N. R.; Cucchiara, A.; Watson, A. M.; Lee, W. H.; Richer, M. G.; De Diego, J. A.; Georgiev, L.; González, J.; Román-Zúñiga, C. G.; Kutyrev, A. S.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.; Moseley, H.; Klein, C. R.; Fox, O. D.; Bloom, J. S.; Prochaska, J. X.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.

    2014-07-01

    We present a template-fitting algorithm for determining photometric redshifts, z {sub phot}, of candidate high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Using afterglow photometry, obtained by the Reionization and Transients InfraRed (RATIR) camera, this algorithm accounts for the intrinsic GRB afterglow spectral energy distribution, host dust extinction, and the effect of neutral hydrogen (local and cosmological) along the line of sight. We present the results obtained by this algorithm and the RATIR photometry of GRB 130606A, finding a range of best-fit solutions, 5.6 < z {sub phot} < 6.0, for models of several host dust extinction laws (none, the Milky Way, Large Magellanic Clouds, and Small Magellanic Clouds), consistent with spectroscopic measurements of the redshift of this GRB. Using simulated RATIR photometry, we find that our algorithm provides precise measures of z {sub phot} in the ranges of 4 < z {sub phot} ≲ 8 and 9 < z {sub phot} < 10 and can robustly determine when z {sub phot} > 4. Further testing highlights the required caution in cases of highly dust-extincted host galaxies. These tests also show that our algorithm does not erroneously find z {sub phot} < 4 when z {sub sim} > 4, thereby minimizing false negatives and allowing us to rapidly identify all potential high-redshift events.

  10. DUST ATTENUATION IN HIGH REDSHIFT GALAXIES: 'DIAMONDS IN THE SKY'

    SciTech Connect

    Scoville, Nick; Capak, Peter; Steinhardt, Charles; Faisst, Andreas; Kakazu, Yuko; Li, Gongjie

    2015-02-20

    We use observed optical to near-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 266 galaxies in the COSMOS survey to derive the wavelength dependence of the dust attenuation at high redshift. All of the galaxies have spectroscopic redshifts in the range z = 2-6.5. The presence of the C IV absorption feature, indicating that the rest-frame UV-optical SED is dominated by OB stars, is used to select objects for which the intrinsic, unattenuated spectrum has a well-established shape. Comparison of this intrinsic spectrum with the observed broadband photometric SED then permits derivation of the wavelength dependence of the dust attenuation. The derived dust attenuation curve is similar in overall shape to the Calzetti curve for local starburst galaxies. We also see the 2175 Å bump feature which is present in the Milky Way and Large Magellanic Cloud extinction curves but not seen in the Calzetti curve. The bump feature is commonly attributed to graphite or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. No significant dependence is seen with redshift between sub-samples at z = 2-4 and z = 4-6.5. The 'extinction' curve obtained here provides a firm basis for color and extinction corrections of high redshift galaxy photometry.

  11. Searching for Extreme High Redshift Galaxies with HST Grism Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, John R.; Maseda, Michael

    2017-01-01

    With ever increasing capability, we are now able to push galaxy evolution studies to extreme high redshift (z>6). At these early times, the first galaxies begin forming stars but some of their light is quickly absorbed by the neutral intergalactic medium. The result is that the La line of hydrogen is lost. But, with the recent upgrades to HST, we can now utilize the unique multiplexing capacity of slitless grism spectroscopy to explore large samples of candidate systems. By taking near-IR spectra for for every object in the field-of-view simultaneously, we can begin searching for galaxies with a favorable circumgalactic gas distribution where La emission may be obtained. In this study we build on the work of 3D-HST to search for extreme high redshift galaxies (6photometric candidates over the five CANDELS fields for high-z emission lines using expanded prior redshift distributions compared to previous studies. We present preliminary results of 29 spectroscopic candidates selected for the first time as extreme high redshift galaxies. Follow-up of confirmed candidates will strengthen existing samples of distant galaxies and constrain properties of the early universe.

  12. Probing neutrinos from Planck and forthcoming galaxy redshift surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Yoshitaka; Kadota, Kenji E-mail: kadota.kenji@f.nagoya-u.jp

    2014-01-01

    We investigate how much the constraints on the neutrino properties can be improved by combining the CMB, the photometric and spectroscopic galaxy redshift surveys which include the CMB lensing, galaxy lensing tomography, galaxy clustering and redshift space distortion observables. We pay a particular attention to the constraint on the neutrino mass in view of the forthcoming redshift surveys such as the Euclid satellite and the LSST survey along with the Planck CMB lensing measurements. Combining the transverse mode information from the angular power spectrum and the longitudinal mode information from the spectroscopic survey with the redshift space distortion measurements can determine the total neutrino mass with the projected error of O(0.02) eV. Our analysis fixes the mass splittings among the neutrino species to be consistent with the neutrino oscillation data, and we accordingly study the sensitivity of our parameter estimations on the minimal neutrino mass. The cosmological measurement of the total neutrino mass can distinguish between the normal and inverted mass hierarchy scenarios if the minimal neutrino mass ∼<0.005 eV with the predicted 1–σ uncertainties taken into account.

  13. High-Redshift Supernovae in the Hubble Deep Field

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliland, R.L.; Nugent, P.E.; Phillips, M.M.

    1999-08-01

    Two supernovae detected in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) using the original 1995 December epoch and data from a shorter (63,000 s in F814W) 1997 December visit with {ital HST} are discussed. The supernovae (SNe) are both associated with distinct galaxies at redshifts of 0.95 (spectroscopic) from Cohen et al. and 1.32 (photometric) from the work of Fern{acute a}ndez-Soto, Lanzetta, & Yahil. These redshifts are near, in the case of 0.95, and well beyond, for 1.32, the greatest distance reported previously for SNe. We show that our observations are sensitive to supernovae to z{approx_lt}1.8 in either epoch for an event near peak brightness. Detailed simulations are discussed that quantify the level at which false events from our search phase would start to arise and the completeness of our search as a function of both SN brightness and host galaxy redshift. The number of Type Ia and Type II SNe expected as a function of redshift in the two HDF epochs are discussed in relation to several published predictions and our own detailed calculations. A mean detection frequency of one SN per epoch for the small HDF area is consistent with expectations from current theory. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1999.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  14. Quasar redshifts: the intrinsic component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Peter M.

    2016-09-01

    The large observed redshift of quasars has suggested large cosmological distances and a corresponding enormous energy output to explain the brightness or luminosity as seen at earth. Alternative or complementary sources of redshift have not been identified by the astronomical community. This study examines one possible source of additional redshift: an intrinsic component based on the plasma characteristics of high temperature and high electron density which are believed to be present.

  15. The Luminosity Functions of Low Redshift Field and Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, I.; Hill, G. J.; Bergmann, M. P.; Elston, R.; Vanden Berk, D.; Jurcevic, J. S.

    1999-12-01

    We present a comparison of the luminosity functions for low redshift field and cluster galaxies. The luminosity functions are established for field galaxies in UBVRI, and for galaxies in the Coma cluster in UBRI. The field galaxy sample is drawn from The Texas Deep Sky Survey (TDSS) of a 2.1 by 2.1 sq. deg. area around the North Galactic Pole. More than 40000 objects have been detected in our survey of this area. We have obtained spectra of approximately 700 galaxies, making the redshift information complete to a total R magnitude of 18.5 mag. We have surveyed the central square degree of the Coma cluster in UBRI. Approximately 16000 objects have been detected in our survey. We have obtained spectra for 220 galaxies in the area with no previous measurements. Together with published data these observations make the redshift information complete for galaxies brighter than a total R magnitude of 17.5. A total of 480 members of the cluster have measured redshifts, while 180 background and foreground galaxies in the field have measured redshifts. The accurate determination of the luminosity functions for low redshift galaxies is important for the interpretation of luminosity functions established for higher redshift galaxies, both in clusters and in the field. This research was supported in part by NASA through grant number HF-01073.01.94A to IJ from the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  16. Sloan Digital Sky Survey III photometric quasar clustering: probing the initial conditions of the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Shirley; Agarwal, Nishant; Lyons, Richard; Disbrow, Ashley; O'Connell, Ross; Myers, Adam D.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Schlegel, David; Ross, Nicholas P.; Ross, Ashley; Hirata, Christopher; Huff, Eric; Weinberg, David; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Slosar, Anže; Strauss, Michael; Bahcall, Neta; Schneider, Donald P.; Brinkmann, J.; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie [CEA, Centre de Saclay, Irfu and others

    2015-05-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has surveyed 14,555 square degrees of the sky, and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present the large-scale clustering of 1.6 million quasars between z=0.5 and z=2.5 that have been classified from this imaging, representing the highest density of quasars ever studied for clustering measurements. This data set spans 0∼ 11,00 square degrees and probes a volume of 80 h{sup −3} Gpc{sup 3}. In principle, such a large volume and medium density of tracers should facilitate high-precision cosmological constraints. We measure the angular clustering of photometrically classified quasars using an optimal quadratic estimator in four redshift slices with an accuracy of ∼ 25% over a bin width of δ{sub l} ∼ 10−15 on scales corresponding to matter-radiation equality and larger (0ℓ ∼ 2−3). Observational systematics can strongly bias clustering measurements on large scales, which can mimic cosmologically relevant signals such as deviations from Gaussianity in the spectrum of primordial perturbations. We account for systematics by employing a new method recently proposed by Agarwal et al. (2014) to the clustering of photometrically classified quasars. We carefully apply our methodology to mitigate known observational systematics and further remove angular bins that are contaminated by unknown systematics. Combining quasar data with the photometric luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample of Ross et al. (2011) and Ho et al. (2012), and marginalizing over all bias and shot noise-like parameters, we obtain a constraint on local primordial non-Gaussianity of f{sub NL} = −113{sup +154}{sub −154} (1σ error). We next assume that the bias of quasar and galaxy distributions can be obtained independently from quasar/galaxy-CMB lensing cross-correlation measurements (such as those in Sherwin et al. (2013)). This can be facilitated by spectroscopic observations of the sources, enabling the redshift distribution to be

  17. THE DEEP2 GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEY: DESIGN, OBSERVATIONS, DATA REDUCTION, AND REDSHIFTS

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Jeffrey A.; Cooper, Michael C.; Davis, Marc; Faber, S. M.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Conroy, Charlie; Harker, Justin J.; Lai, Kamson; Dutton, Aaron A.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Gerke, Brian F.; Rosario, David J.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Willmer, C. N. A.; Yan Renbin; Kassin, Susan A.; Konidaris, N. P. E-mail: djm70@pitt.edu E-mail: mdavis@berkeley.edu E-mail: koo@ucolick.org E-mail: phillips@ucolick.org; and others

    2013-09-15

    We describe the design and data analysis of the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey, the densest and largest high-precision redshift survey of galaxies at z {approx} 1 completed to date. The survey was designed to conduct a comprehensive census of massive galaxies, their properties, environments, and large-scale structure down to absolute magnitude M{sub B} = -20 at z {approx} 1 via {approx}90 nights of observation on the Keck telescope. The survey covers an area of 2.8 deg{sup 2} divided into four separate fields observed to a limiting apparent magnitude of R{sub AB} = 24.1. Objects with z {approx}< 0.7 are readily identifiable using BRI photometry and rejected in three of the four DEEP2 fields, allowing galaxies with z > 0.7 to be targeted {approx}2.5 times more efficiently than in a purely magnitude-limited sample. Approximately 60% of eligible targets are chosen for spectroscopy, yielding nearly 53,000 spectra and more than 38,000 reliable redshift measurements. Most of the targets that fail to yield secure redshifts are blue objects that lie beyond z {approx} 1.45, where the [O II] 3727 A doublet lies in the infrared. The DEIMOS 1200 line mm{sup -1} grating used for the survey delivers high spectral resolution (R {approx} 6000), accurate and secure redshifts, and unique internal kinematic information. Extensive ancillary data are available in the DEEP2 fields, particularly in the Extended Groth Strip, which has evolved into one of the richest multiwavelength regions on the sky. This paper is intended as a handbook for users of the DEEP2 Data Release 4, which includes all DEEP2 spectra and redshifts, as well as for the DEEP2 DEIMOS data reduction pipelines. Extensive details are provided on object selection, mask design, biases in target selection and redshift measurements, the spec2d two-dimensional data-reduction pipeline, the spec1d automated redshift pipeline, and the zspec visual redshift verification process, along with examples of instrumental signatures or

  18. The DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey: Design, Observations, Data Reduction, and Redshifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Jeffrey A.; Cooper, Michael C.; Davis, Marc; Faber, S. M.; Coil, Alison L; Guhathakurta, Puraga; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Conroy, Charlie; Dutton, Aaron A.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Gerke, Brian F.; Rosario, David J.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Wilmer, C. N. A.; Yan, Renbin; Harker, Justin J.; Kassin, Susan A.; Konidaris, N. P.; Lai, Kamson; Madgwick, Darren S.; Noeske, K. G.; Wirth, Gregory D.; Kirby, Evan N.; Lotz, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the design and data analysis of the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey, the densest and largest high-precision redshift survey of galaxies at z approx. 1 completed to date. The survey was designed to conduct a comprehensive census of massive galaxies, their properties, environments, and large-scale structure down to absolute magnitude MB = -20 at z approx. 1 via approx.90 nights of observation on the Keck telescope. The survey covers an area of 2.8 Sq. deg divided into four separate fields observed to a limiting apparent magnitude of R(sub AB) = 24.1. Objects with z approx. < 0.7 are readily identifiable using BRI photometry and rejected in three of the four DEEP2 fields, allowing galaxies with z > 0.7 to be targeted approx. 2.5 times more efficiently than in a purely magnitude-limited sample. Approximately 60% of eligible targets are chosen for spectroscopy, yielding nearly 53,000 spectra and more than 38,000 reliable redshift measurements. Most of the targets that fail to yield secure redshifts are blue objects that lie beyond z approx. 1.45, where the [O ii] 3727 Ang. doublet lies in the infrared. The DEIMOS 1200 line mm(exp -1) grating used for the survey delivers high spectral resolution (R approx. 6000), accurate and secure redshifts, and unique internal kinematic information. Extensive ancillary data are available in the DEEP2 fields, particularly in the Extended Groth Strip, which has evolved into one of the richest multiwavelength regions on the sky. This paper is intended as a handbook for users of the DEEP2 Data Release 4, which includes all DEEP2 spectra and redshifts, as well as for the DEEP2 DEIMOS data reduction pipelines. Extensive details are provided on object selection, mask design, biases in target selection and redshift measurements, the spec2d two-dimensional data-reduction pipeline, the spec1d automated redshift pipeline, and the zspec visual redshift verification process, along with examples of instrumental signatures or other

  19. The DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey: Design, Observations, Data Reduction, and Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Jeffrey A.; Cooper, Michael C.; Davis, Marc; Faber, S. M.; Coil, Alison L.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Conroy, Charlie; Dutton, Aaron A.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Gerke, Brian F.; Rosario, David J.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Willmer, C. N. A.; Yan, Renbin; Harker, Justin J.; Kassin, Susan A.; Konidaris, N. P.; Lai, Kamson; Madgwick, Darren S.; Noeske, K. G.; Wirth, Gregory D.; Connolly, A. J.; Kaiser, N.; Kirby, Evan N.; Lemaux, Brian C.; Lin, Lihwai; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Luppino, G. A.; Marinoni, C.; Matthews, Daniel J.; Metevier, Anne; Schiavon, Ricardo P.

    2013-09-01

    We describe the design and data analysis of the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey, the densest and largest high-precision redshift survey of galaxies at z ~ 1 completed to date. The survey was designed to conduct a comprehensive census of massive galaxies, their properties, environments, and large-scale structure down to absolute magnitude MB = -20 at z ~ 1 via ~90 nights of observation on the Keck telescope. The survey covers an area of 2.8 deg2 divided into four separate fields observed to a limiting apparent magnitude of R AB = 24.1. Objects with z <~ 0.7 are readily identifiable using BRI photometry and rejected in three of the four DEEP2 fields, allowing galaxies with z > 0.7 to be targeted ~2.5 times more efficiently than in a purely magnitude-limited sample. Approximately 60% of eligible targets are chosen for spectroscopy, yielding nearly 53,000 spectra and more than 38,000 reliable redshift measurements. Most of the targets that fail to yield secure redshifts are blue objects that lie beyond z ~ 1.45, where the [O II] 3727 Å doublet lies in the infrared. The DEIMOS 1200 line mm-1 grating used for the survey delivers high spectral resolution (R ~ 6000), accurate and secure redshifts, and unique internal kinematic information. Extensive ancillary data are available in the DEEP2 fields, particularly in the Extended Groth Strip, which has evolved into one of the richest multiwavelength regions on the sky. This paper is intended as a handbook for users of the DEEP2 Data Release 4, which includes all DEEP2 spectra and redshifts, as well as for the DEEP2 DEIMOS data reduction pipelines. Extensive details are provided on object selection, mask design, biases in target selection and redshift measurements, the spec2d two-dimensional data-reduction pipeline, the spec1d automated redshift pipeline, and the zspec visual redshift verification process, along with examples of instrumental signatures or other artifacts that in some cases remain after data reduction. Redshift

  20. An accurate and practical method for inference of weak gravitational lensing from galaxy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Gary M.; Armstrong, Robert; Krawiec, Christina; March, Marisa C.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate highly accurate recovery of weak gravitational lensing shear using an implementation of the Bayesian Fourier Domain (BFD) method proposed by Bernstein & Armstrong, extended to correct for selection biases. The BFD formalism is rigorously correct for Nyquist-sampled, background-limited, uncrowded images of background galaxies. BFD does not assign shapes to galaxies, instead compressing the pixel data D into a vector of moments M, such that we have an analytic expression for the probability P(M|g) of obtaining the observations with gravitational lensing distortion g along the line of sight. We implement an algorithm for conducting BFD's integrations over the population of unlensed source galaxies which measures ≈10 galaxies s-1 core-1 with good scaling properties. Initial tests of this code on ≈109 simulated lensed galaxy images recover the simulated shear to a fractional accuracy of m = (2.1 ± 0.4) × 10-3, substantially more accurate than has been demonstrated previously for any generally applicable method. Deep sky exposures generate a sufficiently accurate approximation to the noiseless, unlensed galaxy population distribution assumed as input to BFD. Potential extensions of the method include simultaneous measurement of magnification and shear; multiple-exposure, multiband observations; and joint inference of photometric redshifts and lensing tomography.

  1. High redshift radio galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, Patrick J.

    1993-01-01

    High redshift galaxies that host powerful radio sources are examined. An overview is presented of the content of radio surveys: 3CR and 3CRR, 4C and 4C/USS, B2/1 Jy, MG, MRC/1Jy, Parkes/PSR, B3, and ESO Key-Project. Narrow-line radio galaxies in the visible and UV, the source of ionization and excitation of the emission lines, emission-line luminosities, morphology of the line-emitting gas, physical properties and energetics, kinematics of the line-emitting gas, and implications from the emission lines are discussed. The morphologies and environments of the host galaxies, the alignment effect, and spectral energy distributions and ages are also examined.

  2. Redshift-space distortions.

    PubMed

    Percival, Will J; Samushia, Lado; Ross, Ashley J; Shapiro, Charles; Raccanelli, Alvise

    2011-12-28

    Comparing measurements of redshift-space distortions (RSDs) with geometrical observations of the expansion of the Universe offers tremendous potential for testing general relativity on very large scales. The basic linear theory of RSDs in the distant-observer limit has been known for 25 years and the effect has been conclusively observed in numerous galaxy surveys. The next generation of galaxy survey will observe many millions of galaxies over volumes of many tens of Gpc(3). They will provide RSD measurements of such exquisite precision that we will have to carefully analyse and correct for many systematic deviations from this simple picture in order to fully exploit the statistical precision obtained. We review RSD theory and show how ubiquitous RSDs actually are, and then consider a number of potential systematic effects, shamelessly highlighting recent work in which we have been involved. This review ends by looking ahead to the future surveys that will make the next generation of RSD measurements.

  3. Galaxies at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, F. E.

    2014-10-01

    Recent years have seen tremendous progress in finding and charactering star-forming galaxies at high redshifts across the electromagnetic spectrum, giving us a more complete picture of how galaxies evolve, both in terms of their stellar and gas content, as well as the growth of their central supermassive black holes. A wealth of studies now demonstrate that star formation peaked at roughly half the age of the Universe and drops precariously as we look back to very early times, and that their central monsters apparently growth with them. At the highest-redshifts, we are pushing the boundaries via deep surveys at optical, X-ray, radio wavelengths, and more recently using gamma-ray bursts. I will review some of our accomplishments and failures. Telescope have enabled Lyman break galaxies to be robustly identified, but the UV luminosity function and star formation rate density of this population at z = 6 - 8 seems to be much lower than at z = 2 - 4. High escape fractions and a large contribution from faint galaxies below our current detection limits would be required for star-forming galaxies to reionize the Universe. We have also found that these galaxies have blue rest-frame UV colours, which might indicate lower dust extinction at z > 5. There has been some spectroscopic confirmation of these Lyman break galaxies through Lyman-α emission, but the fraction of galaxies where we see this line drops at z > 7, perhaps due to the onset of the Gunn-Peterson effect (where the IGM is opaque to Lyman-α).

  4. Improved Linear Algebra Methods for Redshift Computation from Limited Spectrum Data - II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Leslie; Waagen, Alex; Aijaz, Nabella; Hurley, Michael; Luis, Apolo; Rinsky, Joel; Satyavolu, Chandrika; Gazis, Paul; Srivastava, Ashok; Way, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Given photometric broadband measurements of a galaxy, Gaussian processes may be used with a training set to solve the regression problem of approximating the redshift of this galaxy. However, in practice solving the traditional Gaussian processes equation is too slow and requires too much memory. We employed several methods to avoid this difficulty using algebraic manipulation and low-rank approximation, and were able to quickly approximate the redshifts in our testing data within 17 percent of the known true values using limited computational resources. The accuracy of one method, the V Formulation, is comparable to the accuracy of the best methods currently used for this problem.

  5. 2dFLenS and KiDS: determining source redshift distributions with cross-correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Andrew; Blake, Chris; Amon, Alexandra; Erben, Thomas; Glazebrook, Karl; Harnois-Deraps, Joachim; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Joudaki, Shahab; Klaes, Dominik; Kuijken, Konrad; Lidman, Chris; Marin, Felipe A.; McFarland, John; Morrison, Christopher B.; Parkinson, David; Poole, Gregory B.; Radovich, Mario; Wolf, Christian

    2017-03-01

    We develop a statistical estimator to infer the redshift probability distribution of a photometric sample of galaxies from its angular cross-correlation in redshift bins with an overlapping spectroscopic sample. This estimator is a minimum-variance weighted quadratic function of the data: a quadratic estimator. This extends and modifies the methodology presented by McQuinn & White. The derived source redshift distribution is degenerate with the source galaxy bias, which must be constrained via additional assumptions. We apply this estimator to constrain source galaxy redshift distributions in the Kilo-Degree imaging survey through cross-correlation with the spectroscopic 2-degree Field Lensing Survey, presenting results first as a binned step-wise distribution in the range z < 0.8, and then building a continuous distribution using a Gaussian process model. We demonstrate the robustness of our methodology using mock catalogues constructed from N-body simulations, and comparisons with other techniques for inferring the redshift distribution.

  6. Stacking for machine learning redshifts applied to SDSS galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitlau, Roman; Hoyle, Ben; Paech, Kerstin; Weller, Jochen; Rau, Markus Michael; Seitz, Stella

    2016-08-01

    We present an analysis of a general machine learning technique called `stacking' for the estimation of photometric redshifts. Stacking techniques can feed the photometric redshift estimate, as output by a base algorithm, back into the same algorithm as an additional input feature in a subsequent learning round. We show how all tested base algorithms benefit from at least one additional stacking round (or layer). To demonstrate the benefit of stacking, we apply the method to both unsupervised machine learning techniques based on self-organizing maps (SOMs), and supervised machine learning methods based on decision trees. We explore a range of stacking architectures, such as the number of layers and the number of base learners per layer. Finally we explore the effectiveness of stacking even when using a successful algorithm such as AdaBoost. We observe a significant improvement of between 1.9 per cent and 21 per cent on all computed metrics when stacking is applied to weak learners (such as SOMs and decision trees). When applied to strong learning algorithms (such as AdaBoost) the ratio of improvement shrinks, but still remains positive and is between 0.4 per cent and 2.5 per cent for the explored metrics and comes at almost no additional computational cost.

  7. Photometric Characteristics of Lunar Terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Hapke, Bruce W.; Denevi, Brett W.; Robinson, Mark

    2016-10-01

    The photometric properties of the lunar depend on albedo, surface roughness, porosity, and the internal/external structure of particles. Hapke parameter maps derived using a bidirectional reflectance model [Hapke, 2012] from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) images demonstrated the spatial and spectral variation of the photometric properties of the Moon [Sato et al., 2014]. Using the same methodology, here we present the photometric characteristics of typical lunar terrains, which were not systematically analyzed in the previous study.We selected five representative terrain types: mare, highland, swirls, and two Copernican (fresh) crater ejecta (one mare and one highlands example). As for the datasets, we used ~39 months of WAC repeated observations, and for each image pixel, we computed latitude, longitude, incidence, emission, and phase angles using the WAC GLD100 stereo DTM [Scholten et al., 2012]. To obtain similar phase and incidence angle ranges, all sampling sites are near the equator and in the vicinity of Reiner Gamma. Three free Hapke parameters (single scattering albedo: w, HG2 phase function parameter: c, and angular width of SHOE: hs) were then calculated for the seven bands (321-689 nm). The remaining parameters were fixed by simplifying the model [Sato et al., 2014].The highlands, highland ejecta, and swirl (Reiner Gamma) showed clearly higher w than the mare and mare ejecta. The derived c values were lower (less backscattering) for the swirl and higher (more backscattering) for the highlands (and ejecta) relative to the other sites. Forward scattering materials such as unconsolidated transparent crystalline materials might be relatively enriched in the swirl. In the highlands, anorthositic agglutinates with dense internal scattering could be responsible for the strong backscattering. The mare and mare ejecta showed continuously decreasing c from UV to visible wavelengths. This might be caused by the FeO-rich pyroxene

  8. Photometric commissioning results from MINERVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastman, Jason D.; Swift, Jonathan; Beatty, Thomas G.; Bottom, Michael; Johnson, John; Wright, Jason; McCrady, Nate; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Riddle, Reed L.; Plavchan, Peter; Muirhead, Philip Steven; Blake, Cullen; Zhao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    MINERVA is a robotic observatory with four 0.7 meter telescopes at Mt. Hopkins, Arizona, dedicated to precise photometry and radial velocity observations of bright, nearby stars for the discovery and characterization of small exoplanets. Here we present the first photometric results from MINERVA during commissioning at our test facility in Pasadena, California, demonstrating sub-millimag precision on 3-5 minute timescales over several hours. These results show that MINERVA is well-equipped to address its secondary science goal of searching for transits of known and newly discovered super-Earth exoplanets detected by radial velocity, including potential detections from the MINERVA spectrograph.

  9. GALAXY CLUSTERS AT HIGH REDSHIFT AND EVOLUTION OF BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Z. L.; Han, J. L.

    2011-06-10

    Identification of high-redshift clusters is important for studies of cosmology and cluster evolution. Using photometric redshifts of galaxies, we identify 631 clusters from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) wide field, 202 clusters from the CFHT deep field, 187 clusters from the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field, and 737 clusters from the Spitzer Wide-area InfraRed Extragalactic Survey (SWIRE) field. The redshifts of these clusters are in the range 0.1 {approx}< z {approx}< 1.6. Merging these cluster samples gives 1644 clusters in the four survey fields, of which 1088 are newly identified and more than half are from the large SWIRE field. Among 228 clusters of z {>=} 1, 191 clusters are newly identified, and most of them from the SWIRE field. With this large sample of high-redshift clusters, we study the color evolution of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). The r' - z' and r{sup +} - m{sub 3.6{mu}m} colors of the BCGs are consistent with a stellar population synthesis model in which the BCGs are formed at redshift z{sub f} {>=} 2 and evolved passively. The g' - z' and B - m{sub 3.6{mu}m} colors of the BCGs at redshifts z > 0.8 are systematically bluer than the passive evolution model for galaxies formed at z{sub f} {approx} 2, indicating star formation in high-redshift BCGs.

  10. The Aquarius Superclusters. II. Spectroscopic and Photometric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caretta, César A.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Willmer, Christopher N. A.

    2004-12-01

    We present spectroscopic and photometric data for 920 galaxies selected in 68 fields of the Aquarius Cluster Catalog. Typically, the 15 brightest candidate members with magnitudes in the range 16redshift determinations, we assign galaxies to groups and clusters, and by including data from the literature we calculate systemic velocities and velocity dispersions for 74 clusters, each with redshifts measured for at least six individual galaxies. Partly based on observations at European Southern Observatory (ESO) at the ESO Schmidt Telescope and the 1.52 m telescope under the ESO-ON agreement; Observatório do Pico dos Dias, operated by the Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica (LNA); and Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito (CASLEO), operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  11. Reconstructing the lensing mass in the Universe from photometric catalogue data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, Thomas E.; Marshall, Philip J.; Auger, Matthew W.; Hilbert, Stefan; Suyu, Sherry H.; Greene, Zachary; Treu, Tommaso; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Koopmans, Léon V. E.; Bradač, Maruša; Blandford, Roger D.

    2013-06-01

    High precision cosmological distance measurements towards individual objects such as time delay gravitational lenses or Type Ia supernovae are affected by weak lensing perturbations by galaxies and groups along the line of sight. In time delay gravitational lenses, `external convergence', κext, can dominate the uncertainty in the inferred distances and hence cosmological parameters. In this paper we attempt to reconstruct κext, due to line of sight structure, using a simple halo model. We use mock catalogues from the Millennium Simulation, and calibrate and compare our reconstructed P(κext) to ray-traced κext `truth' values; taking into account realistic uncertainties on redshift and stellar masses. We find that the reconstruction of κext provides an improvement in precision of ˜50 per cent over galaxy number counts. We find that the lowest κext lines of sight have the best constrained P(κext). In anticipation of future samples with thousands of lenses, we find that selecting the third of the systems with the highest precision κext estimates gives a subsample of unbiased time delay distance measurements with (on average) just 1 per cent uncertainty due to line of sight external convergence effects. Photometric data alone are sufficient to pre-select the best-constrained lines of sight, and can be done before investment in light-curve monitoring. Conversely, we show that selecting lines of sight with high external shear could, with the reconstruction model presented here, induce biases of up to 1 per cent in time delay distance. We find that a major potential source of systematic error is uncertainty in the high-mass end of the stellar mass-halo mass relation; this could introduce ˜2 per cent biases on the time delay distance if completely ignored. We suggest areas for the improvement of this general analysis framework (including more sophisticated treatment of high-mass structures) that should allow yet more accurate cosmological inferences to be made.

  12. Optimal redshift weighting for redshift-space distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, Rossana; Percival, Will J.; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Zhu, Fangzhou; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Wang, Yuting

    2017-01-01

    The low-statistical errors on cosmological parameters promised by future galaxy surveys will only be realized with the development of new, fast, analysis methods that reduce potential systematic problems to low levels. We present an efficient method for measuring the evolution of the growth of structure using redshift-space distortions (RSDs), that removes the need to make measurements in redshift shells. We provide sets of galaxy-weights that cover a wide range in redshift, but are optimized to provide differential information about cosmological evolution. These are derived to optimally measure the coefficients of a parametrization of the redshift-dependent matter density, which provides a framework to measure deviations from the concordance ΛCDM cosmology, allowing for deviations in both geometric and/or growth. We test the robustness of the weights by comparing with alternative schemes and investigate the impact of galaxy bias. We extend the results to measure the combined anisotropic baryon acoustic oscillation and RSD signals.

  13. Constraints on Primordial Non-Gaussianity from 800 000 Photometric Quasars.

    PubMed

    Leistedt, Boris; Peiris, Hiranya V; Roth, Nina

    2014-11-28

    We derive robust constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (PNG) using the clustering of 800 000 photometric quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in the redshift range 0.5accurate measurement of quasar halo bias at the largest scales, while discarding as little as possible of the data. The standard local-type PNG parameters f_{NL} and g_{NL} both imprint a k^{-2} scale-dependent effect in the bias. Constraining these individually, we obtain -49redshift distributions, shot noise, and the bias prescription used to relate the quasar clustering to the underlying dark matter. These are the strongest constraints obtained to date on PNG using a single population of large-scale structure tracers, and are already at the level of pre-Planck constraints from the cosmic microwave background. A conservative forecast for a Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)-like survey incorporating mode projection yields σ(f_{NL})∼5-competitive with the Planck result-highlighting the power of upcoming large scale structure surveys to probe the initial conditions of the Universe.

  14. Constraints on Primordial Non-Gaussianity from 800 000 Photometric Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leistedt, Boris; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Roth, Nina

    2014-11-01

    We derive robust constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (PNG) using the clustering of 800 000 photometric quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in the redshift range 0.5 accurate measurement of quasar halo bias at the largest scales, while discarding as little as possible of the data. The standard local-type PNG parameters fNL and gNL both imprint a k-2 scale-dependent effect in the bias. Constraining these individually, we obtain -49 redshift distributions, shot noise, and the bias prescription used to relate the quasar clustering to the underlying dark matter. These are the strongest constraints obtained to date on PNG using a single population of large-scale structure tracers, and are already at the level of pre-Planck constraints from the cosmic microwave background. A conservative forecast for a Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)-like survey incorporating mode projection yields σ (fNL)˜5 —competitive with the Planck result—highlighting the power of upcoming large scale structure surveys to probe the initial conditions of the Universe.

  15. THE POPULATION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE CHANDRA-COSMOS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Hao, H.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Gilli, R.; Mignoli, M.; Salvato, M.; Capak, P.; Kakazu, Y.; Masters, D.; Fiore, F.; Ikeda, H.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Miyaji, T.; Puccetti, S.; Shankar, F.; Silverman, J.; Vignali, C.

    2011-11-10

    We present the high-redshift (3 photometric (50) redshifts plus 20 sources with a formal z{sub phot} < 3 but with a broad photometric redshift probability distribution, such that z{sub phot} + 1{sigma} > 3. Eighty-one sources are selected in the 0.5-2 keV band, fourteen are selected in the 2-10 keV and six in the 0.5-10 keV bands. We sample the high-luminosity (log L{sub (2-10keV)} > 44.15 erg s{sup -1}) space density up to z {approx} 5 and a fainter luminosity range (43.5 erg s{sup -1} < log L{sub (2-10keV)} < 44.15 erg s{sup -1}) than previous studies, up to z = 3.5. We weighted the contribution to the number counts and the space density of the sources with photometric redshift by using their probability of being at z > 3. We find that the space density of high-luminosity AGNs declines exponentially at all the redshifts, confirming the trend observed for optically selected quasars. At lower luminosity, the measured space density is not conclusive, and a larger sample of faint sources is needed. Comparisons with optical luminosity functions and black hole formation models are presented together with prospects for future surveys.

  16. A WFC3 Grism Emission Line Redshift Catalog in the GOODS-South Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Aaron M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Barro, Guillermo; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, Sandra M.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fontana, Adriano; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Grützbauch, Ruth; Guo, Yicheng; Hsu, Li-Ting; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Koo, David C.; Mobasher, Bahram; Pforr, Janine; Salvato, Mara; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn

    2015-06-01

    We combine Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Wide Field Camera3 (WFC3) imaging and G141 grism observations from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and 3D-HST surveys to produce a catalog of grism spectroscopic redshifts for galaxies in the CANDELS/GOODS-South field. The WFC3/G141 grism spectra cover a wavelength range of 1.1≤slant λ ≤slant 1.7 μm with a resolving power of R∼ 130 for point sources, thus providing rest-frame optical spectra for galaxies out to z∼ 3.5. The catalog is selected in the H-band (F160W) and includes both galaxies with and without previously published spectroscopic redshifts. Grism spectra are extracted for all H-band detected galaxies with H ≤slant 24 and a CANDELS photometric redshift {{z}phot}≥slant 0.6. The resulting spectra are visually inspected to identify emission lines, and redshifts are determined using cross-correlation with empirical spectral templates. To establish the accuracy of our redshifts, we compare our results against high-quality spectroscopic redshifts from the literature. Using a sample of 411 control galaxies, this analysis yields a precision of {{σ }NMAD}=0.0028 for the grism-derived redshifts, which is consistent with the accuracy reported by the 3D-HST team. Our final catalog covers an area of 153 arcmin2 and contains 1019 redshifts for galaxies in GOODS-S. Roughly 60% (608/1019) of these redshifts are for galaxies with no previously published spectroscopic redshift. These new redshifts span a range of 0.677≤slant z≤slant 3.456 and have a median redshift of z = 1.282. The catalog contains a total of 234 new redshifts for galaxies at z\\gt 1.5. In addition, we present 20 galaxy pair candidates identified for the first time using the grism redshifts in our catalog, including four new galaxy pairs at z∼ 2, nearly doubling the number of such pairs previously identified.

  17. Orbital and photometric properties of SZ Lyncis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffett, Thomas J.; Barnes, Thomas G., III; Fekel, Francis C., Jr.; Jefferys, William H.; Achtermann, Jeffrey M.

    1988-01-01

    New photometric results based on 3760 observations made on the Johnson BVRI system and 69 new radial-velocity measurements of the large-amplitude Delta Scuti binary SZ Lyncis are reported. Using these data and previous observations from the literature, improved values for the pulsation and orbital parameters are derived. The pulsation period is found to be 0.12052115 days, which is shorter than earlier determinations. The pulsation period is undergoing a secular period change of 3 X 10 to the -12th days/cycle. The orbital period of the binary is found to be 1181.1 days, with an orbital eccentricity of 0.188. A new ephemeris is given, which accurately predicts the times of light maximum and is consistent with the spectroscopic orbit. The mass function is 0.101 solar, which, together with other known properties of SZ Lyn, indicates that the unseen companion is most likely on the main sequence with a spectral type between F2 and K3.

