Science.gov

Sample records for accurate phylogenetic reconstruction

  1. Fast and Accurate Phylogenetic Reconstruction from High-Resolution Whole-Genome Data and a Novel Robustness Estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu; Rajan, Vaibhav; Moret, Bernard M. E.

    The rapid accumulation of whole-genome data has renewed interest in the study of genomic rearrangements. Comparative genomics, evolutionary biology, and cancer research all require models and algorithms to elucidate the mechanisms, history, and consequences of these rearrangements. However, even simple models lead to NP-hard problems, particularly in the area of phylogenetic analysis. Current approaches are limited to small collections of genomes and low-resolution data (typically a few hundred syntenic blocks). Moreover, whereas phylogenetic analyses from sequence data are deemed incomplete unless bootstrapping scores (a measure of confidence) are given for each tree edge, no equivalent to bootstrapping exists for rearrangement-based phylogenetic analysis.

  2. Reconstructing phylogenetic networks using maximum parsimony.

    PubMed

    Nakhleh, Luay; Jin, Guohua; Zhao, Fengmei; Mellor-Crummey, John

    2005-01-01

    Phylogenies - the evolutionary histories of groups of organisms - are one of the most widely used tools throughout the life sciences, as well as objects of research within systematics, evolutionary biology, epidemiology, etc. Almost every tool devised to date to reconstruct phylogenies produces trees; yet it is widely understood and accepted that trees oversimplify the evolutionary histories of many groups of organims, most prominently bacteria (because of horizontal gene transfer) and plants (because of hybrid speciation). Various methods and criteria have been introduced for phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Parsimony is one of the most widely used and studied criteria, and various accurate and efficient heuristics for reconstructing trees based on parsimony have been devised. Jotun Hein suggested a straightforward extension of the parsimony criterion to phylogenetic networks. In this paper we formalize this concept, and provide the first experimental study of the quality of parsimony as a criterion for constructing and evaluating phylogenetic networks. Our results show that, when extended to phylogenetic networks, the parsimony criterion produces promising results. In a great majority of the cases in our experiments, the parsimony criterion accurately predicts the numbers and placements of non-tree events.

  3. Bayes Estimators for Phylogenetic Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, P. M.; Li, W.; Haws, D.; Friedrich, T.; Liu, J.; Yoshida, R.

    2011-01-01

    Tree reconstruction methods are often judged by their accuracy, measured by how close they get to the true tree. Yet, most reconstruction methods like maximum likelihood (ML) do not explicitly maximize this accuracy. To address this problem, we propose a Bayesian solution. Given tree samples, we propose finding the tree estimate that is closest on average to the samples. This “median” tree is known as the Bayes estimator (BE). The BE literally maximizes posterior expected accuracy, measured in terms of closeness (distance) to the true tree. We discuss a unified framework of BE trees, focusing especially on tree distances that are expressible as squared euclidean distances. Notable examples include Robinson–Foulds (RF) distance, quartet distance, and squared path difference. Using both simulated and real data, we show that BEs can be estimated in practice by hill-climbing. In our simulation, we find that BEs tend to be closer to the true tree, compared with ML and neighbor joining. In particular, the BE under squared path difference tends to perform well in terms of both path difference and RF distances. PMID:21471560

  4. Accurate phylogenetic classification of DNA fragments based onsequence composition

    SciTech Connect

    McHardy, Alice C.; Garcia Martin, Hector; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Hugenholtz, Philip; Rigoutsos, Isidore

    2006-05-01

    Metagenome studies have retrieved vast amounts of sequenceout of a variety of environments, leading to novel discoveries and greatinsights into the uncultured microbial world. Except for very simplecommunities, diversity makes sequence assembly and analysis a verychallenging problem. To understand the structure a 5 nd function ofmicrobial communities, a taxonomic characterization of the obtainedsequence fragments is highly desirable, yet currently limited mostly tothose sequences that contain phylogenetic marker genes. We show that forclades at the rank of domain down to genus, sequence composition allowsthe very accurate phylogenetic 10 characterization of genomic sequence.We developed a composition-based classifier, PhyloPythia, for de novophylogenetic sequence characterization and have trained it on adata setof 340 genomes. By extensive evaluation experiments we show that themethodis accurate across all taxonomic ranks considered, even forsequences that originate fromnovel organisms and are as short as 1kb.Application to two metagenome datasets 15 obtained from samples ofphosphorus-removing sludge showed that the method allows the accurateclassification at genus level of most sequence fragments from thedominant populations, while at the same time correctly characterizingeven larger parts of the samples at higher taxonomic levels.

  5. Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees of prokaryotes using maximal common intervals.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Mahdi; Marashi, Sayed-Amir; Tusserkani, Ruzbeh; Sadeghi, Mehdi

    2014-10-01

    One of the fundamental problems in bioinformatics is phylogenetic tree reconstruction, which can be used for classifying living organisms into different taxonomic clades. The classical approach to this problem is based on a marker such as 16S ribosomal RNA. Since evolutionary events like genomic rearrangements are not included in reconstructions of phylogenetic trees based on single genes, much effort has been made to find other characteristics for phylogenetic reconstruction in recent years. With the increasing availability of completely sequenced genomes, gene order can be considered as a new solution for this problem. In the present work, we applied maximal common intervals (MCIs) in two or more genomes to infer their distance and to reconstruct their evolutionary relationship. Additionally, measures based on uncommon segments (UCS's), i.e., those genomic segments which are not detected as part of any of the MCIs, are also used for phylogenetic tree reconstruction. We applied these two types of measures for reconstructing the phylogenetic tree of 63 prokaryotes with known COG (clusters of orthologous groups) families. Similarity between the MCI-based (resp. UCS-based) reconstructed phylogenetic trees and the phylogenetic tree obtained from NCBI taxonomy browser is as high as 93.1% (resp. 94.9%). We show that in the case of this diverse dataset of prokaryotes, tree reconstruction based on MCI and UCS outperforms most of the currently available methods based on gene orders, including breakpoint distance and DCJ. We additionally tested our new measures on a dataset of 13 closely-related bacteria from the genus Prochlorococcus. In this case, distances like rearrangement distance, breakpoint distance and DCJ proved to be useful, while our new measures are still appropriate for phylogenetic reconstruction.

  6. Community Phylogenetics: Assessing Tree Reconstruction Methods and the Utility of DNA Barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Elizabeth E.; Adamowicz, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining phylogenetic community structure have become increasingly prevalent, yet little attention has been given to the influence of the input phylogeny on metrics that describe phylogenetic patterns of co-occurrence. Here, we examine the influence of branch length, tree reconstruction method, and amount of sequence data on measures of phylogenetic community structure, as well as the phylogenetic signal (Pagel’s λ) in morphological traits, using Trichoptera larval communities from Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. We find that model-based tree reconstruction methods and the use of a backbone family-level phylogeny improve estimations of phylogenetic community structure. In addition, trees built using the barcode region of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) alone accurately predict metrics of phylogenetic community structure obtained from a multi-gene phylogeny. Input tree did not alter overall conclusions drawn for phylogenetic signal, as significant phylogenetic structure was detected in two body size traits across input trees. As the discipline of community phylogenetics continues to expand, it is important to investigate the best approaches to accurately estimate patterns. Our results suggest that emerging large datasets of DNA barcode sequences provide a vast resource for studying the structure of biological communities. PMID:26110886

  7. New algorithms for reconstructing phylogenetic trees

    SciTech Connect

    Dress, A.

    1994-12-31

    Since the time of Linne, classification of living beings into subspecies, species, orders, families etc. has been an important task in biology. With the advent of molecular biology, many more data have become available which can be exploited for this purpose using comparative sequence analysis, while the sheer amount of these data stored presently in biomolecular data bases make automated classification procedures unavoidable. Consequently, many algorithms have been developed in the last 25 years to support this task. In the lecture, an amazingly successful polynomial algorithm for analysing all sorts of distance data derived from sequence analysis (or elsewhere) will be presented which simultaneously highlights phylogenetic similarity and similarity caused by convergent evolution. In addition to sketching the mathematics on which the algorithm is based and discussing its implementation (including some interesting computer graphics aspects), various proper biological examples will be presented which stretch from the analysis of data relating to the origin of life and the first bifurcations into the various {open_quote}kingdoms of life{close_quote} to the analysis of data relating to, say, the phylogenetic history of mammals or that of the AIDS or the Influenca virus family.

  8. Reconstructible Phylogenetic Networks: Do Not Distinguish the Indistinguishable

    PubMed Central

    Pardi, Fabio; Scornavacca, Celine

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic networks represent the evolution of organisms that have undergone reticulate events, such as recombination, hybrid speciation or lateral gene transfer. An important way to interpret a phylogenetic network is in terms of the trees it displays, which represent all the possible histories of the characters carried by the organisms in the network. Interestingly, however, different networks may display exactly the same set of trees, an observation that poses a problem for network reconstruction: from the perspective of many inference methods such networks are indistinguishable. This is true for all methods that evaluate a phylogenetic network solely on the basis of how well the displayed trees fit the available data, including all methods based on input data consisting of clades, triples, quartets, or trees with any number of taxa, and also sequence-based approaches such as popular formalisations of maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood for networks. This identifiability problem is partially solved by accounting for branch lengths, although this merely reduces the frequency of the problem. Here we propose that network inference methods should only attempt to reconstruct what they can uniquely identify. To this end, we introduce a novel definition of what constitutes a uniquely reconstructible network. For any given set of indistinguishable networks, we define a canonical network that, under mild assumptions, is unique and thus representative of the entire set. Given data that underwent reticulate evolution, only the canonical form of the underlying phylogenetic network can be uniquely reconstructed. While on the methodological side this will imply a drastic reduction of the solution space in network inference, for the study of reticulate evolution this is a fundamental limitation that will require an important change of perspective when interpreting phylogenetic networks. PMID:25849429

  9. Reconstructible phylogenetic networks: do not distinguish the indistinguishable.

    PubMed

    Pardi, Fabio; Scornavacca, Celine

    2015-04-01

    Phylogenetic networks represent the evolution of organisms that have undergone reticulate events, such as recombination, hybrid speciation or lateral gene transfer. An important way to interpret a phylogenetic network is in terms of the trees it displays, which represent all the possible histories of the characters carried by the organisms in the network. Interestingly, however, different networks may display exactly the same set of trees, an observation that poses a problem for network reconstruction: from the perspective of many inference methods such networks are "indistinguishable". This is true for all methods that evaluate a phylogenetic network solely on the basis of how well the displayed trees fit the available data, including all methods based on input data consisting of clades, triples, quartets, or trees with any number of taxa, and also sequence-based approaches such as popular formalisations of maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood for networks. This identifiability problem is partially solved by accounting for branch lengths, although this merely reduces the frequency of the problem. Here we propose that network inference methods should only attempt to reconstruct what they can uniquely identify. To this end, we introduce a novel definition of what constitutes a uniquely reconstructible network. For any given set of indistinguishable networks, we define a canonical network that, under mild assumptions, is unique and thus representative of the entire set. Given data that underwent reticulate evolution, only the canonical form of the underlying phylogenetic network can be uniquely reconstructed. While on the methodological side this will imply a drastic reduction of the solution space in network inference, for the study of reticulate evolution this is a fundamental limitation that will require an important change of perspective when interpreting phylogenetic networks.

  10. Reconstructible phylogenetic networks: do not distinguish the indistinguishable.

    PubMed

    Pardi, Fabio; Scornavacca, Celine

    2015-04-01

    Phylogenetic networks represent the evolution of organisms that have undergone reticulate events, such as recombination, hybrid speciation or lateral gene transfer. An important way to interpret a phylogenetic network is in terms of the trees it displays, which represent all the possible histories of the characters carried by the organisms in the network. Interestingly, however, different networks may display exactly the same set of trees, an observation that poses a problem for network reconstruction: from the perspective of many inference methods such networks are "indistinguishable". This is true for all methods that evaluate a phylogenetic network solely on the basis of how well the displayed trees fit the available data, including all methods based on input data consisting of clades, triples, quartets, or trees with any number of taxa, and also sequence-based approaches such as popular formalisations of maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood for networks. This identifiability problem is partially solved by accounting for branch lengths, although this merely reduces the frequency of the problem. Here we propose that network inference methods should only attempt to reconstruct what they can uniquely identify. To this end, we introduce a novel definition of what constitutes a uniquely reconstructible network. For any given set of indistinguishable networks, we define a canonical network that, under mild assumptions, is unique and thus representative of the entire set. Given data that underwent reticulate evolution, only the canonical form of the underlying phylogenetic network can be uniquely reconstructed. While on the methodological side this will imply a drastic reduction of the solution space in network inference, for the study of reticulate evolution this is a fundamental limitation that will require an important change of perspective when interpreting phylogenetic networks. PMID:25849429

  11. TCS: a web server for multiple sequence alignment evaluation and phylogenetic reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jia-Ming; Di Tommaso, Paolo; Lefort, Vincent; Gascuel, Olivier; Notredame, Cedric

    2015-07-01

    This article introduces the Transitive Consistency Score (TCS) web server; a service making it possible to estimate the local reliability of protein multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) using the TCS index. The evaluation can be used to identify the aligned positions most likely to contain structurally analogous residues and also most likely to support an accurate phylogenetic reconstruction. The TCS scoring scheme has been shown to be accurate predictor of structural alignment correctness among commonly used methods. It has also been shown to outperform common filtering schemes like Gblocks or trimAl when doing MSA post-processing prior to phylogenetic tree reconstruction. The web server is available from http://tcoffee.crg.cat/tcs.

  12. Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees using the ant colony optimization paradigm.

    PubMed

    Perretto, Mauricio; Lopes, Heitor Silvério

    2005-01-01

    We developed a new approach for the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees using ant colony optimization metaheuristics. A tree is constructed using a fully connected graph and the problem is approached similarly to the well-known traveling salesman problem. This methodology was used to develop an algorithm for constructing a phylogenetic tree using a pheromone matrix. Two data sets were tested with the algorithm: complete mitochondrial genomes from mammals and DNA sequences of the p53 gene from several eutherians. This new methodology was found to be superior to other well-known softwares, at least for this data set. These results are very promising and suggest more efforts for further developments. PMID:16342043

  13. CVTree: a phylogenetic tree reconstruction tool based on whole genomes.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ji; Luo, Hong; Hao, Bailin

    2004-07-01

    Composition Vector Tree (CVTree) implements a systematic method of inferring evolutionary relatedness of microbial organisms from the oligopeptide content of their complete proteomes (http://cvtree.cbi.pku.edu.cn). Since the first bacterial genomes were sequenced in 1995 there have been several attempts to infer prokaryote phylogeny from complete genomes. Most of them depend on sequence alignment directly or indirectly and, in some cases, need fine-tuning and adjustment. The composition vector method circumvents the ambiguity of choosing the genes for phylogenetic reconstruction and avoids the necessity of aligning sequences of essentially different length and gene content. This new method does not contain 'free' parameter and 'fine-tuning'. A bootstrap test for a phylogenetic tree of 139 organisms has shown the stability of the branchings, which support the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) tree of life in its overall structure and in many details. It may provide a quick reference in prokaryote phylogenetics whenever the proteome of an organism is available, a situation that will become commonplace in the near future.

  14. Data supporting phylogenetic reconstructions of the Neotropical clade Gymnotiformes

    PubMed Central

    Tagliacollo, Victor A.; Bernt, Maxwell J.; Craig, Jack M.; Oliveira, Claudio; Albert, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Data is presented in support of model-based total evidence (MBTE) phylogenetic reconstructions of the Neotropical clade of Gymnotiformes “Model-based total evidence phylogeny of Neotropical electric knifefishes (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes)” (Tagliacollo et al., 2016) [1]). The MBTE phylogenies were inferred using a comprehensive dataset comprised of six genes (5277 bp) and 223 morphological characters for an ingroup taxon sample of 120 of 218 valid species and 33 of the 34 extant genera. The data in this article include primer sequences for gene amplification and sequencing, voucher information and GenBank accession numbers, descriptions of morphological characters, morphological synapomorphies for the recognized clades of Gymnotiformes, a supermatrix comprised of concatenated molecular and morphological data, and computer scripts to replicate MBTE inferences. We also included here Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian topologies, which support two main gymnotiform clades: Gymnotidae and Sternopygoidei, the latter comprised of Rhamphichthyoidea (Rhamphichthyidae+Hypopomidae) and Sinusoidea (Sternopygidae+Apteronotidae). PMID:26955648

  15. A fast and accurate algorithm for diploid individual haplotype reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingli; Liang, Binbin

    2013-08-01

    Haplotypes can provide significant information in many research fields, including molecular biology and medical therapy. However, haplotyping is much more difficult than genotyping by using only biological techniques. With the development of sequencing technologies, it becomes possible to obtain haplotypes by combining sequence fragments. The haplotype reconstruction problem of diploid individual has received considerable attention in recent years. It assembles the two haplotypes for a chromosome given the collection of fragments coming from the two haplotypes. Fragment errors significantly increase the difficulty of the problem, and which has been shown to be NP-hard. In this paper, a fast and accurate algorithm, named FAHR, is proposed for haplotyping a single diploid individual. Algorithm FAHR reconstructs the SNP sites of a pair of haplotypes one after another. The SNP fragments that cover some SNP site are partitioned into two groups according to the alleles of the corresponding SNP site, and the SNP values of the pair of haplotypes are ascertained by using the fragments in the group that contains more SNP fragments. The experimental comparisons were conducted among the FAHR, the Fast Hare and the DGS algorithms by using the haplotypes on chromosome 1 of 60 individuals in CEPH samples, which were released by the International HapMap Project. Experimental results under different parameter settings indicate that the reconstruction rate of the FAHR algorithm is higher than those of the Fast Hare and the DGS algorithms, and the running time of the FAHR algorithm is shorter than those of the Fast Hare and the DGS algorithms. Moreover, the FAHR algorithm has high efficiency even for the reconstruction of long haplotypes and is very practical for realistic applications.

  16. Phylogenetic reconstruction of dengue virus type 2 in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is perhaps the most important viral re-emergent disease especially in tropical and sub-tropical countries, affecting about 50 million people around the world yearly. In Colombia, dengue virus was first detected in 1971 and still remains as a major public health issue. Although four viral serotypes have been recurrently identified, dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) has been involved in the most important outbreaks during the last 20 years, including 2010 when the fatality rate highly increased. As there are no major studies reviewing virus origin and genotype distribution in this country, the present study attempts to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of DENV-2 using a sequence analysis from a 224 bp PCR-amplified product corresponding to the carboxyl terminus of the envelope (E) gene from 48 Colombian isolates. Results As expected, the oldest isolates belonged to the American genotype (subtype V), but the strains collected since 1990 represent the American/Asian genotype (subtype IIIb) as previously reported in different American countries. Interestingly, the introduction of this genotype coincides with the first report of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Colombia at the end of 1989 and the increase of cases during the next years. Conclusion After replacement of the American genotype, several lineages of American/Asian subtype have rapidly spread all over the country evolving in new clades. Nevertheless, the direct association of these new variants in the raise of lethality rate observed during the last outbreak has to be demonstrated. PMID:22405440

  17. Reconstructions of the axial muscle insertions in the occipital region of dinosaurs: evaluations of past hypotheses on marginocephalia and tyrannosauridae using the extant phylogenetic bracket approach.

    PubMed

    Tsuihiji, Takanobu

    2010-08-01

    The insertions of the cervical axial musculature on the occiput in marginocephalian and tyrannosaurid dinosaurs have been reconstructed in several studies with a view to their functional implications. Most of the past reconstructions on marginocephalians, however, relied on the anatomy of just one clade of reptiles, Lepidosauria, and lack phylogenetic justification. In this study, these past reconstructions were evaluated using the Extant Phylogenetic Bracket approach based on the anatomy of various extant diapsids. Many muscle insertions reconstructed in this study were substantially different from those in the past studies, demonstrating the importance of phylogenetically justified inferences based on the conditions of Aves and Crocodylia for reconstructing the anatomy of non-avian dinosaurs. The present reconstructions show that axial muscle insertions were generally enlarged in derived marginocephalians, apparently correlated with expansion of their parietosquamosal shelf/frill. Several muscle insertions on the occiput in tyrannosaurids reconstructed in this study using the Extant Phylogenetic Bracket approach were also rather different from recent reconstructions based on the same, phylogenetic and parsimony-based method. Such differences are mainly due to differences in initial identifications of muscle insertion areas or different hypotheses on muscle homologies in extant diapsids. This result emphasizes the importance of accurate and detailed observations on the anatomy of extant animals as the basis for paleobiological inferences such as anatomical reconstructions and functional analyses.

  18. PhyloBayes MPI: phylogenetic reconstruction with infinite mixtures of profiles in a parallel environment.

    PubMed

    Lartillot, Nicolas; Rodrigue, Nicolas; Stubbs, Daniel; Richer, Jacques

    2013-07-01

    Modeling across site variation of the substitution process is increasingly recognized as important for obtaining more accurate phylogenetic reconstructions. Both finite and infinite mixture models have been proposed and have been shown to significantly improve on classical single-matrix models. Compared with their finite counterparts, infinite mixtures have a greater expressivity. However, they are computationally more challenging. This has resulted in practical compromises in the design of infinite mixture models. In particular, a fast but simplified version of a Dirichlet process model over equilibrium frequency profiles implemented in PhyloBayes has often been used in recent phylogenomics studies, while more refined model structures, more realistic and empirically more fit, have been practically out of reach. We introduce a message passing interface version of PhyloBayes, implementing the Dirichlet process mixture models as well as more classical empirical matrices and finite mixtures. The parallelization is made efficient thanks to the combination of two algorithmic strategies: a partial Gibbs sampling update of the tree topology and the use of a truncated stick-breaking representation for the Dirichlet process prior. The implementation shows close to linear gains in computational speed for up to 64 cores, thus allowing faster phylogenetic reconstruction under complex mixture models. PhyloBayes MPI is freely available from our website www.phylobayes.org. PMID:23564032

  19. Iterative feature refinement for accurate undersampled MR image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shanshan; Liu, Jianbo; Liu, Qiegen; Ying, Leslie; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong; Liang, Dong

    2016-05-01

    Accelerating MR scan is of great significance for clinical, research and advanced applications, and one main effort to achieve this is the utilization of compressed sensing (CS) theory. Nevertheless, the existing CSMRI approaches still have limitations such as fine structure loss or high computational complexity. This paper proposes a novel iterative feature refinement (IFR) module for accurate MR image reconstruction from undersampled K-space data. Integrating IFR with CSMRI which is equipped with fixed transforms, we develop an IFR-CS method to restore meaningful structures and details that are originally discarded without introducing too much additional complexity. Specifically, the proposed IFR-CS is realized with three iterative steps, namely sparsity-promoting denoising, feature refinement and Tikhonov regularization. Experimental results on both simulated and in vivo MR datasets have shown that the proposed module has a strong capability to capture image details, and that IFR-CS is comparable and even superior to other state-of-the-art reconstruction approaches.

  20. Phylogenetic Tree Reconstruction Accuracy and Model Fit when Proportions of Variable Sites Change across the Tree

    PubMed Central

    Grievink, Liat Shavit; Penny, David; Hendy, Michael D.; Holland, Barbara R.

    2010-01-01

    Commonly used phylogenetic models assume a homogeneous process through time in all parts of the tree. However, it is known that these models can be too simplistic as they do not account for nonhomogeneous lineage-specific properties. In particular, it is now widely recognized that as constraints on sequences evolve, the proportion and positions of variable sites can vary between lineages causing heterotachy. The extent to which this model misspecification affects tree reconstruction is still unknown. Here, we evaluate the effect of changes in the proportions and positions of variable sites on model fit and tree estimation. We consider 5 current models of nucleotide sequence evolution in a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo framework as well as maximum parsimony (MP). We show that for a tree with 4 lineages where 2 nonsister taxa undergo a change in the proportion of variable sites tree reconstruction under the best-fitting model, which is chosen using a relative test, often results in the wrong tree. In this case, we found that an absolute test of model fit is a better predictor of tree estimation accuracy. We also found further evidence that MP is not immune to heterotachy. In addition, we show that increased sampling of taxa that have undergone a change in proportion and positions of variable sites is critical for accurate tree reconstruction. PMID:20525636

  1. Towards an accurate volume reconstruction in atom probe tomography.

    PubMed

    Beinke, Daniel; Oberdorfer, Christian; Schmitz, Guido

    2016-06-01

    An alternative concept for the reconstruction of atom probe data is outlined. It is based on the calculation of realistic trajectories of the evaporated ions in a recursive refinement process. To this end, the electrostatic problem is solved on a Delaunay tessellation. To enable the trajectory calculation, the order of reconstruction is inverted with respect to previous reconstruction schemes: the last atom detected is reconstructed first. In this way, the emitter shape, which controls the trajectory, can be defined throughout the duration of the reconstruction. A proof of concept is presented for 3D model tips, containing spherical precipitates or embedded layers of strongly contrasting evaporation thresholds. While the traditional method following Bas et al. generates serious distortions in these cases, a reconstruction with the proposed electrostatically informed approach improves the geometry of layers and particles significantly.

  2. Rec-DCM-Eigen: Reconstructing a Less Parsimonious but More Accurate Tree in Shorter Time

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seunghwa; Tang, Jijun; Schaeffer, Stephen W.; Bader, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Maximum parsimony (MP) methods aim to reconstruct the phylogeny of extant species by finding the most parsimonious evolutionary scenario using the species' genome data. MP methods are considered to be accurate, but they are also computationally expensive especially for a large number of species. Several disk-covering methods (DCMs), which decompose the input species to multiple overlapping subgroups (or disks), have been proposed to solve the problem in a divide-and-conquer way. We design a new DCM based on the spectral method and also develop the COGNAC (Comparing Orders of Genes using Novel Algorithms and high-performance Computers) software package. COGNAC uses the new DCM to reduce the phylogenetic tree search space and selects an output tree from the reduced search space based on the MP principle. We test the new DCM using gene order data and inversion distance. The new DCM not only reduces the number of candidate tree topologies but also excludes erroneous tree topologies which can be selected by original MP methods. Initial labeling of internal genomes affects the accuracy of MP methods using gene order data, and the new DCM enables more accurate initial labeling as well. COGNAC demonstrates superior accuracy as a consequence. We compare COGNAC with FastME and the combination of the state of the art DCM (Rec-I-DCM3) and GRAPPA . COGNAC clearly outperforms FastME in accuracy. COGNAC –using the new DCM–also reconstructs a much more accurate tree in significantly shorter time than GRAPPA with Rec-I-DCM3. PMID:21887219

  3. Rec-DCM-Eigen: reconstructing a less parsimonious but more accurate tree in shorter time.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seunghwa; Tang, Jijun; Schaeffer, Stephen W; Bader, David A

    2011-01-01

    Maximum parsimony (MP) methods aim to reconstruct the phylogeny of extant species by finding the most parsimonious evolutionary scenario using the species' genome data. MP methods are considered to be accurate, but they are also computationally expensive especially for a large number of species. Several disk-covering methods (DCMs), which decompose the input species to multiple overlapping subgroups (or disks), have been proposed to solve the problem in a divide-and-conquer way. We design a new DCM based on the spectral method and also develop the COGNAC (Comparing Orders of Genes using Novel Algorithms and high-performance Computers) software package. COGNAC uses the new DCM to reduce the phylogenetic tree search space and selects an output tree from the reduced search space based on the MP principle. We test the new DCM using gene order data and inversion distance. The new DCM not only reduces the number of candidate tree topologies but also excludes erroneous tree topologies which can be selected by original MP methods. Initial labeling of internal genomes affects the accuracy of MP methods using gene order data, and the new DCM enables more accurate initial labeling as well. COGNAC demonstrates superior accuracy as a consequence. We compare COGNAC with FastME and the combination of the state of the art DCM (Rec-I-DCM3) and GRAPPA. COGNAC clearly outperforms FastME in accuracy. COGNAC--using the new DCM--also reconstructs a much more accurate tree in significantly shorter time than GRAPPA with Rec-I-DCM3.

  4. [A bird's eye view of the algorithms and software packages for reconstructing phylogenetic trees].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Na; Rong, Chang-He; He, Yuan; Guan, Qiong; He, Bin; Zhu, Xing-Wen; Liu, Jia-Ni; Chen, Hong-Ju

    2013-12-01

    The prototype phylogenetic tree, i.e., evolutionary "tree" or "tree of life", was first conceived by Charles Darwin in his seminal book "The Origin of Species", and its reconstructions have been approached by generations of biologists ever since. In this article, we briefly reviewed the major algorithms and software packages for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Specifically we discuss four categories of phylogeny algorithms including distance-matrix, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian framework, as well as software packages (PHYLIP, MEGA, MrBayes) based on them. PMID:24415699

  5. [A bird's eye view of the algorithms and software packages for reconstructing phylogenetic trees].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Na; Rong, Chang-He; He, Yuan; Guan, Qiong; He, Bin; Zhu, Xing-Wen; Liu, Jia-Ni; Chen, Hong-Ju

    2013-12-01

    The prototype phylogenetic tree, i.e., evolutionary "tree" or "tree of life", was first conceived by Charles Darwin in his seminal book "The Origin of Species", and its reconstructions have been approached by generations of biologists ever since. In this article, we briefly reviewed the major algorithms and software packages for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Specifically we discuss four categories of phylogeny algorithms including distance-matrix, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian framework, as well as software packages (PHYLIP, MEGA, MrBayes) based on them.

  6. PTreeRec: Phylogenetic Tree Reconstruction based on genome BLAST distance.

    PubMed

    Deng, Riqiang; Huang, Mingsong; Wang, Jinwen; Huang, Yuansen; Yang, Jie; Feng, Jinghua; Wang, Xunzhang

    2006-08-01

    Phylogenetic Tree Reconstruction (PTreeRec) is a web-based tool for automatic phylogeny inferences from whole-genome sequences, which accepts files of DNA sequences in the FASTA format and allows users to save the output tree file, and displays the inferred tree through an applet in a web browser. PTreeRec involves three basic steps. First, regions of maximal segment pairs (MSPs) based on an all-against-all pairwise comparison of genomes are located. Second, a distance matrix is calculated from MSP scores or coverage. Finally, a phylogenetic tree is reconstructed by the neighbor-joining method.

  7. Performance comparison between k-tuple distance and four model-based distances in phylogenetic tree reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kuan; Zhang, Liqing

    2008-03-01

    Phylogenetic tree reconstruction requires construction of a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) from sequences. Computationally, it is difficult to achieve an optimal MSA for many sequences. Moreover, even if an optimal MSA is obtained, it may not be the true MSA that reflects the evolutionary history of the underlying sequences. Therefore, errors can be introduced during MSA construction which in turn affects the subsequent phylogenetic tree construction. In order to circumvent this issue, we extend the application of the k-tuple distance to phylogenetic tree reconstruction. The k-tuple distance between two sequences is the sum of the differences in frequency, over all possible tuples of length k, between the sequences and can be estimated without MSAs. It has been traditionally used to build a fast 'guide tree' to assist the construction of MSAs. Using the 1470 simulated sets of sequences generated under different evolutionary scenarios, the neighbor-joining trees and BioNJ trees, we compared the performance of the k-tuple distance with four commonly used distance estimators including Jukes-Cantor, Kimura, F84 and Tamura-Nei. These four distance estimators fall into the category of model-based distance estimators, as each of them takes account of a specific substitution model in order to compute the distance between a pair of already aligned sequences. Results show that trees constructed from the k-tuple distance are more accurate than those from other distances most time; when the divergence between underlying sequences is high, the tree accuracy could be twice or higher using the k-tuple distance than other estimators. Furthermore, as the k-tuple distance voids the need for constructing an MSA, it can save tremendous amount of time for phylogenetic tree reconstructions when the data include a large number of sequences. PMID:18296485

  8. Accurate identification of paraprotein antigen targets by epitope reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sompuram, Seshi R.; Bastas, Gerassimos; Vani, Kodela

    2008-01-01

    We describe the first successful clinical application of a new discovery technology, epitope-mediated antigen prediction (E-MAP), to the investigation of multiple myeloma. Until now, there has been no reliable, systematic method to identify the cognate antigens of paraproteins. E-MAP is a variation of previous efforts to reconstruct the epitopes of paraproteins, with the significant difference that it provides enough epitope sequence data so as to enable successful protein database searches. We first reconstruct the paraprotein's epitope by analyzing the peptides that strongly bind. Then, we compile the data and interrogate the nonredundant protein database, searching for a close match. As a clinical proof-of-concept, we apply this technology to uncovering the protein targets of para-proteins in multiple myeloma (MM). E-MAP analysis of 2 MM paraproteins identified human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) as a target in both. E-MAP sequence analysis determined that one para-protein binds to the AD-2S1 epitope of HCMV glycoprotein B. The other binds to the amino terminus of the HCMV UL-48 gene product. We confirmed these predictions using immunoassays and immunoblot analyses. E-MAP represents a new investigative tool for analyzing the role of chronic antigenic stimulation in B-lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:17878398

  9. Suitability of cuticular pores and sensilla for harpacticoid copepod species delineation and phylogenetic reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Karanovic, Tomislav; Kim, Kichoon

    2014-11-01

    Cuticular organs have not been described systematically in harpacticoids until recently, and they haven ever been used as characters for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships in any crustacean group. We survey cuticular pores and sensilla on somites in ten Miraciidae species, belonging to six genera, from Korea, Australia, and Russia. Nine species belong to the subfamily Stenheliinae, while the outgroup belongs to the subfamily Diosaccinae. We aim to compare phylogenetic trees reconstructed for these harpactioids based on: 1) cuticular organs (with 76 characters scored, 71% of them phylogenetically informative); 2) traditionally used macro-morphological characters (66 scored, 77% of them informative);and 3) mtCOI DNA data. All analyses suggest that cuticular organs are useful characters for harpacticoid species delineation, although not as sensitive as some fast-evolving molecular markers. Reconstructed cladograms based on all three datasets show very high bootstrap values for clades representing distinct genera, suggesting that cuticular organs are suitable characters for studying phylogenetic relationships. Bootstrap values for the more basal nodes differ among the different cladograms,as do the sister-group relationships they suggest, indicating that cuticular organs probably have different evolutionary constraints from macro-morphological characters. Cuticular organs could be quite useful in the study of old museum specimens and fossil crustaceans. PMID:25264078

  10. Phylogenetic Reconstruction, Morphological Diversification and Generic Delimitation of Disepalum (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pui-Sze; Thomas, Daniel C.; Saunders, Richard M. K.

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomic delimitation of Disepalum (Annonaceae) is contentious, with some researchers favoring a narrow circumscription following segregation of the genus Enicosanthellum. We reconstruct the phylogeny of Disepalum and related taxa based on four chloroplast and two nuclear DNA regions as a framework for clarifying taxonomic delimitation and assessing evolutionary transitions in key morphological characters. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods resulted in a consistent, well-resolved and strongly supported topology. Disepalum s.l. is monophyletic and strongly supported, with Disepalum s.str. and Enicosanthellum retrieved as sister groups. Although this topology is consistent with both taxonomic delimitations, the distribution of morphological synapomorphies provides greater support for the inclusion of Enicosanthellum within Disepalum s.l. We propose a novel infrageneric classification with two subgenera. Subgen. Disepalum (= Disepalum s.str.) is supported by numerous synapomorphies, including the reduction of the calyx to two sepals and connation of petals. Subgen. Enicosanthellum lacks obvious morphological synapomorphies, but possesses several diagnostic characters (symplesiomorphies), including a trimerous calyx and free petals in two whorls. We evaluate changes in petal morphology in relation to hypotheses of the genetic control of floral development and suggest that the compression of two petal whorls into one and the associated fusion of contiguous petals may be associated with the loss of the pollination chamber, which in turn may be associated with a shift in primary pollinator. We also suggest that the formation of pollen octads may be selectively advantageous when pollinator visits are infrequent, although this would only be applicable if multiple ovules could be fertilized by each octad; since the flowers are apocarpous, this would require an extragynoecial compitum to enable intercarpellary growth of pollen tubes. We furthermore

  11. Phylogenetic Reconstruction, Morphological Diversification and Generic Delimitation of Disepalum (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Li, Pui-Sze; Thomas, Daniel C; Saunders, Richard M K

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomic delimitation of Disepalum (Annonaceae) is contentious, with some researchers favoring a narrow circumscription following segregation of the genus Enicosanthellum. We reconstruct the phylogeny of Disepalum and related taxa based on four chloroplast and two nuclear DNA regions as a framework for clarifying taxonomic delimitation and assessing evolutionary transitions in key morphological characters. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods resulted in a consistent, well-resolved and strongly supported topology. Disepalum s.l. is monophyletic and strongly supported, with Disepalum s.str. and Enicosanthellum retrieved as sister groups. Although this topology is consistent with both taxonomic delimitations, the distribution of morphological synapomorphies provides greater support for the inclusion of Enicosanthellum within Disepalum s.l. We propose a novel infrageneric classification with two subgenera. Subgen. Disepalum (= Disepalum s.str.) is supported by numerous synapomorphies, including the reduction of the calyx to two sepals and connation of petals. Subgen. Enicosanthellum lacks obvious morphological synapomorphies, but possesses several diagnostic characters (symplesiomorphies), including a trimerous calyx and free petals in two whorls. We evaluate changes in petal morphology in relation to hypotheses of the genetic control of floral development and suggest that the compression of two petal whorls into one and the associated fusion of contiguous petals may be associated with the loss of the pollination chamber, which in turn may be associated with a shift in primary pollinator. We also suggest that the formation of pollen octads may be selectively advantageous when pollinator visits are infrequent, although this would only be applicable if multiple ovules could be fertilized by each octad; since the flowers are apocarpous, this would require an extragynoecial compitum to enable intercarpellary growth of pollen tubes. We furthermore

  12. Phylogenetic Reconstruction, Morphological Diversification and Generic Delimitation of Disepalum (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Li, Pui-Sze; Thomas, Daniel C; Saunders, Richard M K

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomic delimitation of Disepalum (Annonaceae) is contentious, with some researchers favoring a narrow circumscription following segregation of the genus Enicosanthellum. We reconstruct the phylogeny of Disepalum and related taxa based on four chloroplast and two nuclear DNA regions as a framework for clarifying taxonomic delimitation and assessing evolutionary transitions in key morphological characters. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods resulted in a consistent, well-resolved and strongly supported topology. Disepalum s.l. is monophyletic and strongly supported, with Disepalum s.str. and Enicosanthellum retrieved as sister groups. Although this topology is consistent with both taxonomic delimitations, the distribution of morphological synapomorphies provides greater support for the inclusion of Enicosanthellum within Disepalum s.l. We propose a novel infrageneric classification with two subgenera. Subgen. Disepalum (= Disepalum s.str.) is supported by numerous synapomorphies, including the reduction of the calyx to two sepals and connation of petals. Subgen. Enicosanthellum lacks obvious morphological synapomorphies, but possesses several diagnostic characters (symplesiomorphies), including a trimerous calyx and free petals in two whorls. We evaluate changes in petal morphology in relation to hypotheses of the genetic control of floral development and suggest that the compression of two petal whorls into one and the associated fusion of contiguous petals may be associated with the loss of the pollination chamber, which in turn may be associated with a shift in primary pollinator. We also suggest that the formation of pollen octads may be selectively advantageous when pollinator visits are infrequent, although this would only be applicable if multiple ovules could be fertilized by each octad; since the flowers are apocarpous, this would require an extragynoecial compitum to enable intercarpellary growth of pollen tubes. We furthermore

  13. Patient-Specific Orbital Implants: Development and Implementation of Technology for More Accurate Orbital Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Podolsky, Dale J; Mainprize, James G; Edwards, Glenn P; Antonyshyn, Oleh M

    2016-01-01

    Fracture of the orbital floor is commonly seen in facial trauma. Accurate anatomical reconstruction of the orbital floor contour is challenging. The authors demonstrate a novel method to more precisely reconstruct the orbital floor on a 50-year-old female who sustained an orbital floor fracture following a fall. Results of the reconstruction show excellent reapproximation of the native orbital floor contour and complete resolution of her enopthalmos and facial asymmetry. PMID:26674886

  14. Beyond Linear Sequence Comparisons: The use of genome-levelcharacters for phylogenetic reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-11-27

    Although the phylogenetic relationships of many organisms have been convincingly resolved by the comparisons of nucleotide or amino acid sequences, others have remained equivocal despite great effort. Now that large-scale genome sequencing projects are sampling many lineages, it is becoming feasible to compare large data sets of genome-level features and to develop this as a tool for phylogenetic reconstruction that has advantages over conventional sequence comparisons. Although it is unlikely that these will address a large number of evolutionary branch points across the broad tree of life due to the infeasibility of such sampling, they have great potential for convincingly resolving many critical, contested relationships for which no other data seems promising. However, it is important that we recognize potential pitfalls, establish reasonable standards for acceptance, and employ rigorous methodology to guard against a return to earlier days of scenario-driven evolutionary reconstructions.

  15. Effects of phylogenetic reconstruction method on the robustness of species delimitation using single-locus data

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Cuong Q; Humphreys, Aelys M; Fontaneto, Diego; Barraclough, Timothy G; Paradis, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Coalescent-based species delimitation methods combine population genetic and phylogenetic theory to provide an objective means for delineating evolutionarily significant units of diversity. The generalised mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) and the Poisson tree process (PTP) are methods that use ultrametric (GMYC or PTP) or non-ultrametric (PTP) gene trees as input, intended for use mostly with single-locus data such as DNA barcodes. Here, we assess how robust the GMYC and PTP are to different phylogenetic reconstruction and branch smoothing methods. We reconstruct over 400 ultrametric trees using up to 30 different combinations of phylogenetic and smoothing methods and perform over 2000 separate species delimitation analyses across 16 empirical data sets. We then assess how variable diversity estimates are, in terms of richness and identity, with respect to species delimitation, phylogenetic and smoothing methods. The PTP method generally generates diversity estimates that are more robust to different phylogenetic methods. The GMYC is more sensitive, but provides consistent estimates for BEAST trees. The lower consistency of GMYC estimates is likely a result of differences among gene trees introduced by the smoothing step. Unresolved nodes (real anomalies or methodological artefacts) affect both GMYC and PTP estimates, but have a greater effect on GMYC estimates. Branch smoothing is a difficult step and perhaps an underappreciated source of bias that may be widespread among studies of diversity and diversification. Nevertheless, careful choice of phylogenetic method does produce equivalent PTP and GMYC diversity estimates. We recommend simultaneous use of the PTP model with any model-based gene tree (e.g. RAxML) and GMYC approaches with BEAST trees for obtaining species hypotheses. PMID:25821577

  16. Phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Sleator, Roy D

    2011-04-01

    The recent rapid expansion in the DNA and protein databases, arising from large-scale genomic and metagenomic sequence projects, has forced significant development in the field of phylogenetics: the study of the evolutionary relatedness of the planet's inhabitants. Advances in phylogenetic analysis have greatly transformed our view of the landscape of evolutionary biology, transcending the view of the tree of life that has shaped evolutionary theory since Darwinian times. Indeed, modern phylogenetic analysis no longer focuses on the restricted Darwinian-Mendelian model of vertical gene transfer, but must also consider the significant degree of lateral gene transfer, which connects and shapes almost all living things. Herein, I review the major tree-building methods, their strengths, weaknesses and future prospects. PMID:21249334

  17. Fast and accurate computation of system matrix for area integral model-based algebraic reconstruction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shunli; Zhang, Dinghua; Gong, Hao; Ghasemalizadeh, Omid; Wang, Ge; Cao, Guohua

    2014-11-01

    Iterative algorithms, such as the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART), are popular for image reconstruction. For iterative reconstruction, the area integral model (AIM) is more accurate for better reconstruction quality than the line integral model (LIM). However, the computation of the system matrix for AIM is more complex and time-consuming than that for LIM. Here, we propose a fast and accurate method to compute the system matrix for AIM. First, we calculate the intersection of each boundary line of a narrow fan-beam with pixels in a recursive and efficient manner. Then, by grouping the beam-pixel intersection area into six types according to the slopes of the two boundary lines, we analytically compute the intersection area of the narrow fan-beam with the pixels in a simple algebraic fashion. Overall, experimental results show that our method is about three times faster than the Siddon algorithm and about two times faster than the distance-driven model (DDM) in computation of the system matrix. The reconstruction speed of our AIM-based ART is also faster than the LIM-based ART that uses the Siddon algorithm and DDM-based ART, for one iteration. The fast reconstruction speed of our method was accomplished without compromising the image quality.

  18. Which came first: The lizard or the egg? Robustness in phylogenetic reconstruction of ancestral states.

    PubMed

    Wright, April M; Lyons, Kathleen M; Brandley, Matthew C; Hillis, David M

    2015-09-01

    Changes in parity mode between egg-laying (oviparity) and live-bearing (viviparity) have occurred repeatedly throughout vertebrate evolution. Oviparity is the ancestral amniote state, and viviparity has evolved many times independently within amniotes (especially in lizards and snakes), with possibly a few reversions to oviparity. In amniotes, the shelled egg is considered a complex structure that is unlikely to re-evolve if lost (i.e., it is an example of Dollo's Principle). However, a recent ancestral state reconstruction analysis concluded that viviparity was the ancestral state of squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes), and that oviparity re-evolved from viviparity many times throughout the evolutionary history of squamates. Here, we re-evaluate support for this provocative conclusion by testing the sensitivity of the analysis to model assumptions and estimates of squamate phylogeny. We found that the models and methods used for parity mode reconstruction are highly sensitive to the specific estimate of phylogeny used, and that the point estimate of phylogeny used to suggest that viviparity is the root state of the squamate tree is far from an optimal phylogenetic solution. The ancestral state reconstructions are also highly sensitive to model choice and specific values of model parameters. A method that is designed to account for biases in taxon sampling actually accentuates, rather than lessens, those biases with respect to ancestral state reconstructions. In contrast to recent conclusions from the same data set, we find that ancestral state reconstruction analyses provide highly equivocal support for the number and direction of transitions between oviparity and viviparity in squamates. Moreover, the reconstructions of ancestral parity state are highly dependent on the assumptions of each model. We conclude that the common ancestor of squamates was oviparous, and subsequent evolutionary transitions to viviparity were common, but reversals to oviparity were

  19. How Accurate and Robust Are the Phylogenetic Estimates of Austronesian Language Relationships?

    PubMed Central

    Greenhill, Simon J.; Drummond, Alexei J.; Gray, Russell D.

    2010-01-01

    We recently used computational phylogenetic methods on lexical data to test between two scenarios for the peopling of the Pacific. Our analyses of lexical data supported a pulse-pause scenario of Pacific settlement in which the Austronesian speakers originated in Taiwan around 5,200 years ago and rapidly spread through the Pacific in a series of expansion pulses and settlement pauses. We claimed that there was high congruence between traditional language subgroups and those observed in the language phylogenies, and that the estimated age of the Austronesian expansion at 5,200 years ago was consistent with the archaeological evidence. However, the congruence between the language phylogenies and the evidence from historical linguistics was not quantitatively assessed using tree comparison metrics. The robustness of the divergence time estimates to different calibration points was also not investigated exhaustively. Here we address these limitations by using a systematic tree comparison metric to calculate the similarity between the Bayesian phylogenetic trees and the subgroups proposed by historical linguistics, and by re-estimating the age of the Austronesian expansion using only the most robust calibrations. The results show that the Austronesian language phylogenies are highly congruent with the traditional subgroupings, and the date estimates are robust even when calculated using a restricted set of historical calibrations. PMID:20224774

  20. Algorithms for efficient near-perfect phylogenetic tree reconstruction in theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Srinath; Dhamdhere, Kedar; Blelloch, Guy; Halperin, Eran; Ravi, R; Schwartz, Russell

    2007-01-01

    We consider the problem of reconstructing near-perfect phylogenetic trees using binary character states (referred to as BNPP). A perfect phylogeny assumes that every character mutates at most once in the evolutionary tree, yielding an algorithm for binary character states that is computationally efficient but not robust to imperfections in real data. A near-perfect phylogeny relaxes the perfect phylogeny assumption by allowing at most a constant number of additional mutations. We develop two algorithms for constructing optimal near-perfect phylogenies and provide empirical evidence of their performance. The first simple algorithm is fixed parameter tractable when the number of additional mutations and the number of characters that share four gametes with some other character are constants. The second, more involved algorithm for the problem is fixed parameter tractable when only the number of additional mutations is fixed. We have implemented both algorithms and shown them to be extremely efficient in practice on biologically significant data sets. This work proves the BNPP problem fixed parameter tractable and provides the first practical phylogenetic tree reconstruction algorithms that find guaranteed optimal solutions while being easily implemented and computationally feasible for data sets of biologically meaningful size and complexity.

  1. Fast, automatic, and accurate catheter reconstruction in HDR brachytherapy using an electromagnetic 3D tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    Poulin, Eric; Racine, Emmanuel; Beaulieu, Luc; Binnekamp, Dirk

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: In high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-B), current catheter reconstruction protocols are relatively slow and error prone. The purpose of this technical note is to evaluate the accuracy and the robustness of an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system for automated and real-time catheter reconstruction. Methods: For this preclinical study, a total of ten catheters were inserted in gelatin phantoms with different trajectories. Catheters were reconstructed using a 18G biopsy needle, used as an EM stylet and equipped with a miniaturized sensor, and the second generation Aurora{sup ®} Planar Field Generator from Northern Digital Inc. The Aurora EM system provides position and orientation value with precisions of 0.7 mm and 0.2°, respectively. Phantoms were also scanned using a μCT (GE Healthcare) and Philips Big Bore clinical computed tomography (CT) system with a spatial resolution of 89 μm and 2 mm, respectively. Reconstructions using the EM stylet were compared to μCT and CT. To assess the robustness of the EM reconstruction, five catheters were reconstructed twice and compared. Results: Reconstruction time for one catheter was 10 s, leading to a total reconstruction time inferior to 3 min for a typical 17-catheter implant. When compared to the μCT, the mean EM tip identification error was 0.69 ± 0.29 mm while the CT error was 1.08 ± 0.67 mm. The mean 3D distance error was found to be 0.66 ± 0.33 mm and 1.08 ± 0.72 mm for the EM and CT, respectively. EM 3D catheter trajectories were found to be more accurate. A maximum difference of less than 0.6 mm was found between successive EM reconstructions. Conclusions: The EM reconstruction was found to be more accurate and precise than the conventional methods used for catheter reconstruction in HDR-B. This approach can be applied to any type of catheters and applicators.

  2. Ecomorphology and phylogenetic risk: Implications for habitat reconstruction using fossil bovids.

    PubMed

    Scott, Robert S; Barr, W Andrew

    2014-08-01

    Reconstructions of paleohabitats are necessary aids in understanding hominin evolution. The morphology of species from relevant sites, understood in terms of functional relationships to habitat (termed ecomorphology), offers a direct link to habitat. Bovids are a speciose radiation that includes many habitat specialists and are abundant in the fossil record. Thus, bovids are extremely common in ecomorphological analyses. However, bovid phylogeny and habitat preference are related, which raises the possibility that analyses linking habitat with morphology are not 'taxon free' but 'taxon-dependent.' Here we analyze eight relative dimensions and one shape index of the metatarsal for a sample of 72 bovid species and one antilocaprid. The selected variables have been previously shown to have strong associations with habitat and to have functional explanations for these associations. Phylogenetic generalized least squares analyses of these variables, including habitat and size, resulted in estimates for the parameter lambda (used to model phylogenetic signal) varying from zero to one. Thus, while phylogeny, morphology, and habitat all march together among the bovids, the odds that phylogeny confounds ecomorphological analyses may vary depending on particular morphological characteristics. While large values of lambda do not necessarily indicate that habitat differences are unimportant drivers of morphology, we consider the low value of lambda for relative metatarsal width suggestive that conclusions about habitat built on observations of this particular morphology carry with them less 'phylogenetic risk.' We suggest that the way forward for ecomorphology is grounded in functionally relevant observations and careful consideration of phylogeny designed to bracket probable habitat preferences appropriately. Separate consideration of different morphological variables may help to determine the level of 'phylogenetic risk' attached to conclusions linking habitat and morphology.

  3. Automated End-to-End Workflow for Precise and Geo-accurate Reconstructions using Fiducial Markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumpler, M.; Daftry, S.; Tscharf, A.; Prettenthaler, R.; Hoppe, C.; Mayer, G.; Bischof, H.

    2014-08-01

    Photogrammetric computer vision systems have been well established in many scientific and commercial fields during the last decades. Recent developments in image-based 3D reconstruction systems in conjunction with the availability of affordable high quality digital consumer grade cameras have resulted in an easy way of creating visually appealing 3D models. However, many of these methods require manual steps in the processing chain and for many photogrammetric applications such as mapping, recurrent topographic surveys or architectural and archaeological 3D documentations, high accuracy in a geo-coordinate system is required which often cannot be guaranteed. Hence, in this paper we present and advocate a fully automated end-to-end workflow for precise and geoaccurate 3D reconstructions using fiducial markers. We integrate an automatic camera calibration and georeferencing method into our image-based reconstruction pipeline based on binary-coded fiducial markers as artificial, individually identifiable landmarks in the scene. Additionally, we facilitate the use of these markers in conjunction with known ground control points (GCP) in the bundle adjustment, and use an online feedback method that allows assessment of the final reconstruction quality in terms of image overlap, ground sampling distance (GSD) and completeness, and thus provides flexibility to adopt the image acquisition strategy already during image recording. An extensive set of experiments is presented which demonstrate the accuracy benefits to obtain a highly accurate and geographically aligned reconstruction with an absolute point position uncertainty of about 1.5 times the ground sampling distance.

  4. Reconstruction of applicator positions from multiple-view images for accurate superficial hyperthermia treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drizdal, T.; Paulides, M. M.; Linthorst, M.; van Rhoon, G. C.

    2012-05-01

    In the current clinical practice, prior to superficial hyperthermia treatments (HT), temperature probes are placed in tissue to document a thermal dose. To investigate whether the painful procedure of catheter placement can be replaced by superficial HT planning, we study if the specific absorption rate (SAR) coverage is predictive for treatment outcome. An absolute requirement for such a study is the accurate reconstruction of the applicator setup. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the applicator setup reconstruction from multiple-view images. The accuracy of the multiple-view reconstruction method has been assessed for two experimental setups using six lucite cone applicators (LCAs) representing the largest array applied at our clinic and also the most difficult scenario for the reconstruction. For the two experimental setups and 112 distances, the mean difference between photogrametry reconstructed and manually measured distances was 0.25 ± 0.79 mm (mean±1 standard deviation). By a parameter study of translation T (mm) and rotation R (°) of LCAs, we showed that these inaccuracies are clinically acceptable, i.e. they are either from ±1.02 mm error in translation or ±0.48° in rotation, or combinations expressed by 4.35R2 + 0.97T2 = 1. We anticipate that such small errors will not have a relevant influence on the SAR distribution in the treated region. The clinical applicability of the procedure is shown on a patient with a breast cancer recurrence treated with reirradiation plus superficial hyperthermia using the six-LCA array. The total reconstruction procedure of six LCAs from a set of ten photos currently takes around 1.5 h. We conclude that the reconstruction of superficial HT setup from multiple-view images is feasible and only minor errors are found that will have a negligible influence on treatment planning quality.

  5. An evolutionary model-based algorithm for accurate phylogenetic breakpoint mapping and subtype prediction in HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L; Posada, David; Stawiski, Eric; Chappey, Colombe; Poon, Art F Y; Hughes, Gareth; Fearnhill, Esther; Gravenor, Mike B; Leigh Brown, Andrew J; Frost, Simon D W

    2009-11-01

    Genetically diverse pathogens (such as Human Immunodeficiency virus type 1, HIV-1) are frequently stratified into phylogenetically or immunologically defined subtypes for classification purposes. Computational identification of such subtypes is helpful in surveillance, epidemiological analysis and detection of novel variants, e.g., circulating recombinant forms in HIV-1. A number of conceptually and technically different techniques have been proposed for determining the subtype of a query sequence, but there is not a universally optimal approach. We present a model-based phylogenetic method for automatically subtyping an HIV-1 (or other viral or bacterial) sequence, mapping the location of breakpoints and assigning parental sequences in recombinant strains as well as computing confidence levels for the inferred quantities. Our Subtype Classification Using Evolutionary ALgorithms (SCUEAL) procedure is shown to perform very well in a variety of simulation scenarios, runs in parallel when multiple sequences are being screened, and matches or exceeds the performance of existing approaches on typical empirical cases. We applied SCUEAL to all available polymerase (pol) sequences from two large databases, the Stanford Drug Resistance database and the UK HIV Drug Resistance Database. Comparing with subtypes which had previously been assigned revealed that a minor but substantial (approximately 5%) fraction of pure subtype sequences may in fact be within- or inter-subtype recombinants. A free implementation of SCUEAL is provided as a module for the HyPhy package and the Datamonkey web server. Our method is especially useful when an accurate automatic classification of an unknown strain is desired, and is positioned to complement and extend faster but less accurate methods. Given the increasingly frequent use of HIV subtype information in studies focusing on the effect of subtype on treatment, clinical outcome, pathogenicity and vaccine design, the importance of accurate

  6. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the Drosophila obscura group, on the basis of mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Barrio, E; Latorre, A; Moya, A; Ayala, F J

    1992-07-01

    We have constructed restriction-site maps of the mtDNAs in 13 species and one subspecies of the Drosophila obscura group. The traditional division of this group into two subgroups (affinis and obscura) does not correspond to the phylogeny of the group, which shows two well-defined clusters (the Nearctic affinis and pseudoobscura subgroups) plus a very heterogeneous set of anciently diverged species (the Palearctic obscura subgroup). The mtDNA of Drosophila exhibits a tendency to evolve toward high A+T values. This leads to a "saturation" effect that (1) begets an apparent decrease in the rate of evolution as the time since the divergence of taxa increases and (2) reduces the value that mtDNA restriction analysis has for the phylogenetic reconstruction of Drosophila species that are not closely related.

  7. Reconstructing accurate ToF-SIMS depth profiles for organic materials with differential sputter rates

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Adam J.; Graham, Daniel J.; Castner, David G.