  18. Photometric invariant stereo matching method.

    PubMed

    Gu, Feifei; Zhao, Hong; Zhou, Xiang; Li, Jinjun; Bu, Penghui; Zhao, Zixin

    2015-12-14

    A robust stereo matching method based on a comprehensive mathematical model for color formation process is proposed to estimate the disparity map of stereo images with noise and photometric variations. The band-pass filter with DoP kernel is firstly used to filter out noise component of the stereo images. Then the log-chromaticity normalization process is applied to eliminate the influence of lightning geometry. All the other factors that may influence the color formation process are removed through the disparity estimation process with a specific matching cost. Performance of the developed method is evaluated by comparing with some up-to-date algorithms. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the robustness and accuracy of the method.

  19. Perspective photometric stereo beyond Lambert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanian, Maryam; Sharifi Boroujerdi, Ali; Breuß, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Photometric stereo is a technique for estimating the 3-D depth of a surface using multiple images taken under different illuminations from the same viewing angle. Most existing models make use of Lambertian reflection and an orthographic camera as underlying assumptions. However, real-world materials often exhibit non-Lambertian effects such as specular highlights and for many applications it is of interest to consider objects close to the camera. In our work, we aim at addressing these issues. Together with a perspective camera we employ a non-Lambertian reflectance model, namely the Blinn-Phong model which is capable to deal with specular reflection. Focusing on the effects of specular highlights, we perform a detailed study of one-dimensional test cases showing important aspects of our method.

  20. Measurement of A Redshift-space Power Spectrum for BOSS Galaxies and the Growth Rate at Redshift 0.57

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhigang; Jing, Y. P.; Zhang, Pengjie; Cheng, Dalong

    2016-12-01

    We present a measurement of the two-dimensional (2D) redshift-space power spectrum for the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 11 CMASS galaxies in the northern Galactic cap based on the method developed by Jing & Börner. In this method, we first measure the 2D redshift-space correlation function and obtain the 2D power spectrum based on Fourier transform of the correlation function. The method is tested with an N-body mock galaxy catalog, which demonstrates that the method can yield an accurate and unbiased measurement of the redshift-space power spectrum given that the input 2D correlation function is correct. Compared with previous measurements in literature that are usually based on direct Fourier transform in redshift space, our method has the advantages that the window function and shot noise are fully corrected. Thus, our measurement can facilitate a direct comparison with the theoretical predictions. Our 2D power spectrum, by construction, can reproduce the 2D correlation function, and it can reproduce, for example, the 2D power spectrum of Beutler et al. accurately if ours is convolved with the window function they provided. We then develop a method to measure the structure growth rate, by separating the anisotropic redshift-space power spectrum from the isotropic real-space power spectrum. We have carefully corrected for the nonlinearities in the mapping from real space to redshift space, according to the theoretical model of Zhang et al. Finally, we obtain the measurement of structure growth rate f({z}{eff})σ 8({z}{eff}) = 0.438 ± 0.037 at the effective redshift {z}{eff} = 0.57. The result is useful for constraining cosmological parameters. The measurements of the 2D power spectrum will be released soon.

  1. New High-z Fermi BL Lacs with the Photometric Dropout Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, A.; Rau, Arne; Ajello, Marco; Hartmann, Dieter; Paliya, Vaidehi; Bolmer, Jan; Greiner, Jochen; Schady, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Determining redshifts for BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects using the traditional spectroscopic method is challenging due to the absence of strong emission lines in their optical spectra. We employ the photometric dropout technique to determine redshifts for this class of blazars using the combined 13 broad-band filters from Swift-UVOT and the multi-channel imager GROND at the MPG 2.2 m telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory. The wavelength range covered by these 13 filters extends from far ultraviolet to the near-Infrared. We report results on 40 new Fermi detected BL Lacs with the photometric redshifts determinations for 5 sources, with 3FGL J1918.2-4110 being the most distance in our sample at z=2.16. Reliable upper limits are provided for 20 sources in this sample. Using the highest energy photons for these Fermi-LAT sources, we evaluate the consistency with the Gamma-ray horizon due to the extragalactic background light.

  2. New High-z Fermi BL Lacs with the Photometric Dropout Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, A.; Rau, A.; Ajello, M.; Greiner, J.; Hartmann, D. H.; Paliya, V. S.; Domínguez, A.; Bolmer, J.; Schady, P.

    2017-01-01

    Determining redshifts for BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects using the traditional spectroscopic method is challenging due to the absence of strong emission lines in their optical spectra. We employ the photometric dropout technique to determine redshifts for this class of blazars using the combined 13 broadband filters from Swift-UVOT and the multi-channel imager GROND at the MPG 2.2 m telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory. The wavelength range covered by these 13 filters extends from far-ultraviolet to the near-infrared. We report results on 40 new Fermi-detected BL Lacs with the photometric redshift determinations for five sources, with 3FGL J1918.2–4110 being the most distant in our sample at z = 2.16. Reliable upper limits are provided for 20 sources in this sample. Using the highest energy photons for these Fermi-LAT sources, we evaluate the consistency with the gamma-ray horizon due to the extragalactic background light.

  3. Very high redshift radio galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    van Breugel, W.J.M., LLNL

    1997-12-01

    High redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs) provide unique targets for the study of the formation and evolution of massive galaxies and galaxy clusters at very high redshifts. We discuss how efficient HzRG samples ae selected, the evidence for strong morphological evolution at near-infracd wavelengths, and for jet-induced star formation in the z = 3 800 HzRG 4C41 17

  4. Photometric and polarimetric mapping of water turbidity and water depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halajian, J.; Hallock, H.

    1973-01-01

    A Digital Photometric Mapper (DPM) was used in the Fall of 1971 in an airborne survey of New York and Boston area waters to acquire photometric, spectral and polarimetric data. The object of this study is to analyze these data with quantitative computer processing techniques to assess the potential of the DPM in the measurement and regional mapping of water turbidity and depth. These techniques have been developed and an operational potential has been demonstrated. More emphasis is placed at this time on the methodology of data acquisition, analysis and display than on the quantity of data. The results illustrate the type, quantity and format of information that could be generated operationally with the DPM-type sensor characterized by high photometric stability and fast, accurate digital output. The prototype, single-channel DPM is suggested as a unique research tool for a number of new applications. For the operational mapping of water turbidity and depth, the merits of a multichannel DPM coupled with a laser system are stressed.

  5. Calibration of LSST Instrumental and Atmospheric Photometric Passbands

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, David L.; Axelrod, T.; Barrau, Aurelien; Baumont, Sylvain; Blondin, Stephane; Claver, Chuck; Gorecki, Alexia; Ivezic, Zeljko; Jones, Lynne; Krabbendam, Victor; Liang, Ming; Saha, Abhijit; Smith, Allyn; Smith, R.Chris; Stubbs, Christopher W.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2011-07-06

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will continuously image the entire sky visible from Cerro Pachon in northern Chile every 3-4 nights throughout the year. The LSST will provide data for a broad range of science investigations that require better than 1% photometric precision across the sky (repeatability and uniformity) and a similar accuracy of measured broadband color. The fast and persistent cadence of the LSST survey will significantly improve the temporal sampling rate with which celestial events and motions are tracked. To achieve these goals, and to optimally utilize the observing calendar, it will be necessary to obtain excellent photometric calibration of data taken over a wide range of observing conditions - even those not normally considered 'photometric'. To achieve this it will be necessary to routinely and accurately measure the full optical passband that includes the atmosphere as well as the instrumental telescope and camera system. The LSST mountain facility will include a new monochromatic dome illumination projector system to measure the detailed wavelength dependence of the instrumental passband for each channel in the system. The facility will also include an auxiliary spectroscopic telescope dedicated to measurement of atmospheric transparency at all locations in the sky during LSST observing. In this paper, we describe these systems and present laboratory and observational data that illustrate their performance.

  6. Accurate spectral color measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Jouni; Jaeaeskelaeinen, Timo; Parkkinen, Jussi P. S.

    1999-08-01

    Surface color measurement is of importance in a very wide range of industrial applications including paint, paper, printing, photography, textiles, plastics and so on. For a demanding color measurements spectral approach is often needed. One can measure a color spectrum with a spectrophotometer using calibrated standard samples as a reference. Because it is impossible to define absolute color values of a sample, we always work with approximations. The human eye can perceive color difference as small as 0.5 CIELAB units and thus distinguish millions of colors. This 0.5 unit difference should be a goal for the precise color measurements. This limit is not a problem if we only want to measure the color difference of two samples, but if we want to know in a same time exact color coordinate values accuracy problems arise. The values of two instruments can be astonishingly different. The accuracy of the instrument used in color measurement may depend on various errors such as photometric non-linearity, wavelength error, integrating sphere dark level error, integrating sphere error in both specular included and specular excluded modes. Thus the correction formulas should be used to get more accurate results. Another question is how many channels i.e. wavelengths we are using to measure a spectrum. It is obvious that the sampling interval should be short to get more precise results. Furthermore, the result we get is always compromise of measuring time, conditions and cost. Sometimes we have to use portable syste or the shape and the size of samples makes it impossible to use sensitive equipment. In this study a small set of calibrated color tiles measured with the Perkin Elmer Lamda 18 and the Minolta CM-2002 spectrophotometers are compared. In the paper we explain the typical error sources of spectral color measurements, and show which are the accuracy demands a good colorimeter should have.

  7. Photometric Studies of GEO Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Cowardin, Heather M.; Barker, Edwin; Abercromby, Kira J.; Foreman, Gary; Horstman, Matt

    2009-01-01

    The photometric signature of a debris object can be useful in determining what the physical characteristics of a piece of debris are. We report on optical observations in multiple filters of debris at geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Our sample is taken from GEO objects discovered in a survey with the University of Michigan's 0.6-m aperture Schmidt telescope MODEST (for Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope), and then followed up in real-time with the SMARTS (Small and Medium Aperture Research Telescope System) 0.9-m at CTIO for orbits and photometry. Our goal is to determine 6 parameter orbits and measure colors for all objects fainter than R = 15 th magnitude that are discovered in the MODEST survey. At this magnitude the distribution of observed angular rates changes significantly from that of brighter objects. There are two objectives: 1. Estimate the orbital distribution of objects selected on the basis of two observational criteria: brightness (magnitude) and angular rates. 2. Obtain magnitudes and colors in standard astronomical filters (BVRI) for comparison with reflectance spectra of likely spacecraft materials. What is the faint debris likely to be? In this paper we report on the photometric results. For a sample of 50 objects, more than 90 calibrated sequences of R-B-V-I-R magnitudes have been obtained with the CTIO 0.9-m. For objects that do not show large brightness variations, the colors are largely redder than solar in both B-R and R-I. The width of the color distribution may be intrinsic to the nature of the surfaces, but also could be that we are seeing irregularly shaped objects and measuring the colors at different times with just one telescope. For a smaller sample of objects we have observed with synchronized CCD cameras on the two telescopes. The CTIO 0.9-m observes in B, and MODEST in R. The CCD cameras are electronically linked together so that the start time and duration of observations are the same to better than 50 milliseconds. Thus

  8. Spectral Observations and Analyses of Low-Redshift Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Jeffrey Michael

    The explosive deaths of stars, known as a supernovae (SNe), have been critical to our understanding of the Universe for centuries. An introduction to SNe, their importance in astronomy, and how we observe them is given in Chapter 1. In the second Chapter, I present the full BSNIP sample which consists of 1298 low-redshift (z ≤ 0.2) optical spectra of 582 SNe Ia observed from 1989 through the end of 2008. I describe our spectral classification scheme (using the SuperNova IDentification code, SNID; Blondin & Tonry 2007), utilizing my newly constructed set of SNID spectral templates. These templates allow me to accurately spectroscopically classify the entire BSNIP dataset, and by doing so I am able to reclassify a handful of objects as bona fide SNe Ia and a few other objects as members of some of the peculiar SN Ia subtypes. In fact, the BSNIP dataset includes spectra of nearly 90 spectroscopically peculiar SNe Ia. I also present spectroscopic host-galaxy redshifts of some SNe Ia where these values were previously unknown. I present measurements of spectral features of 432 low-redshift ( z < 0.1) optical spectra within 20 d of maximum brightness of 261 SNe Ia from the BSNIP sample in the third Chapter. I describe in detail my method of automated, robust spectral feature definition and measurement which expands upon similar previous studies. Using this procedure, I attempt to measure expansion velocities, (pseudo-)equivalent widths (pEWs), spectral feature depths, and fluxes at the center and endpoints of each of nine major spectral feature complexes. A sanity check of the consistency of the measurements is performed using the BSNIP data (as well as a separate spectral dataset). I investigate how velocity and pEW evolve with time and how they correlate with each other. Various spectral classification schemes are employed and quantitative spectral differences among the subclasses are investigated. Several ratios of pEW values are calculated and studied. Furthermore

  9. Gaia Data Release 1. The photometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, F.; Evans, D. W.; De Angeli, F.; Jordi, C.; Busso, G.; Cacciari, C.; Riello, M.; Pancino, E.; Altavilla, G.; Brown, A. G. A.; Burgess, P.; Carrasco, J. M.; Cocozza, G.; Cowell, S.; Davidson, M.; De Luise, F.; Fabricius, C.; Galleti, S.; Gilmore, G.; Giuffrida, G.; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Holland, G.; MacDonald, I.; Marinoni, S.; Montegriffo, P.; Osborne, P.; Ragaini, S.; Richards, P. J.; Rowell, N.; Voss, H.; Walton, N. A.; Weiler, M.; Castellani, M.; Delgado, A.; Høg, E.; van Leeuwen, M.; Millar, N. R.; Pagani, C.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pulone, L.; Rixon, G.; Suess, F. F.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yoldas, A.; Alecu, A.; Allan, P. M.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Barstow, M. A.; Bellazzini, M.; Belokurov, V.; Blagorodnova, N.; Bonfigli, M.; Bragaglia, A.; Brown, S.; Bunclark, P.; Buonanno, R.; Burgon, R.; Campbell, H.; Collins, R. S.; Cross, N. J. G.; Ducourant, C.; van Elteren, A.; Evans, N. W.; Federici, L.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Figueras, F.; Fraser, M.; Fyfe, D.; Gebran, M.; Heyrovsky, A.; Holl, B.; Holland, A. D.; Iannicola, G.; Irwin, M.; Koposov, S. E.; Krone-Martins, A.; Mann, R. G.; Marrese, P. M.; Masana, E.; Munari, U.; Ortiz, P.; Ouzounis, A.; Peltzer, C.; Portell, J.; Read, A.; Terrett, D.; Torra, J.; Trager, S. C.; Troisi, L.; Valentini, G.; Vallenari, A.; Wevers, T.

    2017-02-01

    Context. This paper presents an overview of the photometric data that are part of the first Gaia data release. Aims: The principles of the processing and the main characteristics of the Gaia photometric data are presented. Methods: The calibration strategy is outlined briefly and the main properties of the resulting photometry are presented. Results: Relations with other broadband photometric systems are provided. The overall precision for the Gaia photometry is shown to be at the milli-magnitude level and has a clear potential to improve further in future releases.

  10. CALIBRATION OF THE MEARTH PHOTOMETRIC SYSTEM: OPTICAL MAGNITUDES AND PHOTOMETRIC METALLICITY ESTIMATES FOR 1802 NEARBY M-DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Dittmann, Jason A.; Irwin, Jonathan M.; Charbonneau, David; Newton, Elisabeth R.

    2016-02-20

    The MEarth Project is a photometric survey systematically searching the smallest stars near the Sun for transiting rocky planets. Since 2008, MEarth has taken approximately two million images of 1844 stars suspected to be mid-to-late M dwarfs. We have augmented this survey by taking nightly exposures of photometric standard stars and have utilized this data to photometrically calibrate the MEarth system, identify photometric nights, and obtain an optical magnitude with 1.5% precision for each M dwarf system. Each optical magnitude is an average over many years of data, and therefore should be largely immune to stellar variability and flaring. We combine this with trigonometric distance measurements, spectroscopic metallicity measurements, and 2MASS infrared magnitude measurements in order to derive a color–magnitude–metallicity relation across the mid-to-late M dwarf spectral sequence that can reproduce spectroscopic metallicity determinations to a precision of 0.1 dex. We release optical magnitudes and metallicity estimates for 1567 M dwarfs, many of which did not have an accurate determination of either prior to this work. For an additional 277 stars without a trigonometric parallax, we provide an estimate of the distance, assuming solar neighborhood metallicity. We find that the median metallicity for a volume-limited sample of stars within 20 pc of the Sun is [Fe/H] = −0.03 ± 0.008, and that 29/565 of these stars have a metallicity of [Fe/H] = −0.5 or lower, similar to the low-metallicity distribution of nearby G dwarfs. When combined with the results of ongoing and future planet surveys targeting these objects, the metallicity estimates presented here will be important for assessing the significance of any putative planet–metallicity correlation.

  11. Photometric properties of Triton hazes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillier, J.; Veverka, J.

    1994-01-01

    Voyager imaging observations of Triton have been used to investigate the characteristics of the atmospheric hazes on Triton at three wavelengths: violet (0.41 micrometers), blue (0.48 micrometers), and green (0.56 micrometers). The globally averaged optical depth is wavelength dependent, varying from 0.034 in green to 0.063 in violet. These photometric results are dominated by the properties of localized discrete clouds rather than by those of the thinner, more widespread haze known to occur on Triton. The cloud particles are bright, with single-scattering albedos near unity at all three wavelengths, suggestive of a transparent icy condensate. The asymmetry parameter (+0.6) and the wavelength dependence of the optical depth both indicate cloud particles 0.2-0.4 micrometers in radius. The clouds are concentrated at 50-60 deg S latitude, where opacities up to three times the global average are observed. This is the same latitude region where most of the evidence for current surface activity is found, suggesting that the clouds may be related to the plumes or at least to some process connected with the sublimation of the south polar cap. The effects of possible temporal variations in the haze opacity are examined. Increases in the haze opacity tend to redden Triton. However, the degree of reddening is not sufficient to explain the full range of observed changed in Triton over the past decade; variations in the surface properties appear to be necessary.

  12. Photometric Study of Uranian Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesten, Philip R.

    1998-10-01

    The best summary of my work at NASA is expressed in the following abstract, submitted the Division for Planetary Science of the American Astronomical Society and to be presented at the annual meeting in Madison in October. We report photometric measurements of Uranian satellites Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel and Titania (10.4 Aug. 1995), and Neptune's satellite Triton (21.2 Sept. 1995) with the infrared camera (IRCAM) and standard J (1.13 - 1.42 microns), H (1.53 - 1.81 microns), and K (2.00 - 2.41 microns) filters at the 3.8-m UKIRT telescope on Mauna Kea. The individual images frames are 256 x 256 pixels with a platescale of .286 arcsec/pixel, resulting in a 1.22 arc min field of view. This summer brought the IR photometry measurements nearly to a close. As indicated by the abstract above, I will present this work at the annual DPS meeting in October. In anticipation of the opening of the new Carl Sagan Laboratory for Cosmochemisty, of which I will be a participating member, I also devoted a considerable fraction of the summer to learning the biochemistry which underlies the experiments to be conducted. To put the end of the summary close to the beginning, it was a most productive summer.

  13. Photometric Study of Uranian Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesten, Philip R.

    1998-01-01

    The best summary of my work at NASA is expressed in the following abstract, submitted the Division for Planetary Science of the American Astronomical Society and to be presented at the annual meeting in Madison in October. We report photometric measurements of Uranian satellites Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel and Titania (10.4 Aug. 1995), and Neptune's satellite Triton (21.2 Sept. 1995) with the infrared camera (IRCAM) and standard J (1.13 - 1.42 microns), H (1.53 - 1.81 microns), and K (2.00 - 2.41 microns) filters at the 3.8-m UKIRT telescope on Mauna Kea. The individual images frames are 256 x 256 pixels with a platescale of .286 arcsec/pixel, resulting in a 1.22 arc min field of view. This summer brought the IR photometry measurements nearly to a close. As indicated by the abstract above, I will present this work at the annual DPS meeting in October. In anticipation of the opening of the new Carl Sagan Laboratory for Cosmochemisty, of which I will be a participating member, I also devoted a considerable fraction of the summer to learning the biochemistry which underlies the experiments to be conducted. To put the end of the summary close to the beginning, it was a most productive summer.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometric redshifts in the Hawaii-HDF-N (Yang+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, G.; Xue, Y. Q.; Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Cui, W.; Kong, X.; Lehmer, B. D.; Wang, J.-X.; Wu, X.-B.; Yuan, F.; Yuan, Y.-F.; Zhou, H. Y.

    2015-02-01

    We collect the U-, B-, V-, R-, I-, z'-, and HK'-band images from Capak+, 2004, J/AJ/127/180, the J- and H-band images from Keenan et al. (2010ApJS..186...94K), and the Ks-band image from Wang et al. (2010, J/ApJS/187/251), respectively. We also make use of an independently observed z'-band image from Ouchi et al. (2009ApJ...706.1136O). The IRAC 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0um images were obtained from the Spitzer Heritage Archive, while another set of IRAC 3.6 and 4.5um images were taken from the Spitzer Extended Deep Survey (SEDS) presented in Ashby et al. (2013, J/ApJ/769/80). (1 data file).

  15. Baryon acoustic oscillations in 2D: Modeling redshift-space power spectrum from perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Taruya, Atsushi; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Saito, Shun

    2010-09-15

    We present an improved prescription for the matter power spectrum in redshift space taking proper account of both nonlinear gravitational clustering and redshift distortion, which are of particular importance for accurately modeling baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs). Contrary to the models of redshift distortion phenomenologically introduced but frequently used in the literature, the new model includes the corrections arising from the nonlinear coupling between the density and velocity fields associated with two competitive effects of redshift distortion, i.e., Kaiser and Finger-of-God effects. Based on the improved treatment of perturbation theory for gravitational clustering, we compare our model predictions with the monopole and quadrupole power spectra of N-body simulations, and an excellent agreement is achieved over the scales of BAOs. Potential impacts on constraining dark energy and modified gravity from the redshift-space power spectrum are also investigated based on the Fisher-matrix formalism, particularly focusing on the measurements of the Hubble parameter, angular diameter distance, and growth rate for structure formation. We find that the existing phenomenological models of redshift distortion produce a systematic error on measurements of the angular diameter distance and Hubble parameter by 1%-2%, and the growth-rate parameter by {approx}5%, which would become non-negligible for future galaxy surveys. Correctly modeling redshift distortion is thus essential, and the new prescription for the redshift-space power spectrum including the nonlinear corrections can be used as an accurate theoretical template for anisotropic BAOs.

  16. The Galileo solar redshift experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisher, Timothy P.; Morabito, David D.; Anderson, John D.

    1993-04-01

    From the October 1989 launch to the first December 1990 earth gravity assist, we regularly obtained frequency measurements of the spacecraft clock - an ultrastable crystal oscillator (USO) supplied by Frequency Electronics, Inc. The solar gravitational redshift in frequency was readily detectable, and because of the unique variations in heliocentric distance we could separate the general relativistic effects from the USO's intrinsic frequency variations. We have verified the total frequency shift predicted by general relativity to 0.5 percent accuracy, and the solar gravitational redshift to 1 percent accuracy.

  17. NEAR-INFRARED PHOTOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF 130,000 QUASARS: AN SDSS-UKIDSS-MATCHED CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Peth, Michael A.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2011-04-15

    We present a catalog of over 130,000 quasar candidates with near-infrared (NIR) photometric properties, with an areal coverage of approximately 1200 deg{sup 2}. This is achieved by matching the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) in the optical ugriz bands to the UKIRT Infrared Digital Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS) in the NIR YJHK bands. We match the {approx}1 million SDSS DR6 Photometric Quasar catalog to Data Release 3 of the UKIDSS LAS (ULAS) and produce a catalog with 130,827 objects with detections in one or more NIR bands, of which 74,351 objects have optical and K-band detections and 42,133 objects have the full nine-band photometry. The majority ({approx}85%) of the SDSS objects were not matched simply because these were not covered by the ULAS. The positional standard deviation of the SDSS Quasar to ULAS matches is {delta}{sub R.A.} = 0.''1370 and {delta}{sub decl.} = 0.''1314. We find an absolute systematic astrometric offset between the SDSS Quasar catalog and the UKIDSS LAS, of |R.A.{sub offset}| = 0.''025 and |decl.{sub offset}| = 0.''040; we suggest the nature of this offset to be due to the matching of catalog, rather than image, level data. Our matched catalog has a surface density of {approx}53 deg{sup -2} for K {<=} 18.27 objects; tests using our matched catalog, along with data from the UKIDSS Deep Extragalactic Survey, imply that our limiting magnitude is i {approx} 20.6. Color-redshift diagrams, for the optical and NIR, show a close agreement between our matched catalog and recent quasar color models at redshift z {approx}< 2.0, while at higher redshifts, the models generally appear to be bluer than the mean observed quasar colors. The gJK and giK color spaces are used to examine methods of differentiating between stars and (mid-redshift) quasars, the key to currently ongoing quasar surveys. Finally, we report on the NIR photometric properties of high, z > 4.6, and very high, z > 5.7, redshift previously discovered quasars.

  18. Near-infrared Photometric Properties of 130,000 Quasars: An SDSS-UKIDSS-matched Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peth, Michael A.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2011-04-01

    We present a catalog of over 130,000 quasar candidates with near-infrared (NIR) photometric properties, with an areal coverage of approximately 1200 deg2. This is achieved by matching the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) in the optical ugriz bands to the UKIRT Infrared Digital Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS) in the NIR YJHK bands. We match the ≈1 million SDSS DR6 Photometric Quasar catalog to Data Release 3 of the UKIDSS LAS (ULAS) and produce a catalog with 130,827 objects with detections in one or more NIR bands, of which 74,351 objects have optical and K-band detections and 42,133 objects have the full nine-band photometry. The majority (~85%) of the SDSS objects were not matched simply because these were not covered by the ULAS. The positional standard deviation of the SDSS Quasar to ULAS matches is δR.A. = 0farcs1370 and δdecl. = 0farcs1314. We find an absolute systematic astrometric offset between the SDSS Quasar catalog and the UKIDSS LAS, of |R.A.offset| = 0farcs025 and |decl.offset| = 0farcs040; we suggest the nature of this offset to be due to the matching of catalog, rather than image, level data. Our matched catalog has a surface density of ≈53 deg-2 for K <= 18.27 objects; tests using our matched catalog, along with data from the UKIDSS Deep Extragalactic Survey, imply that our limiting magnitude is i ≈ 20.6. Color-redshift diagrams, for the optical and NIR, show a close agreement between our matched catalog and recent quasar color models at redshift z <~ 2.0, while at higher redshifts, the models generally appear to be bluer than the mean observed quasar colors. The gJK and giK color spaces are used to examine methods of differentiating between stars and (mid-redshift) quasars, the key to currently ongoing quasar surveys. Finally, we report on the NIR photometric properties of high, z > 4.6, and very high, z > 5.7, redshift previously discovered quasars.

  19. VVDS-SWIRE. Clustering evolution from a spectroscopic sample of galaxies with redshift 0.2 < z < 2.1 selected from Spitzer IRAC 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, S.; Le Fèvre, O.; Arnouts, S.; Guzzo, L.; Farrah, D.; Iovino, A.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Meneux, B.; Oliver, S. J.; Pollo, A.; Waddington, I.; Bottini, D.; Fang, F.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Maccagni, D.; Picat, J. P.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Shupe, D.; Surace, J.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Gavignaud, I.; Ilbert, O.; Lamareille, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Mazure, A.; Merighi, R.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Brinchmann, J.; Cucciati, O.; Mellier, Y.; Merluzzi, P.; Temporin, S.; Vergani, D.; Walcher, C. J.

    2007-11-01

    Aims:By combining data from the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) with the Spitzer Wide-area InfraRed Extragalactic survey (SWIRE), we have built the currently largest spectroscopic sample of high redshift galaxies selected in the rest-frame near-infrared. We have obtained 2040 spectroscopic redshifts of galaxies with (m3.6)_AB < 21.5 at 3.6 μ m, and 1255 spectroscopic redshifts of galaxies with (m4.5)_AB < 21. These allow us to investigate the clustering evolution of galaxies selected via their rest-frame near-infrared luminosity in the redshift range 0.2 < z < 2.1. Methods: We use the projected two-point correlation function w_p(r_p) to study the three dimensional clustering properties of galaxies detected at 3.6 μ m and 4.5 μ m with the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) in the SWIRE survey with measured spectroscopic redshifts from the first epoch VVDS. We compare these properties to those of a larger sample of 16672 SWIRE galaxies for which we have accurate photometric redshifts in the same field. Results: We find that in the 3.6 μ m and 4.5 μ m flux limited samples, the apparent correlation length does not change from redshift ~2 to the present. The measured correlation lengths have a mean value of r0 ≃ 3.9±0.5 h-1 Mpc for the galaxies selected at 3.6 μ m and a mean value of r0 ≃ 4.4±0.5 h-1 Mpc for the galaxies selected at 4.5 μ m, across the whole redshift range explored. These values are larger than those typicaly found for I-band selected galaxies at I_AB < 24, for which r0 varies from 2.69 h-1 Mpc to 3.63 h-1 Mpc between z = 0.5 to z = 2.1. We find that the difference in correlation length between I-band and 3.6-4.5 μm selected samples decreases with increasing redshift, becoming comparable at z ≃ 1.5. We interpret this as evidence that galaxies with older stellar populations and galaxies actively forming stars reside in comparably over-dense environments at epochs earlier than z ≃ 1.5, supporting the recently reported flattening of the color

  20. Calibrating galaxy redshifts using absorption by the surrounding intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakic, Olivera; Schaye, Joop; Steidel, Charles C.; Rudie, Gwen C.

    2011-07-01

    Rest-frame UV spectral lines of star-forming galaxies are systematically offset from the galaxies' systemic redshifts, probably because of large-scale outflows. We calibrate galaxy redshifts measured from rest-frame UV lines by utilizing the fact that the mean H I Lyα absorption profiles around the galaxies, as seen in spectra of background objects, must be symmetric with respect to the true galaxy redshifts if the galaxies are oriented randomly with respect to the lines of sight to the background objects. We use 15 bright QSOs at z≈ 2.5-3 and more than 600 foreground galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts at z≈ 1.9-2.5. All galaxies are within 2 Mpc proper from the lines of sight to the background QSOs. We find that Lyα emission and ISM absorption redshifts require systematic shifts of ? and ?, respectively. Assuming a Gaussian distribution, we put 1σ upper limits on possible random redshift offsets of ? for Lyα and ? for ISM redshifts. For the small subset (<10 per cent) of galaxies for which near-IR spectra have been obtained, we can compare our results to direct measurements based on rest-frame optical, nebular emission lines, which we confirm to mark the systemic redshifts. While our ΔvISM agrees with the direct measurements, our ΔvLyα is significantly smaller. However, when we apply our method to the near-IR subsample which is characterized by slightly different selection effects, the best-fitting velocity offset comes into agreement with the direct measurement. This confirms the validity of our approach, and implies that no single number appropriately describes the whole population of galaxies, in line with the observation that the line offset depends on galaxy spectral morphology. This method provides accurate redshift calibrations and will enable studies of circumgalactic matter around galaxies for which rest-frame optical observations are not available. Based on data obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific

  1. The Physical Conditions of Atomic Gas at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeleman, Marcel

    In this thesis we provide insight into the chemical composition, physical conditions and cosmic distribution of atomic gas at high redshift. We study this gas in absorption against bright background quasars in absorption systems known as Damped Ly-alpha Systems (DLAs). These systems contain the bulk of the atomic gas at high redshift and are the likely progenitors of modern-day galaxies. In Chapter 2, we find that the atomic gas in DLAs obeys a mass-metallicity relationship that is similar to the mass-metallicity relationship seen in star-forming galaxies. The evolution of this relationship is linear with redshift, allowing for a planar equation to accurately describe this evolution, which provides a more stringent constraint on simulations modeling DLAs. Furthermore, the concomitant evolution of the mass-metallicity relationship of atomic gas and star-forming galaxies suggests an intimate link between the two. We next use a novel way to measure the physical conditions of the gas by using fine-structure line ratios of singly ionized carbon and silicon. By measuring the density of the upper and lower level states, we are able to determine the temperature, hydrogen density and electron density of the gas. We find that the conditions present in this high redshift gas are consistent with the conditions we see in the local interstellar medium (ISM). A few absorbers have higher than expected pressure, which suggests that they probe the ISM of star-forming galaxies. Finally in Chapter 4, we measure the cosmic neutral hydrogen density at redshifts below 1.6. Below this redshift, the Ly-alpha line of hydrogen is absorbed by the atmosphere, making detection difficult. Using the archive of the Hubble Space Telescope, we compile a comprehensive list of quasars for a search of DLAs at redshift below 1.6. We find that the incidence rate of DLAs and the cosmic neutral hydrogen density is smaller than previously measured, but consistent with the values both locally and at

  2. The universe at moderate redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1992-01-01

    The Final Report on the universe at moderate redshift covering the period from 1 Mar. 1988 to 28 Feb. 1991 is presented. Areas of research included: galaxy formation and large-scale structure; intergalactic medium and background radiation fields; quasar statistics and evolution; and gravitational lenses.

  3. A New Determination of the High Redshift Type Ia Supernova Rateswith the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsova, N.; Barbary, K.; Connolly, B.; Kim, A.G.; Pain, R.; Roe, N.A.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Dawson, K.; Doi, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Fruchter, A.S.; Gibbons, R.; Goldhaber, G.; Goober, A.; Gude, A.; Knop,R.A.; Kowalski, M.; Lidman, C.; Morokuma, T.; Meyers, J.; Perlmutter, S.; Rubin, D.; Schlegel, D.J.; Spadafora, A.L.; Stanishev, V.; Strovink, M.; Suzuki, N.; Wang, L.; Yasuda, N.

    2007-10-01

    We present a new measurement of the volumetric rate of Type Ia supernova up to a redshift of 1.7, using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) GOODS data combined with an additional HST dataset covering the North GOODS field collected in 2004. We employ a novel technique that does not require spectroscopic data for identifying Type Ia supernovae (although spectroscopic measurements of redshifts are used for over half the sample); instead we employ a Bayesian approach using only photometric data to calculate the probability that an object is a Type Ia supernova. This Bayesian technique can easily be modified to incorporate improved priors on supernova properties, and it is well-suited for future high-statistics supernovae searches in which spectroscopic follow up of all candidates will be impractical. Here, the method is validated on both ground- and space-based supernova data having some spectroscopic follow up. We combine our volumetric rate measurements with low redshift supernova data, and fit to a number of possible models for the evolution of the Type Ia supernova rate as a function of redshift. The data do not distinguish between a flat rate at redshift > 0.5 and a previously proposed model, in which the Type Ia rate peaks at redshift {approx} 1 due to a significant delay from star-formation to the supernova explosion. Except for the highest redshifts, where the signal to noise ratio is generally too low to apply this technique, this approach yields smaller or comparable uncertainties than previous work.

  4. Simulating high-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvaterra, Ruben; Ferrara, Andrea; Dayal, Pratika

    2011-06-01

    Recent observations have gathered a considerable sample of high-redshift galaxy candidates and determined the evolution of their luminosity function (LF). To interpret these findings, we use cosmological SPH simulations including, in addition to standard physical processes, a detailed treatment of the Pop III-Pop II transition in early objects. The simulated high-z galaxies match remarkably well the amplitude and slope of the observed LF in the redshift range 5 < z < 10. The LF shifts towards fainter luminosities with increasing redshift, while its faint-end slope keeps an almost constant value, α≈-2. The stellar populations of high-z galaxies have ages of 100-300 (40-130) Myr at z= 5 (z= 7-8), implying an early (z > 9.4) start of their star formation activity; the specific star formation rate is almost independent of galactic stellar mass. These objects are enriched rapidly with metals and galaxies identified by HST/WFC3 (?) show metallicities ≈0.1 Z⊙ even at z= 7-8. Most of the simulated galaxies at z≈ 7 (noticeably the smallest ones) are virtually dust-free, and none of them has an extinction larger than E(B-V) = 0.01. The bulk (50 per cent) of the ionizing photons is produced by objects populating the faint end of the LF (?), which JWST will resolve up to z= 7.3. Pop III stars continue to form essentially at all redshifts; however, at z= 6 (z= 10) the contribution of Pop III stars to the total galactic luminosity is always less than 5 per cent for ? (?). The typical high-z galaxies closely resemble the GRB host galaxy population observed at lower redshifts, strongly encouraging the use of GRBs to detect the first galaxies.