    2015-01-01

    To properly process and reconstruct 3D ToF-SIMS data from systems such as multi-component polymers, drug delivery scaffolds, cells and tissues, it is important to understand the sputtering behavior of the sample. Modern cluster sources enable efficient and stable sputtering of many organics materials. However, not all materials sputter at the same rate and few studies have explored how different sputter rates may distort reconstructed depth profiles of multicomponent materials. In this study spun-cast bilayer polymer films of polystyrene and PMMA are used as model systems to optimize methods for the reconstruction of depth profiles in systems exhibiting different sputter rates between components. Transforming the bilayer depth profile from sputter time to depth using a single sputter rate fails to account for sputter rate variations during the profile. This leads to inaccurate apparent layer thicknesses and interfacial positions, as well as the appearance of continued sputtering into the substrate. Applying measured single component sputter rates to the bilayer films with a step change in sputter rate at the interfaces yields more accurate film thickness and interface positions. The transformation can be further improved by applying a linear sputter rate transition across the interface, thus modeling the sputter rate changes seen in polymer blends. This more closely reflects the expected sputtering behavior. This study highlights the need for both accurate evaluation of component sputter rates and the careful conversion of sputter time to depth, if accurate 3D reconstructions of complex multi-component organic and biological samples are to be achieved. The effects of errors in sputter rate determination are also explored. PMID:26185799

  8. TreSpEx—Detection of Misleading Signal in Phylogenetic Reconstructions Based on Tree Information

    PubMed Central

    Struck, Torsten H

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenies of species or genes are commonplace nowadays in many areas of comparative biological studies. However, for phylogenetic reconstructions one must refer to artificial signals such as paralogy, long-branch attraction, saturation, or conflict between different datasets. These signals might eventually mislead the reconstruction even in phylogenomic studies employing hundreds of genes. Unfortunately, there has been no program allowing the detection of such effects in combination with an implementation into automatic process pipelines. TreSpEx (Tree Space Explorer) now combines different approaches (including statistical tests), which utilize tree-based information like nodal support or patristic distances (PDs) to identify misleading signals. The program enables the parallel analysis of hundreds of trees and/or predefined gene partitions, and being command-line driven, it can be integrated into automatic process pipelines. TreSpEx is implemented in Perl and supported on Linux, Mac OS X, and MS Windows. Source code, binaries, and additional material are freely available at http://www.annelida.de/research/bioinformatics/software.html. PMID:24701118

  9. IVUSAngio tool: a publicly available software for fast and accurate 3D reconstruction of coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Doulaverakis, Charalampos; Tsampoulatidis, Ioannis; Antoniadis, Antonios P; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S; Giannopoulos, Andreas; Kompatsiaris, Ioannis; Giannoglou, George D

    2013-11-01

    There is an ongoing research and clinical interest in the development of reliable and easily accessible software for the 3D reconstruction of coronary arteries. In this work, we present the architecture and validation of IVUSAngio Tool, an application which performs fast and accurate 3D reconstruction of the coronary arteries by using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and biplane angiography data. The 3D reconstruction is based on the fusion of the detected arterial boundaries in IVUS images with the 3D IVUS catheter path derived from the biplane angiography. The IVUSAngio Tool suite integrates all the intermediate processing and computational steps and provides a user-friendly interface. It also offers additional functionality, such as automatic selection of the end-diastolic IVUS images, semi-automatic and automatic IVUS segmentation, vascular morphometric measurements, graphical visualization of the 3D model and export in a format compatible with other computer-aided design applications. Our software was applied and validated in 31 human coronary arteries yielding quite promising results. Collectively, the use of IVUSAngio Tool significantly reduces the total processing time for 3D coronary reconstruction. IVUSAngio Tool is distributed as free software, publicly available to download and use.

  10. Accurate 3D reconstruction of complex blood vessel geometries from intravascular ultrasound images: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, K R; Thubrikar, M J; Fowler, B; Mostafavi, M T; Funk, M W

    2000-01-01

    We present a technique that accurately reconstructs complex three dimensional blood vessel geometry from 2D intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) images. Biplane x-ray fluoroscopy is used to image the ultrasound catheter tip at a few key points along its path as the catheter is pulled through the blood vessel. An interpolating spline describes the continuous catheter path. The IVUS images are located orthogonal to the path, resulting in a non-uniform structured scalar volume of echo densities. Isocontour surfaces are used to view the vessel geometry, while transparency and clipping enable interactive exploration of interior structures. The two geometries studied are a bovine artery vascular graft having U-shape and a constriction, and a canine carotid artery having multiple branches and a constriction. Accuracy of the reconstructions is established by comparing the reconstructions to (1) silicone moulds of the vessel interior, (2) biplane x-ray images, and (3) the original echo images. Excellent shape and geometry correspondence was observed in both geometries. Quantitative measurements made at key locations of the 3D reconstructions also were in good agreement with those made in silicone moulds. The proposed technique is easily adoptable in clinical practice, since it uses x-rays with minimal exposure and existing IVUS technology. PMID:11105284

  11. Estimating the Effective Permittivity for Reconstructing Accurate Microwave-Radar Images.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Benjamin R; Okoniewski, Michal; Fear, Elise C

    2016-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a method for estimating the optimal effective permittivity for reconstructing microwave-radar images. Using knowledge of how microwave-radar images are formed, we identify characteristics that are typical of good images, and define a fitness function to measure the relative image quality. We build a polynomial interpolant of the fitness function in order to identify the most likely permittivity values of the tissue. To make the estimation process more efficient, the polynomial interpolant is constructed using a locally and dimensionally adaptive sampling method that is a novel combination of stochastic collocation and polynomial chaos. Examples, using a series of simulated, experimental and patient data collected using the Tissue Sensing Adaptive Radar system, which is under development at the University of Calgary, are presented. These examples show how, using our method, accurate images can be reconstructed starting with only a broad estimate of the permittivity range.

  12. Estimating the Effective Permittivity for Reconstructing Accurate Microwave-Radar Images

    PubMed Central

    Lavoie, Benjamin R.; Okoniewski, Michal; Fear, Elise C.

    2016-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a method for estimating the optimal effective permittivity for reconstructing microwave-radar images. Using knowledge of how microwave-radar images are formed, we identify characteristics that are typical of good images, and define a fitness function to measure the relative image quality. We build a polynomial interpolant of the fitness function in order to identify the most likely permittivity values of the tissue. To make the estimation process more efficient, the polynomial interpolant is constructed using a locally and dimensionally adaptive sampling method that is a novel combination of stochastic collocation and polynomial chaos. Examples, using a series of simulated, experimental and patient data collected using the Tissue Sensing Adaptive Radar system, which is under development at the University of Calgary, are presented. These examples show how, using our method, accurate images can be reconstructed starting with only a broad estimate of the permittivity range. PMID:27611785

  13. Estimating the Effective Permittivity for Reconstructing Accurate Microwave-Radar Images.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Benjamin R; Okoniewski, Michal; Fear, Elise C

    2016-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a method for estimating the optimal effective permittivity for reconstructing microwave-radar images. Using knowledge of how microwave-radar images are formed, we identify characteristics that are typical of good images, and define a fitness function to measure the relative image quality. We build a polynomial interpolant of the fitness function in order to identify the most likely permittivity values of the tissue. To make the estimation process more efficient, the polynomial interpolant is constructed using a locally and dimensionally adaptive sampling method that is a novel combination of stochastic collocation and polynomial chaos. Examples, using a series of simulated, experimental and patient data collected using the Tissue Sensing Adaptive Radar system, which is under development at the University of Calgary, are presented. These examples show how, using our method, accurate images can be reconstructed starting with only a broad estimate of the permittivity range. PMID:27611785

  14. Accurate multiple view 3D reconstruction using patch-based stereo for large-scale scenes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shuhan

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a depth-map merging based multiple view stereo method for large-scale scenes which takes both accuracy and efficiency into account. In the proposed method, an efficient patch-based stereo matching process is used to generate depth-map at each image with acceptable errors, followed by a depth-map refinement process to enforce consistency over neighboring views. Compared to state-of-the-art methods, the proposed method can reconstruct quite accurate and dense point clouds with high computational efficiency. Besides, the proposed method could be easily parallelized at image level, i.e., each depth-map is computed individually, which makes it suitable for large-scale scene reconstruction with high resolution images. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method are evaluated quantitatively on benchmark data and qualitatively on large data sets.

  15. Complete mitochondrial genomes of five skippers (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) and phylogenetic reconstruction of Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jee; Wang, Ah Rha; Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Iksoo

    2014-10-01

    We sequenced mitogenomes of five skippers (family Hesperiidae, Lepidoptera) to obtain further insight into the characteristics of butterfly mitogenomes and performed phylogenetic reconstruction using all available gene sequences (PCGs, rRNAs, and tRNAs) from 85 species (20 families in eight superfamilies). The general genomic features found in the butterflies also were found in the five skippers: a high A+T composition (79.3%-80.9%), dominant usage of TAA stop codon, similar skewness pattern in both strands, consistently length intergenic spacer sequence between tRNA(Gln) and ND2 (64-87 bp), conserved ATACTAA motif between tRNA(Ser (UCN)) and ND1, and characteristic features of the A+T-rich region (the ATAGA motif, varying length of poly-T stretch, and poly-A stretch). The start codon for COI was CGA in four skippers as typical, but Lobocla bifasciatus evidently possessed canonical ATG as start codon. All species had the ancestral arrangement tRNA(Asn)/tRNA(Ser (AGN)), instead of the rearrangement tRNA(Ser (AGN))/tRNA(Asn), found in another skipper species (Erynnis). Phylogenetic analyses using all available genes (PCGs, rRNAS, and tRNAs) yielded the consensus superfamilial relationships ((((((Bombycoidea+Noctuoidea+Geometroidea)+Pyraloidea)+Papilionoidea)+Tortricoidea)+Yponomeutoidea)+Hepialoidea), confirming the validity of Macroheterocera (Bombycoidea, Noctuoidea, and Geometroidea in this study) and its sister relationship to Pyraloidea. Within Rhopalocera (butterflies and skippers) the familial relationships (Papilionidae+(Hesperiidae+(Pieridae+((Lycaenidae+Riodinidae)+Nymphalidae)))) were strongly supported in all analyses (0.98-1 by BI and 96-100 by ML methods), rendering invalid the superfamily status for Hesperioidea. On the other hand, current mitogenome-based phylogeny did not find consistent superfamilial relationships among Noctuoidea, Geometroidea, and Bombycoidea and the familial relationships within Bombycoidea between analyses, requiring further

  16. Accurate 3D reconstruction by a new PDS-OSEM algorithm for HRRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tai-Been; Horng-Shing Lu, Henry; Kim, Hang-Keun; Son, Young-Don; Cho, Zang-Hee

    2014-03-01

    State-of-the-art high resolution research tomography (HRRT) provides high resolution PET images with full 3D human brain scanning. But, a short time frame in dynamic study causes many problems related to the low counts in the acquired data. The PDS-OSEM algorithm was proposed to reconstruct the HRRT image with a high signal-to-noise ratio that provides accurate information for dynamic data. The new algorithm was evaluated by simulated image, empirical phantoms, and real human brain data. Meanwhile, the time activity curve was adopted to validate a reconstructed performance of dynamic data between PDS-OSEM and OP-OSEM algorithms. According to simulated and empirical studies, the PDS-OSEM algorithm reconstructs images with higher quality, higher accuracy, less noise, and less average sum of square error than those of OP-OSEM. The presented algorithm is useful to provide quality images under the condition of low count rates in dynamic studies with a short scan time.

  17. Phylogenetic Reconstruction of the Legionella pneumophila Philadelphia-1 Laboratory Strains through Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Ensminger, Alexander W.

    2013-01-01

    Over 20 years ago, two groups independently domesticated Legionella pneumophila from a clinical isolate of bacteria collected during the first recognized outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease (at the 1976 American Legion’s convention in Philadelphia). These two laboratory strains, JR32 and Lp01, along with their derivatives, have been disseminated to a number of laboratories around the world and form the cornerstone of much of the research conducted on this important pathogen to date. Nevertheless, no exhaustive examination of the genetic distance between these strains and their clinical progenitor has been performed thus far. Such information is of paramount importance for making sense of several phenotypic differences observed between these strains. As environmental replication of L. pneumophila is thought to exclusively occur within natural protozoan hosts, retrospective analysis of the domestication and axenic culture of the Philadelphia-1 progenitor strain by two independent groups also provides an excellent opportunity to uncover evidence of adaptation to the laboratory environment. To reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships between the common laboratory strains of L. pneumophila Philadelphia-1 and their clinical ancestor, we performed whole-genome Illumina resequencing of the two founders of each laboratory lineage: JR32 and Lp01. As expected from earlier, targeted studies, Lp01 and JR32 contain large deletions in the lvh and tra regions, respectively. By sequencing additional strains derived from Lp01 (Lp02 and Lp03), we retraced the phylogeny of these strains relative to their reported ancestor, thereby reconstructing the evolutionary dynamics of each laboratory lineage from genomic data. PMID:23717549

  18. A Quadratic Spline based Interface (QUASI) reconstruction algorithm for accurate tracking of two-phase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diwakar, S. V.; Das, Sarit K.; Sundararajan, T.

    2009-12-01

    A new Quadratic Spline based Interface (QUASI) reconstruction algorithm is presented which provides an accurate and continuous representation of the interface in a multiphase domain and facilitates the direct estimation of local interfacial curvature. The fluid interface in each of the mixed cells is represented by piecewise parabolic curves and an initial discontinuous PLIC approximation of the interface is progressively converted into a smooth quadratic spline made of these parabolic curves. The conversion is achieved by a sequence of predictor-corrector operations enforcing function ( C0) and derivative ( C1) continuity at the cell boundaries using simple analytical expressions for the continuity requirements. The efficacy and accuracy of the current algorithm has been demonstrated using standard test cases involving reconstruction of known static interface shapes and dynamically evolving interfaces in prescribed flow situations. These benchmark studies illustrate that the present algorithm performs excellently as compared to the other interface reconstruction methods available in literature. Quadratic rate of error reduction with respect to grid size has been observed in all the cases with curved interface shapes; only in situations where the interface geometry is primarily flat, the rate of convergence becomes linear with the mesh size. The flow algorithm implemented in the current work is designed to accurately balance the pressure gradients with the surface tension force at any location. As a consequence, it is able to minimize spurious flow currents arising from imperfect normal stress balance at the interface. This has been demonstrated through the standard test problem of an inviscid droplet placed in a quiescent medium. Finally, the direct curvature estimation ability of the current algorithm is illustrated through the coupled multiphase flow problem of a deformable air bubble rising through a column of water.

  19. Phylogenetic reconstruction of parental-care systems in the ancestors of birds.

    PubMed Central

    Tullberg, Birgitta S; Ah-King, Malin; Temrin, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Due to the controversy surrounding incipient avian parental care, ancestral parental care systems were reconstructed in a phylogeny including major extant amniote lineages. Using two different resolutions for the basal avian branches, transitions between the states no care, female care, biparental care and male care were inferred for the most basal branches of the tree. Uniparental female care was inferred for the lineage to birds and crocodiles. Using a phylogeny where ratites and tinamous branch off early and an ordered character-state assumption, a transition to biparental care was inferred for the ancestor of birds. This ancestor could be any organism along the lineage leading from the crocodile-bird split up to modern birds, not necessarily the original bird. We discuss the support for alternative avian phylogenies and the homology in parental care between crocodiles and birds. We suggest that the phylogenetic pattern should be used as a starting point for a more detailed analysis of parental care systems in birds and their relatives. PMID:11958694

  20. A Fast and Accurate Sparse Continuous Signal Reconstruction by Homotopy DCD with Non-Convex Regularization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianyun; Lu, Xinfei; Yu, Xiaofei; Xi, Zhendong; Chen, Weidong

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, various applications regarding sparse continuous signal recovery such as source localization, radar imaging, communication channel estimation, etc., have been addressed from the perspective of compressive sensing (CS) theory. However, there are two major defects that need to be tackled when considering any practical utilization. The first issue is off-grid problem caused by the basis mismatch between arbitrary located unknowns and the pre-specified dictionary, which would make conventional CS reconstruction methods degrade considerably. The second important issue is the urgent demand for low-complexity algorithms, especially when faced with the requirement of real-time implementation. In this paper, to deal with these two problems, we have presented three fast and accurate sparse reconstruction algorithms, termed as HR-DCD, Hlog-DCD and Hlp-DCD, which are based on homotopy, dichotomous coordinate descent (DCD) iterations and non-convex regularizations, by combining with the grid refinement technique. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms and related analysis. PMID:24675758

  1. Molecular and morphological data supporting phylogenetic reconstruction of the genus Goniothalamus (Annonaceae), including a reassessment of previous infrageneric classifications

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chin Cheung; Thomas, Daniel C.; Saunders, Richard M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Data is presented in support of a phylogenetic reconstruction of the species-rich early-divergent angiosperm genus Goniothalamus (Annonaceae) (Tang et al., Mol. Phylogenetic Evol., 2015) [1], inferred using chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences. The data includes a list of primers for amplification and sequencing for nine cpDNA regions: atpB-rbcL, matK, ndhF, psbA-trnH, psbM-trnD, rbcL, trnL-F, trnS-G, and ycf1, the voucher information and molecular data (GenBank accession numbers) of 67 ingroup Goniothalamus accessions and 14 outgroup accessions selected from across the tribe Annoneae, and aligned data matrices for each gene region. We also present our Bayesian phylogenetic reconstructions for Goniothalamus, with information on previous infrageneric classifications superimposed to enable an evaluation of monophyly, together with a taxon-character data matrix (with 15 morphological characters scored for 66 Goniothalamus species and seven other species from the tribe Annoneae that are shown to be phylogenetically correlated). PMID:26286044

  2. Accurate radiocarbon age estimation using "early" measurements: a new approach to reconstructing the Paleolithic absolute chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omori, Takayuki; Sano, Katsuhiro; Yoneda, Minoru

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents new correction approaches for "early" radiocarbon ages to reconstruct the Paleolithic absolute chronology. In order to discuss time-space distribution about the replacement of archaic humans, including Neanderthals in Europe, by the modern humans, a massive data, which covers a wide-area, would be needed. Today, some radiocarbon databases focused on the Paleolithic have been published and used for chronological studies. From a viewpoint of current analytical technology, however, the any database have unreliable results that make interpretation of radiocarbon dates difficult. Most of these unreliable ages had been published in the early days of radiocarbon analysis. In recent years, new analytical methods to determine highly-accurate dates have been developed. Ultrafiltration and ABOx-SC methods, as new sample pretreatments for bone and charcoal respectively, have attracted attention because they could remove imperceptible contaminates and derive reliable accurately ages. In order to evaluate the reliability of "early" data, we investigated the differences and variabilities of radiocarbon ages on different pretreatments, and attempted to develop correction functions for the assessment of the reliability. It can be expected that reliability of the corrected age is increased and the age applied to chronological research together with recent ages. Here, we introduce the methodological frameworks and archaeological applications.

  3. Impact of gene molecular evolution on phylogenetic reconstruction: a case study in the rosids (Superorder Rosanae, Angiosperms).

    PubMed

    Hilu, Khidir W; Black, Chelsea M; Oza, Dipan

    2014-01-01

    Rate of substitution of genomic regions is among the most debated intrinsic features that impact phylogenetic informativeness. However, this variable is also coupled with rates of nonsynonymous substitutions that underscore the nature and degree of selection on the selected genes. To empirically address these variables, we constructed four completely overlapping data sets of plastid matK, atpB, rbcL, and mitochondrial matR genes and used the rosid lineage (angiosperms) as a working platform. The genes differ in combinations of overall rates of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions. Tree robustness, homoplasy, accuracy in contrast to a reference tree, and phylogenetic informativeness are evaluated. The rapidly evolving/unconstrained matK faired best, whereas remaining genes varied in degrees of contribution to rosid phylogenetics across the lineage's 108 million years evolutionary history. Phylogenetic accuracy was low with the slowly evolving/unconstrained matR despite least amount of homoplasy. Third codon positions contributed the highest amount of parsimony informative sites, resolution and informativeness, but magnitude varied with gene mode of evolution. These findings are in clear contrast with the views that rapidly evolving regions and the 3rd codon position have inevitable negative impact on phylogenetic reconstruction at deep historic level due to accumulation of multiple hits and subsequent elevation in homoplasy and saturation. Relaxed evolutionary constraint in rapidly evolving genes distributes substitutions across codon positions, an evolutionary mode expected to reduce the frequency of multiple hits. These findings should be tested at deeper evolutionary histories.

  4. What lies beneath: molecular phylogenetics and ancestral state reconstruction of the ancient subterranean Australian Parabathynellidae (Syncarida, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Abrams, K M; Guzik, M T; Cooper, S J B; Humphreys, W F; King, R A; Cho, J-L; Austin, A D

    2012-07-01

    The crustacean family Parabathynellidae is an ancient and significant faunal component of subterranean ecosystems. Molecular data were generated in order to examine phylogenetic relationships amongst Australian genera and assess the species diversity of this group within Australia. We also used the resultant phylogenetic framework, in combination with an ancestral state reconstruction (ASR) analysis, to explore the evolution of two key morphological characters (number of segments of the first and second antennae), previously used to define genera, and assess the oligomerization principle (i.e. serial appendage reduction over time), which is commonly invoked in crustacean systematics. The ASR approach also allowed an assessment of whether there has been convergent evolution of appendage numbers during the evolution of Australian parabathynellids. Sequence data from the mtDNA COI and nDNA 18S rRNA genes were obtained from 32 parabathynellid species (100% of described genera and ~25% of described species) from key groundwater regions across Australia. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that species of each known genus, defined by traditional morphological methods, were monophyletic, suggesting that the commonly used generic characters are robust for defining distinct evolutionary lineages. Additionally, ancestral state reconstruction analysis provided evidence for multiple cases of convergent evolution for the two morphological characters evaluated, suggesting that caution needs to be shown when using these characters for elucidating phylogenetic relationships, particularly when there are few morphological characters available for reconstructing relationships. The ancestral state analysis contradicted the conventional view of parabathynellid evolution, which assumes that more simplified taxa (i.e. those with fewer-segmented appendages and setae) are derived and more complex taxa are primitive.

  5. Analysis of algebraic reconstruction technique for accurate imaging of gas temperature and concentration based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui-Hui, Xia; Rui-Feng, Kan; Jian-Guo, Liu; Zhen-Yu, Xu; Ya-Bai, He

    2016-06-01

    An improved algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) combined with tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy(TDLAS) is presented in this paper for determining two-dimensional (2D) distribution of H2O concentration and temperature in a simulated combustion flame. This work aims to simulate the reconstruction of spectroscopic measurements by a multi-view parallel-beam scanning geometry and analyze the effects of projection rays on reconstruction accuracy. It finally proves that reconstruction quality dramatically increases with the number of projection rays increasing until more than 180 for 20 × 20 grid, and after that point, the number of projection rays has little influence on reconstruction accuracy. It is clear that the temperature reconstruction results are more accurate than the water vapor concentration obtained by the traditional concentration calculation method. In the present study an innovative way to reduce the error of concentration reconstruction and improve the reconstruction quality greatly is also proposed, and the capability of this new method is evaluated by using appropriate assessment parameters. By using this new approach, not only the concentration reconstruction accuracy is greatly improved, but also a suitable parallel-beam arrangement is put forward for high reconstruction accuracy and simplicity of experimental validation. Finally, a bimodal structure of the combustion region is assumed to demonstrate the robustness and universality of the proposed method. Numerical investigation indicates that the proposed TDLAS tomographic algorithm is capable of detecting accurate temperature and concentration profiles. This feasible formula for reconstruction research is expected to resolve several key issues in practical combustion devices. Project supported by the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61205151), the National Key Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development Project of China (Grant

  6. Analysis of algebraic reconstruction technique for accurate imaging of gas temperature and concentration based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui-Hui, Xia; Rui-Feng, Kan; Jian-Guo, Liu; Zhen-Yu, Xu; Ya-Bai, He

    2016-06-01

    An improved algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) combined with tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy(TDLAS) is presented in this paper for determining two-dimensional (2D) distribution of H2O concentration and temperature in a simulated combustion flame. This work aims to simulate the reconstruction of spectroscopic measurements by a multi-view parallel-beam scanning geometry and analyze the effects of projection rays on reconstruction accuracy. It finally proves that reconstruction quality dramatically increases with the number of projection rays increasing until more than 180 for 20 × 20 grid, and after that point, the number of projection rays has little influence on reconstruction accuracy. It is clear that the temperature reconstruction results are more accurate than the water vapor concentration obtained by the traditional concentration calculation method. In the present study an innovative way to reduce the error of concentration reconstruction and improve the reconstruction quality greatly is also proposed, and the capability of this new method is evaluated by using appropriate assessment parameters. By using this new approach, not only the concentration reconstruction accuracy is greatly improved, but also a suitable parallel-beam arrangement is put forward for high reconstruction accuracy and simplicity of experimental validation. Finally, a bimodal structure of the combustion region is assumed to demonstrate the robustness and universality of the proposed method. Numerical investigation indicates that the proposed TDLAS tomographic algorithm is capable of detecting accurate temperature and concentration profiles. This feasible formula for reconstruction research is expected to resolve several key issues in practical combustion devices. Project supported by the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61205151), the National Key Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development Project of China (Grant

  7. Comprehensive Phylogenetic Reconstruction of Amoebozoa Based on Concatenated Analyses of SSU-rDNA and Actin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Lahr, Daniel J. G.; Grant, Jessica; Nguyen, Truc; Lin, Jian Hua; Katz, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary relationships within Amoebozoa have been the subject of controversy for two reasons: 1) paucity of morphological characters in traditional surveys and 2) haphazard taxonomic sampling in modern molecular reconstructions. These along with other factors have prevented the erection of a definitive system that resolves confidently both higher and lower-level relationships. Additionally, the recent recognition that many protosteloid amoebae are in fact scattered throughout the Amoebozoa suggests that phylogenetic reconstructions have been excluding an extensive and integral group of organisms. Here we provide a comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction based on 139 taxa using molecular information from both SSU-rDNA and actin genes. We provide molecular data for 13 of those taxa, 12 of which had not been previously characterized. We explored the dataset extensively by generating 18 alternative reconstructions that assess the effect of missing data, long-branched taxa, unstable taxa, fast evolving sites and inclusion of environmental sequences. We compared reconstructions with each other as well as against previously published phylogenies. Our analyses show that many of the morphologically established lower-level relationships (defined here as relationships roughly equivalent to Order level or below) are congruent with molecular data. However, the data are insufficient to corroborate or reject the large majority of proposed higher-level relationships (above the Order-level), with the exception of Tubulinea, Archamoebae and Myxogastrea, which are consistently recovered. Moreover, contrary to previous expectations, the inclusion of available environmental sequences does not significantly improve the Amoebozoa reconstruction. This is probably because key amoebozoan taxa are not easily amplified by environmental sequencing methodology due to high rates of molecular evolution and regular occurrence of large indels and introns. Finally, in an effort to facilitate

  8. Evolution of life history and behavior in Hominidae: towards phylogenetic reconstruction of the chimpanzee-human last common ancestor.

    PubMed

    Duda, Pavel; Zrzavý, Jan

    2013-10-01

    The origin of the fundamental behavioral differences between humans and our closest living relatives is one of the central issues of evolutionary anthropology. The prominent, chimpanzee-based referential model of early hominin behavior has recently been challenged on the basis of broad multispecies comparisons and newly discovered fossil evidence. Here, we argue that while behavioral data on extant great apes are extremely relevant for reconstruction of ancestral behaviors, these behaviors should be reconstructed trait by trait using formal phylogenetic methods. Using the widely accepted hominoid phylogenetic tree, we perform a series of character optimization analyses using 65 selected life-history and behavioral characters for all extant hominid species. This analysis allows us to reconstruct the character states of the last common ancestors of Hominoidea, Hominidae, and the chimpanzee-human last common ancestor. Our analyses demonstrate that many fundamental behavioral and life-history attributes of hominids (including humans) are evidently ancient and likely inherited from the common ancestor of all hominids. However, numerous behaviors present in extant great apes represent their own terminal autapomorphies (both uniquely derived and homoplastic). Any evolutionary model that uses a single extant species to explain behavioral evolution of early hominins is therefore of limited use. In contrast, phylogenetic reconstruction of ancestral states is able to provide a detailed suite of behavioral, ecological and life-history characters for each hypothetical ancestor. The living great apes therefore play an important role for the confident identification of the traits found in the chimpanzee-human last common ancestor, some of which are likely to represent behaviors of the fossil hominins.

  9. AFLPMax: a user-friendly application for computing the optimal number of amplified fragment length polymorphism markers needed in phylogenetic reconstruction.

    PubMed

    García-Pereira, M J; Quesada, H; Caballero, A; Carvajal-Rodríguez, A

    2012-05-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) are widely used for phylogenetic inference especially in non-model species. Frequently, trees obtained with other nuclear or mitochondrial markers or with morphological information need additional resolution, increased branch support, or independent data sources (i.e. unlinked loci). In such cases, the use of AFLPs is a quick and cheap option. Computer simulation has shown that dominant AFLP markers lead to less accurate tree topologies than bi-allelic codominant markers such as SNPs, but this difference becomes negligible for shallow trees when using AFLP data sets that include a sufficiently large number of characters. Thus, determining how many AFLP characters are required to recover a given phylogeny is a key issue regarding the appropriateness of AFLPs for phylogenetic reconstruction. Here, we present a user-friendly, java-based graphical interface, AFLPMax, which executes an automatic pipeline of different programs providing the user with the optimal number of AFLP characters needed to recover a given phylogeny with high accuracy and support. Executables for Windows, linux and MacOS X operating systems, source code and user manual are available from: http://webs.uvigo.es/acraaj/AFLPMax.htm. PMID:22268698

  10. Phylogenetic relationships within an endemic group of Malagasy 'assassin spiders' (Araneae, Archaeidae): ancestral character reconstruction, convergent evolution and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Wood, Hannah M; Griswold, Charles E; Spicer, Greg S

    2007-11-01

    The phylogenetic relationships in an endemic group of Malagasy 'assassin spiders' (Araneae, Archaeidae: Eriauchenius) called the gracilicollis group, are inferred from mitochondrial 12S, 16S and COI DNA sequence data. Archaeid spiders of Madagascar have evolved varying degrees of elongation in the cephalic area. These molecular data support the monophyly of the gracilicollis group. The evolution of the cephalic area is examined by performing an ancestral character reconstruction on this character, which reveals that the cephalic area is elongating independently. The biogeography of the gracilicollis group reveals an east-west split of the clade on Madagascar. PMID:17869131

  11. Reconstruction of the activity of point sources for the accurate characterization of nuclear waste drums by segmented gamma scanning.

    PubMed

    Krings, Thomas; Mauerhofer, Eric

    2011-06-01

    This work improves the reliability and accuracy in the reconstruction of the total isotope activity content in heterogeneous nuclear waste drums containing point sources. The method is based on χ(2)-fits of the angular dependent count rate distribution measured during a drum rotation in segmented gamma scanning. A new description of the analytical calculation of the angular count rate distribution is introduced based on a more precise model of the collimated detector. The new description is validated and compared to the old description using MCNP5 simulations of angular dependent count rate distributions of Co-60 and Cs-137 point sources. It is shown that the new model describes the angular dependent count rate distribution significantly more accurate compared to the old model. Hence, the reconstruction of the activity is more accurate and the errors are considerably reduced that lead to more reliable results. Furthermore, the results are compared to the conventional reconstruction method assuming a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution.

  12. Phylogenetic reconstruction using secondary structures of Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2, rDNA): finding the molecular and morphological gap in Caribbean gorgonian corals

    PubMed Central

    Grajales, Alejandro; Aguilar, Catalina; Sánchez, Juan A

    2007-01-01

    Background Most phylogenetic studies using current methods have focused on primary DNA sequence information. However, RNA secondary structures are particularly useful in systematics because they include characteristics, not found in the primary sequence, that give "morphological" information. Despite the number of recent molecular studies on octocorals, there is no consensus opinion about a region that carries enough phylogenetic resolution to solve intrageneric or close species relationships. Moreover, intrageneric morphological information by itself does not always produce accurate phylogenies; intra-species comparisons can reveal greater differences than intra-generic ones. The search for new phylogenetic approaches, such as by RNA secondary structure analysis, is therefore a priority in octocoral research. Results Initially, twelve predicted RNA secondary structures were reconstructed to provide the basic information for phylogenetic analyses; they accorded with the 6 helicoidal ring model, also present in other groups of corals and eukaryotes. We obtained three similar topologies for nine species of the Caribbean gorgonian genus Eunicea (candelabrum corals) with two sister taxa as outgroups (genera Plexaura and Pseudoplexaura) on the basis of molecular morphometrics of ITS2 RNA secondary structures only, traditional primary sequence analyses and maximum likelihood, and a Bayesian analysis of the combined data. The latter approach allowed us to include both primary sequence and RNA molecular morphometrics; each data partition was allowed to have a different evolution rate. In addition, each helix was partitioned as if it had evolved at a distinct rate. Plexaura flexuosa was found to group within Eunicea; this was best supported by both the molecular morphometrics and combined analyses. We suggest Eunicea flexuosa (Lamouroux, 1821) comb. nov., and we present a new species description including Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images of morphological

  13. Phylogenetic utility of ribosomal genes for reconstructing the phylogeny of five Chinese satyrine tribes (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mingsheng; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Satyrinae is one of twelve subfamilies of the butterfly family Nymphalidae, which currently includes nine tribes. However, phylogenetic relationships among them remain largely unresolved, though different researches have been conducted based on both morphological and molecular data. However, ribosomal genes have never been used in tribe level phylogenetic analyses of Satyrinae. In this study we investigate for the first time the phylogenetic relationships among the tribes Elymniini, Amathusiini, Zetherini and Melanitini which are indicated to be a monophyletic group, and the Satyrini, using two ribosomal genes (28s rDNA and 16s rDNA) and four protein-coding genes (EF-1α, COI, COII and Cytb). We mainly aim to assess the phylogenetic informativeness of the ribosomal genes as well as clarify the relationships among different tribes. Our results show the two ribosomal genes generally have the same high phylogenetic informativeness compared with EF-1α; and we infer the 28s rDNA would show better informativeness if the 28s rDNA sequence data for each sampling taxon are obtained in this study. The placement of the monotypic genus Callarge Leech in Zetherini is confirmed for the first time based on molecular evidence. In addition, our maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) trees consistently show that the involved Satyrinae including the Amathusiini is monophyletic with high support values. Although the relationships among the five tribes are identical among ML and BI analyses and are mostly strongly-supported in BI analysis, those in ML analysis are lowly- or moderately- supported. Therefore, the relationships among the related five tribes recovered herein need further verification based on more sampling taxa. PMID:25878526

  14. Phylogenetic diversity and evolutionary relatedness of alkenone-producing haptophyte algae in lakes: Implications for continental paleotemperature reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theroux, Susanna; D'Andrea, William J.; Toney, Jaime; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Huang, Yongsong

    2010-12-01

    Alkenones have been found in an increasing number of lakes around the world, making them a promising new tool for continental paleoclimate reconstruction. However, individual lakes may harbor different species of haptophyte algae with different sensitivities to temperature variations, thus presenting a significant challenge to the use of lacustrine alkenones for paleotemperature reconstructions. To explore the extent of lacustrine haptophyte diversity, we conducted the first comprehensive phylogenetic and geochemical survey of lacustrine alkenone producers. We sampled 15 alkenone-containing lake surface sediments from a variety of geographic locales and inferred identities of environmental sequences using 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene-based phylogenies. For two lakes, BrayaSø in southwest Greenland and Tso Ur on the Tibetan Plateau, we also analyzed both surface and downcore sediments to characterize haptophyte populations through time. In parallel with phylogenetic analyses, we determined the alkenone distributions (including C 37/C 38 ratios, and the presence/absence of C 38 methyl ketones and C 40 compounds) in all the samples. The resulting alkenone profiles from this study do not all align with traditional "marine" versus "coastal/lacustrine" alkenone profiles. Additionally, our genetic data indicate the presence of multiple haptophyte species from a single lake sediment sample; these distinct haptophyte populations could not be discerned from the alkenone profiles alone. These results show that alkenone profiles are not a reliable way to assess the haptophyte algae in lakes and that DNA fingerprinting is a preferred approach for species identification. Although closely related haptophyte species or subspecies may not warrant different temperature calibrations, our results emphasize the importance of genetic data for inferring haptophyte identities and eventually selecting alkenone-temperature calibrations for paleoclimate reconstructions.

  15. Partial sequence homogenization in the 5S multigene families may generate sequence chimeras and spurious results in phylogenetic reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Galián, José A; Rosato, Marcela; Rosselló, Josep A

    2014-03-01

    Multigene families have provided opportunities for evolutionary biologists to assess molecular evolution processes and phylogenetic reconstructions at deep and shallow systematic levels. However, the use of these markers is not free of technical and analytical challenges. Many evolutionary studies that used the nuclear 5S rDNA gene family rarely used contiguous 5S coding sequences due to the routine use of head-to-tail polymerase chain reaction primers that are anchored to the coding region. Moreover, the 5S coding sequences have been concatenated with independent, adjacent gene units in many studies, creating simulated chimeric genes as the raw data for evolutionary analysis. This practice is based on the tacitly assumed, but rarely tested, hypothesis that strict intra-locus concerted evolution processes are operating in 5S rDNA genes, without any empirical evidence as to whether it holds for the recovered data. The potential pitfalls of analysing the patterns of molecular evolution and reconstructing phylogenies based on these chimeric genes have not been assessed to date. Here, we compared the sequence integrity and phylogenetic behavior of entire versus concatenated 5S coding regions from a real data set obtained from closely related plant species (Medicago, Fabaceae). Our results suggest that within arrays sequence homogenization is partially operating in the 5S coding region, which is traditionally assumed to be highly conserved. Consequently, concatenating 5S genes increases haplotype diversity, generating novel chimeric genotypes that most likely do not exist within the genome. In addition, the patterns of gene evolution are distorted, leading to incorrect haplotype relationships in some evolutionary reconstructions.

  16. Detecting possibly saturated positions in 18S and 28S sequences and their influence on phylogenetic reconstruction of Annelida (Lophotrochozoa).

    PubMed

    Struck, Torsten H; Nesnidal, Maximilian P; Purschke, Günter; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2008-08-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions may be hampered by multiple substitutions in nucleotide positions obliterating signal, a phenomenon called saturation. Traditionally, plotting ti/tv ratios against genetic distances has been used to reveal saturation by assessing when ti/tv stabilizes at 1. However, interpretation of results and assessment of comparability between different data sets or partitions are rather subjective. Herein, we present the new C factor, which quantifies convergence of ti/tv ratios, thus allowing comparability. Furthermore, we introduce a comparative value for homoplasy, the O/E ratio, based on alterations of tree length. Simulation studies and an empirical example, based on annelid rRNA-gene sequences, show that the C factor correlates with noise, tree length and genetic distance and therefore is a proxy for saturation. The O/E ratio correlates with the C factor, which does not provide an intrinsic threshold of exclusion, and thus both together can objectively guide decisions to exclude saturated nucleotide positions. However, analyses also showed that, for reconstructing annelid phylogeny using Maximum Likelihood, an increase in numbers of positions improves tree reconstruction more than does the exclusion of saturated positions.

  17. Reconstruction of Family-Level Phylogenetic Relationships within Demospongiae (Porifera) Using Nuclear Encoded Housekeeping Genes

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Malcolm S.; Hill, April L.; Lopez, Jose; Peterson, Kevin J.; Pomponi, Shirley; Diaz, Maria C.; Thacker, Robert W.; Adamska, Maja; Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Cárdenas, Paco; Chaves-Fonnegra, Andia; Danka, Elizabeth; De Laine, Bre-Onna; Formica, Dawn; Hajdu, Eduardo; Lobo-Hajdu, Gisele; Klontz, Sarah; Morrow, Christine C.; Patel, Jignasa; Picton, Bernard; Pisani, Davide; Pohlmann, Deborah; Redmond, Niamh E.; Reed, John; Richey, Stacy; Riesgo, Ana; Rubin, Ewelina; Russell, Zach; Rützler, Klaus; Sperling, Erik A.; di Stefano, Michael; Tarver, James E.; Collins, Allen G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Demosponges are challenging for phylogenetic systematics because of their plastic and relatively simple morphologies and many deep divergences between major clades. To improve understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within Demospongiae, we sequenced and analyzed seven nuclear housekeeping genes involved in a variety of cellular functions from a diverse group of sponges. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated data from each of the four sponge classes (i.e., Calcarea, Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, and Homoscleromorpha), but focused on family-level relationships within demosponges. With data for 21 newly sampled families, our Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian-based approaches recovered previously phylogenetically defined taxa: Keratosap, Myxospongiaep, Spongillidap, Haploscleromorphap (the marine haplosclerids) and Democlaviap. We found conflicting results concerning the relationships of Keratosap and Myxospongiaep to the remaining demosponges, but our results strongly supported a clade of Haploscleromorphap+Spongillidap+Democlaviap. In contrast to hypotheses based on mitochondrial genome and ribosomal data, nuclear housekeeping gene data suggested that freshwater sponges (Spongillidap) are sister to Haploscleromorphap rather than part of Democlaviap. Within Keratosap, we found equivocal results as to the monophyly of Dictyoceratida. Within Myxospongiaep, Chondrosida and Verongida were monophyletic. A well-supported clade within Democlaviap, Tetractinellidap, composed of all sampled members of Astrophorina and Spirophorina (including the only lithistid in our analysis), was consistently revealed as the sister group to all other members of Democlaviap. Within Tetractinellidap, we did not recover monophyletic Astrophorina or Spirophorina. Our results also reaffirmed the monophyly of order Poecilosclerida (excluding Desmacellidae and Raspailiidae), and polyphyly of Hadromerida and Halichondrida. Conclusions/Significance These results, using an

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of four pheretimoid earthworms (Clitellata: Oligochaeta) and their phylogenetic reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangliang; Jiang, Jibao; Dong, Yan; Qiu, Jiangping

    2015-12-15

    Among oligochaetes, the Pheretima complex within the Megascolecidae is a major earthworm group. Recently, however, the systematics of the Pheretima complex based on morphology are challenged by molecular studies. Since little comparative analysis of earthworm complete mitochondrial genomes has been reported yet, we sequenced mitogenomes of four pheretimoid earthworm species to explore their phylogenetic relationships. The general earthworm genomic features are also found in four earthworms: all genes transcribed from the same strand, the same initiation codon ATG for each PCGs, and conserved structures of RNA genes. Interestingly we find an extra potential tRNA-leucine (CUN) in Amynthas longisiphonus. The earthworm mitochondrial ATP8 exhibits the highest evolutionary rate, while the gene CO1 evolves slowest. Phylogenetic analysis based on protein-coding genes (PCGs) strongly supports the monophyly of the Clitellata, Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Megascolecidae and Pheretima complex. Our analysis, however, reveals non-monophyly within the genara Amynthas and Metaphire. Thus the generic divisions based on morphology in the Pheretima complex should be reconsidered.

  19. A hybrid genetic algorithm-extreme learning machine approach for accurate significant wave height reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandre, E.; Cuadra, L.; Nieto-Borge, J. C.; Candil-García, G.; del Pino, M.; Salcedo-Sanz, S.

    2015-08-01

    Wave parameters computed from time series measured by buoys (significant wave height Hs, mean wave period, etc.) play a key role in coastal engineering and in the design and operation of wave energy converters. Storms or navigation accidents can make measuring buoys break down, leading to missing data gaps. In this paper we tackle the problem of locally reconstructing Hs at out-of-operation buoys by using wave parameters from nearby buoys, based on the spatial correlation among values at neighboring buoy locations. The novelty of our approach for its potential application to problems in coastal engineering is twofold. On one hand, we propose a genetic algorithm hybridized with an extreme learning machine that selects, among the available wave parameters from the nearby buoys, a subset FnSP with nSP parameters that minimizes the Hs reconstruction error. On the other hand, we evaluate to what extent the selected parameters in subset FnSP are good enough in assisting other machine learning (ML) regressors (extreme learning machines, support vector machines and gaussian process regression) to reconstruct Hs. The results show that all the ML method explored achieve a good Hs reconstruction in the two different locations studied (Caribbean Sea and West Atlantic).

  20. A FIB-nanotomography method for accurate 3D reconstruction of open nanoporous structures.

    PubMed

    Mangipudi, K R; Radisch, V; Holzer, L; Volkert, C A

    2016-04-01

    We present an automated focused ion beam nanotomography method for nanoporous microstructures with open porosity, and apply it to reconstruct nanoporous gold (np-Au) structures with ligament sizes on the order of a few tens of nanometers. This method uses serial sectioning of a well-defined wedge-shaped geometry to determine the thickness of individual slices from the changes in the sample width in successive cross-sectional images. The pore space of a selected region of the np-Au is infiltrated with ion-beam-deposited Pt composite before serial sectioning. The cross-sectional images are binarized and stacked according to the individual slice thicknesses, and then processed using standard reconstruction methods. For the image conditions and sample geometry used here, we are able to determine the thickness of individual slices with an accuracy much smaller than a pixel. The accuracy of the new method based on actual slice thickness is assessed by comparing it with (i) a reconstruction using the same cross-sectional images but assuming a constant slice thickness, and (ii) a reconstruction using traditional FIB-tomography method employing constant slice thickness. The morphology and topology of the structures are characterized using ligament and pore size distributions, interface shape distribution functions, interface normal distributions, and genus. The results suggest that the morphology and topology of the final reconstructions are significantly influenced when a constant slice thickness is assumed. The study reveals grain-to-grain variations in the morphology and topology of np-Au. PMID:26906523

  1. Exploring Phylogenetic Relationships within Myriapoda and the Effects of Matrix Composition and Occupancy on Phylogenomic Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Rosa; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    Myriapods, including the diverse and familiar centipedes and millipedes, are one of the dominant terrestrial arthropod groups. Although molecular evidence has shown that Myriapoda is monophyletic, its internal phylogeny remains contentious and understudied, especially when compared to those of Chelicerata and Hexapoda. Until now, efforts have focused on taxon sampling (e.g., by including a handful of genes from many species) or on maximizing matrix size (e.g., by including hundreds or thousands of genes in just a few species), but a phylogeny maximizing sampling at both levels remains elusive. In this study, we analyzed 40 Illumina transcriptomes representing 3 of the 4 myriapod classes (Diplopoda, Chilopoda, and Symphyla); 25 transcriptomes were newly sequenced to maximize representation at the ordinal level in Diplopoda and at the family level in Chilopoda. Ten supermatrices were constructed to explore the effect of several potential phylogenetic biases (e.g., rate of evolution, heterotachy) at 3 levels of gene occupancy per taxon (50%, 75%, and 90%). Analyses based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian mixture models retrieved monophyly of each myriapod class, and resulted in 2 alternative phylogenetic positions for Symphyla, as sister group to Diplopoda + Chilopoda, or closer to Diplopoda, the latter hypothesis having been traditionally supported by morphology. Within centipedes, all orders were well supported, but 2 deep nodes remained in conflict in the different analyses despite dense taxon sampling at the family level. Relationships among centipede orders in all analyses conducted with the most complete matrix (90% occupancy) are at odds not only with the sparser but more gene-rich supermatrices (75% and 50% supermatrices) and with the matrices optimizing phylogenetic informativeness or most conserved genes, but also with previous hypotheses based on morphology, development, or other molecular data sets. Our results indicate that a high percentage of ribosomal

  2. Exploring Phylogenetic Relationships within Myriapoda and the Effects of Matrix Composition and Occupancy on Phylogenomic Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Rosa; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-09-01

    Myriapods, including the diverse and familiar centipedes and millipedes, are one of the dominant terrestrial arthropod groups. Although molecular evidence has shown that Myriapoda is monophyletic, its internal phylogeny remains contentious and understudied, especially when compared to those of Chelicerata and Hexapoda. Until now, efforts have focused on taxon sampling (e.g., by including a handful of genes from many species) or on maximizing matrix size (e.g., by including hundreds or thousands of genes in just a few species), but a phylogeny maximizing sampling at both levels remains elusive. In this study, we analyzed 40 Illumina transcriptomes representing 3 of the 4 myriapod classes (Diplopoda, Chilopoda, and Symphyla); 25 transcriptomes were newly sequenced to maximize representation at the ordinal level in Diplopoda and at the family level in Chilopoda. Ten supermatrices were constructed to explore the effect of several potential phylogenetic biases (e.g., rate of evolution, heterotachy) at 3 levels of gene occupancy per taxon (50%, 75%, and 90%). Analyses based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian mixture models retrieved monophyly of each myriapod class, and resulted in 2 alternative phylogenetic positions for Symphyla, as sister group to Diplopoda + Chilopoda, or closer to Diplopoda, the latter hypothesis having been traditionally supported by morphology. Within centipedes, all orders were well supported, but 2 deep nodes remained in conflict in the different analyses despite dense taxon sampling at the family level. Relationships among centipede orders in all analyses conducted with the most complete matrix (90% occupancy) are at odds not only with the sparser but more gene-rich supermatrices (75% and 50% supermatrices) and with the matrices optimizing phylogenetic informativeness or most conserved genes, but also with previous hypotheses based on morphology, development, or other molecular data sets. Our results indicate that a high percentage of ribosomal

  3. Assignment of Calibration Information to Deeper Phylogenetic Nodes is More Effective in Obtaining Precise and Accurate Divergence Time Estimates.

    PubMed

    Mello, Beatriz; Schrago, Carlos G

    2014-01-01

    Divergence time estimation has become an essential tool for understanding macroevolutionary events. Molecular dating aims to obtain reliable inferences, which, within a statistical framework, means jointly increasing the accuracy and precision of estimates. Bayesian dating methods exhibit the propriety of a linear relationship between uncertainty and estimated divergence dates. This relationship occurs even if the number of sites approaches infinity and places a limit on the maximum precision of node ages. However, how the placement of calibration information may affect the precision of divergence time estimates remains an open question. In this study, relying on simulated and empirical data, we investigated how the location of calibration within a phylogeny affects the accuracy and precision of time estimates. We found that calibration priors set at median and deep phylogenetic nodes were associated with higher precision values compared to analyses involving calibration at the shallowest node. The results were independent of the tree symmetry. An empirical mammalian dataset produced results that were consistent with those generated by the simulated sequences. Assigning time information to the deeper nodes of a tree is crucial to guarantee the accuracy and precision of divergence times. This finding highlights the importance of the appropriate choice of outgroups in molecular dating. PMID:24855333

  4. Nuclear introns outperform mitochondrial DNA in inter-specific phylogenetic reconstruction: Lessons from horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae: Chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Dool, Serena E; Puechmaille, Sebastien J; Foley, Nicole M; Allegrini, Benjamin; Bastian, Anna; Mutumi, Gregory L; Maluleke, Tinyiko G; Odendaal, Lizelle J; Teeling, Emma C; Jacobs, David S

    2016-04-01

    Despite many studies illustrating the perils of utilising mitochondrial DNA in phylogenetic studies, it remains one of the most widely used genetic markers for this purpose. Over the last decade, nuclear introns have been proposed as alternative markers for phylogenetic reconstruction. However, the resolution capabilities of mtDNA and nuclear introns have rarely been quantified and compared. In the current study we generated a novel ∼5kb dataset comprising six nuclear introns and a mtDNA fragment. We assessed the relative resolution capabilities of the six intronic fragments with respect to each other, when used in various combinations together, and when compared to the traditionally used mtDNA. We focused on a major clade in the horseshoe bat family (Afro-Palaearctic clade; Rhinolophidae) as our case study. This old, widely distributed and speciose group contains a high level of conserved morphology. This morphological stasis renders the reconstruction of the phylogeny of this group with traditional morphological characters complex. We sampled multiple individuals per species to represent their geographic distributions as best as possible (122 individuals, 24 species, 68 localities). We reconstructed the species phylogeny using several complementary methods (partitioned Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian and Bayesian multispecies-coalescent) and made inferences based on consensus across these methods. We computed pairwise comparisons based on Robinson-Foulds tree distance metric between all Bayesian topologies generated (27,000) for every gene(s) and visualised the tree space using multidimensional scaling (MDS) plots. Using our supported species phylogeny we estimated the ancestral state of key traits of interest within this group, e.g. echolocation peak frequency which has been implicated in speciation. Our results revealed many potential cryptic species within this group, even in taxa where this was not suspected a priori and also found evidence for mt

  5. Nuclear introns outperform mitochondrial DNA in inter-specific phylogenetic reconstruction: Lessons from horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae: Chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Dool, Serena E; Puechmaille, Sebastien J; Foley, Nicole M; Allegrini, Benjamin; Bastian, Anna; Mutumi, Gregory L; Maluleke, Tinyiko G; Odendaal, Lizelle J; Teeling, Emma C; Jacobs, David S

    2016-04-01

    Despite many studies illustrating the perils of utilising mitochondrial DNA in phylogenetic studies, it remains one of the most widely used genetic markers for this purpose. Over the last decade, nuclear introns have been proposed as alternative markers for phylogenetic reconstruction. However, the resolution capabilities of mtDNA and nuclear introns have rarely been quantified and compared. In the current study we generated a novel ∼5kb dataset comprising six nuclear introns and a mtDNA fragment. We assessed the relative resolution capabilities of the six intronic fragments with respect to each other, when used in various combinations together, and when compared to the traditionally used mtDNA. We focused on a major clade in the horseshoe bat family (Afro-Palaearctic clade; Rhinolophidae) as our case study. This old, widely distributed and speciose group contains a high level of conserved morphology. This morphological stasis renders the reconstruction of the phylogeny of this group with traditional morphological characters complex. We sampled multiple individuals per species to represent their geographic distributions as best as possible (122 individuals, 24 species, 68 localities). We reconstructed the species phylogeny using several complementary methods (partitioned Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian and Bayesian multispecies-coalescent) and made inferences based on consensus across these methods. We computed pairwise comparisons based on Robinson-Foulds tree distance metric between all Bayesian topologies generated (27,000) for every gene(s) and visualised the tree space using multidimensional scaling (MDS) plots. Using our supported species phylogeny we estimated the ancestral state of key traits of interest within this group, e.g. echolocation peak frequency which has been implicated in speciation. Our results revealed many potential cryptic species within this group, even in taxa where this was not suspected a priori and also found evidence for mt

  6. A hybrid reconstruction algorithm for fast and accurate 4D cone-beam CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Hao; Folkerts, Michael; Jiang, Steve B. E-mail: steve.jiang@UTSouthwestern.edu; Jia, Xun E-mail: steve.jiang@UTSouthwestern.edu; Zhen, Xin; Li, Yongbao; Pan, Tinsu; Cervino, Laura

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: 4D cone beam CT (4D-CBCT) has been utilized in radiation therapy to provide 4D image guidance in lung and upper abdomen area. However, clinical application of 4D-CBCT is currently limited due to the long scan time and low image quality. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new 4D-CBCT reconstruction method that restores volumetric images based on the 1-min scan data acquired with a standard 3D-CBCT protocol. Methods: The model optimizes a deformation vector field that deforms a patient-specific planning CT (p-CT), so that the calculated 4D-CBCT projections match measurements. A forward-backward splitting (FBS) method is invented to solve the optimization problem. It splits the original problem into two well-studied subproblems, i.e., image reconstruction and deformable image registration. By iteratively solving the two subproblems, FBS gradually yields correct deformation information, while maintaining high image quality. The whole workflow is implemented on a graphic-processing-unit to improve efficiency. Comprehensive evaluations have been conducted on a moving phantom and three real patient cases regarding the accuracy and quality of the reconstructed images, as well as the algorithm robustness and efficiency. Results: The proposed algorithm reconstructs 4D-CBCT images from highly under-sampled projection data acquired with 1-min scans. Regarding the anatomical structure location accuracy, 0.204 mm average differences and 0.484 mm maximum difference are found for the phantom case, and the maximum differences of 0.3–0.5 mm for patients 1–3 are observed. As for the image quality, intensity errors below 5 and 20 HU compared to the planning CT are achieved for the phantom and the patient cases, respectively. Signal-noise-ratio values are improved by 12.74 and 5.12 times compared to results from FDK algorithm using the 1-min data and 4-min data, respectively. The computation time of the algorithm on a NVIDIA GTX590 card is 1–1.5 min per phase

  7. PhyloBot: A Web Portal for Automated Phylogenetics, Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction, and Exploration of Mutational Trajectories.

    PubMed

    Hanson-Smith, Victor; Johnson, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    The method of phylogenetic ancestral sequence reconstruction is a powerful approach for studying evolutionary relationships among protein sequence, structure, and function. In particular, this approach allows investigators to (1) reconstruct and "resurrect" (that is, synthesize in vivo or in vitro) extinct proteins to study how they differ from modern proteins, (2) identify key amino acid changes that, over evolutionary timescales, have altered the function of the protein, and (3) order historical events in the evolution of protein function. Widespread use of this approach has been slow among molecular biologists, in part because the methods require significant computational expertise. Here we present PhyloBot, a web-based software tool that makes ancestral sequence reconstruction easy. Designed for non-experts, it integrates all the necessary software into a single user interface. Additionally, PhyloBot provides interactive tools to explore evolutionary trajectories between ancestors, enabling the rapid generation of hypotheses that can be tested using genetic or biochemical approaches. Early versions of this software were used in previous studies to discover genetic mechanisms underlying the functions of diverse protein families, including V-ATPase ion pumps, DNA-binding transcription regulators, and serine/threonine protein kinases. PhyloBot runs in a web browser, and is available at the following URL: http://www.phylobot.com. The software is implemented in Python using the Django web framework, and runs on elastic cloud computing resources from Amazon Web Services. Users can create and submit jobs on our free server (at the URL listed above), or use our open-source code to launch their own PhyloBot server. PMID:27472806

  8. PhyloBot: A Web Portal for Automated Phylogenetics, Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction, and Exploration of Mutational Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Hanson-Smith, Victor; Johnson, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The method of phylogenetic ancestral sequence reconstruction is a powerful approach for studying evolutionary relationships among protein sequence, structure, and function. In particular, this approach allows investigators to (1) reconstruct and “resurrect” (that is, synthesize in vivo or in vitro) extinct proteins to study how they differ from modern proteins, (2) identify key amino acid changes that, over evolutionary timescales, have altered the function of the protein, and (3) order historical events in the evolution of protein function. Widespread use of this approach has been slow among molecular biologists, in part because the methods require significant computational expertise. Here we present PhyloBot, a web-based software tool that makes ancestral sequence reconstruction easy. Designed for non-experts, it integrates all the necessary software into a single user interface. Additionally, PhyloBot provides interactive tools to explore evolutionary trajectories between ancestors, enabling the rapid generation of hypotheses that can be tested using genetic or biochemical approaches. Early versions of this software were used in previous studies to discover genetic mechanisms underlying the functions of diverse protein families, including V-ATPase ion pumps, DNA-binding transcription regulators, and serine/threonine protein kinases. PhyloBot runs in a web browser, and is available at the following URL: http://www.phylobot.com. The software is implemented in Python using the Django web framework, and runs on elastic cloud computing resources from Amazon Web Services. Users can create and submit jobs on our free server (at the URL listed above), or use our open-source code to launch their own PhyloBot server. PMID:27472806

  9. PhyloBot: A Web Portal for Automated Phylogenetics, Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction, and Exploration of Mutational Trajectories.