  5. PHOTOMETRIC ORBITS OF EXTRASOLAR PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Robert A.

    2009-09-10

    We define and analyze the photometric orbit (PhO) of an extrasolar planet observed in reflected light. In our definition, the PhO is a Keplerian entity with six parameters: semimajor axis, eccentricity, mean anomaly at some particular time, argument of periastron, inclination angle, and effective radius, which is the square root of the geometric albedo times the planetary radius. Preliminarily, we assume a Lambertian phase function. We study in detail the case of short-period giant planets (SPGPs) and observational parameters relevant to the Kepler mission: 20 ppm photometry with normal errors, 6.5 hr cadence, and three-year duration. We define a relevant 'planetary population of interest' in terms of probability distributions of the PhO parameters. We perform Monte Carlo experiments to estimate the ability to detect planets and to recover PhO parameters from light curves. We calibrate the completeness of a periodogram search technique, and find structure caused by degeneracy. We recover full orbital solutions from synthetic Kepler data sets and estimate the median errors in recovered PhO parameters. We treat in depth a case of a Jupiter body-double. For the stated assumptions, we find that Kepler should obtain orbital solutions for many of the 100-760 SPGP that Jenkins and Doyle estimate Kepler will discover. Because most or all of these discoveries will be followed up by ground-based radial velocity observations, the estimates of inclination angle from the PhO may enable the calculation of true companion masses: Kepler photometry may break the 'msin i' degeneracy. PhO observations may be difficult. There is uncertainty about how low the albedos of SPGPs actually are, about their phase functions, and about a possible noise floor due to systematic errors from instrumental and stellar sources. Nevertheless, simple detection of SPGPs in reflected light should be robust in the regime of Kepler photometry, and estimates of all six orbital parameters may be feasible in

  6. New quasar surveys with WIRO: Searching for high redshift (z~6) quasar candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haze Nunez, Evan; Bassett, Neil; Deam, Sophie; Dixon, Don; Griffith, Emily; Harvey, William Bradford; Lee, Daniel; Lyke, Bradley; Parziale, Ryan; Witherspoon, Catherine; Myers, Adam D.; Findlay, Joseph; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Dale, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    High redshift quasars (z~6) are of great interest to fundamental astronomy due to the information they hold about the early universe. With their low number density in the sky, however, they are elusive objects. Reported here is our search for these high redshift quasars using the Wyoming Infrared Observatory (WIRO) 2.3m telescope. We search for potential candidates that have been detected by surveys such as WISE, which have been mostly redshifted out of the optical. The main emission feature of these quasars (the Lyman-Alpha line at ~1216 Angstroms rest-frame) would be redshifted to the z-band or beyond. This means that the quasars should have very low levels of i-band flux. These objects are known as i-dropouts. By imaging the quasars in the i-band and running photometric analysis on our fields, candidates can be identified or rejected by whether or not they appear in our fields. We also provide an analysis of the colors of our candidate high-redshift quasars.This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under REU grant AST1560461

  7. Measuring Type Ia Supernova Distances and Redshifts From TheirMulti-band Light Curves

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Alex G.; Miquel, Ramon

    2007-08-12

    The distance and redshift of a type Ia supernova can bedetermined simultaneously through its multi-band light curves. This factmay beused for imaging surveys that discover and obtain photometry forlarge numbers of supernovae; so many that it would be difficult to obtaina spectroscopic redshift for each. Using available supernova-analysistools we find that there are several conditions in which a viabledistance--redshift can be determined. Uncertainties in the effectivedistance at z~;0.3 are dominated by redshift uncertainties coupled withthe steepness of the Hubble law. By z~;0.5 the Hubble law flattens outand distance-modulus uncertainties dominate. Observations that giveS/N=50 at peak brightness and a four-day observer cadence in each ofgriz-bands are necessary to match the intrinsic supernova magnitudedispersion out to z=1.0. Lower S/N can be tolerated with the addition ofredshift priors (e.g., from a host-galaxy photometric redshift),observationsin an additional redder band, or by focusing on supernovaredshifts that have particular leverage for this measurement. Morestringent S/N requirements are anticipated as improved systematicscontrol over intrinsic color, metallicity, and dust is attempted to bedrawn from light curves.

  8. The superluminous supernova PS1-11ap: bridging the gap between low and high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrum, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Kotak, R.; Rest, A.; Jerkstrand, A.; Inserra, C.; Rodney, S. A.; Chen, T.-W.; Howell, D. A.; Huber, M. E.; Pastorello, A.; Tonry, J. L.; Bresolin, F.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Smith, K.; Botticella, M. T.; Foley, R. J.; Fraser, M.; Milisavljevic, D.; Nicholl, M.; Riess, A. G.; Stubbs, C. W.; Valenti, S.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Wright, D.; Young, D. R.; Drout, M.; Czekala, I.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Draper, P.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Price, P. A.; Sweeney, W.; Wainscoat, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    We present optical photometric and spectroscopic coverage of the superluminous supernova (SLSN) PS1-11ap, discovered with the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey at z = 0.524. This intrinsically blue transient rose slowly to reach a peak magnitude of Mu = -21.4 mag and bolometric luminosity of 8 × 1043 erg s-1 before settling on to a relatively shallow gradient of decline. The observed decline is significantly slower than those of the SLSNe-Ic which have been the focus of much recent attention. Spectroscopic similarities with the lower redshift SN2007bi and a decline rate similar to 56Co decay time-scale initially indicated that this transient could be a candidate for a pair instability supernova (PISN) explosion. Overall the transient appears quite similar to SN2007bi and the lower redshift object PTF12dam. The extensive data set, from 30 d before peak to 230 d after, allows a detailed and quantitative comparison with published models of PISN explosions. We find that the PS1-11ap data do not match these model explosion parameters well, supporting the recent claim that these SNe are not pair instability explosions. We show that PS1-11ap has many features in common with the faster declining SLSNe-Ic, and the light-curve evolution can also be quantitatively explained by the magnetar spin-down model. At a redshift of z = 0.524, the observer-frame optical coverage provides comprehensive rest-frame UV data and allows us to compare it with the SLSNe recently found at high redshifts between z = 2 and 4. While these high-z explosions are still plausible PISN candidates, they match the photometric evolution of PS1-11ap and hence could be counterparts to this lower redshift transient.

  9. (Sub)millimetre interferometric imaging of a sample of COSMOS/AzTEC submillimetre galaxies. I. Multiwavelength identifications and redshift distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miettinen, O.; Smolčić, V.; Novak, M.; Aravena, M.; Karim, A.; Masters, D.; Riechers, D. A.; Bussmann, R. S.; McCracken, H. J.; Ilbert, O.; Bertoldi, F.; Capak, P.; Feruglio, C.; Halliday, C.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Navarrete, F.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D.; Schinnerer, E.; Sheth, K.

    2015-05-01

    We used the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) to map a sample of 15 submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) in the COSMOS field at the wavelength of 1.3 mm. The target SMGs were originally discovered in the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT)/AzTEC 1.1 mm continuum survey at S/N1.1 mm = 4-4.5. This paper presents, for the first time, interferometric millimetre-wavelength observations of these sources. The angular resolution of our observations, 1''&dotbelow;8, allowed us to accurately determine the positions of the target SMGs. Using a detection threshold of S/N1.3 mm> 4.5 regardless of multiwavelength counterpart association, and 4 photometric redshifts, available spectroscopic redshifts, and redshifts estimated from the radio-to-submm spectral index we infer a median redshift of tilde{z}= 3.20 ± 0.25 for our sample. To study the overall multiplicity and redshift distribution of flux-limited samples of SMGs we combined these sources with the 15 brightest JCMT/AzTEC SMGs detected at 1.1 mm, AzTEC1-15, and studied previously. This constitutes a complete, flux- and S/N-limited 1.1-mm selected sample. We find that the median redshift for the 15 brightest JCMT/AzTEC SMGs (tilde{z}= 3.05 ± 0.44) is consistent with that for AzTEC16-30. This conforms to recent observational findings that SMGs do not exhibit any significant trend between the redshift and (sub)mm flux density. For the combined AzTEC1-30 sample we derive a median redshift of tilde{z}= 3.17 ± 0.27, consistent with previous results based on mm

  10. Titrimetric and photometric methods for determination of hypochlorite in commercial bleaches.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B; Gengan, Prabhashini

    2010-01-01

    Two methods, simple titration and photometric methods for determination of hypochlorite are developed, based its reaction with hydrogen peroxide and titration of the residual peroxide by acidic permanganate. In the titration method, the residual hydrogen peroxide is estimated by titration with standard permanganate solution to estimate the hypochlorite concentration. The photometric method is devised to measure the concentration of remaining permanganate, after the reaction with residual hydrogen peroxide. It employs 4 ranges of calibration curves to enable the determination of hypochlorite accurately. The new photometric method measures hypochlorite in the range 1.90 x 10(-3) to 1.90 x 10(-2) M, with high accuracy and with low variance. The concentrations of hypochlorite in diverse commercial bleach samples and in seawater which is enriched with hypochlorite were estimated using the proposed method and compared with the arsenite method. The statistical analysis validates the superiority of the proposed method.

  11. Steps Toward Unveiling the True Population of AGN: Photometric Selection of Broad-Line AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Evan; Impey, C.

    2012-01-01

    We present an AGN selection technique that enables identification of broad-line AGN using only photometric data. An extension of infrared selection techniques, our method involves fitting a given spectral energy distribution with a model consisting of three physically motivated components: infrared power law emission, optical accretion disk emission, and host galaxy emission. Each component can be varied in intensity, and a reduced chi-square minimization routine is used to determine the optimum parameters for each object. Using this model, both broad- and narrow-line AGN are seen to fall within discrete ranges of parameter space that have plausible bounds, allowing physical trends with luminosity and redshift to be determined. Based on a fiducial sample of AGN from the catalog of Trump et al. (2009), we find the region occupied by broad-line AGN to be distinct from that of quiescent or star-bursting galaxies. Because this technique relies only on photometry, it will allow us to find AGN at fainter magnitudes than are accessible in spectroscopic surveys, and thus probe a population of less luminous and/or higher redshift objects. With the vast availability of photometric data in large surveys, this technique should have broad applicability and result in large samples that will complement X-ray AGN catalogs.

  12. THE FIRST HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASAR FROM Pan-STARRS

    SciTech Connect

    Morganson, Eric; De Rosa, Gisella; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Rix, Hans-Walter; Chambers, Ken; Burgett, William; Flewelling, Heather; Hodapp, Klaus; Kaiser, Nick; Magnier, Eugene; Sweeney, Bill; Waters, Christopher; McGreer, Ian; Fan, Xiaohui; Greiner, Jochen; Price, Paul

    2012-06-15

    We present the discovery of the first high-redshift (z > 5.7) quasar from the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS1 or PS1). This quasar was initially detected as an i{sub P1} dropout in PS1, confirmed photometrically with the SAO Wide-field InfraRed Camera at Arizona's Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) and the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical/Near-Infrared Detector at the MPG 2.2 m telescope in La Silla. The quasar was verified spectroscopically with the MMT Spectrograph, Red Channel and the Cassegrain Twin Spectrograph at the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope. Its near-infrared spectrum was taken at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBT) with the LBT Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Utility with Camera and Integral Field Unit for Extragalactic Research. It has a redshift of 5.73, an AB z{sub P1} magnitude of 19.4, a luminosity of 3.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 47} erg s{sup -1}, and a black hole mass of 6.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }. It is a broad absorption line quasar with a prominent Ly{beta} peak and a very blue continuum spectrum. This quasar is the first result from the PS1 high-redshift quasar search that is projected to discover more than 100 i{sub P1} dropout quasars and could potentially find more than 10 z{sub P1} dropout (z > 6.8) quasars.

  13. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Photometric Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, J. E.; Carr, M.; Rockosi, C.; Sekiguchi, M.; Berry, K.; Elms, B.; de Haas, E.; Ivezić, Ž .; Knapp, G.; Lupton, R.; Pauls, G.; Simcoe, R.; Hirsch, R.; Sanford, D.; Wang, S.; York, D.; Harris, F.; Annis, J.; Bartozek, L.; Boroski, W.; Bakken, J.; Haldeman, M.; Kent, S.; Holm, S.; Holmgren, D.; Petravick, D.; Prosapio, A.; Rechenmacher, R.; Doi, M.; Fukugita, M.; Shimasaku, K.; Okada, N.; Hull, C.; Siegmund, W.; Mannery, E.; Blouke, M.; Heidtman, D.; Schneider, D.; Lucinio, R.; Brinkman, J.

    1998-12-01

    We have constructed a large-format mosaic CCD camera for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The camera consists of two arrays, a photometric array that uses 30 2048 x 2048 SITe/Tektronix CCDs (24 μm pixels) with an effective imaging area of 720 cm^2 and an astrometric array that uses 24 400 x 2048 CCDs with the same pixel size, which will allow us to tie bright astrometric standard stars to the objects imaged in the photometric camera. The instrument will be used to carry out photometry essentially simultaneously in five color bands spanning the range accessible to silicon detectors on the ground in the time-delay-and-integrate (TDI) scanning mode. The photometric detectors are arrayed in the focal plane in six columns of five chips each such that two scans cover a filled stripe 2.5d wide. This paper presents engineering and technical details of the camera.

  14. The Candela and Photometric and Radiometric Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Albert C.

    2001-01-01

    The national measurement system for photometric and radiometric quantities is presently based upon techniques that make these quantities traceable to a high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer. The redefinition of the candela in 1979 provided the opportunity for national measurement laboratories to base their photometric measurements on optical detector technology rather than on the emission from high-temperature blackbody optical sources. The ensuing technical developments of the past 20 years, including the significant improvements in cryogenic radiometer performance, have provided the opportunity to place the fundamental maintenance of photometric quantities upon absolute detector based technology as was allowed by the 1979 redefinition. Additionally, the development of improved photodetectors has had a significant impact on the methodology in most of the radiometric measurement areas. This paper will review the status of the NIST implementation of the technical changes mandated by the 1979 redefinition of the candela and its effect upon the maintenance and dissemination of optical radiation measurements. PMID:27500020

  15. Defining photometric peculiar type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    González-Gaitán, S.; Pignata, G.; Förster, F.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Bufano, F.; Galbany, L.; Hamuy, M.; De Jaeger, T.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M. M.; Folatelli, G.; Anderson, J. P.

    2014-11-10

    We present a new photometric identification technique for SN 1991bg-like type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), i.e., objects with light curve characteristics such as later primary maxima and the absence of a secondary peak in redder filters. This method is capable of selecting this sub-group from the normal type Ia population. Furthermore, we find that recently identified peculiar sub-types such as SNe Iax and super-Chandrasekhar SNe Ia have photometric characteristics similar to 91bg-like SNe Ia, namely, the absence of secondary maxima and shoulders at longer wavelengths, and can also be classified with our technique. The similarity of these different SN Ia sub-groups perhaps suggests common physical conditions. This typing methodology permits the photometric identification of peculiar SNe Ia in large upcoming wide-field surveys either to study them further or to obtain a pure sample of normal SNe Ia for cosmological studies.

  16. Robust surface reconstruction by design-guided SEM photometric stereo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Atsushi; Matsuse, Hiroki; Koutaki, Gou

    2017-04-01

    We present a novel approach that addresses the blind reconstruction problem in scanning electron microscope (SEM) photometric stereo for complicated semiconductor patterns to be measured. In our previous work, we developed a bootstrapping de-shadowing and self-calibration (BDS) method, which automatically calibrates the parameter of the gradient measurement formulas and resolves shadowing errors for estimating an accurate three-dimensional (3D) shape and underlying shadowless images. Experimental results on 3D surface reconstruction demonstrated the significance of the BDS method for simple shapes, such as an isolated line pattern. However, we found that complicated shapes, such as line-and-space (L&S) and multilayered patterns, produce deformed and inaccurate measurement results. This problem is due to brightness fluctuations in the SEM images, which are mainly caused by the energy fluctuations of the primary electron beam, variations in the electronic expanse inside a specimen, and electrical charging of specimens. Despite these being essential difficulties encountered in SEM photometric stereo, it is difficult to model accurately all the complicated physical phenomena of electronic behavior. We improved the robustness of the surface reconstruction in order to deal with these practical difficulties with complicated shapes. Here, design data are useful clues as to the pattern layout and layer information of integrated semiconductors. We used the design data as a guide of the measured shape and incorporated a geometrical constraint term to evaluate the difference between the measured and designed shapes into the objective function of the BDS method. Because the true shape does not necessarily correspond to the designed one, we use an iterative scheme to develop proper guide patterns and a 3D surface that provides both a less distorted and more accurate 3D shape after convergence. Extensive experiments on real image data demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness

  17. High-redshift galaxy populations.

    PubMed

    Hu, Esther M; Cowie, Lennox L

    2006-04-27

    We now see many galaxies as they were only 800 million years after the Big Bang, and that limit may soon be exceeded when wide-field infrared detectors are widely available. Multi-wavelength studies show that there was relatively little star formation at very early times and that star formation was at its maximum at about half the age of the Universe. A small number of high-redshift objects have been found by targeting X-ray and radio sources and most recently, gamma-ray bursts. The gamma-ray burst sources may provide a way to reach even higher-redshift galaxies in the future, and to probe the first generation of stars.

  18. Photometric diversity of terrains on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillier, J.; Veverka, J.; Helfenstein, P.; Lee, P.

    1994-01-01

    Voyager disk-resolved images of Triton in the violet (0.41 micrometers) and green (0.56 micrometer wavelengths have been analyzed to derive the photometric characteristics of terrains on Triton. Similar conclusions are found using two distinct but related definitions of photometric units, one based on color ratio and albedo properties (A. S. McEwen, 1990), the other on albedo and brightness ratios at different phase angles (P. Lee et al., 1992). A significant diversity of photometric behavior, much broader than that discovered so far on any other icy satellite, occurs among Triton's terrains. Remarkably, differences in photometric behavior do not correlate well with geologic terrain boundaries defined on the basis of surface morphology. This suggests that in most cases photometric properties on Triton are controlled by thin deposits superposed on underlying geologic units. Single scattering albedos are 0.98 or higher and asymmetry factors range from -0.35 to -0.45 for most units. The most distinct scattering behavior is exhibited by the reddish northern units already identified as the Anomalously Scattering Region (ASR), which scatters light almost isotropically with g = -0.04. In part due to the effects of Triton's clouds and haze, it is difficult to constrain the value of bar-theta, Hapke's macroscopic roughness parameter, precisely for Triton or to map differences in bar-theta among the different photometric terrains. However, our study shows that Triton must be relatively smooth, with bar-theta less than 15-20 degs and suggests that a value of 14 degs is appropriate. The differences in photometric characteristics lead to significantly different phase angle behavior for the various terrains. For example, a terrain (e.g., the ASR) that appears dark relative to another at low phase angles will reverse its contrast (become relatively brighter) at larger phase angles. The photometric parameters have been used to calculate hemispherical albedos for the units and to

  19. The photometric properties of galaxies in the early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Stephen M.; Feng, Yu; Di-Matteo, Tiziana; Croft, Rupert; Stanway, Elizabeth R.; Bunker, Andrew; Waters, Dacen; Lovell, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    We use the large cosmological hydro-dynamic simulation BLUETIDES to predict the photometric properties of galaxies during the epoch of reionization (z = 8-15). These properties include the rest-frame UV to near-IR broad-band spectral energy distributions, the Lyman continuum (LyC) photon production, the UV star formation rate calibration, and intrinsic UV continuum slope. In particular we focus on exploring the effect of various modelling assumptions, including the assumed choice of stellar population synthesis (SPS) model, initial mass function, and the escape fraction of LyC photons, upon these quantities. We find that these modelling assumptions can have a dramatic effect on photometric properties leading to consequences for the accurate determination of physical properties from observations. For example, at z = 8 we predict that nebular emission can account for up to 50 per cent of the rest-frame R-band luminosity, while the choice of SPS model can change the LyC production rate up to a factor of ×2.

  20. DISCOVERING BRIGHT QUASARS AT INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFTS BASED ON OPTICAL/NEAR-INFRARED COLORS

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xue-Bing; Zuo, Wenwen; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Wang, Feige

    2013-10-01

    The identification of quasars at intermediate redshifts (2.2 < z < 3.5) has been inefficient in most previous quasar surveys since the optical colors of quasars are similar to those of stars. The near-IR K-band excess technique has been suggested to overcome this difficulty. Our recent study also proposed to use optical/near-IR colors for selecting z < 4 quasars. To verify the effectiveness of this method, we selected a list of 105 unidentified bright targets with i ≤ 18.5 from the quasar candidates of SDSS DR6 with both SDSS ugriz optical and UKIDSS YJHK near-IR photometric data, which satisfy our proposed Y – K/g – z criterion and have photometric redshifts between 2.2 and 3.5 estimated from the nine-band SDSS-UKIDSS data. We observed 43 targets with the BFOSC instrument on the 2.16 m optical telescope at Xinglong station of the National Astronomical Observatory of China in the spring of 2012. We spectroscopically identified 36 targets as quasars with redshifts between 2.1 and 3.4. The high success rate of discovering these quasars in the SDSS spectroscopic surveyed area further demonstrates the robustness of both the Y – K/g – z selection criterion and the photometric redshift estimation technique. We also used the above criterion to investigate the possible stellar contamination rate among the quasar candidates of SDSS DR6, and found that the rate is much higher when selecting 3 < z < 3.5 quasar candidates than when selecting lower redshift candidates (z < 2.2). The significant improvement in the photometric redshift estimation when using the nine-band SDSS-UKIDSS data over the five-band SDSS data is demonstrated and a catalog of 7727 unidentified quasar candidates in SDSS DR6 selected with optical/near-IR colors and having photometric redshifts between 2.2 and 3.5 is provided. We also tested the Y – K/g – z selection criterion with the recently released SDSS-III/DR9 quasar catalog and found that 96.2% of 17,999 DR9 quasars with UKIDSS Y- and K

  1. Asteroids (21) Lutetia: global and spatially resolved photometric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faury, G.; Lamy, P.; Vernazza, P.; Jorda, L.; Toth, I.

    2011-10-01

    Asteroids (21) Lutetia has recently been visited by the Rosetta spacecraft of the European Space Agency and imaged by its Rosetta narrow (NAC) and wide (WAC) angle cameras. The accurate photometric analysis of the images requires utmost care due to several instrumental problems, the most severe and complex to handle being the presence of optical ghosts which result from multiple reflections on the two filters inserted in the optical beam and on the thick window which protects the CCD detector from cosmic ray impacts. These ghosts prominently appears as either slighlty defocused images offset from the primary images or large round or elliptical halos. The appearance, the location and the radiance of each individual ghost depends upon the optical configuration (selected filters) and on the image itself so that no general model can be proposed. Consequently, a case-by-case approach must be adopted which requires a long and tedious work where each ghost is individually parametrized according to its specific geometry (defocused offset image or halo) and iteratively fitted to the original image. The procedure has been successfully applied to all NAC and WAC images and works extremely well with residuals and sometime artifacts at insignificant levels. Both NAC and WAC have further been recalibrated using the most recent observations of stellar calibrators VEGA and the solar analog 16 Cyg B allowing to correct the quantum efficiency response of the two CCD and the throughput for all channels (i.e., filters). We will present results on the global photometric properties of (21) Lutetia, albedo, phase function and spectral reflectivity as well as spatially resolved properties based on a novel method developed in the space of the facets representing the three-dimensional shape of the body. This method successfully implemented in the cases of the nucleus of comet 9P/Tempel 2 and of asteroid (2867) Steins (Spjuth et al. 2011) has the advantage of automatically tracking the same

  2. Dynamical and photometric investigation of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1980-01-01

    The findings of dynamic and photometric investigations of comets are summarized, and include discussions of the comets Bennett 1970 II, Kohoutek 1973f, West 1976 VI, and periodic comets d'Arrest, Encke, and Swift Tuttle. The phenomena examined include striated and anomalous tails, tail composition and the dynamics of vaporizing dust particles, the evolution of dust jets, and split and dissipating comets.

  3. Photometric properties of Mars soils analogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Jost, B.; Beck, P.; Okubo, C.; McEwen, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    We have measured the bidirectional reflectance of analogs of dry, wet, and frozen Martian soils over a wide range of phase angles in the visible spectral range. All samples were produced from two geologic samples: the standard JSC Mars-1 soil simulant and Hawaiian basaltic sand. In a first step, experiments were conducted with the dry samples to investigate the effects of surface texture. Comparisons with results independently obtained by different teams with similar samples showed a satisfying reproducibility of the photometric measurements as well as a noticeable influence of surface textures resulting from different sample preparation procedures. In a second step, water was introduced to produce wet and frozen samples and their photometry investigated. Optical microscope images of the samples provided information about their microtexture. Liquid water, even in relatively low amount, resulted in the disappearance of the backscattering peak and the appearance of a forward-scattering peak whose intensity increases with the amount of water. Specular reflections only appeared when water was present in an amount large enough to allow water to form a film at the surface of the sample. Icy samples showed a wide variability of photometric properties depending on the physical properties of the water ice. We discuss the implications of these measurements in terms of the expected photometric behavior of the Martian surface, from equatorial to circum-polar regions. In particular, we propose some simple photometric criteria to improve the identification of wet and/or icy soils from multiple observations under different geometries.

  4. Magnification with wide-field photometric surveys.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Fernandez, M.; Sánchez, E.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.

    2017-03-01

    A methodology to detect and measure magnification using the galaxy number count technique designed to be used at present and future photometric galaxy surveys is described. The method is tested with the N-body simulation MICE-GC showing that it allows to clearly detect magnification and showing agreement with the theory for sky areas of at least 110°^2.

  5. System for clinical photometric stereo endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durr, Nicholas J.; González, Germán.; Lim, Daryl; Traverso, Giovanni; Nishioka, Norman S.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.; Parot, Vicente

    2014-02-01

    Photometric stereo endoscopy is a technique that captures information about the high-spatial-frequency topography of the field of view simultaneously with a conventional color image. Here we describe a system that will enable photometric stereo endoscopy to be clinically evaluated in the large intestine of human patients. The clinical photometric stereo endoscopy system consists of a commercial gastroscope, a commercial video processor, an image capturing and processing unit, custom synchronization electronics, white light LEDs, a set of four fibers with diffusing tips, and an alignment cap. The custom pieces that come into contact with the patient are composed of biocompatible materials that can be sterilized before use. The components can then be assembled in the endoscopy suite before use. The resulting endoscope has the same outer diameter as a conventional colonoscope (14 mm), plugs into a commercial video processor, captures topography and color images at 15 Hz, and displays the conventional color image to the gastroenterologist in real-time. We show that this system can capture a color and topographical video in a tubular colon phantom, demonstrating robustness to complex geometries and motion. The reported system is suitable for in vivo evaluation of photometric stereo endoscopy in the human large intestine.

  6. THE Pan-STARRS1 PHOTOMETRIC SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Tonry, J. L.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Magnier, E. A.; Morgan, J. S.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Stubbs, C. W.; Shivvers, I. S.; Lykke, K. R.; Doherty, P.; Price, P. A.

    2012-05-10

    The Pan-STARRS1 survey is collecting multi-epoch, multi-color observations of the sky north of declination -30 Degree-Sign to unprecedented depths. These data are being photometrically and astrometrically calibrated and will serve as a reference for many other purposes. In this paper, we present our determination of the Pan-STARRS1 photometric system: g{sub P1}, r{sub P1}, i{sub P1}, z{sub P1}, y{sub P1}, and w{sub P1}. The Pan-STARRS1 photometric system is fundamentally based on the Hubble Space Telescope Calspec spectrophotometric observations, which in turn are fundamentally based on models of white dwarf atmospheres. We define the Pan-STARRS1 magnitude system and describe in detail our measurement of the system passbands, including both the instrumental sensitivity and atmospheric transmission functions. By-products, including transformations to other photometric systems, Galactic extinction, and stellar locus, are also provided. We close with a discussion of remaining systematic errors.

  7. Kohoutek, photometric photography experiment (S233)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, C. A.; Craven, P. D.

    1981-01-01

    The final results of the Skylab 4 experiment S233, Kohoutek photometric photography experiment, which undertook a series of visible light photographs suitable for photometry and for a photographic history of Comet Kohoutek are described. The experiment concept, the data reduction method, and the results obtained are discussed.

  8. Philosophy and updating of the asteroid photometric catalogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnusson, Per; Barucci, M. Antonietta; Capria, M. T.; Dahlgren, Mats; Fulchignoni, Marcello; Lagerkvist, C. I.

    1992-01-01

    The Asteroid Photometric Catalogue now contains photometric lightcurves for 584 asteroids. We discuss some of the guiding principles behind it. This concerns both observers who offer input to it and users of the product.

  9. DISCOVERY OF A QUADRUPLE LENS IN CANDELS WITH A RECORD LENS REDSHIFT z = 1.53

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Wel, A.; Van de Ven, G.; Maseda, M.; Rix, H. W.; Rudnick, G. H.; Grazian, A.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Koo, D. C.; Faber, S. M.; Kocevski, D. D.

    2013-11-01

    Using spectroscopy from the Large Binocular Telescope and imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope we discovered the first strong galaxy lens at z {sub lens} > 1. The lens has a secure photometric redshift of z = 1.53 ± 0.09 and the source is spectroscopically confirmed at z = 3.417. The Einstein radius (0.''35; 3.0 kpc) encloses 7.6 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, with an upper limit on the dark matter fraction of 60%. The highly magnified (40×) source galaxy has a very small stellar mass (∼10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}) and shows an extremely strong [O III]{sub 5007Å} emission line (EW{sub 0} ∼ 1000 Å) bolstering the evidence that intense starbursts among very low-mass galaxies are common at high redshift.

  10. Deep redshift topological lensing: strategies for the T3 candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roukema, Boudewijn F.; France, Martin J.; Kazimierczak, Tomasz A.; Buchert, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The 3-torus (T3) Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker model better fits the nearly zero large-scale two-point auto-correlation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) cosmic microwave background sky maps than the infinite flat model. The T3 model's parameters, recently found using an optimal cross-correlation method on WMAP data, imply approximately equal-redshift topological lensing at redshifts z ˜ 6, the redshift range of the upcoming generation of new instruments and telescopes. We investigate observational strategies that can reject the T3 solution for a given region of parameter space of physical assumptions, or provide good candidate topologically lensed galaxy pairs for detailed spectroscopic followup. T3 holonomies are applied to (i) existing z ˜ 6 observations and (ii) simulated observations, creating multiply connected catalogues. Corresponding simply connected catalogues are generated. The simulated observational strategies are motivated by the matched discs principle. Each catalogue is analysed using a successive filter method and collecting matched quadruples. Quadruple statistics between the multiply and simply connected catalogues are compared. The expected rejection of the hypothesis, or detection of candidate topologically lensed galaxies, is possible at a significance of 5 per cent for a pair of T3 axis-centred northern and southern surveys if photometric redshift accuracy is σ(zphot) ≲ 0.01 for a pair of nearly complete 100 deg2 surveys with a total of ≳500 galaxies over 4.3 < z < 6.6, or for a pair of 196 deg2 surveys with ≳400 galaxies and σ(zphot) ≲ 0.02 over 4 < z < 7. Dropping the maximum time interval in a pair from Δt = 1 h-1 Gyr to Δt = 0.1 h-1 Gyr requires σ(zphot) ≲ 0.005 or σ(zphot) ≲ 0.01, respectively. Millions of z ˜ 6 galaxies will be observed over fields of these sizes during the coming decades, implying much stronger constraints. The question is not if the hypothesis will be rejected or confirmed

  11. Redshift Distributions of Galaxies in the DES Science Verification Shear Catalogue and Implications for Weak Lensing

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnett, C.

    2015-07-21

    We present photometric redshift estimates for galaxies used in the weak lensing analysis of the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification (DES SV) data. Four model- or machine learning-based photometric redshift methods { annz2, bpz calibrated against BCC-U fig simulations, skynet, and tpz { are analysed. For training, calibration, and testing of these methods, we also construct a catalogue of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies matched against DES SV data. The performance of the methods is evalu-ated against the matched spectroscopic catalogue, focusing on metrics relevant for weak lensing analyses, with additional validation against COSMOS photo-zs. From the galaxies in the DES SV shear catalogue, which have mean redshift 0.72 ±0.01 over the range 0:3 < z < 1:3, we construct three tomographic bins with means of z = {0.45; 0.67,1.00g}. These bins each have systematic uncertainties δz ≲ 0.05 in the mean of the fiducial skynet photo-z n(z). We propagate the errors in the redshift distributions through to their impact on cosmological parameters estimated with cosmic shear, and find that they cause shifts in the value of σ8 of approx. 3%. This shift is within the one sigma statistical errors on σ8 for the DES SV shear catalog. We also found that further study of the potential impact of systematic differences on the critical surface density, Σcrit, contained levels of bias safely less than the statistical power of DES SV data. We recommend a final Gaussian prior for the photo-z bias in the mean of n(z) of width 0:05 for each of the three tomographic bins, and show that this is a sufficient bias model for the corresponding cosmology analysis.

  12. QUEST FOR COSMOS SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY COUNTERPARTS USING CARMA AND VLA: IDENTIFYING THREE HIGH-REDSHIFT STARBURST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Smolcic, V.; Navarrete, F.; Bertoldi, F.; Aravena, M.; Sheth, K.; Ilbert, O.; Yun, M. S.; Salvato, M.; Finoguenov, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Diener, C.; Aretxaga, I.; Hughes, D.; Wilson, G.; Riechers, D. A.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N. Z.; Karim, A.; Schinnerer, E.

    2012-05-01

    We report on interferometric observations at 1.3 mm at 2''-3'' resolution using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. We identify multi-wavelength counterparts of three submillimeter galaxies (SMGs; F{sub 1m} > 5.5 mJy) in the COSMOS field, initially detected with MAMBO and AzTEC bolometers at low, {approx}10''-30'', resolution. All three sources-AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8-are identified to coincide with positions of 20 cm radio sources. Cosbo-3, however, is not associated with the most likely radio counterpart, closest to the MAMBO source position, but with that farther away from it. This illustrates the need for intermediate-resolution ({approx}2'') mm-observations to identify the correct counterparts of single-dish-detected SMGs. All of our three sources become prominent only at NIR wavelengths, and their mm-to-radio flux based redshifts suggest that they lie at redshifts z {approx}> 2. As a proof of concept, we show that photometric redshifts can be well determined for SMGs, and we find photometric redshifts of 5.6 {+-} 1.2, 1.9{sup +0.9}{sub -0.5}, and {approx}4 for AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8, respectively. Using these we infer that these galaxies have radio-based star formation rates of {approx}> 1000 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}and IR luminosities of {approx}10{sup 13} L{sub Sun} consistent with properties of high-redshift SMGs. In summary, our sources reflect a variety of SMG properties in terms of redshift and clustering, consistent with the framework that SMGs are progenitors of z {approx} 2 and today's passive galaxies.

  13. Quest for COSMOS Submillimeter Galaxy Counterparts using CARMA and VLA: Identifying Three High-redshift Starburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolčić, V.; Navarrete, F.; Aravena, M.; Ilbert, O.; Yun, M. S.; Sheth, K.; Salvato, M.; McCracken, H. J.; Diener, C.; Aretxaga, I.; Riechers, D. A.; Finoguenov, A.; Bertoldi, F.; Capak, P.; Hughes, D.; Karim, A.; Schinnerer, E.; Scoville, N. Z.; Wilson, G.

    2012-05-01

    We report on interferometric observations at 1.3 mm at 2''-3'' resolution using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. We identify multi-wavelength counterparts of three submillimeter galaxies (SMGs; F 1 mm > 5.5 mJy) in the COSMOS field, initially detected with MAMBO and AzTEC bolometers at low, ~10''-30'', resolution. All three sources—AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8—are identified to coincide with positions of 20 cm radio sources. Cosbo-3, however, is not associated with the most likely radio counterpart, closest to the MAMBO source position, but with that farther away from it. This illustrates the need for intermediate-resolution (~2'') mm-observations to identify the correct counterparts of single-dish-detected SMGs. All of our three sources become prominent only at NIR wavelengths, and their mm-to-radio flux based redshifts suggest that they lie at redshifts z >~ 2. As a proof of concept, we show that photometric redshifts can be well determined for SMGs, and we find photometric redshifts of 5.6 ± 1.2, 1.9+0.9 - 0.5, and ~4 for AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8, respectively. Using these we infer that these galaxies have radio-based star formation rates of >~ 1000 M ⊙ yr-1and IR luminosities of ~1013 L ⊙ consistent with properties of high-redshift SMGs. In summary, our sources reflect a variety of SMG properties in terms of redshift and clustering, consistent with the framework that SMGs are progenitors of z ~ 2 and today's passive galaxies.

  14. The Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog: A High Redshift Galaxy Morphology Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Roger; Newman, J.; Cooper, M.; Stern, D.; Moustakas, L.; Davis, M.

    2009-05-01

    We use publicly available data obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope to construct the ACS General Catalog (ACS-GC). The ACS-GC includes over 370,000 astronomical sources (stars + galaxies) derived from the AEGIS, COSMOS, GEMS, and GOODS surveys. We include publicly available redshifts from the DEEP2, COMBO-17, TKRS, PEARS and zCOSMOS surveys to supply redshifts for a considerable fraction ( 52%) of the imaging sample. GALAPAGOS was used to construct photometric (SExtractor) and morphological (GALFIT) catalogs. The morphological analysis assumes a single Sersic model for each object to derive quantitative structural parameters. Galaxy Zoo will measure visual morphologies for 200,000 of these galaxies. The ACS-GC includes color images, GALFIT residual images, a galaxy atlas, and a photometry + morphology + redshift catalog. We use these data to investigate the size-redshift relationship for both early and late-type galaxies out to z 1. The entire data set will be made publicly available through the NASA Extragalactic Database (NED) and LEVEL5.

  15. Dust Formation, Evolution, and Obscuration Effects in the Very High-Redshift Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli; Staguhn, Johannes; Arendt, Richard G.; Kovacs, Attila; Su, Ting; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of dust at redshifts z > or approx. 9, and consequently the dust properties, differs greatly from that in the local universe. In contrast to the local universe, core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the only source of thermally-condensed dust. Because of the low initial dust-to-gas mass ratio, grain destruction rates are low, so that CCSNe are net producers of interstellar dust. Galaxies with large initial gas mass or high mass infall rate will therefore have a more rapid net rate of dust production comported to galaxies with lower gas mass, even at the same star formation rate. The dust composition is dominated by silicates, which exhibit a strong rise in the UV opacity near the Lyman break. This "silicate-UV break" may be confused with the Lyman break, resulting in a misidentification of a galaxies' photometric redshift. In this paper we demonstrate these effects by analyzing the spectral energy distribution (SED) of MACS1149-JD, a lensed galaxy at z = 9.6. A potential 2mm counterpart of MACS1149-JD has been identified with GISMO. While additional observations are required to corroborate this identification, we use this possible association to illustrate the physical processes and the observational effects of dust in the very high redshift universe. Subject headings: galaxies: high-redshift - galaxies: evolution - galaxies: individual (MACS1149- JD) - Interstellar medium (ISM), nebulae: dust, extinction - physical data and processes: nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances.

  16. Multispectral photometric stereo for acquiring high-fidelity surface normals.

    PubMed

    Nam, Giljoo; Kim, Min H

    2014-01-01

    Multispectral imaging and photometric stereo are common in 3D imaging but rarely have been combined. Reconstructing a 3D object's shape using photometric stereo is challenging owing to indirect illumination, specular reflection, and self-shadows, and removing interreflection in photometric stereo is problematic. A new multispectral photometric-stereo method removes interreflection on diffuse materials using multispectral-reflectance information and reconstructs 3D shapes with high accuracy. You can integrate this method into photometric-stereo systems by simply substituting the original camera with a multispectral camera.

  17. COSMOLOGY WITH PHOTOMETRICALLY CLASSIFIED TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM THE SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Heather; D'Andrea, Chris B; Nichol, Robert C.; Smith, Mathew; Lampeitl, Hubert; Sako, Masao; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Brown, Peter; Dawson, Kyle S.; Bassett, Bruce; Biswas, Rahul; Kuhlmann, Steve; Cinabro, David; Dilday, Ben; Foley, Ryan J.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Garnavich, Peter; Hlozek, Renee; Jha, Saurabh W.; Kunz, Martin; and others

    2013-02-15

    We present the cosmological analysis of 752 photometrically classified Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained from the full Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova (SN) Survey, supplemented with host-galaxy spectroscopy from the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. Our photometric-classification method is based on the SN classification technique of Sako et al., aided by host-galaxy redshifts (0.05 < z < 0.55). SuperNova ANAlysis simulations of our methodology estimate that we have an SN Ia classification efficiency of 70.8%, with only 3.9% contamination from core-collapse (non-Ia) SNe. We demonstrate that this level of contamination has no effect on our cosmological constraints. We quantify and correct for our selection effects (e.g., Malmquist bias) using simulations. When fitting to a flat {Lambda}CDM cosmological model, we find that our photometric sample alone gives {Omega} {sub m} = 0.24{sup +0.07} {sub -0.05} (statistical errors only). If we relax the constraint on flatness, then our sample provides competitive joint statistical constraints on {Omega} {sub m} and {Omega}{sub {Lambda}}, comparable to those derived from the spectroscopically confirmed Three-year Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS3). Using only our data, the statistics-only result favors an accelerating universe at 99.96% confidence. Assuming a constant wCDM cosmological model, and combining with H {sub 0}, cosmic microwave background, and luminous red galaxy data, we obtain w = -0.96{sup +0.10} {sub -0.10}, {Omega} {sub m} = 0.29{sup +0.02} {sub -0.02}, and {Omega} {sub k} = 0.00{sup +0.03} {sub -0.02} (statistical errors only), which is competitive with similar spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia analyses. Overall this comparison is reassuring, considering the lower redshift leverage of the SDSS-II SN sample (z < 0.55) and the lack of spectroscopic confirmation used herein. These results demonstrate the potential of photometrically classified SN Ia samples in improving

  18. Astrophysical science with a spaceborne photometric telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granados, Arno F. (Editor); Borucki, William J. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The FRESIP Project (FRequency of Earth-Sized Inner Planets) is currently under study at NASA Ames Research Center. The goal of FRESIP is the measurement of the frequency of Earth-sized extra-solar planets in inner orbits via the photometric signature of a transit event. This will be accomplished with a spaceborne telescope/photometer capable of photometric precision of two parts in 100,000 at a magnitude of m(sub v) = 12.5. To achieve the maximum scientific value from the FRESIP mission, an astrophysical science workshop was held at the SETI Institute in Mountain View, California, November 11-12, 1993. Workshop participants were invited as experts in their field of astrophysical research and discussed the astrophysical science that can be achieved within the context of the FRESIP mission.

  19. A Photometric Search for Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, S. B.; Everett, M.; Davis, D. R.; Weidenschilling, S. J.; McGruder, C. H., III; Gelderman, R.

    2000-10-01

    We describe a new program for the photometric detection of extrasolar planets using the 1.3 m telescope on Kitt Peak, which will be operated by a consortium of universities headed by Western Kentucky Univ. and including South Carolina State Univ., Planetary Science Institute, Boston Univ., and UC-Berkeley (SSL). This approach will complement the existing, highly successful, spectroscopic searches. The theory of photometric transit detection has been discussed by a number of authors (e.g. Borucki & Summers 1984; Howell & Merline 1995; Howell et al. 1996) and shown to be well within the capabilities of both photomultiplier and CCD observations. The first photometric transit detection was recently accomplished for the spectroscopically discovered planet orbiting HD209458 (Henry et al. 2000). The detection of extrasolar planet transits requires high photometric precision rather than accuracy. The necessary photometric precision to detect Jupiter-, Neptune-, and Earth-sized planets in orbit around F-M dwarfs is 1%, 0.1% and 0.00001%, respectively. The required precision to observe transits by Jupiter-sized extrasolar planets is easily obtained with modern CCD detectors and the differential ensemble photometric techniques pioneered by Howell et al. (1988). The use of such a technique for ultra-high precision photometry has been described in numerous papers (Charbonneau et al. 2000, Howell 2000, plus many others). Everett and Howell recently used the Kitt Peak NOAO 0.9 m telescope with the wide-field MOSAIC camera to search for extrasolar planet transits. During this run, they achieved a photometric precision of 0.024% for this dataset. With the 1.3 m telescope, we expect to reach a photometric precision of ~ 0.01% (10-4 mag). Our consortium has recently begun to refurbish and automate the 1.3 m telescope, which will be known as the Remote-Controlled Telescope (RCT). The primary instrument will be a CCD camera with a SITe 2048 x 2048 CCD having pixel well depths of 363

  20. High Energy Continuum of High Redshift Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Discussion with the RXTE team at GSFC showed that a sufficiently accurate background subtraction procedure had now, been derived for sources at the flux level of PKS 2126-158. However this solution does not apply to observations carried out before April 1997, including our observation. The prospect of an improved solution becoming available soon is slim. As a result the RXTE team agreed to re-observe PKS2126-158. The new observation was carried out in April 1999. Quasi-simultaneous optical observations were obtained, as Service observing., at the 4-meter Anglo-Australian Telescope, and ftp-ed from the AAT on 22April. The RXTE data was processed in late June, arriving at SAO in early July. Coincidentally, our collaborative Beppo-SAX observation of PKS2126-158 was made later in 1999, and a GTO Chandra observation (with which we are involved) was made on November 16. Since this gives us a unique monitoring data for a high redshift quasar over a broad pass-band we are now combining all three observations into a single comprehensive study Final publication of the RXTE data will thus take place under another grant.

  1. A test of the Hapke photometric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, Michael K.; Helfenstein, Paul

    2007-03-01

    We conducted a test of the Hapke (1981, 1984, 1986, 2002) photometric model to determine what physical parameters could be confidently linked to a surface's photometric behavior. The first author selected and measured the bidirectional reflectance distribution functions of 14 different samples in up to three different wavelengths using the Bloomsburg University Goniometer Laboratory. A total of 29 data files were obtained, each file containing more than 700 measurements from different viewing geometries; phase angles varied from 3° to 130°. The 29 files were initially sent ``in-the-blind'' to the second author, who was charged with inverting the data files and extracting best fit model parameters. Our baseline model used the most recent Hapke (2002) formulation with a two-term Henyey-Greenstein particle phase function and shadow-hiding backscatter opposition effect (SHOE) model. We also inverted the data with three other variations that included three-term Henyey-Greenstein phase functions and both SHOE and the coherent backscatter opposition effect (CBOE) models. Our results were compared with the known physical properties of our samples. We found no compelling evidence that individual photometric parameters could be uniquely interpreted to reveal the physical state of our samples, either in an absolute or relative sense. Rather, combinations of physical properties such as albedo, roughness, and porosity were convolved within each retrieved photometric parameter. On the basis of our empirical evidence, we speculate that the fault lies with the inability of radiative transfer models to adequately account for discrete media and the effects of porosity, and its deficient assumption that individual particles are the primary scattering units.

  2. The optical and near-infrared colors of galaxies, 1: The photometric data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bershady, Matthew A.; Hereld, Mark; Kron, Richard G.; Koo, David C.; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Majewski, Steven R.

    1994-01-01

    We present optical and near-infrared photometry and spectroscopic redshifts of a well defined sample of 171 field galaxies selected from three high galactic latitude fields. This data set forms the basis for subsequent studies to characterize the trends, dispersion, and evolution of rest-frame colors and image structure. A subset of 143 galaxies constitutes a magnitude-limited sample to B approx. 19.9-20.75 (depending on field), with a median redshift of 0.14, and a maximum redshift of 0.54. This subset is statistically representative in its sampling of the apparent color distribution of galaxies. Thirty six galaxies were selected to have the reddest red-optical colors in two redshift intervals between 0.2 less than z less than 0.3. Photometric passbands are similar to U, B, V, I, and K, and sample galaxy spectral energy distributions between 0.37 and 2.2 micrometers in the observed frame, or down to 0.26 micrometers in the rest frame for the most distant galaxies. B and K images of the entire sample are assembled to form the first optical and near-infrared atlas of a statistically-representative sample of field galaxies. We discuss techniques for faint field-galaxy photometry, including a working definition of a total magnitude, and a method for matching magnitudes in different passbands and different seeing conditions to ensure reliable, integrated colors. Photographic saturation, which substantially affects the brightest 12% of our sample in the optical bands, is corrected with a model employing measured plate-density distributions for each galaxy, calibrated via similar measurements for stars as a function of known saturation level. Both the relative and absolute calibration of our photometry are demonstrated.

  3. The X-ray luminosity function of active galactic nuclei in the redshift interval z=3-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakis, A.; Aird, J.; Buchner, J.; Salvato, M.; Menzel, M.-L.; Brandt, W. N.; McGreer, I. D.; Dwelly, T.; Mountrichas, G.; Koki, C.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Hsu, L.-T.; Merloni, A.; Liu, Z.; Nandra, K.; Ross, N. P.

    2015-10-01

    We combine deep X-ray survey data from the Chandra observatory and the wide-area/shallow XMM-XXL field to estimate the active galactic nuclei (AGN) X-ray luminosity function in the redshift range z = 3-5. The sample consists of nearly 340 sources with either photometric (212) or spectroscopic (128) redshift in the above range. The combination of deep and shallow survey fields also provides a luminosity baseline of three orders of magnitude, LX(2-10 keV) ≈ 1043-1046 erg s- 1 at z > 3. We follow a Bayesian approach to determine the binned AGN space density and explore their evolution in a model-independent way. Our methodology properly accounts for Poisson errors in the determination of X-ray fluxes and uncertainties in photometric redshift estimates. We demonstrate that the latter is essential for unbiased measurement of space densities. We find that the AGN X-ray luminosity function evolves strongly between the redshift intervals z = 3-4 and z = 4-5. There is also suggestive evidence that the amplitude of this evolution is luminosity dependent. The space density of AGN with LX(2-10 keV) < 1045 erg s- 1 drops by a factor of 5 between the redshift intervals above, while the evolution of brighter AGN appears to be milder. Comparison of our X-ray luminosity function with that of ultraviolet (UV)/optical selected quasi-stellar objects at similar redshifts shows broad agreement at bright luminosities, LX(2-10 keV) > 1045 erg s- 1. At fainter luminosities X-ray surveys measure higher AGN space densities. The faint-end slope of UV/optical luminosity functions, however, is steeper than for X-ray selected AGN. This implies that the Type I AGN fraction increases with decreasing luminosity at z > 3, opposite to trends established at lower redshift. We also assess the significance of AGN in keeping the hydrogen ionized at high redshift. Our X-ray luminosity function yields ionizing photon rate densities that are insufficient to keep the Universe ionized at redshift z > 4. A

  4. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Photometric Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Gunn, J.E.; Carr, M.; Rockosi, C.; Sekiguchi, M.; Berry, K.; Elms, B.; de Haas, E.; Ivezic, Z.; Knapp, G.; Lupton, R.; Pauls, G.; Simcoe, R.; Hirsch, R.; Sanford, D.; Wang, S.; York, D.; Harris, F.; Annis, J.; Bartozek, L.; Boroski, W.; Bakken, J.; Haldeman, M.; Kent, S.; Holm, S.; Holmgren, D.; Petravick, D.; Prosapio, A.; Rechenmacher, R.; Doi, M.; Fukugita, M.; Shimasaku, K.; Okada, N.; Hull, C.; Siegmund, W.; Mannery, E.; Blouke, M.; Heidtman, D.; Schneider, D.; Lucinio, R.; and others

    1998-12-01

    We have constructed a large-format mosaic CCD camera for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The camera consists of two arrays, a photometric array that uses 30 2048 {times} 2048 SITe/Tektronix CCDs (24 {mu}m pixels) with an effective imaging area of 720 cm{sup 2} and an astrometric array that uses 24 400 {times} 2048 CCDs with the same pixel size, which will allow us to tie bright astrometric standard stars to the objects imaged in the photometric camera. The instrument will be used to carry out photometry essentially simultaneously in five color bands spanning the range accessible to silicon detectors on the ground in the time-delay{endash}and{endash}integrate (TDI) scanning mode. The photometric detectors are arrayed in the focal plane in six columns of five chips each such that two scans cover a filled stripe 2&arcdeg;5 wide. This paper presents engineering and technical details of the camera. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  5. Photometric assessment of energy efficient torchieres

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Erik; Siminovitch, Michael

    1997-06-01

    Extensive development of designs and prototyping of energy efficient torchiere systems using compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) has led directly to the production of CFL torchieres by a major US manufacturer. This paper compares the electrical and photometric characteristics of one of the new CFL torchieres to standard tungsten halogen torchieres (halogen uplighters). Power assessments and gonio-photometric data indicate that the new CFL torchiere provides significant energy savings over the standard tungsten halogen torchiere while producing more luminous flux. The energy savings is jointly due to the high source efficacy of the CFLs and the poor performance . of the imported halogen lamps. The paper also presents results from a test site in the student dormitories at Stanford University where a torchiere "lamp swap" program was initiated in which students voluntarily traded their halogen torchieres for CFL torchieres. Out of the 500 torchieres involved in the lamp swap, a random sample of nearly 100 halogen lamps (seasoned in the field and considered to represent a typical population) were collected and photometrically and electrically characterized in the laboratory. These laboratory results indicate that the CFL torchieres use 65 watts to produce 25 percent more light than the 300 W tungsten halogen torchieres they are designed to replace. Additionally, the CFL torchieres have the benefit of a cooler lamp operating temperature, making them safer luminaires.

  6. Photometric Parallaxes for Red Dwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrey, Nick; Robertson, T.

    2008-05-01

    The luminosity function of low luminosity red stars is import due to the high frequency of such stars and their substantial contribution to the mass of baryonic matter as determined by analysis of the numbers of such stars within a few parsecs of the Sun. Many such stars relatively close to the Sun have not been detected due to their low luminosity and to an inability to distinguish between red giant and dwarf stars. A sample of one hundred potential red dwarf stars was selected from 2MASS photometric data, and USNO-B photometric and astrometric data. Sample stars were observed using the SARA (Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy) telescope using Kron-Cousins RI photometry and intermediate-band CaH photometry. All thirty two sample stars observed have luminosity classes consistent with red dwarfs. The photometric parallaxes range from 40 to 230 pc. A comparison of USNO-B R magnitudes and the observed CCD R magnitudes (observed - USNO) indicated no systematic difference (-0.03 with and standard error of the mean of 0.05). A comparison of the R-I color index showed a mean difference of -0.21 and standard error of the mean of 0.03. The selection criterion used seems to be quite efficient in identifying red dwarf stars. This study used data collected with the SARA Telescope and was funded by grants from the Indiana Space Grant Consortium and Ball State University.

  7. Improving HST/WFC3 photometric calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deustua, Susana E.; WFC3 Team

    2017-01-01

    I will discuss improvements in the photometric calibration of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging channels based on the analisys of 6 years of standard star observations acquired between 2009 and 2015. Observations of the three white dwarf standard stars, GD 153, GD 71, and G191B2B and of the G-type star P330E were obtained at multiple dither positions . Departing from previous practice, chip-dependent inverse sensitivities for the WFC3/UVIS channel are computed at r=10 pixels for the 42 full frame filters (excluding the 20 quad filters); and these data also provide encircled energy fractions as a function of filter. Chip-dependent inverse sensitivities differ on average by 3% from previous computations, primarily due to drizzling effects. I describe the UVIS 2.0 (chip-dependent) philosophy and discuss the esults in the context of prior photometric calculations. Further, I will also discuss the status of the WFC3/IR photometric calibration, in view of updated linearity corrections and updated dark reference files.

  8. Gotcha Using Swift GRBs to Pinpoint the Highest Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Edo

    2005-07-01

    While there is convincing evidence that the Universe was re-ionized between redshifts of 6.5 and 15, the role of galaxies in this process is still not understood. Several star-forming galaxies at z 6 have been identified in recent deep, narrow-field surveys, but the expensive observations along with cosmic variance and contamination make it difficult to assess their contribution to re-ionization. Moreover, the detection of galaxies at z>7 is exceedingly difficult even with the Hubble UDF or cluster lensing. Significant progress can be made using gamma-ray bursts {GRBs} localized with the now-operational Swift satellite, which is capable of detecting bursts out to z>10. GRBs have the advantage of being an uncontaminated signpost for star-formation, and their afterglows are sufficiently bright even at z>6 to allow photometric selection {via the Ly-alpha drop out technique} with 2-5 meter telescopes. Using our approved TOO programs at an extensive range of facilities {from 1-m robotic telescopes to Keck/Magellan}, we can rapidly find afterglows at z>6 and easily distinguish them from dusty low redshift bursts. This approach is highly efficient compared to current techniques, especially at z>7. Here we request imaging with NICMOS {z>6}, ACS {z 6}, and Spitzer/IRAC to characterize the properties {SFR, age, morphology} of up to five galaxies located in this manner, and begin to address their role in re-ionization. These observations are requested as >2 month TOOs, allowing flexibility of scheduling and at the same time taking a unique and timely advantage of the exquisite performance of three of NASA's premier missions.

  9. Gotcha Using Swift GRBs to Pinpoint the Highest Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Edo

    2006-07-01

    While there is convincing evidence that the Universe was reionized between redshifts of 6.5 and 15, the role of galaxies in this process is still not understood. Several star-forming galaxies at z 6 have been identified in recent deep, narrow-field surveys, but the expensive observations along with cosmic variance and contamination make it difficult to assess their contribution to reionization, or to significantly increase the sample. It has now been demonstrated that gamma-ray bursts {GRBs} exist at z>6, and we have already obtained HST and Spitzer observations of the host galaxy of GRB050904 at z=6.295 using our Cycle 14 program. GRBs have the advantage of being an uncontaminated signpost for star-formation, and their afterglows are sufficiently bright even at z>6 to allow photometric selection {via the Ly-alpha drop out technique} with 2-5 meter telescopes. Spectroscopic confirmation, including detailed information on the host ISM, is also likely {as demonstrated in the case of GRB050904}. Using our approved TOO programs at an extensive range of facilities {2-5 m telescopes up to Keck/Magellan/Gemini}, we can rapidly find afterglows at z>6 and easily distinguish them from dusty low redshift bursts. This approach is highly efficient compared to current techniques, especially at z>7. Our large allocation on Keck/Magellan/Gemini will also be used to obtain spectroscopy of the afterglows and host galaxies. Here we request to continue our program of imaging GRB-selected z>6 galaxies with NICMOS {z>6}, ACS {z 6}, and Spitzer/IRAC to characterize their properties {SFR, age, morphology, extinction}, and begin to address their role in reionization. These observations are requested as >2 month TOOs, allowing flexibility of scheduling and at the same time taking a unique and timely advantage of the exquisite performance of three of NASA's premier missions.

  10. Gotcha! Using Swift GRBs to Pinpoint the Highest Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Edo; Barger, Amy; Cenko, Bradley; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cowie, Lennox; Djorgovski, George; Fox, Derek; Gladders, Michael; Kulkarni, Shirnivas; McCarthy, Patrick; Ofek, Eran; Peterson, Bruce; Price, Paul; Rauch, Michael; Schmidt, Brian; Soderberg, Alicia

    2006-05-01

    While there is convincing evidence that the Universe was reionized between redshifts of 6.5 and 15, the role of galaxies in this process is still not understood. Several star-forming galaxies at z~6 have been identified in recent deep, narrow-field surveys, but the expensive observations along with cosmic variance and contamination make it difficult to assess their contribution to reionization, or to significantly increase the sample. It has now been demonstrated that gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) exist at z>6, and we have already obtained HST and Spitzer observations of the host galaxy of GRB050904 at z=6.295 using our Cycle 14 program. GRBs have the advantage of being an uncontaminated signpost for star-formation, and their afterglows are sufficiently bright even at z>6 to allow photometric selection (via the Ly-alpha drop out technique) with 2-5 meter telescopes. Spectroscopic confirmation, including detailed information on the host ISM, is also likely (as demonstrated in the case of GRB050904). Using our approved TOO programs at an extensive range of facilities (2-5m telescopes up to Keck/Magellan/Gemini), we can rapidly find afterglows at z>6 and easily distinguish them from dusty low redshift bursts. This approach is highly efficient compared to current techniques, especially at z>7. Our large allocation on Keck/Magellan/Gemini will also be used to obtain spectroscopy of the afterglows and host galaxies. Here we request to continue our program of imaging GRB-selected z>6 galaxies with NICMOS (z>6), and Spitzer/IRAC to characterize their properties (SFR, age, morphology, extinction), and begin to address their role in reionization. These observations are requested as >2 month TOOs, allowing flexibility of scheduling and at the same time taking a unique and timely advantage of the exquisite performance of three of NASA's premier missions.

  11. Gotcha! Using Swift GRBs to Pinpoint the Highest Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Edo; Cowie, Lennox; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Fox, Derek; Kulkarni, Shirnivas; Price, Paul; Rich, Joshua; McCarthy, Patrick; Rauch, Michael; Soderberg, Alicia; Cenko, Bradley; Gladders, Michael; Adelberger, Kurt; Barger, Amy; Schmidt, Brian; Peterson, Bruce; Djorgovski, George

    2005-06-01

    While there is convincing evidence that the Universe was re-ionized between redshifts of 6.5 and 15, the role of galaxies in this process is still not understood. Several star-forming galaxies at z~6 have been identified in recent deep, narrow-field surveys, but the expensive observations along with cosmic variance and contamination make it difficult to assess their contribution to re-ionization. Moreover, the detection of galaxies at z>7 is exceedingly difficult even with the Hubble UDF or cluster lensing. Significant progress can be made using gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) localized with the now-operational Swift satellite, which is capable of detecting bursts out to z>10. GRBs have the advantage of being an uncontaminated signpost for star-formation, and their afterglows are sufficiently bright even at z>6 to allow photometric selection (via the Ly-alpha drop out technique) with 2-5 meter telescopes. Using our approved TOO programs at an extensive range of facilities (from 1-m robotic telescopes to Keck/Magellan), we can rapidly find afterglows at z>6 and easily distinguish them from dusty low redshift bursts. This approach is highly efficient compared to current techniques, especially at z>7. Here we request imaging with NICMOS (z>6), ACS (z~6), and Spitzer/IRAC to characterize the properties (SFR, age, morphology) of up to five galaxies located in this manner, and begin to address their role in re-ionization. These observations are requested as >2 month TOOs, allowing flexibility of scheduling and at the same time taking a unique and timely advantage of the exquisite performance of three of NASA's premier missions.

  12. Element abundances at high redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, David M.; Welty, D. E.; York, D. G.

    1989-01-01

    Abundances of Si(+), S(+), Cr(+), Mn(+), Fe(_), and Zn(+) are considered for two absorption-line systems in the spectrum of the QSO PKS 0528 - 250. Zinc and sulfur are underabundant, relative to H, by a factor of 10 compared to their solar and Galactic interstellar abundances. The silicon-, chromium-, iron-, and nickel-to-hydrogen ratios are less than the solar values and comparable to the local interstellar ratios. A straightforward interpretation is that nucleosynthesis in these high-redshift systems has led to only about one-tenth as much heavy production as in the gas clouds around the sun, and that the amount of the observed underabundances attributable to grain depletion is small. The dust-to-gas ratio in these clouds is less than 8 percent of the Galactic value.

  13. The ESO Slice Project (ESP) redshift survey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vettolani, G.; Zucca, E.; Cappi, A.; Merighi, R.; Mignoli, M.; Stirpe, G.; Zamorani, G.; MacGillivray, H.; Collins, C.; Balkowski, C.; Cayatte, V.; Maurogordato, S.; Proust, D.; Chincarini, G.; Guzzo, L.; Maccagni, D.; Scaramella, R.; Blanchard, A.; Ramella, M.

    The ESO Slice Project (ESP) is a galaxy redshift survey over about 30 square degrees, in a region near the South Galactic Pole. The survey is nearly complete to the limiting magnitude bj = 19.4 and consists of more than three thousands galaxies with reliable redshift determination.

  14. Diffractive corrections to the cosmological redshift formula

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, D.; Kephart, T.W. )

    1991-05-20

    We calculate the exact frequency redshift for fields coupled to gravity in Robertson-Walker backgrounds. The exact redshift factorizes and is proportional to the naive Doppler shift times a term representing diffractive effects. These diffractive corrections can be large for field modes with wavelengths on the order of the horizon size. Implications for cosmological density perturbations are discussed.

  15. Structure and substructure analysis of DAFT/FADA galaxy clusters in the [0.4–0.9] redshift range

    SciTech Connect

    Guennou, L.; et al.

    2014-01-17

    Context. The DAFT/FADA survey is based on the study of ~90 rich(masses found in the literature >2 x 10^14 M_⊙)and moderately distant clusters (redshifts 0.4 < z < 0.9), all withHST imaging data available. This survey has two main objectives: to constrain dark energy(DE) using weak lensing tomography on galaxy clusters and to build a database (deepmulti-band imaging allowing photometric redshift estimates, spectroscopic data, X-raydata) of rich distant clusters to study their properties.

  16. The discovery of high-redshift supernovae and their cosmological implications

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Alex G.

    1997-09-01

    In this thesis the author discusses the methodology for doing photometry from procedure of extracting supernova counts from images that contain combined supernova plus galaxy flux, to standard star calibration, to additional instrumental corrections that arise due to the multiple telescopes used for observations. He discusses the different sources of photometric error and their correlations, and the construction of the covariance matrix for all the points in the light curve. He then describes the K corrections which account for the redshifting of spectra that are necessary to compare the photometry of the high-redshift data with those from nearby (z < 0.1) supernovae. Finally, he uses the first seven of the supernovae to test the hypothesis that they live in an under-dense bubble where the locally measured Hubble constant differs significantly from the true Hubble constant. He also uses the data to place limits on the value of the Hubble constant. Discussions of several other important aspects of the data analysis are or will be included in other papers. These topics include a description of how the covariance matrix is used to generate light-curve fits, a discussion of non-photometric systematic errors that also effect the measurements, and a discussion of the application of the supernovae to address other scientific/cosmological problems.

  17. Photometric metallicities in Boötes I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, J.; Wallerstein, G.; Dotter, A.; Geisler, D.

    2014-03-01

    We present new Strömgren and Washington data sets for the Boötes I dwarf galaxy, and combine them with the available Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry. The goal of this project is to refine a ground-based, practical, accurate method to determine age and metallicity for individual stars in Boötes I that can be selected in an unbiased imaging survey, without having to take spectra. With few bright upper red giant branch stars and distances of about 35-250 kpc, the ultra-faint dwarf galaxies (UDFs) present observational challenges in characterizing their stellar population. Other recent studies have produced spectra and proper motions, making Boötes I an ideal test case for our photometric methods. We produce photometric metallicities from Strömgren and Washington photometry, for stellar systems with a range of -1.0 > [Fe/H] > -3.5. Needing to avoid the collapse of the metallicity sensitivity of the Strömgren m1-index on the lower red giant branch, we replace the Strömgren v filter with the broader Washington C filter to minimize observing time. We construct two indices: m* = (C - T1)0 - (T1 - T2)0 and m** = (C - b)0 - (b - y)0. We find that CT1by is the most successful filter combination, for individual stars with [Fe/H] < -2.0, to maintain ˜0.2 dex [Fe/H]-resolution over the whole red giant branch. The m**-index would be the best choice for space-based observations because the (C - y) colour is not sufficient to fix metallicity alone in an understudied system. Our photometric metallicites of stars in the central regions of Boötes I confirm that there is a metallicity spread of at least -1.9 > [Fe/H] > -3.7. The best-fitting Dartmouth isochrones give a mean age, for all the Boötes I stars in our data set, of 11.5 ± 0.4 Gyr. From ground-based telescopes, we show that the optimal filter combination is CT1by, avoiding the v filter entirely. We demonstrate that we can break the isochrones' age-metallicity degeneracy with the CT1by filters, using stars with

  18. Real-time cosmography with redshift derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, C. J. A. P.; Martinelli, M.; Calabrese, E.; Ramos, M. P. L. P.

    2016-08-01

    The drift in the redshift of objects passively following the cosmological expansion has long been recognized as a key model-independent probe of cosmology. Here, we study the cosmological relevance of measurements of time or redshift derivatives of this drift, arguing that the combination of first and second redshift derivatives is a powerful test of the Λ CDM cosmological model. In particular, the latter can be obtained numerically from a set of measurements of the drift at different redshifts. We show that, in the low-redshift limit, a measurement of the derivative of the drift can provide a constraint on the jerk parameter, which is j =1 for flat Λ CDM , while generically j ≠1 for other models. We emphasize that such a measurement is well within the reach of the ELT-HIRES and SKA Phase 2 array surveys.

  19. Establishing traceability of photometric absorbance values for accurate measurements of the haemoglobin concentration in blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, K.; Wolf, H. U.; Heuck, C.; Kammel, M.; Kummrow, A.; Neukammer, J.

    2013-10-01

    Haemoglobin concentration in blood is one of the most frequently measured analytes in laboratory medicine. Reference and routine methods for the determination of the haemoglobin concentration in blood are based on the conversion of haeme, haemoglobin and haemiglobin species into uniform end products. The total haemoglobin concentration in blood is measured using the absorbance of the reaction products. Traceable absorbance measurement values on the highest metrological level are a prerequisite for the calibration and evaluation of procedures with respect to their suitability for routine measurements and their potential as reference measurement procedures. For this purpose, we describe a procedure to establish traceability of spectral absorbance measurements for the haemiglobincyanide (HiCN) method and for the alkaline haematin detergent (AHD) method. The latter is characterized by a higher stability of the reaction product. In addition, the toxic hazard of cyanide, which binds to the iron ion of the haem group and thus inhibits the oxygen transport, is avoided. Traceability is established at different wavelengths by applying total least-squares analysis to derive the conventional quantity values for the absorbance from the measured values. Extrapolation and interpolation are applied to get access to the spectral regions required to characterize the Q-absorption bands of the HiCN and AHD methods, respectively. For absorbance values between 0.3 and 1.8, the contributions of absorbance measurements to the total expanded uncertainties (95% level of confidence) of absorbance measurements range from 1% to 0.4%.

  20. Photometric Imaging of the Moon from Flagstaff: A Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. M.

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Northern Arizona University operate a highly automated observatory atop McMillan Mesa on the grounds of the U.S. Geological Survey's Flagstaff Field Center. The primary purpose of the observatory is to provide accurate radiance information of the Moon for calibration of Earth-orbiting instruments, particularly Earth Observing System instruments. Current instrumentation includes a 20 cm diameter Ritchey-Cretien telescope on a computer controlled mount designed for a 41 cm telescope. The imaging device is a 512x512 CCD with a resolution of 4.0 arcsec/pixel. Interference filters within 350--950 nm are used to correspond to standard stellar bandpasses, wavelengths of high lunar contrast, and approximate bandpasses of planned Earth-orbiting instruments. A full aperture radiance calibration source ties observations to an absolute radiance system. A second instrument operating from 0.95--2.4 {microns } is under construction and will be added to the same mount as the present instrument. Since March 1996 observations have been made every clear night during the bright half of each month. Both stars and the Moon are observed by the same equipment; photometric standard stars are observed each night to provide long-term stability in the radiance calibration of lunar images and to determine atmospheric extinction. Real-time software determines object targeting, calculates optimal exposure times, commands telescope pointing, and controls data acquisition. Semi-automated routines backup data to remote disks and archive data onto CD-ROMs. Over 100000 images were generated by this system during 1996, necessitating the development of automated software to reduce lunar images to exoatmospheric radiance projected in a fixed selenographic grid system. These radiance images will be further reduced to photometric models for individual grid points, from which radiance models can be produced for the precise geometry of spacecraft observations.

  1. The kinematic component of the cosmological redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chodorowski, Michał J.

    2011-05-01

    It is widely believed that the cosmological redshift is not a Doppler shift. However, Bunn & Hogg have recently pointed out that to solve this problem properly, one has to transport parallelly the velocity four-vector of a distant galaxy to the observer's position. Performing such a transport along the null geodesic of photons arriving from the galaxy, they found that the cosmological redshift is purely kinematic. Here we argue that one should rather transport the velocity four-vector along the geodesic connecting the points of intersection of the world-lines of the galaxy and the observer with the hypersurface of constant cosmic time. We find that the resulting relation between the transported velocity and the redshift of arriving photons is not given by a relativistic Doppler formula. Instead, for small redshifts it coincides with the well-known non-relativistic decomposition of the redshift into a Doppler (kinematic) component and a gravitational one. We perform such a decomposition for arbitrary large redshifts and derive a formula for the kinematic component of the cosmological redshift, valid for any Friedman-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology. In particular, in a universe with Ωm= 0.24 and ΩΛ= 0.76, a quasar at a redshift 6, at the time of emission of photons reaching us today had the recession velocity v= 0.997c. This can be contrasted with v= 0.96c, had the redshift been entirely kinematic. Thus, for recession velocities of such high-redshift sources, the effect of deceleration of the early Universe clearly prevails over the effect of its relatively recent acceleration. Last but not the least, we show that the so-called proper recession velocities of galaxies, commonly used in cosmology, are in fact radial components of the galaxies' four-velocity vectors. As such, they can indeed attain superluminal values, but should not be regarded as real velocities.

  2. OPTICAL REDSHIFT AND RICHNESS ESTIMATES FOR GALAXY CLUSTERS SELECTED WITH THE SUNYAEV-Zel'dovich EFFECT FROM 2008 SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    High, F. W.; Stalder, B.; Song, J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aird, K. A.; Allam, S. S.; Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Armstrong, R.; Barkhouse, W. A.; Benson, B. A.; Bertin, E.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Brodwin, M.; Challis, P.; De Haan, T.

    2010-11-10

    We present redshifts and optical richness properties of 21 galaxy clusters uniformly selected by their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) signature. These clusters, plus an additional, unconfirmed candidate, were detected in a 178 deg{sup 2} area surveyed by the South Pole Telescope (SPT) in 2008. Using griz imaging from the Blanco Cosmology Survey and from pointed Magellan telescope observations, as well as spectroscopy using Magellan facilities, we confirm the existence of clustered red-sequence galaxies, report red-sequence photometric redshifts, present spectroscopic redshifts for a subsample, and derive R{sub 200} radii and M{sub 200} masses from optical richness. The clusters span redshifts from 0.15 to greater than 1, with a median redshift of 0.74; three clusters are estimated to be at z>1. Redshifts inferred from mean red-sequence colors exhibit 2% rms scatter in {sigma}{sub z}/(1 + z) with respect to the spectroscopic subsample for z < 1. We show that the M{sub 200} cluster masses derived from optical richness correlate with masses derived from SPT data and agree with previously derived scaling relations to within the uncertainties. Optical and infrared imaging is an efficient means of cluster identification and redshift estimation in large SZ surveys, and exploiting the same data for richness measurements, as we have done, will be useful for constraining cluster masses and radii for large samples in cosmological analysis.

  3. Sloan Digital Sky Survey III photometric quasar clustering: Probing the initial conditions of the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Shirley; Agarwal, Nishant; Myers, Adam D.; Lyons, Richard; Disbrow, Ashley; Seo, Hee -Jong; Ross, Ashley; Hirata, Christopher; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; O'Connell, Ross; Huff, Eric; Schlegel, David; Slosar, Anze; Weinberg, David; Strauss, Michael; Ross, Nicholas P.; Schneider, Donald P.; Bahcall, Neta; Brinkmann, J.; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Yeche, Christophe

    2015-05-22

    Here, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey has surveyed 14,555 square degrees of the sky, and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present the large-scale clustering of 1.6 million quasars between z=0.5 and z=2.5 that have been classified from this imaging, representing the highest density of quasars ever studied for clustering measurements. This data set spans 0~ 11,00 square degrees and probes a volume of 80 h–3 Gpc3. In principle, such a large volume and medium density of tracers should facilitate high-precision cosmological constraints. We measure the angular clustering of photometrically classified quasars using an optimal quadratic estimator in four redshift slices with an accuracy of ~ 25% over a bin width of δl ~ 10–15 on scales corresponding to matter-radiation equality and larger (0ℓ ~ 2–3).

  4. Sloan Digital Sky Survey III photometric quasar clustering: Probing the initial conditions of the Universe

    DOE PAGES

    Ho, Shirley; Agarwal, Nishant; Myers, Adam D.; ...

    2015-05-22

    Here, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey has surveyed 14,555 square degrees of the sky, and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present the large-scale clustering of 1.6 million quasars between z=0.5 and z=2.5 that have been classified from this imaging, representing the highest density of quasars ever studied for clustering measurements. This data set spans 0~ 11,00 square degrees and probes a volume of 80 h–3 Gpc3. In principle, such a large volume and medium density of tracers should facilitate high-precision cosmological constraints. We measure the angular clustering of photometrically classified quasars using an optimal quadratic estimatormore » in four redshift slices with an accuracy of ~ 25% over a bin width of δl ~ 10–15 on scales corresponding to matter-radiation equality and larger (0ℓ ~ 2–3).« less

  5. ANALYTICAL GALAXY PROFILES FOR PHOTOMETRIC AND LENSING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Spergel, David N.