    PubMed

    Hanson-Smith, Victor; Johnson, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    The method of phylogenetic ancestral sequence reconstruction is a powerful approach for studying evolutionary relationships among protein sequence, structure, and function. In particular, this approach allows investigators to (1) reconstruct and "resurrect" (that is, synthesize in vivo or in vitro) extinct proteins to study how they differ from modern proteins, (2) identify key amino acid changes that, over evolutionary timescales, have altered the function of the protein, and (3) order historical events in the evolution of protein function. Widespread use of this approach has been slow among molecular biologists, in part because the methods require significant computational expertise. Here we present PhyloBot, a web-based software tool that makes ancestral sequence reconstruction easy. Designed for non-experts, it integrates all the necessary software into a single user interface. Additionally, PhyloBot provides interactive tools to explore evolutionary trajectories between ancestors, enabling the rapid generation of hypotheses that can be tested using genetic or biochemical approaches. Early versions of this software were used in previous studies to discover genetic mechanisms underlying the functions of diverse protein families, including V-ATPase ion pumps, DNA-binding transcription regulators, and serine/threonine protein kinases. PhyloBot runs in a web browser, and is available at the following URL: http://www.phylobot.com. The software is implemented in Python using the Django web framework, and runs on elastic cloud computing resources from Amazon Web Services. Users can create and submit jobs on our free server (at the URL listed above), or use our open-source code to launch their own PhyloBot server.

  10. Phylogenetic reconstruction of Bantu kinship challenges Main Sequence Theory of human social evolution

    PubMed Central

    Opie, Christopher; Shultz, Susanne; Atkinson, Quentin D.; Currie, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Kinship provides the fundamental structure of human society: descent determines the inheritance pattern between generations, whereas residence rules govern the location a couple moves to after they marry. In turn, descent and residence patterns determine other key relationships such as alliance, trade, and marriage partners. Hunter-gatherer kinship patterns are viewed as flexible, whereas agricultural societies are thought to have developed much more stable kinship patterns as they expanded during the Holocene. Among the Bantu farmers of sub-Saharan Africa, the ancestral kinship patterns present at the beginning of the expansion are hotly contested, with some arguing for matrilineal and matrilocal patterns, whereas others maintain that any kind of lineality or sex-biased dispersal only emerged much later. Here, we use Bayesian phylogenetic methods to uncover the history of Bantu kinship patterns and trace the interplay between descent and residence systems. The results suggest a number of switches in both descent and residence patterns as Bantu farming spread, but that the first Bantu populations were patrilocal with patrilineal descent. Across the phylogeny, a change in descent triggered a switch away from patrifocal kinship, whereas a change in residence triggered a switch back from matrifocal kinship. These results challenge “Main Sequence Theory,” which maintains that changes in residence rules precede change in other social structures. We also indicate the trajectory of kinship change, shedding new light on how this fundamental structure of society developed as farming spread across the globe during the Neolithic. PMID:25422461

  11. Phylogenetic reconstruction and DNA barcoding for closely related pine moth species (Dendrolimus) in China with multiple gene markers.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qing-Yan; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Chun-Sheng; Chesters, Douglas; Zhu, Chao-Dong; Zhang, Ai-Bing

    2012-01-01

    Unlike distinct species, closely related species offer a great challenge for phylogeny reconstruction and species identification with DNA barcoding due to their often overlapping genetic variation. We tested a sibling species group of pine moth pests in China with a standard cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and two alternative internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genes (ITS1 and ITS2). Five different phylogenetic/DNA barcoding analysis methods (Maximum likelihood (ML)/Neighbor-joining (NJ), "best close match" (BCM), Minimum distance (MD), and BP-based method (BP)), representing commonly used methodology (tree-based and non-tree based) in the field, were applied to both single-gene and multiple-gene analyses. Our results demonstrated clear reciprocal species monophyly for three relatively distant related species, Dendrolimus superans, D. houi, D. kikuchii, as recovered by both single and multiple genes while the phylogenetic relationship of three closely related species, D. punctatus, D. tabulaeformis, D. spectabilis, could not be resolved with the traditional tree-building methods. Additionally, we find the standard COI barcode outperforms two nuclear ITS genes, whatever the methods used. On average, the COI barcode achieved a success rate of 94.10-97.40%, while ITS1 and ITS2 obtained a success rate of 64.70-81.60%, indicating ITS genes are less suitable for species identification in this case. We propose the use of an overall success rate of species identification that takes both sequencing success and assignation success into account, since species identification success rates with multiple-gene barcoding system were generally overestimated, especially by tree-based methods, where only successfully sequenced DNA sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. Non-tree based methods, such as MD, BCM, and BP approaches, presented advantages over tree-based methods by reporting the overall success rates with statistical significance. In addition, our

  12. Phylogenetic Reconstruction and DNA Barcoding for Closely Related Pine Moth Species (Dendrolimus) in China with Multiple Gene Markers

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Qing-Yan; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Chun-Sheng; Chesters, Douglas; Zhu, Chao-Dong; Zhang, Ai-Bing

    2012-01-01

    Unlike distinct species, closely related species offer a great challenge for phylogeny reconstruction and species identification with DNA barcoding due to their often overlapping genetic variation. We tested a sibling species group of pine moth pests in China with a standard cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and two alternative internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genes (ITS1 and ITS2). Five different phylogenetic/DNA barcoding analysis methods (Maximum likelihood (ML)/Neighbor-joining (NJ), “best close match” (BCM), Minimum distance (MD), and BP-based method (BP)), representing commonly used methodology (tree-based and non-tree based) in the field, were applied to both single-gene and multiple-gene analyses. Our results demonstrated clear reciprocal species monophyly for three relatively distant related species, Dendrolimus superans, D. houi, D. kikuchii, as recovered by both single and multiple genes while the phylogenetic relationship of three closely related species, D. punctatus, D. tabulaeformis, D. spectabilis, could not be resolved with the traditional tree-building methods. Additionally, we find the standard COI barcode outperforms two nuclear ITS genes, whatever the methods used. On average, the COI barcode achieved a success rate of 94.10–97.40%, while ITS1 and ITS2 obtained a success rate of 64.70–81.60%, indicating ITS genes are less suitable for species identification in this case. We propose the use of an overall success rate of species identification that takes both sequencing success and assignation success into account, since species identification success rates with multiple-gene barcoding system were generally overestimated, especially by tree-based methods, where only successfully sequenced DNA sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. Non-tree based methods, such as MD, BCM, and BP approaches, presented advantages over tree-based methods by reporting the overall success rates with statistical significance. In addition

  13. Integration of multi-modality imaging for accurate 3D reconstruction of human coronary arteries in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannoglou, George D.; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S.; Sianos, George; Tsikaderis, Dimitrios; Matakos, Antonis; Koutkias, Vassilios; Diamantopoulos, Panagiotis; Maglaveras, Nicos; Parcharidis, George E.; Louridas, George E.

    2006-12-01

    In conventional intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-based three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of human coronary arteries, IVUS images are arranged linearly generating a straight vessel volume. However, with this approach real vessel curvature is neglected. To overcome this limitation an imaging method was developed based on integration of IVUS and biplane coronary angiography (BCA). In 17 coronary arteries from nine patients, IVUS and BCA were performed. From each angiographic projection, a single end-diastolic frame was selected and in each frame the IVUS catheter was interactively detected for the extraction of 3D catheter path. Ultrasound data was obtained with a sheath-based catheter and recorded on S-VHS videotape. S-VHS data was digitized and lumen and media-adventitia contours were semi-automatically detected in end-diastolic IVUS images. Each pair of contours was aligned perpendicularly to the catheter path and rotated in space by implementing an algorithm based on Frenet-Serret rules. Lumen and media-adventitia contours were interpolated through generation of intermediate contours creating a real 3D lumen and vessel volume, respectively. The absolute orientation of the reconstructed lumen was determined by back-projecting it onto both angiographic planes and comparing the projected lumen with the actual angiographic lumen. In conclusion, our method is capable of performing rapid and accurate 3D reconstruction of human coronary arteries in vivo. This technique can be utilized for reliable plaque morphometric, geometrical and hemodynamic analyses.

  14. Accurate three-dimensional virtual reconstruction of surgical field using calibrated trajectories of an image-guided medical robot

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yuanzheng; Hu, Danying; Hannaford, Blake; Seibel, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Brain tumor margin removal is challenging because diseased tissue is often visually indistinguishable from healthy tissue. Leaving residual tumor leads to decreased survival, and removing normal tissue causes life-long neurological deficits. Thus, a surgical robotics system with a high degree of dexterity, accurate navigation, and highly precise resection is an ideal candidate for image-guided removal of fluorescently labeled brain tumor cells. To image, we developed a scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) which acquires concurrent reflectance and fluorescence wide-field images at a high resolution. This miniature flexible endoscope was affixed to the arm of a RAVEN II surgical robot providing programmable motion with feedback control using stereo-pair surveillance cameras. To verify the accuracy of the three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructed surgical field, a multimodal physical-sized model of debulked brain tumor was used to obtain the 3-D locations of residual tumor for robotic path planning to remove fluorescent cells. Such reconstruction is repeated intraoperatively during margin clean-up so the algorithm efficiency and accuracy are important to the robotically assisted surgery. Experimental results indicate that the time for creating this 3-D surface can be reduced to one-third by using known trajectories of a robot arm, and the error from the reconstructed phantom is within 0.67 mm in average compared to the model design. PMID:26158071

  15. Accurate three-dimensional virtual reconstruction of surgical field using calibrated trajectories of an image-guided medical robot.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yuanzheng; Hu, Danying; Hannaford, Blake; Seibel, Eric J

    2014-10-01

    Brain tumor margin removal is challenging because diseased tissue is often visually indistinguishable from healthy tissue. Leaving residual tumor leads to decreased survival, and removing normal tissue causes life-long neurological deficits. Thus, a surgical robotics system with a high degree of dexterity, accurate navigation, and highly precise resection is an ideal candidate for image-guided removal of fluorescently labeled brain tumor cells. To image, we developed a scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) which acquires concurrent reflectance and fluorescence wide-field images at a high resolution. This miniature flexible endoscope was affixed to the arm of a RAVEN II surgical robot providing programmable motion with feedback control using stereo-pair surveillance cameras. To verify the accuracy of the three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructed surgical field, a multimodal physical-sized model of debulked brain tumor was used to obtain the 3-D locations of residual tumor for robotic path planning to remove fluorescent cells. Such reconstruction is repeated intraoperatively during margin clean-up so the algorithm efficiency and accuracy are important to the robotically assisted surgery. Experimental results indicate that the time for creating this 3-D surface can be reduced to one-third by using known trajectories of a robot arm, and the error from the reconstructed phantom is within 0.67 mm in average compared to the model design.

  16. Analysis and accurate reconstruction of incomplete data in X-ray differential phase-contrast computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jian; Tan, Renbo; Chen, Liyuan

    2014-01-01

    X-ray differential phase-contrast computed tomography (DPC-CT) is a powerful physical and biochemical analysis tool. In practical applications, there are often challenges for DPC-CT due to insufficient data caused by few-view, bad or missing detector channels, or limited scanning angular range. They occur quite frequently because of experimental constraints from imaging hardware, scanning geometry, and the exposure dose delivered to living specimens. In this work, we analyze the influence of incomplete data on DPC-CT image reconstruction. Then, a reconstruction method is developed and investigated for incomplete data DPC-CT. It is based on an algebraic iteration reconstruction technique, which minimizes the image total variation and permits accurate tomographic imaging with less data. This work comprises a numerical study of the method and its experimental verification using a dataset measured at the W2 beamline of the storage ring DORIS III equipped with a Talbot-Lau interferometer. The numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the presented method can handle incomplete data. It will be of interest for a wide range of DPC-CT applications in medicine, biology, and nondestructive testing.

  17. Toward more accurate ancestral protein genotype-phenotype reconstructions with the use of species tree-aware gene trees.

    PubMed

    Groussin, Mathieu; Hobbs, Joanne K; Szöllősi, Gergely J; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Arcus, Vickery L; Gouy, Manolo

    2015-01-01

    The resurrection of ancestral proteins provides direct insight into how natural selection has shaped proteins found in nature. By tracing substitutions along a gene phylogeny, ancestral proteins can be reconstructed in silico and subsequently synthesized in vitro. This elegant strategy reveals the complex mechanisms responsible for the evolution of protein functions and structures. However, to date, all protein resurrection studies have used simplistic approaches for ancestral sequence reconstruction (ASR), including the assumption that a single sequence alignment alone is sufficient to accurately reconstruct the history of the gene family. The impact of such shortcuts on conclusions about ancestral functions has not been investigated. Here, we show with simulations that utilizing information on species history using a model that accounts for the duplication, horizontal transfer, and loss (DTL) of genes statistically increases ASR accuracy. This underscores the importance of the tree topology in the inference of putative ancestors. We validate our in silico predictions using in vitro resurrection of the LeuB enzyme for the ancestor of the Firmicutes, a major and ancient bacterial phylum. With this particular protein, our experimental results demonstrate that information on the species phylogeny results in a biochemically more realistic and kinetically more stable ancestral protein. Additional resurrection experiments with different proteins are necessary to statistically quantify the impact of using species tree-aware gene trees on ancestral protein phenotypes. Nonetheless, our results suggest the need for incorporating both sequence and DTL information in future studies of protein resurrections to accurately define the genotype-phenotype space in which proteins diversify.

  18. Toward more accurate ancestral protein genotype-phenotype reconstructions with the use of species tree-aware gene trees.

    PubMed

    Groussin, Mathieu; Hobbs, Joanne K; Szöllősi, Gergely J; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Arcus, Vickery L; Gouy, Manolo

    2015-01-01

    The resurrection of ancestral proteins provides direct insight into how natural selection has shaped proteins found in nature. By tracing substitutions along a gene phylogeny, ancestral proteins can be reconstructed in silico and subsequently synthesized in vitro. This elegant strategy reveals the complex mechanisms responsible for the evolution of protein functions and structures. However, to date, all protein resurrection studies have used simplistic approaches for ancestral sequence reconstruction (ASR), including the assumption that a single sequence alignment alone is sufficient to accurately reconstruct the history of the gene family. The impact of such shortcuts on conclusions about ancestral functions has not been investigated. Here, we show with simulations that utilizing information on species history using a model that accounts for the duplication, horizontal transfer, and loss (DTL) of genes statistically increases ASR accuracy. This underscores the importance of the tree topology in the inference of putative ancestors. We validate our in silico predictions using in vitro resurrection of the LeuB enzyme for the ancestor of the Firmicutes, a major and ancient bacterial phylum. With this particular protein, our experimental results demonstrate that information on the species phylogeny results in a biochemically more realistic and kinetically more stable ancestral protein. Additional resurrection experiments with different proteins are necessary to statistically quantify the impact of using species tree-aware gene trees on ancestral protein phenotypes. Nonetheless, our results suggest the need for incorporating both sequence and DTL information in future studies of protein resurrections to accurately define the genotype-phenotype space in which proteins diversify. PMID:25371435

  19. Cross-species chromosome painting in Cetartiodactyla: reconstructing the karyotype evolution in key phylogenetic lineages.

    PubMed

    Kulemzina, Anastasia I; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Perelman, Polina L; Rubtsova, Nadezhda V; Volobuev, Vitaly; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Stanyon, Roscoe; Yang, Fengtang; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2009-01-01

    Recent molecular and morphological studies place Artiodactyla and Cetacea into the order Cetartiodactyla. Within the Cetartiodactyla such families as Bovidae, Cervidae, and Suidae are well studied by comparative chromosome painting, but many taxa that are crucial for understanding cetartiodactyl phylogeny remain poorly studied. Here we present the genome-wide comparative maps of five cetartiodactyl species obtained by chromosome painting with human and dromedary paint probes from four taxa: Cetacea, Hippopotamidae, Giraffidae, and Moschidae. This is the first molecular cytogenetic report on pilot whale, hippopotamus, okapi, and Siberian musk deer. Our results, when integrated with previously published comparative chromosome maps allow us to reconstruct the evolutionary pathway and rates of chromosomal rearrangements in Cetartiodactyla. We hypothesize that the putative cetartiodactyl ancestral karyotype (CAK) contained 25-26 pairs of autosomes, 2n = 52-54, and that the association of human chromosomes 8/9 could be a cytogenetic signature that unites non-camelid cetartiodactyls. There are no unambiguous cytogenetic landmarks that unite Hippopotamidae and Cetacea. If we superimpose chromosome rearrangements on the supertree generated by Price and colleagues, several homoplasy events are needed to explain cetartiodactyl karyotype evolution. Our results apparently favour a model of non-random breakpoints in chromosome evolution. Cetariodactyl karyotype evolution is characterized by alternating periods of low and fast rates in various lineages. The highest rates are found in Suina (Suidae+Tayasuidae) lineage (1.76 rearrangements per million years (R/My)) and the lowest in Cetaceans (0.07 R/My). Our study demonstrates that the combined use of human and camel paints is highly informative for revealing evolutionary karyotypic rearrangements among cetartiodactyl species. PMID:19350402

  20. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    McCann, Jamie; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Stuessy, Tod F; Villaseñor, Jose L; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy) plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae) as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian methods), branch length model (phylograms versus chronograms) and phylogenetic uncertainty (topological and branch length uncertainty) on the inference of chromosome number evolution. We also address the suitability of the maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree as single representative topology for chromosome number reconstruction. Each of the listed factors causes considerable incongruence among chromosome number reconstructions. Discrepancies between inferences on the MCC tree from those made by integrating over a set of trees are moderate for ancestral chromosome numbers, but severe for the difference of chromosome gains and losses, a measure of the directionality of dysploidy. Therefore, reliance on single trees, such as the MCC tree, is strongly discouraged and model averaging, taking both phylogenetic and model uncertainty into account, is recommended. For studying chromosome number evolution, dedicated models implemented in the program ChromEvol and ordered maximum parsimony may be most appropriate. Chromosome number evolution in Melampodium follows a pattern of bidirectional dysploidy (starting from x = 11 to x = 9 and x = 14, respectively) with no prevailing direction.

  1. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Jamie; Stuessy, Tod F.; Villaseñor, Jose L.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy) plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae) as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian methods), branch length model (phylograms versus chronograms) and phylogenetic uncertainty (topological and branch length uncertainty) on the inference of chromosome number evolution. We also address the suitability of the maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree as single representative topology for chromosome number reconstruction. Each of the listed factors causes considerable incongruence among chromosome number reconstructions. Discrepancies between inferences on the MCC tree from those made by integrating over a set of trees are moderate for ancestral chromosome numbers, but severe for the difference of chromosome gains and losses, a measure of the directionality of dysploidy. Therefore, reliance on single trees, such as the MCC tree, is strongly discouraged and model averaging, taking both phylogenetic and model uncertainty into account, is recommended. For studying chromosome number evolution, dedicated models implemented in the program ChromEvol and ordered maximum parsimony may be most appropriate. Chromosome number evolution in Melampodium follows a pattern of bidirectional dysploidy (starting from x = 11 to x = 9 and x = 14, respectively) with no prevailing direction. PMID:27611687

  2. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    McCann, Jamie; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Stuessy, Tod F; Villaseñor, Jose L; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy) plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae) as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian methods), branch length model (phylograms versus chronograms) and phylogenetic uncertainty (topological and branch length uncertainty) on the inference of chromosome number evolution. We also address the suitability of the maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree as single representative topology for chromosome number reconstruction. Each of the listed factors causes considerable incongruence among chromosome number reconstructions. Discrepancies between inferences on the MCC tree from those made by integrating over a set of trees are moderate for ancestral chromosome numbers, but severe for the difference of chromosome gains and losses, a measure of the directionality of dysploidy. Therefore, reliance on single trees, such as the MCC tree, is strongly discouraged and model averaging, taking both phylogenetic and model uncertainty into account, is recommended. For studying chromosome number evolution, dedicated models implemented in the program ChromEvol and ordered maximum parsimony may be most appropriate. Chromosome number evolution in Melampodium follows a pattern of bidirectional dysploidy (starting from x = 11 to x = 9 and x = 14, respectively) with no prevailing direction. PMID:27611687

  3. In Situ Casting and Imaging of the Rat Airway Tree for Accurate 3D Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Rick E.; Colby, Sean M.; Kabilan, Senthil; Einstein, Daniel R.; Carson, James P.

    2013-08-01

    The use of anatomically accurate, animal-specific airway geometries is important for understanding and modeling the physiology of the respiratory system. One approach for acquiring detailed airway architecture is to create a bronchial cast of the conducting airways. However, typical casting procedures either do not faithfully preserve the in vivo branching angles, or produce rigid casts that when removed for imaging are fragile and thus easily damaged. We address these problems by creating an in situ bronchial cast of the conducting airways in rats that can be subsequently imaged in situ using 3D micro-CT imaging. We also demonstrate that deformations in airway branch angles resulting from the casting procedure are small, and that these angle deformations can be reversed through an interactive adjustment of the segmented cast geometry. Animal work was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  4. MetaBAT, an efficient tool for accurately reconstructing single genomes from complex microbial communities

    DOE PAGES

    Kang, Dongwan D.; Froula, Jeff; Egan, Rob; Wang, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Grouping large genomic fragments assembled from shotgun metagenomic sequences to deconvolute complex microbial communities, or metagenome binning, enables the study of individual organisms and their interactions. Because of the complex nature of these communities, existing metagenome binning methods often miss a large number of microbial species. In addition, most of the tools are not scalable to large datasets. Here we introduce automated software called MetaBAT that integrates empirical probabilistic distances of genome abundance and tetranucleotide frequency for accurate metagenome binning. MetaBAT outperforms alternative methods in accuracy and computational efficiency on both synthetic and real metagenome datasets. Lastly, it automatically formsmore » hundreds of high quality genome bins on a very large assembly consisting millions of contigs in a matter of hours on a single node. MetaBAT is open source software and available at https://bitbucket.org/berkeleylab/metabat.« less

  5. MetaBAT, an efficient tool for accurately reconstructing single genomes from complex microbial communities

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Dongwan D.; Froula, Jeff; Egan, Rob; Wang, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Grouping large genomic fragments assembled from shotgun metagenomic sequences to deconvolute complex microbial communities, or metagenome binning, enables the study of individual organisms and their interactions. Because of the complex nature of these communities, existing metagenome binning methods often miss a large number of microbial species. In addition, most of the tools are not scalable to large datasets. Here we introduce automated software called MetaBAT that integrates empirical probabilistic distances of genome abundance and tetranucleotide frequency for accurate metagenome binning. MetaBAT outperforms alternative methods in accuracy and computational efficiency on both synthetic and real metagenome datasets. Lastly, it automatically forms hundreds of high quality genome bins on a very large assembly consisting millions of contigs in a matter of hours on a single node. MetaBAT is open source software and available at https://bitbucket.org/berkeleylab/metabat.

  6. In Situ Casting and Imaging of the Rat Airway Tree for Accurate 3D Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Richard E.; Colby, Sean M.; Kabilan, Senthil; Einstein, Daniel R.; Carson, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The use of anatomically accurate, animal-specific airway geometries is important for understanding and modeling the physiology of the respiratory system. One approach for acquiring detailed airway architecture is to create a bronchial cast of the conducting airways. However, typical casting procedures either do not faithfully preserve the in vivo branching angles or produce rigid casts that when removed for imaging are fragile and thus easily damaged. We address these problems by creating an in situ bronchial cast of the conducting airways in rats that can be subsequently imaged in situ using 3D micro-CT imaging. We also demonstrate that deformations in airway branch angles resulting from the casting procedure are small, and that these angle deformations can be reversed through an interactive adjustment of the segmented cast geometry. Animal work was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. PMID:23786464

  7. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the odontophoral cartilages of Caenogastropoda (Mollusca: Gastropoda) using micro-CT: Morphology and phylogenetic significance.

    PubMed

    Golding, Rosemary E; Ponder, Winston F; Byrne, Maria

    2009-05-01

    Odontophoral cartilages are located in the molluscan buccal mass and support the movement of the radula during feeding. The structural diversity of odontophoral cartilages is currently known only from limited taxa, but this information is important for interpreting phylogeny and for understanding the biomechanical operation of the buccal mass. Caenogastropods exhibit a wide variety of feeding strategies, but there is little comparative information on cartilage morphology within this group. The morphology of caenogastropod odontophoral cartilages is currently known only from dissection and histology, although preliminary results suggest that they may be structurally diverse. A comparative morphological survey of 18 caenogastropods and three noncaenogastropods has been conducted, sampling most major caenogastropod superfamilies. Three-dimensional models of the odontophoral cartilages were generated using X-ray microscopy (micro-CT) and reconstruction by image segmentation. Considerable morphological diversity of the odontophoral cartilages was found within Caenogastropoda, including the presence of thin cartilaginous appendages, asymmetrically overlapping cartilages, and reflexed cartilage margins. Many basal caenogastropod taxa possess previously unidentified cartilaginous support structures below the radula (subradular cartilages), which may be homologous to the dorsal cartilages of other gastropods. As subradular cartilages were absent in carnivorous caenogastropods, adaptation to trophic specialization is likely. However, incongruence with specific feeding strategies or body size suggests that the morphology of odontophoral cartilages is constrained by phylogeny, representing a new source of morphological characters to improve the phylogenetic resolution of this group.

  8. ESTs and EST-linked polymorphisms for genetic mapping and phylogenetic reconstruction in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Christine; Hoffmann, Margarete; Lanz, Christa; Willing, Eva-Maria; Riester, Markus; Warthmann, Norman; Sprecher, Andrea; Tripathi, Namita; Henz, Stefan R; Weigel, Detlef

    2007-01-01

    Background The guppy, Poecilia reticulata, is a well-known model organism for studying inheritance and variation of male ornamental traits as well as adaptation to different river habitats. However, genomic resources for studying this important model were not previously widely available. Results With the aim of generating molecular markers for genetic mapping of the guppy, cDNA libraries were constructed from embryos and different adult organs to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs). About 18,000 ESTs were annotated according to BLASTN and BLASTX results and the sequence information from the 3' UTRs was exploited to generate PCR primers for re-sequencing of genomic DNA from different wild type strains. By comparison of EST-linked genomic sequences from at least four different ecotypes, about 1,700 polymorphisms were identified, representing about 400 distinct genes. Two interconnected MySQL databases were built to organize the ESTs and markers, respectively. A robust phylogeny of the guppy was reconstructed, based on 10 different nuclear genes. Conclusion Our EST and marker databases provide useful tools for genetic mapping and phylogenetic studies of the guppy. PMID:17686157

  9. Phylogenetic reconstruction using secondary structures and sequence motifs of ITS2 rDNA of Paragonimus westermani (Kerbert, 1878) Braun, 1899 (Digenea: Paragonimidae) and related species

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Most phylogenetic studies using current methods have focused on primary DNA sequence information. However, RNA secondary structures are particularly useful in systematics because they include characteristics that give "morphological" information, not found in the primary sequence. In several mountainous regions of Northeastern India, foci of Paragonimus (lung fluke) infection reportedly involve species that are known to prevail in neighbouring countries. The present study was undertaken to demonstrate the sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA (ITS2) of the infective (metacercarial) stage of the lung fluke collected from the edible crab hosts that are abundant in a mountain stream of the area (Miao, Changlang District in Arunachal Pradesh) and to construct its phylogeny. Using the approach of molecular morphometrics that is based on ITS2 secondary structure homologies, phylogenetic relationships of the various isolates of Paragonimus species that are prevalent in the neighbouring Near-eastern countries have been discussed. Results Initially, ten predicted RNA secondary structures were reconstructed and the topology based only on the predicted RNA secondary structure of the ITS2 region resolved most relationships among the species studied. We obtained three similar topologies for seven species of the genus Paragonimus on the basis of traditional primary sequence analysis using MEGA and a Bayesian analysis of the combined data. The latter approach allowed us to include both primary sequence and RNA molecular morphometrics; each data partition was allowed to have a different evolution rate. Paragonimus westermani was found to group with P. siamensis of Thailand; this was best supported by both the molecular morphometrics and combined analyses. P. heterotremus, P. proliferus, P. skrjabini, P. bangkokensis and P. harinasutai formed a separate clade in the molecular phylogenies, and were reciprocally monophyletic with respect to other species. ITS2 sequence

  10. Structural diversity of eukaryotic 18S rRNA and its impact on alignment and phylogenetic reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiang; Lin, Jinzhong; Qin, Yan; Zhou, Jianfu; Bu, Wenjun

    2011-02-01

    Ribosomal RNAs are important because they catalyze the synthesis of peptides and proteins. Comparative studies of the secondary structure of 18S rRNA have revealed the basic locations of its many length-conserved and length-variable regions. In recent years, many more sequences of 18S rDNA with unusual lengths have been documented in GenBank. These data make it possible to recognize the diversity of the secondary and tertiary structures of 18S rRNAs and to identify the length-conserved parts of 18S rDNAs. The longest 18S rDNA sequences of almost every known eukaryotic phylum were included in this study. We illustrated the bioinformatics-based structure to show that, the regions that are more length-variable, regions that are less length-variable, the splicing sites for introns, and the sites of A-minor interactions are mostly distributed in different parts of the 18S rRNA. Additionally, this study revealed that some length-variable regions or insertion positions could be quite close to the functional part of the 18S rRNA of Foraminifera organisms. The tertiary structure as well as the secondary structure of 18S rRNA can be more diverse than what was previously supposed. Besides revealing how this interesting gene evolves, it can help to remove ambiguity from the alignment of eukaryotic 18S rDNAs and to improve the performance of 18S rDNA in phylogenetic reconstruction. Six nucleotides shared by Archaea and Eukaryota but rarely by Bacteria are also reported here for the first time, which might further support the supposed origin of eukaryote from archaeans.

  11. A Two-Phase Space Resection Model for Accurate Topographic Reconstruction from Lunar Imagery with PushbroomScanners

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xuemiao; Zhang, Huaidong; Han, Guoqiang; Kwan, Kin Chung; Pang, Wai-Man; Fang, Jiaming; Zhao, Gansen

    2016-01-01

    Exterior orientation parameters’ (EOP) estimation using space resection plays an important role in topographic reconstruction for push broom scanners. However, existing models of space resection are highly sensitive to errors in data. Unfortunately, for lunar imagery, the altitude data at the ground control points (GCPs) for space resection are error-prone. Thus, existing models fail to produce reliable EOPs. Motivated by a finding that for push broom scanners, angular rotations of EOPs can be estimated independent of the altitude data and only involving the geographic data at the GCPs, which are already provided, hence, we divide the modeling of space resection into two phases. Firstly, we estimate the angular rotations based on the reliable geographic data using our proposed mathematical model. Then, with the accurate angular rotations, the collinear equations for space resection are simplified into a linear problem, and the global optimal solution for the spatial position of EOPs can always be achieved. Moreover, a certainty term is integrated to penalize the unreliable altitude data for increasing the error tolerance. Experimental results evidence that our model can obtain more accurate EOPs and topographic maps not only for the simulated data, but also for the real data from Chang’E-1, compared to the existing space resection model. PMID:27077855

  12. A Two-Phase Space Resection Model for Accurate Topographic Reconstruction from Lunar Imagery with PushbroomScanners.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuemiao; Zhang, Huaidong; Han, Guoqiang; Kwan, Kin Chung; Pang, Wai-Man; Fang, Jiaming; Zhao, Gansen

    2016-04-11

    Exterior orientation parameters' (EOP) estimation using space resection plays an important role in topographic reconstruction for push broom scanners. However, existing models of space resection are highly sensitive to errors in data. Unfortunately, for lunar imagery, the altitude data at the ground control points (GCPs) for space resection are error-prone. Thus, existing models fail to produce reliable EOPs. Motivated by a finding that for push broom scanners, angular rotations of EOPs can be estimated independent of the altitude data and only involving the geographic data at the GCPs, which are already provided, hence, we divide the modeling of space resection into two phases. Firstly, we estimate the angular rotations based on the reliable geographic data using our proposed mathematical model. Then, with the accurate angular rotations, the collinear equations for space resection are simplified into a linear problem, and the global optimal solution for the spatial position of EOPs can always be achieved. Moreover, a certainty term is integrated to penalize the unreliable altitude data for increasing the error tolerance. Experimental results evidence that our model can obtain more accurate EOPs and topographic maps not only for the simulated data, but also for the real data from Chang'E-1, compared to the existing space resection model.

  13. Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (nu ITS2 rRNA) Sequence-Structure Phylogenetics: Towards an Automated Reconstruction of the Green Algal Tree of Life

    PubMed Central

    Buchheim, Mark A.; Keller, Alexander; Koetschan, Christian; Förster, Frank; Merget, Benjamin; Wolf, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Background Chloroplast-encoded genes (matK and rbcL) have been formally proposed for use in DNA barcoding efforts targeting embryophytes. Extending such a protocol to chlorophytan green algae, though, is fraught with problems including non homology (matK) and heterogeneity that prevents the creation of a universal PCR toolkit (rbcL). Some have advocated the use of the nuclear-encoded, internal transcribed spacer two (ITS2) as an alternative to the traditional chloroplast markers. However, the ITS2 is broadly perceived to be insufficiently conserved or to be confounded by introgression or biparental inheritance patterns, precluding its broad use in phylogenetic reconstruction or as a DNA barcode. A growing body of evidence has shown that simultaneous analysis of nucleotide data with secondary structure information can overcome at least some of the limitations of ITS2. The goal of this investigation was to assess the feasibility of an automated, sequence-structure approach for analysis of IT2 data from a large sampling of phylum Chlorophyta. Methodology/Principal Findings Sequences and secondary structures from 591 chlorophycean, 741 trebouxiophycean and 938 ulvophycean algae, all obtained from the ITS2 Database, were aligned using a sequence structure-specific scoring matrix. Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed by Profile Neighbor-Joining coupled with a sequence structure-specific, general time reversible substitution model. Results from analyses of the ITS2 data were robust at multiple nodes and showed considerable congruence with results from published phylogenetic analyses. Conclusions/Significance Our observations on the power of automated, sequence-structure analyses of ITS2 to reconstruct phylum-level phylogenies of the green algae validate this approach to assessing diversity for large sets of chlorophytan taxa. Moreover, our results indicate that objections to the use of ITS2 for DNA barcoding should be weighed against the utility of an automated

  14. Multigene phylogenetic reconstruction of the Tubulinea (Amoebozoa) corroborates four of the six major lineages, while additionally revealing that shell composition does not predict phylogeny in the Arcellinida.

    PubMed

    Lahr, Daniel J G; Grant, Jessica R; Katz, Laura A

    2013-05-01

    Tubulinea is a phylogenetically stable higher-level taxon within Amoebozoa, morphologically characterized by monoaxially streaming and cylindrical pseudopods. Contemporary phylogenetic reconstructions have largely relied on SSU rDNA, and to a lesser extent, on actin genes to reveal the relationships among these organisms. Additionally, the test (shell) forming Arcellinida, one of the most species-rich amoebozoan groups, is nested within Tubulinea and suffers from substantial under-sampling of taxa. Here, we increase taxonomic and gene sampling within the Tubulinea, characterizing molecular data for 22 taxa and six genes (SSU rDNA, actin, α- and β-tubulin, elongation factor 2 and the 14-3-3 regulatory protein). We perform concatenated phylogenetic analyses using these genes as well as approximately unbiased tests to assess evolutionary relationships within the Tubulinea. We confirm the monophyly of Tubulinea and four of the six included lineages (Echinamoeboidea, Leptomyxida, Amoebida and Poseidonida). Arcellinida and Hartmanellidae, the remaining lineages, are not monophyletic in our reconstructions, although statistical testing does not allow rejection of either group. We further investigate more fine-grained morphological evolution of previously defined groups, concluding that relationships within Arcellinida are more consistent with general test and aperture shape than with test composition. We also discuss the implications of this phylogeny for interpretations of the Precambrian fossil record of testate amoebae. PMID:23499265

  15. Description of new mitochondrial genomes (Spodoptera litura, Noctuoidea and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, Pyraloidea) and phylogenetic reconstruction of Lepidoptera with the comment on optimization schemes.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xinlong; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Iksoo

    2013-11-01

    We newly sequenced mitochondrial genomes of Spodoptera litura and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis belonging to Lepidoptera to obtain further insight into mitochondrial genome evolution in this group and investigated the influence of optimal strategies on phylogenetic reconstruction of Lepidoptera. Estimation of p-distances of each mitochondrial gene for available taxonomic levels has shown the highest value in ND6, whereas the lowest values in COI and COII at the nucleotide level, suggesting different utility of each gene for different hierarchical group when individual genes are utilized for phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analyses mainly yielded the relationships (((((Bombycoidea + Geometroidea) + Noctuoidea) + Pyraloidea) + Papilionoidea) + Tortricoidea), evidencing the polyphyly of Macrolepidoptera. The Noctuoidea concordantly recovered the familial relationships (((Arctiidae + Lymantriidae) + Noctuidae) + Notodontidae). The tests of optimality strategies, such as exclusion of third codon positions, inclusion of rRNA and tRNA genes, data partitioning, RY recoding approach, and recoding nucleotides into amino acids suggested that the majority of the strategies did not substantially alter phylogenetic topologies or nodal supports, except for the sister relationship between Lycaenidae and Pieridae only in the amino acid dataset, which was in contrast to the sister relationship between Lycaenidae and Nymphalidae in Papilionoidea in the remaining datasets.

  16. Accurate modeling and reconstruction of three-dimensional percolating filamentary microstructures from two-dimensional micrographs via dilation-erosion method

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, En-Yu; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Jing, Tao; Torquato, Salvatore; Jiao, Yang

    2014-03-01

    Heterogeneous materials are ubiquitous in nature and synthetic situations and have a wide range of important engineering applications. Accurate modeling and reconstructing three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of topologically complex materials from limited morphological information such as a two-dimensional (2D) micrograph is crucial to the assessment and prediction of effective material properties and performance under extreme conditions. Here, we extend a recently developed dilation–erosion method and employ the Yeong–Torquato stochastic reconstruction procedure to model and generate 3D austenitic–ferritic cast duplex stainless steel microstructure containing percolating filamentary ferrite phase from 2D optical micrographs of the material sample. Specifically, the ferrite phase is dilated to produce a modified target 2D microstructure and the resulting 3D reconstruction is eroded to recover the percolating ferrite filaments. The dilation–erosion reconstruction is compared with the actual 3D microstructure, obtained from serial sectioning (polishing), as well as the standard stochastic reconstructions incorporating topological connectedness information. The fact that the former can achieve the same level of accuracy as the latter suggests that the dilation–erosion procedure is tantamount to incorporating appreciably more topological and geometrical information into the reconstruction while being much more computationally efficient. - Highlights: • Spatial correlation functions used to characterize filamentary ferrite phase • Clustering information assessed from 3D experimental structure via serial sectioning • Stochastic reconstruction used to generate 3D virtual structure 2D micrograph • Dilation–erosion method to improve accuracy of 3D reconstruction.

  17. Experimental study on the application of a compressed-sensing (CS) algorithm to dental cone-beam CT (CBCT) for accurate, low-dose image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jieun; Cho, Hyosung; Je, Uikyu; Lee, Minsik; Kim, Hyojeong; Hong, Daeki; Park, Yeonok; Lee, Seonhwa; Cho, Heemoon; Choi, Sungil; Koo, Yangseo

    2013-03-01

    In practical applications of three-dimensional (3D) tomographic imaging, there are often challenges for image reconstruction from insufficient data. In computed tomography (CT); for example, image reconstruction from few views would enable fast scanning with reduced doses to the patient. In this study, we investigated and implemented an efficient reconstruction method based on a compressed-sensing (CS) algorithm, which exploits the sparseness of the gradient image with substantially high accuracy, for accurate, low-dose dental cone-beam CT (CBCT) reconstruction. We applied the algorithm to a commercially-available dental CBCT system (Expert7™, Vatech Co., Korea) and performed experimental works to demonstrate the algorithm for image reconstruction in insufficient sampling problems. We successfully reconstructed CBCT images from several undersampled data and evaluated the reconstruction quality in terms of the universal-quality index (UQI). Experimental demonstrations of the CS-based reconstruction algorithm appear to show that it can be applied to current dental CBCT systems for reducing imaging doses and improving the image quality.

  18. Internal Transcribed Spacer rRNA Gene-Based Phylogenetic Reconstruction Using Algorithms with Local and Global Sequence Alignment for Black Yeasts and Their Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Caligiorne, R. B.; Licinio, P.; Dupont, J.; de Hoog, G. S.

    2005-01-01

    Sequences of rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of a standard set of black yeast-like fungal pathogens were compared using two methods: local and global alignments. The latter is based on DNA-walk divergence analysis. This method has become recently available as an algorithm (DNAWD program) which converts sequences into three-dimensional walks. The walks are compared with, or fit to, each other generating global alignments. The DNA-walk geometry defines a proper metric used to create a distance matrix appropriated for phylogenetic reconstruction. In this work, the analyses were carried out for species currently classified in Capronia, Cladophialophora, Exophiala, Fonsecaea, Phialophora, and Ramichloridium. Main groups were verified by small-subunit rRNA gene data. DNAWD applied to ITS2 alone enabled species recognition as well as phylogenetic reconstruction reflecting clades discriminated in small-subunit rRNA gene phylogeny, which was not possible with any other algorithm using local alignment for the same data set. It is concluded that DNAWD provides rapid insight into broader relationships between groups using genes that otherwise would be hardly usable for this purpose. PMID:15956403

  19. WE-A-17A-10: Fast, Automatic and Accurate Catheter Reconstruction in HDR Brachytherapy Using An Electromagnetic 3D Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Poulin, E; Racine, E; Beaulieu, L; Binnekamp, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-B), actual catheter reconstruction protocols are slow and errors prompt. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and robustness of an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system for improved catheter reconstruction in HDR-B protocols. Methods: For this proof-of-principle, a total of 10 catheters were inserted in gelatin phantoms with different trajectories. Catheters were reconstructed using a Philips-design 18G biopsy needle (used as an EM stylet) and the second generation Aurora Planar Field Generator from Northern Digital Inc. The Aurora EM system exploits alternating current technology and generates 3D points at 40 Hz. Phantoms were also scanned using a μCT (GE Healthcare) and Philips Big Bore clinical CT system with a resolution of 0.089 mm and 2 mm, respectively. Reconstructions using the EM stylet were compared to μCT and CT. To assess the robustness of the EM reconstruction, 5 catheters were reconstructed twice and compared. Results: Reconstruction time for one catheter was 10 seconds or less. This would imply that for a typical clinical implant of 17 catheters, the total reconstruction time would be less than 3 minutes. When compared to the μCT, the mean EM tip identification error was 0.69 ± 0.29 mm while the CT error was 1.08 ± 0.67 mm. The mean 3D distance error was found to be 0.92 ± 0.37 mm and 1.74 ± 1.39 mm for the EM and CT, respectively. EM 3D catheter trajectories were found to be significantly more accurate (unpaired t-test, p < 0.05). A mean difference of less than 0.5 mm was found between successive EM reconstructions. Conclusion: The EM reconstruction was found to be faster, more accurate and more robust than the conventional methods used for catheter reconstruction in HDR-B. This approach can be applied to any type of catheters and applicators. We would like to disclose that the equipments, used in this study, is coming from a collaboration with Philips Medical.

  20. Phylogenetic Reconstruction as a Broadly Applicable Teaching Tool in the Biology Classroom: The Value of Data in Estimating Likely Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julius, Matthew L.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2006-01-01

    This laboratory exercise introduces students to a fundamental tool in evolutionary biology--phylogenetic inference. Students are required to create a data set via observation and through mining preexisting data sets. These student data sets are then used to develop and compare competing hypotheses of vertebrate phylogeny. The exercise uses readily…

  1. Networks in a Large-Scale Phylogenetic Analysis: Reconstructing Evolutionary History of Asparagales (Lilianae) Based on Four Plastid Genes

    PubMed Central

    Chase, Mark W.; Kim, Joo-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis aims to produce a bifurcating tree, which disregards conflicting signals and displays only those that are present in a large proportion of the data. However, any character (or tree) conflict in a dataset allows the exploration of support for various evolutionary hypotheses. Although data-display network approaches exist, biologists cannot easily and routinely use them to compute rooted phylogenetic networks on real datasets containing hundreds of taxa. Here, we constructed an original neighbour-net for a large dataset of Asparagales to highlight the aspects of the resulting network that will be important for interpreting phylogeny. The analyses were largely conducted with new data collected for the same loci as in previous studies, but from different species accessions and greater sampling in many cases than in published analyses. The network tree summarised the majority data pattern in the characters of plastid sequences before tree building, which largely confirmed the currently recognised phylogenetic relationships. Most conflicting signals are at the base of each group along the Asparagales backbone, which helps us to establish the expectancy and advance our understanding of some difficult taxa relationships and their phylogeny. The network method should play a greater role in phylogenetic analyses than it has in the past. To advance the understanding of evolutionary history of the largest order of monocots Asparagales, absolute diversification times were estimated for family-level clades using relaxed molecular clock analyses. PMID:23544071

  2. Accurate climate reconstruction from coral aragonite: The impact of seawater pH on skeletal Sr/Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, C. S.; Allison, N.; Hintz, C.; Finch, A.

    2014-12-01

    The geochemistry of skeletal aragonite deposited by massive tropical corals preserves a valuable record of past climate. In particular, coral skeletal Sr/Ca records sea surface temperature (SST) at the time of deposition and is a widely used palaeothermometer. However, SSTs estimated from many fossil corals are significantly cooler than those predicted from other proxies and climate models. Accurately interpreting the SST records encoded in coral aragonite requires a greater understanding of the controls on skeletal Sr/Ca, including the effect of variations in seawater pH. We have developed an aquarium system to culture corals over a range of pCO2 scenarios that range from the last glacial maximum (180 ppm) to levels projected by the end of this century (750 ppm). We acclimated heads of massive Porites corals, the coral genus most commonly used in palaeoenvironmental studies, to four pCO2 scenarios over a period of > 6 months. Using SIMS we are measuring the Sr/Ca of the aragonite deposited over a five-week experimental period, following this long acclimation, at a 1-2 day resolution. We explore the relationship between seawater pH and skeletal Sr/Ca, and we investigate how skeletal Sr/Ca varies between fast- and slow-growing axes within the same coral, and between different genotypes within the same treatment. We have quantified net photosynthesis, respiration and calcification rates in each coral head throughout the experimental period, and we observe that calcification in the light is significantly reduced at a pCO2 of 750 ppm compared to 180 ppm (0.94 ± 0.17 and 0.45 ± 0.23 μmol CaCO3 cm-2 hr-1, respectively; p < 0.01). We investigate whether these differences influence skeletal geochemistry within our controlled culture conditions. Understanding the effect of changes in seawater pH, metabolic and calcification rates on the Sr/Ca of coral skeletons will significantly advance the application of this proxy in past climate reconstruction.

  3. SoRT2: a tool for sorting genomes and reconstructing phylogenetic trees by reversals, generalized transpositions and translocations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yen-Lin; Huang, Chen-Cheng; Tang, Chuan Yi; Lu, Chin Lung

    2010-07-01

    SoRT(2) is a web server that allows the user to perform genome rearrangement analysis involving reversals, generalized transpositions and translocations (including fusions and fissions), and infer phylogenetic trees of genomes being considered based on their pairwise genome rearrangement distances. It takes as input two or more linear/circular multi-chromosomal gene (or synteny block) orders in FASTA-like format. When the input is two genomes, SoRT(2) will quickly calculate their rearrangement distance, as well as a corresponding optimal scenario by highlighting the genes involved in each rearrangement operation. In the case of multiple genomes, SoRT(2) will also construct phylogenetic trees of these genomes based on a matrix of their pairwise rearrangement distances using distance-based approaches, such as neighbor-joining (NJ), unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) and Fitch-Margoliash (FM) methods. In addition, if the function of computing jackknife support values is selected, SoRT(2) will further perform the jackknife analysis to evaluate statistical reliability of the constructed NJ, UPGMA and FM trees. SoRT(2) is available online at http://bioalgorithm.life.nctu.edu.tw/SORT2/.

  4. Including Fossils in Phylogenetic Climate Reconstructions: A Deep Time Perspective on the Climatic Niche Evolution and Diversification of Spiny Lizards (Sceloporus).

    PubMed

    Lawing, A Michelle; Polly, P David; Hews, Diana K; Martins, Emília P

    2016-08-01

    Fossils and other paleontological information can improve phylogenetic comparative method estimates of phenotypic evolution and generate hypotheses related to species diversification. Here, we use fossil information to calibrate ancestral reconstructions of suitable climate for Sceloporus lizards in North America. Integrating data from the fossil record, general circulation models of paleoclimate during the Miocene, climate envelope modeling, and phylogenetic comparative methods provides a geographically and temporally explicit species distribution model of Sceloporus-suitable habitat through time. We provide evidence to support the historic biogeographic hypothesis of Sceloporus diversification in warm North American deserts and suggest a relatively recent Sceloporus invasion into Mexico around 6 Ma. We use a physiological model to map extinction risk. We suggest that the number of hours of restriction to a thermal refuge limited Sceloporus from inhabiting Mexico until the climate cooled enough to provide suitable habitat at approximately 6 Ma. If the future climate returns to the hotter climates of the past, Mexico, the place of highest modern Sceloporus richness, will no longer provide suitable habitats for Sceloporus to survive and reproduce. PMID:27420780

  5. Deep Wideband Single Pointings and Mosaics in Radio Interferometry: How Accurately Do We Reconstruct Intensities and Spectral Indices of Faint Sources?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, U.; Bhatnagar, S.; Owen, F. N.

    2016-11-01

    Many deep wideband wide-field radio interferometric surveys are being designed to accurately measure intensities, spectral indices, and polarization properties of faint source populations. In this paper, we compare various wideband imaging methods to evaluate the accuracy to which intensities and spectral indices of sources close to the confusion limit can be reconstructed. We simulated a wideband single-pointing (C-array, L-Band (1–2 GHz)) and 46-pointing mosaic (D-array, C-Band (4–8 GHz)) JVLA observation using a realistic brightness distribution ranging from 1 μJy to 100 mJy and time-, frequency-, polarization-, and direction-dependent instrumental effects. The main results from these comparisons are (a) errors in the reconstructed intensities and spectral indices are larger for weaker sources even in the absence of simulated noise, (b) errors are systematically lower for joint reconstruction methods (such as Multi-Term Multi-Frequency-Synthesis (MT-MFS)) along with A-Projection for accurate primary beam correction, and (c) use of MT-MFS for image reconstruction eliminates Clean-bias (which is present otherwise). Auxiliary tests include solutions for deficiencies of data partitioning methods (e.g., the use of masks to remove clean bias and hybrid methods to remove sidelobes from sources left un-deconvolved), the effect of sources not at pixel centers, and the consequences of various other numerical approximations within software implementations. This paper also demonstrates the level of detail at which such simulations must be done in order to reflect reality, enable one to systematically identify specific reasons for every trend that is observed, and to estimate scientifically defensible imaging performance metrics and the associated computational complexity of the algorithms/analysis procedures. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  6. On the Use of Uavs in Mining and Archaeology - Geo-Accurate 3d Reconstructions Using Various Platforms and Terrestrial Views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tscharf, A.; Rumpler, M.; Fraundorfer, F.; Mayer, G.; Bischof, H.

    2015-08-01

    During the last decades photogrammetric computer vision systems have been well established in scientific and commercial applications. Especially the increasing affordability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in conjunction with automated multi-view processing pipelines have resulted in an easy way of acquiring spatial data and creating realistic and accurate 3D models. With the use of multicopter UAVs, it is possible to record highly overlapping images from almost terrestrial camera positions to oblique and nadir aerial images due to the ability to navigate slowly, hover and capture images at nearly any possible position. Multi-copter UAVs thus are bridging the gap between terrestrial and traditional aerial image acquisition and are therefore ideally suited to enable easy and safe data collection and inspection tasks in complex or hazardous environments. In this paper we present a fully automated processing pipeline for precise, metric and geo-accurate 3D reconstructions of complex geometries using various imaging platforms. Our workflow allows for georeferencing of UAV imagery based on GPS-measurements of camera stations from an on-board GPS receiver as well as tie and control point information. Ground control points (GCPs) are integrated directly in the bundle adjustment to refine the georegistration and correct for systematic distortions of the image block. We discuss our approach based on three different case studies for applications in mining and archaeology and present several accuracy related analyses investigating georegistration, camera network configuration and ground sampling distance. Our approach is furthermore suited for seamlessly matching and integrating images from different view points and cameras (aerial and terrestrial as well as inside views) into one single reconstruction. Together with aerial images from a UAV, we are able to enrich 3D models by combining terrestrial images as well inside views of an object by joint image processing to

  7. Comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of relationships in Octocorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from the Atlantic ocean using mtMutS and nad2 genes tree reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, K. J.; Herrera, S.; Gubili, C.; Tyler, P. A.; Rogers, A.; Hauton, C.

    2012-12-01

    Despite being an abundant group of significant ecological importance the phylogenetic relationships of the Octocorallia remain poorly understood and very much understudied. We used 1132 bp of two mitochondrial protein-coding genes, nad2 and mtMutS (previously referred to as msh1), to construct a phylogeny for 161 octocoral specimens from the Atlantic, including both Isididae and non-Isididae species. We found that four clades were supported using a concatenated alignment. Two of these (A and B) were in general agreement with the of Holaxonia-Alcyoniina and Anthomastus-Corallium clades identified by previous work. The third and fourth clades represent a split of the Calcaxonia-Pennatulacea clade resulting in a clade containing the Pennatulacea and a small number of Isididae specimens and a second clade containing the remaining Calcaxonia. When individual genes were considered nad2 largely agreed with previous work with MtMutS also producing a fourth clade corresponding to a split of Isididae species from the Calcaxonia-Pennatulacea clade. It is expected these difference are a consequence of the inclusion of Isisdae species that have undergone a gene inversion in the mtMutS gene causing their separation in the MtMutS only tree. The fourth clade in the concatenated tree is also suspected to be a result of this gene inversion, as there were very few Isidiae species included in previous work tree and thus this separation would not be clearly resolved. A~larger phylogeny including both Isididae and non Isididae species is required to further resolve these clades.

  8. Comprehensive Phylogenetic Reconstructions of Rift Valley Fever Virus: The 2010 Northern Mauritania Outbreak in the Camelus dromedarius Species

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Modou M.; Thiongane, Yaya; Diop, Mariame; Isselmou, Katia; Doumbia, Baba; Baba, Mohammed Ould; El Arbi, Ahmed S.; Lancelot, Renaud; Kane, Y.; Albina, Emmanuel; Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Rift valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne disease of domestic and wild ruminants caused by RVF virus (RVFV), a phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae). RVF is widespread in Sub-Saharan Africa. In September of 2010, an RVF outbreak occurred in northern Mauritania involving mass abortions in small ruminants and camels (Camelus dromedarius) and at least 63 human clinical cases, including 13 deaths. In camels, serological prevalence was 27.5–38.5% (95% confidence interval, n=279). For the first time, clinical signs other than abortions were reported in this species, including hemorrhagic septicemia and severe respiratory distress in animals. We assessed the presence of RVFV in camel sera sampled during this outbreak and generated whole-genome sequences of RVFV to determine the possible origin of this RVFV strain. Phylogenetic analyses suggested a shared ancestor between the Mauritania 2010 strain and strains from Zimbabwe (2269, 763, and 2373), Kenya (155_57 and 56IB8), South Africa (Kakamas, SA75 and SA51VanWyck), Uganda (Entebbe), and other strains linked to the 1987 outbreak of RVF in Mauritania (OS1, OS3, OS8, and OS9). PMID:25514121

  9. Real-time Accurate Surface Reconstruction Pipeline for Vision Guided Planetary Exploration Using Unmanned Ground and Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almeida, Eduardo DeBrito

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses work completed over the summer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology. A system is presented to guide ground or aerial unmanned robots using computer vision. The system performs accurate camera calibration, camera pose refinement and surface extraction from images collected by a camera mounted on the vehicle. The application motivating the research is planetary exploration and the vehicles are typically rovers or unmanned aerial vehicles. The information extracted from imagery is used primarily for navigation, as robot location is the same as the camera location and the surfaces represent the terrain that rovers traverse. The processed information must be very accurate and acquired very fast in order to be useful in practice. The main challenge being addressed by this project is to achieve high estimation accuracy and high computation speed simultaneously, a difficult task due to many technical reasons.

  10. Toward a comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of the evolutionary history of mitogen-activated protein kinases in the plant kingdom.

    PubMed

    Janitza, Philipp; Ullrich, Kristian Karsten; Quint, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a three-tier signaling cascade that transmits cellular information from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm where it triggers downstream responses. The MAPKs represent the last step in this cascade and are activated when both tyrosine and threonine residues in a conserved TxY motif are phosphorylated by MAPK kinases, which in turn are themselves activated by phosphorylation by MAPK kinase kinases. To understand the molecular evolution of MAPKs in the plant kingdom, we systematically conducted a Hidden-Markov-Model based screen to identify MAPKs in 13 completely sequenced plant genomes. In this analysis, we included green algae, bryophytes, lycophytes, and several mono- and eudicotyledonous species covering >800 million years of evolution. The phylogenetic relationships of the 204 identified MAPKs based on Bayesian inference facilitated the retraction of the sequence of emergence of the four major clades that are characterized by the presence of a TDY or TEY-A/TEY-B/TEY-C type kinase activation loop. We present evidence that after the split of TDY- and TEY-type MAPKs, initially the TEY-C clade emerged. This was followed by the TEY-B clade in early land plants until the TEY-A clade finally emerged in flowering plants. In addition to these well characterized clades, we identified another highly conserved clade of 45 MAPK-likes, members of which were previously described as Mak-homologous kinases. In agreement with their essential functions, molecular population genetic analysis of MAPK genes in Arabidopsis thaliana accessions reveal that purifying selection drove the evolution of the MAPK family, implying strong functional constraints on MAPK genes. Closely related MAPKs most likely subfunctionalized, a process in which differential transcriptional regulation of duplicates may be involved. PMID:23230446

  11. Phylogenetic reconstruction using four low-copy nuclear loci strongly supports a polyphyletic origin of the genus Sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Jennifer S.; Ramachandran, Dhanushya; Henderson, Ashley; Freeman, Jasmine; Carlise, Michael; Harris, Alex; Willison-Headley, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Sorghum is an essential grain crop whose evolutionary placement within the Andropogoneae has been the subject of scrutiny for decades. Early studies using cytogenetic and morphological data point to a poly- or paraphyletic origin of the genus; however, acceptance of poly- or paraphyly has been met with resistance. This study aimed to address the species relationships within Sorghum, in addition to the placement of Sorghum within the tribe, using a phylogenetic approach and employing broad taxon sampling. Methods From 16 diverse Sorghum species, eight low-copy nuclear loci were sequenced that are known to play a role in morphological diversity and have been previously used to study evolutionary relationships in grasses. Further, the data for four of these loci were combined with those from 57 members of the Andropogoneae in order to determine the placement of Sorghum within the tribe. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses were performed on multilocus concatenated data matrices. Key Results The Sorghum-specific topology provides strong support for two major lineages, in alignment with earlier studies employing chloroplast and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) markers. Clade I is composed of the Eu-, Chaeto- and Heterosorghum, while clade II contains the Stipo- and Parasorghum. When combined with data from the Andropogoneae, Clade II resolves as sister to a clade containing Miscanthus and Saccharum with high posterior probability and bootstrap support, and to the exclusion of Clade I. Conclusions The results provide compelling evidence for a two-lineage polyphyletic ancestry of Sorghum within the larger Andropogoneae, i.e. the derivation of the two major Sorghum clades from a unique common ancestor. Rejection of monophyly in previous molecular studies is probably due to limited taxon sampling outside of the genus. The clade consisting of Para- and Stiposorghum resolves as sister to Miscanthus and Saccharum with strong node support. PMID

  12. Combining Public Domain and Professional Panoramic Imagery for the Accurate and Dense 3d Reconstruction of the Destroyed Bel Temple in Palmyra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahbeh, W.; Nebiker, S.; Fangi, G.