    2010-11-15

    This article introduces a family of analytical functions of the form x {sup {nu}} K {sub {nu}}(x), where K {sub {nu}} is the incomplete Bessel function of the third kind. This family of functions can describe the density profile, projected and integrated light profiles, and the gravitational potentials of galaxies. For the proper choice of parameters, these functions accurately approximate Sersic functions over a range of indices and are good fits to galaxy light profiles. With an additional parameter corresponding to a galaxy core radius, these functions can fit galaxy like M87 over a factor of 10{sup 5} in radius. Unlike Sersic profiles, these functions have simple analytical two-dimensional and three-dimensional Fourier transforms, so they are easily convolved with spatially varying point-spread function (PSF) and are well suited for photometric and lensing analysis. We use these functions to estimate the effects of seeing on lensing measurements and show that high S/N measurements, even when the PSF is larger than the galaxy effective radius, should be able to recover accurate estimates of lensing distortions by weighting light in the outer isophotes that are less affected by seeing.

  6. Improving Photometric Calibration of Meteor Video Camera Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlert, Steven; Kingery, Aaron; Suggs, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of new calibration tests performed by the NASA Meteoroid Environment Oce (MEO) designed to help quantify and minimize systematic uncertainties in meteor photometry from video camera observations. These systematic uncertainties can be categorized by two main sources: an imperfect understanding of the linearity correction for the MEO's Watec 902H2 Ultimate video cameras and uncertainties in meteor magnitudes arising from transformations between the Watec camera's Sony EX-View HAD bandpass and the bandpasses used to determine reference star magnitudes. To address the rst point, we have measured the linearity response of the MEO's standard meteor video cameras using two independent laboratory tests on eight cameras. Our empirically determined linearity correction is critical for performing accurate photometry at low camera intensity levels. With regards to the second point, we have calculated synthetic magnitudes in the EX bandpass for reference stars. These synthetic magnitudes enable direct calculations of the meteor's photometric ux within the camera band-pass without requiring any assumptions of its spectral energy distribution. Systematic uncertainties in the synthetic magnitudes of individual reference stars are estimated at 0:20 mag, and are limited by the available spectral information in the reference catalogs. These two improvements allow for zero-points accurate to 0:05 ?? 0:10 mag in both ltered and un ltered camera observations with no evidence for lingering systematics.

  7. Unsupervised self-organized mapping: a versatile empirical tool for object selection, classification and redshift estimation in large surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geach, James E.

    2012-01-01

    We present an application of unsupervised machine learning - the self-organized map (SOM) - as a tool for visualizing, exploring and mining the catalogues of large astronomical surveys. Self-organization culminates in a low-resolution representation of the 'topology' of a parameter volume, and this can be exploited in various ways pertinent to astronomy. Using data from the Cosmological Evolution Survey (COSMOS), we demonstrate two key astronomical applications of the SOM: (i) object classification and selection, using galaxies with active galactic nuclei as an example, and (ii) photometric redshift estimation, illustrating how SOMs can be used as totally empirical predictive tools. With a training set of ˜3800 galaxies with zspec≤ 1, we achieve photometric redshift accuracies competitive with other (mainly template fitting) techniques that use a similar number of photometric bands [σ(Δz) = 0.03 with a ˜2 per cent outlier rate when using u* band to 8 ?m photometry]. We also test the SOM as a photo-z tool using the PHoto-z Accuracy Testing (PHAT) synthetic catalogue of Hildebrandt et al., which compares several different photo-z codes using a common input/training set. We find that the SOM can deliver accuracies that are competitive with many of the established template fitting and empirical methods. This technique is not without clear limitations, which are discussed, but we suggest it could be a powerful tool in the era of extremely large -'petabyte'- data bases where efficient data mining is a paramount concern.

  8. O I and Ca II Observations in Intermediate Redshift Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Aldama, Mary Loli; Dultzin, Deborah; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; Bressan, Alessandro; Chen, Yang; Stirpe, Giovanna M.

    2015-03-01

    We present an unprecedented spectroscopic survey of the Ca II triplet + O i for a sample of 14 luminous (-26≳ {{M}V}≳ -29), intermediate redshift (0.85 ≲ z ≲ 1.65) quasars. The Infrared Spectrometer and Array Camera spectrometer on the ESO Very Large Telescope allowed us to cover the Ca II near-infrared spectral region redshifted into the H and K windows. We describe in detail our data analysis which enabled us to detect Ca II triplet emission in all 14 sources (with the possible exception of HE0048-2804) and to retrieve accurate line widths and fluxes of the triplet and O i λ8446. The new measurements show trends consistent with previous lower-z observations, indicating that Ca II and optical Fe II emission are probably closely related. The ratio between the Ca II triplet and the optical Fe II blend at λ4570 Å is apparently systematically larger in our intermediate redshift sample relative to a low-z control sample. Even if this result needs a larger sample for adequate interpretation, higher Ca II/optical Fe II should be associated with recent episodes of star formation in intermediate redshift quasars and, at least in part, explain the apparent correlation of Ca II triplet equivalent width with z and L. The Ca II triplet measures yield significant constraints on the emitting region density and ionization parameter, implying Ca II triplet emission from log {{n}H} ≳ 11 [cm-3] and ionization parameter log U≲ -1.5. The line width and intensity ratios suggest properties consistent with emission from the outer part of a high-density broad line region (a line emitting accretion disk?). Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the southern hemisphere, Chile, under programme ID 085.B-0158(A).

  9. MagAl: A new tool to analyse galaxies photometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenell, W.; Benítez, N.; Cid Fernandes, R.

    2014-10-01

    On galaxy spectra, one can find mainly two features: emission lines, which tell us about the ionised gas content, and the continuum plus absorption lines, which tell us about the stellar content. They thus allow us to derive gas-phase abundances, the main radiation sources, chemical enrichment and star formation histories. Braad-band photometry, on the other hand, is much more limited and hinders our ability to recover a galaxy's physical properties to such a degree of detail. However, with the recent development of redshift surveys using the technology of ultra-narrow filters (≍ 100 Å), such as ALHAMBRA, J-PAS and DES, it will be invaluable to be able to retrieve information on physical properties of galaxies from photometric data. Motivated by this data avalanche (which goes up to the petabyte scale), we decided to build our own SED-fitting code: Magnitudes Analyser (MagAl), which has three modules. 1) A template library generation module: generates empirical and theoretical template libraries. 2) Bayesian fitting module: calculates probability distribution functions (PDFs) for given observed and library template data. This is similar to the method to measure photometric redshifts by Benitez (2000). 3) A result-analyser module: streamlines data analysis from the large output PDFs files. A fourth module to manage 3D data is being developed and a few preliminary tests are also shown. To investigate the reliability of results obtained by MagAl, we have created a mock galaxy sample for the ALHAMBRA survey filter system (http://alhambrasurvey.com) and tried to recover their physical properties. We show that for our sample of simulated galaxies we can measure stellar ages, metallicities and extinctions with a precision of less than 0.3 dex. Also, we apply the code to the ALHAMBRA survey catalog and show that we can measure stellar masses with an accuracy of 0.2 dex when comparing to previous results like COSMOS masses measured by Bundy et al. (2006).

  10. Characterization and Modeling of Contamination for Lyman Break Galaxy Samples at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulcani, Benedetta; Trenti, Michele; Calvi, Valentina; Bouwens, Rychard; Oesch, Pascal; Stiavelli, Massimo; Franx, Marijn

    2017-02-01

    The selection of high-redshift sources from broadband photometry using the Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) technique is a well established methodology, but the characterization of its contamination for the faintest sources is still incomplete. We use the optical and near-IR data from four (ultra)deep Hubble Space Telescope legacy fields to investigate the contamination fraction of LBG samples at z∼ 5{--}8 selected using a color–color method. Our approach is based on characterizing the number count distribution of interloper sources, that is, galaxies with colors similar to those of LBGs, but showing detection at wavelengths shorter than the spectral break. Without sufficient sensitivity at bluer wavelengths, a subset of interlopers may not be properly classified, and contaminate the LBG selection. The surface density of interlopers in the sky gets steeper with increasing redshift of LBG selections. Since the intrinsic number of dropouts decreases significantly with increasing redshift, this implies increasing contamination from misclassified interlopers with increasing redshift, primarily by intermediate redshift sources with unremarkable properties (intermediate ages, lack of ongoing star formation and low/moderate dust content). Using Monte-Carlo simulations, we estimate that the CANDELS deep data have contamination induced by photometric scatter increasing from ∼ 2 % at z∼ 5 to ∼ 6 % at z∼ 8 for a typical dropout color ≥slant 1 mag, with contamination naturally decreasing for a more stringent dropout selection. Contaminants are expected to be located preferentially near the detection limit of surveys, ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 contaminants per arcmin2 at {J}125 = 30, depending on the field considered. This analysis suggests that the impact of contamination in future studies of z> 10 galaxies needs to be carefully considered.

  11. RED-SEQUENCE GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFT BY THE COMBO-17+4 SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Nicol, Marie-Helene; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Wolf, Christian; Tapken, Christian E-mail: meise@mpia.de E-mail: ctapken@aip.de

    2011-01-20

    We investigate the evolution of the galaxy population since redshift 2 with a focus on the color bimodality and mass density of the red sequence. We obtain precise and reliable photometric redshifts up to z = 2 by supplementing the optical survey COMBO-17 with observations in four near-infrared bands on 0.2 deg{sup 2} of the COMBO-17 A901-field. Our results are based on an H-band-selected catalog of 10,692 galaxies complete to H = 21fm7. We measure the rest-frame color (U{sub 280}-V) of each galaxy, which across the redshift range of our interest requires no extrapolation and is robust against moderate redshift errors by staying clear of the 4000 A break. We measure the color-magnitude relation of the red sequence as a function of look-back time from the peak in a color-error-weighted histogram, and thus trace the galaxy bimodality out to z {approx_equal} 1.65. The (U{sub 280}-V) of the red sequence is found to evolve almost linearly with look-back time. At high redshift, we find massive galaxies in both the red and the blue population. Red-sequence galaxies with log M{sub *}/M{sub sun}>11 increase in mass density by a factor of {approx}4 from z {approx} 2 to 1 and remain nearly constant at z < 1. However, some galaxies as massive as log M{sub *}/M{sub sun} = 11.5 are already in place at z {approx} 2.

  12. Understanding the dark matter-light connection at high redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo

    Deep, wide-field surveys have enhanced our understanding of galaxy formation and its close connection to the large-scale structures of dark matter in the universe. At high redshifts ( z > 2), in particular, where it is not possible to observe dark matter structures in other methods such as gravitational lensing or galaxy rotation curves, study of galaxy clustering provides a unique view into the formation of galaxies in large look-back times. In this thesis, I present a clustering study of star-forming galaxies at high redshifts ( z ~ 3- 5), observed and selected from two of the deepest multi-wavelength photometric data to date. First, I show that the UV luminosity (or star formation rate) of these galaxies scales closely with the degree of spatial clustering at all cosmic epochs probed from these surveys. In conjunction with the current, well- established theoretical framework of cold dark matter cosmology, this implies that star formation rate is primarily determined by the total mass of the virialized dark matter structures, or dark matter halos. In addition, I show that the measures of galaxy correlation function exhibits a strong upturn on small scales, which cannot be explained with the clustering of halos hosting these galaxies alone. This strongly suggests that multiple galaxies can share a single massive dark matter halo. A simple scaling law between the number of galaxy occupants and halo mass is sufficient to successfully reproduce the observed shape of the correlation function. However, there is uncertainty in drawing physical parameters of the halo-galaxy association which depends on the assumed form of the scaling law, or the halo occupation distribution (HOD). Physical interpretations are further exacerbated by the unknown degree of "fairness" that color-selected galaxies represent. I present an alternative approach which requires precise measurements of both the luminosity function and correlation function (of various luminosity thresholds). By

  13. Redshift distributions of galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification shear catalogue and implications for weak lensing

    DOE PAGES

    Bonnett, C.; Troxel, M. A.; Hartley, W.; ...

    2016-08-30

    Here we present photometric redshift estimates for galaxies used in the weak lensing analysis of the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification (DES SV) data. Four model- or machine learning-based photometric redshift methods—annz2, bpz calibrated against BCC-Ufig simulations, skynet, and tpz—are analyzed. For training, calibration, and testing of these methods, we construct a catalogue of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies matched against DES SV data. The performance of the methods is evaluated against the matched spectroscopic catalogue, focusing on metrics relevant for weak lensing analyses, with additional validation against COSMOS photo-z’s. From the galaxies in the DES SV shear catalogue, which have meanmore » redshift 0.72±0.01 over the range 0.38 of approximately 3%. This shift is within the one sigma statistical errors on σ8 for the DES SV shear catalogue. We further study the potential impact of systematic differences on the critical surface density, Σcrit, finding levels of bias safely less than the statistical power of DES SV data. In conclusion, we recommend a final Gaussian prior for the photo-z bias in the mean of n(z) of width 0.05 for each of the three tomographic bins, and show that this is a sufficient bias model for the corresponding cosmology analysis.« less

  14. INTRINSIC ALIGNMENT OF CLUSTER GALAXIES: THE REDSHIFT EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Hao Jiangang; Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Feldmann, Robert; Annis, James; Johnston, David E.; Lin Huan; McKay, Timothy A.

    2011-10-10

    We present measurements of two types of cluster galaxy alignments based on a volume limited and highly pure ({>=}90%) sample of clusters from the GMBCG catalog derived from Data Release 7 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR7). We detect a clear brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) alignment (the alignment of major axis of the BCG toward the distribution of cluster satellite galaxies). We find that the BCG alignment signal becomes stronger as the redshift and BCG absolute magnitude decrease and becomes weaker as BCG stellar mass decreases. No dependence of the BCG alignment on cluster richness is found. We can detect a statistically significant ({>=}3{sigma}) satellite alignment (the alignment of the major axes of the cluster satellite galaxies toward the BCG) only when we use the isophotal fit position angles (P.A.s), and the satellite alignment depends on the apparent magnitudes rather than the absolute magnitudes of the BCGs. This suggests that the detected satellite alignment based on isophotal P.A.s from the SDSS pipeline is possibly due to the contamination from the diffuse light of nearby BCGs. We caution that this should not be simply interpreted as non-existence of the satellite alignment, but rather that we cannot detect them with our current photometric SDSS data. We perform our measurements on both SDSS r-band and i-band data, but do not observe a passband dependence of the alignments.

  15. Effective theory of dark energy at redshift survey scales

    SciTech Connect

    Gleyzes, Jérôme; Mancarella, Michele; Vernizzi, Filippo; Langlois, David E-mail: langlois@apc.univ-paris7.fr E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr

    2016-02-01

    We explore the phenomenological consequences of general late-time modifications of gravity in the quasi-static approximation, in the case where cold dark matter is non-minimally coupled to the gravitational sector. Assuming spectroscopic and photometric surveys with configuration parameters similar to those of the Euclid mission, we derive constraints on our effective description from three observables: the galaxy power spectrum in redshift space, tomographic weak-lensing shear power spectrum and the correlation spectrum between the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect and the galaxy distribution. In particular, with ΛCDM as fiducial model and a specific choice for the time dependence of our effective functions, we perform a Fisher matrix analysis and find that the unmarginalized 68% CL errors on the parameters describing the modifications of gravity are of order σ∼10{sup −2}–10{sup −3}. We also consider two other fiducial models. A nonminimal coupling of CDM enhances the effects of modified gravity and reduces the above statistical errors accordingly. In all cases, we find that the parameters are highly degenerate, which prevents the inversion of the Fisher matrices. Some of these degeneracies can be broken by combining all three observational probes.

  16. Thermodynamics Insights for the Redshift Drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming-Jian; Liu, Wen-Biao

    2015-01-01

    The secular redshift drift is a potential measurement to directly probe the cosmic expansion. Previous study on the redshift drift mainly focused on the model-dependent simulation. Apparently, the physical insights on the redshift drift are very necessary. So in this paper, it is investigated using thermodynamics on the apparent, Hubble and event horizons. Thermodynamics could analytically present the model-independent upper bounds of redshift drift. For specific assumption on the cosmological parameters, we find that the thermodynamics bounds are nearly one order of magnitude larger than the expectation in standard ΛCDM model. We then examine ten observed redshift drift from Green Bank Telescope at redshift 0.09 < z < 0.69, and find that these observational results are inconsistent with the thermodynamics. The size of the errorbars on these measurements is about three orders of magnitude larger than the effect of thermodynamical bounds for the redshift drift. Obviously, we have not yet hit any instrumental systematics at the shift level of 1m s-1 yr-1.

  17. The Definitive Johnson Kron-Cousins UBVRI Photometric System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landolt, Arlo U.; Clem, James L.

    2015-08-01

    The defining characteristics and a brief history of the Johnson Kron-Cousins UBVRI photometric system will be reviewed, and recent observational efforts to extend the UBVRI standard star network, both in magnitude and sky coverage, presented. The current incarnation of this network now comprises more than 50,000 photometric standards distributed around the sky in three declination zones centered on -50 degrees, the celestial equator, and +50 degrees. The majority of these standards encompass the magnitude range of ~9 < V <~ 22, and the color index range of ~ -0.3 < B-V <~ +2. The standard error of the mean in the photometry is less than 0.005 magnitudes in BVRI and 0.015 magn. in U. Relations have been developed to permit conversion between the UBVRI and SDSS ugriz photometric systems, thereby enhancing the versatility of both photometric systems. Several uses of the UBVRI photometric system, and its synergy with other photometric systems, will be noted.

  18. Hyperspectral photometric stereo for a single capture.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Keisuke; Sato, Imari; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2017-03-01

    We present a single-capture photometric stereo method using a hyperspectral camera. A spectrally and spatially designed illumination enables a point-wise estimation of reflectance spectra and surface normals from a single hyperspectral image. The illumination works as a reflectance probe in wide spectral regions where reflectance spectra are measured, and the full spectra are estimated by interpolation. It also works as the resource for shadings in other spectral regions. The accuracy of estimation is evaluated in a simulation. Also, we prepare an experimental setup and demonstrate a surface reconstruction against a real scene.

  19. Photometric monitoring of Luminous Blue Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buemi, Carla; Distefano, Elisa; Leto, Paolo; Schillirò, Francesco; Trigilio, Corrado; Umana, Grazia; Bernabei, Stefano; Cutispoto, Giuseppe; Messina, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    We present some preliminary results from our program of intensive near-infrared photometric monitoring of a sample of confirmed and candidate Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) conducted from 2008 to 2010. Clear long-term variability has been observed for Wray 17-96 and V481 Sct, with overall brightness variation greater than 1 mag in the J band. Other sources, such as LBV 1806-20 showed detectable variability with amplitudes of few tenths of a magnitude with a time-scale of about 60 days.

  20. Difficult cases in photometric studies of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marciniak, Anna; Pilcher, Frederick; Oszkiewicz, Dagmara; Bartczak, Przemysław; Santana-Ros, Toni; Kamiński, Krzysztof; Urakawa, Seitaro; Ogłoza, Waldemar; Fauvaud, Stéphane; Kankiewicz, Paweł; Kudak, Viktor; Żejmo, Michał; Nishiyama, Kota; Okumura, Shin-ichiro; Nimura, Tokuhiro; Hirsch, Roman; Konstanciak, Izabella; Tychoniec, Łukasz; Figas, Michał

    2016-06-01

    We present a photometric campaign targeted at asteroids that display both long periods of rotation and small amplitudes of brightness variations. Our aim is to debias available sample of spin and shape modelled asteroids and to correct previous wrong period determinations. Our newest findings are corrected period determinations for asteroids (279) Thule (P=23.896h ± 0.005 h), (673) Edda (P=22.340h ± 0.004 h), and (737) Arequipa (P=7.0259h ± 0.0003 h). Supporting lightcurves are presented in this paper.

  1. Mass calibration of galaxy clusters at redshift 0.1-1.0 using weak lensing in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 co-add

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesner, Matthew P.; Lin, Huan; Soares-Santos, Marcelle

    2015-09-01

    We present galaxy cluster mass-richness relations found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 co-add using clusters found using a Voronoi tessellation cluster finder. These relations were found using stacked weak lensing shear observed in a large sample of galaxy clusters. These mass-richness relations are presented for four redshift bins, 0.1 < z ≤ 0.4, 0.4 < z ≤ 0.7, 0.7 < z ≤ 1.0 and 0.1 < z ≤ 1.0. We describe the sample of galaxy clusters and explain how these clusters were found using a Voronoi tessellation cluster finder. We fit a Navarro-Frenk-White profile to the stacked weak lensing shear signal in redshift and richness bins in order to measure virial mass (M200). We describe several effects that can bias weak lensing measurements, including photometric redshift bias, the effect of the central BCG, halo miscentering, photometric redshift uncertainty and foreground galaxy contamination. We present mass-richness relations using richness measure NVT with each of these effects considered separately as well as considered altogether. We also examine redshift evolution of the mass-richness relation. As a result, we present measurements of the mass coefficient (M200|20) and the power-law slope (α) for power-law fits to the mass and richness values in each of the redshift bins. We find values of the mass coefficient of 8.49 ± 0.526, 14.1 ± 1.78, 30.2 ± 8.74 and 9.23 ± 0.525 × 1013 h-1 M⊙ for each of the four redshift bins, respectively. We find values of the power-law slope of 0.905 ± 0.0585, 0.948 ± 0.100, 1.33 ± 0.260 and 0.883 ± 0.0500, respectively.

  2. Photometric and Spectroscopic analysis of lensed re-ionising sources at the frontier of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, N.; Ellis, R.; Roberts-Borsani, G.; Infante, L.; Zheng, W.; Bauer, F. E.; Bina, D.; Chilingarian, I.; Kim, S.; Pelló, R.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Richard, J.; Troncoso-Iribarren, P.; Streblyanska, A.

    2016-12-01

    Our team is performing an automatic search for very distant sources using HST, VLT, Magellan, Gemini, Spitzer and ALMA dataset around Frontier Fields aiming to study the nature and properties of sources during the epoch of reionization. In this paper, we report on our photometric sample selection, the photometric properties of our z>6 candidates and the evolution of galaxy number densities during the first billion years from a statistical point of view. Thanks to the huge depth of HST FF data, we identified several z>7 candidates selected in previous HST surveys as mid-z interlopers that could bias our conclusions on the evolution of the first galaxies. We also briefly discuss several interesting objects that will benefit from the arrival of the JWST. The spectroscopic follow-up has just started, and our team is observing a sample of z>7 sources with ground-based spectrographs in order to confirm the redshift of these objects and add robust constraints on their physical properties.

  3. The OPTX Project. I. The Flux and Redshift Catalogs for the CLANS, CLASXS, and CDF-N Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouille, L.; Barger, A. J.; Cowie, L. L.; Yang, Y.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    2008-11-01

    We present the redshift catalogs for the X-ray sources detected in the Chandra Deep Field-North (CDF-N), the Chandra Large Area Synoptic X-ray Survey (CLASXS), and the Chandra Lockman Area North Survey (CLANS). The catalogs for the CDF-N and CLASXS fields include redshifts from previous work, while the redshifts for the CLANS field are all new. For fluxes above 10-14 ergs cm-2 s-1 (2-8 keV) we have redshifts for 76% of the sources. We extend the redshift information for the full sample using photometric redshifts. The goal of the OPTX Project is to use these three surveys, which are among the most spectroscopically complete surveys to date, to analyze the effect of spectral type on the shape and evolution of the X-ray luminosity functions and to compare the optical spectral types with the X-ray spectral properties. We also present the CLANS X-ray catalog. The nine ACIS-I fields cover a solid angle of ~0.6 deg2 and reach fluxes of 7 × 10-16 ergs cm-2 s-1 (0.5-2 keV) and 3.5 × 10-15 ergs cm-2 s-1 (2-8 keV). We find a total of 761 X-ray point sources. In addition, we present the optical and infrared photometric catalog for the CLANS X-ray sources, as well as updated optical and infrared photometric catalogs for the X-ray sources in the CLASXS and CDF-N fields. The CLANS and CLASXS surveys bridge the gap between the ultradeep pencil-beam surveys, such as the CDFs, and the shallower, very large-area surveys. As a result, they probe the X-ray sources that contribute the bulk of the 2-8 keV X-ray background and cover the flux range of the observed break in the log N-log S distribution. We construct differential number counts for each individual field and for the full sample. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The observatory was made possible by the

  4. Multi-wavelength observations of galaxy clusters: Population evolution and scaling relations for intermediate-redshift clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Thomas Patrick

    Galaxy clusters are key signatures of the formation of structure in the Universe due to their positions at the nodes of the cosmic web. However, these privileged positions feature significant amounts of activity as a consequence of frequent accretion and collisions with other galaxies and clusters of galaxies. Thus, a rigorous understanding of cluster evolution constrains not only cosmological structure formation but also galaxy dynamics in the most extreme environments. Here, we examine the evolution of clusters in two situations: how the properties of the hot intracluster gas changes with the total masses of the clusters at the observational frontiers of mass and redshift; and how cluster galaxies evolve with redshift in some of the most massive clusters in the Universe. In Chapter 2 we examine a population of moderate-luminosity clusters at intermediate redshifts using the XMM-Newton telescope with well-determined masses from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations. We find that these systems do not deviate from scaling relations between mass, luminosity, and temperature derived from more massive clusters, implying that, even at the redshifts and masses probed here, gravitational energetics still dominate over supernovae. In Chapter 3 we utilize new techniques to maximize a multi-wavelength dataset from HST of 25 massive galaxy clusters. We present new methods for detection and photometry of galaxies in the presence of inconsistent, diffuse background. Using these techniques, we construct a photometric catalog down to M* + 4-5 for clusters at redshift z 0:2 to z 0:9, which we validate with comparisons to spectral observations and a similar catalog. We also consider the luminosity function for these clusters; we find a drop-off in the faint-end slope when only selecting red sequence galaxies. Finally, in Chapter 4, we exploit our new photometric catalogs to study the evolution of the red galaxies, the "red sequence of galaxies," in these massive clusters of

  5. Moderate resolution spectrophotometry of high redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Donald P.; Schmidt, Maarten; Gunn, James E.

    1991-01-01

    A uniform set of photometry and high signal-to-noise moderate resolution spectroscopy of 33 quasars with redshifts larger than 3.1 is presented. The sample consists of 17 newly discovered quasars (two with redshifts in excess of 4.4) and 16 sources drawn from the literature. The objects in this sample have r magnitudes between 17.4 and 21.4; their luminosities range from -28.8 to -24.9. Three of the 33 objects are broad absorption line quasars. A number of possible high redshift damped Ly-alpha systems were found.

  6. High-redshift Fermi blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Foschini, L.; Ghirlanda, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Della Ceca, R.; Haardt, F.; Volonteri, M.; Gehrels, N.

    2011-02-01

    With the release of the first-year Fermi catalogue, the number of blazars detected above 100 MeV lying at high redshift has been largely increased. There are 28 blazars at z > 2 in the `clean' sample. All of them are flat spectrum radio quasars. We study and model their overall spectral energy distribution in order to find the physical parameters of the jet-emitting region, and for all of them, we estimate their black hole masses and accretion rates. We then compare the jet with the accretion disc properties, setting these sources in the broader context of all the other bright γ-ray or hard X-ray blazars. We confirm that the jet power correlates with the accretion luminosity. We find that the high-energy emission peak shifts to smaller frequencies as the observed luminosity increases, according to the blazar sequence, making the hard X-ray band the most suitable for searching the most-luminous and distant blazars.

  7. The VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey: ~10 000 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts to study galaxy assembly at early epochs 2 < z ≃ 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Fèvre, O.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Cassata, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Maccagni, D.; Pentericci, L.; Thomas, R.; Vanzella, E.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Amorin, R.; Bardelli, S.; Capak, P.; Cassarà, L.; Castellano, M.; Cimatti, A.; Cuby, J. G.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; Durkalec, A.; Fontana, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Grazian, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Ilbert, O.; Lemaux, B. C.; Moreau, C.; Paltani, S.; Ribeiro, B.; Salvato, M.; Schaerer, D.; Scodeggio, M.; Sommariva, V.; Talia, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Wang, P. W.; Charlot, S.; Contini, T.; Fotopoulou, S.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Mellier, Y.; Scoville, N.

    2015-04-01

    We present the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS), a spectroscopic redshift survey of ~10 000 very faint galaxies to study the main phase of galaxy assembly in 2 < z ≃ 6. The survey covers 1 deg2 in three separate fields: COSMOS, ECDFS, and VVDS-02h, with the selection of targets based on an inclusive combination of photometric redshifts and colour properties. Spectra covering 3650 < λ < 9350 Å are obtained with VIMOS on the ESO-VLT with integration times of 14h. Here we present the survey strategy, target selection, data processing, and the redshift measurement process with an emphasis on the specific methods used to adapt to this high-redshift range. We discuss the spectra quality and redshift reliability and derive a success rate in redshift measurement of 91%, or 74% by limiting the dataset to the most reliable measurements, down to a limiting magnitude iAB = 25. Measurements are performed all the way down to iAB = 27. The mean redshift of the main sample is z ~ 3 and extends over a broad redshift range mainly in 2 < z < 6. At 3 < z < 5, the galaxies cover a wide range of luminosities -23 < MNUV < -20.5, stellar mass 109M⊙ < M∗ < 1011M⊙, and star formation rates 1M⊙/yr < SFR < 103M⊙/yr. We discuss the spectral properties of galaxies using individual as well asstacked spectra. The comparison between spectroscopic and photometric redshifts as well as colour selection demonstrate the effectiveness of our selection scheme. From about ~ 90% of the data analysed so far, we expect to assemble >6000 galaxies with reliable spectroscopic redshifts in 2 < z < 6 when complete. This makes the VUDS the largest survey at these redshifts and offers the opportunity for unprecedented studies of the star-forming galaxy population and its distribution in large-scale structures during the main phase of galaxy assembly. Based on data obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile, under Large Program 185.A-0791.Staged releases of the

  8. Source Redshifts from Gravitational-Wave Observations of Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messenger, C.; Takami, Kentaro; Gossan, Sarah; Rezzolla, Luciano; Sathyaprakash, B. S.

    2014-10-01

    Inspiraling compact binaries as standard sirens will become an invaluable tool for cosmology when we enter the gravitational-wave detection era. However, a degeneracy in the information carried by gravitational waves between the total rest-frame mass M and the redshift z of the source implies that neither can be directly extracted from the signal; only the combination M(1+z), the redshifted mass, can be directly extracted from the signal. Recent work has shown that for third-generation detectors, a tidal correction to the gravitational-wave phase in the late-inspiral signal of binary neutron star systems can be used to break the mass-redshift degeneracy. Here, we propose to use the signature encoded in the postmerger signal allowing the accurate extraction of the intrinsic rest-frame mass of the source, in turn permitting the determination of source redshift and luminosity distance. The entirety of this analysis method and any subsequent cosmological inference derived from it would be obtained solely from gravitational-wave observations and, hence, would be independent of the cosmological distance ladder. Using numerical simulations of binary neutron star mergers of different mass, we model gravitational-wave signals at different redshifts and use a Bayesian parameter estimation to determine the accuracy with which the redshift and mass can be extracted. We find that for a known illustrative neutron star equation of state and using the Einstein telescope, the median of the 1σ confidence regions in redshift corresponds to ˜10%-20% uncertainties at redshifts of z <0.04.

  9. Magnetically active stars in Taurus-Auriga: Photometric variability and basic physical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grankin, K. N.

    2013-04-01

    We have analyzed homogeneous long-term photometric observations of 28 well-known weakline T Tauri stars (WTTS) and 60 WTTS candidates detected by the ROSAT observatory toward the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. We show that 22 known WTTS and 39 WTTS candidates exhibit periodic light variations that are attributable to the phenomenon of spotted rotational modulation. The rotation periods of these spotted stars lie within the range from 0.5 to 10 days. Significant differences between the long-term photometric behaviors of known WTTS and WTTS candidates have been found. We have calculated accurate luminosities, radii, masses, and ages for 74 stars. About 33% of the sample of WTTS candidates have ages younger than 10 Myr. The mean distance to 24 WTTS candidates with reliable estimates of their radii is shown to be 143 ± 26 pc. This is in excellent agreement with the adopted distance to the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region.

  10. An ALMA survey of submillimeter galaxies in the extended Chandra deep field south: The redshift distribution and evolution of submillimeter galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J. M.; Swinbank, A. M.; Smail, Ian; Alexander, D. M.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Thomson, A. P.; Brandt, W. N.; Bertoldi, F.; Karim, A.; De Breuck, C.; Chapman, S. C.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Da Cunha, E.; Hodge, J. A.; Schinnerer, E.; Dannerbauer, H.; Greve, T. R.; Ivison, R. J.; Knudsen, K. K.; Poggianti, B. M.; and others

    2014-06-20

    We present the first photometric redshift distribution for a large sample of 870 μm submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with robust identifications based on observations with ALMA. In our analysis we consider 96 SMGs in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, 77 of which have 4-19 band photometry. We model the SEDs for these 77 SMGs, deriving a median photometric redshift of z {sub phot} = 2.3 ± 0.1. The remaining 19 SMGs have insufficient photometry to derive photometric redshifts, but a stacking analysis of Herschel observations confirms they are not spurious. Assuming that these SMGs have an absolute H-band magnitude distribution comparable to that of a complete sample of z ∼ 1-2 SMGs, we demonstrate that they lie at slightly higher redshifts, raising the median redshift for SMGs to z {sub phot} = 2.5 ± 0.2. Critically we show that the proportion of galaxies undergoing an SMG-like phase at z ≥ 3 is at most 35% ± 5% of the total population. We derive a median stellar mass of M {sub *} = (8 ± 1) × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, although there are systematic uncertainties of up to 5 × for individual sources. Assuming that the star formation activity in SMGs has a timescale of ∼100 Myr, we show that their descendants at z ∼ 0 would have a space density and M{sub H} distribution that are in good agreement with those of local ellipticals. In addition, the inferred mass-weighted ages of the local ellipticals broadly agree with the look-back times of the SMG events. Taken together, these results are consistent with a simple model that identifies SMGs as events that form most of the stars seen in the majority of luminous elliptical galaxies at the present day.

  11. Photometric Evidence for Volatile Transport on Triton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbert, B. D.; Buratti, B.; Schmidt, B.; Bauer, J.

    2003-12-01

    Past observations of Neptune's moon Triton reveal that its surface is exhibiting both long and short term variability in color relative to baseline data gathered in the 1989 Voyager 2 flyby. These changes are likely due to the seasonal sublimation and deposition of Nitrogen frost and other volatiles (Buratti et al. 1994). Photometric light curves provide an additional verification that volatile transport is occurring on Triton. Steady state models, based on Voyager data and the assumption that Triton's surface is not changing, suggest a visual light curve amplitude of less than 0.05 magnitudes (Hillier et al.1991). Measurements taken in July 2000, however, indicated an amplitude of nearly 0.20 magnitudes (Cobb et al. 2001). Follow-up photometric observations in B,V,R,I broadband filters and an 890nm narrow band filter, covering a broader range in sub-Earth longitudes, were taken in June, July, and August 2003. They indicate a visual amplitude of 0.17 +/- 0.05 magnitudes, in close agreement with the 2001 data. These amplitudes are far larger than expected and may imply substantial volatile transport on Triton's surface. In addition, we observed a larger than expected opposition surge that demands further investigation.

  12. Photometric stellar catalogue for TV meteor astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonov, V. A.; Bagrov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Photometry for ordinary astrophysics was carefully developed for its own purposes. As stars radiation is very similar to the blackbody radiation, astronomers measure star illumination in wide or narrow calibrated spectral bands. This is enough for star photometry with precise accuracy and for measuring their light flux in these bands in energetic units. Meteors are moving objects and do not allow collection of more photons then they emit. So meteor observers use the whole spectral band that can be covered by sensitivity of their light sensors. This is why measurements of stellar magnitudes of background stars by these sensors are not the same as catalogued star brightness in standard photometric spectral bands. Here we present a special photometric catalogue of 93 bright non-variable stars of the northern hemisphere, that can be used by meteor observers of standard background whose brightness are calculated in energetic units as well as in non-systematic stellar magnitudes in spectral wavelength of the WATEC 902 sensitivity.

  13. Planck intermediate results. XXVI. Optical identification and redshifts of Planck clusters with the RTT150 telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Barrena, R.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bikmaev, I.; Böhringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Churazov, E.; Clements, D. L.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Fromenteau, S.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Gilfanov, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Hempel, A.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Khamitov, I.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2015-10-01

    We present the results of approximately three years of observations of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources with the Russian-Turkish 1.5 m telescope (RTT150), as a part of the optical follow-up programme undertaken by the Planck collaboration. During this time period approximately 20% of all dark and grey clear time available at the telescope was devoted to observations of Planck objects. Some observations of distant clusters were also done at the 6 m Bolshoi Telescope Alt-azimutalnyi (BTA) of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In total, deep, direct images of more than one hundred fields were obtained in multiple filters. We identified 47 previously unknown galaxy clusters, 41 of which are included in the Planck catalogue of SZ sources. The redshifts of 65 Planck clusters were measured spectroscopically and 14 more were measured photometrically. We discuss the details of cluster optical identifications and redshift measurements. We also present new spectroscopic redshifts for 39 Planck clusters that were not included in the Planck SZ source catalogue and are published here for the first time.

  14. THE DISCOVERY OF THE MOST DISTANT KNOWN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA AT REDSHIFT 1.914

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, David O.; Rodney, Steven A.; Riess, Adam G.; Mobasher, Bahram; Dahlen, Tomas; Casertano, Stefano; Koekemoer, Anton; McCully, Curtis; Keeton, Charles R.; Patel, Brandon; Frederiksen, Teddy F.; Hjorth, Jens; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Wiklind, Tommy G.; Challis, Peter; Hayden, Brian; Garnavich, Peter; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; and others

    2013-05-10

    We present the discovery of a Type Ia supernova (SN) at redshift z = 1.914 from the CANDELS multi-cycle treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This SN was discovered in the infrared using the Wide-Field Camera 3, and it is the highest-redshift Type Ia SN yet observed. We classify this object as a SN Ia by comparing its light curve and spectrum with those of a large sample of Type Ia and core-collapse SNe. Its apparent magnitude is consistent with that expected from the {Lambda}CDM concordance cosmology. We discuss the use of spectral evidence for classification of z > 1.5 SNe Ia using HST grism simulations, finding that spectral data alone can frequently rule out SNe II, but distinguishing between SNe Ia and SNe Ib/c can require prohibitively long exposures. In such cases, a quantitative analysis of the light curve may be necessary for classification. Our photometric and spectroscopic classification methods can aid the determination of SN rates and cosmological parameters from the full high-redshift CANDELS SN sample.

  15. Optical Scaling Relations of X-ray Selected Clusters at Moderate Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloster, Dylan; Rines, K.; Svoboda, B. E.; Arnold, R. L.; Welch, T. J.; Finn, R. A.; Vikhlinin, A.

    2011-01-01

    The relation between dark matter and galaxies is a fundamental problem in astrophysics. Here, we study this relation using optical observations of an X-ray-selected sample of clusters at moderate redshift (z=0.35-0.90). We collected griz images of 30 clusters with WIYN/OPTIC to measure the bright end of the luminosity function. Our imaging extends approximately 2 magnitudes fainter than M*, thus including most of the total cluster light. We use the red sequence and statistical background subtraction to estimate the richnesses and stellar luminosities of the clusters. We measure scaling relations by comparing the optical properties to X-ray mass estimates derived from Chandra observations. At low redshift, some studies indicate that total stellar luminosity is a better predictor of cluster mass than X-ray luminosity. We test whether a similar result holds at moderate redshift. In the future, we will compare the optical and X-ray properties to virial mass estimates from optical spectroscopy and to Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect observations. If photometric properties of clusters are good predictors of cluster mass, these relations could be applied to large surveys like SPT, Planck, DES, eROSITA, and LSST to improve constraints on the properties of dark energy.

  16. Dust Formation, Evolution, and Obscuration Effects in the Very High-Redshift Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli; Staguhn, Johannes; Arendt, Richard G.; Kovacks, Attila; Su, Ting; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of dust at redshifts z > or approx. 9, and consequently the dust properties, differs greatly from that in the local universe. In contrast to the local universe, core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the only source of thermally-condensed dust. Because of the low initial dust-togas mass ratio, grain destruction rates are low, so that CCSNe are net producers of interstellar dust. Galaxies with large initial gas mass or high mass infall rate will therefore have a more rapid net rate of dust production comported to galaxies with lower gas mass, even at the same star formation rate. The dust composition is dominated by silicates, which exhibit a strong rise in the UV opacity near the Lyman break. This "silicate-UV break" may be confused with the Lyman break, resulting in a misidentification of a galaxies' photometric redshift. In this paper we demonstrate these effects by analyzing the spectral energy distribution (SED) of MACS1149-JD, a lensed galaxy at z = 9.6. A potential 2mm counterpart of MACS1149-JD has been identified with GISMO. While additional observations are required to corroborate this identification, we use this possible association to illustrate the physical processes and the observational effects of dust in the very high redshift universe.

  17. DUST FORMATION, EVOLUTION, AND OBSCURATION EFFECTS IN THE VERY HIGH-REDSHIFT UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Dwek, Eli; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes; Su, Ting; Arendt, Richard G.; Kovacks, Attila

    2014-06-20

    The evolution of dust at redshifts z ≳ 9, and consequently the dust properties, differs greatly from that in the local universe. In contrast to the local universe, core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the only source of thermally condensed dust. Because of the low initial dust-to-gas mass ratio, grain destruction rates are low, so that CCSNe are net producers of interstellar dust. Galaxies with large initial gas mass or high mass infall rate will therefore have a more rapid net rate of dust production compared to galaxies with lower gas mass, even at the same star formation rate. The dust composition is dominated by silicates, which exhibit a strong rise in the UV opacity near the Lyman break. This ''silicate-UV break'' may be confused with the Lyman break, resulting in a misidentification of a galaxy's photometric redshift. In this Letter we demonstrate these effects by analyzing the spectral energy distribution of MACS1149-JD, a lensed galaxy at z = 9.6. A potential 2 mm counterpart of MACS1149-JD has been identified with GISMO. While additional observations are required to corroborate this identification, we use this possible association to illustrate the physical processes and the observational effects of dust in the very high-redshift universe.

  18. Redshift differences of galaxies in nearby groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    It is reported that galaxies in nearby groups exhibit anomalous nonvelocity redshifts. In this discussion, (1) four classes of nearby groups of galacies are analyzed, and no significant nonvelocity redshift effect is found; and (2) it is pointed out that transverse velocities (i.e., velocities transverse to the line of sight of the main galaxy, or center of mass) contribute components to the redshift measurements of companion galaxies. The redshifts of galaxies in nearby groups of appreciable angular size are considerably affected by these velocity projection effects. The transverse velocity contributions average out in rich, isotropic groups, and also in large samples of irregular groups of low membership, as in the four classes referred to in (1), but can introduce apparent discrepancies in small samples (as studied by Arp) of nearby groups of low membership.

  19. GALAXY CLUSTERING AND PROJECTED DENSITY PROFILES AS TRACED BY SATELLITES IN PHOTOMETRIC SURVEYS: METHODOLOGY AND LUMINOSITY DEPENDENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Wenting; Jing, Y. P.; Li Cheng; Okumura, Teppei; Han Jiaxin

    2011-06-20

    We develop a new method which measures the projected density distribution w{sub p} (r{sub p} )n of photometric galaxies surrounding a set of spectroscopically identified galaxies and simultaneously the projected cross-correlation function w{sub p} (r{sub p} ) between the two populations. In this method, we are able to divide the photometric galaxies into subsamples in luminosity intervals even when redshift information is unavailable, enabling us to measure w{sub p} (r{sub p} )n and w{sub p} (r{sub p} ) as a function of not only the luminosity of the spectroscopic galaxy, but also that of the photometric galaxy. Extensive tests show that our method can measure w{sub p} (r{sub p} ) in a statistically unbiased way. The accuracy of the measurement depends on the validity of the assumption inherent to the method that the foreground/background galaxies are randomly distributed and are thus uncorrelated with those galaxies of interest. Therefore, our method can be applied to the cases where foreground/background galaxies are distributed in large volumes, which is usually valid in real observations. We have applied our method to data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) including a sample of 10{sup 5} luminous red galaxies at z {approx} 0.4 and a sample of about half a million galaxies at z {approx} 0.1, both of which are cross-correlated with a deep photometric sample drawn from the SDSS. On large scales, the relative bias factor of galaxies measured from w{sub p} (r{sub p} ) at z {approx} 0.4 depends on luminosity in a manner similar to what is found for those at z {approx} 0.1, which are usually probed by autocorrelations of spectroscopic samples in previous studies. On scales smaller than a few Mpc and at both z {approx} 0.4 and z {approx} 0.1, the photometric galaxies of different luminosities exhibit similar density profiles around spectroscopic galaxies at fixed luminosity and redshift. This provides clear observational support for the assumption commonly

  20. Galaxy Clustering and Projected Density Profiles as Traced by Satellites in Photometric Surveys: Methodology and Luminosity Dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenting; Jing, Y. P.; Li, Cheng; Okumura, Teppei; Han, Jiaxin

    2011-06-01

    We develop a new method which measures the projected density distribution wp (rp )n of photometric galaxies surrounding a set of spectroscopically identified galaxies and simultaneously the projected cross-correlation function wp (rp ) between the two populations. In this method, we are able to divide the photometric galaxies into subsamples in luminosity intervals even when redshift information is unavailable, enabling us to measure wp (rp )n and wp (rp ) as a function of not only the luminosity of the spectroscopic galaxy, but also that of the photometric galaxy. Extensive tests show that our method can measure wp (rp ) in a statistically unbiased way. The accuracy of the measurement depends on the validity of the assumption inherent to the method that the foreground/background galaxies are randomly distributed and are thus uncorrelated with those galaxies of interest. Therefore, our method can be applied to the cases where foreground/background galaxies are distributed in large volumes, which is usually valid in real observations. We have applied our method to data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) including a sample of 105 luminous red galaxies at z ~ 0.4 and a sample of about half a million galaxies at z ~ 0.1, both of which are cross-correlated with a deep photometric sample drawn from the SDSS. On large scales, the relative bias factor of galaxies measured from wp (rp ) at z ~ 0.4 depends on luminosity in a manner similar to what is found for those at z ~ 0.1, which are usually probed by autocorrelations of spectroscopic samples in previous studies. On scales smaller than a few Mpc and at both z ~ 0.4 and z ~ 0.1, the photometric galaxies of different luminosities exhibit similar density profiles around spectroscopic galaxies at fixed luminosity and redshift. This provides clear observational support for the assumption commonly adopted in halo occupation distribution models that satellite galaxies of different luminosities are distributed in a similar

  1. Astronomical redshifts of highly ionized regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Peter M.

    2014-07-01

    Astronomical or cosmological redshifts are an observable property of extragalactic objects and have historically been wholly attributed to the recessional velocity of that object. The question of other, or intrinsic, components of the redshift has been highly controversial since it was first proposed. This paper investigates one theoretical source of intrinsic redshift that has been identified. The highly ionized regions of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSO) are, by definition, plasmas. All plasmas have electromagnetic scattering characteristics that could contribute to the observed redshift. To investigate this possibility, one region of a generalized AGN was selected, the so called Broad Line Region (BLR). Even though unresolvable with current instrumentation, physical estimates of this region have been published for years in the astronomical literature. These data, selected and then averaged, are used to construct an overall model that is consistent with the published data to within an order of magnitude. The model is then subjected to a theoretical scattering investigation. The results suggest that intrinsic redshifts, derivable from the characteristics of the ambient plasma, may indeed contribute to the overall observed redshift of these objects.

  2. Spatial Homogeneity and Redshift--Distance Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoll, J. F.; Segal, I. E.

    1982-06-01

    Spatial homogeneity in the radial direction of low-redshift galaxies is subjected to Kafka-Schmidt V/Vm tests using well-documented samples. Homogeneity is consistent with the assumption of the Lundmark (quadratic redshift-distance) law, but large deviations from homogeneity are implied by the assumption of the Hubble (linear redshift-distance) law. These deviations are similar to what would be expected on the basis of the Lundmark law. Luminosity functions are obtained for each law by a nonparametric statistically optimal method that removes the observational cutoff bias in complete samples. Although the Hubble law correlation of absolute magnitude with redshift is reduced considerably by elimination of the bias, computer simulations show that its bias-free value is nevertheless at a satistically quite significant level, indicating the self-inconsistency of the law. The corresponding Lundmark law correlations are quite satisfactory satistically. The regression of redshift on magnitude also involves radial spatial homogeneity and, according to R. Soneira, has slope determining the redshift-magnitude exponent independently of the luminosity function. We have, however, rigorously proved the material dependence of the regression on this function and here exemplify our treatment by using the bias-free functions indicated, with results consistent with the foregoing argument.

  3. Assessment of Systematic Chromatic Errors that Impact Sub-1% Photometric Precision in Large-area Sky Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T. S.; DePoy, D. L.; Marshall, J. L.; Tucker, D.; Kessler, R.; Annis, J.; Bernstein, G. M.; Boada, S.; Burke, D. L.; Finley, D. A.; James, D. J.; Kent, S.; Lin, H.; Marriner, J.; Mondrik, N.; Nagasawa, D.; Rykoff, E. S.; Scolnic, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Neilsen, E.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.; DES Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    Meeting the science goals for many current and future ground-based optical large-area sky surveys requires that the calibrated broadband photometry is both stable in time and uniform over the sky to 1% precision or better. Past and current surveys have achieved photometric precision of 1%-2% by calibrating the survey’s stellar photometry with repeated measurements of a large number of stars observed in multiple epochs. The calibration techniques employed by these surveys only consider the relative frame-by-frame photometric zeropoint offset and the focal plane position-dependent illumination corrections, which are independent of the source color. However, variations in the wavelength dependence of the atmospheric transmission and the instrumental throughput induce source color-dependent systematic errors. These systematic errors must also be considered to achieve the most precise photometric measurements. In this paper, we examine such systematic chromatic errors (SCEs) using photometry from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) as an example. We first define a natural magnitude system for DES and calculate the systematic errors on stellar magnitudes when the atmospheric transmission and instrumental throughput deviate from the natural system. We conclude that the SCEs caused by the change of airmass in each exposure, the change of the precipitable water vapor and aerosol in the atmosphere over time, and the non-uniformity of instrumental throughput over the focal plane can be up to 2% in some bandpasses. We then compare the calculated SCEs with the observed DES data. For the test sample data, we correct these errors using measurements of the atmospheric transmission and instrumental throughput from auxiliary calibration systems. The residual after correction is less than 0.3%. Moreover, we calculate such SCEs for Type Ia supernovae and elliptical galaxies and find that the chromatic errors for non-stellar objects are redshift-dependent and can be larger than those for

  4. Assessment of Systematic Chromatic Errors that Impact Sub-1% Photometric Precision in Large-Area Sky Surveys

    DOE PAGES

    Li, T. S.; DePoy, D. L.; Marshall, J. L.; ...

    2016-06-01

    Here, we report that meeting the science goals for many current and future ground-based optical large-area sky surveys requires that the calibrated broadband photometry is both stable in time and uniform over the sky to 1% precision or better. Past and current surveys have achieved photometric precision of 1%–2% by calibrating the survey's stellar photometry with repeated measurements of a large number of stars observed in multiple epochs. The calibration techniques employed by these surveys only consider the relative frame-by-frame photometric zeropoint offset and the focal plane position-dependent illumination corrections, which are independent of the source color. However, variations inmore » the wavelength dependence of the atmospheric transmission and the instrumental throughput induce source color-dependent systematic errors. These systematic errors must also be considered to achieve the most precise photometric measurements. In this paper, we examine such systematic chromatic errors (SCEs) using photometry from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) as an example. We first define a natural magnitude system for DES and calculate the systematic errors on stellar magnitudes when the atmospheric transmission and instrumental throughput deviate from the natural system. We conclude that the SCEs caused by the change of airmass in each exposure, the change of the precipitable water vapor and aerosol in the atmosphere over time, and the non-uniformity of instrumental throughput over the focal plane can be up to 2% in some bandpasses. We then compare the calculated SCEs with the observed DES data. For the test sample data, we correct these errors using measurements of the atmospheric transmission and instrumental throughput from auxiliary calibration systems. In conclusion, the residual after correction is less than 0.3%. Moreover, we calculate such SCEs for Type Ia supernovae and elliptical galaxies and find that the chromatic errors for non-stellar objects are redshift

  5. Assessment of Systematic Chromatic Errors that Impact Sub-1% Photometric Precision in Large-Area Sky Surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Li, T. S.

    2016-05-27

    Meeting the science goals for many current and future ground-based optical large-area sky surveys requires that the calibrated broadband photometry is stable in time and uniform over the sky to 1% precision or better. Past surveys have achieved photometric precision of 1-2% by calibrating the survey's stellar photometry with repeated measurements of a large number of stars observed in multiple epochs. The calibration techniques employed by these surveys only consider the relative frame-by-frame photometric zeropoint offset and the focal plane position-dependent illumination corrections, which are independent of the source color. However, variations in the wavelength dependence of the atmospheric transmission and the instrumental throughput induce source color-dependent systematic errors. These systematic errors must also be considered to achieve the most precise photometric measurements. In this paper, we examine such systematic chromatic errors using photometry from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) as an example. We define a natural magnitude system for DES and calculate the systematic errors on stellar magnitudes, when the atmospheric transmission and instrumental throughput deviate from the natural system. We conclude that the systematic chromatic errors caused by the change of airmass in each exposure, the change of the precipitable water vapor and aerosol in the atmosphere over time, and the non-uniformity of instrumental throughput over the focal plane, can be up to 2% in some bandpasses. We compare the calculated systematic chromatic errors with the observed DES data. For the test sample data, we correct these errors using measurements of the atmospheric transmission and instrumental throughput. The residual after correction is less than 0.3%. We also find that the errors for non-stellar objects are redshift-dependent and can be larger than those for stars at certain redshifts.

  6. Assessment of Systematic Chromatic Errors that Impact Sub-1% Photometric Precision in Large-Area Sky Surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Li, T. S.; DePoy, D. L.; Marshall, J. L.; Tucker, D.; Kessler, R.; Annis, J.; Bernstein, G. M.; Boada, S.; Burke, D. L.; Finley, D. A.; James, D. J.; Kent, S.; Lin, H.; Marriner, J.; Mondrik, N.; Nagasawa, D.; Rykoff, E. S.; Scolnic, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Capozzi, D.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; Costa, L. N. da; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Neilsen, E.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.

    2016-06-01

    Here, we report that meeting the science goals for many current and future ground-based optical large-area sky surveys requires that the calibrated broadband photometry is both stable in time and uniform over the sky to 1% precision or better. Past and current surveys have achieved photometric precision of 1%–2% by calibrating the survey's stellar photometry with repeated measurements of a large number of stars observed in multiple epochs. The calibration techniques employed by these surveys only consider the relative frame-by-frame photometric zeropoint offset and the focal plane position-dependent illumination corrections, which are independent of the source color. However, variations in the wavelength dependence of the atmospheric transmission and the instrumental throughput induce source color-dependent systematic errors. These systematic errors must also be considered to achieve the most precise photometric measurements. In this paper, we examine such systematic chromatic errors (SCEs) using photometry from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) as an example. We first define a natural magnitude system for DES and calculate the systematic errors on stellar magnitudes when the atmospheric transmission and instrumental throughput deviate from the natural system. We conclude that the SCEs caused by the change of airmass in each exposure, the change of the precipitable water vapor and aerosol in the atmosphere over time, and the non-uniformity of instrumental throughput over the focal plane can be up to 2% in some bandpasses. We then compare the calculated SCEs with the observed DES data. For the test sample data, we correct these errors using measurements of the atmospheric transmission and instrumental throughput from auxiliary calibration systems. In conclusion, the residual after correction is less than 0.3%. Moreover, we calculate such SCEs for Type Ia supernovae and elliptical galaxies and find that the chromatic errors for non-stellar objects are redshift

  7. NEW NEUTRINO MASS BOUNDS FROM SDSS-III DATA RELEASE 8 PHOTOMETRIC LUMINOUS GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    De Putter, Roland; Mena, Olga; Giusarma, Elena; Ho, Shirley; Seo, Hee-Jong; White, Martin; Ross, Nicholas P.; Cuesta, Antonio; Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Shelden, Alaina; Simmons, Audrey; Kirkby, David; Schneider, Donald P.; and others

    2012-12-10

    We present neutrino mass bounds using 900,000 luminous galaxies with photometric redshifts measured from Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Data Release 8. The galaxies have photometric redshifts between z = 0.45 and z = 0.65 and cover 10,000 deg{sup 2}, thus probing a volume of 3 h {sup -3} Gpc{sup 3} and enabling tight constraints to be derived on the amount of dark matter in the form of massive neutrinos. A new bound on the sum of neutrino masses {Sigma}m{sub {nu}} < 0.27 eV, at the 95% confidence level (CL), is obtained after combining our sample of galaxies, which we call ''CMASS'', with Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) seven-year cosmic microwave background data and the most recent measurement of the Hubble parameter from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This constraint is obtained with a conservative multipole range of 30 < l < 200 in order to minimize nonlinearities, and a free bias parameter in each of the four redshift bins. We study the impact of assuming this linear galaxy bias model using mock catalogs and find that this model causes a small ({approx}1{sigma}-1.5{sigma}) bias in {Omega}{sub DM} h {sup 2}. For this reason, we also quote neutrino bounds based on a conservative galaxy bias model containing additional, shot-noise-like free parameters. In this conservative case, the bounds are significantly weakened, e.g., {Sigma}m{sub {nu}} < 0.38 eV (95% CL) for WMAP+HST+CMASS (l{sub max} = 200). We also study the dependence of the neutrino bound on the multipole range (l{sub max} = 150 versus l{sub max} = 200) and on which combination of data sets is included as a prior. The addition of supernova and/or baryon acoustic oscillation data does not significantly improve the neutrino mass bound once the HST prior is included. A companion paper describes the construction of the angular power spectra in detail and derives constraints on a general cosmological model, including the dark energy equation of state w and the spatial curvature {Omega}{sub K

  8. New Neutrino Mass Bounds from SDSS-III Data Release 8 Photometric Luminous Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Putter, Roland; Mena, Olga; Giusarma, Elena; Ho, Shirley; Cuesta, Antonio; Seo, Hee-Jong; Ross, Ashley J.; White, Martin; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Kirkby, David; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Percival, Will J.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shelden, Alaina; Simmons, Audrey; Snedden, Stephanie

    2012-12-01

    We present neutrino mass bounds using 900,000 luminous galaxies with photometric redshifts measured from Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Data Release 8. The galaxies have photometric redshifts between z = 0.45 and z = 0.65 and cover 10,000 deg2, thus probing a volume of 3 h -3 Gpc3 and enabling tight constraints to be derived on the amount of dark matter in the form of massive neutrinos. A new bound on the sum of neutrino masses ∑m ν < 0.27 eV, at the 95% confidence level (CL), is obtained after combining our sample of galaxies, which we call "CMASS," with Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) seven-year cosmic microwave background data and the most recent measurement of the Hubble parameter from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This constraint is obtained with a conservative multipole range of 30 < l < 200 in order to minimize nonlinearities, and a free bias parameter in each of the four redshift bins. We study the impact of assuming this linear galaxy bias model using mock catalogs and find that this model causes a small (~1σ-1.5σ) bias in ΩDM h 2. For this reason, we also quote neutrino bounds based on a conservative galaxy bias model containing additional, shot-noise-like free parameters. In this conservative case, the bounds are significantly weakened, e.g., ∑m ν < 0.38 eV (95% CL) for WMAP+HST+CMASS (lmax = 200). We also study the dependence of the neutrino bound on the multipole range (lmax = 150 versus lmax = 200) and on which combination of data sets is included as a prior. The addition of supernova and/or baryon acoustic oscillation data does not significantly improve the neutrino mass bound once the HST prior is included. A companion paper describes the construction of the angular power spectra in detail and derives constraints on a general cosmological model, including the dark energy equation of state w and the spatial curvature Ω K , while a second companion paper presents a measurement of the scale of baryon acoustic oscillations from

  9. Photometric Stellar Variability in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafelski, M.; Ghez, A. M.; Hornstein, S. D.; Lu, J. R.; Morris, M.

    2006-12-01

    We report the results of a diffraction-limited, photometric variability study of the central 5'' × 5'' of the Galaxy conducted over the past 10 years using speckle imaging techniques on the W.M. Keck I 10 m telescope. Within our limiting magnitude of mK < 16 for maps made from a single night of data, we find a minimum of 25 variable stars out of 131 monitored stars. Among 46 stars brighter than mK < 14 which have roughly uniform photometric uncertainties, there are 16 variable stars. This suggests a minimum variable star frequency of 34%. We see no evidence of fares or dimming of the 7 stars that have known 3-dimensional orbits in our study, which greatly limits the possibility of a cold, geometrically-thin, inactive accretion disk around the supermassive black hole, Sgr A*. While large populations of binaries have been posited to exist in this region both to explain the presence of young stars in the vicinity of a black hole and because of the high stellar densities, only one eclipsing binary is identiffed. The only periodic source in our sample is the previously identiffed variable IRS 16SW (P = 19.448 ± 0.002 days). In contrast to recent results, our data show an asymmetric phased light curve with a much steeper fall-time than rise-time. IRS 29N shows variability on time scales of approx 5 years and has a known spectral type of WC9. This variation is likely due to episodic dust production, which may suggest that this source is a binary star system. Only 2 of the LBV candidates in our sample (16NW, 16SW) show variability and none of the 4 show the characteristic large increase or decrease in luminosity. However, our time baseline is too short to rule them out as LBVs. Our study has shown that photometric variability provides a useful handle on the unusual massive star population surrounding our Galaxy's supermassive black hole and its local environment.

  10. Asteroid models from the Lowell photometric database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ďurech, J.; Hanuš, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Vančo, R.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Information about shapes and spin states of individual asteroids is important for the study of the whole asteroid population. For asteroids from the main belt, most of the shape models available now have been reconstructed from disk-integrated photometry by the lightcurve inversion method. Aims: We want to significantly enlarge the current sample (~350) of available asteroid models. Methods: We use the lightcurve inversion method to derive new shape models and spin states of asteroids from the sparse-in-time photometry compiled in the Lowell Photometric Database. To speed up the time-consuming process of scanning the period parameter space through the use of convex shape models, we use the distributed computing project Asteroids@home, running on the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) platform. This way, the period-search interval is divided into hundreds of smaller intervals. These intervals are scanned separately by different volunteers and then joined together. We also use an alternative, faster, approach when searching the best-fit period by using a model of triaxial ellipsoid. By this, we can independently confirm periods found with convex models and also find rotation periods for some of those asteroids for which the convex-model approach gives too many solutions. Results: From the analysis of Lowell photometric data of the first 100 000 numbered asteroids, we derived 328 new models. This almost doubles the number of available models. We tested the reliability of our results by comparing models that were derived from purely Lowell data with those based on dense lightcurves, and we found that the rate of false-positive solutions is very low. We also present updated plots of the distribution of spin obliquities and pole ecliptic longitudes that confirm previous findings about a non-uniform distribution of spin axes. However, the models reconstructed from noisy sparse data are heavily biased towards more elongated bodies with high

  11. Development of a photometric system for continuous flow analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bansod, Baban K. S.; Singh, Anirudh K.; Chand, G.; Ganju, A. K.

    2003-01-01

    Most chemical analyses carried out in a clinical laboratory are colorimetric. An improved photometric system is described where a tungsten lamp is the light source, a photo-diode is the detector and a microcontroller 8051 is used for processing and displaying absorbances. The performance characteristics of the instrument are reported. The parameters investigated are photometric linearity, precision and instrumental drift. PMID:18924716

  12. Spectral clustering for optical confirmation and redshift estimation of X-ray selected galaxy cluster candidates in the SDSS Stripe 82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, E.; Takey, A.; Shoukry, A.

    2016-07-01

    We develop a galaxy cluster finding algorithm based on spectral clustering technique to identify optical counterparts and estimate optical redshifts for X-ray selected cluster candidates. As an application, we run our algorithm on a sample of X-ray cluster candidates selected from the third XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalog (3XMM-DR5) that are located in the Stripe 82 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Our method works on galaxies described in the color-magnitude feature space. We begin by examining 45 galaxy clusters with published spectroscopic redshifts in the range of 0.1-0.8 with a median of 0.36. As a result, we are able to identify their optical counterparts and estimate their photometric redshifts, which have a typical accuracy of 0.025 and agree with the published ones. Then, we investigate another 40 X-ray cluster candidates (from the same cluster survey) with no redshift information in the literature and found that 12 candidates are considered as galaxy clusters in the redshift range from 0.29 to 0.76 with a median of 0.57. These systems are newly discovered clusters in X-rays and optical data. Among them 7 clusters have spectroscopic redshifts for at least one member galaxy.

  13. Cosmological Constraints from the Angular Power Spectra of SDSS DR8 Photometric LRGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta-Vazquez, Antonio Jose; Ho, S.; Seo, H.; White, M.; Ross, A. J.; Saito, S.; Reid, B. A.; Padmanabhan, N.; Percival, W. J.; de Putter, R.; Schlegel, D. J.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Prada, F.; da Costa, L. A. N.; de Simoni, F.; Skibba, R. A.; Verde, L.; Viel, M.

    2012-01-01

    We derive cosmological constraints from the full shape of the angular power spectra of luminous red galaxies from the SDSS III DR8 imaging catalog. Our sample comprises an unprecedented dataset of almost one million galaxies over 10,000 deg2 in the redshift range 0.45Accurate redshift distributions are derived from a large number of spectroscopic redshifts measured by the SDSS III BOSS survey, largely reducing the uncertainties in the use of the imaging data for clustering analyses. We use this redshift distribution information to generate theory angular power spectra for different cosmologies and we compare them to the angular power spectra from the data, which is computed using an optimal quadratic estimator method. An adequate treatment of stellar contamination and systematics in the imaging data further reduces any possible bias in our results. We combine this dataset with CMB data from WMAP7 to find the best-fit cosmology using the known Markov-Chain MonteCarlo code CosmoMC. We test our fitting method against mock galaxy catalogs from cosmological simulations with known cosmology to show the robustness of our constraints. We discuss on the constraining power of this dataset to estimate cosmological parameters, and conclude that the imaging data by itself is able to cast encouraging results preceding the high quality spectroscopic measurement of the clustering of luminous red galaxies from BOSS.

  14. Comparing High-redshift Galaxy Dropouts in GOODS-S from SelfCal and MultiDrizzle Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Jennifer; Cooray, Asantha R.; Nayyeri, Hooshang

    2017-01-01

    A subset of the multi-wavelength CANDELS survey is utilized to compare results of high-redshift photometric dropout galaxies from two different image processing techniques in the GOODS-S region. The maps used are the publicly available CANDELS mosaics and SelfCal, which is a self-calibration method that removes anisotropy offsets that are introduced from combining frames taken at different times. The identified dropout sources for redshifts 4 and larger from each dataset are compared to Lyman-break galaxy catalogs. Preliminary results indicate a low match rate for sources between the SelfCal maps and published catalogs, which could be attributed to differing map depth and processing techniques.

  15. An absolute photometric system at 10 and 20 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, G. H.; Lebofsky, M. J.; Low, F. J.

    1985-01-01

    Two new direct calibrations at 10 and 20 microns are presented in which terrestrial flux standards are referred to infrared standard stars. These measurements give both good agreement and higher accuracy when compared with previous direct calibrations. As a result, the absolute calibrations at 10 and 20 microns have now been determined with accuracies of 3 and 8 percent, respectively. A variety of absolute calibrations based on extrapolation of stellar spectra from the visible to 10 microns are reviewed. Current atmospheric models of A-type stars underestimate their fluxes by about 10 percent at 10 microns, whereas models of solar-type stars agree well with the direct calibrations. The calibration at 20 microns can probably be determined to about 5 percent by extrapolation from the more accurate result at 10 microns. The photometric system at 10 and 20 microns is updated to reflect the new absolute calibration, to base its zero point directly on the colors of A0 stars, and to improve the accuracy in the comparison of the standard stars.

  16. Robust photometric stereo using structural light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tian-Qi; Cheng, Yue; Shen, Hui-Liang; Du, Xin

    2014-05-01

    We propose a robust photometric stereo method by using structural arrangement of light sources. In the arrangement, light sources are positioned on a planar grid and form a set of collinear combinations. The shadow pixels are detected by adaptive thresholding. The specular highlight and diffuse pixels are distinguished according to their intensity deviations of the collinear combinations, thanks to the special arrangement of light sources. The highlight detection problem is cast as a pattern classification problem and is solved using support vector machine classifiers. Considering the possible misclassification of highlight pixels, the ℓ1 regularization is further employed in normal map estimation. Experimental results on both synthetic and real-world scenes verify that the proposed method can robustly recover the surface normal maps in the case of heavy specular reflection and outperforms the state-of-the-art techniques.

  17. ASTEP South: a first photometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzet, N.; Guillot, T.; Mékarnia, D.; Szulágyi, J.; Abe, L.; Agabi, A.; Fanteï-Caujolle, Y.; Gonçalves, I.; Barbieri, M.; Schmider, F.-X.; Rivet, J.-P.; Bondoux, E.; Challita, Z.; Pouzenc, C.; Fressin, F.; Valbousquet, F.; Blazit, A.; Bonhomme, S.; Daban, J.-B.; Gouvret, C.; Bayliss, D.; Zhou, G.

    2013-01-01

    The ASTEP project aims at detecting and characterizing transiting planets from Dome C, Antarctica, and qualifying this site for photometry in the visible. The first phase of the project, ASTEP South, is a fixed 10 cm diameter instrument pointing continuously towards the celestial South Pole. Observations were made almost continuously during 4 winters, from 2008 to 2011. The point-to-point RMS of 1-day photometric lightcurves can be explained by a combination of expected statistical noises, dominated by the photon noise up to magnitude 14. This RMS is large, from 2.5 mmag at R = 8 to 6% at R = 14, because of the small size of ASTEP South and the short exposure time (30 s). Statistical noises should be considerably reduced using the large amount of collected data. A 9.9-day period eclipsing binary is detected, with a magnitude R = 9.85. The 2-season lightcurve folded in phase and binned into 1,000 points has a RMS of 1.09 mmag, for an expected photon noise of 0.29 mmag. The use of the 4 seasons of data with a better detrending algorithm should yield a sub-millimagnitude precision for this folded lightcurve. Radial velocity follow-up observations reveal a F-M binary system. The detection of this 9.9-day period system with a small instrument such as ASTEP South and the precision of the folded lightcurve show the quality of Dome C for continuous photometric observations, and its potential for the detection of planets with orbital periods longer than those usually detected from the ground.

  18. Redshift distributions of galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification shear catalogue and implications for weak lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnett, C.; Troxel, M. A.; Hartley, W.; Amara, A.; Leistedt, B.; Becker, M. R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bridle, S. L.; Bruderer, C.; Busha, M. T.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Childress, M. J.; Castander, F. J.; Chang, C.; Crocce, M.; Davis, T. M.; Eifler, T. F.; Frieman, J.; Gangkofner, C.; Gaztanaga, E.; Glazebrook, K.; Gruen, D.; Kacprzak, T.; King, A.; Kwan, J.; Lahav, O.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Lin, H.; MacCrann, N.; Miquel, R.; O'Neill, C. R.; Palmese, A.; Peiris, H. V.; Refregier, A.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sadeh, I.; Sánchez, C.; Sheldon, E.; Uddin, S.; Wechsler, R. H.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Armstrong, R.; Banerji, M.; Bauer, A. H.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Fausti Neto, A.; Fernandez, E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kim, A. G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Neilsen, E.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Dark Energy Survey Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    We present photometric redshift estimates for galaxies used in the weak lensing analysis of the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification (DES SV) data. Four model- or machine learning-based photometric redshift methods—annz2, bpz calibrated against BCC-Ufig simulations, skynet, and tpz—are analyzed. For training, calibration, and testing of these methods, we construct a catalogue of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies matched against DES SV data. The performance of the methods is evaluated against the matched spectroscopic catalogue, focusing on metrics relevant for weak lensing analyses, with additional validation against COSMOS photo-z 's. From the galaxies in the DES SV shear catalogue, which have mean redshift 0.72 ±0.01 over the range 0.3 redshift distributions through to their impact on cosmological parameters estimated with cosmic shear, and find that they cause shifts in the value of σ8 of approximately 3%. This shift is within the one sigma statistical errors on σ8 for the DES SV shear catalogue. We further study the potential impact of systematic differences on the critical surface density, Σcrit , finding levels of bias safely less than the statistical power of DES SV data. We recommend a final Gaussian prior for the photo-z bias in the mean of n (z ) of width 0.05 for each of the three tomographic bins, and show that this is a sufficient bias model for the corresponding cosmology analysis.

  19. Redshift distributions of galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification shear catalogue and implications for weak lensing

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnett, C.; Troxel, M. A.; Hartley, W.; Amara, A.; Leistedt, B.; Becker, M. R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bridle, S. L.; Bruderer, C.; Busha, M. T.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Childress, M. J.; Castander, F. J.; Chang, C.; Crocce, M.; Davis, T. M.; Eifler, T. F.; Frieman, J.; Gangkofner, C.; Gaztanaga, E.; Glazebrook, K.; Gruen, D.; Kacprzak, T.; King, A.; Kwan, J.; Lahav, O.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Lin, H.; MacCrann, N.; Miquel, R.; O’Neill, C. R.; Palmese, A.; Peiris, H. V.; Refregier, A.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sadeh, I.; Sánchez, C.; Sheldon, E.; Uddin, S.; Wechsler, R. H.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Armstrong, R.; Banerji, M.; Bauer, A. H.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Fausti Neto, A.; Fernandez, E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kim, A. G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Neilsen, E.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.

    2016-08-30

    Here we present photometric redshift estimates for galaxies used in the weak lensing analysis of the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification (DES SV) data. Four model- or machine learning-based photometric redshift methods—annz2, bpz calibrated against BCC-Ufig simulations, skynet, and tpz—are analyzed. For training, calibration, and testing of these methods, we construct a catalogue of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies matched against DES SV data. The performance of the methods is evaluated against the matched spectroscopic catalogue, focusing on metrics relevant for weak lensing analyses, with additional validation against COSMOS photo-z’s. From the galaxies in the DES SV shear catalogue, which have mean redshift 0.72±0.01 over the range 0.3redshift distributions through to their impact on cosmological parameters estimated with cosmic shear, and find that they cause shifts in the value of σ8 of approximately 3%. This shift is within the one sigma statistical errors on σ8 for the DES SV shear catalogue. We further study the potential impact of systematic differences on the critical surface density, Σcrit, finding levels of bias safely less than the statistical power of DES SV data. In conclusion, we recommend a final Gaussian prior for the photo-z bias in the mean of n(z) of width 0.05 for each of the three tomographic bins, and show that this is a sufficient bias model for the corresponding cosmology analysis.