    2016-06-01

    This paper exploits the potential of dense multi-image 3d reconstruction of destroyed cultural heritage monuments by either using public domain touristic imagery only or by combining the public domain imagery with professional panoramic imagery. The focus of our work is placed on the reconstruction of the temple of Bel, one of the Syrian heritage monuments, which was destroyed in September 2015 by the so called "Islamic State". The great temple of Bel is considered as one of the most important religious buildings of the 1st century AD in the East with a unique design. The investigations and the reconstruction were carried out using two types of imagery. The first are freely available generic touristic photos collected from the web. The second are panoramic images captured in 2010 for documenting those monuments. In the paper we present a 3d reconstruction workflow for both types of imagery using state-of-the art dense image matching software, addressing the non-trivial challenges of combining uncalibrated public domain imagery with panoramic images with very wide base-lines. We subsequently investigate the aspects of accuracy and completeness obtainable from the public domain touristic images alone and from the combination with spherical panoramas. We furthermore discuss the challenges of co-registering the weakly connected 3d point cloud fragments resulting from the limited coverage of the touristic photos. We then describe an approach using spherical photogrammetry as a virtual topographic survey allowing the co-registration of a detailed and accurate single 3d model of the temple interior and exterior.

  13. An accurate method for energy spectrum reconstruction of Linac beams based on EPID measurements of scatter radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juste, B.; Miró, R.; Verdú, G.; Santos, A.

    2014-06-01

    This work presents a methodology to reconstruct a Linac high energy photon spectrum beam. The method is based on EPID scatter images generated when the incident photon beam impinges onto a plastic block. The distribution of scatter radiation produced by this scattering object placed on the external EPID surface and centered at the beam field size was measured. The scatter distribution was also simulated for a series of monoenergetic identical geometry photon beams. Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict the scattered photons for monoenergetic photon beams at 92 different locations, with 0.5 cm increments and at 8.5 cm from the centre of the scattering material. Measurements were performed with the same geometry using a 6 MeV photon beam produced by the linear accelerator. A system of linear equations was generated to combine the polyenergetic EPID measurements with the monoenergetic simulation results. Regularization techniques were applied to solve the system for the incident photon spectrum. A linear matrix system, A×S=E, was developed to describe the scattering interactions and their relationship to the primary spectrum (S). A is the monoenergetic scatter matrix determined from the Monte Carlo simulations, S is the incident photon spectrum, and E represents the scatter distribution characterized by EPID measurement. Direct matrix inversion methods produce results that are not physically consistent due to errors inherent in the system, therefore Tikhonov regularization methods were applied to address the effects of these errors and to solve the system for obtaining a consistent bremsstrahlung spectrum.

  14. When molecules support morphology: Phylogenetic reconstruction of the family Onuphidae (Eunicida, Annelida) based on 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA.

    PubMed

    Budaeva, Nataliya; Schepetov, Dmitry; Zanol, Joana; Neretina, Tatiana; Willassen, Endre

    2016-01-01

    Onuphid polychaetes are tubicolous marine worms commonly reported worldwide from intertidal areas to hadal depths. They often dominate in benthic communities and have economic importance in aquaculture and recreational fishing. Here we report the phylogeny of the family Onuphidae based on the combined analyses of nuclear (18S rDNA) and mitochondrial (16S rDNA) genes. Results of Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood analyses supported the monophyly of Onuphidae and its traditional subdivision into two monophyletic subfamilies: Onuphinae and Hyalinoeciinae. Ten of 22 recognized genera were monophyletic with strong node support; four more genera included in this study were either monotypic or represented by a single species. None of the genera appeared para- or polyphyletic and this indicates a strong congruence between the traditional morphology-based systematics of the family and the newly obtained molecular-based phylogenetic reconstructions. Intergeneric relationships within Hyalinoeciinae were not resolved. Two strongly supported monophyletic groups of genera were recovered within Onuphinae: ((Onuphis, Aponuphis), Diopatra, Paradiopatra) and (Hirsutonuphis, (Paxtonia, (Kinbergonuphis, Mooreonuphis))). A previously accepted hypothesis on the subdivision of Onuphinae into the Onuphis group of genera and the Diopatra group of genera was largely rejected.

  15. Accurate D-bar Reconstructions of Conductivity Images Based on a Method of Moment with Sinc Basis

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Planar D-bar integral equation is one of the inverse scattering solution methods for complex problems including inverse conductivity considered in applications such as Electrical impedance tomography (EIT). Recently two different methodologies are considered for the numerical solution of D-bar integrals equation, namely product integrals and multigrid. The first one involves high computational burden and the other one suffers from low convergence rate (CR). In this paper, a novel high speed moment method based using the sinc basis is introduced to solve the two-dimensional D-bar integral equation. In this method, all functions within D-bar integral equation are first expanded using the sinc basis functions. Then, the orthogonal properties of their products dissolve the integral operator of the D-bar equation and results a discrete convolution equation. That is, the new moment method leads to the equation solution without direct computation of the D-bar integral. The resulted discrete convolution equation maybe adapted to a suitable structure to be solved using fast Fourier transform. This allows us to reduce the order of computational complexity to as low as O (N2log N). Simulation results on solving D-bar equations arising in EIT problem show that the proposed method is accurate with an ultra-linear CR. PMID:24696808

  16. Accurate D-bar Reconstructions of Conductivity Images Based on a Method of Moment with Sinc Basis.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Planar D-bar integral equation is one of the inverse scattering solution methods for complex problems including inverse conductivity considered in applications such as Electrical impedance tomography (EIT). Recently two different methodologies are considered for the numerical solution of D-bar integrals equation, namely product integrals and multigrid. The first one involves high computational burden and the other one suffers from low convergence rate (CR). In this paper, a novel high speed moment method based using the sinc basis is introduced to solve the two-dimensional D-bar integral equation. In this method, all functions within D-bar integral equation are first expanded using the sinc basis functions. Then, the orthogonal properties of their products dissolve the integral operator of the D-bar equation and results a discrete convolution equation. That is, the new moment method leads to the equation solution without direct computation of the D-bar integral. The resulted discrete convolution equation maybe adapted to a suitable structure to be solved using fast Fourier transform. This allows us to reduce the order of computational complexity to as low as O (N (2)log N). Simulation results on solving D-bar equations arising in EIT problem show that the proposed method is accurate with an ultra-linear CR.

  17. Do inverse ecosystem models accurately reconstruct plankton trophic flows? Comparing two solution methods using field data from the California Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stukel, Michael R.; Landry, Michael R.; Ohman, Mark D.; Goericke, Ralf; Samo, Ty; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R.

    2012-03-01

    Despite the increasing use of linear inverse modeling techniques to elucidate fluxes in undersampled marine ecosystems, the accuracy with which they estimate food web flows has not been resolved. New Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) solution methods have also called into question the biases of the commonly used L2 minimum norm (L 2MN) solution technique. Here, we test the abilities of MCMC and L 2MN methods to recover field-measured ecosystem rates that are sequentially excluded from the model input. For data, we use experimental measurements from process cruises of the California Current Ecosystem (CCE-LTER) Program that include rate estimates of phytoplankton and bacterial production, micro- and mesozooplankton grazing, and carbon export from eight study sites varying from rich coastal upwelling to offshore oligotrophic conditions. Both the MCMC and L 2MN methods predicted well-constrained rates of protozoan and mesozooplankton grazing with reasonable accuracy, but the MCMC method overestimated primary production. The MCMC method more accurately predicted the poorly constrained rate of vertical carbon export than the L 2MN method, which consistently overestimated export. Results involving DOC and bacterial production were equivocal. Overall, when primary production is provided as model input, the MCMC method gives a robust depiction of ecosystem processes. Uncertainty in inverse ecosystem models is large and arises primarily from solution under-determinacy. We thus suggest that experimental programs focusing on food web fluxes expand the range of experimental measurements to include the nature and fate of detrital pools, which play large roles in the model.

  18. Calibrating the High Density Magnetic Port within Tissue Expanders to Achieve more Accurate Dose Calculations for Postmastectomy Patients with Immediate Breast Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jasmine; Zhang, Rui; Heins, David; Castle, Katherine

    In postmastectomy radiotherapy, an increasing number of patients have tissue expanders inserted subpectorally when receiving immediate breast reconstruction. These tissue expanders are composed of silicone and are inflated with saline through an internal metallic port; this serves the purpose of stretching the muscle and skin tissue over time, in order to house a permanent implant. The issue with administering radiation therapy in the presence of a tissue expander is that the port's magnetic core can potentially perturb the dose delivered to the Planning Target Volume, causing significant artifacts in CT images. Several studies have explored this problem, and suggest that density corrections must be accounted for in treatment planning. However, very few studies accurately calibrated commercial TP systems for the high density material used in the port, and no studies employed fusion imaging to yield a more accurate contour of the port in treatment planning. We compared depth dose values in the water phantom between measurement and TPS calculations, and we were able to overcome some of the inhomogeneities presented by the image artifact by fusing the KVCT and MVCT images of the tissue expander together, resulting in a more precise comparison of dose calculations at discrete locations. We expect this method to be pivotal in the quantification of dose distribution in the PTV. Research funded by the LS-AMP Award.

  19. Quantitative developmental data in a phylogenetic framework.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Norberto Pedro

    2014-12-01

    Following the embryonic period of organogenesis, most development is allometric growth, which is thought to produce most of the evolutionary morphological divergence between related species. Bivariate or multivariate coefficients of allometry are used to describe quantitative developmental data and are comparable across taxa; as such, these coefficients are amenable to direct treatment in a phylogenetic framework. Mapping of actual allometric coefficients onto phylogenetic trees is supported on the basis of the evolving nature of growth programs and the type of character (continuous) that they represent. This procedure depicts evolutionary allometry accurately and allows for the generation of reliable reconstructions of ancestral allometry, as shown here with a previously published case study on rodent cranial ontogeny. Results reconstructed the signature allometric patterns of rodents to the root of the phylogeny, which could be traced back into a (minimum) Paleocene age. Both character and statistical dependence need to be addressed, so this approach can be integrated with phylogenetic comparative methods that deal with those issues. It is shown that, in this particular sample of rodents, common ancestry explains little allometric variation given the level of divergence present within, and convergence between, major rodent lineages. Furthermore, all that variation is independent of body mass. Thus, from an evolutionary perspective, allometry appears to have a strong functional and likely adaptive basis. PMID:25130201

  20. A binary image reconstruction technique for accurate determination of the shape and location of metal objects in x-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Xing, Lei

    2010-01-01

    The presence of metals in patients causes streaking artifacts in X-ray CT and has been recognized as a problem that limits various applications of CT imaging. Accurate localization of metals in CT images is a critical step for metal artifacts reduction in CT imaging and many practical applications of CT images. The purpose of this work is to develop a method of auto-determination of the shape and location of metallic object(s) in the image space. The proposed method is based on the fact that when a metal object is present in a patient, a CT image can be divided into two prominent components: high density metal and low density normal tissues. This prior knowledge is incorporated into an objective function as the regularization term whose role is to encourage the solution to take a form of two intensity levels. A computer simulation study and four experimental studies are performed to evaluate the proposed approach. Both simulation and experimental studies show that the presented algorithm works well even in the presence of complicated shaped metal objects. For a hexagonally shaped metal embedded in a water phantom, for example, it is found that the accuracy of metal reconstruction is within sub-millimeter.

  1. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    DOE PAGES

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-02-22

    The use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, but their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the truemore » transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. Moreover, we confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results.« less

  2. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage.

    PubMed

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Although the use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the true transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals' HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. We confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results. PMID:26903617

  3. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Although the use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the true transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. We confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results. PMID:26903617

  4. Quartets and unrooted phylogenetic networks.

    PubMed

    Gambette, Philippe; Berry, Vincent; Paul, Christophe

    2012-08-01

    Phylogenetic networks were introduced to describe evolution in the presence of exchanges of genetic material between coexisting species or individuals. Split networks in particular were introduced as a special kind of abstract network to visualize conflicts between phylogenetic trees which may correspond to such exchanges. More recently, methods were designed to reconstruct explicit phylogenetic networks (whose vertices can be interpreted as biological events) from triplet data. In this article, we link abstract and explicit networks through their combinatorial properties, by introducing the unrooted analog of level-k networks. In particular, we give an equivalence theorem between circular split systems and unrooted level-1 networks. We also show how to adapt to quartets some existing results on triplets, in order to reconstruct unrooted level-k phylogenetic networks. These results give an interesting perspective on the combinatorics of phylogenetic networks and also raise algorithmic and combinatorial questions.

  5. Quartets and unrooted phylogenetic networks.

    PubMed

    Gambette, Philippe; Berry, Vincent; Paul, Christophe

    2012-08-01

    Phylogenetic networks were introduced to describe evolution in the presence of exchanges of genetic material between coexisting species or individuals. Split networks in particular were introduced as a special kind of abstract network to visualize conflicts between phylogenetic trees which may correspond to such exchanges. More recently, methods were designed to reconstruct explicit phylogenetic networks (whose vertices can be interpreted as biological events) from triplet data. In this article, we link abstract and explicit networks through their combinatorial properties, by introducing the unrooted analog of level-k networks. In particular, we give an equivalence theorem between circular split systems and unrooted level-1 networks. We also show how to adapt to quartets some existing results on triplets, in order to reconstruct unrooted level-k phylogenetic networks. These results give an interesting perspective on the combinatorics of phylogenetic networks and also raise algorithmic and combinatorial questions. PMID:22809417

  6. Accurate γ and MeV-electron track reconstruction with an ultra-low diffusion Xenon/TMA TPC at 10 atm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Díaz, Diego; Álvarez, V.; Borges, F. I. G.; Camargo, M.; Cárcel, S.; Cebrián, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C. A. N.; Dafni, T.; Díaz, J.; Esteve, R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Hauptman, J.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrera, D. C.; Irastorza, I. G.; Labarga, L.; Laing, A.; Liubarsky, I.; Lopez-March, N.; Lorca, D.; Losada, M.; Luzón, G.; Marí, A.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Martínez, A.; Miller, T.; Monrabal, F.; Monserrate, M.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Nygren, D.; Oliveira, C. A. B.; Pérez, J.; Pérez Aparicio, J. L.; Querol, M.; Renner, J.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Serra, L.; Shuman, D.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Villar, J. A.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.; Azevedo, C.; Aznar, F.; Calvet, D.; Castel, J.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; García, J. A.; Giomataris, I.; Gómez, H.; Iguaz, F. J.; Lagraba, A.; Le Coguie, A.; Mols, J. P.; Şahin, Ö.; Rodríguez, A.; Ruiz-Choliz, E.; Segui, L.; Tomás, A.; Veenhof, R.

    2015-12-01

    We report the performance of a 10 atm Xenon/trimethylamine time projection chamber (TPC) for the detection of X-rays (30 keV) and γ-rays (0.511-1.275 MeV) in conjunction with the accurate tracking of the associated electrons. When operated at such a high pressure and in 1%-admixtures, trimethylamine (TMA) endows Xenon with an extremely low electron diffusion (1.3 ± 0.13 mm - σ (longitudinal), 0.95 ± 0.20 mm - σ (transverse) along 1 m drift) besides forming a convenient 'Penning-Fluorescent' mixture. The TPC, that houses 1.1 kg of gas in its fiducial volume, operated continuously for 100 live-days in charge amplification mode. The readout was performed through the recently introduced microbulk Micromegas technology and the AFTER chip, providing a 3D voxelization of 8 mm × 8 mm × 1.2 mm for approximately 10 cm/MeV-long electron tracks. Resolution in energy (ε) at full width half maximum (R) inside the fiducial volume ranged from R = 14.6 % (30 keV) to R = 4.6 %(1.275 MeV). This work was developed as part of the R&D program of the NEXT collaboration for future detector upgrades in the search of the neutrino-less double beta decay (ββ 0 ν) in 136Xe, specifically those based on novel gas mixtures. Therefore we ultimately focus on the calorimetric and topological properties of the reconstructed MeV-electron tracks. In particular, the obtained energy resolution has been decomposed in its various contributions and improvements towards achieving the R = 1.4 %√{ 1 MeV / ε } levels obtained in small sensors are discussed.

  7. The Fusion Protein Signal-Peptide-Coding Region of Canine Distemper Virus: A Useful Tool for Phylogenetic Reconstruction and Lineage Identification

    PubMed Central

    Sarute, Nicolás; Calderón, Marina Gallo; Pérez, Ruben; La Torre, José; Hernández, Martín; Francia, Lourdes; Panzera, Yanina

    2013-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV; Paramyxoviridae, Morbillivirus) is the etiologic agent of a multisystemic infectious disease affecting all terrestrial carnivore families with high incidence and mortality in domestic dogs. Sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin (H) gene has been widely employed to characterize field strains, permitting the identification of nine CDV lineages worldwide. Recently, it has been established that the sequences of the fusion protein signal-peptide (Fsp) coding region are extremely variable, suggesting that analysis of its sequence might be useful for strain characterization studies. However, the divergence of Fsp sequences among worldwide strains and its phylogenetic resolution has not yet been evaluated. We constructed datasets containing the Fsp-coding region and H gene sequences of the same strains belonging to eight CDV lineages. Both datasets were used to evaluate their phylogenetic resolution. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that both datasets clustered the same strains into eight different branches, corresponding to CDV lineages. The inter-lineage amino acid divergence was fourfold greater for the Fsp peptide than for the H protein. The likelihood mapping revealed that both datasets display strong phylogenetic signals in the region of well-resolved topologies. These features indicate that Fsp-coding region sequence analysis is suitable for evolutionary studies as it allows for straightforward identification of CDV lineages. PMID:23675493

  8. Considerations and Protocols in Virtual Surgical Planning of Reconstructive Surgery for More Accurate and Esthetic Neomandible with Deep Circumflex Iliac Artery Free Flap

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam-Kyoo; Kim, Hyun Young; Kim, Hyung Jun; Cha, In-Ho; Nam, Woong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The reconstruction of mandibular defects poses many difficulties due to the unique, complex shape of the mandible and the temporomandibular joints. With development of microvascular anastomosis, free tissue transplantation techniques, such as deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) flap and fibular free flap (FFF), were developed. The DCIA offers good quality and quantity of bone tissue for mandibular segmental defect and implant for dental rehabilitation. Virtual surgical planning (VSP) and stereolithography-guided osteotomy are currently successfully applied in three-dimensional mandibular reconstruction, but most use FFF. There are only a few articles on reconstruction with the DCIA that assess the postoperative results. Methods: Three patients admitted during a five month period (April of 2013 to August of 2013) underwent resection of mandible and DCIA musculo-osseous reconstruction using a VSP and stereolithographic modeling and assessment of outcomes included technical accuracy, esthetic contour, and functional outcomes. Results: This technique yielded iliac bone segment with excellent apposition and duplication of the preoperative plan. Flap survival was 100 percent and all patients maintained preoperative occlusion and contour. Conclusion: Based on our experience, we offer considerations and logically consistent protocols by classification of mandibular defects, and demonstrate the benefits in VSP and stereolithographic modeling of mandibular reconstructive surgery with DCIA flap. PMID:27489828

  9. Reconstructing the Phylogenetic History of Long-Term Effective Population Size and Life-History Traits Using Patterns of Amino Acid Replacement in Mitochondrial Genomes of Mammals and Birds

    PubMed Central

    Nabholz, Benoit; Lartillot, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The nearly neutral theory, which proposes that most mutations are deleterious or close to neutral, predicts that the ratio of nonsynonymous over synonymous substitution rates (dN/dS), and potentially also the ratio of radical over conservative amino acid replacement rates (Kr/Kc), are negatively correlated with effective population size. Previous empirical tests, using life-history traits (LHT) such as body-size or generation-time as proxies for population size, have been consistent with these predictions. This suggests that large-scale phylogenetic reconstructions of dN/dS or Kr/Kc might reveal interesting macroevolutionary patterns in the variation in effective population size among lineages. In this work, we further develop an integrative probabilistic framework for phylogenetic covariance analysis introduced previously, so as to estimate the correlation patterns between dN/dS, Kr/Kc, and three LHT, in mitochondrial genomes of birds and mammals. Kr/Kc displays stronger and more stable correlations with LHT than does dN/dS, which we interpret as a greater robustness of Kr/Kc, compared with dN/dS, the latter being confounded by the high saturation of the synonymous substitution rate in mitochondrial genomes. The correlation of Kr/Kc with LHT was robust when controlling for the potentially confounding effects of nucleotide compositional variation between taxa. The positive correlation of the mitochondrial Kr/Kc with LHT is compatible with previous reports, and with a nearly neutral interpretation, although alternative explanations are also possible. The Kr/Kc model was finally used for reconstructing life-history evolution in birds and mammals. This analysis suggests a fairly large-bodied ancestor in both groups. In birds, life-history evolution seems to have occurred mainly through size reduction in Neoavian birds, whereas in placental mammals, body mass evolution shows disparate trends across subclades. Altogether, our work represents a further step toward a more

  10. Phylogenetic methods in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Ashton, John C

    2013-12-01

    In recent decades, growth of computing power has facilitated powerful techniques for reconstructing evolutionary relationships from online genetic and proteomic databases. These methods are useful tools for pharmacologists for analyzing relationships between receptors and associated enzymes. Phylogenetic analysis can help generate hypotheses and leads for experimentation. Reconstruction of molecular phylogenies for the nonspecialist is described in this article using the example of the orphaned g protein coupled receptor GPR18.

  11. [Foundations of the new phylogenetics].

    PubMed

    Pavlinov, I Ia

    2004-01-01

    Evolutionary idea is the core of the modern biology. Due to this, phylogenetics dealing with historical reconstructions in biology takes a priority position among biological disciplines. The second half of the 20th century witnessed growth of a great interest to phylogenetic reconstructions at macrotaxonomic level which replaced microevolutionary studies dominating during the 30s-60s. This meant shift from population thinking to phylogenetic one but it was not revival of the classical phylogenetics; rather, a new approach emerged that was baptized The New Phylogenetics. It arose as a result of merging of three disciplines which were developing independently during 60s-70s, namely cladistics, numerical phyletics, and molecular phylogenetics (now basically genophyletics). Thus, the new phylogenetics could be defined as a branch of evolutionary biology aimed at elaboration of "parsimonious" cladistic hypotheses by means of numerical methods on the basis of mostly molecular data. Classical phylogenetics, as a historical predecessor of the new one, emerged on the basis of the naturphilosophical worldview which included a superorganismal idea of biota. Accordingly to that view, historical development (the phylogeny) was thought an analogy of individual one (the ontogeny) so its most basical features were progressive parallel developments of "parts" (taxa), supplemented with Darwinian concept of monophyly. Two predominating traditions were diverged within classical phylogenetics according to a particular interpretation of relation between these concepts. One of them (Cope, Severtzow) belittled monophyly and paid most attention to progressive parallel developments of morphological traits. Such an attitude turned this kind of phylogenetics to be rather the semogenetics dealing primarily with evolution of structures and not of taxa. Another tradition (Haeckel) considered both monophyletic and parallel origins of taxa jointly: in the middle of 20th century it was split into

  12. The Value of Accurate Magnetic Resonance Characterization of Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tears in the Setting of Multiligament Knee Injury: Imaging Features Predictive of Early Repair vs Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Goiney, Christoper C; Porrino, Jack; Twaddle, Bruce; Richardson, Michael L; Mulcahy, Hyojeong; Chew, Felix S

    2016-01-01

    Multiligament knee injury (MLKI) represents a complex set of pathologies treated with a wide variety of surgical approaches. If early surgical intervention is performed, the disrupted posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) can be treated with primary repair or reconstruction. The purpose of our study was to retrospectively identify a critical length of the distal component of the torn PCL on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that may predict the ability to perform early proximal femoral repair of the ligament, as opposed to reconstruction. A total of 50 MLKIs were managed at Harborview Medical Center from May 1, 2013, through July 15, 2014, by an orthopedic surgeon. Following exclusions, there were 27 knees with complete disruption of the PCL that underwent either early reattachment to the femoral insertion or reconstruction and were evaluated using preoperative MRI. In a consensus fashion, 2 radiologists measured the proximal and distal fragments of each disrupted PCL using preoperative MRI in multiple planes, as needed. MRI findings were correlated with what was performed at surgery. Those knees with a distal fragment PCL length of ≥41mm were capable of, and underwent, early proximal femoral repair. With repair, the distal stump was attached to the distal femur. Alternatively, those with a distal PCL length of ≤32mm could not undergo repair because of insufficient length and as such, were reconstructed. If early surgical intervention for an MLKI involving disruption of the PCL is considered, attention should be given to the length of the distal PCL fragment on MRI to plan appropriately for proximal femoral reattachment vs reconstruction. If the distal PCL fragment measures ≥41mm, surgical repair is achievable and can be considered as a surgical option.

  13. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae) using sequences from the 12S rRNA, 28S rRNA, and NADH1 genes: implications for classification, biogeography, and the evolution of web building behavior.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Nicholas P; Framenau, Volker W; Donnellan, Stephen C; Harvey, Mark S; Park, Yung-Chul; Austin, Andrew D

    2006-03-01

    Current knowledge of the evolutionary relationships amongst the wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae) is based on assessment of morphological similarity or phylogenetic analysis of a small number of taxa. In order to enhance the current understanding of lycosid relationships, phylogenies of 70 lycosid species were reconstructed by parsimony and Bayesian methods using three molecular markers; the mitochondrial genes 12S rRNA, NADH1, and the nuclear gene 28S rRNA. The resultant trees from the mitochondrial markers were used to assess the current taxonomic status of the Lycosidae and to assess the evolutionary history of sheet-web construction in the group. The results suggest that a number of genera are not monophyletic, including Lycosa, Arctosa, Alopecosa, and Artoria. At the subfamilial level, the status of Pardosinae needs to be re-assessed, and the position of a number of genera within their respective subfamilies is in doubt (e.g., Hippasa and Arctosa in Lycosinae and Xerolycosa, Aulonia and Hygrolycosa in Venoniinae). In addition, a major clade of strictly Australasian taxa may require the creation of a new subfamily. The analysis of sheet-web building in Lycosidae revealed that the interpretation of this trait as an ancestral state relies on two factors: (1) an asymmetrical model favoring the loss of sheet-webs and (2) that the suspended silken tube of Pirata is directly descended from sheet-web building. Paralogous copies of the nuclear 28S rRNA gene were sequenced, confounding the interpretation of the phylogenetic analysis and suggesting that a cautionary approach should be taken to the further use of this gene for lycosid phylogenetic analysis.

  14. DendroBLAST: approximate phylogenetic trees in the absence of multiple sequence alignments.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Steven; Maini, Philip K

    2013-01-01

    The rapidly growing availability of genome information has created considerable demand for both fast and accurate phylogenetic inference algorithms. We present a novel method called DendroBLAST for reconstructing phylogenetic dendrograms/trees from protein sequences using BLAST. This method differs from other methods by incorporating a simple model of sequence evolution to test the effect of introducing sequence changes on the reliability of the bipartitions in the inferred tree. Using realistic simulated sequence data we demonstrate that this method produces phylogenetic trees that are more accurate than other commonly-used distance based methods though not as accurate as maximum likelihood methods from good quality multiple sequence alignments. In addition to tests on simulated data, we use DendroBLAST to generate input trees for a supertree reconstruction of the phylogeny of the Archaea. This independent analysis produces an approximate phylogeny of the Archaea that has both high precision and recall when compared to previously published analysis of the same dataset using conventional methods. Taken together these results demonstrate that approximate phylogenetic trees can be produced in the absence of multiple sequence alignments, and we propose that these trees will provide a platform for improving and informing downstream bioinformatic analysis. A web implementation of the DendroBLAST method is freely available for use at http://www.dendroblast.com/.

  15. Accurate registration of random radiographic projections based on three spherical references for the purpose of few-view 3D reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, Ralf; Heil, Ulrich; Weinheimer, Oliver; Gross, Daniel; Bruellmann, Dan; Thomas, Eric; Schwanecke, Ulrich; Schoemer, Elmar

    2008-02-15

    Precise registration of radiographic projection images acquired in almost arbitrary geometries for the purpose of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction is beset with difficulties. We modify and enhance a registration method [R. Schulze, D. D. Bruellmann, F. Roeder, and B. d'Hoedt, Med. Phys. 31, 2849-2854 (2004)] based on coupling a minimum amount of three reference spheres in arbitrary positions to a rigid object under study for precise a posteriori pose estimation. Two consecutive optimization procedures (a, initial guess; b, iterative coordinate refinement) are applied to completely exploit the reference's shadow information for precise registration of the projections. The modification has been extensive, i.e., only the idea of using the sphere shadows to locate each sphere in three dimensions from each projection was retained whereas the approach to extract the shadow information has been changed completely and extended. The registration information is used for subsequent algebraic reconstruction of the 3D information inherent in the projections. We present a detailed mathematical theory of the registration process as well as simulated data investigating its performance in the presence of error. Simulation of the initial guess revealed a mean relative error in the critical depth coordinate ranging between 2.1% and 4.4%, and an evident error reduction by the subsequent iterative coordinate refinement. To prove the applicability of the method for real-world data, algebraic 3D reconstructions from few ({<=}9) projection radiographs of a human skull, a human mandible and a teeth-containing mandible segment are presented. The method facilitates extraction of 3D information from only few projections obtained from off-the-shelf radiographic projection units without the need for costly hardware. Technical requirements as well as radiation dose are low.

  16. Reconstructing the Timing and Dispersion Routes of HIV-1 Subtype B Epidemics in The Caribbean and Central America: A Phylogenetic Story

    PubMed Central

    Pagán, Israel; Holguín, África

    2013-01-01

    The Caribbean and Central America are among the regions with highest HIV-1B prevalence worldwide. Despite of this high virus burden, little is known about the timing and the migration patterns of HIV-1B in these regions. Migration is one of the major processes shaping the genetic structure of virus populations. Thus, reconstruction of epidemiological network may contribute to understand HIV-1B evolution and reduce virus prevalence. We have investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of the HIV-1B epidemic in The Caribbean and Central America using 1,610 HIV-1B partial pol sequences from 13 Caribbean and 5 Central American countries. Timing of HIV-1B introduction and virus evolutionary rates, as well as the spatial genetic structure of the HIV-1B populations and the virus migration patterns were inferred. Results revealed that in The Caribbean and Central America most of the HIV-1B variability was generated since the 80 s. At odds with previous data suggesting that Haiti was the origin of the epidemic in The Caribbean, our reconstruction indicated that the virus could have been disseminated from Puerto Rico and Antigua. These two countries connected two distinguishable migration areas corresponding to the (mainly Spanish-colonized) Easter and (mainly British-colonized) Western islands, which indicates that virus migration patterns are determined by geographical barriers and by the movement of human populations among culturally related countries. Similar factors shaped the migration of HIV-1B in Central America. The HIV-1B population was significantly structured according to the country of origin, and the genetic diversity in each country was associated with the virus prevalence in both regions, which suggests that virus populations evolve mainly through genetic drift. Thus, our work contributes to the understanding of HIV-1B evolution and dispersion pattern in the Americas, and its relationship with the geography of the area and the movements of human populations

  17. Reconstructing the timing and dispersion routes of HIV-1 subtype B epidemics in the Caribbean and Central America: a phylogenetic story.

    PubMed

    Pagán, Israel; Holguín, Africa

    2013-01-01

    The Caribbean and Central America are among the regions with highest HIV-1B prevalence worldwide. Despite of this high virus burden, little is known about the timing and the migration patterns of HIV-1B in these regions. Migration is one of the major processes shaping the genetic structure of virus populations. Thus, reconstruction of epidemiological network may contribute to understand HIV-1B evolution and reduce virus prevalence. We have investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of the HIV-1B epidemic in The Caribbean and Central America using 1,610 HIV-1B partial pol sequences from 13 Caribbean and 5 Central American countries. Timing of HIV-1B introduction and virus evolutionary rates, as well as the spatial genetic structure of the HIV-1B populations and the virus migration patterns were inferred. Results revealed that in The Caribbean and Central America most of the HIV-1B variability was generated since the 80 s. At odds with previous data suggesting that Haiti was the origin of the epidemic in The Caribbean, our reconstruction indicated that the virus could have been disseminated from Puerto Rico and Antigua. These two countries connected two distinguishable migration areas corresponding to the (mainly Spanish-colonized) Easter and (mainly British-colonized) Western islands, which indicates that virus migration patterns are determined by geographical barriers and by the movement of human populations among culturally related countries. Similar factors shaped the migration of HIV-1B in Central America. The HIV-1B population was significantly structured according to the country of origin, and the genetic diversity in each country was associated with the virus prevalence in both regions, which suggests that virus populations evolve mainly through genetic drift. Thus, our work contributes to the understanding of HIV-1B evolution and dispersion pattern in the Americas, and its relationship with the geography of the area and the movements of human populations.

  18. High-Performance Phylogeny Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffani L. Williams

    2004-11-10

    Under the Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship in Computational Biology, I have been afforded the opportunity to study phylogenetics--one of the most important and exciting disciplines in computational biology. A phylogeny depicts an evolutionary relationship among a set of organisms (or taxa). Typically, a phylogeny is represented by a binary tree, where modern organisms are placed at the leaves and ancestral organisms occupy internal nodes, with the edges of the tree denoting evolutionary relationships. The task of phylogenetics is to infer this tree from observations upon present-day organisms. Reconstructing phylogenies is a major component of modern research programs in many areas of biology and medicine, but it is enormously expensive. The most commonly used techniques attempt to solve NP-hard problems such as maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony, typically by bounded searches through an exponentially-sized tree-space. For example, there are over 13 billion possible trees for 13 organisms. Phylogenetic heuristics that quickly analyze large amounts of data accurately will revolutionize the biological field. This final report highlights my activities in phylogenetics during the two-year postdoctoral period at the University of New Mexico under Prof. Bernard Moret. Specifically, this report reports my scientific, community and professional activities as an Alfred P. Sloan Postdoctoral Fellow in Computational Biology.

  19. Entanglement, Invariants, and Phylogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumner, J. G.

    2007-10-01

    This thesis develops and expands upon known techniques of mathematical physics relevant to the analysis of the popular Markov model of phylogenetic trees required in biology to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships of taxonomic units from biomolecular sequence data. The techniques of mathematical physics are plethora and have been developed for some time. The Markov model of phylogenetics and its analysis is a relatively new technique where most progress to date has been achieved by using discrete mathematics. This thesis takes a group theoretical approach to the problem by beginning with a remarkable mathematical parallel to the process of scattering in particle physics. This is shown to equate to branching events in the evolutionary history of molecular units. The major technical result of this thesis is the derivation of existence proofs and computational techniques for calculating polynomial group invariant functions on a multi-linear space where the group action is that relevant to a Markovian time evolution. The practical results of this thesis are an extended analysis of the use of invariant functions in distance based methods and the presentation of a new reconstruction technique for quartet trees which is consistent with the most general Markov model of sequence evolution.

  20. Phylogenetic Reconstruction of the Calosphaeriales and Togniniales Using Five Genes and Predicted RNA Secondary Structures of ITS, and Flabellascus tenuirostris gen. et sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Réblová, Martina; Jaklitsch, Walter M.; Réblová, Kamila; Štěpánek, Václav

    2015-01-01

    The Calosphaeriales is revisited with new collection data, living cultures, morphological studies of ascoma centrum, secondary structures of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA and phylogeny based on novel DNA sequences of five nuclear ribosomal and protein-coding loci. Morphological features, molecular evidence and information from predicted RNA secondary structures of ITS converged upon robust phylogenies of the Calosphaeriales and Togniniales. The current concept of the Calosphaeriales includes the Calosphaeriaceae and Pleurostomataceae encompassing five monophyletic genera, Calosphaeria, Flabellascus gen. nov., Jattaea, Pleurostoma and Togniniella, strongly supported by Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood methods. The structural elements of ITS1 form characteristic patterns that are phylogenetically conserved, corroborate observations based on morphology and have a high predictive value at the generic level. Three major clades containing 44 species of Phaeoacremonium were recovered in the closely related Togniniales based on ITS, actin and β-tubulin sequences. They are newly characterized by sexual and RNA structural characters and ecology. This approach is a first step towards understanding of the molecular systematics of Phaeoacremonium and possibly its new classification. In the Calosphaeriales, Jattaea aphanospora sp. nov. and J. ribicola sp. nov. are introduced, Calosphaeria taediosa is combined in Jattaea and epitypified. The sexual morph of Phaeoacremonium cinereum was encountered for the first time on decaying wood and obtained in vitro. In order to achieve a single nomenclature, the genera of asexual morphs linked with the Calosphaeriales are transferred to synonymy of their sexual morphs following the principle of priority, i.e. Calosphaeriophora to Calosphaeria, Phaeocrella to Togniniella and Pleurostomophora to Pleurostoma. Three new combinations are proposed, i.e. Pleurostoma ochraceum comb. nov., P. repens comb. nov. and P. richardsiae comb

  1. Geometric morphometric character suites as phylogenetic data: extracting phylogenetic signal from gastropod shells.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ursula E; Hendricks, Jonathan R

    2013-05-01

    Despite being the objects of numerous macroevolutionary studies, many of the best represented constituents of the fossil record-including diverse examples such as foraminifera, brachiopods, and mollusks-have mineralized skeletons with limited discrete characteristics, making morphological phylogenies difficult to construct. In contrast to their paucity of phylogenetic characters, the mineralized structures (tests and shells) of these fossil groups frequently have distinctive shapes that have long proved useful for their classification. The recent introduction of methodologies for including continuous data directly in a phylogenetic analysis has increased the number of available characters, making it possible to produce phylogenies based, in whole or part, on continuous character data collected from such taxa. Geometric morphometric methods provide tools for accurately characterizing shape variation and can produce quantitative data that can therefore now be included in a phylogenetic matrix in a nonarbitrary manner. Here, the marine gastropod genus Conus is used to evaluate the ability of continuous characters-generated from a geometric morphometric analysis of shell shape-to contribute to a total evidence phylogenetic hypothesis constructed using molecular and morphological data. Furthermore, the ability of continuous characters derived from geometric morphometric analyses to place fossil taxa with limited discrete characters into a phylogeny with their extant relatives was tested by simulating the inclusion of fossil taxa. This was done by removing the molecular partition of individual extant species to produce a "cladistic pseudofossil" with only the geometric morphometric derived characters coded. The phylogenetic position of each cladistic pseudofossil taxon was then compared with its placement in the total evidence tree and a symmetric resampling tree to evaluate the degree to which morphometric characters alone can correctly place simulated fossil species

  2. Phylogenetic Reconstruction by Cross-Species Chromosome Painting and G-Banding in Four Species of Phyllostomini Tribe (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in the Brazilian Amazon: An Independent Evidence for Monophyly

    PubMed Central

    Ribas, Talita Fernanda Augusto; Rodrigues, Luis Reginaldo Ribeiro; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Gomes, Anderson José Baia; Rissino, Jorge das Dores; O'Brien, Patricia Caroline Mary; Yang, Fengtang; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm Andrew; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar

    2015-01-01

    The subfamily Phyllostominae comprises taxa with a variety of feeding strategies. From the cytogenetic point of view, Phyllostominae shows different rates of chromosomal evolution between genera, with Phyllostomus hastatus probably retaining the ancestral karyotype for the subfamily. Since chromosomal rearrangements occur rarely in the genome and have great value as phylogenetic markers and in taxonomic characterization, we analyzed three species: Lophostoma silvicola (LSI), Phyllostomus discolor (PDI) and Tonatia saurophila (TSA), representing the tribe Phyllostomini, collected in the Amazon region, by classic and molecular cytogenetic techniques in order to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships within this tribe. LSA has a karyotype of 2n=34 and FN=60, PDI has 2n=32 and FN=60 and TSA has 2n=16 and FN=20. Comparative analysis using G-banding and chromosome painting show that the karyotypic complement of TSA is highly rearranged relative to LSI and PHA, while LSI, PHA and PDI have similar karyotypes, differing by only three chromosome pairs. Nearly all chromosomes of PDI and PHA were conserved in toto, except for chromosome 15 that was changed by a pericentric inversion. A strongly supported phylogeny (bootstrap=100 and Bremer=10 steps), confirms the monophyly of Phyllostomini. In agreement with molecular topologies, TSA was in the basal position, while PHA and LSI formed sister taxa. A few ancestral syntenies are conserved without rearrangements and most associations are autapomorphic traits for Tonatia or plesiomorphic for the three genera analyzed here. The karyotype of TSA is highly derived in relation to that of other phyllostomid bats, differing from the supposed ancestral karyotype of Phyllostomidae by multiple rearrangements. Phylogenies based on chromosomal data are independent evidence for the monophyly of tribe Phyllostomini as determined by molecular topologies and provide additional support for the paraphyly of the genus Tonatia by the exclusion

  3. Phylogenetic Analysis of Poliovirus Sequences.

    PubMed

    Jorba, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Comparative genomic sequencing is a major surveillance tool in the Polio Laboratory Network. Due to the rapid evolution of polioviruses (~1 % per year), pathways of virus transmission can be reconstructed from the pathways of genomic evolution. Here, we describe three main phylogenetic methods; estimation of genetic distances, reconstruction of a maximum-likelihood (ML) tree, and estimation of substitution rates using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). The data set used consists of complete capsid sequences from a survey of poliovirus sequences available in GenBank. PMID:26983737

  4. Field calibration of stable isotopes (δ18O) in coccoliths : Toward an accurate carbonate record-based reconstruction of the photic zone temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candelier, Y.; Minoletti, F.; Hermoso, M.; Probert, I.

    2010-12-01

    Oxygen-isotopes from biogenic carbonates have been widely used to estimate SSTs during the Cenozoic. The full potential of coccolithophores for reconstructing past temperatures is still unexploited owing to two major issues: their minute size that prevents their isotopic analyzes at the specific level as done for foraminifera, and the large range of interspecific isotopic offsets (~ 5‰) ascribed to the vital effect (Ziveri et al., 2003). To test the suitability of applying in vitro data for the truly pelagic natural record, we established new coccolithophorid δ18O-temperature calibrations from sediments that we compared to empirical thermodependance equations from previous culture experiments. In this respect, we focused on two foremost coccolithophore species: Calcidicus leptoporus and Gephyrocapsa oceanica. We successfully obtained monospecific fractions of those taxa by applying a microfiltering protocol (Minoletti et al., 2009) on Holocene sediments for which the temperature of the photic zone water has been directly measured. For G. oceanica, the constant offset (δcGo-δceq) of ~ +1.5‰ with respect to equilibrium is in a good agreement with previous culture experiments (~ +1.6‰; Ziveri et al., 2003). Conversely, for C. leptoporus, although the relation between temperature and oxygen-isotopic fractionation is also well-behaved between 16 and 27°C, we found a significant discrepancy with previous cultures (-2.8‰; Dudley et al., 1986). This difference could be the result of growing conditions in the lab that may not mimate the natural environment (seawater chemistry such as pH, nutrient level, cell concentration, …). We generated new isotopic results of preliminary temperature-controlled experiments for C. leptoporus in constrained conditions close to the natural environment. We measured an isotopic offset comparable to the one from our sedimentologic study. Hence, we suggest a new correction of -1.2‰ for C. leptoporus, which may be more

  5. Assessing statistical reliability of phylogenetic trees via a speedy double bootstrap method.

    PubMed

    Ren, Aizhen; Ishida, Takashi; Akiyama, Yutaka

    2013-05-01

    Evaluating the reliability of estimated phylogenetic trees is of critical importance in the field of molecular phylogenetics, and for other endeavors that depend on accurate phylogenetic reconstruction. The bootstrap method is a well-known computational approach to phylogenetic tree assessment, and more generally for assessing the reliability of statistical models. However, it is known to be biased under certain circumstances, calling into question the accuracy of the method. Several advanced bootstrap methods have been developed to achieve higher accuracy, one of which is the double bootstrap approach, but the computational burden of this method has precluded its application to practical problems of phylogenetic tree selection. We address this issue by proposing a simple method called the speedy double bootstrap, which circumvents the second-tier resampling step in the regular double bootstrap approach. We also develop an implementation of the regular double bootstrap for comparison with our speedy method. The speedy double bootstrap suffers no significant loss of accuracy compared with the regular double bootstrap, while performing calculations significantly more rapidly (at minimum around 371 times faster, based on analysis of mammalian mitochondrial amino acid sequences and 12S and 16S rRNA genes). Our method thus enables, for the first time, the practical application of the double bootstrap technique in the context of molecular phylogenetics. The approach can also be used more generally for model selection problems wherever the maximum likelihood criterion is used.

  6. Morphological and molecular convergences in mammalian phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zhengting; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees reconstructed from molecular sequences are often considered more reliable than those reconstructed from morphological characters, in part because convergent evolution, which confounds phylogenetic reconstruction, is believed to be rarer for molecular sequences than for morphologies. However, neither the validity of this belief nor its underlying cause is known. Here comparing thousands of characters of each type that have been used for inferring the phylogeny of mammals, we find that on average morphological characters indeed experience much more convergences than amino acid sites, but this disparity is explained by fewer states per character rather than an intrinsically higher susceptibility to convergence for morphologies than sequences. We show by computer simulation and actual data analysis that a simple method for identifying and removing convergence-prone characters improves phylogenetic accuracy, potentially enabling, when necessary, the inclusion of morphologies and hence fossils for reliable tree inference. PMID:27585543

  7. Morphological and molecular convergences in mammalian phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhengting; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees reconstructed from molecular sequences are often considered more reliable than those reconstructed from morphological characters, in part because convergent evolution, which confounds phylogenetic reconstruction, is believed to be rarer for molecular sequences than for morphologies. However, neither the validity of this belief nor its underlying cause is known. Here comparing thousands of characters of each type that have been used for inferring the phylogeny of mammals, we find that on average morphological characters indeed experience much more convergences than amino acid sites, but this disparity is explained by fewer states per character rather than an intrinsically higher susceptibility to convergence for morphologies than sequences. We show by computer simulation and actual data analysis that a simple method for identifying and removing convergence-prone characters improves phylogenetic accuracy, potentially enabling, when necessary, the inclusion of morphologies and hence fossils for reliable tree inference. PMID:27585543

  8. Differential evolution of a CXCR4-using HIV-1 strain in CCR5wt/wt and CCR5∆32/∆32 hosts revealed by longitudinal deep sequencing and phylogenetic reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Le, Anh Q.; Taylor, Jeremy; Dong, Winnie; McCloskey, Rosemary; Woods, Conan; Danroth, Ryan; Hayashi, Kanna; Milloy, M.-J.; Poon, Art F. Y.; Brumme, Zabrina L.

    2015-01-01

    Rare individuals homozygous for a naturally-occurring 32 base pair deletion in the CCR5 gene (CCR5∆32/∆32) are resistant to infection by CCR5-using (“R5”) HIV-1 strains but remain susceptible to less common CXCR4-using (“X4”) strains. The evolutionary dynamics of X4 infections however, remain incompletely understood. We identified two individuals, one CCR5wt/wt and one CCR5∆32/∆32, within the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study who were infected with a genetically similar X4 HIV-1 strain. While early-stage plasma viral loads were comparable in the two individuals (~4.5–5 log10 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml), CD4 counts in the CCR5wt/wt individual reached a nadir of <20 CD4 cells/mm3 within 17 months but remained >250 cells/mm3 in the CCR5∆32/∆32 individual. Ancestral phylogenetic reconstructions using longitudinal envelope-V3 deep sequences suggested that both individuals were infected by a single transmitted/founder (T/F) X4 virus that differed at only one V3 site (codon 24). While substantial within-host HIV-1 V3 diversification was observed in plasma and PBMC in both individuals, the CCR5wt/wt individual’s HIV-1 population gradually reverted from 100% X4 to ~60% R5 over ~4 years whereas the CCR5∆32/∆32 individual’s remained consistently X4. Our observations illuminate early dynamics of X4 HIV-1 infections and underscore the influence of CCR5 genotype on HIV-1 V3 evolution. PMID:26631642

  9. Indel reliability in indel-based phylogenetic inference.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazy, Haim; Cohen, Ofir; Pupko, Tal; Huchon, Dorothée

    2014-12-01

    It is often assumed that it is unlikely that the same insertion or deletion (indel) event occurred at the same position in two independent evolutionary lineages, and thus, indel-based inference of phylogeny should be less subject to homoplasy compared with standard inference which is based on substitution events. Indeed, indels were successfully used to solve debated evolutionary relationships among various taxonomical groups. However, indels are never directly observed but rather inferred from the alignment and thus indel-based inference may be sensitive to alignment errors. It is hypothesized that phylogenetic reconstruction would be more accurate if it relied only on a subset of reliable indels instead of the entire indel data. Here, we developed a method to quantify the reliability of indel characters by measuring how often they appear in a set of alternative multiple sequence alignments. Our approach is based on the assumption that indels that are consistently present in most alternative alignments are more reliable compared with indels that appear only in a small subset of these alignments. Using simulated and empirical data, we studied the impact of filtering and weighting indels by their reliability scores on the accuracy of indel-based phylogenetic reconstruction. The new method is available as a web-server at http://guidance.tau.ac.il/RELINDEL/.

  10. Molecular Phylogenetics: Mathematical Framework and Unsolved Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xuhua

    Phylogenetic relationship is essential in dating evolutionary events, reconstructing ancestral genes, predicting sites that are important to natural selection, and, ultimately, understanding genomic evolution. Three categories of phylogenetic methods are currently used: the distance-based, the maximum parsimony, and the maximum likelihood method. Here, I present the mathematical framework of these methods and their rationales, provide computational details for each of them, illustrate analytically and numerically the potential biases inherent in these methods, and outline computational challenges and unresolved problems. This is followed by a brief discussion of the Bayesian approach that has been recently used in molecular phylogenetics.

  11. Phylogenetic discovery bias in Bacillus anthracis using single-nucleotide polymorphisms from whole-genome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Talima; Busch, Joseph D.; Ravel, Jacques; Read, Timothy D.; Rhoton, Shane D.; U'Ren, Jana M.; Simonson, Tatum S.; Kachur, Sergey M.; Leadem, Rebecca R.; Cardon, Michelle L.; Van Ert, Matthew N.; Huynh, Lynn Y.; Fraser, Claire M.; Keim, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Phylogenetic reconstruction using molecular data is often subject to homoplasy, leading to inaccurate conclusions about phylogenetic relationships among operational taxonomic units. Compared with other molecular markers, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) exhibit extremely low mutation rates, making them rare in recently emerged pathogens, but they are less prone to homoplasy and thus extremely valuable for phylogenetic analyses. Despite their phylogenetic potential, ascertainment bias occurs when SNP characters are discovered through biased taxonomic sampling; by using whole-genome comparisons of five diverse strains of Bacillus anthracis to facilitate SNP discovery, we show that only polymorphisms lying along the evolutionary pathway between reference strains will be observed. We illustrate this in theoretical and simulated data sets in which complex phylogenetic topologies are reduced to linear evolutionary models. Using a set of 990 SNP markers, we also show how divergent branches in our topologies collapse to single points but provide accurate information on internodal distances and points of origin for ancestral clades. These data allowed us to determine the ancestral root of B. anthracis, showing that it lies closer to a newly described “C” branch than to either of two previously described “A” or “B” branches. In addition, subclade rooting of the C branch revealed unequal evolutionary rates that seem to be correlated with ecological parameters and strain attributes. Our use of nonhomoplastic whole-genome SNP characters allows branch points and clade membership to be estimated with great precision, providing greater insight into epidemiological, ecological, and forensic questions. PMID:15347815

  12. Terraces in phylogenetic tree space.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Michael J; McMahon, Michelle M; Steel, Mike

    2011-07-22

    A key step in assembling the tree of life is the construction of species-rich phylogenies from multilocus--but often incomplete--sequence data sets. We describe previously unknown structure in the landscape of solutions to the tree reconstruction problem, comprising sometimes vast "terraces" of trees with identical quality, arranged on islands of phylogenetically similar trees. Phylogenetic ambiguity within a terrace can be characterized efficiently and then ameliorated by new algorithms for obtaining a terrace's maximum-agreement subtree or by identifying the smallest set of new targets for additional sequencing. Algorithms to find optimal trees or estimate Bayesian posterior tree distributions may need to navigate strategically in the neighborhood of large terraces in tree space.

  13. Ancestral reconstruction of tick lineages.

    PubMed

    Mans, Ben J; de Castro, Minique H; Pienaar, Ronel; de Klerk, Daniel; Gaven, Philasande; Genu, Siyamcela; Latif, Abdalla A

    2016-06-01

    Ancestral reconstruction in its fullest sense aims to describe the complete evolutionary history of a lineage. This depends on accurate phylogenies and an understanding of the key characters of each parental lineage. An attempt is made to delineate our current knowledge with regard to the ancestral reconstruction of the tick (Ixodida) lineage. Tick characters may be assigned to Core of Life, Lineages of Life or Edges of Life phenomena depending on how far back these characters may be assigned in the evolutionary Tree of Life. These include housekeeping genes, sub-cellular systems, heme processing (Core of Life), development, moulting, appendages, nervous and organ systems, homeostasis, respiration (Lineages of Life), specific adaptations to a blood-feeding lifestyle, including the complexities of salivary gland secretions and tick-host interactions (Edges of Life). The phylogenetic relationships of lineages, their origins and importance in ancestral reconstruction are discussed. Uncertainties with respect to systematic relationships, ancestral reconstruction and the challenges faced in comparative transcriptomics (next-generation sequencing approaches) are highlighted. While almost 150 years of information regarding tick biology have been assembled, progress in recent years indicates that we are in the infancy of understanding tick evolution. Even so, broad reconstructions can be made with relation to biological features associated with various lineages. Conservation of characters shared with sister and parent lineages are evident, but appreciable differences are present in the tick lineage indicating modification with descent, as expected for Darwinian evolutionary theory. Many of these differences can be related to the hematophagous lifestyle of ticks. PMID:26868413

  14. Accurate Model Selection of Relaxed Molecular Clocks in Bayesian Phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Baele, Guy; Li, Wai Lok Sibon; Drummond, Alexei J.; Suchard, Marc A.; Lemey, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Recent implementations of path sampling (PS) and stepping-stone sampling (SS) have been shown to outperform the harmonic mean estimator (HME) and a posterior simulation-based analog of Akaike’s information criterion through Markov chain Monte Carlo (AICM), in Bayesian model selection of demographic and molecular clock models. Almost simultaneously, a Bayesian model averaging approach was developed that avoids conditioning on a single model but averages over a set of relaxed clock models. This approach returns estimates of the posterior probability of each clock model through which one can estimate the Bayes factor in favor of the maximum a posteriori (MAP) clock model; however, this Bayes factor estimate may suffer when the posterior probability of the MAP model approaches 1. Here, we compare these two recent developments with the HME, stabilized/smoothed HME (sHME), and AICM, using both synthetic and empirical data. Our comparison shows reassuringly that MAP identification and its Bayes factor provide similar performance to PS and SS and that these approaches considerably outperform HME, sHME, and AICM in selecting the correct underlying clock model. We also illustrate the importance of using proper priors on a large set of empirical data sets. PMID:23090976

  15. The phylogenetic utility of acetyltransferase (ARD1) and glutaminyl tRNA synthetase (QtRNA) for reconstructing Cenozoic relationships as exemplified by the large Australian cicada Pauropsalta generic complex.

    PubMed

    Owen, Christopher L; Marshall, David C; Hill, Kathy B R; Simon, Chris

    2015-02-01

    The Pauropsalta generic complex is a large group of cicadas (72 described spp.; >82 undescribed spp.) endemic to Australia. No previous molecular work on deep level relationships within this complex has been conducted, but a recent morphological revision and phylogenetic analysis proposed relationships among the 11 genera. We present here the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the complex using five loci (1 mtDNA, 4 nDNA), two of which are from nuclear genes new to cicada systematics. We compare the molecular phylogeny to the morphological phylogeny. We evaluate the phylogenetic informativeness of the new loci to traditional cicada systematics loci to generate a baseline of performance and behavior to aid in gene choice decisions in future systematic and phylogenomic studies. Our maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference phylogenies strongly support the monophyly of most of the newly described genera; however, relationships among genera differ from the morphological phylogeny. A comparison of phylogenetic informativeness among all loci revealed that COI 3rd positions dominate the informativeness profiles relative to all other loci but exhibit some among taxon nucleotide bias. After removing COI 3rd positions, COI 1st positions dominate near the terminals, while the period intron has the most phylogenetic informativeness near the root. Among the nuclear loci, ARD1 and QtRNA have lower phylogenetic informativeness than period intron and elongation factor 1 alpha intron, but the informativeness increases at you move from the tips to the root. The increase in phylogenetic informativeness deeper in the tree suggests these loci may be useful for resolving older relationships.

  16. Phylogenetic analysis with the iPlant discovery environment.

    PubMed

    Matasci, Naim; McKay, Sheldon

    2013-06-01

    The iPlant Collaborative's Discovery Environment is a unified Web portal to many bioinformatics applications and analytical workflows, including various methods of phylogenetic analysis. This unit describes example protocols for phylogenetic analyses, starting at sequence retrieval from the GenBank sequence database, through to multiple sequence alignment inference and visualization of phylogenetic trees. Methods for extracting smaller sub-trees from very large phylogenies, and the comparative method of continuous ancestral character state reconstruction based on observed morphology of extant species related to their phylogenetic relationships, are also presented.