  20. Probing the accelerating Universe with redshift-space distortions in VIPERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, Sylvain

    2016-10-01

    We present the first measurement of the growth rate of structure at z=0.8. It has been obtained from the redshift-space distortions observed in the galaxy clustering pattern in the VIMOS Public Redshift survey (VIPERS) first data release. VIPERS is a large galaxy redshift survey probing the large-scale structure at 0.5 < z < 1.2 with an unprecedented accuracy. This measurement represents a new reference in the distant Universe, which has been poorly explored until now. We obtain σ8 = 0.47 +/- 0.08 at z = 0.8 that is consistent with the predictions of standard cosmological models based on Einstein gravity. This measurement alone is however not accurate enough to allow the detection of possible deviations from standard gravity.

  1. The accelerated build-up of the red sequence in high-redshift galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerulo, P.; Couch, W. J.; Lidman, C.; Demarco, R.; Huertas-Company, M.; Mei, S.; Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Barrientos, L. F.; Muñoz, R. P.

    2016-04-01

    We analyse the evolution of the red sequence in a sample of galaxy clusters at redshifts 0.8 < z < 1.5 taken from the HAWK-I Cluster Survey (HCS). The comparison with the low-redshift (0.04 < z < 0.08) sample of the WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey (WINGS) and other literature results shows that the slope and intrinsic scatter of the cluster red sequence have undergone little evolution since z = 1.5. We find that the luminous-to-faint ratio and the slope of the faint end of the luminosity distribution of the HCS red sequence are consistent with those measured in WINGS, implying that there is no deficit of red galaxies at magnitudes fainter than M_V^{ast } at high redshifts. We find that the most massive HCS clusters host a population of bright red sequence galaxies at MV < -22.0 mag, which are not observed in low-mass clusters. Interestingly, we also note the presence of a population of very bright (MV < -23.0 mag) and massive (log (M*/M⊙) > 11.5) red sequence galaxies in the WINGS clusters, which do not include only the brightest cluster galaxies and which are not present in the HCS clusters, suggesting that they formed at epochs later than z = 0.8. The comparison with the luminosity distribution of a sample of passive red sequence galaxies drawn from the COSMOS/UltraVISTA field in the photometric redshift range 0.8 < zphot < 1.5 shows that the red sequence in clusters is more developed at the faint end, suggesting that halo mass plays an important role in setting the time-scales for the build-up of the red sequence.

  2. Bulgeless Galaxies at Intermediate Redshift: Sample Selection, Color Properties, and the Existence of Powerful Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzocchi, Luca; Filho, Mercedes E.; Leonardo, Elvira; Grossi, Marco; Griffith, Roger L.; Afonso, José; Fernandes, Cristina; Retrê, João; Anton, Sonia; Bell, Eric F.; Brinchmann, Jarle; Henriques, Bruno; Lobo, Catarina; Messias, Hugo

    2014-02-01

    We present a catalog of bulgeless galaxies, which includes 19,225 objects selected in four of the deepest, largest multi-wavelength data sets available—COSMOS, AEGIS, GEMS, and GOODS—at intermediate redshift (0.4 <= z <= 1.0). The morphological classification was provided by the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog (ACS-GC), which used publicly available data obtained with the ACS instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope. Rest-frame photometric quantities were derived using kcorrect. We analyze the properties of the sample and the evolution of pure-disk systems with redshift. Very massive [log (M sstarf/M ⊙) > 10.5] bulgeless galaxies contribute to ~30% of the total galaxy population number density at z >= 0.7, but their number density drops substantially with decreasing redshift. We show that only a negligible fraction of pure disks appear to be quiescent systems, and red sequence bulgeless galaxies show indications of dust-obscured star formation. X-ray catalogs were used to search for X-ray emission within our sample. After visual inspection and detailed parametric morphological fitting we identify 30 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that reside in galaxies without a classical bulge. The finding of such peculiar objects at intermediate redshift shows that while AGN growth in merger-free systems is a rare event (0.2% AGN hosts in this sample of bulgeless galaxies), it can indeed happen relatively early in the history of the universe.

  3. Herschel-ATLAS: Dust Temperature and Redshift Distribution of SPIRE and PACS Detected Sources Using Submillimetre Colours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amblard, A.; Cooray, Asantha; Serra, P.; Temi, P.; Barton, E.; Negrello, M.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Baldry, I. K.; Bamford, S.; Blain, A.; Bock, J.; Bonfield, D.; Burgarella, D.; Buttiglione, S.; Cameron, E.; Cava, A.; Clements, D.; Croom, S.; Dariush, A.; deZotti, G.; Driver, S.; Dunlop, J.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.

    2010-01-01

    We present colour-colour diagrams of detected sources in the Herschel-ATLAS Science Demonstration Field from 100 to 500/microns using both PACS and SPIRE. We fit isothermal modified-blackbody spectral energy distribution (SED) models in order to extract the dust temperature of sources with counterparts in GAMA or SDSS with either a spectroscopic or a photometric redshift. For a subsample of 331 sources detected in at least three FIR bands with significance greater than 30 sigma, we find an average dust temperature of (28 plus or minus 8)K. For sources with no known redshifts, we populate the colour-colour diagram with a large number of SEDs generated with a broad range of dust temperatures and emissivity parameters and compare to colours of observed sources to establish the redshift distribution of those samples. For another subsample of 1686 sources with fluxes above 35 mJy at 350 microns and detected at 250 and 500 microns with a significance greater than 3sigma, we find an average redshift of 2.2 plus or minus 0.6.

  4. Photometric AGN reverberation mapping - an efficient tool for BLR sizes, black hole masses, and host-subtracted AGN luminosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, M.; Chini, R.; Ramolla, M.; Pozo Nuñez, F.; Westhues, C.; Watermann, R.; Hoffmeister, V.; Murphy, M.

    2011-11-01

    Photometric reverberation mapping employs a wide band pass to measure the AGN continuum variations and a suitable narrow band to trace the echo of an emission line in the broad line region (BLR). The narrow band catches both the emission line and the underlying continuum, and one needs to extract the pure emission line light curve. We performed a test on two local AGNs, PG0003+199 and Ark120, by observing well-sampled broad- (B, V) and narrow-band light curves with the robotic 15 cm telescope VYSOS-6 on Cerro Armazones, Chile. We find that, as long as the emission line contributes 50% to the band pass, the pure emission line light curve can be reconstructed from photometric monitoring data so that the time lag τ can be measured. For both objects the lags are consistent with spectroscopic reverberation results. We calculated virial black hole masses in agreement with literature values, by combining the BLR size RBLR (τ) from photometric monitoring with the velocity dispersion of a single contemporaneous spectrum. Applying the flux variation gradient method, we estimate the host galaxy contribution in the apertures used and the host-subtracted restframe 5100 Å luminosity LAGN. Our LAGN differs significantly from previous estimates, placing both sources ~50% closer to the RBLR - LAGN relation. This suggests that the scatter in the current RBLR - LAGN relation is largely caused by uncertainties in RBLR due to undersampled light curves and by uncertainties in the host-subtracted AGN luminosities inferred so far. If the scatter can be reduced, then two quasar samples matching in RBLR should also match in intrinsic LAGN, independent of redshift, thus offering the prospect of probing cosmological models. Photometric reverberation mapping opens the door to efficiently measuring hundreds of BLR sizes and host-subtracted AGN luminosities even with small telescopes, but also routinely with upcoming large survey telescopes like the LSST.

  5. Astronomy phenomenological analysis of redshift-distance power laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segal, I. E.; Nicoll, J. F.

    The traditional astronomical literature accepts the linear redshift-distance law on the basis of its internal consistency with accepted models of the history of the universe more than on nontrivial clearly objective tests of the linear law for directly observed quantities. The reluctance to depend on such tests rested historically on the assumed large variation in the intrinsic luminosity of extragalactic objects and a distrust of curve-fitting and statistics. But such tests are eminently feasible on the basis of modern objectively specified samples and up-to-date statistical methodology. This paper compares red-shift distance relations of the form z=k r, for real values of p. Data from the visible, infrared, radio, and X-ray bands are examined. The deviation of predicted and observed apparent magnitudes, (a), and the difference between observed and predicated slope of the magnitude-log (z) plots, (b), are used to compare values of p. In summary, the p=1 values (corresponding to standard linear law) are more deviant than any other value of p, 1redshift sample. Bright subsamples and a morphologically homogeneous subsample of elliptic galaxies are also tested with similar results. In contrast, the predications for p=2 are reasonably accurate and close to optimal among all values of p explored. The p=2 case is predicted by the chronometric cosmology and in agreement with the independent analysis of Troitskii.

  6. Infrared-faint radio sources remain undetected at far-infrared wavelengths. Deep photometric observations using the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, A.; Norris, R. P.; Middelberg, E.; Spitler, L. R.; Leipski, C.; Parker, Q. A.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Showing 1.4 GHz flux densities in the range of a few to a few tens of mJy, infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are a type of galaxy characterised by faint or absent near-infrared counterparts and consequently extreme radio-to-infrared flux density ratios up to several thousand. Recent studies showed that IFRS are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at redshifts ≳2, potentially linked to high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs). Aims: This work explores the far-infrared emission of IFRS, providing crucial information on the star forming and AGN activity of IFRS. Furthermore, the data enable examining the putative relationship between IFRS and HzRGs and testing whether IFRS are more distant or fainter siblings of these massive galaxies. Methods: A sample of six IFRS was observed with the Herschel Space Observatory between 100 μm and 500 μm. Using these results, we constrained the nature of IFRS by modelling their broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED). Furthermore, we set an upper limit on their infrared SED and decomposed their emission into contributions from an AGN and from star forming activity. Results: All six observed IFRS were undetected in all five Herschel far-infrared channels (stacking limits: σ = 0.74 mJy at 100 μm, σ = 3.45 mJy at 500 μm). Based on our SED modelling, we ruled out the following objects to explain the photometric characteristics of IFRS: (a) known radio-loud quasars and compact steep-spectrum sources at any redshift; (b) starburst galaxies with and without an AGN and Seyfert galaxies at any redshift, even if the templates were modified; and (c) known HzRGs at z ≲ 10.5. We find that the IFRS analysed in this work can only be explained by objects that fulfil the selection criteria of HzRGs. More precisely, IFRS could be (a) known HzRGs at very high redshifts (z ≳ 10.5); (b) low-luminosity siblings of HzRGs with additional dust obscuration at lower redshifts; (c) scaled or unscaled versions of Cygnus A at any

  7. Comparison of Plasma-Redshift Cosmology and Big-Bang Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brynjolfsson, Ari

    2009-05-01

    Plasma redshift is derived theoretically from conventional axioms of physics by using more accurate methods than those conventionally used. The main difference is the proper inclusion of the dielectric constant. The force acting on the electron is proportional to E=D/ɛ and not D as is conventionally surmised. This correction is not important in ordinary laboratory plasmas; but in the hot sparse plasmas of the intergalactic space, it explains the gradual energy loss (the cosmological redshift) of photons. This energy loss of photons is transferred to the plasma and makes it very hot. The plasma redshift explains long range of phenomena, including the intrinsic redshift of Sun, stars, galaxies and quasars, and the cosmological redshift. It explains also the beautiful black body spectrum of the CMB, and it predicts the observed XRB, and much more. There is no need for Big Bang, Inflation, Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Black Holes and much more. The universe is quasi-static and can renew itself forever. There is no cosmic time dilation. In intergalactic space the average temperature is 2.7.10^6 K, and the average electron density (Ne)avg= 2 .10-4 cm-3.

  8. [A novel method to determine the redshifts of active galaxies based on wavelet transform].

    PubMed

    Tu, Liang-Ping; Luo, A-Li; Jiang, Bin; Wei, Peng; Zhao, Yong-Heng; Liu, Rong

    2012-10-01

    Automatically determining redshifts of galaxies is very important for astronomical research on large samples, such as large-scale structure of cosmological significance. Galaxies are generally divided into normal galaxies and active galaxies, and the spectra of active galaxies mostly have more obvious emission lines. In the present paper, the authors present a novel method to determine spectral redshifts of active galaxies rapidly based on wavelet transformation mainly, and it does not need to extract line information accurately. This method includes the following steps: Firstly, we denoised a spectrum to be processed; Secondly, the low-frequency spectrum was extracted based on wavelet transform, and then we could get the residual spectrum through the denoised spectrum subtracting the low-frequency spectrum; Thirdly, the authors calculated the standard deviation of the residual spectrum and determined a threshold value T, then retained the wavelength set whose corresponding flux was greater than T; Fourthly, according to the wavelength form of all the standard lines, we calculated all the candidate redshifts; Finally, utilizing the density estimation method based on Parzen window, we determined the redshift point with maximum density, and the average value of its neighborhood would be the final redshift of this spectrum. The experiments on simulated data and real data from SDSS-DR7 show that this method is robust and its correct rate is encouraging. And it can be expected to be applied in the project of LAMOST.

  9. The first photometric study of semi-detached eclipsing binary V504 Cyg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarnia, R.; Shamsollahi, H.; Jahan, A.; Ebadi, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze photometry of V504 Cyg semi-detached binary system. For this purpose, after taking the photometric data, primary and secondary minimum and new epoch were calculated. The period of system is found to be 0.3516916 day. Analysis of light curve was performed by PHOEBE software which uses last version of Wilson-Devinney code. 3D model of the system is worked out using Binary Maker software. The O'Connell effect in the light curve is observed and an accurate model of this system is presented by introducing four spots on the components.

  10. Rapid photometric determination of phosphorus in iron ores and related materials as phosphomolybdenum-blue.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, O P; Gmitro, M

    1984-04-01

    A rapid, simple and accurate method for determining phosphorus photometrically in iron ores and related materials, obviating the use of perchloric acid, is described. The sample is fused with sodium peroxide in a zirconium crucible and the melt dissolved in hydrochloric acid. The molybdenum-blue complex is developed by the addition of ammonium molybdate and hydrazine sulphate and the absorbance is measured at 725 nm. The range of the method is from 0.005 to 1.0% P. A batch of 6 samples can be analysed in about 2 hr.

  11. Gemini planet imager observational calibration XII: photometric calibration in the polarimetry mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Li-Wei; Bruzzone, Sebastian; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Wang, Jason J.; Arriaga, Pauline; Metchev, Stanimir; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Perrin, Marshall D.

    2016-08-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a high-contrast instrument specially designed for direct imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanets and debris disks. GPI can also operate as a dual-channel integral field polarimeter. The instrument primarily operates in a coronagraphic mode which poses an obstacle for traditional photometric calibrations since the majority of on-axis starlight is blocked. To enable accurate photometry relative to the occulted central star, a diffractive grid in a pupil plane is used to create a set of faint copies, named satellite spots, of the occulted star at specified locations and relative intensities in the field of view. We describe the method we developed to perform the photometric calibration of coronagraphic observations in polarimetry mode using these fiducial satellite spots. With the currently available data, we constrain the calibration uncertainty to be <13%, but the actual calibration uncertainty is likely to be lower. We develop the associated calibration scripts in the GPI Data Reduction Pipeline, which is available to the public. For testing, we use it to photometrically calibrate the HD 19467 B and β Pic b data sets taken in the H-band polarimetry mode. We measure the calibrated flux of HD 19467 B and β Pic b to be 0:078+/-0:011 mJy and 4:87+/-0:73 mJy, both agreeing with other measurements found in the literature. Finally, we explore an alternative method which performs the calibration by scaling the photometry in polarimetry mode to the photometrically calibrated response in spectroscopy mode. By comparing the reduced observations in raw units, we find that observations in polarimetry mode are 1:03 0:01 brighter than those in spectroscopy mode.

  12. Dusty Galaxies at the Highest Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, David L.; Greenslade, Josh; Riechers, Dominik A.; Wardlow, Julie; Pérez-Fournon, Ismael

    The use of red colour as the basis for selecting candidate high redshift dusty galaxies from surveys made with Herschel has proved highly successful. The highest redshift such object, HFLS3, lies at z = 6.34 and numerous other sources have been found. Spectroscopic followup confirms that most of these lie at z > 4. These sources are found in such numbers that they represent a challenge to current models of galaxy evolution. We also examine the prospects for finding dusty galaxies at still higher redshifts. These would not appear in the SPIRE surveys from Herschel but would be detected in longer wavelength, submm, surveys. Several such `SPIRE-dropouts' have been found and are now subject to followup observations.

  13. SCUBA Observations of High Redshift Radio Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Reuland, M; Rottgering, H; van Breugel, W

    2003-03-11

    High redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs) are key targets for studies of the formation and evolution of massive galaxies.The role of dust in these processes is uncertain. We have therefore observed the dust continuum emission from a sample of z > 3 radio galaxies with the SCUBA bolometer array. We confirm and strengthen the result found by Archibald et al. (1), that HzRGs are massive starforming systems and that submillimeter detection rate appears to be primarily a strong function of redshift. We also observed HzRG-candidates that have so far eluded spectroscopic redshift determination. Four of these have been detected, and provide evidence that they may be extremely obscured radio galaxies, possibly in an early stage of their evolution.

  14. Photometric normalization of LROC WAC images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Denevi, B.; Robinson, M. S.; Hapke, B. W.; McEwen, A. S.; LROC Science Team

    2010-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) acquires near global coverage on a monthly basis. The WAC is a push frame sensor with a 90° field of view (FOV) in BW mode and 60° FOV in 7-color mode (320 nm to 689 nm). WAC images are acquired during each orbit in 10° latitude segments with cross track coverage of ~50 km. Before mosaicking, WAC images are radiometrically calibrated to remove instrumental artifacts and to convert at sensor radiance to I/F. Images are also photometrically normalized to common viewing and illumination angles (30° phase), a challenge due to the wide angle nature of the WAC where large differences in phase angle are observed in a single image line (±30°). During a single month the equatorial incidence angle drifts about 28° and over the course of ~1 year the lighting completes a 360° cycle. The light scattering properties of the lunar surface depend on incidence(i), emission(e), and phase(p) angles as well as soil properties such as single-scattering albedo and roughness that vary with terrain type and state of maturity [1]. We first tested a Lommel-Seeliger Correction (LSC) [cos(i)/(cos(i) + cos(e))] [2] with a phase function defined by an exponential decay plus 4th order polynomial term [3] which did not provide an adequate solution. Next we employed a LSC with an exponential 2nd order decay phase correction that was an improvement, but still exhibited unacceptable frame-to-frame residuals. In both cases we fitted the LSC I/F vs. phase angle to derive the phase corrections. To date, the best results are with a lunar-lambert function [4] with exponential 2nd order decay phase correction (LLEXP2) [(A1exp(B1p)+A2exp(B2p)+A3) * cos(i)/(cos(e) + cos(i)) + B3cos(i)]. We derived the parameters for the LLEXP2 from repeat imaging of a small region and then corrected that region with excellent results. When this correction was applied to the whole Moon the results were less than optimal - no surprise given the

  15. MAPPING GROWTH AND GRAVITY WITH ROBUST REDSHIFT SPACE DISTORTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, Juliana; Lewis, Geraint F.; Linder, Eric V.

    2012-04-01

    Redshift space distortions (RSDs) caused by galaxy peculiar velocities provide a window onto the growth rate of large-scale structure and a method for testing general relativity. We investigate through a comparison of N-body simulations to various extensions of perturbation theory beyond the linear regime, the robustness of cosmological parameter extraction, including the gravitational growth index {gamma}. We find that the Kaiser formula and some perturbation theory approaches bias the growth rate by 1{sigma} or more relative to the fiducial at scales as large as k > 0.07 h Mpc{sup -1}. This bias propagates to estimates of the gravitational growth index as well as {Omega}{sub m} and the equation-of-state parameter and presents a significant challenge to modeling RSDs. We also determine an accurate fitting function for a combination of line-of-sight damping and higher order angular dependence that allows robust modeling of the redshift space power spectrum to substantially higher k.

  16. Developing the Optimal Technique for Cluster Photometric Redshift Determination: An Essential Ingredient in Measuring Dark Energy with Cluster Abundances

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Stubbs

    2009-04-16

    We received funding to fabricate and characterize dichroic beamsplitters for optical filtering applications in astronomical instrumentation. A competitive bidding process led to the selection of a vendor who has successfully fabricated subcomponents that meet our optical specifications. The final assembly of the subcomponents into a complete optical module is under way, and we expect final delivery of the part to our laboratory in May 2009.

  17. REDSHIFTS, SAMPLE PURITY, AND BCG POSITIONS FOR THE GALAXY CLUSTER CATALOG FROM THE FIRST 720 SQUARE DEGREES OF THE SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.; Zenteno, A.; Desai, S.; Bazin, G.; Stalder, B.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bayliss, M.; Bleem, L. E.; Benson, B. A.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Aird, K. A.; Armstrong, R.; Bertin, E.; Brodwin, M.; Cho, H. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; De Haan, T.; and others

    2012-12-10

    We present the results of the ground- and space-based optical and near-infrared (NIR) follow-up of 224 galaxy cluster candidates detected with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in the 720 deg{sup 2} of the South Pole Telescope (SPT) survey completed in the 2008 and 2009 observing seasons. We use the optical/NIR data to establish whether each candidate is associated with an overdensity of galaxies and to estimate the cluster redshift. Most photometric redshifts are derived through a combination of three different cluster redshift estimators using red-sequence galaxies, resulting in an accuracy of {Delta}z/(1 + z) = 0.017, determined through comparison with a subsample of 57 clusters for which we have spectroscopic redshifts. We successfully measure redshifts for 158 systems and present redshift lower limits for the remaining candidates. The redshift distribution of the confirmed clusters extends to z = 1.35 with a median of z{sub med} = 0.57. Approximately 18% of the sample with measured redshifts lies at z > 0.8. We estimate a lower limit to the purity of this SPT SZ-selected sample by assuming that all unconfirmed clusters are noise fluctuations in the SPT data. We show that the cumulative purity at detection significance {xi} > 5({xi} > 4.5) is {>=}95% ({>=}70%). We present the red brightest cluster galaxy (rBCG) positions for the sample and examine the offsets between the SPT candidate position and the rBCG. The radial distribution of offsets is similar to that seen in X-ray-selected cluster samples, providing no evidence that SZ-selected cluster samples include a different fraction of recent mergers from X-ray-selected cluster samples.

  18. Stars and gas in high redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettini, Max

    Recent advances in instrumentation and observing techniques have made it possible to begin to study in detail the stellar populations and the interstellar media of galaxies at redshift z=3, when the universe was still in its "teen years". In keeping with the theme of this conference, I show how our knowledge of local star-forming regions can be applied directly to these distant galaxies to deduce their ages, metallicities, initial mass function, and masses. I also discuss areas where current limitations in stellar astrophysics have a direct bearing on the interpretation of the data being gathered, at an ever increasing rate, on the high redshift universe.

  19. GLAST observation of high-redshift GRBs

    SciTech Connect

    Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Calura, Francesco; Matteucci, Francesca; Omodei, Nicola

    2007-07-12

    We compare predicted Type Ib/c supernova (SNIb/c) rates with the observed long-duration Gamma-Ray-Burst (GRB) rates both locally and as a function of redshift, by assuming different star formation histories in galaxies of different morphological types. Due to the high star formation in spheroids at high redshift, we predict a large number of GRBs beyond z > 7. Moreover, based on our studies and on the current LAT performance, an estimate of the detection possibility of this burst population is presented.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Redshifts of ABCG209 galaxies (Mercurio+, 2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercurio, A.; Girardi, M.; Boschin, W.; Merluzzi, P.; Busarello, G.

    2003-03-01

    We study the internal dynamics of the rich galaxy cluster ABGC 209 on the basis of new spectroscopic and photometric data. The distribution in redshift shows that ABCG 209 is a well isolated peak of 112 detected member galaxies at z=0.209, characterised by a high value of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion, {sigma}v=1250-1400km/s, on the whole observed area (1h-1Mpc from the cluster center), that leads to a virial mass of M=1.6-2.2x1015h-1M{sun} within the virial radius, assuming the dynamical equilibrium. The data were collected at the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) with the ESO Multi Mode Instrument (EMMI) in October 2001. (1 data file).

  1. KECK SPECTROSCOPY OF FAINT 3 < z < 8 LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES: EVIDENCE FOR A DECLINING FRACTION OF EMISSION LINE SOURCES IN THE REDSHIFT RANGE 6 < z < 8

    SciTech Connect

    Schenker, Matthew A.; Ellis, Richard S.; Robertson, Brant E.; Stark, Daniel P.; Dunlop, James S.; McLure, Ross J.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Richard, Johan

    2012-01-10

    Using deep Keck spectroscopy of Lyman break galaxies selected from infrared imaging data taken with the Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we present new evidence for a reversal in the redshift-dependent fraction of star-forming galaxies with detectable Lyman alpha (Ly{alpha}) emission in the redshift range 6.3 < z < 8.8. Our earlier surveys with the DEIMOS spectrograph demonstrated a significant increase with redshift in the fraction of line emitting galaxies over the interval 4 < z < 6, particularly for intrinsically faint systems which dominate the luminosity density. Using the longer wavelength sensitivities of Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and NIRSPEC, we have targeted 19 Lyman break galaxies selected using recent WFC3/IR data whose photometric redshifts are in the range 6.3 < z < 8.8 and which span a wide range of intrinsic luminosities. Our spectroscopic exposures typically reach a 5{sigma} sensitivity of <50 A for the rest-frame equivalent width (EW) of Ly{alpha} emission. Despite the high fraction of emitters seen only a few hundred million years later, we find only two convincing and one possible line emitter in our more distant sample. Combining with published data on a further seven sources obtained using FORS2 on the ESO Very Large Telescope, and assuming continuity in the trends found at lower redshift, we discuss the significance of this apparent reversal in the redshift-dependent Ly{alpha} fraction in the context of our range in continuum luminosity. Assuming all the targeted sources are at their photometric redshift and our assumptions about the Ly{alpha} EW distribution are correct, we would expect to find so few emitters in less than 1% of the realizations drawn from our lower redshift samples. Our new results provide further support for the suggestion that, at the redshifts now being probed spectroscopically, we are entering the era where the intergalactic medium is partially neutral. With the arrival of more

  2. Analytic model for the bispectrum of galaxies in redshift space

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Robert E.; Sheth, Ravi K.; Scoccimarro, Roman

    2008-07-15

    We develop an analytic theory for the redshift space bispectrum of dark matter, haloes, and galaxies. This is done within the context of the halo model of structure formation, as this allows for the self-consistent inclusion of linear and nonlinear redshift-space distortions and also for the nonlinearity of the halo bias. The model is applicable over a wide range of scales: on the largest scales the predictions reduce to those of the standard perturbation theory (PT); on smaller scales they are determined primarily by the nonlinear virial velocities of galaxies within haloes, and this gives rise to the U-shaped anisotropy in the reduced bispectrum--a finger print of the Finger-Of-God distortions. We then confront the predictions with measurements of the redshift-space bispectrum of dark matter from an ensemble of numerical simulations. On very large scales, k=0.05h Mpc{sup -1}, we find reasonably good agreement between our halo model, PT and the data, to within the errors. On smaller scales, k=0.1h Mpc{sup -1}, the measured bispectra differ from the PT at the level of {approx}10%-20%, especially for colinear triangle configurations. The halo model predictions improve over PT, but are accurate to no better than 10%. On smaller scales k=0.5-1.0h Mpc{sup -1}, our model provides a significant improvement over PT, which breaks down. This implies that studies which use the lowest order PT to extract galaxy bias information are not robust on scales k > or approx. 0.1h Mpc{sup -1}. The analytic and simulation results also indicate that there is no observable scale for which the configuration dependence of the reduced bispectrum is constant--hierarchical models for the higher-order correlation functions in redshift space are unlikely to be useful. It is hoped that our model will facilitate extraction of information from large-scale structure surveys of the Universe, because different galaxy populations are naturally included into our description.

  3. Photometric stability of the lunar surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, H.H.

    1997-01-01

    The rate at which cratering events currently occur on the Moon is considered in light of their influence on the use of the Moon as a radiometric standard. The radiometric effect of small impact events is determined empirically from the study of Clementine images. Events that would change the integral brightness of the moon by 1% are expected once per 1.4 Gyr. Events that cause a 1% shift in one pixel for low Earth-orbiting instruments with a 1-km nadir field of view are expected approximately once each 43 Myr. Events discernible at 1% radiometric resolution with a 5 arc-sec telescope resolution correspond to crater diameters of approximately 210 m and are expected once every 200 years. These rates are uncertain by a factor of two. For a fixed illumination and observation geometry, the Moon can be considered photometrically stable to 1 ?? 10-8per annum for irradiance, and 1 ?? 10-7per annum for radiance at a resolution common for spacecraft imaging instruments, exceeding reasonable instrument goals by six orders of magnitude. ?? 1997 Academic Press.

  4. Photometric functions for photoclinometry and other applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    Least-squared fits to the brightness profiles across a disk or "limb darkening" described by Hapke's photometric function are found for the simpler Minnaert and lunar-Lambert functions. The simpler functions are needed to reduce the number of unknown parameters in photoclinometry, especially to distinguish the brightness variations of the surface materials from that due to the resolved topography. The limb darkening varies with the Hapke parameters for macroscopic roughness (??), the single-scattering albedo (w), and the asymmetry factor of the particle phase function (g). Both of the simpler functions generally provide good matches to the limb darkening described by Hapke's function, but the lunar-Lambert function is superior when viewing angles are high and when (??) is less than 30??. Although a nonunique solution for the Minnaert function at high phase angles has been described for smooth surfaces, the discrepancy decreases with increasing (??) and virtually disappears when (??) reaches 30?? to 40??. The variation in limb darkening with w and g, pronounced for smooth surfaces, is reduced or eliminated when the Hapke parameters are in the range typical of most planetary surfaces; this result simplifies the problem of photoclinometry across terrains with variable surface materials. The Minnaert or lunar-Lambert fits to published Hapke models will give photoclinometric solutions that are very similar (>1?? slope discrepancy) to the Hapke-function solutions for nearly all of the bodies and terrains thus far modeled by Hapke's function. ?? 1991.

  5. BROADBAND PHOTOMETRIC REVERBERATION MAPPING OF NGC 4395

    SciTech Connect

    Edri, Haim; Rafter, Stephen E.; Kaspi, Shai; Behar, Ehud; Chelouche, Doron E-mail: shai@physics.technion.ac.il E-mail: doron@sci.haifa.ac.il

    2012-09-01

    We present results of broadband photometric reverberation mapping (RM) to measure the radius of the broad-line region, and subsequently the black hole mass (M{sub BH}), in the nearby, low-luminosity active galactic nuclei NGC 4395. Using the Wise Observatory's 1 m telescope equipped with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey g', r', and i' broadband filters, we monitored NGC 4395 for nine consecutive nights and obtained three light curves each with over 250 data points. The g' and r' bands include time variable contributions from H{beta} and H{alpha}, respectively, plus continuum. The i' band is free of broad lines and covers exclusively continuum. We show that by looking for a peak in the difference between the cross-correlation and the auto-correlation functions for all combinations of filters, we can get a reliable estimate of the time lag necessary to compute M{sub BH}. We measure the time lag for H{alpha} to be 3.6 {+-} 0.8 hr, comparable to previous studies using the line-resolved spectroscopic RM method. We argue that this lag implies a black hole mass of M{sub BH} = (4.9 {+-} 2.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }.

  6. Standardized Photometric Calibrations for Panchromatic SSA Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, P.; Payne, T.; Battle, A.; Cole, Z.; Moody, J.; Gregory, S.; Dao, P.

    2016-09-01

    Panchromatic sensors used for Space Situational Awareness (SSA) have no standardized method for transforming the net flux detected by a CCD without a spectral filter into an exo-atmospheric magnitude in a standard magnitude system. Each SSA data provider appears to have their own method for computing the visual magnitude based on panchromatic brightness making cross-comparisons impossible. We provide a procedure in order to standardize the calibration of panchromatic sensors for the purposes of SSA. A technique based on theoretical modeling is presented that derives standard panchromatic magnitudes from the Johnson-Cousins photometric system defined by Arlo Landolt. We verify this technique using observations of Landolt standard stars and a Vega-like star to determine empirical panchromatic magnitudes and compare these to synthetically derived panchromatic magnitudes. We also investigate color terms caused by differences in the quantum efficiency (QE) between the Landolt standard system and panchromatic systems. We evaluate calibrated panchromatic satellite photometry by observing several GEO satellites and standard stars using three different sensors. We explore the effect of satellite color terms by comparing the satellite signatures. In order to remove other variables affecting the satellite photometry, two of the sensors are at the same site using different CCDs. The third sensor is geographically separate from the first two allowing for a definitive test of calibrated panchromatic satellite photometry.

  7. Photometric orbits of seven detached eclipsing binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popper, D. M.; Etzel, P. B.

    1981-01-01

    Photoelectric light curves of the detached eclipsing binaries V805 Aql, TV Cet, MY Cyg, V478 Cyg, V1143 Cyg, BS Dra, and BK Peg are analyzed. The systems are among those with good spectrographic orbits of both components that are in need of good photometric solutions in order to obtain the absolute properties of the components. The analyses are carried out with a computer program valid for detached systems of spherical or slightly oblate stars in orbits of arbitrary eccentricity. A range of solutions much greater than implied by the internal mean errors of the parameters, is found to give satisfactory fits to the observations. Some of the fits are displayed for a variety of solutions for each system. For the three systems with measurable light variation between eclipses - V478 Cyg, V805 Aql, and MY Cyg - the effect of reflection appears to be substantially less than predicted. Very small, but nonzero, orbital eccentricities are found for four of the systems. The variations of limb darkening with wavelength and with spectral type are found to be in reasonable agreement with predictions from atmospheric theory.

  8. A MULTICOLOR PHOTOMETRIC STUDY OF THE GALAXY CLUSTER A2589: DYNAMICS, LUMINOSITY FUNCTION, AND STAR FORMATION HISTORY

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Shunfang; Yang Yanbin; Ma Jun; Jiang Zhaoji; Wu Jianghua; Wu Zhenyu; Chen Jiansheng; Zhou Xu; Yuan Qirong E-mail: zhouxu@bao.ac.cn

    2011-03-15

    Smooth X-ray morphology and non-detection of a radio source at the center of A2589 indicate that it is a typical case of a well-relaxed regular galaxy cluster. In this paper, we present a multicolor photometry for A2589 (z = 0.0414) with 15 intermediate bands in the Beijing-Arizona-Taiwan-Connecticut (BATC) system which covers an optical wavelength range from 3000 A to 10000 A. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for more than 5000 sources are achieved down to V {approx} 20 mag in about a 1 deg{sup 2} field. A2589 has also been covered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) in photometric mode only. A cross-identification of the BATC-detected galaxies with the SDSS photometric catalog yields 1199 galaxies brighter than i = 19.5 mag, among which 68 member galaxies with known spectroscopic redshifts are found. After combining the SDSS five-band photometric data and the BATC SEDs, photometric redshift is applied to these galaxies to select faint member galaxies. The color-magnitude relation is taken as a further restriction of early-type cluster galaxies. As a result, 106 galaxies are newly selected as member galaxies. Spatial distribution of member galaxies shows a north-south elongation which agrees with the X-ray brightness profile and the orientation of central cD galaxy, NGC 7647. No substructures are detected on the basis of positions and radial velocities of cluster galaxies, indicating that A2589 is a well-relaxed system. The luminosity function of A2589 exhibits a peak at M{sub R} {approx} -20 mag and a dip at M{sub R} {approx} -19 mag. The low-density outer regions are the preferred habitat of faint galaxies. With the evolutionary population synthesis model, PEGASE, the environmental effect on the star formation properties for 68 spectroscopically confirmed member galaxies is studied. The outlier faint galaxies tend to have longer timescales of star formation, shorter mean stellar ages, and lower metallicities in the interstellar medium, which can be

  9. STEPS TOWARD UNVEILING THE TRUE POPULATION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: PHOTOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN COSMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Evan E.; Impey, Christopher D.; Trump, Jonathan R.

    2013-04-01

    Using a physically motivated, model-based active galactic nucleus (AGN) characterization technique, we fit a large sample of X-ray-selected AGNs with known spectroscopic redshifts from the Cosmic Evolution Survey field. We identify accretion disks in the spectral energy distributions of broad- and narrow-line AGNs, and infer the presence or absence of host galaxy light in the SEDs. Based on infrared and UV excess AGN selection techniques, our method involves fitting a given SED with a model consisting of three components: infrared power-law emission, optical-UV accretion disk emission, and host galaxy emission. Each component can be varied in relative contribution, and a reduced chi-square minimization routine is used to determine the optimum parameters for each object. Using this technique, both broad- and narrow-line AGNs fall within well-defined and plausible bounds on the physical parameters of the model, allowing trends with luminosity and redshift to be determined. In particular, based on our sample of spectroscopically confirmed AGNs, we find that approximately 95% of the broad-line AGNs and 50% of the narrow-line AGNs in our sample show evidence of an accretion disk, with maximum disk temperatures ranging from 1 to 10 eV. Because this fitting technique relies only on photometry, we hope to apply it in future work to the characterization and eventually the selection of fainter AGNs than are accessible in wide-field spectroscopic surveys, and thus probe a population of less luminous and/or higher redshift objects without prior redshift or X-ray data. With the abundant availability of photometric data from large surveys, the ultimate goal is to use this technique to create large samples that will complement and complete AGN catalogs selected by X-ray emission alone.

  10. MARZ: Manual and automatic redshifting software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinton, S. R.; Davis, Tamara M.; Lidman, C.; Glazebrook, K.; Lewis, G. F.

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Dark Energy Survey (OzDES) is a 100-night spectroscopic survey underway on the Anglo-Australian Telescope using the fibre-fed 2-degree-field (2dF) spectrograph. We have developed a new redshifting application MARZ with greater usability, flexibility, and the capacity to analyse a wider range of object types than the RUNZ software package previously used for redshifting spectra from 2dF. MARZ is an open-source, client-based, Javascript web-application which provides an intuitive interface and powerful automatic matching capabilities on spectra generated from the AAOmega spectrograph to produce high quality spectroscopic redshift measurements. The software can be run interactively or via the command line, and is easily adaptable to other instruments and pipelines if conforming to the current FITS file standard is not possible. Behind the scenes, a modified version of the AUTOZ cross-correlation algorithm is used to match input spectra against a variety of stellar and galaxy templates, and automatic matching performance for OzDES spectra has increased from 54% (RUNZ) to 91% (MARZ). Spectra not matched correctly by the automatic algorithm can be easily redshifted manually by cycling automatic results, manual template comparison, or marking spectral features.