  17. Many-core algorithms for statistical phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Suchard, Marc A.; Rambaut, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Statistical phylogenetics is computationally intensive, resulting in considerable attention meted on techniques for parallelization. Codon-based models allow for independent rates of synonymous and replacement substitutions and have the potential to more adequately model the process of protein-coding sequence evolution with a resulting increase in phylogenetic accuracy. Unfortunately, due to the high number of codon states, computational burden has largely thwarted phylogenetic reconstruction under codon models, particularly at the genomic-scale. Here, we describe novel algorithms and methods for evaluating phylogenies under arbitrary molecular evolutionary models on graphics processing units (GPUs), making use of the large number of processing cores to efficiently parallelize calculations even for large state-size models. Results: We implement the approach in an existing Bayesian framework and apply the algorithms to estimating the phylogeny of 62 complete mitochondrial genomes of carnivores under a 60-state codon model. We see a near 90-fold speed increase over an optimized CPU-based computation and a >140-fold increase over the currently available implementation, making this the first practical use of codon models for phylogenetic inference over whole mitochondrial or microorganism genomes. Availability and implementation: Source code provided in BEAGLE: Broad-platform Evolutionary Analysis General Likelihood Evaluator, a cross-platform/processor library for phylogenetic likelihood computation (http://beagle-lib.googlecode.com/). We employ a BEAGLE-implementation using the Bayesian phylogenetics framework BEAST (http://beast.bio.ed.ac.uk/). Contact: msuchard@ucla.edu; a.rambaut@ed.ac.uk PMID:19369496

  18. Maximum Parsimony on Phylogenetic networks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic networks are generalizations of phylogenetic trees, that are used to model evolutionary events in various contexts. Several different methods and criteria have been introduced for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Maximum Parsimony is a character-based approach that infers a phylogenetic tree by minimizing the total number of evolutionary steps required to explain a given set of data assigned on the leaves. Exact solutions for optimizing parsimony scores on phylogenetic trees have been introduced in the past. Results In this paper, we define the parsimony score on networks as the sum of the substitution costs along all the edges of the network; and show that certain well-known algorithms that calculate the optimum parsimony score on trees, such as Sankoff and Fitch algorithms extend naturally for networks, barring conflicting assignments at the reticulate vertices. We provide heuristics for finding the optimum parsimony scores on networks. Our algorithms can be applied for any cost matrix that may contain unequal substitution costs of transforming between different characters along different edges of the network. We analyzed this for experimental data on 10 leaves or fewer with at most 2 reticulations and found that for almost all networks, the bounds returned by the heuristics matched with the exhaustively determined optimum parsimony scores. Conclusion The parsimony score we define here does not directly reflect the cost of the best tree in the network that displays the evolution of the character. However, when searching for the most parsimonious network that describes a collection of characters, it becomes necessary to add additional cost considerations to prefer simpler structures, such as trees over networks. The parsimony score on a network that we describe here takes into account the substitution costs along the additional edges incident on each reticulate vertex, in addition to the substitution costs along the other edges which are

  19. Phylogenetic Conservatism in Plant Phenology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, T. Jonathan; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Salamin, Nicolas; Allen, Jenica M.; Ault, Toby R.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Bolmgren, Kjell; Cleland, Elsa E.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Mazer, Susan J.; McCabe, Gregory J.; Pau, Stephanie; Regetz, Jim; Schwartz, Mark D.; Travers, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Phenological events defined points in the life cycle of a plant or animal have been regarded as highly plastic traits, reflecting flexible responses to various environmental cues. The ability of a species to track, via shifts in phenological events, the abiotic environment through time might dictate its vulnerability to future climate change. Understanding the predictors and drivers of phenological change is therefore critical. Here, we evaluated evidence for phylogenetic conservatism the tendency for closely related species to share similar ecological and biological attributes in phenological traits across flowering plants. We aggregated published and unpublished data on timing of first flower and first leaf, encompassing 4000 species at 23 sites across the Northern Hemisphere. We reconstructed the phylogeny for the set of included species, first, using the software program Phylomatic, and second, from DNA data. We then quantified phylogenetic conservatism in plant phenology within and across sites. We show that more closely related species tend to flower and leaf at similar times. By contrasting mean flowering times within and across sites, however, we illustrate that it is not the time of year that is conserved, but rather the phenological responses to a common set of abiotic cues. Our findings suggest that species cannot be treated as statistically independent when modelling phenological responses.Closely related species tend to resemble each other in the timing of their life-history events, a likely product of evolutionarily conserved responses to environmental cues. The search for the underlying drivers of phenology must therefore account for species' shared evolutionary histories.

  20. Phylogenetic Inference From Conserved sites Alignments

    SciTech Connect

    grundy, W.N.; Naylor, G.J.P.

    1999-08-15

    Molecular sequences provide a rich source of data for inferring the phylogenetic relationships among species. However, recent work indicates that even an accurate multiple alignment of a large sequence set may yield an incorrect phylogeny and that the quality of the phylogenetic tree improves when the input consists only of the highly conserved, motif regions of the alignment. This work introduces two methods of producing multiple alignments that include only the conserved regions of the initial alignment. The first method retains conserved motifs, whereas the second retains individual conserved sites in the initial alignment. Using parsimony analysis on a mitochondrial data set containing 19 species among which the phylogenetic relationships are widely accepted, both conserved alignment methods produce better phylogenetic trees than the complete alignment. Unlike any of the 19 inference methods used before to analyze this data, both methods produce trees that are completely consistent with the known phylogeny. The motif-based method employs far fewer alignment sites for comparable error rates. For a larger data set containing mitochondrial sequences from 39 species, the site-based method produces a phylogenetic tree that is largely consistent with known phylogenetic relationships and suggests several novel placements.

  1. Phylogenetic analyses of Vitis (Vitaceae) based on complete chloroplast genome sequences: effects of taxon sampling and phylogenetic methods on resolving relationships among rosids

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Robert K; Kaittanis, Charalambos; Saski, Christopher; Lee, Seung-Bum; Tomkins, Jeffrey; Alverson, Andrew J; Daniell, Henry

    2006-01-01

    Background The Vitaceae (grape) is an economically important family of angiosperms whose phylogenetic placement is currently unresolved. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on one to several genes have suggested several alternative placements of this family, including sister to Caryophyllales, asterids, Saxifragales, Dilleniaceae or to rest of rosids, though support for these different results has been weak. There has been a recent interest in using complete chloroplast genome sequences for resolving phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. These studies have clarified relationships among several major lineages but they have also emphasized the importance of taxon sampling and the effects of different phylogenetic methods for obtaining accurate phylogenies. We sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of Vitis vinifera and used these data to assess relationships among 27 angiosperms, including nine taxa of rosids. Results The Vitis vinifera chloroplast genome is 160,928 bp in length, including a pair of inverted repeats of 26,358 bp that are separated by small and large single copy regions of 19,065 bp and 89,147 bp, respectively. The gene content and order of Vitis is identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm chloroplast genomes, including tobacco. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood were performed on DNA sequences of 61 protein-coding genes for two datasets with 28 or 29 taxa, including eight or nine taxa from four of the seven currently recognized major clades of rosids. Parsimony and likelihood phylogenies of both data sets provide strong support for the placement of Vitaceae as sister to the remaining rosids. However, the position of the Myrtales and support for the monophyly of the eurosid I clade differs between the two data sets and the two methods of analysis. In parsimony analyses, the inclusion of Gossypium is necessary to obtain trees that support the monophyly of the eurosid I clade. However, maximum

  2. Phylogenetic effective sample size.

    PubMed

    Bartoszek, Krzysztof

    2016-10-21

    In this paper I address the question-how large is a phylogenetic sample? I propose a definition of a phylogenetic effective sample size for Brownian motion and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes-the regression effective sample size. I discuss how mutual information can be used to define an effective sample size in the non-normal process case and compare these two definitions to an already present concept of effective sample size (the mean effective sample size). Through a simulation study I find that the AICc is robust if one corrects for the number of species or effective number of species. Lastly I discuss how the concept of the phylogenetic effective sample size can be useful for biodiversity quantification, identification of interesting clades and deciding on the importance of phylogenetic correlations. PMID:27343033

  3. Phylogenetic lineages in Entomophthoromycota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomophthoromycota Humber is one of five major phylogenetic lineages among the former phylum Zygomycota. These early terrestrial fungi share evolutionarily ancestral characters such as coenocytic mycelium and gametangiogamy as a sexual process resulting in zygospore formation. Previous molecular st...

  4. Heterochrony repolarized: a phylogenetic analysis of developmental timing in plethodontid salamanders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Disentangling evolutionary shifts in developmental timing (heterochony) is dependent upon accurate estimates of ancestral patterns. However, many classic assessments of heterochronic patterns predate robust phylogenetic hypotheses and methods for trait reconstruction, and therefore may have been polarized with untested ‘primitive’ conditions. Here we revisit the heterochronic modes of development that underlie the evolution of metamorphosis, maturation, and paedomorphosis in plethodontid salamanders. We focus on the tribe Spelerpini, which is a diverse clade that exhibits tremendous variation in timing of metamorphosis and maturation, as well as multiple independent instances of larval form paedomorphosis. Based on morphology and biogeography, early investigators concluded that the most recent common ancestors of plethodontids, and also spelerpines, were large salamanders, with very long larval periods and late maturation times. This prevailing assumption influenced subsequent heterochronic assessments, which concluded that most modern spelerpines (with shorter larval periods) were derived through multiple independent accelerations in larval development. It was also concluded that most occurrences of larval form paedomorphosis in this clade resulted from progenesis (acceleration of gonadal development relative to metamorphosis). Results By reconstructing the time to metamorphosis on a molecular-based phylogeny of plethodontids, we find that ancestral spelerpines likely had relatively shorter larval periods than previously proposed. Taken together with the credibility interval from our ancestral state estimation we show that very long larval periods are likely derived decelerations, only a few lineages have undergone appreciable accelerations in metamorphic timing, and the remaining taxa have lower probabilities of being different than the ancestral condition (possibly due to stasis). Reconstructing maturation age across nodes concomitant with the

  5. Phyloclimatic modeling: combining phylogenetics and bioclimatic modeling.

    PubMed

    Yesson, C; Culham, A

    2006-10-01

    We investigate the impact of past climates on plant diversification by tracking the "footprint" of climate change on a phylogenetic tree. Diversity within the cosmopolitan carnivorous plant genus Drosera (Droseraceae) is focused within Mediterranean climate regions. We explore whether this diversity is temporally linked to Mediterranean-type climatic shifts of the mid-Miocene and whether climate preferences are conservative over phylogenetic timescales. Phyloclimatic modeling combines environmental niche (bioclimatic) modeling with phylogenetics in order to study evolutionary patterns in relation to climate change. We present the largest and most complete such example to date using Drosera. The bioclimatic models of extant species demonstrate clear phylogenetic patterns; this is particularly evident for the tuberous sundews from southwestern Australia (subgenus Ergaleium). We employ a method for establishing confidence intervals of node ages on a phylogeny using replicates from a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. This chronogram shows that many clades, including subgenus Ergaleium and section Bryastrum, diversified during the establishment of the Mediterranean-type climate. Ancestral reconstructions of bioclimatic models demonstrate a pattern of preference for this climate type within these groups. Ancestral bioclimatic models are projected into palaeo-climate reconstructions for the time periods indicated by the chronogram. We present two such examples that each generate plausible estimates of ancestral lineage distribution, which are similar to their current distributions. This is the first study to attempt bioclimatic projections on evolutionary time scales. The sundews appear to have diversified in response to local climate development. Some groups are specialized for Mediterranean climates, others show wide-ranging generalism. This demonstrates that Phyloclimatic modeling could be repeated for other plant groups and is fundamental to the understanding of

  6. Phyloclimatic modeling: combining phylogenetics and bioclimatic modeling.

    PubMed

    Yesson, C; Culham, A

    2006-10-01

    We investigate the impact of past climates on plant diversification by tracking the "footprint" of climate change on a phylogenetic tree. Diversity within the cosmopolitan carnivorous plant genus Drosera (Droseraceae) is focused within Mediterranean climate regions. We explore whether this diversity is temporally linked to Mediterranean-type climatic shifts of the mid-Miocene and whether climate preferences are conservative over phylogenetic timescales. Phyloclimatic modeling combines environmental niche (bioclimatic) modeling with phylogenetics in order to study evolutionary patterns in relation to climate change. We present the largest and most complete such example to date using Drosera. The bioclimatic models of extant species demonstrate clear phylogenetic patterns; this is particularly evident for the tuberous sundews from southwestern Australia (subgenus Ergaleium). We employ a method for establishing confidence intervals of node ages on a phylogeny using replicates from a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. This chronogram shows that many clades, including subgenus Ergaleium and section Bryastrum, diversified during the establishment of the Mediterranean-type climate. Ancestral reconstructions of bioclimatic models demonstrate a pattern of preference for this climate type within these groups. Ancestral bioclimatic models are projected into palaeo-climate reconstructions for the time periods indicated by the chronogram. We present two such examples that each generate plausible estimates of ancestral lineage distribution, which are similar to their current distributions. This is the first study to attempt bioclimatic projections on evolutionary time scales. The sundews appear to have diversified in response to local climate development. Some groups are specialized for Mediterranean climates, others show wide-ranging generalism. This demonstrates that Phyloclimatic modeling could be repeated for other plant groups and is fundamental to the understanding of

  7. Matching split distance for unrooted binary phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Bogdanowicz, Damian; Giaro, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    The reconstruction of evolutionary trees is one of the primary objectives in phylogenetics. Such a tree represents the historical evolutionary relationship between different species or organisms. Tree comparisons are used for multiple purposes, from unveiling the history of species to deciphering evolutionary associations among organisms and geographical areas. In this paper, we propose a new method of defining distances between unrooted binary phylogenetic trees that is especially useful for relatively large phylogenetic trees. Next, we investigate in detail the properties of one example of these metrics, called the Matching Split distance, and describe how the general method can be extended to nonbinary trees.

  8. LSHPlace: fast phylogenetic placement using locality-sensitive hashing.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daniel G; Truszkowski, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of phylogenetic placement, in which large numbers of sequences (often next-generation sequencing reads) are placed onto an existing phylogenetic tree. We adapt our recent work on phylogenetic tree inference, which uses ancestral sequence reconstruction and locality-sensitive hashing, to this domain. With these ideas, new sequences can be placed onto trees with high fidelity in strikingly fast runtimes. Our results are two orders of magnitude faster than existing programs for this domain, and show a modest accuracy tradeoff. Our results offer the possibility of analyzing many more reads in a next-generation sequencing project than is currently possible.

  9. Your place or mine? A phylogenetic comparative analysis of marital residence in Indo-European and Austronesian societies.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Laura; Jordan, Fiona

    2010-12-12

    Accurate reconstruction of prehistoric social organization is important if we are to put together satisfactory multidisciplinary scenarios about, for example, the dispersal of human groups. Such considerations apply in the case of Indo-European and Austronesian, two large-scale language families that are thought to represent Neolithic expansions. Ancestral kinship patterns have mostly been inferred through reconstruction of kin terminologies in ancestral proto-languages using the linguistic comparative method, and through geographical or distributional arguments based on the comparative patterns of kin terms and ethnographic kinship 'facts'. While these approaches are detailed and valuable, the processes through which conclusions have been drawn from the data fail to provide explicit criteria for systematic testing of alternative hypotheses. Here, we use language trees derived using phylogenetic tree-building techniques on Indo-European and Austronesian vocabulary data. With these trees, ethnographic data and Bayesian phylogenetic comparative methods, we statistically reconstruct past marital residence and infer rates of cultural change between different residence forms, showing Proto-Indo-European to be virilocal and Proto-Malayo-Polynesian uxorilocal. The instability of uxorilocality and the rare loss of virilocality once gained emerge as common features of both families.

  10. The phylogenetic likelihood library.

    PubMed

    Flouri, T; Izquierdo-Carrasco, F; Darriba, D; Aberer, A J; Nguyen, L-T; Minh, B Q; Von Haeseler, A; Stamatakis, A

    2015-03-01

    We introduce the Phylogenetic Likelihood Library (PLL), a highly optimized application programming interface for developing likelihood-based phylogenetic inference and postanalysis software. The PLL implements appropriate data structures and functions that allow users to quickly implement common, error-prone, and labor-intensive tasks, such as likelihood calculations, model parameter as well as branch length optimization, and tree space exploration. The highly optimized and parallelized implementation of the phylogenetic likelihood function and a thorough documentation provide a framework for rapid development of scalable parallel phylogenetic software. By example of two likelihood-based phylogenetic codes we show that the PLL improves the sequential performance of current software by a factor of 2-10 while requiring only 1 month of programming time for integration. We show that, when numerical scaling for preventing floating point underflow is enabled, the double precision likelihood calculations in the PLL are up to 1.9 times faster than those in BEAGLE. On an empirical DNA dataset with 2000 taxa the AVX version of PLL is 4 times faster than BEAGLE (scaling enabled and required). The PLL is available at http://www.libpll.org under the GNU General Public License (GPL).

  11. The phylogenetic affinities of the extinct glyptodonts.

    PubMed

    Delsuc, Frédéric; Gibb, Gillian C; Kuch, Melanie; Billet, Guillaume; Hautier, Lionel; Southon, John; Rouillard, Jean-Marie; Fernicola, Juan Carlos; Vizcaíno, Sergio F; MacPhee, Ross D E; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2016-02-22

    Among the fossils of hitherto unknown mammals that Darwin collected in South America between 1832 and 1833 during the Beagle expedition were examples of the large, heavily armored herbivores later known as glyptodonts. Ever since, glyptodonts have fascinated evolutionary biologists because of their remarkable skeletal adaptations and seemingly isolated phylogenetic position even within their natural group, the cingulate xenarthrans (armadillos and their allies). In possessing a carapace comprised of fused osteoderms, the glyptodonts were clearly related to other cingulates, but their precise phylogenetic position as suggested by morphology remains unresolved. To provide a molecular perspective on this issue, we designed sequence-capture baits using in silico reconstructed ancestral sequences and successfully assembled the complete mitochondrial genome of Doedicurus sp., one of the largest glyptodonts. Our phylogenetic reconstructions establish that glyptodonts are in fact deeply nested within the armadillo crown-group, representing a distinct subfamily (Glyptodontinae) within family Chlamyphoridae. Molecular dating suggests that glyptodonts diverged no earlier than around 35 million years ago, in good agreement with their fossil record. Our results highlight the derived nature of the glyptodont morphotype, one aspect of which is a spectacular increase in body size until their extinction at the end of the last ice age. PMID:26906483

  12. The phylogenetic affinities of the extinct glyptodonts.

    PubMed

    Delsuc, Frédéric; Gibb, Gillian C; Kuch, Melanie; Billet, Guillaume; Hautier, Lionel; Southon, John; Rouillard, Jean-Marie; Fernicola, Juan Carlos; Vizcaíno, Sergio F; MacPhee, Ross D E; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2016-02-22

    Among the fossils of hitherto unknown mammals that Darwin collected in South America between 1832 and 1833 during the Beagle expedition were examples of the large, heavily armored herbivores later known as glyptodonts. Ever since, glyptodonts have fascinated evolutionary biologists because of their remarkable skeletal adaptations and seemingly isolated phylogenetic position even within their natural group, the cingulate xenarthrans (armadillos and their allies). In possessing a carapace comprised of fused osteoderms, the glyptodonts were clearly related to other cingulates, but their precise phylogenetic position as suggested by morphology remains unresolved. To provide a molecular perspective on this issue, we designed sequence-capture baits using in silico reconstructed ancestral sequences and successfully assembled the complete mitochondrial genome of Doedicurus sp., one of the largest glyptodonts. Our phylogenetic reconstructions establish that glyptodonts are in fact deeply nested within the armadillo crown-group, representing a distinct subfamily (Glyptodontinae) within family Chlamyphoridae. Molecular dating suggests that glyptodonts diverged no earlier than around 35 million years ago, in good agreement with their fossil record. Our results highlight the derived nature of the glyptodont morphotype, one aspect of which is a spectacular increase in body size until their extinction at the end of the last ice age.

  13. Relaxed Phylogenetics and Dating with Confidence

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Simon Y. W; Phillips, Matthew J

    2006-01-01

    In phylogenetics, the unrooted model of phylogeny and the strict molecular clock model are two extremes of a continuum. Despite their dominance in phylogenetic inference, it is evident that both are biologically unrealistic and that the real evolutionary process lies between these two extremes. Fortunately, intermediate models employing relaxed molecular clocks have been described. These models open the gate to a new field of “relaxed phylogenetics.” Here we introduce a new approach to performing relaxed phylogenetic analysis. We describe how it can be used to estimate phylogenies and divergence times in the face of uncertainty in evolutionary rates and calibration times. Our approach also provides a means for measuring the clocklikeness of datasets and comparing this measure between different genes and phylogenies. We find no significant rate autocorrelation among branches in three large datasets, suggesting that autocorrelated models are not necessarily suitable for these data. In addition, we place these datasets on the continuum of clocklikeness between a strict molecular clock and the alternative unrooted extreme. Finally, we present analyses of 102 bacterial, 106 yeast, 61 plant, 99 metazoan, and 500 primate alignments. From these we conclude that our method is phylogenetically more accurate and precise than the traditional unrooted model while adding the ability to infer a timescale to evolution. PMID:16683862

  14. Immatures of Palaearctic species of the weevil genus Tychius (Coleoptera, Curculionidae): new descriptions and new bionomic data with an evaluation of their value in a phylogenetic reconstruction of the genus .

    PubMed

    Skuhrovec, Jiří; Gosik, Rafał; Caldara, Roberto

    2014-07-23

    Larvae of 14 species and pupae of 12 species of Palaearctic Tychius Germar, 1817 are described for the first time. Larvae and pupae of T.meliloti Stephens, 1831, T. squamulatus Gyllenhal, 1835 and T. quinquepunctatus (Linnaeus, 1758), are redescribed with addition of new characters. They belong to 10 of 22 groups of species assembled through adult morphological characters in this region and, like all other Tychius with known biology, the studied species live on Leguminosae Papilionoideae, belonging to the tribes Genisteae, Loteae, Galegeae, Trifolieae and Vicieae. Generally larvae, but not pupae, show a few characters useful to support some groupings previously postulated on adult morphology, and also suggest some phylogenetic relationships among groups although these are partly weak because of several clear parallelisms or convergences. One of the most numerous and better known group of species, the T. stephensi group living on Trifolieae, is supported by two distinctive larval character states, whereas all the other groups seem to be distinguishable from each other at least by a unique larval character state. New bionomic data concerning larval and pupal development and adult emergence are reported for all the described species. These data confirm that this genus is highly homogeneous in habits and times of development, with unique adaptive differences in adult emergence and overwintering according to the single or double seasonal flowering of the host plant. On the basis of morphological characters of immatures and adults, a possible concordance between the evolution of Tychius and that of their host plants is discussed.

  15. LifePrint: a novel k-tuple distance method for construction of phylogenetic trees

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Prieto, Fabián; García-Chéquer, Adda J; Jaimes-Díaz, Hueman; Casique-Almazán, Janet; Espinosa-Lara, Juana M; Palma-Orozco, Rosaura; Méndez-Tenorio, Alfonso; Maldonado-Rodríguez, Rogelio; Beattie, Kenneth L

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Here we describe LifePrint, a sequence alignment-independent k-tuple distance method to estimate relatedness between complete genomes. Methods We designed a representative sample of all possible DNA tuples of length 9 (9-tuples). The final sample comprises 1878 tuples (called the LifePrint set of 9-tuples; LPS9) that are distinct from each other by at least two internal and noncontiguous nucleotide differences. For validation of our k-tuple distance method, we analyzed several real and simulated viroid genomes. Using different distance metrics, we scrutinized diverse viroid genomes to estimate the k-tuple distances between these genomic sequences. Then we used the estimated genomic k-tuple distances to construct phylogenetic trees using the neighbor-joining algorithm. A comparison of the accuracy of LPS9 and the previously reported 5-tuple method was made using symmetric differences between the trees estimated from each method and a simulated “true” phylogenetic tree. Results The identified optimal search scheme for LPS9 allows only up to two nucleotide differences between each 9-tuple and the scrutinized genome. Similarity search results of simulated viroid genomes indicate that, in most cases, LPS9 is able to detect single-base substitutions between genomes efficiently. Analysis of simulated genomic variants with a high proportion of base substitutions indicates that LPS9 is able to discern relationships between genomic variants with up to 40% of nucleotide substitution. Conclusion Our LPS9 method generates more accurate phylogenetic reconstructions than the previously proposed 5-tuples strategy. LPS9-reconstructed trees show higher bootstrap proportion values than distance trees derived from the 5-tuple method. PMID:21918634

  16. A Universal Phylogenetic Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a universal phylogenetic tree suitable for use in high school and college-level biology classrooms. Illustrates the antiquity of life and that all life is related, even if it dates back 3.5 billion years. Reflects important evolutionary relationships and provides an exciting way to learn about the history of life. (SAH)

  17. A Fiji multi-coral δ18O composite approach to obtaining a more accurate reconstruction of the last two-centuries of the ocean-climate variability in the South Pacific Convergence Zone region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dassié, Emilie P.; Linsley, Braddock K.; Corrège, Thierry; Wu, Henry C.; Lemley, Gavin M.; Howe, Steve; Cabioch, Guy

    2014-12-01

    The limited availability of oceanographic data in the tropical Pacific Ocean prior to the satellite era makes coral-based climate reconstructions a key tool for extending the instrumental record back in time, thereby providing a much needed test for climate models and projections. We have generated a unique regional network consisting of five Porites coral δ18O time series from different locations in the Fijian archipelago. Our results indicate that using a minimum of three Porites coral δ18O records from Fiji is statistically sufficient to obtain a reliable signal for climate reconstruction, and that application of an approach used in tree ring studies is a suitable tool to determine this number. The coral δ18O composite indicates that while sea surface temperature (SST) variability is the primary driver of seasonal δ18O variability in these Fiji corals, annual average coral δ18O is more closely correlated to sea surface salinity (SSS) as previously reported. Our results highlight the importance of water mass advection in controlling Fiji coral δ18O and salinity variability at interannual and decadal time scales despite being located in the heavy rainfall region of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). The Fiji δ18O composite presents a secular freshening and warming trend since the 1850s coupled with changes in both interannual (IA) and decadal/interdecadal (D/I) variance. The changes in IA and D/I variance suggest a re-organization of climatic variability in the SPCZ region beginning in the late 1800s to period of a more dominant interannual variability, which could correspond to a southeast expansion of the SPCZ.

  18. Photometric Lunar Surface Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nefian, Ara V.; Alexandrov, Oleg; Morattlo, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Beyer, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate photometric reconstruction of the Lunar surface is important in the context of upcoming NASA robotic missions to the Moon and in giving a more accurate understanding of the Lunar soil composition. This paper describes a novel approach for joint estimation of Lunar albedo, camera exposure time, and photometric parameters that utilizes an accurate Lunar-Lambertian reflectance model and previously derived Lunar topography of the area visualized during the Apollo missions. The method introduced here is used in creating the largest Lunar albedo map (16% of the Lunar surface) at the resolution of 10 meters/pixel.

  19. A phylogenetic blueprint for a modern whale.

    PubMed

    Gatesy, John; Geisler, Jonathan H; Chang, Joseph; Buell, Carl; Berta, Annalisa; Meredith, Robert W; Springer, Mark S; McGowen, Michael R

    2013-02-01

    The emergence of Cetacea in the Paleogene represents one of the most profound macroevolutionary transitions within Mammalia. The move from a terrestrial habitat to a committed aquatic lifestyle engendered wholesale changes in anatomy, physiology, and behavior. The results of this remarkable transformation are extant whales that include the largest, biggest brained, fastest swimming, loudest, deepest diving mammals, some of which can detect prey with a sophisticated echolocation system (Odontoceti - toothed whales), and others that batch feed using racks of baleen (Mysticeti - baleen whales). A broad-scale reconstruction of the evolutionary remodeling that culminated in extant cetaceans has not yet been based on integration of genomic and paleontological information. Here, we first place Cetacea relative to extant mammalian diversity, and assess the distribution of support among molecular datasets for relationships within Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates, including Cetacea). We then merge trees derived from three large concatenations of molecular and fossil data to yield a composite hypothesis that encompasses many critical events in the evolutionary history of Cetacea. By combining diverse evidence, we infer a phylogenetic blueprint that outlines the stepwise evolutionary development of modern whales. This hypothesis represents a starting point for more detailed, comprehensive phylogenetic reconstructions in the future, and also highlights the synergistic interaction between modern (genomic) and traditional (morphological+paleontological) approaches that ultimately must be exploited to provide a rich understanding of evolutionary history across the entire tree of Life.

  20. A first step toward computing all hybridization networks for two rooted binary phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Scornavacca, Celine; Linz, Simone; Albrecht, Benjamin

    2012-11-01

    Recently, considerable effort has been put into developing fast algorithms to reconstruct a rooted phylogenetic network that explains two rooted phylogenetic trees and has a minimum number of hybridization vertices. With the standard app1235roach to tackle this problem being combinatorial, the reconstructed network is rarely unique. From a biological point of view, it is therefore of importance to not only compute one network, but all possible networks. In this article, we make a first step toward approaching this goal by presenting the first algorithm--called ALLMAAFs--that calculates all maximum-acyclic-agreement forests for two rooted binary phylogenetic trees on the same set of taxa.

  1. Phylogenetic Stochastic Mapping Without Matrix Exponentiation

    PubMed Central

    Irvahn, Jan; Minin, Vladimir N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Phylogenetic stochastic mapping is a method for reconstructing the history of trait changes on a phylogenetic tree relating species/organism carrying the trait. State-of-the-art methods assume that the trait evolves according to a continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) and works well for small state spaces. The computations slow down considerably for larger state spaces (e.g., space of codons), because current methodology relies on exponentiating CTMC infinitesimal rate matrices—an operation whose computational complexity grows as the size of the CTMC state space cubed. In this work, we introduce a new approach, based on a CTMC technique called uniformization, which does not use matrix exponentiation for phylogenetic stochastic mapping. Our method is based on a new Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm that targets the distribution of trait histories conditional on the trait data observed at the tips of the tree. The computational complexity of our MCMC method grows as the size of the CTMC state space squared. Moreover, in contrast to competing matrix exponentiation methods, if the rate matrix is sparse, we can leverage this sparsity and increase the computational efficiency of our algorithm further. Using simulated data, we illustrate advantages of our MCMC algorithm and investigate how large the state space needs to be for our method to outperform matrix exponentiation approaches. We show that even on the moderately large state space of codons our MCMC method can be significantly faster than currently used matrix exponentiation methods. PMID:24918812

  2. PAML 4: phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ziheng

    2007-08-01

    PAML, currently in version 4, is a package of programs for phylogenetic analyses of DNA and protein sequences using maximum likelihood (ML). The programs may be used to compare and test phylogenetic trees, but their main strengths lie in the rich repertoire of evolutionary models implemented, which can be used to estimate parameters in models of sequence evolution and to test interesting biological hypotheses. Uses of the programs include estimation of synonymous and nonsynonymous rates (d(N) and d(S)) between two protein-coding DNA sequences, inference of positive Darwinian selection through phylogenetic comparison of protein-coding genes, reconstruction of ancestral genes and proteins for molecular restoration studies of extinct life forms, combined analysis of heterogeneous data sets from multiple gene loci, and estimation of species divergence times incorporating uncertainties in fossil calibrations. This note discusses some of the major applications of the package, which includes example data sets to demonstrate their use. The package is written in ANSI C, and runs under Windows, Mac OSX, and UNIX systems. It is available at -- (http://abacus.gene.ucl.ac.uk/software/paml.html).

  3. Modularized evolution in archaeal methanogens phylogenetic forest.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Wong, Chi-Fat; Wong, Mabel Ting; Huang, He; Leung, Frederick C

    2014-12-09

    Methanogens are methane-producing archaea that plays a key role in the global carbon cycle. To date, the evolutionary history of methanogens and closely related nonmethanogen species remains unresolved among studies conducted upon different genetic markers, attributing to horizontal gene transfers (HGTs). With an effort to decipher both congruent and conflicting evolutionary events, reconstruction of coevolved gene clusters and hierarchical structure in the archaeal methanogen phylogenetic forest, comprehensive evolution, and network analyses were performed upon 3,694 gene families from 41 methanogens and 33 closely related archaea. Our results show that 1) greater than 50% of genes are in topological dissonance with others; 2) the prevalent interorder HGTs, even for core genes, in methanogen genomes led to their scrambled phylogenetic relationships; 3) most methanogenesis-related genes have experienced at least one HGT; 4) greater than 20% of the genes in methanogen genomes were transferred horizontally from other archaea, with genes involved in cell-wall synthesis and defense system having been transferred most frequently; 5) the coevolution network contains seven statistically robust modules, wherein the central module has the highest average node strength and comprises a majority of the core genes; 6) different coevolutionary module genes boomed in different time and evolutionary lineage, constructing diversified pan-genome structures; 7) the modularized evolution is also closely related to the vertical evolution signals and the HGT rate of the genes. Overall, this study presented a modularized phylogenetic forest that describes a combination of complicated vertical and nonvertical evolutionary processes for methanogenic archaeal species.

  4. Phylogenetic placement of Trichonympha.

    PubMed

    Dacks, J B; Redfield, R J

    1998-01-01

    Flagellated protists of the Class Hypermastigida have previously been classified on morphology alone, since no molecular sequences have been available. We have isolated DNA from 350 cells of the hypermastigote Trichonympha, manually collected from the hindgut of Zootermopsis angusticollis, and used this DNA as template for polymerase chain reaction amplification of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene. The DNA sequence of the amplified fragment is closely related to that of a previously-unidentified gut symbiont from the termite Reticulitermes flavipes, and phylogenetic analysis places both sequences as a sister group to the known trichomonads, in agreement with the morphological classification.

  5. Phylogenetic Comparative Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husemann, Peter; Stoye, Jens

    Recent high throughput sequencing technologies are capable of generating a huge amount of data for bacterial genome sequencing projects. Although current sequence assemblers successfully merge the overlapping reads, often several contigs remain which cannot be assembled any further. It is still costly and time consuming to close all the gaps in order to acquire the whole genomic sequence. Here we propose an algorithm that takes several related genomes and their phylogenetic relationships into account to create a contig adjacency graph. From this a layout graph can be computed which indicates putative adjacencies of the contigs in order to aid biologists in finishing the complete genomic sequence.

  6. T-REX: a web server for inferring, validating and visualizing phylogenetic trees and networks.

    PubMed

    Boc, Alix; Diallo, Alpha Boubacar; Makarenkov, Vladimir

    2012-07-01

    T-REX (Tree and reticulogram REConstruction) is a web server dedicated to the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees, reticulation networks and to the inference of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events. T-REX includes several popular bioinformatics applications such as MUSCLE, MAFFT, Neighbor Joining, NINJA, BioNJ, PhyML, RAxML, random phylogenetic tree generator and some well-known sequence-to-distance transformation models. It also comprises fast and effective methods for inferring phylogenetic trees from complete and incomplete distance matrices as well as for reconstructing reticulograms and HGT networks, including the detection and validation of complete and partial gene transfers, inference of consensus HGT scenarios and interactive HGT identification, developed by the authors. The included methods allows for validating and visualizing phylogenetic trees and networks which can be built from distance or sequence data. The web server is available at: www.trex.uqam.ca.

  7. Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Tom L

    2008-01-01

    Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.

  8. The Phylogenetic Diversity of Metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Kembel, Steven W.; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Pollard, Katherine S.; Green, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    Phylogenetic diversity—patterns of phylogenetic relatedness among organisms in ecological communities—provides important insights into the mechanisms underlying community assembly. Studies that measure phylogenetic diversity in microbial communities have primarily been limited to a single marker gene approach, using the small subunit of the rRNA gene (SSU-rRNA) to quantify phylogenetic relationships among microbial taxa. In this study, we present an approach for inferring phylogenetic relationships among microorganisms based on the random metagenomic sequencing of DNA fragments. To overcome challenges caused by the fragmentary nature of metagenomic data, we leveraged fully sequenced bacterial genomes as a scaffold to enable inference of phylogenetic relationships among metagenomic sequences from multiple phylogenetic marker gene families. The resulting metagenomic phylogeny can be used to quantify the phylogenetic diversity of microbial communities based on metagenomic data sets. We applied this method to understand patterns of microbial phylogenetic diversity and community assembly along an oceanic depth gradient, and compared our findings to previous studies of this gradient using SSU-rRNA gene and metagenomic analyses. Bacterial phylogenetic diversity was highest at intermediate depths beneath the ocean surface, whereas taxonomic diversity (diversity measured by binning sequences into taxonomically similar groups) showed no relationship with depth. Phylogenetic diversity estimates based on the SSU-rRNA gene and the multi-gene metagenomic phylogeny were broadly concordant, suggesting that our approach will be applicable to other metagenomic data sets for which corresponding SSU-rRNA gene sequences are unavailable. Our approach opens up the possibility of using metagenomic data to study microbial diversity in a phylogenetic context. PMID:21912589

  9. Practical aspects of spatially high accurate methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfrey, Andrew G.; Mitchell, Curtis R.; Walters, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The computational qualities of high order spatially accurate methods for the finite volume solution of the Euler equations are presented. Two dimensional essentially non-oscillatory (ENO), k-exact, and 'dimension by dimension' ENO reconstruction operators are discussed and compared in terms of reconstruction and solution accuracy, computational cost and oscillatory behavior in supersonic flows with shocks. Inherent steady state convergence difficulties are demonstrated for adaptive stencil algorithms. An exact solution to the heat equation is used to determine reconstruction error, and the computational intensity is reflected in operation counts. Standard MUSCL differencing is included for comparison. Numerical experiments presented include the Ringleb flow for numerical accuracy and a shock reflection problem. A vortex-shock interaction demonstrates the ability of the ENO scheme to excel in simulating unsteady high-frequency flow physics.

  10. The evolution of HIV: Inferences using phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Nallar, Eduardo; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Burton, Gregory F.; Crandall, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics has revolutionized the study of not only evolution but also disparate fields such as genomics, bioinformatics, epidemiology, ecology, microbiology, molecular biology and biochemistry. Particularly significant are its achievements in population genetics as a result of the development of coalescent theory, which have contributed to more accurate model-based parameter estimation and explicit hypothesis testing. The study of the evolution of many microorganisms, and HIV in particular, have benefited from these new methodologies. HIV is well suited for such sophisticated population analyses because of its large population sizes, short generation times, high substitution rates and relatively small genomes. All these factors make HIV an ideal and fascinating model to study molecular evolution in real time. Here we review the significant advances made in HIV evolution through the application of phylogenetic approaches. We first examine the relative roles of mutation and recombination on the molecular evolution of HIV and its adaptive response to drug therapy and tissue allocation. We then review some of the fundamental questions in HIV evolution in relation to its origin and diversification and describe some of the insights gained using phylogenies. Finally, we show how phylogenetic analysis has advanced our knowledge of HIV dynamics (i.e., phylodynamics). PMID:22138161

  11. Ancient phylogenetic relationships.

    PubMed

    Gribaldo, Simonetta; Philippe, Hervé

    2002-06-01

    Traditional views on deep evolutionary events have been seriously challenged over the last few years, following the identification of major pitfalls affecting molecular phylogeny reconstruction. Here we describe the principally encountered artifacts, notably long branch attraction, and their causes (i.e., difference in evolutionary rates, mutational saturation, compositional biases). Additional difficulties due to phenomena of biological nature (i.e., lateral gene transfer, recombination, hidden paralogy) are also discussed. Moreover, contrary to common beliefs, we show that the use of rare genomic events can also be misleading and should be treated with the same caution as standard molecular phylogeny. The universal tree of life, as described in most textbooks, is partly affected by tree reconstruction artifacts, e.g. (i) the bacterial rooting of the universal tree of life; (ii) the early emergence of amitochondriate lineages in eukaryotic phylogenies; and (iii) the position of hyperthermophilic taxa in bacterial phylogenies. We present an alternative view of this tree, based on recent evidence obtained from reanalyses of ancient data sets and from novel analyses of large combination of genes.

  12. Genetic Distances and Reconstruction of Phylogenetic Trees from Microsatellite DNA

    PubMed Central

    Takezaki, N.; Nei, M.

    1996-01-01

    Recently many investigators have used microsatellite DNA loci for studying the evolutionary relationships of closely related populations or species, and some authors proposed new genetic distance measures for this purpose. However, the efficiencies of these distance measures in obtaining the correct tree topology remains unclear. We therefore investigated the probability of obtaining the correct topology (P(C)) for these new distances as well as traditional distance measures by using computer simulation. We used both the infinite-allele model (IAM) and the stepwise mutation model (SMM), which seem to be appropriate for classical markers and microsatellite loci, respectively. The results show that in both the IAM and SMM CAVALLI-SFORZA and EDWARDS' chord distance (D(C)) and NEI et al.'s D(A) distance generally show higher P(C) values than other distance measures, whether the bottleneck effect exists or not. For estimating evolutionary times, however, NEI's standard distance and GOLDSTEIN et al.'s (δ μ)(2) are more appropriate than other distances. Microsatellite DNA seems to be very useful for clarifying the evolutionary relationships of closely related populations. PMID:8878702

  13. Bayesian phylogenetic estimation of fossil ages

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Alexei J.; Stadler, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances have allowed for both morphological fossil evidence and molecular sequences to be integrated into a single combined inference of divergence dates under the rule of Bayesian probability. In particular, the fossilized birth–death tree prior and the Lewis-Mk model of discrete morphological evolution allow for the estimation of both divergence times and phylogenetic relationships between fossil and extant taxa. We exploit this statistical framework to investigate the internal consistency of these models by producing phylogenetic estimates of the age of each fossil in turn, within two rich and well-characterized datasets of fossil and extant species (penguins and canids). We find that the estimation accuracy of fossil ages is generally high with credible intervals seldom excluding the true age and median relative error in the two datasets of 5.7% and 13.2%, respectively. The median relative standard error (RSD) was 9.2% and 7.2%, respectively, suggesting good precision, although with some outliers. In fact, in the two datasets we analyse, the phylogenetic estimate of fossil age is on average less than 2 Myr from the mid-point age of the geological strata from which it was excavated. The high level of internal consistency found in our analyses suggests that the Bayesian statistical model employed is an adequate fit for both the geological and morphological data, and provides evidence from real data that the framework used can accurately model the evolution of discrete morphological traits coded from fossil and extant taxa. We anticipate that this approach will have diverse applications beyond divergence time dating, including dating fossils that are temporally unconstrained, testing of the ‘morphological clock', and for uncovering potential model misspecification and/or data errors when controversial phylogenetic hypotheses are obtained based on combined divergence dating analyses. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences

  14. Bayesian phylogenetic estimation of fossil ages.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Alexei J; Stadler, Tanja

    2016-07-19

    Recent advances have allowed for both morphological fossil evidence and molecular sequences to be integrated into a single combined inference of divergence dates under the rule of Bayesian probability. In particular, the fossilized birth-death tree prior and the Lewis-Mk model of discrete morphological evolution allow for the estimation of both divergence times and phylogenetic relationships between fossil and extant taxa. We exploit this statistical framework to investigate the internal consistency of these models by producing phylogenetic estimates of the age of each fossil in turn, within two rich and well-characterized datasets of fossil and extant species (penguins and canids). We find that the estimation accuracy of fossil ages is generally high with credible intervals seldom excluding the true age and median relative error in the two datasets of 5.7% and 13.2%, respectively. The median relative standard error (RSD) was 9.2% and 7.2%, respectively, suggesting good precision, although with some outliers. In fact, in the two datasets we analyse, the phylogenetic estimate of fossil age is on average less than 2 Myr from the mid-point age of the geological strata from which it was excavated. The high level of internal consistency found in our analyses suggests that the Bayesian statistical model employed is an adequate fit for both the geological and morphological data, and provides evidence from real data that the framework used can accurately model the evolution of discrete morphological traits coded from fossil and extant taxa. We anticipate that this approach will have diverse applications beyond divergence time dating, including dating fossils that are temporally unconstrained, testing of the 'morphological clock', and for uncovering potential model misspecification and/or data errors when controversial phylogenetic hypotheses are obtained based on combined divergence dating analyses.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using

  15. Bayesian phylogenetic estimation of fossil ages.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Alexei J; Stadler, Tanja

    2016-07-19

    Recent advances have allowed for both morphological fossil evidence and molecular sequences to be integrated into a single combined inference of divergence dates under the rule of Bayesian probability. In particular, the fossilized birth-death tree prior and the Lewis-Mk model of discrete morphological evolution allow for the estimation of both divergence times and phylogenetic relationships between fossil and extant taxa. We exploit this statistical framework to investigate the internal consistency of these models by producing phylogenetic estimates of the age of each fossil in turn, within two rich and well-characterized datasets of fossil and extant species (penguins and canids). We find that the estimation accuracy of fossil ages is generally high with credible intervals seldom excluding the true age and median relative error in the two datasets of 5.7% and 13.2%, respectively. The median relative standard error (RSD) was 9.2% and 7.2%, respectively, suggesting good precision, although with some outliers. In fact, in the two datasets we analyse, the phylogenetic estimate of fossil age is on average less than 2 Myr from the mid-point age of the geological strata from which it was excavated. The high level of internal consistency found in our analyses suggests that the Bayesian statistical model employed is an adequate fit for both the geological and morphological data, and provides evidence from real data that the framework used can accurately model the evolution of discrete morphological traits coded from fossil and extant taxa. We anticipate that this approach will have diverse applications beyond divergence time dating, including dating fossils that are temporally unconstrained, testing of the 'morphological clock', and for uncovering potential model misspecification and/or data errors when controversial phylogenetic hypotheses are obtained based on combined divergence dating analyses.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using

  16. Phylogenetic investigation of the complex evolutionary history of dispersal mode and diversification rates across living and fossil Fagales.

    PubMed

    Larson-Johnson, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    As a primary determinant of spatial structure in angiosperm populations, fruit dispersal may impact large-scale ecological and evolutionary processes. Essential to understanding these mechanisms is an accurate reconstruction of dispersal mode over the entire history of an angiosperm lineage. A total-evidence phylogeny is presented for most fossil fruit and all extant genera in Fagales over its c. 95 million yr history. This phylogeny - the largest of its kind to include plant fossils - was used to reconstruct an evolutionary history directly informed by fossil morphologies and to assess relationships among dispersal mode, biogeographic range size, and diversification rate. Reconstructions indicate four transitions to wind dispersal and seven to biotic dispersal, with the phylogenetic integration of fossils crucial to understanding these patterns. Complexity further increased when more specialized behaviors were considered, with fluttering, gliding, autorotating, and scatter-hoarding evolving multiple times across the order. Preliminary biogeographic analyses suggest larger range sizes in biotically dispersed lineages, especially when pollination mode was held constant. Biotically dispersed lineages had significantly higher diversification rates than abiotically dispersed lineages, although transitions in dispersal mode alone cannot explain all detected diversification rate shifts across Fagales.

  17. Phylogeny and evolutionary histories of Pyrus L. revealed by phylogenetic trees and networks based on data from multiple DNA sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reconstructing the phylogeny of Pyrus has been difficult due to the wide distribution of the genus and lack of informative data. In this study, we collected 110 accessions representing 25 Pyrus species and constructed both phylogenetic trees and phylogenetic networks based on multiple DNA sequence d...

  18. Using tree diversity to compare phylogenetic heuristics

    PubMed Central

    Sul, Seung-Jin; Matthews, Suzanne; Williams, Tiffani L

    2009-01-01

    Background Evolutionary trees are family trees that represent the relationships between a group of organisms. Phylogenetic heuristics are used to search stochastically for the best-scoring trees in tree space. Given that better tree scores are believed to be better approximations of the true phylogeny, traditional evaluation techniques have used tree scores to determine the heuristics that find the best scores in the fastest time. We develop new techniques to evaluate phylogenetic heuristics based on both tree scores and topologies to compare Pauprat and Rec-I-DCM3, two popular Maximum Parsimony search algorithms. Results Our results show that although Pauprat and Rec-I-DCM3 find the trees with the same best scores, topologically these trees are quite different. Furthermore, the Rec-I-DCM3 trees cluster distinctly from the Pauprat trees. In addition to our heatmap visualizations of using parsimony scores and the Robinson-Foulds distance to compare best-scoring trees found by the two heuristics, we also develop entropy-based methods to show the diversity of the trees found. Overall, Pauprat identifies more diverse trees than Rec-I-DCM3. Conclusion Overall, our work shows that there is value to comparing heuristics beyond the parsimony scores that they find. Pauprat is a slower heuristic than Rec-I-DCM3. However, our work shows that there is tremendous value in using Pauprat to reconstruct trees—especially since it finds identical scoring but topologically distinct trees. Hence, instead of discounting Pauprat, effort should go in improving its implementation. Ultimately, improved performance measures lead to better phylogenetic heuristics and will result in better approximations of the true evolutionary history of the organisms of interest. PMID:19426451

  19. On phylogenetic tests of irreversible evolution.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Emma E; Igić, Boris

    2008-11-01

    "Dollo's law" states that, following loss, a complex trait cannot reevolve in an identical manner. Although the law has previously fallen into disrepute, it has only recently been challenged with statistical phylogenetic methods. We employ simulation studies of an irreversible binary character to show that rejections of Dollo's law based on likelihood-ratio tests of transition rate constraints or on reconstructions of ancestral states are frequently incorrect. We identify two major causes of errors: incorrect assignment of root state frequencies, and neglect of the effect of the character state on rates of speciation and extinction. Our findings do not necessarily overturn the conclusions of phylogenetic studies claiming reversals, but we demonstrate devastating flaws in the methods that are the foundation of all such studies. Furthermore, we show that false rejections of Dollo's law can be reduced by the use of appropriate existing models and model selection procedures. More powerful tests of irreversibility require data beyond phylogenies and character states of extant taxa, and we highlight empirical work that incorporates additional information.

  20. A Distance Measure for Genome Phylogenetic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Minh Duc; Allison, Lloyd; Dix, Trevor

    Phylogenetic analyses of species based on single genes or parts of the genomes are often inconsistent because of factors such as variable rates of evolution and horizontal gene transfer. The availability of more and more sequenced genomes allows phylogeny construction from complete genomes that is less sensitive to such inconsistency. For such long sequences, construction methods like maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood are often not possible due to their intensive computational requirement. Another class of tree construction methods, namely distance-based methods, require a measure of distances between any two genomes. Some measures such as evolutionary edit distance of gene order and gene content are computational expensive or do not perform well when the gene content of the organisms are similar. This study presents an information theoretic measure of genetic distances between genomes based on the biological compression algorithm expert model. We demonstrate that our distance measure can be applied to reconstruct the consensus phylogenetic tree of a number of Plasmodium parasites from their genomes, the statistical bias of which would mislead conventional analysis methods. Our approach is also used to successfully construct a plausible evolutionary tree for the γ-Proteobacteria group whose genomes are known to contain many horizontally transferred genes.

  1. Species names in phylogenetic nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Cantino, P D; Bryant, H N; de Queiroz, K; Donoghue, M J; Eriksson, T; Hillis, D M; Lee, M S

    1999-12-01

    Linnaean binomial nomenclature is logically incompatible with the phylogenetic nomenclature of de Queiroz and Gauthier (1992, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 23:449-480): The former is based on the concept of genus, thus making this rank mandatory, while the latter is based on phylogenetic definitions and requires the abandonment of mandatory ranks. Thus, if species are to receive names under phylogenetic nomenclature, a different method must be devised to name them. Here, 13 methods for naming species in the context of phylogenetic nomenclature are contrasted with each other and with Linnaean binomials. A fundamental dichotomy among the proposed methods distinguishes those that retain the entire binomial of a preexisting species name from those that retain only the specific epithet. Other relevant issues include the stability, uniqueness, and ease of pronunciation of species names; their capacity to convey phylogenetic information; and the distinguishability of species names that are governed by a code of phylogenetic nomenclature both from clade names and from species names governed by the current codes. No method is ideal. Each has advantages and drawbacks, and preference for one option over another will be influenced by one's evaluation of the relative importance of the pros and cons for each. Moreover, sometimes the same feature is viewed as an advantage by some and a drawback by others. Nevertheless, all of the proposed methods for naming species in the context of phylogenetic nomenclature provide names that are more stable than Linnaean binomials. PMID:12066299

  2. Phylogenetic lineages in Pseudocercospora

    PubMed Central

    Crous, P.W.; Braun, U.; Hunter, G.C.; Wingfield, M.J.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Shin, H.-D.; Nakashima, C.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudocercospora is a large cosmopolitan genus of plant pathogenic fungi that are commonly associated with leaf and fruit spots as well as blights on a wide range of plant hosts. They occur in arid as well as wet environments and in a wide range of climates including cool temperate, sub-tropical and tropical regions. Pseudocercospora is now treated as a genus in its own right, although formerly recognised as either an anamorphic state of Mycosphaerella or having mycosphaerella-like teleomorphs. The aim of this study was to sequence the partial 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA gene of a selected set of isolates to resolve phylogenetic generic limits within the Pseudocercospora complex. From these data, 14 clades are recognised, six of which cluster in Mycosphaerellaceae. Pseudocercospora s. str. represents a distinct clade, sister to Passalora eucalypti, and a clade representing the genera Scolecostigmina, Trochophora and Pallidocercospora gen. nov., taxa formerly accommodated in the Mycosphaerella heimii complex and characterised by smooth, pale brown conidia, as well as the formation of red crystals in agar media. Other clades in Mycosphaerellaceae include Sonderhenia, Microcyclosporella, and Paracercospora. Pseudocercosporella resides in a large clade along with Phloeospora, Miuraea, Cercospora and Septoria. Additional clades represent Dissoconiaceae, Teratosphaeriaceae, Cladosporiaceae, and the genera Xenostigmina, Strelitziana, Cyphellophora and Thedgonia. The genus Phaeomycocentrospora is introduced to accommodate Mycocentrospora cantuariensis, primarily distinguished from Pseudocercospora based on its hyaline hyphae, broad conidiogenous loci and hila. Host specificity was considered for 146 species of Pseudocercospora occurring on 115 host genera from 33 countries. Partial nucleotide sequence data for three gene loci, ITS, EF-1α, and ACT suggest that the majority of these species are host specific. Species identified on the basis of host, symptomatology and general

  3. Accurate monotone cubic interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1991-01-01

    Monotone piecewise cubic interpolants are simple and effective. They are generally third-order accurate, except near strict local extrema where accuracy degenerates to second-order due to the monotonicity constraint. Algorithms for piecewise cubic interpolants, which preserve monotonicity as well as uniform third and fourth-order accuracy are presented. The gain of accuracy is obtained by relaxing the monotonicity constraint in a geometric framework in which the median function plays a crucial role.

  4. Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.

  5. Phylogenetics and the Human Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Matsen, Frederick A.

    2015-01-01

    The human microbiome is the ensemble of genes in the microbes that live inside and on the surface of humans. Because microbial sequencing information is now much easier to come by than phenotypic information, there has been an explosion of sequencing and genetic analysis of microbiome samples. Much of the analytical work for these sequences involves phylogenetics, at least indirectly, but methodology has developed in a somewhat different direction than for other applications of phylogenetics. In this article, I review the field and its methods from the perspective of a phylogeneticist, as well as describing current challenges for phylogenetics coming from this type of work. PMID:25102857

  6. Phylogenetic comparison of metabolic capacities of organisms at genome level.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hong-Wu; Zeng, An-Ping

    2004-04-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has been shown to widely spread in organisms by comparative genomic studies. However, its effect on the phylogenetic relationship of organisms, especially at a system level of different cellular functions, is still not well understood. In this work, we have constructed phylogenetic trees based on the enzyme, reaction, and gene contents of metabolic networks reconstructed from annotated genome information of 82 sequenced organisms. Results from different phylogenetic distance definitions and based on three different functional subsystems (i.e., metabolism, cellular processes, information storage and processing) were compared. Results based on the three different functional subsystems give different pictures on the phylogenetic relationship of organisms, reflecting the different extents of HGT in the different functional systems. In general, horizontal transfer is prevailing in genes for metabolism, but less in genes for information processing. Nevertheless, the major results of metabolic network-based phylogenetic trees are in good agreement with the tree based on 16S rRNA and genome trees, confirming the three domain classification and the close relationship between eukaryotes and archaea at the level of metabolic networks. These results strongly support the hypothesis that although HGT is widely distributed, it is nevertheless constrained by certain pre-existing metabolic organization principle(s) during the evolution. Further research is needed to identify the organization principle and constraints of metabolic network on HGT which have large impacts on understanding the evolution of life and in purposefully manipulating cellular metabolism.

  7. FootPrinter: A program designed for phylogenetic footprinting.

    PubMed

    Blanchette, Mathieu; Tompa, Martin

    2003-07-01

    Phylogenetic footprinting is a method for the discovery of regulatory elements in a set of homologous regulatory regions, usually collected from multiple species. It does so by identifying the best conserved motifs in those homologous regions. This note describes web software that has been designed specifically for this purpose, making use of the phylogenetic relationships among the homologous sequences in order to make more accurate predictions. The software is called FootPrinter and is available at http://bio.cs.washington.edu/software.html.

  8. Phylogenetics: bats united, microbats divided.

    PubMed

    Springer, Mark S

    2013-11-18

    Phylogenetic analyses on four new bat genomes provide convincing support for the placement of bats relative to other placental mammals, suggest that microbats are an unnatural group, and have important implications for understanding the evolution of echolocation.

  9. Phylogenetic lineages in Pseudocercospora

    PubMed Central

    Crous, P.W.; Braun, U.; Hunter, G.C.; Wingfield, M.J.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Shin, H.-D.; Nakashima, C.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudocercospora is a large cosmopolitan genus of plant pathogenic fungi that are commonly associated with leaf and fruit spots as well as blights on a wide range of plant hosts. They occur in arid as well as wet environments and in a wide range of climates including cool temperate, sub-tropical and tropical regions. Pseudocercospora is now treated as a genus in its own right, although formerly recognised as either an anamorphic state of Mycosphaerella or having mycosphaerella-like teleomorphs. The aim of this study was to sequence the partial 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA gene of a selected set of isolates to resolve phylogenetic generic limits within the Pseudocercospora complex. From these data, 14 clades are recognised, six of which cluster in Mycosphaerellaceae. Pseudocercospora s. str. represents a distinct clade, sister to Passalora eucalypti, and a clade representing the genera Scolecostigmina, Trochophora and Pallidocercospora gen. nov., taxa formerly accommodated in the Mycosphaerella heimii complex and characterised by smooth, pale brown conidia, as well as the formation of red crystals in agar media. Other clades in Mycosphaerellaceae include Sonderhenia, Microcyclosporella, and Paracercospora. Pseudocercosporella resides in a large clade along with Phloeospora, Miuraea, Cercospora and Septoria. Additional clades represent Dissoconiaceae, Teratosphaeriaceae, Cladosporiaceae, and the genera Xenostigmina, Strelitziana, Cyphellophora and Thedgonia. The genus Phaeomycocentrospora is introduced to accommodate Mycocentrospora cantuariensis, primarily distinguished from Pseudocercospora based on its hyaline hyphae, broad conidiogenous loci and hila. Host specificity was considered for 146 species of Pseudocercospora occurring on 115 host genera from 33 countries. Partial nucleotide sequence data for three gene loci, ITS, EF-1α, and ACT suggest that the majority of these species are host specific. Species identified on the basis of host, symptomatology and general

  10. Phylogenetic Codivergence Supports Coevolution of Mimetic Heliconius Butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Hoyal Cuthill, Jennifer; Charleston, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The unpalatable and warning-patterned butterflies Heliconius erato and Heliconius melpomene provide the best studied example of mutualistic Müllerian mimicry, thought–but rarely demonstrated–to promote coevolution. Some of the strongest available evidence for coevolution comes from phylogenetic codivergence, the parallel divergence of ecologically associated lineages. Early evolutionary reconstructions suggested codivergence between mimetic populations of H. erato and H. melpomene, and this was initially hailed as one of the most striking known cases of coevolution. However, subsequent molecular phylogenetic analyses found discrepancies in phylogenetic branching patterns and timing (topological and temporal incongruence) that argued against codivergence. We present the first explicit cophylogenetic test of codivergence between mimetic populations of H. erato and H. melpomene, and re-examine the timing of these radiations. We find statistically significant topological congruence between multilocus coalescent population phylogenies of H. erato and H. melpomene. Cophylogenetic historical reconstructions support repeated codivergence of mimetic populations, from the base of the sampled radiations. Pairwise distance correlation tests, based on our coalescent analyses plus recently published AFLP and wing colour pattern gene data, also suggest that the phylogenies of H. erato and H. melpomene show significant topological congruence. Divergence time estimates, based on a Bayesian coalescent model, suggest that the evolutionary radiations of H. erato and H. melpomene occurred over the same time period, and are compatible with a series of temporally congruent codivergence events. Our results suggest that differences in within-species genetic divergence are the result of a greater overall effective population size for H. erato relative to H. melpomene and do not imply incongruence in the timing of their phylogenetic radiations. Repeated codivergence between M

  11. Phylogenetic codivergence supports coevolution of mimetic Heliconius butterflies.

    PubMed

    Cuthill, Jennifer Hoyal; Charleston, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The unpalatable and warning-patterned butterflies Heliconius erato and Heliconius melpomene provide the best studied example of mutualistic Müllerian mimicry, thought-but rarely demonstrated-to promote coevolution. Some of the strongest available evidence for coevolution comes from phylogenetic codivergence, the parallel divergence of ecologically associated lineages. Early evolutionary reconstructions suggested codivergence between mimetic populations of H. erato and H. melpomene, and this was initially hailed as one of the most striking known cases of coevolution. However, subsequent molecular phylogenetic analyses found discrepancies in phylogenetic branching patterns and timing (topological and temporal incongruence) that argued against codivergence. We present the first explicit cophylogenetic test of codivergence between mimetic populations of H. erato and H. melpomene, and re-examine the timing of these radiations. We find statistically significant topological congruence between multilocus coalescent population phylogenies of H. erato and H. melpomene. Cophylogenetic historical reconstructions support repeated codivergence of mimetic populations, from the base of the sampled radiations. Pairwise distance correlation tests, based on our coalescent analyses plus recently published AFLP and wing colour pattern gene data, also suggest that the phylogenies of H. erato and H. melpomene show significant topological congruence. Divergence time estimates, based on a Bayesian coalescent model, suggest that the evolutionary radiations of H. erato and H. melpomene occurred over the same time period, and are compatible with a series of temporally congruent codivergence events. Our results suggest that differences in within-species genetic divergence are the result of a greater overall effective population size for H. erato relative to H. melpomene and do not imply incongruence in the timing of their phylogenetic radiations. Repeated codivergence between Müllerian co

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome of Cervus elaphus songaricus (Cetartiodactyla: Cervinae) and a phylogenetic analysis with related species.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiqing; Ba, Hengxing; Yang, Fuhe

    2016-01-01

    Complete mitochondrial genome of Tianshan wapiti, Cervus elaphus songaricus, is 16,419 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. The phylogenetic trees were reconstructed with the concatenated nucleotide sequences of the 13 protein-coding genes using maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods. MP and BI phylogenetic trees here showed an identical tree topology. The monopoly of red deer, wapiti and sika deer was well supported, and wapiti was found to share a closer relationship with sika deer. Tianshan wapiti shared a closer relationship with xanthopygus than yarkandensis. Rusa unicolor and Rucervus eldi were given a basal phylogenetic position. Our phylogenetic analysis provided a robust phylogenetic resolution spanning the entire evolutionary relationship of the subfamily Cervinae. PMID:24725059

  13. Accurate quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.

  14. Accurate upwind methods for the Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1993-01-01

    A new class of piecewise linear methods for the numerical solution of the one-dimensional Euler equations of gas dynamics is presented. These methods are uniformly second-order accurate, and can be considered as extensions of Godunov's scheme. With an appropriate definition of monotonicity preservation for the case of linear convection, it can be shown that they preserve monotonicity. Similar to Van Leer's MUSCL scheme, they consist of two key steps: a reconstruction step followed by an upwind step. For the reconstruction step, a monotonicity constraint that preserves uniform second-order accuracy is introduced. Computational efficiency is enhanced by devising a criterion that detects the 'smooth' part of the data where the constraint is redundant. The concept and coding of the constraint are simplified by the use of the median function. A slope steepening technique, which has no effect at smooth regions and can resolve a contact discontinuity in four cells, is described. As for the upwind step, existing and new methods are applied in a manner slightly different from those in the literature. These methods are derived by approximating the Euler equations via linearization and diagonalization. At a 'smooth' interface, Harten, Lax, and Van Leer's one intermediate state model is employed. A modification for this model that can resolve contact discontinuities is presented. Near a discontinuity, either this modified model or a more accurate one, namely, Roe's flux-difference splitting. is used. The current presentation of Roe's method, via the conceptually simple flux-vector splitting, not only establishes a connection between the two splittings, but also leads to an admissibility correction with no conditional statement, and an efficient approximation to Osher's approximate Riemann solver. These reconstruction and upwind steps result in schemes that are uniformly second-order accurate and economical at smooth regions, and yield high resolution at discontinuities.

  15. High-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Esther; Bushnell, Brian; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Bowman, Brett; Bowers, Robert M; Levy, Asaf; Gies, Esther A; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Copeland, Alex; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Hallam, Steven J; Hugenholtz, Philip; Tringe, Susannah G; Woyke, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, high-throughput short-read 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing has eclipsed clone-dependent long-read Sanger sequencing for microbial community profiling. The transition to new technologies has provided more quantitative information at the expense of taxonomic resolution with implications for inferring metabolic traits in various ecosystems. We applied single-molecule real-time sequencing for microbial community profiling, generating full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences at high throughput, which we propose to name PhyloTags. We benchmarked and validated this approach using a defined microbial community. When further applied to samples from the water column of meromictic Sakinaw Lake, we show that while community structures at the phylum level are comparable between PhyloTags and Illumina V4 16S rRNA gene sequences (iTags), variance increases with community complexity at greater water depths. PhyloTags moreover allowed less ambiguous classification. Last, a platform-independent comparison of PhyloTags and in silico generated partial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated significant differences in community structure and phylogenetic resolution across multiple taxonomic levels, including a severe underestimation in the abundance of specific microbial genera involved in nitrogen and methane cycling across the Lake's water column. Thus, PhyloTags provide a reliable adjunct or alternative to cost-effective iTags, enabling more accurate phylogenetic resolution of microbial communities and predictions on their metabolic potential. PMID:26859772

  16. [Phylogenetic analyses of the family Tetraonchidae (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea)].

    PubMed

    Gerasev, P I

    2004-01-01

    A phylogenetic reconstruction of the monogenean family Tetraonchidae was carried out by methods of parsimony-based cladistics. The analysis included 20 species of tetraonchids and two out-groups (Sundanonchus tomanorum and Dactylogyrus amphibothrium) and was based on 34 morphofunctional characters. Software PAUP 4.0 and Winclada were used for the phylogenetic reconstructions. Obtained results allow proposing a preliminary phylogenetic hypothesis of the family Tetraonchidae along with the discussion of host-parasite association. According to the current taxonomic view, the family Tetraonchidae included two genera. Cladistic analysis showed a monophyly of the family and the genus Tetraonchus Diesing, 1858. Two representative of the former genus, Tetraoncus monenteron and T. borealis, parasitize the pikes (Esocoformes: Esocidae) and the grayling (Salmonidae: Thymallinae) respectively. The genus Salmonchus Spassky et Roytman, 1958 has a complicated structure and its intrageneric relationships were not completely resolved; in general, the analysis allows to recognise several species groups: Salmonchus oncorhynchi--the parasite of the Oncorhynchus masou smolt living during the first year of life in fresh water; four species (S. variabilis, S. gussevi, S. grumosus, S. alaskensis) inhabiting specifically the whitefishes (Salmonidae: Coregoninae); all reminder of Salmonchus species occurring on the salmons (Salmonidae: Salmoninae). The bootstrap test gives a support only for the following clades: family Tetraonchidae (75%), genus Tetraonchus (88%); a group of Salmonchus species associated with the whitefishes (93%) and grouping of four species (S. huhonis, S. pseudolenoki, S. skrjabini and S. lenoki) from the lenoks (Brachymystax) and taimens (Hucho) (61%). PMID:15553772

  17. Distance-Based Phylogenetic Methods Around a Polytomy.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Ruth; Sullivant, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Distance-based phylogenetic algorithms attempt to solve the NP-hard least-squares phylogeny problem by mapping an arbitrary dissimilarity map representing biological data to a tree metric. The set of all dissimilarity maps is a Euclidean space properly containing the space of all tree metrics as a polyhedral fan. Outputs of distance-based tree reconstruction algorithms such as UPGMA and neighbor-joining are points in the maximal cones in the fan. Tree metrics with polytomies lie at the intersections of maximal cones. A phylogenetic algorithm divides the space of all dissimilarity maps into regions based upon which combinatorial tree is reconstructed by the algorithm. Comparison of phylogenetic methods can be done by comparing the geometry of these regions. We use polyhedral geometry to compare the local nature of the subdivisions induced by least-squares phylogeny, UPGMA, and neighbor-joining when the true tree has a single polytomy with exactly four neighbors. Our results suggest that in some circumstances, UPGMA and neighbor-joining poorly match least-squares phylogeny.

  18. Relating Phylogeny to Alkenone Distributions in Lacustrine Alkenone-Producing Haptophytes: Implications for Continental Paleotemperature Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theroux, S.; D'Andrea, W. J.; Toney, J. L.; Zettler, L. A.; Huang, Y.

    2008-12-01

    The alkenone unsaturation index (Uk'37) is a widely used surface water paleotemperature proxy in marine settings, but has seen limited use in lacustrine environments. On-going discovery of alkenone- containing lake sediments worldwide expand our ability to reconstruct continental paleotemperatures. However, disparate alkenone profiles among these lakes suggest a diversity of alkenone-producing organisms. The utility of the paleotemperature proxy is constrained by the accurate calibration of the Uk'37 against temperature for individual lakes. In this study, we report the findings from an 18S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic survey of globally distributed lakes containing alkenone-producing haptophyte algae to infer which haptophyte lineages likely possess common alkenone production pathways. Our phylogenetic analyses reveal that monophyletic groups of haptophytes possess similar lipid profiles. This correlation indicates the potential for applying a minimal number of calibrations to a multitude of diverse geographic settings. Furthermore, the expanded dataset of alkenone-containing lake sediments and robust phylogenetic analyses reflect the evolution of alkenone-producing haptophytes, and provide insights into the last common ancestor that was capable of alkenone production in the Cretaceous. The physiology, behavior, and culture conditions of a newly-isolated alkenone-producing haptophyte from polar waters possessing anomalous alkenone-concentrations, will also be discussed.

  19. [Phylogenetic analysis of Pleurotus species].

    PubMed

    Shnyreva, A A; Shnyreva, A V

    2015-02-01

    We performed phylogenetic analysis for ten Pleurotus species, based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of rDNA. A phylogenetic tree was constructed on the basis of 31 oyster fungi strains of different origin and 10 reference sequences from GenBank. Our analysis demonstrates that the tested Pleurotus species are of monophyletic origin. We evaluated the evolutionary distances between these species. Classic genetic analysis of sexual compatibility based on monocaryon (mon)-mon crosses showed no reproductive barriers within the P. cornucopiae-P. euosmus species complex. Thus, despite the divergence (subclustering) between commercial strains and natural isolates of P. ostreatus revealed by phylogenetic analysis, there is no reproductive isolation between these groups. A common allele of the matB locus was identified for the commercial strains Sommer and L/4, supporting the common origin of these strains. PMID:25966583

  20. Absolute Pitch in Boreal Chickadees and Humans: Exceptions that Test a Phylogenetic Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisman, Ronald G.; Balkwill, Laura-Lee; Hoeschele, Marisa; Moscicki, Michele K.; Bloomfield, Laurie L.; Sturdy, Christopher B.

    2010-01-01

    This research examined generality of the phylogenetic rule that birds discriminate frequency ranges more accurately than mammals. Human absolute pitch chroma possessors accurately tracked transitions between frequency ranges. Independent tests showed that they used note naming (pitch chroma) to remap the tones into ranges; neither possessors nor…

  1. Interpreting the universal phylogenetic tree

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woese, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    The universal phylogenetic tree not only spans all extant life, but its root and earliest branchings represent stages in the evolutionary process before modern cell types had come into being. The evolution of the cell is an interplay between vertically derived and horizontally acquired variation. Primitive cellular entities were necessarily simpler and more modular in design than are modern cells. Consequently, horizontal gene transfer early on was pervasive, dominating the evolutionary dynamic. The root of the universal phylogenetic tree represents the first stage in cellular evolution when the evolving cell became sufficiently integrated and stable to the erosive effects of horizontal gene transfer that true organismal lineages could exist.

  2. Accurate Optical Reference Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, N.

    2006-08-01

    Current and near future all-sky astrometric catalogs on the ICRF are reviewed with the emphasis on reference star data at optical wavelengths for user applications. The standard error of a Hipparcos Catalogue star position is now about 15 mas per coordinate. For the Tycho-2 data it is typically 20 to 100 mas, depending on magnitude. The USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC) observing program was completed in 2004 and reductions toward the final UCAC3 release are in progress. This all-sky reference catalogue will have positional errors of 15 to 70 mas for stars in the 10 to 16 mag range, with a high degree of completeness. Proper motions for the about 60 million UCAC stars will be derived by combining UCAC astrometry with available early epoch data, including yet unpublished scans of the complete set of AGK2, Hamburg Zone astrograph and USNO Black Birch programs. Accurate positional and proper motion data are combined in the Naval Observatory Merged Astrometric Dataset (NOMAD) which includes Hipparcos, Tycho-2, UCAC2, USNO-B1, NPM+SPM plate scan data for astrometry, and is supplemented by multi-band optical photometry as well as 2MASS near infrared photometry. The Milli-Arcsecond Pathfinder Survey (MAPS) mission is currently being planned at USNO. This is a micro-satellite to obtain 1 mas positions, parallaxes, and 1 mas/yr proper motions for all bright stars down to about 15th magnitude. This program will be supplemented by a ground-based program to reach 18th magnitude on the 5 mas level.

  3. Inferring Phylogenetic Networks with Maximum Pseudolikelihood under Incomplete Lineage Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Solís-Lemus, Claudia; Ané, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic networks are necessary to represent the tree of life expanded by edges to represent events such as horizontal gene transfers, hybridizations or gene flow. Not all species follow the paradigm of vertical inheritance of their genetic material. While a great deal of research has flourished into the inference of phylogenetic trees, statistical methods to infer phylogenetic networks are still limited and under development. The main disadvantage of existing methods is a lack of scalability. Here, we present a statistical method to infer phylogenetic networks from multi-locus genetic data in a pseudolikelihood framework. Our model accounts for incomplete lineage sorting through the coalescent model, and for horizontal inheritance of genes through reticulation nodes in the network. Computation of the pseudolikelihood is fast and simple, and it avoids the burdensome calculation of the full likelihood which can be intractable with many species. Moreover, estimation at the quartet-level has the added computational benefit that it is easily parallelizable. Simulation studies comparing our method to a full likelihood approach show that our pseudolikelihood approach is much faster without compromising accuracy. We applied our method to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships among swordtails and platyfishes (Xiphophorus: Poeciliidae), which is characterized by widespread hybridizations. PMID:26950302

  4. Porcelain three-dimensional shape reconstruction and its color reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaoyang; Wu, Haibin; Yang, Xue; Yu, Shuang; Wang, Beiyi; Chen, Deyun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, structured light three-dimensional measurement technology was used to reconstruct the porcelain shape, and further more the porcelain color was reconstructed. So the accurate reconstruction of the shape and color of porcelain was realized. Our shape measurement installation drawing is given. Because the porcelain surface is color complex and highly reflective, the binary Gray code encoding is used to reduce the influence of the porcelain surface. The color camera was employed to obtain the color of the porcelain surface. Then, the comprehensive reconstruction of the shape and color was realized in Java3D runtime environment. In the reconstruction process, the space point by point coloration method is proposed and achieved. Our coloration method ensures the pixel corresponding accuracy in both of shape and color aspects. The porcelain surface shape and color reconstruction experimental results completed by proposed method and our installation, show that: the depth range is 860 ˜ 980mm, the relative error of the shape measurement is less than 0.1%, the reconstructed color of the porcelain surface is real, refined and subtle, and has the same visual effect as the measured surface.

  5. Quantifying uncertainty in the phylogenetics of Australian numeral systems.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kevin; Bowern, Claire

    2015-09-22

    Researchers have long been interested in the evolution of culture and the ways in which change in cultural systems can be reconstructed and tracked. Within the realm of language, these questions are increasingly investigated with Bayesian phylogenetic methods. However, such work in cultural phylogenetics could be improved by more explicit quantification of reconstruction and transition probabilities. We apply such methods to numerals in the languages of Australia. As a large phylogeny with almost universal 'low-limit' systems, Australian languages are ideal for investigating numeral change over time. We reconstruct the most likely extent of the system at the root and use that information to explore the ways numerals evolve. We show that these systems do not increment serially, but most commonly vary their upper limits between 3 and 5. While there is evidence for rapid system elaboration beyond the lower limits, languages lose numerals as well as gain them. We investigate the ways larger numerals build on smaller bases, and show that there is a general tendency to both gain and replace 4 by combining 2 + 2 (rather than inventing a new unanalysable word 'four'). We develop a series of methods for quantifying and visualizing the results.

  6. Quantifying uncertainty in the phylogenetics of Australian numeral systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kevin; Bowern, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have long been interested in the evolution of culture and the ways in which change in cultural systems can be reconstructed and tracked. Within the realm of language, these questions are increasingly investigated with Bayesian phylogenetic methods. However, such work in cultural phylogenetics could be improved by more explicit quantification of reconstruction and transition probabilities. We apply such methods to numerals in the languages of Australia. As a large phylogeny with almost universal ‘low-limit' systems, Australian languages are ideal for investigating numeral change over time. We reconstruct the most likely extent of the system at the root and use that information to explore the ways numerals evolve. We show that these systems do not increment serially, but most commonly vary their upper limits between 3 and 5. While there is evidence for rapid system elaboration beyond the lower limits, languages lose numerals as well as gain them. We investigate the ways larger numerals build on smaller bases, and show that there is a general tendency to both gain and replace 4 by combining 2 + 2 (rather than inventing a new unanalysable word ‘four'). We develop a series of methods for quantifying and visualizing the results. PMID:26378214

  7. Project Reconstruct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helisek, Harriet; Pratt, Donald

    1994-01-01

    Presents a project in which students monitor their use of trash, input and analyze information via a database and computerized graphs, and "reconstruct" extinct or endangered animals from recyclable materials. The activity was done with second-grade students over a period of three to four weeks. (PR)

  8. Vaginal reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Lesavoy, M.A.

    1985-05-01

    Vaginal reconstruction can be an uncomplicated and straightforward procedure when attention to detail is maintained. The Abbe-McIndoe procedure of lining the neovaginal canal with split-thickness skin grafts has become standard. The use of the inflatable Heyer-Schulte vaginal stent provides comfort to the patient and ease to the surgeon in maintaining approximation of the skin graft. For large vaginal and perineal defects, myocutaneous flaps such as the gracilis island have been extremely useful for correction of radiation-damaged tissue of the perineum or for the reconstruction of large ablative defects. Minimal morbidity and scarring ensue because the donor site can be closed primarily. With all vaginal reconstruction, a compliant patient is a necessity. The patient must wear a vaginal obturator for a minimum of 3 to 6 months postoperatively and is encouraged to use intercourse as an excellent obturator. In general, vaginal reconstruction can be an extremely gratifying procedure for both the functional and emotional well-being of patients.

  9. Photoacoustic computed tomography without accurate ultrasonic transducer responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Qiwei; Wang, Kun; Xia, Jun; Zhu, Liren; Wang, Lihong V.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2015-03-01

    Conventional photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) image reconstruction methods assume that the object and surrounding medium are described by a constant speed-of-sound (SOS) value. In order to accurately recover fine structures, SOS heterogeneities should be quantified and compensated for during PACT reconstruction. To address this problem, several groups have proposed hybrid systems that combine PACT with ultrasound computed tomography (USCT). In such systems, a SOS map is reconstructed first via USCT. Consequently, this SOS map is employed to inform the PACT reconstruction method. Additionally, the SOS map can provide structural information regarding tissue, which is complementary to the functional information from the PACT image. We propose a paradigm shift in the way that images are reconstructed in hybrid PACT-USCT imaging. Inspired by our observation that information about the SOS distribution is encoded in PACT measurements, we propose to jointly reconstruct the absorbed optical energy density and SOS distributions from a combined set of USCT and PACT measurements, thereby reducing the two reconstruction problems into one. This innovative approach has several advantages over conventional approaches in which PACT and USCT images are reconstructed independently: (1) Variations in the SOS will automatically be accounted for, optimizing PACT image quality; (2) The reconstructed PACT and USCT images will possess minimal systematic artifacts because errors in the imaging models will be optimally balanced during the joint reconstruction; (3) Due to the exploitation of information regarding the SOS distribution in the full-view PACT data, our approach will permit high-resolution reconstruction of the SOS distribution from sparse array data.

  10. A standard operating procedure for phylogenetic inference (SOPPI) using (rRNA) marker genes.

    PubMed

    Peplies, Jörg; Kottmann, Renzo; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2008-09-01

    Phylogenetic analysis is currently used worldwide for taxonomic classification and identification of microorganisms. However, despite the countless trees that have been reconstructed and published in recent decades, so far, no user-friendly compilation of recommendations to standardize the data analysis and tree reconstruction process has been published. Consequently, this standard operating procedure for phylogenetic inference (SOPPI) offers a helping hand for working through the process from sampling in the field to phylogenetic tree reconstruction and publication. It is not meant to be authoritative or comprehensive, but should help to make phylogenetic inference and diversity analysis more reliable and comparable between different laboratories. It is mainly focused on using the ribosomal RNA as a universal phylogenetic marker, but the principles and recommendations can be applied to any valid marker gene. Feedback and suggestions from the scientific community are welcome in order to improve these guidelines further. Any updates will be made available on the SILVA webpage at http://www.arb-silva.de/projects/soppi.

  11. The performance of phylogenetic algorithms in estimating haplotype genealogies with migration.

    PubMed

    Salzburger, Walter; Ewing, Greg B; Von Haeseler, Arndt

    2011-05-01

    Genealogies estimated from haplotypic genetic data play a prominent role in various biological disciplines in general and in phylogenetics, population genetics and phylogeography in particular. Several software packages have specifically been developed for the purpose of reconstructing genealogies from closely related, and hence, highly similar haplotype sequence data. Here, we use simulated data sets to test the performance of traditional phylogenetic algorithms, neighbour-joining, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood in estimating genealogies from nonrecombining haplotypic genetic data. We demonstrate that these methods are suitable for constructing genealogies from sets of closely related DNA sequences with or without migration. As genealogies based on phylogenetic reconstructions are fully resolved, but not necessarily bifurcating, and without reticulations, these approaches outperform widespread 'network' constructing methods. In our simulations of coalescent scenarios involving panmictic, symmetric and asymmetric migration, we found that phylogenetic reconstruction methods performed well, while the statistical parsimony approach as implemented in TCS performed poorly. Overall, parsimony as implemented in the PHYLIP package performed slightly better than other methods. We further point out that we are not making the case that widespread 'network' constructing methods are bad, but that traditional phylogenetic tree finding methods are applicable to haplotypic data and exhibit reasonable performance with respect to accuracy and robustness. We also discuss some of the problems of converting a tree to a haplotype genealogy, in particular that it is nonunique. PMID:21457168

  12. Do we need many genes for phylogenetic inference?

    PubMed

    Aleshin, V V; Konstantinova, A V; Mikhailov, K V; Nikitin, M A; Petrov, N B

    2007-12-01

    Fifty-six nuclear protein coding genes from Taxonomically Broad EST Database and other databases were selected for phylogenomic-based examination of alternative phylogenetic hypotheses concerning intergroup relationship between multicellular animals (Metazoa) and other representatives of Opisthokonta. The results of this work support sister group relationship between Metazoa and Choanoflagellata. Both of these groups form the taxon Holozoa along with the monophyletic Ichthyosporea or Mesomycetozoea (a group that includes Amoebidium parasiticum, Sphaeroforma arctica, and Capsaspora owczarzaki). These phylogenetic hypotheses receive high statistical support both when utilizing whole alignment and when only 5000 randomly selected alignment positions are used. The presented results suggest subdivision of Fungi into Eumycota and lower fungi, Chytridiomycota. The latter form a monophyletic group that comprises Chytridiales+Spizellomycetales+Blastocladiales (Batrachochytrium, Spizellomyces, Allomyces, Blastocladiella), contrary to the earlier reports based on the analysis of 18S rRNA and a limited set of protein coding genes. The phylogenetic distribution of genes coding for a ubiquitin-fused ribosomal protein S30 implies at least three independent cases of gene fusion: in the ancestors of Holozoa, in heterotrophic Heterokonta (Oomycetes and Blastocystis) and in the ancestors of Cryptophyta and Glaucophyta. Ubiquitin-like sequences fused with ribosomal protein S30 outside of Holozoa are not FUBI orthologs. Two independent events of FUBI replacement by the ubiquitin sequence were detected in the lineage of C. owczarzaki and in the monophyletic group of nematode worms Tylenchomorpha+Cephalobidae. Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Aphelenchoidoidea) retains a state typical of the rest of the Metazoa. The data emphasize the fact that the reliability of phylogenetic reconstructions depends on the number of analyzed genes to a lesser extent than on our ability to recognize

  13. Phylogenetic relationships within the Phyllidiidae (Opisthobranchia, Nudibranchia)

    PubMed Central

    Stoffels, Bart E.M.W.; van der Meij, Sancia E.T.; Hoeksema, Bert W.; van Alphen, Joris; van Alen, Theo; Meyers-Muñoz, Maria Angelica; de Voogd, Nicole J.; Tuti, Yosephine; van der Velde, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Phyllidiidae (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Nudibranchia) is a family of colourful nudibranchs found on Indo-Pacific coral reefs. Despite the abundant and widespread occurrence of many species, their phylogenetic relationships are not well known. The present study is the first contribution to fill the gap in our knowledge on their phylogeny by combining morphological and molecular data. For that purpose 99 specimens belonging to 16 species were collected at two localities in Indonesia. They were photographed and used to make a phylogeny reconstruction based on newly obtained cytochrome oxidase subunit (COI) sequences as well as sequence data from GenBank. All mitochondrial 16S sequence data available from GenBank were used in a separate phylogeny reconstruction to obtain information for species we did not collect. COI data allowed the distinction of the genera and species, whereas the 16S data gave a mixed result with respect to the genera Phyllidia and Phyllidiella. Specimens which could be ascribed to species level based on their external morphology and colour patterns showed low variation in COI sequences, but there were two exceptions: three specimens identified as Phyllidia cf. babai represent two to three different species, while Phyllidiella pustulosa showed highly supported subclades. The barcoding marker COI also confirms that the species boundaries in morphologically highly variable species such as Phyllidia elegans, Phyllidia varicosa, and Phyllidiopsis krempfi, are correct as presently understood. In the COI as well as the 16S cladogram Phyllidiopsis cardinalis was located separately from all other Phyllidiidae, whereas Phyllidiopsis fissuratus was positioned alone from the Phyllidiella species by COI data only. Future studies on phyllidiid systematics should continue to combine morphological information with DNA sequences to obtain a clearer insight in their phylogeny. PMID:27551210

  14. Phylogenetic relationships within the Phyllidiidae (Opisthobranchia, Nudibranchia).

    PubMed

    Stoffels, Bart E M W; van der Meij, Sancia E T; Hoeksema, Bert W; van Alphen, Joris; van Alen, Theo; Meyers-Muñoz, Maria Angelica; de Voogd, Nicole J; Tuti, Yosephine; van der Velde, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The Phyllidiidae (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Nudibranchia) is a family of colourful nudibranchs found on Indo-Pacific coral reefs. Despite the abundant and widespread occurrence of many species, their phylogenetic relationships are not well known. The present study is the first contribution to fill the gap in our knowledge on their phylogeny by combining morphological and molecular data. For that purpose 99 specimens belonging to 16 species were collected at two localities in Indonesia. They were photographed and used to make a phylogeny reconstruction based on newly obtained cytochrome oxidase subunit (COI) sequences as well as sequence data from GenBank. All mitochondrial 16S sequence data available from GenBank were used in a separate phylogeny reconstruction to obtain information for species we did not collect. COI data allowed the distinction of the genera and species, whereas the 16S data gave a mixed result with respect to the genera Phyllidia and Phyllidiella. Specimens which could be ascribed to species level based on their external morphology and colour patterns showed low variation in COI sequences, but there were two exceptions: three specimens identified as Phyllidia cf. babai represent two to three different species, while Phyllidiella pustulosa showed highly supported subclades. The barcoding marker COI also confirms that the species boundaries in morphologically highly variable species such as Phyllidia elegans, Phyllidia varicosa, and Phyllidiopsis krempfi, are correct as presently understood. In the COI as well as the 16S cladogram Phyllidiopsis cardinalis was located separately from all other Phyllidiidae, whereas Phyllidiopsis fissuratus was positioned alone from the Phyllidiella species by COI data only. Future studies on phyllidiid systematics should continue to combine morphological information with DNA sequences to obtain a clearer insight in their phylogeny. PMID:27551210

  15. Cyber-infrastructure for Fusarium (CiF): Three integrated platforms supporting strain identification, phylogenetics, comparative genomics, and knowledge sharing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal genus Fusarium includes many plant and/or animal pathogenic species and produces diverse toxins. Although accurate identification is critical for managing such threats, it is difficult to identify Fusarium morphologically. Fortunately, extensive molecular phylogenetic studies, founded on ...

  16. Application of the phylogenetic informativeness method to chloroplast markers: a test case of closely related species in tribe Hydrangeeae (Hydrangeaceae).

    PubMed

    Granados Mendoza, Carolina; Wanke, Stefan; Salomo, Karsten; Goetghebeur, Paul; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    In evolutionary biology appropriate marker selection for the reconstruction of solid phylogenetic hypotheses is fundamental. One of the most challenging tasks addresses the appropriate choice of genomic regions in studies of closely related species. Robust phylogenetic frameworks are central to studies dealing with questions ranging from evolutionary and conservation biology, biogeography to plant breeding. Phylogenetic informativeness profiles provide a quantitative measure of the phylogenetic signal in markers and therefore a method for locus prioritization. The present work profiles phylogenetic informativeness of mostly non-coding chloroplast regions in an angiosperm lineage of closely related species: the popular ornamental tribe Hydrangeeae (Hydrangeaceae, Cornales, Asterids). A recent phylogenetic study denoted a case of resolution contrast between the two strongly supported clades within tribe Hydrangeeae. We evaluate the phylogenetic signal of 13 highly variable plastid markers for estimating relationships within and among the currently recognized monophyletic groups of this tribe. A selection of combined loci based on their phylogenetic informativeness retrieved more robust phylogenetic hypotheses than simply combining individual markers performing best with respect to resolution, nodal support and accuracy or those presenting the highest number of parsimony informative characters. We propose the rpl32-ndhF intergenic spacer (IGS), trnV-ndhC IGS, trnL-rpl32 IGS, psbT-petB region and ndhA intron as the best candidates for future phylogenetic studies in Hydrangeeae and potentially in other Asterids. We also contrasted the phylogenetic informativeness of coded indels against substitutions concluding that, despite their low phylogenetic informativeness, coded indels provide additional phylogenetic signal that is nearly free of noise. Phylogenetic relationships obtained from our total combined analyses showed improved resolution and nodal support with respect

  17. Molecular identification and phylogenetic study of Demodex caprae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ya-E; Cheng, Juan; Hu, Li; Ma, Jun-Xian

    2014-10-01

    The DNA barcode has been widely used in species identification and phylogenetic analysis since 2003, but there have been no reports in Demodex. In this study, to obtain an appropriate DNA barcode for Demodex, molecular identification of Demodex caprae based on mitochondrial cox1 was conducted. Firstly, individual adults and eggs of D. caprae were obtained for genomic DNA (gDNA) extraction; Secondly, mitochondrial cox1 fragment was amplified, cloned, and sequenced; Thirdly, cox1 fragments of D. caprae were aligned with those of other Demodex retrieved from GenBank; Finally, the intra- and inter-specific divergences were computed and the phylogenetic trees were reconstructed to analyze phylogenetic relationship in Demodex. Results obtained from seven 429-bp fragments of D. caprae showed that sequence identities were above 99.1% among three adults and four eggs. The intraspecific divergences in D. caprae, Demodex folliculorum, Demodex brevis, and Demodex canis were 0.0-0.9, 0.5-0.9, 0.0-0.2, and 0.0-0.5%, respectively, while the interspecific divergences between D. caprae and D. folliculorum, D. canis, and D. brevis were 20.3-20.9, 21.8-23.0, and 25.0-25.3, respectively. The interspecific divergences were 10 times higher than intraspecific ones, indicating considerable barcoding gap. Furthermore, the phylogenetic trees showed that four Demodex species gathered separately, representing independent species; and Demodex folliculorum gathered with canine Demodex, D. caprae, and D. brevis in sequence. In conclusion, the selected 429-bp mitochondrial cox1 gene is an appropriate DNA barcode for molecular classification, identification, and phylogenetic analysis of Demodex. D. caprae is an independent species and D. folliculorum is closer to D. canis than to D. caprae or D. brevis.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships of Nembrothinae (Mollusca: Doridacea: Polyceridae) inferred from morphology and mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Pola, Marta; Cervera, J Lucas; Gosliner, Terrence M

    2007-06-01

    Within the Polyceridae, Nembrothinae includes some of the most striking and conspicuous sea slugs known, although several features of their biology and phylogenetic relationships remain unknown. This paper reports a phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S rRNA) and morphology for most species included in Nembrothinae. Our phylogenetic reconstructions using both molecular and combined morphological and molecular data support the taxonomic splitting of Nembrothinae into several taxa. Excluding one species (Tambja tentaculata), the monophyly of Roboastra was supported by all the phylogenetic analyses of the combined molecular data. Nembrotha was monophyletic both in the morphological and molecular analyses, always with high support. However, Tambja was recovered as para- or polyphyletic, depending on the analysis performed. Our study also rejects the monophyly of "phanerobranch" dorids based on molecular data.

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of otospiralin protein

    PubMed Central

    Torktaz, Ibrahim; Behjati, Mohaddeseh; Rostami, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fibrocyte-specific protein, otospiralin, is a small protein, widely expressed in the central nervous system as neuronal cell bodies and glia. The increased expression of otospiralin in reactive astrocytes implicates its role in signaling pathways and reparative mechanisms subsequent to injury. Indeed, otospiralin is considered to be essential for the survival of fibrocytes of the mesenchymal nonsensory regions of the cochlea. It seems that other functions of this protein are not yet completely understood. Materials and Methods: Amino acid sequences of otospiralin from 12 vertebrates were derived from National Center for Biotechnology Information database. Phylogenetic analysis and phylogeny estimation were performed using MEGA 5.0.5 program, and neighbor-joining tree was constructed by this software. Results: In this computational study, the phylogenetic tree of otospiralin has been investigated. Therefore, dendrograms of otospiralin were depicted. Alignment performed in MUSCLE method by UPGMB algorithm. Also, entropy plot determined for a better illustration of amino acid variations in this protein. Conclusion: In the present study, we used otospiralin sequence of 12 different species and by constructing phylogenetic tree, we suggested out group for some related species. PMID:27099854

  20. Ultrafast approximation for phylogenetic bootstrap.

    PubMed

    Minh, Bui Quang; Nguyen, Minh Anh Thi; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2013-05-01

    Nonparametric bootstrap has been a widely used tool in phylogenetic analysis to assess the clade support of phylogenetic trees. However, with the rapidly growing amount of data, this task remains a computational bottleneck. Recently, approximation methods such as the RAxML rapid bootstrap (RBS) and the Shimodaira-Hasegawa-like approximate likelihood ratio test have been introduced to speed up the bootstrap. Here, we suggest an ultrafast bootstrap approximation approach (UFBoot) to compute the support of phylogenetic groups in maximum likelihood (ML) based trees. To achieve this, we combine the resampling estimated log-likelihood method with a simple but effective collection scheme of candidate trees. We also propose a stopping rule that assesses the convergence of branch support values to automatically determine when to stop collecting candidate trees. UFBoot achieves a median speed up of 3.1 (range: 0.66-33.3) to 10.2 (range: 1.32-41.4) compared with RAxML RBS for real DNA and amino acid alignments, respectively. Moreover, our extensive simulations show that UFBoot is robust against moderate model violations and the support values obtained appear to be relatively unbiased compared with the conservative standard bootstrap. This provides a more direct interpretation of the bootstrap support. We offer an efficient and easy-to-use software (available at http://www.cibiv.at/software/iqtree) to perform the UFBoot analysis with ML tree inference.

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of adenovirus sequences.

    PubMed

    Harrach, Balázs; Benko, Mária

    2007-01-01

    Members of the family Adenoviridae have been isolated from a large variety of hosts, including representatives from every major vertebrate class from fish to mammals. The high prevalence, together with the fairly conserved organization of the central part of their genomes, make the adenoviruses one of (if not the) best models for studying viral evolution on a larger time scale. Phylogenetic calculation can infer the evolutionary distance among adenovirus strains on serotype, species, and genus levels, thus helping the establishment of a correct taxonomy on the one hand, and speeding up the process of typing new isolates on the other. Initially, four major lineages corresponding to four genera were recognized. Later, the demarcation criteria of lower taxon levels, such as species or types, could also be defined with phylogenetic calculations. A limited number of possible host switches have been hypothesized and convincingly supported. Application of the web-based BLAST and MultAlin programs and the freely available PHYLIP package, along with the TreeView program, enables everyone to make correct calculations. In addition to step-by-step instruction on how to perform phylogenetic analysis, critical points where typical mistakes or misinterpretation of the results might occur will be identified and hints for their avoidance will be provided. PMID:17656792

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of trophic associations.

    PubMed

    Ives, A R; Godfray, H C J

    2006-07-01

    Ecologists frequently collect data on the patterns of association between adjacent trophic levels in the form of binary or quantitative food webs. Here, we develop statistical methods to estimate the roles of consumer and resource phylogenies in explaining patterns of consumer-resource association. We use these methods to ask whether closely related consumer species are more likely to attack the same resource species and whether closely related resource species are more likely to be attacked by the same consumer species. We then show how to use estimates of phylogenetic signals to predict novel consumer-resource associations solely from the phylogenetic position of species for which no other (or only partial) data are available. Finally, we show how to combine phylogenetic information with information about species' ecological characteristics and life-history traits to estimate the effects of species traits on consumer-resource associations while accounting for phylogenies. We illustrate these techniques using a food web comprising species of parasitoids, leaf-mining moths, and their host plants.

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of adenovirus sequences.

    PubMed

    Harrach, Balázs; Benko, Mária

    2007-01-01

    Members of the family Adenoviridae have been isolated from a large variety of hosts, including representatives from every major vertebrate class from fish to mammals. The high prevalence, together with the fairly conserved organization of the central part of their genomes, make the adenoviruses one of (if not the) best models for studying viral evolution on a larger time scale. Phylogenetic calculation can infer the evolutionary distance among adenovirus strains on serotype, species, and genus levels, thus helping the establishment of a correct taxonomy on the one hand, and speeding up the process of typing new isolates on the other. Initially, four major lineages corresponding to four genera were recognized. Later, the demarcation criteria of lower taxon levels, such as species or types, could also be defined with phylogenetic calculations. A limited number of possible host switches have been hypothesized and convincingly supported. Application of the web-based BLAST and MultAlin programs and the freely available PHYLIP package, along with the TreeView program, enables everyone to make correct calculations. In addition to step-by-step instruction on how to perform phylogenetic analysis, critical points where typical mistakes or misinterpretation of the results might occur will be identified and hints for their avoidance will be provided.

  4. PhyPA: Phylogenetic method with pairwise sequence alignment outperforms likelihood methods in phylogenetics involving highly diverged sequences.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xuhua

    2016-09-01

    While pairwise sequence alignment (PSA) by dynamic programming is guaranteed to generate one of the optimal alignments, multiple sequence alignment (MSA) of highly divergent sequences often results in poorly aligned sequences, plaguing all subsequent phylogenetic analysis. One way to avoid this problem is to use only PSA to reconstruct phylogenetic trees, which can only be done with distance-based methods. I compared the accuracy of this new computational approach (named PhyPA for phylogenetics by pairwise alignment) against the maximum likelihood method using MSA (the ML+MSA approach), based on nucleotide, amino acid and codon sequences simulated with different topologies and tree lengths. I present a surprising discovery that the fast PhyPA method consistently outperforms the slow ML+MSA approach for highly diverged sequences even when all optimization options were turned on for the ML+MSA approach. Only when sequences are not highly diverged (i.e., when a reliable MSA can be obtained) does the ML+MSA approach outperforms PhyPA. The true topologies are always recovered by ML with the true alignment from the simulation. However, with MSA derived from alignment programs such as MAFFT or MUSCLE, the recovered topology consistently has higher likelihood than that for the true topology. Thus, the failure to recover the true topology by the ML+MSA is not because of insufficient search of tree space, but by the distortion of phylogenetic signal by MSA methods. I have implemented in DAMBE PhyPA and two approaches making use of multi-gene data sets to derive phylogenetic support for subtrees equivalent to resampling techniques such as bootstrapping and jackknifing.

  5. PhyPA: Phylogenetic method with pairwise sequence alignment outperforms likelihood methods in phylogenetics involving highly diverged sequences.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xuhua

    2016-09-01

    While pairwise sequence alignment (PSA) by dynamic programming is guaranteed to generate one of the optimal alignments, multiple sequence alignment (MSA) of highly divergent sequences often results in poorly aligned sequences, plaguing all subsequent phylogenetic analysis. One way to avoid this problem is to use only PSA to reconstruct phylogenetic trees, which can only be done with distance-based methods. I compared the accuracy of this new computational approach (named PhyPA for phylogenetics by pairwise alignment) against the maximum likelihood method using MSA (the ML+MSA approach), based on nucleotide, amino acid and codon sequences simulated with different topologies and tree lengths. I present a surprising discovery that the fast PhyPA method consistently outperforms the slow ML+MSA approach for highly diverged sequences even when all optimization options were turned on for the ML+MSA approach. Only when sequences are not highly diverged (i.e., when a reliable MSA can be obtained) does the ML+MSA approach outperforms PhyPA. The true topologies are always recovered by ML with the true alignment from the simulation. However, with MSA derived from alignment programs such as MAFFT or MUSCLE, the recovered topology consistently has higher likelihood than that for the true topology. Thus, the failure to recover the true topology by the ML+MSA is not because of insufficient search of tree space, but by the distortion of phylogenetic signal by MSA methods. I have implemented in DAMBE PhyPA and two approaches making use of multi-gene data sets to derive phylogenetic support for subtrees equivalent to resampling techniques such as bootstrapping and jackknifing. PMID:27377322

  6. The relative efficacy of functional and developmental cranial modules for reconstructing global human population history.

    PubMed

    von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen

    2011-09-01

    This study tests the relative efficacy of human cranial modules, defined on the basis of developmental and functional criteria, for reconstructing neutral genetic population history. Specifically, two hypotheses were tested: 1) The "basicranial hypothesis" predicts that the endochondrally ossifying basicranium will be more reliable for reconstructing population history than intramembranously ossifying regions of the human cranium. This is based on the assumption that early ossification of the basicranium and its distinct functional constraints produce a cranial structure that is relatively immune to non-neutral evolutionary forces. 2) The "single function hypothesis" predicts that cranial regions associated with a single (sensory) function are less reliable indicators of neutral genetic history. Here the prediction is based on the logic that complex, multi-functional, integrated cranial regions are less likely toexhibit homoplasy and, therefore, provide a more accurate morphological proxy for genetic relationships. The congruence between craniometric affinity matrices and neutral genetic population matrices based on autosomal microsatellite and classical markers was assessed using a series of Mantel and Dow-Cheverud tests. The results did not support the predictions of the "basicranial hypothesis," as the endochondrally ossifying basicranium was not significantly more congruent with the genetic data than intramembraneously ossifying modules. Moreover, although the results provided some support for the "single function hypothesis," defining cranial modules on the basis of anatomical or functional complexity did not provide a consistent means of predicting their phylogenetic efficacy. These results have important implications for building an accurate inference model of cranial evolution in the human fossil record.

  7. Technical basis for dose reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.

    1996-01-31

    The purpose of this paper is to consider two general topics: technical considerations of why dose-reconstruction studies should or should not be performed and methods of dose reconstruction. The first topic is of general and growing interest as the number of dose-reconstruction studies increases, and one asks the question whether it is necessary to perform a dose reconstruction for virtually every site at which, for example, the Department of Energy (DOE) has operated a nuclear-related facility. And there is the broader question of how one might logically draw the line at performing or not performing dose-reconstruction (radiological and chemical) studies for virtually every industrial complex in the entire country. The second question is also of general interest. There is no single correct way to perform a dose-reconstruction study, and it is important not to follow blindly a single method to the point that cheaper, faster, more accurate, and more transparent methods might not be developed and applied.

  8. Large-scale analysis of phylogenetic search behavior.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Jung; Sul, Seung-Jin; Williams, Tiffani L

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis is used in all branches of biology with applications ranging from studies on the origin of human populations to investigations of the transmission patterns of HIV. Most phylogenetic analyses rely on effective heuristics for obtaining accurate trees. However, relatively little work has been done to analyze quantitatively the behavior of phylogenetic heuristics in tree space. A better understanding of local search behavior can facilitate the design of better heuristics, which ultimately lead to more accurate depictions of the true evolutionary relationships. In this paper, we present new and novel insights into local search behavior for maximum parsimony on three biological datasets consisting of 44, 60, and 174 taxa. By analyzing all trees from search, we find that, as the search algorithm climbs the hill to local optima, the trees in the neighborhood surrounding the current solution improve as well. Furthermore, the search is quite robust to a small number of randomly selected neighbors. Thus, our work shows how to gain insights into the behavior of local search algorithm by exploring a large diverse collection of trees.

  9. A survey on the visualization and reconstruction of vasculatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Qingqi

    2014-01-01

    Visualization and reconstruction of blood vessel from standard medical datasets play an important role in many clinical situations. This paper presents a survey on the visualization and reconstruction of vascular structures. Firstly, the visualization techniques of vasculatures are introduced, which includes volume rendering and surface rendering of vasculatures. Then, we focus on the reconstruction techniques of vascular structures, which can be classified into two categories: explicit reconstruction and implicit reconstruction of vascular structures. With reconstructed vascular geometry, it is quite easy to produce smooth visualization of vessel surfaces. In addition, finding the accurate geometric representation of vascular structures is crucial in developing computer aided vascular surgery systems.

  10. A Phylogenetic Re-Analysis of Groupers with Applications for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Schoelinck, Charlotte; Hinsinger, Damien D.; Dettaï, Agnès; Cruaud, Corinne; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2014-01-01

    Background Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a significant public health problem due to dinoflagellates. It is responsible for one of the highest reported incidence of seafood-borne illness and Groupers are commonly reported as a source of CFP due to their position in the food chain. With the role of recent climate change on harmful algal blooms, CFP cases might become more frequent and more geographically widespread. Since there is no appropriate treatment for CFP, the most efficient solution is to regulate fish consumption. Such a strategy can only work if the fish sold are correctly identified, and it has been repeatedly shown that misidentifications and species substitutions occur in fish markets. Methods We provide here both a DNA-barcoding reference for groupers, and a new phylogenetic reconstruction based on five genes and a comprehensive taxonomical sampling. We analyse the correlation between geographic range of species and their susceptibility to ciguatera accumulation, and the co-occurrence of ciguatoxins in closely related species, using both character mapping and statistical methods. Results Misidentifications were encountered in public databases, precluding accurate species identifications. Epinephelinae now includes only twelve genera (vs. 15 previously). Comparisons with the ciguatera incidences show that in some genera most species are ciguateric, but statistical tests display only a moderate correlation with the phylogeny. Atlantic species were rarely contaminated, with ciguatera occurrences being restricted to the South Pacific. Conclusions The recent changes in classification based on the reanalyses of the relationships within Epinephelidae have an impact on the interpretation of the ciguatera distribution in the genera. In this context and to improve the monitoring of fish trade and safety, we need to obtain extensive data on contamination at the species level. Accurate species identifications through DNA barcoding are thus an essential tool in

  11. Robustness of phylogenetic inference based on minimum evolution.

    PubMed

    Pardi, Fabio; Guillemot, Sylvain; Gascuel, Olivier

    2010-10-01

    Minimum evolution is the guiding principle of an important class of distance-based phylogeny reconstruction methods, including neighbor-joining (NJ), which is the most cited tree inference algorithm to date. The minimum evolution principle involves searching for the tree with minimum length, where the length is estimated using various least-squares criteria. Since evolutionary distances cannot be known precisely but only estimated, it is important to investigate the robustness of phylogenetic reconstruction to imprecise estimates for these distances. The safety radius is a measure of this robustness: it consists of the maximum relative deviation that the input distances can have from the correct distances, without compromising the reconstruction of the correct tree structure. Answering some open questions, we here derive the safety radius of two popular minimum evolution criteria: balanced minimum evolution (BME) and minimum evolution based on ordinary least squares (OLS + ME). Whereas BME has a radius of 1/2, which is the best achievable, OLS + ME has a radius tending to 0 as the number of taxa increases. This difference may explain the gap in reconstruction accuracy observed in practice between OLS + ME and BME (which forms the basis of popular programs such as NJ and FastME).

  12. Cenozoic imprints on the phylogenetic structure of palm species assemblages worldwide.

    PubMed

    Kissling, W Daniel; Eiserhardt, Wolf L; Baker, William J; Borchsenius, Finn; Couvreur, Thomas L P; Balslev, Henrik; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2012-05-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the origin and maintenance of species diversity, little is known about historical drivers of species assemblage structure at large spatiotemporal scales. Here, we use global species distribution data, a dated genus-level phylogeny, and paleo-reconstructions of biomes and climate to examine Cenozoic imprints on the phylogenetic structure of regional species assemblages of palms (Arecaceae), a species-rich plant family characteristic of tropical ecosystems. We find a strong imprint on phylogenetic clustering due to geographic isolation and in situ diversification, especially in the Neotropics and on islands with spectacular palm radiations (e.g., Madagascar, Hawaii, and Cuba). Phylogenetic overdispersion on mainlands and islands corresponds to biotic interchange areas. Differences in the degree of phylogenetic clustering among biogeographic realms are related to differential losses of tropical rainforests during the Cenozoic, but not to the cumulative area of tropical rainforest over geological time. A largely random phylogenetic assemblage structure in Africa coincides with severe losses of rainforest area, especially after the Miocene. More recent events also appear to be influential: phylogenetic clustering increases with increasing intensity of Quaternary glacial-interglacial climatic oscillations in South America and, to a lesser extent, Africa, indicating that specific clades perform better in climatically unstable regions. Our results suggest that continental isolation (in combination with limited long-distance dispersal) and changing climate and habitat loss throughout the Cenozoic have had strong impacts on the phylogenetic structure of regional species assemblages in the tropics.

  13. Transforming phylogenetic networks: Moving beyond tree space.

    PubMed

    Huber, Katharina T; Moulton, Vincent; Wu, Taoyang

    2016-09-01

    Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that are used to represent reticulate evolution. Unrooted phylogenetic networks form a special class of such networks, which naturally generalize unrooted phylogenetic trees. In this paper we define two operations on unrooted phylogenetic networks, one of which is a generalization of the well-known nearest-neighbor interchange (NNI) operation on phylogenetic trees. We show that any unrooted phylogenetic network can be transformed into any other such network using only these operations. This generalizes the well-known fact that any phylogenetic tree can be transformed into any other such tree using only NNI operations. It also allows us to define a generalization of tree space and to define some new metrics on unrooted phylogenetic networks. To prove our main results, we employ some fascinating new connections between phylogenetic networks and cubic graphs that we have recently discovered. Our results should be useful in developing new strategies to search for optimal phylogenetic networks, a topic that has recently generated some interest in the literature, as well as for providing new ways to compare networks.

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of the mockingbirds and thrashers (Aves: Mimidae).

    PubMed

    Lovette, Irby J; Arbogast, Brian S; Curry, Robert L; Zink, Robert M; Botero, Carlos A; Sullivan, John P; Talaba, Amanda L; Harris, Rebecca B; Rubenstein, Dustin R; Ricklefs, Robert E; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2012-05-01

    The mockingbirds, thrashers and allied birds in the family Mimidae are broadly distributed across the Americas. Many aspects of their phylogenetic history are well established, but there has been no previous phylogenetic study that included all species in this radiation. Our reconstructions based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence markers show that an early bifurcation separated the Mimidae into two clades, the first of which includes North and Middle American taxa (Melanotis, Melanoptila, Dumetella) plus a small radiation that likely occurred largely within the West Indies (Ramphocinclus, Allenia, Margarops, Cinclocerthia). The second and larger radiation includes the Toxostoma thrasher clade, along with the monotypic Sage Thrasher (Oreoscoptes) and the phenotypically diverse and broadly distributed Mimus mockingbirds. This mockingbird group is biogeographically notable for including several lineages that colonized and diverged on isolated islands, including the Socorro Mockingbird (Mimus graysoni, formerly Mimodes) and the diverse and historically important Galapagos mockingbirds (formerly Nesomimus). Our reconstructions support a sister relationship between the Galapagos mockingbird lineage and the Bahama Mockingbird (M. gundlachi) of the West Indies, rather than the Long-tailed Mockingbird (M. longicaudatus) or other species presently found on the South American mainland. Relationships within the genus Toxostoma conflict with traditional arrangements but support a tree based on a preivous mtDNA study. For instance, the southern Mexican endemic Ocellated Thrasher (T. ocellatum) is not an isolated sister species of the Curve-billed thrasher (T. curvirostre).

  15. Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Neritimorpha (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Uribe, Juan E; Colgan, Don; Castro, Lyda R; Kano, Yasunori; Zardoya, Rafael

    2016-11-01

    Despite the extraordinary morphological and ecological diversity of Neritimorpha, few studies have focused on the phylogenetic relationships of this lineage of gastropods, which includes four extant superfamilies: Neritopsoidea, Hydrocenoidea, Helicinoidea, and Neritoidea. Here, the nucleotide sequences of the complete mitochondrial genomes of Georissa bangueyensis (Hydrocenoidea), Neritina usnea (Neritoidea), and Pleuropoma jana (Helicinoidea) and the nearly complete mt genomes of Titiscania sp. (Neritopsoidea) and Theodoxus fluviatilis (Neritoidea) were determined. Phylogenetic reconstructions using probabilistic methods were based on mitochondrial (13 protein coding genes and two ribosomal rRNA genes), nuclear (partial 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, actin, and histone H3 genes) and combined sequence data sets. All phylogenetic analyses except one converged on a single, highly supported tree in which Neritopsoidea was recovered as the sister group of a clade including Helicinoidea as the sister group of Hydrocenoidea and Neritoidea. This topology agrees with the fossil record and supports at least three independent invasions of land by neritimorph snails. The mitochondrial genomes of Titiscania sp., G. bangueyensis, N. usnea, and T. fluviatilis share the same gene organization previously described for Nerita mt genomes whereas that of P. jana has undergone major rearrangements. We sequenced about half of the mitochondrial genome of another species of Helicinoidea, Viana regina, and confirmed that this species shares the highly derived gene order of P. jana.

  16. Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Neritimorpha (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Uribe, Juan E; Colgan, Don; Castro, Lyda R; Kano, Yasunori; Zardoya, Rafael

    2016-11-01

    Despite the extraordinary morphological and ecological diversity of Neritimorpha, few studies have focused on the phylogenetic relationships of this lineage of gastropods, which includes four extant superfamilies: Neritopsoidea, Hydrocenoidea, Helicinoidea, and Neritoidea. Here, the nucleotide sequences of the complete mitochondrial genomes of Georissa bangueyensis (Hydrocenoidea), Neritina usnea (Neritoidea), and Pleuropoma jana (Helicinoidea) and the nearly complete mt genomes of Titiscania sp. (Neritopsoidea) and Theodoxus fluviatilis (Neritoidea) were determined. Phylogenetic reconstructions using probabilistic methods were based on mitochondrial (13 protein coding genes and two ribosomal rRNA genes), nuclear (partial 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, actin, and histone H3 genes) and combined sequence data sets. All phylogenetic analyses except one converged on a single, highly supported tree in which Neritopsoidea was recovered as the sister group of a clade including Helicinoidea as the sister group of Hydrocenoidea and Neritoidea. This topology agrees with the fossil record and supports at least three independent invasions of land by neritimorph snails. The mitochondrial genomes of Titiscania sp., G. bangueyensis, N. usnea, and T. fluviatilis share the same gene organization previously described for Nerita mt genomes whereas that of P. jana has undergone major rearrangements. We sequenced about half of the mitochondrial genome of another species of Helicinoidea, Viana regina, and confirmed that this species shares the highly derived gene order of P. jana. PMID:27456746

  17. Relating phylogenetic trees to transmission trees of infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Ypma, Rolf J F; van Ballegooijen, W Marijn; Wallinga, Jacco

    2013-11-01

    Transmission events are the fundamental building blocks of the dynamics of any infectious disease. Much about the epidemiology of a disease can be learned when these individual transmission events are known or can be estimated. Such estimations are difficult and generally feasible only when detailed epidemiological data are available. The genealogy estimated from genetic sequences of sampled pathogens is another rich source of information on transmission history. Optimal inference of transmission events calls for the combination of genetic data and epidemiological data into one joint analysis. A key difficulty is that the transmission tree, which describes the transmission events between infected hosts, differs from the phylogenetic tree, which describes the ancestral relationships between pathogens sampled from these hosts. The trees differ both in timing of the internal nodes and in topology. These differences become more pronounced when a higher fraction of infected hosts is sampled. We show how the phylogenetic tree of sampled pathogens is related to the transmission tree of an outbreak of an infectious disease, by the within-host dynamics of pathogens. We provide a statistical framework to infer key epidemiological and mutational parameters by simultaneously estimating the phylogenetic tree and the transmission tree. We test the approach using simulations and illustrate its use on an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. The approach unifies existing methods in the emerging field of phylodynamics with transmission tree reconstruction methods that are used in infectious disease epidemiology.