  11. Local gravitational redshifts can bias cosmological measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtak, Radosław; Davis, Tamara M.; Wiis, Jophiel

    2015-07-01

    Measurements of cosmological parameters via the distance-redshift relation usually rely on models that assume a homogenous universe. It is commonly presumed that the large-scale structure evident in our Universe has a negligible impact on the measurement if distances probed in observations are sufficiently large (compared to the scale of inhomogeneities) and are averaged over different directions on the sky. This presumption does not hold when considering the effect of the gravitational redshift caused by our local gravitational potential, which alters light coming from all distances and directions in the same way. Despite its small magnitude, this local gravitational redshift gives rise to noticeable effects in cosmological inference using SN Ia data. Assuming conservative prior knowledge of the local potential given by sampling a range of gravitational potentials at locations of Milky-Way-like galaxies identified in cosmological simulations, we show that ignoring the gravitational redshift effect in a standard data analysis leads to an additional systematic error of ~1% in the determination of density parameters and the dark energy equation of state. We conclude that our local gravitational field affects our cosmological inference at a level that is important in future observations aiming to achieve percent-level accuracy.

  12. Local gravitational redshifts can bias cosmological measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtak, Radosław; Davis, Tamara M.; Wiis, Jophiel E-mail: tamarad@physics.uq.edu.au

    2015-07-01

    Measurements of cosmological parameters via the distance-redshift relation usually rely on models that assume a homogenous universe. It is commonly presumed that the large-scale structure evident in our Universe has a negligible impact on the measurement if distances probed in observations are sufficiently large (compared to the scale of inhomogeneities) and are averaged over different directions on the sky. This presumption does not hold when considering the effect of the gravitational redshift caused by our local gravitational potential, which alters light coming from all distances and directions in the same way. Despite its small magnitude, this local gravitational redshift gives rise to noticeable effects in cosmological inference using SN Ia data. Assuming conservative prior knowledge of the local potential given by sampling a range of gravitational potentials at locations of Milky-Way-like galaxies identified in cosmological simulations, we show that ignoring the gravitational redshift effect in a standard data analysis leads to an additional systematic error of ∼1% in the determination of density parameters and the dark energy equation of state. We conclude that our local gravitational field affects our cosmological inference at a level that is important in future observations aiming to achieve percent-level accuracy.

  13. Redshift--Independent Distances of Spiral Galaxies: II. Internal Extinction at I Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovanelli, R.; Haynes, M. P.; Salzer, J. J.; Wegner, G.; Dacosta, L. N.; Freudling, W.; Chamaraux, P.

    1993-12-01

    We analyze the photometric properties of a sample of 1450 Sbc--Sc galaxies with known redshifts, single--dish HI profiles and CCD I band images to derive laws that relate the measured isophotal radius at mu_I =23.5, magnitude, scale length and HI flux to the face--on aspect. Our results show that the central regions of spiral galaxies are substantially less transparent than most previous determinations suggest, but not as opaque as claimed by Valentijn (1990). Regions in the disk farther than two or three scale lengths from the center are close to completely transparent. In addition to statistically derived relations for the inclination dependence of photometric parameters, we present the results of a modelling exercise that utilizes the ``triplex'' model of Disney et al. (1989). Within the framework of that model, late spiral disks at I band have central optical depths on the order of tau_I ~ 5 and dust absorbing layers with scale heights on the order of half that of the stellar component. We discuss our results in light of previous determinations of internal extinction relations and point out the substantial impact of internal extinction on the scatter of the Tully--Fisher relation. We also find that the visual diameters by which large catalogs are constructed (UGC, ESO--Uppsala) are nearly proportional to face--on isophotal diameters.

  14. Redshift distortions of galaxy correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, J. N.; Gaztanaga, Enrique

    1994-04-01

    To examine how peculiar velocities can affect the two-, three-, and four-point redshift correlation functions, we evaluate volume-average correlations for configurations that emphasize and minimize redshift distortions for four different volume-limited samples from each of the CfA, SSRS, and IRAS redshift catalogs. We present the results as the correlation length r0 and power index gamma of the two-point correlations, bar-xi0 = (r0/r)gamma, and as the hierarchical amplitudes of the three- and four-point functions, S3 = bar-xi3/bar-xi22 and S4 = bar-xi4/bar-xi32. We find a characteristic distortion for bar-xi2, the slope gamma is flatter and the correlation length is larger in redshift space than in real space; that is, redshift distortions 'move' correlations from small to large scales. At the largest scales (up to 12 Mpc), the extra power in the redshift distribution is compatible with Omega4/7/b approximately equal to 1. We estimate Omega4/7/b to be 0.53 +/- 0.15, 1.10 +/- 0.16, and 0.84 +/- 0.45 for the CfA, SSRS, and IRAS catalogs. Higher order correlations bar-xi3 and bar-xi4 suffer similar redshift distortions but in such a way that, within the accuracy of our analysis, the normalized amplitudes S3 and S4 are insensitive to this effect. The hierarchical amplitudes S3 and S4 are constant as a function of scale between 1 and 12 Mpc and have similar values in all samples and catalogs, S3 approximately equal to 2 and S4 approximately equal to 6, despite the fact that bar-xi2, bar-xi3, and bar-xi4 differ from one sample to another by large factors (up to a factor of 4 in bar-xi2, 8 for bar-xi3, and 12 for bar-xi4). The agreement between the independent estimations of S3 and S4 is remarkable given the different criteria in the selection of galaxies and also the difference in the resulting range of densities, luminosities, and locations between samples.

  15. Inferring solar structure variations from photometric and helioseismic observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    Present large scale photometric and helioseismic data may be related to spatial and temporal deviations from an otherwise static, spherical solar convection zone (SCZ). New space experiments combine precise photometric, helioseismic, and magnetic observational capabilities (like SOHO and MDI) and will provide data needed to understand the interaction of magnetic fields and global scale circulation in the SCZ. Even simple physical arguments make it clear that the anticipated accuracy of these new experiments virtually guarantees new constraints on models of the SCZ.

  16. Photometric study of a marginal contact binary SY Hor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldırım, Muhammed Faruk; Soydugan, Faruk

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we present light curve analysis of a southern contact binary SY Hor. Photometric parameters of the system and its components are derived using the Wilson and Devinney code based on the data taken from the SuperWASP public data archive. Photometric solutions indicate that SY Hor is a marginal contact binary system with a mass ratio of q = 1.59 and a contact degree of f = 6%.

  17. Dusty Star Forming Galaxies and Supermassive Black Holes at High Redshifts: In- Situ Coevolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancuso, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    We have exploited the continuity equation approach and the star-formation timescales derived from the observed 'main sequence' relation (Star Formation Rate vs Stellar Mass), to show that the observed high abundance of galaxies with stellar masses ≥ a few 10^10 M⊙ at redshift z ≥ 4 implies the existence of a galaxy population featuring large star formation rates (SFRs) ψ ≥ 10^2 M⊙ yr^-1 in heavily dust-obscured conditions. These galaxies constitute the high-redshift counterparts of the dusty star-forming population already surveyed for z ≤ 3 in the Far-InfraRed (FIR) band by the Herschel space observatory. We work out specific predictions for the evolution of the corresponding stellar mass and SFR functions out to z ∼10, elucidating that the number density at z ≤ 8 for SFRs ψ ≥ 30 M⊙ yr^-1 cannot be estimated relying on the UltraViolet (UV) luminosity function alone, even when standard corrections for dust extinction based on the UV slope are applied. We compute the number counts and redshift distributions (including galaxy-scale gravitational lensing) of this galaxy population, and show that current data from AzTEC-LABOCA, SCUBA-2 and ALMA-SPT surveys are already digging into it. We substantiate how an observational strategy based on a color preselection in the far-IR or (sub-)mm band with Herschel and SCUBA-2, supplemented by photometric data via on-source observations with ALMA, can allow to reconstruct the bright end of the SFR functions out to z ≤ 8. In parallel, such a challenging task can be managed by exploiting current UV surveys in combination with (sub-)mm observations by ALMA and NIKA2. The same could be done with radio observations by SKA and its precursors. In particular we have worked out predictions for the radio counts of star-forming galaxies down to nJy levels, along with redshift distributions down to the detection limits of the phase 1 Square Kilometer Array MID telescope (SKA1-MID) and of its precursors. To do that we

  18. Characterization of Inactive Rocket Bodies Via Non-Resolved Photometric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linares, R.; Palmer, D.; Thompson, D.; Klimenko, A.

    2014-09-01

    Recent events in space, including the collision of Russias Cosmos 2251 satellite with Iridium 33 and Chinas Feng Yun 1C anti-satellite demonstration, have stressed the capabilities of Space Surveillance Network (SSN) and its ability to provide accurate and actionable impact probability estimates. The SSN network has the unique challenge of tracking more than 18,000 resident space objects (RSOs) and providing critical collision avoidance warnings to military, NASA, and commercial systems. However, due to the large number of RSOs and the limited number of sensors available to track them, it is impossible to maintain persistent surveillance. Observation gaps result in large propagation intervals between measurements and close approaches. Coupled with nonlinear RSO dynamics this results in difficulty in modeling the probability distribution functions (pdfs) of the RSO. In particular low-Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites are heavily influenced by atmospheric drag, which is very difficult to model accurately. A number of atmospheric models exist which can be classified as either empirical or physics-based models. The current Air Force standard is the High Accuracy Satellite Drag Model (HASDM), which is an empirical model based on observation of calibration satellites. These satellite observations are used to determine model parameters based on their orbit determination solutions. Atmospheric orbits are perturbed by a number of factors including drag coefficient, attitude, and shape of the space object. The satellites used for the HASDM model calibration process are chosen because of their relatively simple shapes, to minimize errors introduced due to shape miss-modeling. Under this requirement the number of calibration satellites that can be used for calibrating the atmospheric models is limited. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has established a research effort, called IMPACT (Integrated Modeling of Perturbations in Atmospheres for Conjunction Tracking), to improve

  19. Photometric Data from Non-Resolved Objects for Space Object Characterization and Improved Atmospheric Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linares, R.; Palmer, D.; Thompson, D.; Koller, J.

    2013-09-01

    Recent events in space, including the collision of Russia's Cosmos 2251 satellite with Iridium 33 and China's Feng Yun 1C anti-satellite demonstration, have stressed the capabilities of Space Surveillance Network (SSN) and its ability to provide accurate and actionable impact probability estimates. The SSN network has the unique challenge of tracking more than 18,000 resident space objects (RSOs) and providing critical collision avoidance warnings to military, NASA, and commercial systems. However, due to the large number of RSOs and the limited number of sensors available to track them, it is impossible to maintain persistent surveillance. Observation gaps result in large propagation intervals between measurements and close approaches. Coupled with nonlinear RSO dynamics this results in difficulty in modeling the probability distribution functions (pdfs) of the RSO. In particular low-Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites are heavily influenced by atmospheric drag, which is very difficult to model accurately. A number of atmospheric models exist which can be classified as either empirical or physics-based models. The current Air Force standard is the High Accuracy Satellite Drag Model (HASDM), which is an empirical model based on observation of calibration satellites. These satellite observations are used to determine model parameters based on their orbit determination solutions. Atmospheric orbits are perturbed by a number of factors including drag coefficient, attitude, and shape of the space object. The satellites used for the HASDM model calibration process are chosen because of their relatively simple shapes, to minimize errors introduced due to shape miss-modeling. Under this requirement the number of calibration satellites that can be used for calibrating the atmospheric models is limited. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has established a research effort, called IMPACT (Integrated Modeling of Perturbations in Atmospheres for Conjunction Tracking), to improve

  20. Realistic uncertainties on Hapke model parameters from photometric measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Frédéric; Fernando, Jennifer

    2015-11-01

    The single particle phase function describes the manner in which an average element of a granular material diffuses the light in the angular space usually with two parameters: the asymmetry parameter b describing the width of the scattering lobe and the backscattering fraction c describing the main direction of the scattering lobe. Hapke proposed a convenient and widely used analytical model to describe the spectro-photometry of granular materials. Using a compilation of the published data, Hapke (Hapke, B. [2012]. Icarus 221, 1079-1083) recently studied the relationship of b and c for natural examples and proposed the hockey stick relation (excluding b > 0.5 and c > 0.5). For the moment, there is no theoretical explanation for this relationship. One goal of this article is to study a possible bias due to the retrieval method. We expand here an innovative Bayesian inversion method in order to study into detail the uncertainties of retrieved parameters. On Emission Phase Function (EPF) data, we demonstrate that the uncertainties of the retrieved parameters follow the same hockey stick relation, suggesting that this relation is due to the fact that b and c are coupled parameters in the Hapke model instead of a natural phenomena. Nevertheless, the data used in the Hapke (Hapke, B. [2012]. Icarus 221, 1079-1083) compilation generally are full Bidirectional Reflectance Diffusion Function (BRDF) that are shown not to be subject to this artifact. Moreover, the Bayesian method is a good tool to test if the sampling geometry is sufficient to constrain the parameters (single scattering albedo, surface roughness, b, c , opposition effect). We performed sensitivity tests by mimicking various surface scattering properties and various single image-like/disk resolved image, EPF-like and BRDF-like geometric sampling conditions. The second goal of this article is to estimate the favorable geometric conditions for an accurate estimation of photometric parameters in order to provide

  1. SIDRA: a blind algorithm for signal detection in photometric surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mislis, D.; Bachelet, E.; Alsubai, K. A.; Bramich, D. M.; Parley, N.

    2016-01-01

    We present the Signal Detection using Random-Forest Algorithm (SIDRA). SIDRA is a detection and classification algorithm based on the Machine Learning technique (Random Forest). The goal of this paper is to show the power of SIDRA for quick and accurate signal detection and classification. We first diagnose the power of the method with simulated light curves and try it on a subset of the Kepler space mission catalogue. We use five classes of simulated light curves (CONSTANT, TRANSIT, VARIABLE, MLENS and EB for constant light curves, transiting exoplanet, variable, microlensing events and eclipsing binaries, respectively) to analyse the power of the method. The algorithm uses four features in order to classify the light curves. The training sample contains 5000 light curves (1000 from each class) and 50 000 random light curves for testing. The total SIDRA success ratio is ≥90 per cent. Furthermore, the success ratio reaches 95-100 per cent for the CONSTANT, VARIABLE, EB and MLENS classes and 92 per cent for the TRANSIT class with a decision probability of 60 per cent. Because the TRANSIT class is the one which fails the most, we run a simultaneous fit using SIDRA and a Box Least Square (BLS)-based algorithm for searching for transiting exoplanets. As a result, our algorithm detects 7.5 per cent more planets than a classic BLS algorithm, with better results for lower signal-to-noise light curves. SIDRA succeeds to catch 98 per cent of the planet candidates in the Kepler sample and fails for 7 per cent of the false alarms subset. SIDRA promises to be useful for developing a detection algorithm and/or classifier for large photometric surveys such as TESS and PLATO exoplanet future space missions.

  2. The Muenster Redshift Project - Automated redshift measurements from low-dispersion objective prism Schmidt plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuecker, Peter

    A three-dimensional galaxy survey at faint magnitudes and over large volumes of space was carried out as part of the Muenster Redshift Project. Three different methods were used to enhance the reliability of the redshifts measured from objective prison plates: the correlation method, the least-squares method, and the break method where continuous breaks are identified directly. The redshift errors of the individual methods turn out to be 0.007 (correlation), 0.011 (direct identification), and 0.016 (least squares). Using the method described in the paper, it is possible to obtain about 6000 galaxy redshifts from one objective prism plate at high galactic latitudes for objects with m(J) less than 20.

  3. Broad-band colours and overall photometric properties of template galaxy models from stellar population synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzoni, Alberto

    2005-08-01

    We present here a new set of evolutionary population synthesis models for template galaxies along the Hubble morphological sequence. The models, which account for the individual evolution of the bulge, disc, and halo components, provide basic morphological features, along with bolometric luminosity and colour evolution (including Johnson/Cousins, Gunn g, r, i, and Washington C, M, T1, T2 photometric systems) between 1 and 15 Gyr. The luminosity contribution from residual gas is also evaluated, both in terms of nebular continuum and Balmer-line enhancement. Our theoretical framework relies on the observed colours of present-day galaxies, coupled with a minimal set of physical assumptions related to simple stellar population (SSP) evolution theory, to constrain the overall distinctive properties of galaxies at earlier epochs. A comparison with more elaborate photometric models, and with empirical sets of reference spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for early- and late-type galaxies is accomplished, in order to test output reliability and investigate the internal uncertainty of the models. The match with observed colours of present-day galaxies tightly constrain the stellar birth rate, b, which smoothly increases from E to Im types. The comparison with the observed supernova (SN) rate in low-redshift galaxies shows, as well, a pretty good agreement, and allows us to tune up the inferred star formation activity and the SN and hypernova rates among the different galaxy morphological types. Among others, these results could find useful application also in cosmological studies, given for instance the claimed relationship between hypernova events and gamma-ray bursts. One outstanding feature of the back-in-time evolution model is the prevailing luminosity contribution of the bulge at early epochs. As a consequence, the current morphological look of galaxies might drastically change when moving to larger distances, and we discuss here how sensibly this bias could affect

  4. Photometric followup investigations on LAMOST survey target Ly And

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hong-peng; Zhang, Li-yun; Han, Xianming L.; Pi, Qing-feng; Wang, Dai-mei

    2017-02-01

    We present a low-dispersion spectrum and two sets of CCD photometric light curves of the eclipsing binary LY And for the first time. The spectrum of LY And was classified as G2. We derived an updated ephemeris based on all previously available and our newly acquired minimum light times. Our analyses of LY And light curve minimum times reveals that the differences between calculated and observed minimum times for LY And can be represented by an upward parabolic curve, which means its orbital period is increasing with a rate of 1.88 (± 0.13) × 10-7 days/year. This increase in orbital period may be interpreted as mass transfer from the primary component to the secondary component, with a rate of dM1/dt = -4.54 × 10-8M⊙/year. By analyzing our CCD photometric light curves obtained in 2015, we obtained its photometric solution with the Wilson-Devinney program. This photometric solution also fits very well our light curves obtained in 2014. Our photometric solution shows that LY And is a contact eclipsing binary and its contact factor is f = (17.8 ± 1.9)%. Furthermore, both our spectroscopic and photometric data show no obvious chromospheric activity of LY And.

  5. The power spectrum from the angular distribution of galaxies in the CFHTLS-Wide fields at redshift ˜0.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granett, B. R.; Guzzo, L.; Coupon, J.; Arnouts, S.; Hudelot, P.; Ilbert, O.; McCracken, H. J.; Mellier, Y.; Adami, C.; Bel, J.; Bolzonella, M.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; Franzetti, P.; Fritz, A.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fevre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Malek, K.; Marulli, F.; Meneux, B.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Tasca, L.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.

    2012-03-01

    We measure the real-space galaxy power spectrum on large scales at redshifts 0.5-1.2 using optical colour selected samples from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey. With the redshift distributions measured with a preliminary ˜14 000 spectroscopic redshifts from the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), we deproject the angular distribution and directly estimate the three-dimensional power spectrum. We use a maximum likelihood estimator that is optimal for a Gaussian random field giving well-defined window functions and error estimates. This measurement presents an initial look at the large-scale structure field probed by the VIPERS. We measure the galaxy bias of the VIPERS-like sample to be bg= 1.38 ± 0.05 (σ8= 0.8) on scales k < 0.2 h Mpc-1 averaged over 0.5 < z < 1.2. We further investigate three photometric redshift slices, and marginalizing over the bias factors while keeping other Λ cold dark matter parameters fixed, we find the matter density Ωm= 0.30 ± 0.06.

  6. Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.

  7. Accurate monotone cubic interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1991-01-01

    Monotone piecewise cubic interpolants are simple and effective. They are generally third-order accurate, except near strict local extrema where accuracy degenerates to second-order due to the monotonicity constraint. Algorithms for piecewise cubic interpolants, which preserve monotonicity as well as uniform third and fourth-order accuracy are presented. The gain of accuracy is obtained by relaxing the monotonicity constraint in a geometric framework in which the median function plays a crucial role.

  8. Redshift-space distortions in deep redshift surveys as a probe of the invisible Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzo, Luigi; Le Fèvre, Olivier

    2010-06-01

    Massive redshift surveys of galaxies beyond the local Universe (i.e.z>0.3) provide an exhaustive probe of the observed acceleration of cosmic expansion. While they have the ability to measure the expansion history H(z) through Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations in the galaxy power spectrum, they can at the same time probe f(z) using the redshift-space distortions introduced in the observed clustering pattern by galaxy peculiar motions. Coupling these two measurements one can in principle distinguish whether cosmic acceleration is due to a new form of `dark energy' in the cosmic budget, or rather requires a modification of General Relativity. These two radically alternative scenarios are degenerate when considering H(z) alone, as yielded, e.g., by the Hubble diagram of Type Ia supernovae. We review our recent measurements of redshift distortions at z~ 1 based on the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey ``Wide'' data and discuss the revived interest on this technique in the context of dark energy. Current results are consistent with the simplest cosmological-constant scenario, but error bars are still too large to rule out alternative models. Forecasts based both on extensive simulations and Fisher-matrix computations, show that next-generation deep surveys optimizing the combination of large volumes and good galaxy sampling will be able to use redshift distortions as a key tool to understand the physical origin of cosmic acceleration. Among these, we introduce the newly started VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) at the ESO VLT, which is building at ~0.8 a sample comparable to current local redshift surveys (105 redshifts in a volume 5×107 h-1 Mpc3). Finally, we provide an example of the exquisite accuracy that could be reached on measurements of redshift-space distortions (among many others), with a massive 20,000 deg2 near-infrared spectroscopic survey from space, as foreseen by the EUCLID mission for the ESA `Cosmic Vision' program.

  9. APIRP: The Automated Photometric Data Reduction Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Ian; Ziffer, J.; Walker, M.

    2009-09-01

    For decades the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF) has been the standard for processing CCD-based image datasets. During that time, technology has advanced and the astronomical record greatly expanded. However, the discovery process is often bogged down by the time consuming procedures of image reduction. To keep up with demand and shorten reduction steps programmers have developed a series of command languages (CL) for IRAF and most recently, within only the past five years, the Python-based language, Pyraf. Python is a robust and powerful language that combines syntactical simplicity with versatile and dynamic file management, database access and software development capabilities, to name just a few features. Pyraf, by extension, incorporates all of the qualities of IRAF CL, with all of the power and flexibility provided by Python. Pyraf scripts may be written to automate file processing at the same time that reduction tasks are called from IRAF. Thus, the potential to write fully automated reduction procedures is here; tightening the gaps of scientific advancement. We have created such a tool for CCD Photometry. Our Automated Photometric Image Reduction Package (APIRP) uses a range of graphical user interfaces (GUI's) to form an interactive yet non-overbearing user environment. A combination of built-in file management and procedural variability makes APIRP a perfect choice for both amateur and professional astronomers. Due to the programs design, it can be run from anywhere on your computer and users can specify exactly what steps of reduction they wish to execute. Thus, setup is easy with no need for cumbersome documentation and tasks may be preformed piecewise or in blocks, depending on the users needs.

  10. Photometric reverberation mapping of 3C 120

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo Nuñez, F.; Ramolla, M.; Westhues, C.; Bruckmann, C.; Haas, M.; Chini, R.; Steenbrugge, K.; Murphy, M.

    2012-09-01

    We present the results of a five month monitoring campaign of the local active galactic nuclei (AGN) 3C 120. Observations with a median sampling of two days were conducted with the robotic 15 cm telescope VYSOS-6 located near Cerro Armazones in Chile. Broad band (B, V) and narrow band (NB) filters were used in order to measure fluxes of the AGN and the Hβ broad line region (BLR) emission line. The NB flux is constituted by about 50% continuum and 50% Hβ emission line. To disentangle line and continuum flux, a synthetic Hβ light curve was created by subtracting a scaled V-band light curve from the NB light curve. Here we show that the Hβ emission line responds to continuum variations with a rest frame lag of 23.6 ± 1.69 days. We estimate a virial mass of the central black hole MBH = 57 ± 27 × 106 M⊙, by combining the obtained lag with the velocity dispersion of a single contemporaneous spectrum. Using the flux variation gradient method, we determined the host galaxy subtracted rest frame 5100 Å luminosity at the time of our monitoring campaign with an uncertainty of 10% (LAGN = (6.94 ± 0.71) × 1043 erg s-1). Compared with recent spectroscopic reverberation results, 3C 120 shifts in the RBLR - LAGN diagram remarkably close to the theoretically expected relation of R ∝ L0.5. Our results demonstrate the performance of photometric AGN reverberation mapping, in particular for efficiently determining the BLR size and the AGN luminosity. Table 5 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. The Supernova Legacy Survey 3-year sample: Type Ia supernovae photometric distances and cosmological constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, J.; Sullivan, M.; Conley, A.; Regnault, N.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fouchez, D.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perrett, K. M.; Pritchet, C. J.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Balam, D.; Baumont, S.; Ellis, R. S.; Fabbro, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Fourmanoit, N.; González-Gaitán, S.; Graham, M. L.; Hsiao, E.; Kronborg, T.; Lidman, C.; Mourao, A. M.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Suzuki, N.; Walker, E. S.

    2010-11-01

    Aims: We present photometric properties and distance measurements of 252 high redshift Type Ia supernovae (0.15 < z < 1.1) discovered during the first three years of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). These events were detected and their multi-colour light curves measured using the MegaPrime/MegaCam instrument at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), by repeatedly imaging four one-square degree fields in four bands. Follow-up spectroscopy was performed at the VLT, Gemini and Keck telescopes to confirm the nature of the supernovae and to measure their redshifts. Methods: Systematic uncertainties arising from light curve modeling are studied, making use of two techniques to derive the peak magnitude, shape and colour of the supernovae, and taking advantage of a precise calibration of the SNLS fields. Results: A flat ΛCDM cosmological fit to 231 SNLS high redshift type Ia supernovae alone gives Ω_M = 0.211 ± 0.034(stat) ± 0.069(sys). The dominant systematic uncertainty comes from uncertainties in the photometric calibration. Systematic uncertainties from light curve fitters come next with a total contribution of ±0.026 on Ω_M. No clear evidence is found for a possible evolution of the slope (β) of the colour-luminosity relation with redshift. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory using the Very Large Telescope on the Cerro Paranal (ESO Large Programme 171.A-0486 & 176.A-0589). Based on

  12. Spectro-photometric determinations of Mn, Fe and Cu in aluminum master alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehan; Naveed, A.; Shan, A.; Afzal, M.; Saleem, J.; Noshad, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Highly reliable, fast and cost effective Spectro-photometric methods have been developed for the determination of Mn, Fe & Cu in aluminum master alloys, based on the development of calibration curves being prepared via laboratory standards. The calibration curves are designed so as to induce maximum sensitivity and minimum instrumental error (Mn 1mg/100ml-2mg/100ml, Fe 0.01mg/100ml-0.2mg/100ml and Cu 2mg/100ml-10mg/ 100ml). The developed Spectro-photometric methods produce accurate results while analyzing Mn, Fe and Cu in certified reference materials. Particularly, these methods are suitable for all types of Al-Mn, Al-Fe and Al-Cu master alloys (5%, 10%, 50% etc. master alloys).Moreover, the sampling practices suggested herein include a reasonable amount of analytical sample, which truly represent the whole lot of a particular master alloy. Successive dilution technique was utilized to meet the calibration curve range. Furthermore, the workout methods were also found suitable for the analysis of said elements in ordinary aluminum alloys. However, it was observed that Cush owed a considerable interference with Fe, the later one may not be accurately measured in the presence of Cu greater than 0.01 %.

  13. The redshift controversy. [over cosmological origin of quasar red shift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbidge, G.

    1973-01-01

    Questions regarding the origin of quasi-stellar objects with their large redshifts are discussed. Evidence concerning the cosmological origin of the redshifts is examined. There appears to be some fairly strong evidence which suggests the presence of noncosmological redshifts. Most astronomers, however, still take the view that all redshifts have a cosmological origin. The different types of evidence currently available are listed in tables.

  14. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey. Reconstruction of the redshift-space galaxy density field&

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granett, B. R.; Branchini, E.; Guzzo, L.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Bolzonella, M.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; de la Torre, S.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Di Porto, C.; Marchetti, A.; Marinoni, C.; Mellier, Y.; Moutard, T.; Moscardini, L.; Nichol, R. C.; Peacock, J. A.; Percival, W. J.; Zamorani, G.

    2015-11-01

    Aims: Using the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) we aim to jointly estimate the keyparameters that describe the galaxy density field and its spatial correlations in redshift space. Methods: We use the Bayesian formalism to jointly reconstruct the redshift-space galaxy density field, power spectrum, galaxy bias and galaxy luminosity function given the observations and survey selection function. The high-dimensional posterior distribution is explored using the Wiener filter within a Gibbs sampler. We validate the analysis using simulated catalogues and apply it to VIPERS data taking into consideration the inhomogeneous selection function. Results: We present joint constraints on the anisotropic power spectrum, and the bias and number density of red and blue galaxy classes in luminosity and redshift bins as well as the measurement covariances of these quantities. We find that the inferred galaxy bias and number density parameters are strongly correlated although they are only weakly correlated with the galaxy power spectrum. The power spectrum and redshift-space distortion parameters are in agreement with previous VIPERS results with the value of the growth rate fσ8 = 0.38 with 18% uncertainty at redshift 0.7. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. Imaging of Three Possible Low-redshift Analogs to High-redshift Compact Red Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan

    2011-05-01

    As part of a larger program to identify and characterize possible low-redshift analogs to massive compact red galaxies found at high redshift, we have examined the morphologies of three low-redshift compact galaxies drawn from the sample of Trujillo et al. Using deeper and higher resolution images, we have found faint and relatively extensive outer structures in addition to the compact cores identified in the earlier measurements. One object appears to have a small companion that may be involved in an ongoing minor merger of the sort that could be responsible for building up the outer parts of these galaxies. The ages of the dominant stellar populations in these objects are found to be around 2-4 Gyr, in good agreement with the previous estimates. The presence of diffuse outer structures in these galaxies indicates that truly compact and massive red galaxies are exceedingly rare at low redshift. The relatively young stellar populations suggest that the accretion of the extensive outer material must occur essentially universally on relatively short timescales of a few billion years or less. These results confirm and extend previous suggestions that the driving mechanism behind the size evolution of high-redshift compact galaxies cannot be highly stochastic processes such as major mergers, which would inevitably leave a non-negligible fraction of survivors at low redshift.

  16. Peculiar velocity decomposition, redshift space distortion, and velocity reconstruction in redshift surveys. II. Dark matter velocity statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Pengjie; Jing, Yipeng; Lin, Weipeng; Pan, Jun

    2013-11-01

    Massive spectroscopic redshift surveys open a promising window to accurately measure peculiar velocity at cosmological distances through redshift space distortion (RSD). In Paper I Zhang et al. [Phys. Rev. D 87, 063526 (2013)] of this series of work, we proposed decomposing peculiar velocity into three eigenmodes (vδ, vS, and vB) in order to facilitate the RSD modeling and peculiar velocity reconstruction. In the current paper we measure the dark matter RSD-related statistics of the velocity eigenmodes through a set of N-body simulations. These statistics include the velocity power spectra, correlation functions, one-point probability distribution functions, cumulants, and the damping functions describing the Finger of God effect. We have carried out a number of tests to quantify possible numerical artifacts in these measurements and have confirmed that these numerical artifacts are under control. Our major findings are as follows: (1) The power spectrum measurement shows that these velocity components have distinctly different spatial distribution and redshift evolution, consistent with predictions in Paper I. In particular, we measure the window function W˜(k,z). W˜ describes the impact of nonlinear evolution on the vδ-density relation. We confirm that the approximation W˜=1 can induce a significant systematic error of O(10%) in RSD cosmology. We demonstrate that W˜ can be accurately described by a simple fitting formula with one or two free parameters. (2) The correlation function measurement shows that the correlation length is O(100), O(10), and O(1)Mpc for vδ, vS, and vB, respectively. These correlation lengths determine where we can treat the velocity fields as spatially uncorrelated. Hence, they are important properties in RSD modeling. (3) The velocity probability distribution functions and cumulants quantify non-Gaussianities of the velocity fields. We confirm speculation in Paper I that vδ is largely Gaussian, but with non-negligible non

  17. Asteroid 2867 Steins. I. Photometric properties from OSIRIS/Rosetta and ground-based visible observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorda, L.; Lamy, P. L.; Faury, G.; Weissman, P.; Barucci, M. A.; Fornasier, S.; Lowry, S.; Toth, I.; Küppers, M.

    2008-09-01

    Context: Asteroid 2867 Steins is the first target of the Rosetta space mission with a flyby scheduled in September 2008. Aims: An early characterization is needed to optimize the flyby parameters and the science operations and to maximize the scientific return. The aim of this article is to characterize the photometric properties of this asteroid. Methods: The asteroid was imaged with the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) of the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS) during the cruise phase of the Rosetta spacecraft, at a phase angle of 41.7° significantly larger than achievable from Earth. It was continuously monitored over ~24 h (on 11 March 2006), thus covering four rotational periods, at a temporal cadence of 6 min. An accurate photometric calibration was obtained from the observations of a solar analog star, 16 Cyg B. Results: The light curve in the R photometric band of the Johnson-Kron-Cousins system has a mean value R(1,1,α = 41.7° = 14.13 ± 0.03 and an amplitude of 0.25 ± 0.04 mag. The periodicity was analyzed with different techniques yielding a mean value of the synodic rotational period of 6.054 ± 0.003 h. By combining with ground-based observations obtained at different phase angles, the phase function is constructed and characterized by a linear part having a phase coefficient β = 0.025 ± 0.001 mag/deg and a mean value R(1,1,0) = 13.10 ± 0.04. In terms of the H-G formalism, the best fit photometric values are G = 0.35 ± 0.05 and H = 12.84 ± 0.07, but the resulting opposition surge of 0.25 mag, although typical of E-type asteroids, is not really constrained because of the lack of data at phase angles below 7°. Altogether the photometric properties of asteroid 2867 Steins (phase function, color and albedo) indicate that it is a somewhat extreme E-type object, although it is known that this quite small population exhibits at least three different surface mineralogies. Table [see full textsee full text] is only available

  18. Star Formation in Intermediate Redshift 0.2 < z < 0.7 Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Kevin C.; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.; Tremblay, Grant R.; Cox, Isabella G.; Gladders, Michael

    2016-12-01

    We present a multi-wavelength photometric and spectroscopic study of 42 Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) in two samples of galaxy clusters chosen for a gravitational lensing study. The study’s initial sample combines 25 BCGs from the Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble sample and 37 BCGs from the Sloan Giant Arcs Survey with a total redshift range of 0.2< z< 0.7. Using archival GALEX, Hubble Space Telescope, Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer, Herschel, and Very Large Array data we determine the BCGs’ stellar mass, radio power, and star formation rates. The radio power is higher than expected if due to star formation, consistent with the BCGs being active galactic nucleus (AGN)-powered radio sources. This suggests that the AGN and star formation are both fueled by cold gas in the host galaxy. The specific star formation rate (sSFR) is low and constant with redshift. The mean sSFR is 9.42 × 10-12 yr-1, which corresponds to a mass doubling time of 105 billion years. These findings are consistent with models for hierarchical formation of BCGs, which suggest that star formation is no longer a significant channel for galaxy growth for z ≤slant 1. Instead, stellar growth (of the order of a factor of at least two) during this period is expected to occur mainly via minor dry mergers.

  19. Using neural networks to estimate redshift distributions. An application to CFHTLenS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnett, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    We present a novel way of using neural networks (NN) to estimate the redshift distribution of a galaxy sample. We are able to obtain a probability density function (PDF) for each galaxy using a classification NN. The method is applied to 58 714 galaxies in CFHTLenS that have spectroscopic redshifts from DEEP2, VVDS and VIPERS. Using this data, we show that the stacked PDFs give an excellent representation of the true N(z) using information from 5, 4 or 3 photometric bands. We show that the fractional error due to using N(zphot) instead of N(ztruth) is ≤1 per cent on the lensing power spectrum (Pκ) in several tomographic bins. Further, we investigate how well this method performs when few training samples are available and show that in this regime the NN slightly overestimates the N(z) at high z. Finally, the case where the training sample is not representative of the full data set is investigated.

  20. Physical properties of high-redshift WFC3 galaxies at z=7-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamine, Kentaro

    2010-09-01

    Over the past decade, large samples of Ly-break galaxies {LBGs} have been assembled at z=3-6. The observers are now pushing the forefront of galaxy formation study into the range of z=7-9 utilizing the new data from the WFC3 camera. However, due to the faintness of the sources at these redshifts, it is difficult to derive the physical parameters such as stellar mass and star formation histories of the candidate galaxies. Therefore, it would be helpful to obtain predictions on these quantities from theoretical models using self-consistent, cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation. In the proposed work, we will examine the physical properties of high-redshift star-forming galaxies at z=7-10 using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. In the first step, we will develop a model for estimating the variable extinction values of individual galaxies based on their metal column densities. We will also examine the spectro-photometric properties, stellar masses, star formation histories, and spatial correlations, and provide feedback to the WFC3 observations. The second step of our project is to perform the radiative transfer calculations of stellar radiation from high-z galaxies using the Authentic Radiative Transfer {ART} code. This exact RT calculation will allow us to check the accuracy of our earlier results from part {1}, and to develop a better model of dust distribution in cosmological simulations.