  18. Graft impingement in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Iriuchishima, Takanori; Shirakura, Kenji; Fu, Freddie H

    2013-03-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft impingement is one of the most troubling complications in ACL reconstruction. In the previous strategy of isometric "non-anatomical" ACL reconstruction, posterior tibial tunnel placement and notchplasty were recommended to avoid graft impingement. Recently, the strategy of ACL reconstruction is shifting towards "anatomical" reconstruction. In anatomical ACL reconstruction, the potential risk of graft impingement is higher than in non-anatomical reconstruction because the tibial tunnel is placed at a more anterior portion on the tibia. However, there have been few studies reporting on graft impingement in anatomical ACL reconstruction. This study will provide a review of graft impingement status in both non-anatomical and the more recent anatomical ACL reconstruction techniques. In conclusion, with the accurate creation of bone tunnels within ACL native footprint, the graft impingement might not happen in anatomical ACL reconstruction. For the clinical relevance, to prevent graft impingement, surgeons should pay attention of creating correct anatomical tunnels when they perform ACL reconstruction. Level of evidence IV.

  19. X-Ray Tomographic Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnie Schmittberger

    2010-08-25

    Tomographic scans have revolutionized imaging techniques used in medical and biological research by resolving individual sample slices instead of several superimposed images that are obtained from regular x-ray scans. X-Ray fluorescence computed tomography, a more specific tomography technique, bombards the sample with synchrotron x-rays and detects the fluorescent photons emitted from the sample. However, since x-rays are attenuated as they pass through the sample, tomographic scans often produce images with erroneous low densities in areas where the x-rays have already passed through most of the sample. To correct for this and correctly reconstruct the data in order to obtain the most accurate images, a program employing iterative methods based on the inverse Radon transform was written. Applying this reconstruction method to a tomographic image recovered some of the lost densities, providing a more accurate image from which element concentrations and internal structure can be determined.

  20. Direct reconstruction of dark energy.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Chris; Zunckel, Caroline

    2010-05-28

    An important issue in cosmology is reconstructing the effective dark energy equation of state directly from observations. With so few physically motivated models, future dark energy studies cannot only be based on constraining a dark energy parameter space. We present a new nonparametric method which can accurately reconstruct a wide variety of dark energy behavior with no prior assumptions about it. It is simple, quick and relatively accurate, and involves no expensive explorations of parameter space. The technique uses principal component analysis and a combination of information criteria to identify real features in the data, and tailors the fitting functions to pick up trends and smooth over noise. We find that we can constrain a large variety of w(z) models to within 10%-20% at redshifts z≲1 using just SNAP-quality data. PMID:20867085

  1. Direct reconstruction of dark energy.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Chris; Zunckel, Caroline

    2010-05-28

    An important issue in cosmology is reconstructing the effective dark energy equation of state directly from observations. With so few physically motivated models, future dark energy studies cannot only be based on constraining a dark energy parameter space. We present a new nonparametric method which can accurately reconstruct a wide variety of dark energy behavior with no prior assumptions about it. It is simple, quick and relatively accurate, and involves no expensive explorations of parameter space. The technique uses principal component analysis and a combination of information criteria to identify real features in the data, and tailors the fitting functions to pick up trends and smooth over noise. We find that we can constrain a large variety of w(z) models to within 10%-20% at redshifts z≲1 using just SNAP-quality data.

  2. Phylogenetic placement of the Spirosomaceae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woese, C. R.; Maloy, S.; Mandelco, L.; Raj, H. D.

    1990-01-01

    Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA sequences shows that the family Spirosomaceae belongs within the eubacterial phylum defined by the flavobacteria and bacteriodes. Its constituent genera, Spirosoma, Flectobacillus, and Runella form a monophyletic grouping therein. The phylogenetic assignment is based not only upon evolutionary distance analysis, but also upon sequence signatures and higher order structural synapomorphies in 16S rRNA. Another genus peripherally associated with the Spirosomaceae, Ancylobacter ("Microcyclus"), does not cluster with the flavobacteria and their relatives, but rather belongs to the alpha subdivision of the purple bacteria.

  3. Phylogenetic structure and host abundance drive disease pressure in communities.

    PubMed

    Parker, Ingrid M; Saunders, Megan; Bontrager, Megan; Weitz, Andrew P; Hendricks, Rebecca; Magarey, Roger; Suiter, Karl; Gilbert, Gregory S

    2015-04-23

    Pathogens play an important part in shaping the structure and dynamics of natural communities, because species are not affected by them equally. A shared goal of ecology and epidemiology is to predict when a species is most vulnerable to disease. A leading hypothesis asserts that the impact of disease should increase with host abundance, producing a 'rare-species advantage'. However, the impact of a pathogen may be decoupled from host abundance, because most pathogens infect more than one species, leading to pathogen spillover onto closely related species. Here we show that the phylogenetic and ecological structure of the surrounding community can be important predictors of disease pressure. We found that the amount of tissue lost to disease increased with the relative abundance of a species across a grassland plant community, and that this rare-species advantage had an additional phylogenetic component: disease pressure was stronger on species with many close relatives. We used a global model of pathogen sharing as a function of relatedness between hosts, which provided a robust predictor of relative disease pressure at the local scale. In our grassland, the total amount of disease was most accurately explained not by the abundance of the focal host alone, but by the abundance of all species in the community weighted by their phylogenetic distance to the host. Furthermore, the model strongly predicted observed disease pressure for 44 novel host species we introduced experimentally to our study site, providing evidence for a mechanism to explain why phylogenetically rare species are more likely to become invasive when introduced. Our results demonstrate how the phylogenetic and ecological structure of communities can have a key role in disease dynamics, with implications for the maintenance of biodiversity, biotic resistance against introduced weeds, and the success of managed plants in agriculture and forestry.

  4. Experimental design in phylogenetics: testing predictions from expected information.

    PubMed

    San Mauro, Diego; Gower, David J; Cotton, James A; Zardoya, Rafael; Wilkinson, Mark; Massingham, Tim

    2012-07-01

    Taxon and character sampling are central to phylogenetic experimental design; yet, we lack general rules. Goldman introduced a method to construct efficient sampling designs in phylogenetics, based on the calculation of expected Fisher information given a probabilistic model of sequence evolution. The considerable potential of this approach remains largely unexplored. In an earlier study, we applied Goldman's method to a problem in the phylogenetics of caecilian amphibians and made an a priori evaluation and testable predictions of which taxon additions would increase information about a particular weakly supported branch of the caecilian phylogeny by the greatest amount. We have now gathered mitogenomic and rag1 sequences (some newly determined for this study) from additional caecilian species and studied how information (both expected and observed) and bootstrap support vary as each new taxon is individually added to our previous data set. This provides the first empirical test of specific predictions made using Goldman's method for phylogenetic experimental design. Our results empirically validate the top 3 (more intuitive) taxon addition predictions made in our previous study, but only information results validate unambiguously the 4th (less intuitive) prediction. This highlights a complex relationship between information and support, reflecting that each measures different things: Information is related to the ability to estimate branch length accurately and support to the ability to estimate the tree topology accurately. Thus, an increase in information may be correlated with but does not necessitate an increase in support. Our results also provide the first empirical validation of the widely held intuition that additional taxa that join the tree proximal to poorly supported internal branches are more informative and enhance support more than additional taxa that join the tree more distally. Our work supports the view that adding more data for a single (well

  5. Estimating Bayesian Phylogenetic Information Content

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Paul O.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Kuo, Lynn; Lewis, Louise A.; Fučíková, Karolina; Neupane, Suman; Wang, Yu-Bo; Shi, Daoyuan

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the phylogenetic information content of data has a long history in systematics. Here we explore a Bayesian approach to information content estimation. The entropy of the posterior distribution compared with the entropy of the prior distribution provides a natural way to measure information content. If the data have no information relevant to ranking tree topologies beyond the information supplied by the prior, the posterior and prior will be identical. Information in data discourages consideration of some hypotheses allowed by the prior, resulting in a posterior distribution that is more concentrated (has lower entropy) than the prior. We focus on measuring information about tree topology using marginal posterior distributions of tree topologies. We show that both the accuracy and the computational efficiency of topological information content estimation improve with use of the conditional clade distribution, which also allows topological information content to be partitioned by clade. We explore two important applications of our method: providing a compelling definition of saturation and detecting conflict among data partitions that can negatively affect analyses of concatenated data. [Bayesian; concatenation; conditional clade distribution; entropy; information; phylogenetics; saturation.] PMID:27155008

  6. Phylogenetic Origins of Brain Organisers

    PubMed Central

    Robertshaw, Ellen; Kiecker, Clemens

    2012-01-01

    The regionalisation of the nervous system begins early in embryogenesis, concomitant with the establishment of the anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) body axes. The molecular mechanisms that drive axis induction appear to be conserved throughout the animal kingdom and may be phylogenetically older than the emergence of bilateral symmetry. As a result of this process, groups of patterning genes that are equally well conserved are expressed at specific AP and DV coordinates of the embryo. In the emerging nervous system of vertebrate embryos, this initial pattern is refined by local signalling centres, secondary organisers, that regulate patterning, proliferation, and axonal pathfinding in adjacent neuroepithelium. The main secondary organisers for the AP neuraxis are the midbrain-hindbrain boundary, zona limitans intrathalamica, and anterior neural ridge and for the DV neuraxis the notochord, floor plate, and roof plate. A search for homologous secondary organisers in nonvertebrate lineages has led to controversy over their phylogenetic origins. Based on a recent study in hemichordates, it has been suggested that the AP secondary organisers evolved at the base of the deuterostome superphylum, earlier than previously thought. According to this view, the lack of signalling centres in some deuterostome lineages is likely to reflect a secondary loss due to adaptive processes. We propose that the relative evolutionary flexibility of secondary organisers has contributed to a broader morphological complexity of nervous systems in different clades. PMID:24278699

  7. Phylogenetic approaches for studying diversification.

    PubMed

    Morlon, Hélène

    2014-04-01

    Estimating rates of speciation and extinction, and understanding how and why they vary over evolutionary time, geographical space and species groups, is a key to understanding how ecological and evolutionary processes generate biological diversity. Such inferences will increasingly benefit from phylogenetic approaches given the ever-accelerating rates of genetic sequencing. In the last few years, models designed to understand diversification from phylogenetic data have advanced significantly. Here, I review these approaches and what they have revealed about diversification in the natural world. I focus on key distinctions between different models, and I clarify the conclusions that can be drawn from each model. I identify promising areas for future research. A major challenge ahead is to develop models that more explicitly take into account ecology, in particular the interaction of species with each other and with their environment. This will not only improve our understanding of diversification; it will also present a new perspective to the use of phylogenies in community ecology, the science of interaction networks and conservation biology, and might shift the current focus in ecology on equilibrium biodiversity theories to non-equilibrium theories recognising the crucial role of history.

  8. Octocoral Mitochondrial Genomes Provide Insights into the Phylogenetic History of Gene Order Rearrangements, Order Reversals, and Cnidarian Phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Diego F.; Baco, Amy R.

    2015-01-01

    We use full mitochondrial genomes to test the robustness of the phylogeny of the Octocorallia, to determine the evolutionary pathway for the five known mitochondrial gene rearrangements in octocorals, and to test the suitability of using mitochondrial genomes for higher taxonomic-level phylogenetic reconstructions. Our phylogeny supports three major divisions within the Octocorallia and show that Paragorgiidae is paraphyletic, with Sibogagorgia forming a sister branch to the Coralliidae. Furthermore, Sibogagorgia cauliflora has what is presumed to be the ancestral gene order in octocorals, but the presence of a pair of inverted repeat sequences suggest that this gene order was not conserved but rather evolved back to this apparent ancestral state. Based on this we recommend the resurrection of the family Sibogagorgiidae to fix the paraphyly of the Paragorgiidae. This is the first study to show that in the Octocorallia, mitochondrial gene orders have evolved back to an ancestral state after going through a gene rearrangement, with at least one of the gene orders evolving independently in different lineages. A number of studies have used gene boundaries to determine the type of mitochondrial gene arrangement present. However, our findings suggest that this method known as gene junction screening may miss evolutionary reversals. Additionally, substitution saturation analysis demonstrates that while whole mitochondrial genomes can be used effectively for phylogenetic analyses within Octocorallia, their utility at higher taxonomic levels within Cnidaria is inadequate. Therefore for phylogenetic reconstruction at taxonomic levels higher than subclass within the Cnidaria, nuclear genes will be required, even when whole mitochondrial genomes are available. PMID:25539723

  9. NNLOPS accurate associated HW production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astill, William; Bizon, Wojciech; Re, Emanuele; Zanderighi, Giulia

    2016-06-01

    We present a next-to-next-to-leading order accurate description of associated HW production consistently matched to a parton shower. The method is based on reweighting events obtained with the HW plus one jet NLO accurate calculation implemented in POWHEG, extended with the MiNLO procedure, to reproduce NNLO accurate Born distributions. Since the Born kinematics is more complex than the cases treated before, we use a parametrization of the Collins-Soper angles to reduce the number of variables required for the reweighting. We present phenomenological results at 13 TeV, with cuts suggested by the Higgs Cross section Working Group.

  10. ImOSM: intermittent evolution and robustness of phylogenetic methods.

    PubMed

    Thi Nguyen, Minh Anh; Gesell, Tanja; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2012-02-01

    Among the criteria to evaluate the performance of a phylogenetic method, robustness to model violation is of particular practical importance as complete a priori knowledge of evolutionary processes is typically unavailable. For studies of robustness in phylogenetic inference, a utility to add well-defined model violations to the simulated data would be helpful. We therefore introduce ImOSM, a tool to imbed intermittent evolution as model violation into an alignment. Intermittent evolution refers to extra substitutions occurring randomly on branches of a tree, thus changing alignment site patterns. This means that the extra substitutions are placed on the tree after the typical process of sequence evolution is completed. We then study the robustness of widely used phylogenetic methods: maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP), and a distance-based method (BIONJ) to various scenarios of model violation. Violation of rates across sites (RaS) heterogeneity and simultaneous violation of RaS and the transition/transversion ratio on two nonadjacent external branches hinder all the methods recovery of the true topology for a four-taxon tree. For an eight-taxon balanced tree, the violations cause each of the three methods to infer a different topology. Both ML and MP fail, whereas BIONJ, which calculates the distances based on the ML estimated parameters, reconstructs the true tree. Finally, we report that a test of model homogeneity and goodness of fit tests have enough power to detect such model violations. The outcome of the tests can help to actually gain confidence in the inferred trees. Therefore, we recommend using these tests in practical phylogenetic analyses.

  11. Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography amid shifting continents in the cockles and giant clams (Bivalvia: Cardiidae).

    PubMed

    Herrera, Nathanael D; Ter Poorten, Jan Johan; Bieler, Rüdiger; Mikkelsen, Paula M; Strong, Ellen E; Jablonski, David; Steppan, Scott J

    2015-12-01

    Reconstructing historical biogeography of the marine realm is complicated by indistinct barriers and, over deeper time scales, a dynamic landscape shaped by plate tectonics. Here we present the most extensive examination of model-based historical biogeography among marine invertebrates to date. We conducted the largest phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses to date for the bivalve family Cardiidae (cockles and giant clams) with three unlinked loci for 110 species representing 37 of the 50 genera. Ancestral ranges were reconstructed using the dispersal-extinction-cladogenesis (DEC) method with a time-stratified paleogeographic model wherein dispersal rates varied with shifting tectonics. Results were compared to previous classifications and the extensive paleontological record. Six of the eight prior subfamily groupings were found to be para- or polyphyletic. Cardiidae originated and subsequently diversified in the tropical Indo-Pacific starting in the Late Triassic. Eastern Atlantic species were mainly derived from the tropical Indo-Mediterranean region via the Tethys Sea. In contrast, the western Atlantic fauna was derived from Indo-Pacific clades. Our phylogenetic results demonstrated greater concordance with geography than did previous phylogenies based on morphology. Time-stratifying the DEC reconstruction improved the fit and was highly consistent with paleo-ocean currents and paleogeography. Lastly, combining molecular phylogenetics with a rich and well-documented fossil record allowed us to test the accuracy and precision of biogeographic range reconstructions. PMID:26234273

  12. Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography amid shifting continents in the cockles and giant clams (Bivalvia: Cardiidae).

    PubMed

    Herrera, Nathanael D; Ter Poorten, Jan Johan; Bieler, Rüdiger; Mikkelsen, Paula M; Strong, Ellen E; Jablonski, David; Steppan, Scott J

    2015-12-01

    Reconstructing historical biogeography of the marine realm is complicated by indistinct barriers and, over deeper time scales, a dynamic landscape shaped by plate tectonics. Here we present the most extensive examination of model-based historical biogeography among marine invertebrates to date. We conducted the largest phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses to date for the bivalve family Cardiidae (cockles and giant clams) with three unlinked loci for 110 species representing 37 of the 50 genera. Ancestral ranges were reconstructed using the dispersal-extinction-cladogenesis (DEC) method with a time-stratified paleogeographic model wherein dispersal rates varied with shifting tectonics. Results were compared to previous classifications and the extensive paleontological record. Six of the eight prior subfamily groupings were found to be para- or polyphyletic. Cardiidae originated and subsequently diversified in the tropical Indo-Pacific starting in the Late Triassic. Eastern Atlantic species were mainly derived from the tropical Indo-Mediterranean region via the Tethys Sea. In contrast, the western Atlantic fauna was derived from Indo-Pacific clades. Our phylogenetic results demonstrated greater concordance with geography than did previous phylogenies based on morphology. Time-stratifying the DEC reconstruction improved the fit and was highly consistent with paleo-ocean currents and paleogeography. Lastly, combining molecular phylogenetics with a rich and well-documented fossil record allowed us to test the accuracy and precision of biogeographic range reconstructions.

  13. Phylogenetic relationship of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) revealed by complete mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Ning, Yao; Liu, Hui; Jiang, Guangshun; Ma, Jianzhang

    2016-09-01

    The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is an Endangered species in northeast China. We first obtained muscle sample, extracted the sample DNA and sequenced the whole mtDNA genome of lynx from northeast China. We reconstructed the phylogenetic tree of Eurasian lynx and 10 other most closely related Felidae species. This lynx's complete mitogenome is 17 054bp in length, includes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and one control region. The phylogenetic tree confirmed previous research results.

  14. Phylogenetic relationship of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) revealed by complete mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Ning, Yao; Liu, Hui; Jiang, Guangshun; Ma, Jianzhang

    2016-09-01

    The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is an Endangered species in northeast China. We first obtained muscle sample, extracted the sample DNA and sequenced the whole mtDNA genome of lynx from northeast China. We reconstructed the phylogenetic tree of Eurasian lynx and 10 other most closely related Felidae species. This lynx's complete mitogenome is 17 054bp in length, includes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and one control region. The phylogenetic tree confirmed previous research results. PMID:26195214

  15. [Phylogenetic aspects of lip function].

    PubMed

    Brix, M; Ricbourg, B; Spitzer, W J

    2004-02-01

    Lips can be considered a phylogenic summary of nasolabial and facial muscle evolution. They represent the central point of facial morphogenesis. The progressive development of oral and facial functions is an elementary human necessity for feeding, suction, oral competence, swallowing, language, and mimics. Each discontinuity causes functional and anatomic disorders. Any damage to the lips creates facial unbalance. Precise knowledge of lip function is indispensable for optimal reconstruction.

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of the spirochetes.

    PubMed Central

    Paster, B J; Dewhirst, F E; Weisburg, W G; Tordoff, L A; Fraser, G J; Hespell, R B; Stanton, T B; Zablen, L; Mandelco, L; Woese, C R

    1991-01-01

    The 16S rRNA sequences were determined for species of Spirochaeta, Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira, Leptonema, and Serpula, using a modified Sanger method of direct RNA sequencing. Analysis of aligned 16S rRNA sequences indicated that the spirochetes form a coherent taxon composed of six major clusters or groups. The first group, termed the treponemes, was divided into two subgroups. The first treponeme subgroup consisted of Treponema pallidum, Treponema phagedenis, Treponema denticola, a thermophilic spirochete strain, and two species of Spirochaeta, Spirochaeta zuelzerae and Spirochaeta stenostrepta, with an average interspecies similarity of 89.9%. The second treponeme subgroup contained Treponema bryantii, Treponema pectinovorum, Treponema saccharophilum, Treponema succinifaciens, and rumen strain CA, with an average interspecies similarity of 86.2%. The average interspecies similarity between the two treponeme subgroups was 84.2%. The division of the treponemes into two subgroups was verified by single-base signature analysis. The second spirochete group contained Spirochaeta aurantia, Spirochaeta halophila, Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis, Spirochaeta litoralis, and Spirochaeta isovalerica, with an average similarity of 87.4%. The Spirochaeta group was related to the treponeme group, with an average similarity of 81.9%. The third spirochete group contained borrelias, including Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia anserina, Borrelia hermsii, and a rabbit tick strain. The borrelias formed a tight phylogenetic cluster, with average similarity of 97%. THe borrelia group shared a common branch with the Spirochaeta group and was closer to this group than to the treponemes. A single spirochete strain isolated fromt the shew constituted the fourth group. The fifth group was composed of strains of Serpula (Treponema) hyodysenteriae and Serpula (Treponema) innocens. The two species of this group were closely related, with a similarity of greater than 99%. Leptonema illini

  17. Uniformly high order accurate essentially non-oscillatory schemes 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harten, A.; Engquist, B.; Osher, S.; Chakravarthy, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper (a third in a series) the construction and the analysis of essentially non-oscillatory shock capturing methods for the approximation of hyperbolic conservation laws are presented. Also presented is a hierarchy of high order accurate schemes which generalizes Godunov's scheme and its second order accurate MUSCL extension to arbitrary order of accuracy. The design involves an essentially non-oscillatory piecewise polynomial reconstruction of the solution from its cell averages, time evolution through an approximate solution of the resulting initial value problem, and averaging of this approximate solution over each cell. The reconstruction algorithm is derived from a new interpolation technique that when applied to piecewise smooth data gives high-order accuracy whenever the function is smooth but avoids a Gibbs phenomenon at discontinuities. Unlike standard finite difference methods this procedure uses an adaptive stencil of grid points and consequently the resulting schemes are highly nonlinear.

  18. Phylogenetic organization of bacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Ember M; Mau, Rebecca L; Schwartz, Egbert; Caporaso, J Gregory; Dijkstra, Paul; van Gestel, Natasja; Koch, Benjamin J; Liu, Cindy M; Hayer, Michaela; McHugh, Theresa A; Marks, Jane C; Price, Lance B; Hungate, Bruce A

    2016-09-01

    Phylogeny is an ecologically meaningful way to classify plants and animals, as closely related taxa frequently have similar ecological characteristics, functional traits and effects on ecosystem processes. For bacteria, however, phylogeny has been argued to be an unreliable indicator of an organism's ecology owing to evolutionary processes more common to microbes such as gene loss and lateral gene transfer, as well as convergent evolution. Here we use advanced stable isotope probing with (13)C and (18)O to show that evolutionary history has ecological significance for in situ bacterial activity. Phylogenetic organization in the activity of bacteria sets the stage for characterizing the functional attributes of bacterial taxonomic groups. Connecting identity with function in this way will allow scientists to begin building a mechanistic understanding of how bacterial community composition regulates critical ecosystem functions.

  19. Phylogenetic organization of bacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Morrissey, Ember M; Mau, Rebecca L; Schwartz, Egbert; Caporaso, J Gregory; Dijkstra, Paul; van Gestel, Natasja; Koch, Benjamin J; Liu, Cindy M; Hayer, Michaela; McHugh, Theresa A; Marks, Jane C; Price, Lance B; Hungate, Bruce A

    2016-01-01

    Phylogeny is an ecologically meaningful way to classify plants and animals, as closely related taxa frequently have similar ecological characteristics, functional traits and effects on ecosystem processes. For bacteria, however, phylogeny has been argued to be an unreliable indicator of an organism's ecology owing to evolutionary processes more common to microbes such as gene loss and lateral gene transfer, as well as convergent evolution. Here we use advanced stable isotope probing with 13C and 18O to show that evolutionary history has ecological significance for in situ bacterial activity. Phylogenetic organization in the activity of bacteria sets the stage for characterizing the functional attributes of bacterial taxonomic groups. Connecting identity with function in this way will allow scientists to begin building a mechanistic understanding of how bacterial community composition regulates critical ecosystem functions. PMID:26943624

  20. Phylogenetic Patterns of Extinction Risk in the Eastern Arc Ecosystems, an African Biodiversity Hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Yessoufou, Kowiyou; Daru, Barnabas H.; Davies, T. Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    There is an urgent need to reduce drastically the rate at which biodiversity is declining worldwide. Phylogenetic methods are increasingly being recognised as providing a useful framework for predicting future losses, and guiding efforts for pre-emptive conservation actions. In this study, we used a reconstructed phylogenetic tree of angiosperm species of the Eastern Arc Mountains – an important African biodiversity hotspot – and described the distribution of extinction risk across taxonomic ranks and phylogeny. We provide evidence for both taxonomic and phylogenetic selectivity in extinction risk. However, we found that selectivity varies with IUCN extinction risk category. Vulnerable species are more closely related than expected by chance, whereas endangered and critically endangered species are not significantly clustered on the phylogeny. We suggest that the general observation for taxonomic and phylogenetic selectivity (i.e. phylogenetic signal, the tendency of closely related species to share similar traits) in extinction risks is therefore largely driven by vulnerable species, and not necessarily the most highly threatened. We also used information on altitudinal distribution and climate to generate a predictive model of at-risk species richness, and found that greater threatened species richness is found at higher altitude, allowing for more informed conservation decision making. Our results indicate that evolutionary history can help predict plant susceptibility to extinction threats in the hyper-diverse but woefully-understudied Eastern Arc Mountains, and illustrate the contribution of phylogenetic approaches in conserving African floristic biodiversity where detailed ecological and evolutionary data are often lacking. PMID:23056587

  1. Electronic noise modeling in statistical iterative reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingyan; Tsui, Benjamin M W

    2009-06-01

    We consider electronic noise modeling in tomographic image reconstruction when the measured signal is the sum of a Gaussian distributed electronic noise component and another random variable whose log-likelihood function satisfies a certain linearity condition. Examples of such likelihood functions include the Poisson distribution and an exponential dispersion (ED) model that can approximate the signal statistics in integration mode X-ray detectors. We formulate the image reconstruction problem as a maximum-likelihood estimation problem. Using an expectation-maximization approach, we demonstrate that a reconstruction algorithm can be obtained following a simple substitution rule from the one previously derived without electronic noise considerations. To illustrate the applicability of the substitution rule, we present examples of a fully iterative reconstruction algorithm and a sinogram smoothing algorithm both in transmission CT reconstruction when the measured signal contains additive electronic noise. Our simulation studies show the potential usefulness of accurate electronic noise modeling in low-dose CT applications.

  2. Reconstructing the anatomy of the 42-million-year-old fossil Mengea tertiaria (Insecta, Strepsiptera).

    PubMed

    Pohl, Hans; Wipfler, Benjamin; Grimaldi, David; Beckmann, Felix; Beutel, Rolf G

    2010-09-01

    Fossilization in amber is unique in preserving specimens with microscopic fidelity; however, arthropod inclusions are rarely examined beyond the exoskeleton as this requires destructive sampling when traditional techniques are used. We report the first complete, digital 3D, non-destructive reconstruction of the anatomy of an insect fossil, a specimen of Mengea tertiaria embedded in a 42-Ma Baltic amber. This was made possible using Synchrotron micro-CT. The species belongs to the stem group of the phylogenetically enigmatic and extremely specialized Strepsiptera. Most internal structures of the fossil are preserved, but small parts of the lumen had decayed due to incomplete infiltration of the resin. Data on internal organs provided additional information for resolving phylogenetic relationships. A sister group relationship between Mengea and all extant lineages of the group was confirmed with characters previously not accessible. The newly gained information also yielded some insights in the biology of Mengea and the early evolutionary history of Strepsiptera. The technique has a tremendous potential for a more accurate interpretation of diverse fossil arthropods preserved in ambers from 130 Ma to the present. PMID:20711557

  3. Reconstructing the anatomy of the 42-million-year-old fossil † Mengea tertiaria (Insecta, Strepsiptera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Hans; Wipfler, Benjamin; Grimaldi, David; Beckmann, Felix; Beutel, Rolf G.

    2010-09-01

    Fossilization in amber is unique in preserving specimens with microscopic fidelity; however, arthropod inclusions are rarely examined beyond the exoskeleton as this requires destructive sampling when traditional techniques are used. We report the first complete, digital 3D, non-destructive reconstruction of the anatomy of an insect fossil, a specimen of † Mengea tertiaria embedded in a 42-Ma Baltic amber. This was made possible using Synchrotron μ-CT. The species belongs to the stem group of the phylogenetically enigmatic and extremely specialized Strepsiptera. Most internal structures of the fossil are preserved, but small parts of the lumen had decayed due to incomplete infiltration of the resin. Data on internal organs provided additional information for resolving phylogenetic relationships. A sister group relationship between † Mengea and all extant lineages of the group was confirmed with characters previously not accessible. The newly gained information also yielded some insights in the biology of † Mengea and the early evolutionary history of Strepsiptera. The technique has a tremendous potential for a more accurate interpretation of diverse fossil arthropods preserved in ambers from 130 Ma to the present.

  4. Phylogenetic Signal Dissection Identifies the Root of Starfishes

    PubMed Central

    Feuda, Roberto; Smith, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    Relationships within the class Asteroidea have remained controversial for almost 100 years and, despite many attempts to resolve this problem using molecular data, no consensus has yet emerged. Using two nuclear genes and a taxon sampling covering the major asteroid clades we show that non-phylogenetic signal created by three factors - Long Branch Attraction, compositional heterogeneity and the use of poorly fitting models of evolution – have confounded accurate estimation of phylogenetic relationships. To overcome the effect of this non-phylogenetic signal we analyse the data using non-homogeneous models, site stripping and the creation of subpartitions aimed to reduce or amplify the systematic error, and calculate Bayes Factor support for a selection of previously suggested topological arrangements of asteroid orders. We show that most of the previous alternative hypotheses are not supported in the most reliable data partitions, including the previously suggested placement of either Forcipulatida or Paxillosida as sister group to the other major branches. The best-supported solution places Velatida as the sister group to other asteroids, and the implications of this finding for the morphological evolution of asteroids are presented. PMID:25955729

  5. Phylogenetic signal dissection identifies the root of starfishes.

    PubMed

    Feuda, Roberto; Smith, Andrew B

    2015-01-01

    Relationships within the class Asteroidea have remained controversial for almost 100 years and, despite many attempts to resolve this problem using molecular data, no consensus has yet emerged. Using two nuclear genes and a taxon sampling covering the major asteroid clades we show that non-phylogenetic signal created by three factors--Long Branch Attraction, compositional heterogeneity and the use of poorly fitting models of evolution--have confounded accurate estimation of phylogenetic relationships. To overcome the effect of this non-phylogenetic signal we analyse the data using non-homogeneous models, site stripping and the creation of subpartitions aimed to reduce or amplify the systematic error, and calculate Bayes Factor support for a selection of previously suggested topological arrangements of asteroid orders. We show that most of the previous alternative hypotheses are not supported in the most reliable data partitions, including the previously suggested placement of either Forcipulatida or Paxillosida as sister group to the other major branches. The best-supported solution places Velatida as the sister group to other asteroids, and the implications of this finding for the morphological evolution of asteroids are presented.

  6. Phylogenetic signal dissection identifies the root of starfishes.

    PubMed

    Feuda, Roberto; Smith, Andrew B

    2015-01-01

    Relationships within the class Asteroidea have remained controversial for almost 100 years and, despite many attempts to resolve this problem using molecular data, no consensus has yet emerged. Using two nuclear genes and a taxon sampling covering the major asteroid clades we show that non-phylogenetic signal created by three factors--Long Branch Attraction, compositional heterogeneity and the use of poorly fitting models of evolution--have confounded accurate estimation of phylogenetic relationships. To overcome the effect of this non-phylogenetic signal we analyse the data using non-homogeneous models, site stripping and the creation of subpartitions aimed to reduce or amplify the systematic error, and calculate Bayes Factor support for a selection of previously suggested topological arrangements of asteroid orders. We show that most of the previous alternative hypotheses are not supported in the most reliable data partitions, including the previously suggested placement of either Forcipulatida or Paxillosida as sister group to the other major branches. The best-supported solution places Velatida as the sister group to other asteroids, and the implications of this finding for the morphological evolution of asteroids are presented. PMID:25955729

  7. Progress, pitfalls and parallel universes: a history of insect phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Chris; Yavorskaya, Margarita; Beutel, Rolf G.

    2016-01-01

    The phylogeny of insects has been both extensively studied and vigorously debated for over a century. A relatively accurate deep phylogeny had been produced by 1904. It was not substantially improved in topology until recently when phylogenomics settled many long-standing controversies. Intervening advances came instead through methodological improvement. Early molecular phylogenetic studies (1985–2005), dominated by a few genes, provided datasets that were too small to resolve controversial phylogenetic problems. Adding to the lack of consensus, this period was characterized by a polarization of philosophies, with individuals belonging to either parsimony or maximum-likelihood camps; each largely ignoring the insights of the other. The result was an unfortunate detour in which the few perceived phylogenetic revolutions published by both sides of the philosophical divide were probably erroneous. The size of datasets has been growing exponentially since the mid-1980s accompanied by a wave of confidence that all relationships will soon be known. However, large datasets create new challenges, and a large number of genes does not guarantee reliable results. If history is a guide, then the quality of conclusions will be determined by an improved understanding of both molecular and morphological evolution, and not simply the number of genes analysed. PMID:27558853

  8. Progress, pitfalls and parallel universes: a history of insect phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Kjer, Karl M; Simon, Chris; Yavorskaya, Margarita; Beutel, Rolf G

    2016-08-01

    The phylogeny of insects has been both extensively studied and vigorously debated for over a century. A relatively accurate deep phylogeny had been produced by 1904. It was not substantially improved in topology until recently when phylogenomics settled many long-standing controversies. Intervening advances came instead through methodological improvement. Early molecular phylogenetic studies (1985-2005), dominated by a few genes, provided datasets that were too small to resolve controversial phylogenetic problems. Adding to the lack of consensus, this period was characterized by a polarization of philosophies, with individuals belonging to either parsimony or maximum-likelihood camps; each largely ignoring the insights of the other. The result was an unfortunate detour in which the few perceived phylogenetic revolutions published by both sides of the philosophical divide were probably erroneous. The size of datasets has been growing exponentially since the mid-1980s accompanied by a wave of confidence that all relationships will soon be known. However, large datasets create new challenges, and a large number of genes does not guarantee reliable results. If history is a guide, then the quality of conclusions will be determined by an improved understanding of both molecular and morphological evolution, and not simply the number of genes analysed. PMID:27558853

  9. A molecular analysis of the phylogenetic affinities of Saccoglossus cambrensis Brambell & Cole (Hemichordata).

    PubMed

    Holland, P W; Hacker, A M; Williams, N A

    1991-06-29

    Traditional approaches to phylogeny reconstruction have not allowed precise resolution of the evolutionary relationships between the major deuterostome phyla (chordates, hemichordates, echinoderms). Here we report the use of a molecular approach to investigate deuterostome phylogeny. We have used a polymerase chain reaction-based strategy to amplify, clone and sequence parts of the genes coding for 18S ribosomal RNA from Saccoglossus cambrensis (Hemichordata), Arbacia sp. (Echinodermata) and, for comparison, Mytilus edulis (Mollusca). We report the results of phylogenetic reconstructions using these, and homologous sequences from other eukaryotes. The results of our analyses are consistent with the hypothesis that S. cambrensis and vertebrates share a common ancestor not shared by echinoderms. PMID:1680236

  10. A molecular analysis of the phylogenetic affinities of Saccoglossus cambrensis Brambell & Cole (Hemichordata).

    PubMed

    Holland, P W; Hacker, A M; Williams, N A

    1991-06-29

    Traditional approaches to phylogeny reconstruction have not allowed precise resolution of the evolutionary relationships between the major deuterostome phyla (chordates, hemichordates, echinoderms). Here we report the use of a molecular approach to investigate deuterostome phylogeny. We have used a polymerase chain reaction-based strategy to amplify, clone and sequence parts of the genes coding for 18S ribosomal RNA from Saccoglossus cambrensis (Hemichordata), Arbacia sp. (Echinodermata) and, for comparison, Mytilus edulis (Mollusca). We report the results of phylogenetic reconstructions using these, and homologous sequences from other eukaryotes. The results of our analyses are consistent with the hypothesis that S. cambrensis and vertebrates share a common ancestor not shared by echinoderms.

  11. Strong phylogenetic inertia on genome size and transposable element content among 26 species of flies.

    PubMed

    Sessegolo, Camille; Burlet, Nelly; Haudry, Annabelle

    2016-08-01

    While the evolutionary mechanisms driving eukaryote genome size evolution are still debated, repeated element content appears to be crucial. Here, we reconstructed the phylogeny and identified repeats in the genome of 26 Drosophila exhibiting a twofold variation in genome size. The content in transposable elements (TEs) is highly correlated to genome size evolution among these closely related species. We detected a strong phylogenetic signal on the evolution of both genome size and TE content, and a genome contraction in the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup.

  12. Evolution of social organization: a reappraisal for primates by using phylogenetic methods.

    PubMed Central

    Di Fiore, A; Rendall, D

    1994-01-01

    For many animal taxa, the extent to which phylogeny can account for the form of species' social systems has seldom been investigated formally. A quantitative phylogenetic analysis of social systems in the order Primates reveals that social organization may be strongly conserved in some lineages, even in the face of considerable ecological variability. This result has important implications for efforts to understand the evolution of animal societies and for attempts to reconstruct the social organization of early humans. PMID:7937922

  13. Using DNA barcoding and phylogenetics to identify Antarctic invertebrate larvae: Lessons from a large scale study.

    PubMed

    Heimeier, Dorothea; Lavery, Shane; Sewell, Mary A

    2010-01-01

    Ecological studies of the diversity and distribution of marine planktonic larvae are increasingly depending on molecular methods for accurate taxonomic identification. The greater coverage of reference marine species on genetic databases such as GenBank and BoLD (Barcoding of Life Data Systems; www.boldystems.org); together with the decreasing costs for DNA sequencing have made large scale larval identification studies using molecular methods more feasible. Here, we present the development and implementation of a practical molecular approach to identify over 2000 individual marine invertebrate larvae that were collected in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, during the austral summer over five years (2002-2007) as part of the LGP (Latitudinal Gradient Project). Larvae for molecular ID were morphologically identified to belong to the Phyla Mollusca, Echinodermata, Nemertea and Annelida (Class Polychaeta), but also included unidentified early developmental stages which could not be assigned a specific taxon (e.g., eggs, blastulae). The use of a 100μm mesh plankton net makes this one of the first larval identification studies to simultaneously consider both embryos and larvae. Molecular identification methods included amplification of up to three molecular loci for each specimen, a pre-identification step using BLAST with GenBank, phylogenetic reconstructions and cross-validation of assigned Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs). This combined approach of morphological and molecular methods assigned about 700 individuals to 53 MOTUs, which were identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. During the course of this long-term study we identified several procedural difficulties, including issues with the collection of larvae, locus amplification, contamination, assignment and validation of MOTUs. The practical guidelines that we describe here should greatly assist other researchers to conduct reliable molecular identification studies of larvae in the future.

  14. Exploring the topology of dynamical reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, Joshua; Bradley, Elizabeth; Meiss, James D.

    2016-11-01

    Computing the state-space topology of a dynamical system from scalar data requires accurate reconstruction of those dynamics and construction of an appropriate simplicial complex from the results. The reconstruction process involves a number of free parameters and the computation of homology for a large number of simplices can be expensive. This paper is a study of how to compute the homology efficiently and effectively without a full (diffeomorphic) reconstruction. Using trajectories from the classic Lorenz system, we reconstruct the dynamics using the method of delays, then build a simplicial complex whose vertices are a small subset of the data: the "witness complex". Surprisingly, we find that the witness complex correctly resolves the homology of the underlying invariant set from noisy samples of that set even if the reconstruction dimension is well below the thresholds for assuring topological conjugacy between the true and reconstructed dynamics that are specified in the embedding theorems. We conjecture that this is because the requirements for reconstructing homology are less stringent: a homeomorphism is sufficient-as opposed to a diffeomorphism, as is necessary for the full dynamics. We provide preliminary evidence that a homeomorphism, in the form of a delay-coordinate reconstruction map, may exist at a lower dimension than that required to achieve an embedding.

  15. Phylogenetic mapping of bacterial morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siefert, J. L.; Fox, G. E.

    1998-01-01

    The availability of a meaningful molecular phylogeny for bacteria provides a context for examining the historical significance of various developments in bacterial evolution. Herein, the classical morphological descriptions of selected members of the domain Bacteria are mapped upon the genealogical ancestry deduced from comparison of small-subunit rRNA sequences. For the species examined in this study, a distinct pattern emerges which indicates that the coccus shape has arisen and accumulated independently multiple times in separate lineages and typically survived as a persistent end-state morphology. At least two other morphologies persist but have evolved only once. This study demonstrates that although bacterial morphology is not useful in defining bacterial phylogeny, it is remarkably consistent with that phylogeny once it is known. An examination of the experimental evidence available for morphogenesis as well as microbial fossil evidence corroborates these findings. It is proposed that the accumulation of persistent morphologies is a result of the biophysical properties of peptidoglycan and their genetic control, and that an evolved body-plan strategy based on peptidoglycan may have been a fate-sealing step in the evolution of Bacteria. More generally, this study illustrates that significant evolutionary insights can be obtained by examining biological and biochemical data in the context of a reliable phylogenetic structure.

  16. Phylogenetic relationships of Darwin's "Mr. Arthrobalanus": The burrowing barnacles (Cirripedia: Acrothoracica).

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiu-Chin; Kobasov, Gregory A; Chan, Benny K K

    2016-07-01

    The barnacles of the superorder Acrothoracica are small, burrowing, epibiotic, and dioecious (large female with dwarf male) crustaceans largely found in the carbonate sediments and skeletons of marine invertebrates. The acrothoracicans represent the Cirripedia with the most plesiomorphic characters and have prominently featured in phylogenetic speculations concerning these crustaceans. Traditionally, Acrothoracica was divided into two main orders, Pygophora and Apygophora. The Apygophora had uniramus cirri and no anus. The Pygophora had biramus terminal cirri and an anus and was further divided into two families, Lithoglyptidae and Cryptophialidae. Kolbasov (2009) revised the superorder Acrothoracica on the basis of morphological examinations of females, dwarf males, and cyprids and rearranged the acrothoracican species into two new orders, Lithoglyptida and Cryptophialida. The present study is the first attempt to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of acrothoracican barnacles by sequencing two mitochondrial (cytochrome C oxidase I and 16S ribosomal DNA) and two nuclear (18S ribosomal DNA and histone H3) markers of 8 of the 11 genera comprising 23 acrothoracican species. All monophylies of the eight acrothoracican genera sampled in this study were strongly supported. The deep interfamilial relationship constructed is consistent with the recent morphological phylogenetic relationship proposed by Kolbasov, Newman, and Høeg (Kolbasov, 2009) that Cryptophialidae (order Cryptophialida) is the sister group to all other acrothoracicans (order Lithoglyptida). According to an ancestral character state reconstruction analysis, the posterior lobes of females; armament of opercular bars, attachment stalk, lateral projections of the body, and aperture slits in dwarf males; and habitat use appear to have phylogenetic importance.

  17. Multiple Lines of Evidence from Mitochondrial Genomes Resolve Phylogenetic Relationships of Parasitic Wasps in Braconidae.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Wei, Shu-Jun; Tang, Pu; Wu, Qiong; Shi, Min; Sharkey, Michael J; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The rapid increase in the number of mitochondrial genomes in public databases provides opportunities for insect phylogenetic studies; but it also provides challenges because of gene rearrangements and variable substitution rates among both lineages and sites. Typically, phylogenetic studies use mitochondrial sequence data but exclude other features of the mitochondrial genome from analyses. Here, we undertook large-scale sequencing of mitochondrial genomes from a worldwide collection of specimens belonging to Braconidae, one of the largest families of Metazoa. The strand-asymmetry of base composition in the mitochondrial genomes of braconids is reversed, providing evidence for monophyly of the Braconidae. We have reconstructed a backbone phylogeny of the major lineages of Braconidae from gene order of the mitochondrial genomes. Standard phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences provided strong support for both Cyclostomes and Noncyclostomes. Four subfamily complexes, that is, helconoid, euphoroid, sigalphoid, and microgastroid, within the Noncyclostomes were reconstructed robustly, the first three of which formed a monophyletic group sister to the last one. Aphidiinae was recovered as a lineage sister to other groups of Cyclostomes, while the Ichneutinae was recovered as paraphyletic. Separate analyses of the subdivided groups showed congruent relationships, employing different matrices and methods, for the internal nodes of the Cyclostomes and the microgastroid complex of subfamilies. This research, using multiple lines of evidence from mitochondrial genomes, illustrates multiple uses of mitochondrial genomes for phylogenetic inference in Braconidae. PMID:27503293

  18. Phylogenetic fields of species: cross-species patterns of phylogenetic structure and geographical coexistence.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Fabricio; Rangel, Thiago F; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre F

    2013-04-01

    Differential coexistence among species underlies geographical patterns of biodiversity. Understanding such patterns has relied either on ecological or historical approaches applied separately. Recently, macroecology and community phylogenetics have tried to integrate both ecological and historical approaches. However, macroecology is mostly non-phylogenetic, whereas community phylogenetics is largely focused on local scales. Here, we propose a conceptual framework to link macroecology and community phylogenetics by exploring the evolutionary context of large-scale species coexistence, introducing the phylogenetic field concept. This is defined as the phylogenetic structure of species co-occurrence within a focal species' geographical range. We developed concepts and methods for analysing phylogenetic fields and applied them to study coexistence patterns of the bat family Phyllostomidae. Our analyses showed that phyllostomid bats coexist mostly with closely related species, revealing a north-south gradient from overdispersed to clustered phylogenetic fields. Patterns at different phylogenetic levels (i.e. all species versus close relatives only) presented the same gradient. Results support the tropical niche conservatism hypothesis, potentially mediated by higher speciation rates in the region of origin coupled with shared environmental preferences among species. The phylogenetic field approach enables species-based community phylogenetics, instead of those that are site-based, allowing the description of historical processes at more appropriate macroecological and biogeographic scales.

  19. A high order accurate difference scheme for complex flow fields

    SciTech Connect

    Dexun Fu; Yanwen Ma

    1997-06-01

    A high order accurate finite difference method for direct numerical simulation of coherent structure in the mixing layers is presented. The reason for oscillation production in numerical solutions is analyzed. It is caused by a nonuniform group velocity of wavepackets. A method of group velocity control for the improvement of the shock resolution is presented. In numerical simulation the fifth-order accurate upwind compact difference relation is used to approximate the derivatives in the convection terms of the compressible N-S equations, a sixth-order accurate symmetric compact difference relation is used to approximate the viscous terms, and a three-stage R-K method is used to advance in time. In order to improve the shock resolution the scheme is reconstructed with the method of diffusion analogy which is used to control the group velocity of wavepackets. 18 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of modularity in protein interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Erten, Sinan; Li, Xin; Bebek, Gurkan; Li, Jing; Koyutürk, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Background In systems biology, comparative analyses of molecular interactions across diverse species indicate that conservation and divergence of networks can be used to understand functional evolution from a systems perspective. A key characteristic of these networks is their modularity, which contributes significantly to their robustness, as well as adaptability. Consequently, analysis of modular network structures from a phylogenetic perspective may be useful in understanding the emergence, conservation, and diversification of functional modularity. Results In this paper, we propose a phylogenetic framework for analyzing network modules, with applications that extend well beyond network-based phylogeny reconstruction. Our approach is based on identification of modular network components from each network separately, followed by projection of these modules onto the networks of other species to compare different networks. Subsequently, we use the conservation of various modules in each network to assess the similarity between different networks. Compared to traditional methods that rely on topological comparisons, our approach has key advantages in (i) avoiding intractable graph comparison problems in comparative network analysis, (ii) accounting for noise and missing data through flexible treatment of network conservation, and (iii) providing insights on the evolution of biological systems through investigation of the evolutionary trajectories of network modules. We test our method, MOPHY, on synthetic data generated by simulation of network evolution, as well as existing protein-protein interaction data for seven diverse species. Comprehensive experimental results show that MOPHY is promising in reconstructing evolutionary histories of extant networks based on conservation of modularity, it is highly robust to noise, and outperforms existing methods that quantify network similarity in terms of conservation of network topology. Conclusion These results establish

  1. Analysis of Acorus calamus chloroplast genome and its phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Goremykin, Vadim V; Holland, Barbara; Hirsch-Ernst, Karen I; Hellwig, Frank H

    2005-09-01

    Determining the phylogenetic relationships among the major lines of angiosperms is a long-standing problem, yet the uncertainty as to the phylogenetic affinity of these lines persists. While a number of studies have suggested that the ANITA (Amborella-Nymphaeales-Illiciales-Trimeniales-Aristolochiales) grade is basal within angiosperms, studies of complete chloroplast genome sequences also suggested an alternative tree, wherein the line leading to the grasses branches first among the angiosperms. To improve taxon sampling in the existing chloroplast genome data, we sequenced the chloroplast genome of the monocot Acorus calamus. We generated a concatenated alignment (89,436 positions for 15 taxa), encompassing almost all sequences usable for phylogeny reconstruction within spermatophytes. The data still contain support for both the ANITA-basal and grasses-basal hypotheses. Using simulations we can show that were the ANITA-basal hypothesis true, parsimony (and distance-based methods with many models) would be expected to fail to recover it. The self-evident explanation for this failure appears to be a long-branch attraction (LBA) between the clade of grasses and the out-group. However, this LBA cannot explain the discrepancies observed between tree topology recovered using the maximum likelihood (ML) method and the topologies recovered using the parsimony and distance-based methods when grasses are deleted. Furthermore, the fact that neither maximum parsimony nor distance methods consistently recover the ML tree, when according to the simulations they would be expected to, when the out-group (Pinus) is deleted, suggests that either the generating tree is not correct or the best symmetric model is misspecified (or both). We demonstrate that the tree recovered under ML is extremely sensitive to model specification and that the best symmetric model is misspecified. Hence, we remain agnostic regarding phylogenetic relationships among basal angiosperm lineages.

  2. Profitable capitation requires accurate costing.

    PubMed

    West, D A; Hicks, L L; Balas, E A; West, T D

    1996-01-01

    In the name of costing accuracy, nurses are asked to track inventory use on per treatment basis when more significant costs, such as general overhead and nursing salaries, are usually allocated to patients or treatments on an average cost basis. Accurate treatment costing and financial viability require analysis of all resources actually consumed in treatment delivery, including nursing services and inventory. More precise costing information enables more profitable decisions as is demonstrated by comparing the ratio-of-cost-to-treatment method (aggregate costing) with alternative activity-based costing methods (ABC). Nurses must participate in this costing process to assure that capitation bids are based upon accurate costs rather than simple averages. PMID:8788799

  3. Why the phylogenetic species concept?-Elementary.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Q D

    1999-06-01

    Although species play a number of unique and necessary roles in biology, none are more important than as the elements of phylogeny, nomenclature, and biodiversity study. Species are not divisible into any smaller units among which shared derived characters can be recognized with fidelity. Biodiversity inventory, assessment, and conservation are dependent upon a uniformly applicable species concept. Species are the fundamental units in formal Linnaean classification and zoological nomenclature. The Biological Species Concept, long given nominal support by most zoologists, forced an essentialy taxonomic problem (what are species?) into a population genetics framework (why are there species?). Early efforts at a phylogenetic species concept focused on correcting problems in the Biological Species Concept associated with ancestral populations, then applying phylogenetic logic to species themselves. Subsequently, Eldredge and Cracraft, and Nelson and Platnick, each proposed essentially identical and truly phylogenetic species concepts that permitted the rigorous recognition of species prior to and for the purposes of phylogenetic analysis, yet maintained the integrity of the Phylogenetic Species Concept outside of cladistic analysis. Such phylogenetic elements have many benefits, including giving to biology a unit species concept applicable across all kinds of living things including sexual and asexual forms. This is possible because the Phylogenetic Species Concept is based on patterns of character distributions and is therefore consistent with the full range of possible evolutionary processes that contribute to species formation, including both biotic and abiotic (even random) factors. PMID:19270883

  4. A close phylogenetic relationship between Sipuncula and Annelida evidenced from the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Phascolosoma esculenta

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xin; Ma, Xiaoyin; Ren, Jianfeng; Zhao, Fangqing

    2009-01-01

    Background There are many advantages to the application of complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes in the accurate reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in Metazoa. Although over one thousand metazoan genomes have been sequenced, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased, left with many phyla without a single representative of complete mitochondrial genome. Sipuncula (peanut worms or star worms) is a small taxon of worm-like marine organisms with an uncertain phylogenetic position. In this report, we present the mitochondrial genome sequence of Phascolosoma esculenta, the first complete mitochondrial genome of the phylum. Results The mitochondrial genome of P.esculenta is 15,494 bp in length. The coding strand consists of 32.1% A, 21.5% C, 13.0% G, and 33.4% T bases (AT = 65.5%; AT skew = -0.019; GC skew = -0.248). It contains thirteen protein-coding genes (PCGs) with 3,709 codons in total, twenty-two transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region (AT = 74.2%). All of the 37 identified genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand. Compared with the typical set of metazoan mt genomes, sipunculid lacks trnR but has an additional trnM. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses of the protein sequences show that Myzostomida, Sipuncula and Annelida (including echiurans and pogonophorans) form a monophyletic group, which supports a closer relationship between Sipuncula and Annelida than with Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and some other lophotrochozoan groups. Conclusion This is the first report of a complete mitochondrial genome as a representative within the phylum Sipuncula. It shares many more similar features with the four known annelid and one echiuran mtDNAs. Firstly, sipunculans and annelids share quite similar gene order in the mitochondrial genome, with all 37 genes located on the same strand; secondly, phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated protein sequences also strongly support the sipunculan + annelid clade (including

  5. Evolutionary history of tall fescue morphotypes inferred from molecular phylogenetics of the Lolium-Festuca species complex

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The agriculturally important pasture grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. syn. Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.) is an outbreeding allohexaploid, that may be more accurately described as a species complex consisting of three major (Continental, Mediterranean and rhizomatous) morphotypes. Observation of hybrid infertility in some crossing combinations between morphotypes suggests the possibility of independent origins from different diploid progenitors. This study aims to clarify the evolutionary relationships between each tall fescue morphotype through phylogenetic analysis using two low-copy nuclear genes (encoding plastid acetyl-CoA carboxylase [Acc1] and centroradialis [CEN]), the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS) and the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) genome-located matK gene. Other taxa within the closely related Lolium-Festuca species complex were also included in the study, to increase understanding of evolutionary processes in a taxonomic group characterised by multiple inter-specific hybridisation events. Results Putative homoeologous sequences from both nuclear genes were obtained from each polyploid species and compared to counterparts from 15 diploid taxa. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed F. pratensis and F. arundinacea var. glaucescens as probable progenitors to Continental tall fescue, and these species are also likely to be ancestral to the rhizomatous morphotype. However, these two morphotypes are sufficiently distinct to be located in separate clades based on the ITS-derived data set. All four of the generated data sets suggest independent evolution of the Mediterranean and Continental morphotypes, with minimal affinity between cognate sequence haplotypes. No obvious candidate progenitor species for Mediterranean tall fescues were identified, and only two putative sub-genome-specific haplotypes were identified for this morphotype. Conclusions This study describes the first phylogenetic analysis of

  6. Phylogenetic relationships among subsurface microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress made from 6/90--3/91 toward completion of our project, Phylogenetic Relationships among subsurface microorganisms. 16S rRNA was sequenced, and based on the sequence the SMCC isolates were assigned to preliminary groups. Microorganisms were obtained at various depths at the Savannah River Site, including the Surface (0 m), Congaree (91 m), and Middendorf (244 m, 259 m, 265 m). Sequence data from four isolates from the Congaree formation indicate these microorganisms can be divided into Pseudomonas spp. or Acinetobacter spp. Three 16S rRNA probes were synthesized based on sequence data. The synthesized probes were tested through in situ hybridization. Optimal conditions for in situ hybridization were determined. Because stability of RNA-DNA hybrids is dependent on hybridization stringency, related organisms can be differentiated using a single probe under different strigencies. The results of these hybridizations agree with results obtained by Balkwill and Reeves using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The RNA content of a cell reflects its metabolic state. Cells which are starved for four days are not detectable with the homologous 16S rRNA probe. However, within 15 minutes of refeeding, detectable rRNA appeared. This suggests that organisms which are undetectable in environmental samples due to starvation may be detectable after addition of nutrients. Stepwise addition of specific nutrients could indicate which nutrients are rate limiting for growth. Preliminary experiments with soil samples from the Hanford Site indicate indigenous microorganisms can be detected by oligionucleotide probes. Further, using multiple probes based on universal sequences increases the number of organisms detected. Double label experiments, using a rhodamine-labelled oligionucleotide probe with free coumarin succinimidyl ester will allow simultaneous detection of total bacteria and specific 16S rRNA containing bacteria. 4 tabs. (MHB)

  7. A phylogenetic model for understanding the effect of gene duplication on cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qin; Reeves, Jaxk H; Liberles, David A; Yu, Lili; Chang, Zheng; Zhao, Jing; Cui, Juan; Xu, Ying; Liu, Liang

    2014-03-01

    As biotechnology advances rapidly, a tremendous amount of cancer genetic data has become available, providing an unprecedented opportunity for understanding the genetic mechanisms of cancer. To understand the effects of duplications and deletions on cancer progression, two genomes (normal and tumor) were sequenced from each of five stomach cancer patients in different stages (I, II, III and IV). We developed a phylogenetic model for analyzing stomach cancer data. The model assumes that duplication and deletion occur in accordance with a continuous time Markov Chain along the branches of a phylogenetic tree attached with five extended branches leading to the tumor genomes. Moreover, coalescence times of the phylogenetic tree follow a coalescence process. The simulation study suggests that the maximum likelihood approach can accurately estimate parameters in the phylogenetic model. The phylogenetic model was applied to the stomach cancer data. We found that the expected number of changes (duplication and deletion) per gene for the tumor genomes is significantly higher than that for the normal genomes. The goodness-of-fit test suggests that the phylogenetic model with constant duplication and deletion rates can adequately fit the duplication data for the normal genomes. The analysis found nine duplicated genes that are significantly associated with stomach cancer. PMID:24371277

  8. A phylogenetic model for understanding the effect of gene duplication on cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qin; Reeves, Jaxk H.; Liberles, David A.; Yu, Lili; Chang, Zheng; Zhao, Jing; Cui, Juan; Xu, Ying; Liu, Liang

    2014-01-01

    As biotechnology advances rapidly, a tremendous amount of cancer genetic data has become available, providing an unprecedented opportunity for understanding the genetic mechanisms of cancer. To understand the effects of duplications and deletions on cancer progression, two genomes (normal and tumor) were sequenced from each of five stomach cancer patients in different stages (I, II, III and IV). We developed a phylogenetic model for analyzing stomach cancer data. The model assumes that duplication and deletion occur in accordance with a continuous time Markov Chain along the branches of a phylogenetic tree attached with five extended branches leading to the tumor genomes. Moreover, coalescence times of the phylogenetic tree follow a coalescence process. The simulation study suggests that the maximum likelihood approach can accurately estimate parameters in the phylogenetic model. The phylogenetic model was applied to the stomach cancer data. We found that the expected number of changes (duplication and deletion) per gene for the tumor genomes is significantly higher than that for the normal genomes. The goodness-of-fit test suggests that the phylogenetic model with constant duplication and deletion rates can adequately fit the duplication data for the normal genomes. The analysis found nine duplicated genes that are significantly associated with stomach cancer. PMID:24371277

  9. Neuromagnetic source reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.S.; Mosher, J.C.; Leahy, R.M.

    1994-12-31

    In neuromagnetic source reconstruction, a functional map of neural activity is constructed from noninvasive magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements. The overall reconstruction problem is under-determined, so some form of source modeling must be applied. We review the two main classes of reconstruction techniques-parametric current dipole models and nonparametric distributed source reconstructions. Current dipole reconstructions use a physically plausible source model, but are limited to cases in which the neural currents are expected to be highly sparse and localized. Distributed source reconstructions can be applied to a wider variety of cases, but must incorporate an implicit source, model in order to arrive at a single reconstruction. We examine distributed source reconstruction in a Bayesian framework to highlight the implicit nonphysical Gaussian assumptions of minimum norm based reconstruction algorithms. We conclude with a brief discussion of alternative non-Gaussian approachs.

  10. On Tree-Based Phylogenetic Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Louxin

    2016-07-01

    A large class of phylogenetic networks can be obtained from trees by the addition of horizontal edges between the tree edges. These networks are called tree-based networks. We present a simple necessary and sufficient condition for tree-based networks and prove that a universal tree-based network exists for any number of taxa that contains as its base every phylogenetic tree on the same set of taxa. This answers two problems posted by Francis and Steel recently. A byproduct is a computer program for generating random binary phylogenetic networks under the uniform distribution model.

  11. [Conditionally neutral phylogenetic markers of major taxa: a new aspect of the evolution of macromolecules].

    PubMed

    Petrov, N B; Aleshin, V V

    2002-08-01

    The current phase of molecular phylogenetics can be named the 18S rRNA gene era, which is now approaching the end. To date, almost all phyla of metazoans and many taxa of protists are represented in databases of 18S rRNA gene sequences. The elements of the phylogenetic tree of Metazoa inferred from 18S rRNA genes are characterized by unequal validity: some of them seem to be well grounded; others are not adequately supported, and probably will be revised later. The validity of phylogenetic reconstruction is influenced by two main factors: (1) erroneous grouping of long branches that occur because of abnormally high evolution rate; (2) deficit of phylogenetically informative characters. A method for overcoming these difficulties is suggested in addition to known tools: using phylogenetic markers that are stable within individual taxa and evolve by punctuated equilibrium. These markers are least influenced by the convergence caused by a high evolution rate of the entire gene. The nature of these markers of ancient taxa, paradoxical from the perspective of neutral evolution, is discussed, as well as their importance for establishing monophyly of both new large-scale taxonomic groups of invertebrates (Bilateria + Rhombozoa + Orthonectida + Myxozoa + Cnidaria + Placozoa and Echinodermata + Hemichordata) and some major taxa of Nematoda. PMID:12244690

  12. Phylogenetic analysis accounting for age-dependent death and sampling with applications to epidemics.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Amaury; Alexander, Helen K; Stadler, Tanja

    2014-07-01

    The reconstruction of phylogenetic trees based on viral genetic sequence data sequentially sampled from an epidemic provides estimates of the past transmission dynamics, by fitting epidemiological models to these trees. To our knowledge, none of the epidemiological models currently used in phylogenetics can account for recovery rates and sampling rates dependent on the time elapsed since transmission, i.e. age of infection. Here we introduce an epidemiological model where infectives leave the epidemic, by either recovery or sampling, after some random time which may follow an arbitrary distribution. We derive an expression for the likelihood of the phylogenetic tree of sampled infectives under our general epidemiological model. The analytic concept developed in this paper will facilitate inference of past epidemiological dynamics and provide an analytical framework for performing very efficient simulations of phylogenetic trees under our model. The main idea of our analytic study is that the non-Markovian epidemiological model giving rise to phylogenetic trees growing vertically as time goes by can be represented by a Markovian "coalescent point process" growing horizontally by the sequential addition of pairs of coalescence and sampling times. As examples, we discuss two special cases of our general model, described in terms of influenza and HIV epidemics. Though phrased in epidemiological terms, our framework can also be used for instance to fit macroevolutionary models to phylogenies of extant and extinct species, accounting for general species lifetime distributions. PMID:24607743

  13. Genomic Mining of Phylogenetically Informative Nuclear Markers in Bark and Ambrosia Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Pistone, Dario; Mugu, Sigrid; Jordal, Bjarte Henry

    2016-01-01

    Deep level insect relationships are generally difficult to resolve, especially within taxa of the most diverse and species rich holometabolous orders. In beetles, the major diversity occurs in the Phytophaga, including charismatic groups such as leaf beetles, longhorn beetles and weevils. Bark and ambrosia beetles are wood boring weevils that contribute 12 percent of the diversity encountered in Curculionidae, one of the largest families of beetles with more than 50000 described species. Phylogenetic resolution in groups of Cretaceous age has proven particularly difficult and requires large quantity of data. In this study, we investigated 100 nuclear genes in order to select a number of markers with low evolutionary rates and high phylogenetic signal. A PCR screening using degenerate primers was applied to 26 different weevil species. We obtained sequences from 57 of the 100 targeted genes. Sequences from each nuclear marker were aligned and examined for detecting multiple copies, pseudogenes and introns. Phylogenetic informativeness (PI) and the capacity for reconstruction of previously established phylogenetic relationships were used as proxies for selecting a subset of the 57 amplified genes. Finally, we selected 16 markers suitable for large-scale phylogenetics of Scolytinae and related weevil taxa. PMID:27668729

  14. [Conditionally neutral phylogenetic markers of major taxa: a new aspect of the evolution of macromolecules].

    PubMed

    Petrov, N B; Aleshin, V V

    2002-08-01

    The current phase of molecular phylogenetics can be named the 18S rRNA gene era, which is now approaching the end. To date, almost all phyla of metazoans and many taxa of protists are represented in databases of 18S rRNA gene sequences. The elements of the phylogenetic tree of Metazoa inferred from 18S rRNA genes are characterized by unequal validity: some of them seem to be well grounded; others are not adequately supported, and probably will be revised later. The validity of phylogenetic reconstruction is influenced by two main factors: (1) erroneous grouping of long branches that occur because of abnormally high evolution rate; (2) deficit of phylogenetically informative characters. A method for overcoming these difficulties is suggested in addition to known tools: using phylogenetic markers that are stable within individual taxa and evolve by punctuated equilibrium. These markers are least influenced by the convergence caused by a high evolution rate of the entire gene. The nature of these markers of ancient taxa, paradoxical from the perspective of neutral evolution, is discussed, as well as their importance for establishing monophyly of both new large-scale taxonomic groups of invertebrates (Bilateria + Rhombozoa + Orthonectida + Myxozoa + Cnidaria + Placozoa and Echinodermata + Hemichordata) and some major taxa of Nematoda.

  15. Phylogenetic utility of nuclear introns in interfamilial relationships of Caniformia (order Carnivora).

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Luan, Peng-Tao; Jin, Wei; Ryder, Oliver A; Chemnick, Leona G; Davis, Heidi A; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2011-03-01

    The monophyletic group Caniformia (dog-like carnivores) in the order Carnivora comprises 9 families. Except for the general consensus for the earliest divergence of Canidae and the grouping of Procyonidae and Mustelidae, conflicting phylogenetic hypotheses exist for the other caniformian families. In the present study, a data set comprising > 22 kb of 22 nuclear intron loci from 16 caniformian species is used to investigate the phylogenetic utility of nuclear introns in resolving the interfamilial relationships of Caniformia. Our phylogenetic analyses support Ailuridae as the sister taxon to a clade containing Procyonidae and Mustelidae, with Mephitinae being the sister taxon to all of them. The unresolved placements of Ursidae and Pinnipeds here emphasize a need to add more data and include more taxa to resolve this problem. The present study not only resolves some of the ambiguous relationships in Caniformia phylogeny but also shows that the noncoding nuclear markers can offer powerful complementary data for estimating the species tree. None of the newly developed introns here have previously been used for phylogeny reconstruction, thus increasing the spectrum of molecular markers available to mammalian systematics. Interestingly, all the newly developed intron data partitions exhibit intraindividual allele heterozygotes (IIAHs). There are 115 cases of IIAHs in total. The incorporation of IIAHs into phylogenetic analysis not only provides insights into the interfamilial relationships of Caniformia but also identifies two potential hybridization events occurred within Ursidae and Otariidae, respectively. Finally, the powers and pitfalls of phylogenetics using nuclear introns as markers are discussed in the context of Caniformia phylogeny.

  16. Phylemon: a suite of web tools for molecular evolution, phylogenetics and phylogenomics.

    PubMed

    Tárraga, Joaquín; Medina, Ignacio; Arbiza, Leonardo; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Gabaldón, Toni; Dopazo, Joaquín; Dopazo, Hernán

    2007-07-01

    Phylemon is an online platform for phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of molecular sequence data. It has been developed as a web server that integrates a suite of different tools selected among the most popular stand-alone programs in phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis. It has been conceived as a natural response to the increasing demand of data analysis of many experimental scientists wishing to add a molecular evolution and phylogenetics insight into their research. Tools included in Phylemon cover a wide yet selected range of programs: from the most basic for multiple sequence alignment to elaborate statistical methods of phylogenetic reconstruction including methods for evolutionary rates analyses and molecular adaptation. Phylemon has several features that differentiates it from other resources: (i) It offers an integrated environment that enables the direct concatenation of evolutionary analyses, the storage of results and handles required data format conversions, (ii) Once an outfile is produced, Phylemon suggests the next possible analyses, thus guiding the user and facilitating the integration of multi-step analyses, and (iii) users can define and save complete pipelines for specific phylogenetic analysis to be automatically used on many genes in subsequent sessions or multiple genes in a single session (phylogenomics). The Phylemon web server is available at http://phylemon.bioinfo.cipf.es.

  17. Nipple and areola reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hutcheson, H A; Bostwick, J

    1989-01-01

    Nipple-areola reconstruction is an integral part of breast reconstruction. Optimum results are usually obtained when nipple-areola reconstruction is staged after the breast mound has attained its final shape and is well vascularized. The use of intradermal tattoo allows the use of a variety of nonpigmented donor sites. Women report that reconstruction of the nipple-areola enhances their overall satisfaction with breast reconstruction. The knowledgeable and skilled nurse is a valuable member of the professional team during this final phase of breast reconstruction. PMID:2479039

  18. MicroFootPrinter: a tool for phylogenetic footprinting in prokaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Neph, Shane; Tompa, Martin

    2006-07-01

    Phylogenetic footprinting is a method for the discovery of regulatory elements in a set of homologous regulatory regions, usually collected from multiple species. It does so by identifying the most conserved motifs in those homologous regions. This note describes web software that has been designed specifically for this purpose in prokaryotic genomes, making use of the phylogenetic relationships among the homologous sequences in order to make more accurate predictions. The software is called MicroFootPrinter and is available at http://bio.cs.washington.edu/software.html.

  19. Evidence of two distinct phylogenetic lineages of dog rabies virus circulating in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Mey, Channa; Metlin, Artem; Duong, Veasna; Ong, Sivuth; In, Sotheary; Horwood, Paul F; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Bourhy, Hervé; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    This first extensive retrospective study of the molecular epidemiology of dog rabies in Cambodia included 149 rabies virus (RABV) entire nucleoprotein sequences obtained from 1998-2011. The sequences were analyzed in conjunction with RABVs from other Asian countries. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed the South-East Asian phylogenetic clade comprising viruses from Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos and Myanmar. The present study represents the first attempt to classify the phylogenetic lineages inside this clade, resulting in the confirmation that all the Cambodian viruses belonged to the South-East Asian (SEA) clade. Three distinct phylogenetic lineages in the region were established with the majority of viruses from Cambodia closely related to viruses from Thailand, Laos and Vietnam, forming the geographically widespread phylogenetic lineage SEA1. A South-East Asian lineage SEA2 comprised two viruses from Cambodia was identified, which shared a common ancestor with RABVs originating from Laos. Viruses from Myanmar formed separate phylogenetic lineages within the major SEA clade. Bayesian molecular clock analysis suggested that the time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of all Cambodian RABVs dated to around 1950. The TMRCA of the Cambodian SEA1 lineage was around 1964 and that of the SEA2 lineage was around 1953. The results identified three phylogenetically distinct and geographically separated lineages inside the earlier identified major SEA clade, covering at least five countries in the region. A greater understanding of the molecular epidemiology of rabies in South-East Asia is an important step to monitor progress on the efforts to control canine rabies in the region.

  20. Evidence of two distinct phylogenetic lineages of dog rabies virus circulating in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Mey, Channa; Metlin, Artem; Duong, Veasna; Ong, Sivuth; In, Sotheary; Horwood, Paul F; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Bourhy, Hervé; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    This first extensive retrospective study of the molecular epidemiology of dog rabies in Cambodia included 149 rabies virus (RABV) entire nucleoprotein sequences obtained from 1998-2011. The sequences were analyzed in conjunction with RABVs from other Asian countries. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed the South-East Asian phylogenetic clade comprising viruses from Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos and Myanmar. The present study represents the first attempt to classify the phylogenetic lineages inside this clade, resulting in the confirmation that all the Cambodian viruses belonged to the South-East Asian (SEA) clade. Three distinct phylogenetic lineages in the region were established with the majority of viruses from Cambodia closely related to viruses from Thailand, Laos and Vietnam, forming the geographically widespread phylogenetic lineage SEA1. A South-East Asian lineage SEA2 comprised two viruses from Cambodia was identified, which shared a common ancestor with RABVs originating from Laos. Viruses from Myanmar formed separate phylogenetic lineages within the major SEA clade. Bayesian molecular clock analysis suggested that the time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of all Cambodian RABVs dated to around 1950. The TMRCA of the Cambodian SEA1 lineage was around 1964 and that of the SEA2 lineage was around 1953. The results identified three phylogenetically distinct and geographically separated lineages inside the earlier identified major SEA clade, covering at least five countries in the region. A greater understanding of the molecular epidemiology of rabies in South-East Asia is an important step to monitor progress on the efforts to control canine rabies in the region. PMID:26705238

  1. Review of jet reconstruction algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkin, Ryan

    2015-10-01

    Accurate jet reconstruction is necessary for understanding the link between the unobserved partons and the jets of observed collimated colourless particles the partons hadronise into. Understanding this link sheds light on the properties of these partons. A review of various common jet algorithms is presented, namely the Kt, Anti-Kt, Cambridge/Aachen, Iterative cones and the SIScone, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. If one is interested in studying jets, the Anti-Kt algorithm is the best choice, however if ones interest is in the jet substructures then the Cambridge/Aachen algorithm would be the best option.

  2. Analyses of the radiation of birnaviruses from diverse host phyla and of their evolutionary affinities with other double-stranded RNA and positive strand RNA viruses using robust structure-based multiple sequence alignments and advanced phylogenetic methods

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Birnaviruses form a distinct family of double-stranded RNA viruses infecting animals as different as vertebrates, mollusks, insects and rotifers. With such a wide host range, they constitute a good model for studying the adaptation to the host. Additionally, several lines of evidence link birnaviruses to positive strand RNA viruses and suggest that phylogenetic analyses may provide clues about transition. Results We characterized the genome of a birnavirus from the rotifer Branchionus plicalitis. We used X-ray structures of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases and capsid proteins to obtain multiple structure alignments that allowed us to obtain reliable multiple sequence alignments and we employed “advanced” phylogenetic methods to study the evolutionary relationships between some positive strand and double-stranded RNA viruses. We showed that the rotifer birnavirus genome exhibited an organization remarkably similar to other birnaviruses. As this host was phylogenetically very distant from the other known species targeted by birnaviruses, we revisited the evolutionary pathways within the Birnaviridae family using phylogenetic reconstruction methods. We also applied a number of phylogenetic approaches based on structurally conserved domains/regions of the capsid and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase proteins to study the evolutionary relationships between birnaviruses, other double-stranded RNA viruses and positive strand RNA viruses. Conclusions We show that there is a good correlation between the phylogeny of the birnaviruses and that of their hosts at the phylum level using the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (genomic segment B) on the one hand and a concatenation of the capsid protein, protease and ribonucleoprotein (genomic segment A) on the other hand. This correlation tends to vanish within phyla. The use of advanced phylogenetic methods and robust structure-based multiple sequence alignments allowed us to obtain a more accurate picture (in terms of

  3. Accurate documentation and wound measurement.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Sylvie

    This article, part 4 in a series on wound management, addresses the sometimes routine yet crucial task of documentation. Clear and accurate records of a wound enable its progress to be determined so the appropriate treatment can be applied. Thorough records mean any practitioner picking up a patient's notes will know when the wound was last checked, how it looked and what dressing and/or treatment was applied, ensuring continuity of care. Documenting every assessment also has legal implications, demonstrating due consideration and care of the patient and the rationale for any treatment carried out. Part 5 in the series discusses wound dressing characteristics and selection.

  4. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Beutel, Rolf G; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A B

    2009-11-01

    changed dramatically. With very large data sets and high throughput sampling, phylogenetic questions can be addressed without prior knowledge of morphological characters. Nevertheless, molecular studies have not lead to the great breakthrough in beetle systematics--yet. Especially the phylogeny of the extremely species rich suborder Polyphaga remains incompletely resolved. Coordinated efforts of molecular workers and of morphologists using innovative techniques may lead to more profound insights in the near future. The final aim is to develop a well-founded phylogeny, which truly reflects the evolution of this immensely species rich group of organisms. PMID:19760277

  5. Phylogenetic mixture models for proteins.

    PubMed

    Le, Si Quang; Lartillot, Nicolas; Gascuel, Olivier

    2008-12-27

    Standard protein substitution models use a single amino acid replacement rate matrix that summarizes the biological, chemical and physical properties of amino acids. However, site evolution is highly heterogeneous and depends on many factors: genetic code; solvent exposure; secondary and tertiary structure; protein function; etc. These impact the substitution pattern and, in most cases, a single replacement matrix is not enough to represent all the complexity of the evolutionary processes. This paper explores in maximum-likelihood framework phylogenetic mixture models that combine several amino acid replacement matrices to better fit protein evolution.We learn these mixture models from a large alignment database extracted from HSSP, and test the performance using independent alignments from TREEBASE.We compare unsupervised learning approaches, where the site categories are unknown, to supervised ones, where in estimations we use the known category of each site, based on its exposure or its secondary structure. All our models are combined with gamma-distributed rates across sites. Results show that highly significant likelihood gains are obtained when using mixture models compared with the best available single replacement matrices. Mixtures of matrices also improve over mixtures of profiles in the manner of the CAT model. The unsupervised approach tends to be better than the supervised one, but it appears difficult to implement and highly sensitive to the starting values of the parameters, meaning that the supervised approach is still of interest for initialization and model comparison. Using an unsupervised model involving three matrices, the average AIC gain per site with TREEBASE test alignments is 0.31, 0.49 and 0.61 compared with LG (named after Le & Gascuel 2008 Mol. Biol. Evol. 25, 1307-1320), WAG and JTT, respectively. This three-matrix model is significantly better than LG for 34 alignments (among 57), and significantly worse for 1 alignment only. Moreover

  6. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutel, Rolf G.; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A. B.

    2009-11-01

    . This has changed dramatically. With very large data sets and high throughput sampling, phylogenetic questions can be addressed without prior knowledge of morphological characters. Nevertheless, molecular studies have not lead to the great breakthrough in beetle systematics—yet. Especially the phylogeny of the extremely species rich suborder Polyphaga remains incompletely resolved. Coordinated efforts of molecular workers and of morphologists using innovative techniques may lead to more profound insights in the near future. The final aim is to develop a well-founded phylogeny, which truly reflects the evolution of this immensely species rich group of organisms.

  7. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Beutel, Rolf G; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A B

    2009-11-01

    changed dramatically. With very large data sets and high throughput sampling, phylogenetic questions can be addressed without prior knowledge of morphological characters. Nevertheless, molecular studies have not lead to the great breakthrough in beetle systematics--yet. Especially the phylogeny of the extremely species rich suborder Polyphaga remains incompletely resolved. Coordinated efforts of molecular workers and of morphologists using innovative techniques may lead to more profound insights in the near future. The final aim is to develop a well-founded phylogeny, which truly reflects the evolution of this immensely species rich group of organisms.

  8. Phylogenetic approaches to natural product structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Ziemert, Nadine; Jensen, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenetics is the study of the evolutionary relatedness among groups of organisms. Molecular phylogenetics uses sequence data to infer these relationships for both organisms and the genes they maintain. With the large amount of publicly available sequence data, phylogenetic inference has become increasingly important in all fields of biology. In the case of natural product research, phylogenetic relationships are proving to be highly informative in terms of delineating the architecture and function of the genes involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases provide model examples in which individual domain phylogenies display different predictive capacities, resolving features ranging from substrate specificity to structural motifs associated with the final metabolic product. This chapter provides examples in which phylogeny has proven effective in terms of predicting functional or structural aspects of secondary metabolism. The basics of how to build a reliable phylogenetic tree are explained along with information about programs and tools that can be used for this purpose. Furthermore, it introduces the Natural Product Domain Seeker, a recently developed Web tool that employs phylogenetic logic to classify ketosynthase and condensation domains based on established enzyme architecture and biochemical function.

  9. Phylogenetic niche conservatism in C4 grasses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Edwards, Erika J; Freckleton, Robert P; Osborne, Colin P

    2012-11-01

    Photosynthetic pathway is used widely to discriminate plant functional types in studies of global change. However, independent evolutionary lineages of C(4) grasses with different variants of C(4) photosynthesis show different biogeographical relationships with mean annual precipitation, suggesting phylogenetic niche conservatism (PNC). To investigate how phylogeny and photosynthetic type differentiate C(4) grasses, we compiled a dataset of morphological and habitat information of 185 genera belonging to two monophyletic subfamilies, Chloridoideae and Panicoideae, which together account for 90 % of the world's C(4) grass species. We evaluated evolutionary variance and covariance of morphological and habitat traits. Strong phylogenetic signals were found in both morphological and habitat traits, arising mainly from the divergence of the two subfamilies. Genera in Chloridoideae had significantly smaller culm heights, leaf widths, 1,000-seed weights and stomata; they also appeared more in dry, open or saline habitats than those of Panicoideae. Controlling for phylogenetic structure showed significant covariation among morphological traits, supporting the hypothesis of phylogenetically independent scaling effects. However, associations between morphological and habitat traits showed limited phylogenetic covariance. Subfamily was a better explanation than photosynthetic type for the variance in most morphological traits. Morphology, habitat water availability, shading, and productivity are therefore all involved in the PNC of C(4) grass lineages. This study emphasized the importance of phylogenetic history in the ecology and biogeography of C(4) grasses, suggesting that divergent lineages need to be considered to fully understand the impacts of global change on plant distributions. PMID:22569558

  10. Phylogenetic clustering and overdispersion in bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Horner-Devine, M Claire; Bohannan, Brendan J M

    2006-07-01

    Very little is known about the structure of microbial communities, despite their abundance and importance to ecosystem processes. Recent work suggests that bacterial biodiversity might exhibit patterns similar to those of plants and animals. However, relative to our knowledge about the diversity of macro-organisms, we know little about patterns of relatedness in free-living bacterial communities, and relatively few studies have quantitatively examined community structure in a phylogenetic framework. Here we apply phylogenetic tools to bacterial diversity data to determine whether bacterial communities are phylogenetically structured. We find that bacterial communities tend to contain lower taxonomic diversity and are more likely to be phylogenetically clustered than expected by chance. Such phylogenetic clustering may indicate the importance of habitat filtering (where a group of closely related species shares a trait, or suite of traits, that allow them to persist in a given habitat) in the assembly of bacterial communities. Microbial communities are especially accessible for phylogenetic analysis and thus have the potential to figure prominently in the integration of evolutionary biology and community ecology.

  11. Maximizing the phylogenetic diversity of seed banks.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Kate E; Balding, Sharon T; Dickie, John B; Lewis, Gwilym P; Pearce, Tim R; Grenyer, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Ex situ conservation efforts such as those of zoos, botanical gardens, and seed banks will form a vital complement to in situ conservation actions over the coming decades. It is therefore necessary to pay the same attention to the biological diversity represented in ex situ conservation facilities as is often paid to protected-area networks. Building the phylogenetic diversity of ex situ collections will strengthen our capacity to respond to biodiversity loss. Since 2000, the Millennium Seed Bank Partnership has banked seed from 14% of the world's plant species. We assessed the taxonomic, geographic, and phylogenetic diversity of the Millennium Seed Bank collection of legumes (Leguminosae). We compared the collection with all known legume genera, their known geographic range (at country and regional levels), and a genus-level phylogeny of the legume family constructed for this study. Over half the phylogenetic diversity of legumes at the genus level was represented in the Millennium Seed Bank. However, pragmatic prioritization of species of economic importance and endangerment has led to the banking of a less-than-optimal phylogenetic diversity and prioritization of range-restricted species risks an underdispersed collection. The current state of the phylogenetic diversity of legumes in the Millennium Seed Bank could be substantially improved through the strategic banking of relatively few additional taxa. Our method draws on tools that are widely applied to in situ conservation planning, and it can be used to evaluate and improve the phylogenetic diversity of ex situ collections.

  12. How does cognition evolve? Phylogenetic comparative psychology

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Luke J.; Hare, Brian A.; Nunn, Charles L.; Anderson, Rindy C.; Aureli, Filippo; Brannon, Elizabeth M.; Call, Josep; Drea, Christine M.; Emery, Nathan J.; Haun, Daniel B. M.; Herrmann, Esther; Jacobs, Lucia F.; Platt, Michael L.; Rosati, Alexandra G.; Sandel, Aaron A.; Schroepfer, Kara K.; Seed, Amanda M.; Tan, Jingzhi; van Schaik, Carel P.; Wobber, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Now more than ever animal studies have the potential to test hypotheses regarding how cognition evolves. Comparative psychologists have developed new techniques to probe the cognitive mechanisms underlying animal behavior, and they have become increasingly skillful at adapting methodologies to test multiple species. Meanwhile, evolutionary biologists have generated quantitative approaches to investigate the phylogenetic distribution and function of phenotypic traits, including cognition. In particular, phylogenetic methods can quantitatively (1) test whether specific cognitive abilities are correlated with life history (e.g., lifespan), morphology (e.g., brain size), or socio-ecological variables (e.g., social system), (2) measure how strongly phylogenetic relatedness predicts the distribution of cognitive skills across species, and (3) estimate the ancestral state of a given cognitive trait using measures of cognitive performance from extant species. Phylogenetic methods can also be used to guide the selection of species comparisons that offer the strongest tests of a priori predictions of cognitive evolutionary hypotheses (i.e., phylogenetic targeting). Here, we explain how an integration of comparative psychology and evolutionary biology will answer a host of questions regarding the phylogenetic distribution and history of cognitive traits, as well as the evolutionary processes that drove their evolution. PMID:21927850

  13. Phylogenetic structure in tropical hummingbird communities

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Catherine H.; Parra, Juan L.; Rahbek, Carsten; McGuire, Jimmy A.

    2009-01-01

    How biotic interactions, current and historical environment, and biogeographic barriers determine community structure is a fundamental question in ecology and evolution, especially in diverse tropical regions. To evaluate patterns of local and regional diversity, we quantified the phylogenetic composition of 189 hummingbird communities in Ecuador. We assessed how species and phylogenetic composition changed along environmental gradients and across biogeographic barriers. We show that humid, low-elevation communities are phylogenetically overdispersed (coexistence of distant relatives), a pattern that is consistent with the idea that competition influences the local composition of hummingbirds. At higher elevations communities are phylogenetically clustered (coexistence of close relatives), consistent with the expectation of environmental filtering, which may result from the challenge of sustaining an expensive means of locomotion at high elevations. We found that communities in the lowlands on opposite sides of the Andes tend to be phylogenetically similar despite their large differences in species composition, a pattern implicating the Andes as an important dispersal barrier. In contrast, along the steep environmental gradient between the lowlands and the Andes we found evidence that species turnover is comprised of relatively distantly related species. The integration of local and regional patterns of diversity across environmental gradients and biogeographic barriers provides insight into the potential underlying mechanisms that have shaped community composition and phylogenetic diversity in one of the most species-rich, complex regions of the world. PMID:19805042

  14. Maximizing the phylogenetic diversity of seed banks.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Kate E; Balding, Sharon T; Dickie, John B; Lewis, Gwilym P; Pearce, Tim R; Grenyer, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Ex situ conservation efforts such as those of zoos, botanical gardens, and seed banks will form a vital complement to in situ conservation actions over the coming decades. It is therefore necessary to pay the same attention to the biological diversity represented in ex situ conservation facilities as is often paid to protected-area networks. Building the phylogenetic diversity of ex situ collections will strengthen our capacity to respond to biodiversity loss. Since 2000, the Millennium Seed Bank Partnership has banked seed from 14% of the world's plant species. We assessed the taxonomic, geographic, and phylogenetic diversity of the Millennium Seed Bank collection of legumes (Leguminosae). We compared the collection with all known legume genera, their known geographic range (at country and regional levels), and a genus-level phylogeny of the legume family constructed for this study. Over half the phylogenetic diversity of legumes at the genus level was represented in the Millennium Seed Bank. However, pragmatic prioritization of species of economic importance and endangerment has led to the banking of a less-than-optimal phylogenetic diversity and prioritization of range-restricted species risks an underdispersed collection. The current state of the phylogenetic diversity of legumes in the Millennium Seed Bank could be substantially improved through the strategic banking of relatively few additional taxa. Our method draws on tools that are widely applied to in situ conservation planning, and it can be used to evaluate and improve the phylogenetic diversity of ex situ collections. PMID:25196170

  15. Industrial applications of high-performance computing for phylogeny reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, David A.; Moret, Bernard M.; Vawter, Lisa

    2001-07-01

    Phylogenies (that is, tree-of-life relationships) derived from gene order data may prove crucial in answering some fundamental open questions in biomolecular evolution. Real-world interest is strong in determining these relationships. For example, pharmaceutical companies may use phylogeny reconstruction in drug discovery for discovering synthetic pathways unique to organisms that they wish to target. Health organizations study the phylogenies of organisms such as HIV in order to understand their epidemiologies and to aid in predicting the behaviors of future outbreaks. And governments are interested in aiding the production of such foodstuffs as rice, wheat and potatoes via genetics through understanding of the phylogenetic distribution of genetic variation in wild populations. Yet few techniques are available for difficult phylogenetic reconstruction problems. Appropriate tools for analysis of such data may aid in resolving some of the phylogenetic problems that have been analyzed without much resolution for decades. With the rapid accumulation of whole genome sequences for a wide diversity of taxa, especially microbial taxa, phylogenetic reconstruction based on changes in gene order and gene content is showing promise, particularly for resolving deep (i.e., ancient) branch splits. However, reconstruction from gene-order data is even more computationally expensive than reconstruction from sequence data, particularly in groups with large numbers of genes and highly-rearranged genomes. We have developed a software suite, GRAPPA, that extends the breakpoint analysis (BPAnalysis) method of Sankoff and Blanchette while running much faster: in a recent analysis of chloroplast genome data for species of Campanulaceae on a 512-processor Linux supercluster with Myrinet, we achieved a one-million-fold speedup over BPAnalysis. GRAPPA can use either breakpoint or inversion distance (computed exactly) for its computation and runs on single-processor machines as well as

  16. Breast Reconstruction after Mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Schmauss, Daniel; Machens, Hans-Günther; Harder, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Its surgical approach has become less and less mutilating in the last decades. However, the overall number of breast reconstructions has significantly increased lately. Nowadays, breast reconstruction should be individualized at its best, first of all taking into consideration not only the oncological aspects of the tumor, neo-/adjuvant treatment, and genetic predisposition, but also its timing (immediate versus delayed breast reconstruction), as well as the patient’s condition and wish. This article gives an overview over the various possibilities of breast reconstruction, including implant- and expander-based reconstruction, flap-based reconstruction (vascularized autologous tissue), the combination of implant and flap, reconstruction using non-vascularized autologous fat, as well as refinement surgery after breast reconstruction. PMID:26835456

  17. Phylogenetic Trees and Networks Reduce to Phylogenies on Binary States: Does It Furnish an Explanation to the Robustness of Phylogenetic Trees against Lateral Transfers.

    PubMed

    Thuillard, Marc; Fraix-Burnet, Didier

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an innovative approach to phylogenies based on the reduction of multistate characters to binary-state characters. We show that the reduction to binary characters' approach can be applied to both character- and distance-based phylogenies and provides a unifying framework to explain simply and intuitively the similarities and differences between distance- and character-based phylogenies. Building on these results, this article gives a possible explanation on why phylogenetic trees obtained from a distance matrix or a set of characters are often quite reasonable despite lateral transfers of genetic material between taxa. In the presence of lateral transfers, outer planar networks furnish a better description of evolution than phylogenetic trees. We present a polynomial-time reconstruction algorithm for perfect outer planar networks with a fixed number of states, characters, and lateral transfers.

  18. Reoperative midface reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Acero, Julio; García, Eloy

    2011-02-01

    Reoperative reconstruction of the midface is a challenging issue because of the complexity of this region and the severity of the aesthetic and functional sequela related to the absence or failure of a primary reconstruction. The different situations that can lead to the indication of a reoperative reconstructive procedure after previous oncologic ablative procedures in the midface are reviewed. Surgical techniques, anatomic problems, and limitations affecting the reoperative reconstruction in this region of the head and neck are discussed.

  19. Phylogenetic inference of calyptrates, with the first mitogenomes for Gasterophilinae (Diptera: Oestridae) and Paramacronychiinae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong; Yan, Liping; Zhang, Ming; Chu, Hongjun; Cao, Jie; Li, Kai; Hu, Defu; Pape, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the horse stomach bot fly Gasterophilus pecorum (Fabricius) and a near-complete mitogenome of Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) were sequenced. The mitogenomes contain the typical 37 mitogenes found in metazoans, organized in the same order and orientation as in other cyclorrhaphan Diptera. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomes from 38 calyptrate taxa with and without two non-calyptrate outgroups were performed using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood. Three sub-analyses were performed on the concatenated data: (1) not partitioned; (2) partitioned by gene; (3) 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes omitted. We estimated the contribution of each of the mitochondrial genes for phylogenetic analysis, as well as the effect of some popular methodologies on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction. In the favoured trees, the Oestroidea are nested within the muscoid grade. Relationships at the family level within Oestroidea are (remaining Calliphoridae (Sarcophagidae (Oestridae, Pollenia + Tachinidae))). Our mito-phylogenetic reconstruction of the Calyptratae presents the most extensive taxon coverage so far, and the risk of long-branch attraction is reduced by an appropriate selection of outgroups. We find that in the Calyptratae the ND2, ND5, ND1, COIII, and COI genes are more phylogenetically informative compared with other mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Our study provides evidence that data partitioning and the inclusion of conserved tRNA genes have little influence on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction, and that the 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes are not saturated and therefore should be included. PMID:27019632

  20. Evolution of the mitochondrial genome in snakes: Gene rearrangements and phylogenetic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jie; Li, Hongdan; Zhou, Kaiya

    2008-01-01

    Background Snakes as a major reptile group display a variety of morphological characteristics pertaining to their diverse behaviours. Despite abundant analyses of morphological characters, molecular studies using mitochondrial and nuclear genes are limited. As a result, the phylogeny of snakes remains controversial. Previous studies on mitochondrial genomes of snakes have demonstrated duplication of the control region and translocation of trnL to be two notable features of the alethinophidian (all serpents except blindsnakes and threadsnakes) mtDNAs. Our purpose is to further investigate the gene organizations, evolution of the snake mitochondrial genome, and phylogenetic relationships among several major snake families. Results The mitochondrial genomes were sequenced for four taxa representing four different families, and each had a different gene arrangement. Comparative analyses with other snake mitochondrial genomes allowed us to summarize six types of mitochondrial gene arrangement in snakes. Phylogenetic reconstruction with commonly used methods of phylogenetic inference (BI, ML, MP, NJ) arrived at a similar topology, which was used to reconstruct the evolution of mitochondrial gene arrangements in snakes. Conclusion The phylogenetic relationships among the major families of snakes are in accordance with the mitochondrial genomes in terms of gene arrangements. The gene arrangement in Ramphotyphlops braminus mtDNA is inferred to be ancestral for snakes. After the divergence of the early Ramphotyphlops lineage, three types of rearrangements occurred. These changes involve translocations within the IQM tRNA gene cluster and the duplication of the CR. All phylogenetic methods support the placement of Enhydris plumbea outside of the (Colubridae + Elapidae) cluster, providing mitochondrial genomic evidence for the familial rank of Homalopsidae. PMID:19038056

  1. SPLASH: Accurate OH maser positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Andrew; Gomez, Jose F.; Jones, Paul; Cunningham, Maria; Green, James; Dawson, Joanne; Ellingsen, Simon; Breen, Shari; Imai, Hiroshi; Lowe, Vicki; Jones, Courtney

    2013-10-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) 18 cm lines are powerful and versatile probes of diffuse molecular gas, that may trace a largely unstudied component of the Galactic ISM. SPLASH (the Southern Parkes Large Area Survey in Hydroxyl) is a large, unbiased and fully-sampled survey of OH emission, absorption and masers in the Galactic Plane that will achieve sensitivities an order of magnitude better than previous work. In this proposal, we request ATCA time to follow up OH maser candidates. This will give us accurate (~10") positions of the masers, which can be compared to other maser positions from HOPS, MMB and MALT-45 and will provide full polarisation measurements towards a sample of OH masers that have not been observed in MAGMO.

  2. Structured image reconstruction for three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Li, Enrong; Gong, Wenlin; Han, Shensheng

    2015-06-01

    A structured image reconstruction method has been proposed to obtain high quality images in three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar. By considering the spatial structure relationship between recovered images of scene slices at different longitudinal distances, orthogonality constraint has been incorporated to reconstruct the three-dimensional scenes in remote sensing. Numerical simulations have been performed to demonstrate that scene slices with various sparse ratios can be recovered more accurately by applying orthogonality constraint, and the enhancement is significant especially for ghost imaging with less measurements. A simulated three-dimensional city scene has been successfully reconstructed by using structured image reconstruction in three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar. PMID:26072814

  3. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, Cameron J.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Stapleton, Andrew J.; Shapter, Joseph G.; Gibson, Christopher T.

    2016-03-01

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

  4. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Stapleton, Andrew J; Shapter, Joseph G; Gibson, Christopher T

    2016-03-29

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

  5. [Phylogeny of genus Spermophilus and position of Alashan ground squirrel (Spermophilus alashanicus, Buchner, 1888) on phylogenetic tree of Paleartic short-tailed ground squirrels].

    PubMed

    Kapustina, S Yu; Brandler, O V; Adiya, Ya

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within a group of Paleartic short tailed ground squirrels (Spermophilus), recently defined as genus, are not sufficiently clear and need a critical revision. Interspecies hybridization, found in Eurasian Spermophilus, can affect the results of reconstruction of molecular phylogeny. Alashan ground squirrel position on the phylogenetic tree needs clarification. We analyzed eight nucleotide sequences of cytb gene of S. alashanicus and 127 sequences of other Spermophilus species form GenBank. S.alashanicus and S. dauricus close phylogenetic relationship, and their affinity to ancestral forms of the group are revealed. Monophyly of Colobotis subgenus was confirmed. Paraphyly of eastern and western forms of S. relictus was shown.

  6. Probabilistic Graphical Model Representation in Phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Höhna, Sebastian; Heath, Tracy A.; Boussau, Bastien; Landis, Michael J.; Ronquist, Fredrik; Huelsenbeck, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid expansion of the model space explored in statistical phylogenetics, emphasizing the need for new approaches to statistical model representation and software development. Clear communication and representation of the chosen model is crucial for: (i) reproducibility of an analysis, (ii) model development, and (iii) software design. Moreover, a unified, clear and understandable framework for model representation lowers the barrier for beginners and nonspecialists to grasp complex phylogenetic models, including their assumptions and parameter/variable dependencies. Graphical modeling is a unifying framework that has gained in popularity in the statistical literature in recent years. The core idea is to break complex models into conditionally independent distributions. The strength lies in the comprehensibility, flexibility, and adaptability of this formalism, and the large body of computational work based on it. Graphical models are well-suited to teach statistical models, to facilitate communication among phylogeneticists and in the development of generic software for simulation and statistical inference. Here, we provide an introduction to graphical models for phylogeneticists and extend the standard graphical model representation to the realm of phylogenetics. We introduce a new graphical model component, tree plates, to capture the changing structure of the subgraph corresponding to a phylogenetic tree. We describe a range of phylogenetic models using the graphical model framework and introduce modules to simplify the representation of standard components in large and complex models. Phylogenetic model graphs can be readily used in simulation, maximum likelihood inference, and Bayesian inference using, for example, Metropolis–Hastings or Gibbs sampling of the posterior distribution. [Computation; graphical models; inference; modularization; statistical phylogenetics; tree plate.] PMID:24951559

  7. Photogrammetric Reconstruction with Bayesian Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiero, A.; Fissore, F.; Guarnieri, A.; Pirotti, F.; Vettore, A.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays photogrammetry and laser scanning methods are the most wide spread surveying techniques. Laser scanning methods usually allow to obtain more accurate results with respect to photogrammetry, but their use have some issues, e.g. related to the high cost of the instrumentation and the typical need of high qualified personnel to acquire experimental data on the field. Differently, photogrammetric reconstruction can be achieved by means of low cost devices and by persons without specific training. Furthermore, the recent diffusion of smart devices (e.g. smartphones) embedded with imaging and positioning sensors (i.e. standard camera, GNSS receiver, inertial measurement unit) is opening the possibility of integrating more information in the photogrammetric reconstruction procedure, in order to increase its computational efficiency, its robustness and accuracy. In accordance with the above observations, this paper examines and validates new possibilities for the integration of information provided by the inertial measurement unit (IMU) into the photogrammetric reconstruction procedure, and, to be more specific, into the procedure for solving the feature matching and the bundle adjustment problems.

  8. [Breast reconstruction after mastectomy].

    PubMed

    Ho Quoc, C; Delay, E

    2013-02-01

    The mutilating surgery for breast cancer causes deep somatic and psychological sequelae. Breast reconstruction can mitigate these effects and permit the patient to help rebuild their lives. The purpose of this paper is to focus on breast reconstruction techniques and on factors involved in breast reconstruction. The methods of breast reconstruction are presented: objectives, indications, different techniques, operative risks, and long-term monitoring. Many different techniques can now allow breast reconstruction in most patients. Clinical cases are also presented in order to understand the results we expect from a breast reconstruction. Breast reconstruction provides many benefits for patients in terms of rehabilitation, wellness, and quality of life. In our mind, breast reconstruction should be considered more as an opportunity and a positive choice (the patient can decide to do it), than as an obligation (that the patient would suffer). The consultation with the surgeon who will perform the reconstruction is an important step to give all necessary informations. It is really important that the patient could speak again with him before undergoing reconstruction, if she has any doubt. The quality of information given by medical doctors is essential to the success of psychological intervention. This article was written in a simple, and understandable way to help gynecologists giving the best information to their patients. It is maybe also possible to let them a copy of this article, which would enable them to have a written support and would facilitate future consultation with the surgeon who will perform the reconstruction.

  9. Characterization of a branch of the phylogenetic tree

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, Stuart A.; Weng, Gezhi

    2003-04-11

    We use a combination of analytic models and computer simulations to gain insight into the dynamics of evolution. Our results suggest that certain interesting phenomena should eventually emerge from the fossil record. For example, there should be a ''tortoise and hare effect'': Those genera with the smallest species death rate are likely to survive much longer than genera with large species birth and death rates. A complete characterization of the behavior of a branch of the phylogenetic tree corresponding to a genus and accurate mathematical representations of the various stages are obtained. We apply our results to address certain controversial issues that have arisen in paleontology such as the importance of punctuated equilibrium and whether unique Cambrian phyla have survived to the present.

  10. Genomic Repeat Abundances Contain Phylogenetic Signal

    PubMed Central

    Dodsworth, Steven; Chase, Mark W.; Kelly, Laura J.; Leitch, Ilia J.; Macas, Jiří; Novák, Petr; Piednoël, Mathieu; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Leitch, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    A large proportion of genomic information, particularly repetitive elements, is usually ignored when researchers are using next-generation sequencing. Here we demonstrate the usefulness of this repetitive fraction in phylogenetic analyses, utilizing comparative graph-based clustering of next-generation sequence reads, which results in abundance estimates of different classes of genomic repeats. Phylogenetic trees are then inferred based on the genome-wide abundance of different repeat types treated as continuously varying characters; such repeats are scattered across chromosomes and in angiosperms can constitute a majority of nuclear genomic DNA. In six diverse examples, five angiosperms and one insect, this method provides generally well-supported relationships at interspecific and intergeneric levels that agree with results from more standard phylogenetic analyses of commonly used markers. We propose that this methodology may prove especially useful in groups where there is little genetic differentiation in standard phylogenetic markers. At the same time as providing data for phylogenetic inference, this method additionally yields a wealth of data for comparative studies of genome evolution. PMID:25261464

  11. Prioritizing populations for conservation using phylogenetic networks.

    PubMed

    Volkmann, Logan; Martyn, Iain; Moulton, Vincent; Spillner, Andreas; Mooers, Arne O

    2014-01-01

    In the face of inevitable future losses to biodiversity, ranking species by conservation priority seems more than prudent. Setting conservation priorities within species (i.e., at the population level) may be critical as species ranges become fragmented and connectivity declines. However, existing approaches to prioritization (e.g., scoring organisms by their expected genetic contribution) are based on phylogenetic trees, which may be poor representations of differentiation below the species level. In this paper we extend evolutionary isolation indices used in conservation planning from phylogenetic trees to phylogenetic networks. Such networks better represent population differentiation, and our extension allows populations to be ranked in order of their expected contribution to the set. We illustrate the approach using data from two imperiled species: the spotted owl Strix occidentalis in North America and the mountain pygmy-possum Burramys parvus in Australia. Using previously published mitochondrial and microsatellite data, we construct phylogenetic networks and score each population by its relative genetic distinctiveness. In both cases, our phylogenetic networks capture the geographic structure of each species: geographically peripheral populations harbor less-redundant genetic information, increasing their conservation rankings. We note that our approach can be used with all conservation-relevant distances (e.g., those based on whole-genome, ecological, or adaptive variation) and suggest it be added to the assortment of tools available to wildlife managers for allocating effort among threatened populations. PMID:24586451

  12. Worldwide phylogenetic relationship of avian poxviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gyuranecz, Miklós; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Dán, Ádám; Ip, Hon S.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Parker, Patricia G.; Higashiguchi, Jenni M.; Skinner, Michael A.; Höfle, Ursula; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Solt, Szabolcs; Sós, Endre; Kim, Young Jun; Uhart, Marcela; Pereda, Ariel; González-Hein, Gisela; Hidalgo, Hector; Blanco, Juan-Manuel; Erdélyi, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of Avipoxvirus genus has traditionally relied on one gene region (4b core protein). In this study we have expanded the analyses to include a second locus (DNA polymerase gene), allowing for a more robust phylogenetic framework, finer genetic resolution within specific groups and the detection of potential recombination. Our phylogenetic results reveal several major features of avipoxvirus evolution and ecology and propose an updated avipoxvirus taxonomy, including three novel subclades. The characterization of poxviruses from 57 species of birds in this study extends the current knowledge of their host range and provides the first evidence of the phylogenetic effect of genetic recombination of avipoxviruses. The repeated occurrence of avian family or order-specific grouping within certain clades (e.g. starling poxvirus, falcon poxvirus, raptor poxvirus, etc.) indicates a marked role of host adaptation, while the sharing of poxvirus species within prey-predator systems emphasizes the capacity for cross-species infection and limited host adaptation. Our study provides a broad and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus, an ecologically and environmentally important viral group, to formulate a genome sequencing strategy that will clarify avipoxvirus taxonomy.

  13. Genomic repeat abundances contain phylogenetic signal.

    PubMed

    Dodsworth, Steven; Chase, Mark W; Kelly, Laura J; Leitch, Ilia J; Macas, Jiří; Novák, Petr; Piednoël, Mathieu; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Leitch, Andrew R

    2015-01-01

    A large proportion of genomic information, particularly repetitive elements, is usually ignored when researchers are using next-generation sequencing. Here we demonstrate the usefulness of this repetitive fraction in phylogenetic analyses, utilizing comparative graph-based clustering of next-generation sequence reads, which results in abundance estimates of different classes of genomic repeats. Phylogenetic trees are then inferred based on the genome-wide abundance of different repeat types treated as continuously varying characters; such repeats are scattered across chromosomes and in angiosperms can constitute a majority of nuclear genomic DNA. In six diverse examples, five angiosperms and one insect, this method provides generally well-supported relationships at interspecific and intergeneric levels that agree with results from more standard phylogenetic analyses of commonly used markers. We propose that this methodology may prove especially useful in groups where there is little genetic differentiation in standard phylogenetic markers. At the same time as providing data for phylogenetic inference, this method additionally yields a wealth of data for comparative studies of genome evolution.

  14. Worldwide Phylogenetic Relationship of Avian Poxviruses

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Jeffrey T.; Dán, Ádám; Ip, Hon S.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Parker, Patricia G.; Higashiguchi, Jenni M.; Skinner, Michael A.; Höfle, Ursula; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Solt, Szabolcs; Sós, Endre; Kim, Young Jun; Uhart, Marcela; Pereda, Ariel; González-Hein, Gisela; Hidalgo, Hector; Blanco, Juan-Manuel; Erdélyi, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus has traditionally relied on one gene region (4b core protein). In this study we expanded the analyses to include a second locus (DNA polymerase gene), allowing for a more robust phylogenetic framework, finer genetic resolution within specific groups, and the detection of potential recombination. Our phylogenetic results reveal several major features of avipoxvirus evolution and ecology and propose an updated avipoxvirus taxonomy, including three novel subclades. The characterization of poxviruses from 57 species of birds in this study extends the current knowledge of their host range and provides the first evidence of the phylogenetic effect of genetic recombination of avipoxviruses. The repeated occurrence of avian family or order-specific grouping within certain clades (e.g., starling poxvirus, falcon poxvirus, raptor poxvirus, etc.) indicates a marked role of host adaptation, while the sharing of poxvirus species within prey-predator systems emphasizes the capacity for cross-species infection and limited host adaptation. Our study provides a broad and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus, an ecologically and environmentally important viral group, to formulate a genome sequencing strategy that will clarify avipoxvirus taxonomy. PMID:23408635

  15. Prioritizing Populations for Conservation Using Phylogenetic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Volkmann, Logan; Martyn, Iain; Moulton, Vincent; Spillner, Andreas; Mooers, Arne O.

    2014-01-01

    In the face of inevitable future losses to biodiversity, ranking species by conservation priority seems more than prudent. Setting conservation priorities within species (i.e., at the population level) may be critical as species ranges become fragmented and connectivity declines. However, existing approaches to prioritization (e.g., scoring organisms by their expected genetic contribution) are based on phylogenetic trees, which may be poor representations of differentiation below the species level. In this paper we extend evolutionary isolation indices used in conservation planning from phylogenetic trees to phylogenetic networks. Such networks better represent population differentiation, and our extension allows populations to be ranked in order of their expected contribution to the set. We illustrate the approach using data from two imperiled species: the spotted owl Strix occidentalis in North America and the mountain pygmy-possum Burramys parvus in Australia. Using previously published mitochondrial and microsatellite data, we construct phylogenetic networks and score each population by its relative genetic distinctiveness. In both cases, our phylogenetic networks capture the geographic structure of each species: geographically peripheral populations harbor less-redundant genetic information, increasing their conservation rankings. We note that our approach can be used with all conservation-relevant distances (e.g., those based on whole-genome, ecological, or adaptive variation) and suggest it be added to the assortment of tools available to wildlife managers for allocating effort among threatened populations. PMID:24586451

  16. Teaching Molecular Phylogenetics through Investigating a Real-World Phylogenetic Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiaorong

    2012-01-01

    A phylogenetics exercise is incorporated into the "Introduction to biocomputing" course, a junior-level course at Savannah State University. This exercise is designed to help students learn important concepts and practical skills in molecular phylogenetics through solving a real-world problem. In this application, students are required to identify…

  17. Encoding phylogenetic trees in terms of weighted quartets.

    PubMed

    Grünewald, Stefan; Huber, Katharina T; Moulton, Vincent; Semple, Charles

    2008-04-01

    One of the main problems in phylogenetics is to develop systematic methods for constructing evolutionary or phylogenetic trees. For a set of species X, an edge-weighted phylogenetic X-tree or phylogenetic tree is a (graph theoretical) tree with leaf set X and no degree 2 vertices, together with a map assigning a non-negative length to each edge of the tree. Within phylogenetics, several methods have been proposed for constructing such trees that work by trying to piece together quartet trees on X, i.e. phylogenetic trees each having four leaves in X. Hence, it is of interest to characterise when a collection of quartet trees corresponds to a (unique) phylogenetic tree. Recently, Dress and Erdös provided such a characterisation for binary phylogenetic trees, that is, phylogenetic trees all of whose internal vertices have degree 3. Here we provide a new characterisation for arbitrary phylogenetic trees.

  18. Reconstructing phylogeny from the multifractal spectrum of mitochondrial DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazier, James A.; Raghavachari, Sridhar; Berthelsen, Cheryl L.; Skolnick, Mark H.

    1995-03-01

    Conventional methods of phylogenetic reconstruction from DNA sequences require simplified models of evolutionary dynamics. We present a method based on fractal analysis to reconstruct the evolutionary history of organisms from mitochondrial DNA sequences. We map animal mtDNA into four-dimensional random walks and estimate their long range correlations using multifractal spectra. We see systematic changes in correlations in mtDNA sequences across taxonomic lines, which translate into changes in the scaling of the random walks. We use cluster analysis to group the multifractal spectra and obtain the phylogeny of the organisms. Though our method uses no a priori assumptions and is independent of gene order, it yields phylogenetic relationships broadly consistent with established results. Several recent papers have analyzed DNA using fractal analysis and have found long range correlations. However, no one has succeeded in using them to deduce biologically significant relationships.

  19. Deep sequencing increases hepatitis C virus phylogenetic cluster detection compared to Sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Vincent; Olmstead, Andrea; Tang, Patrick; Cook, Darrel; Janjua, Naveed; Grebely, Jason; Jacka, Brendan; Poon, Art F Y; Krajden, Mel

    2016-09-01

    Effective surveillance and treatment strategies are required to control the hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic. Phylogenetic analyses are powerful tools for reconstructing the evolutionary history of viral outbreaks and identifying transmission clusters. These studies often rely on Sanger sequencing which typically generates a single consensus sequence for each infected individual. For rapidly mutating viruses such as HCV, consensus sequencing underestimates the complexity of the viral quasispecies population and could therefore generate different phylogenetic tree topologies. Although deep sequencing provides a more detailed quasispecies characterization, in-depth phylogenetic analyses are challenging due to dataset complexity and computational limitations. Here, we apply deep sequencing to a characterized population to assess its ability to identify phylogenetic clusters compared with consensus Sanger sequencing. For deep sequencing, a sample specific threshold determined by the 50th percentile of the patristic distance distribution for all variants within each individual was used to identify clusters. Among seven patristic distance thresholds tested for the Sanger sequence phylogeny ranging from 0.005-0.06, a threshold of 0.03 was found to provide the maximum balance between positive agreement (samples in a cluster) and negative agreement (samples not in a cluster) relative to the deep sequencing dataset. From 77 HCV seroconverters, 10 individuals were identified in phylogenetic clusters using both methods. Deep sequencing analysis identified an additional 4 individuals and excluded 8 other individuals relative to Sanger sequencing. The application of this deep sequencing approach could be a more effective tool to understand onward HCV transmission dynamics compared with Sanger sequencing, since the incorporation of minority sequence variants improves the discrimination of phylogenetically linked clusters.

  20. Phylogenetic system and zoogeography of the Plecoptera.

    PubMed

    Zwick, P

    2000-01-01

    Information about the phylogenetic relationships of Plecoptera is summarized. The few characters supporting monophyly of the order are outlined. Several characters of possible significance for the search for the closest relatives of the stoneflies are discussed, but the sister-group of the order remains unknown. Numerous characters supporting the presently recognized phylogenetic system of Plecoptera are presented, alternative classifications are discussed, and suggestions for future studies are made. Notes on zoogeography are appended. The order as such is old (Permian fossils), but phylogenetic relationships and global distribution patterns suggest that evolution of the extant suborders started with the breakup of Pangaea. There is evidence of extensive recent speciation in all parts of the world.

  1. Phylogenetic conservatism of extinctions in marine bivalves.

    PubMed

    Roy, Kaustuv; Hunt, Gene; Jablonski, David

    2009-08-01

    Evolutionary histories of species and lineages can influence their vulnerabilities to extinction, but the importance of this effect remains poorly explored for extinctions in the geologic past. When analyzed using a standardized taxonomy within a phylogenetic framework, extinction rates of marine bivalves estimated from the fossil record for the last approximately 200 million years show conservatism at multiple levels of evolutionary divergence, both within individual families and among related families. The strength of such phylogenetic clustering varies over time and is influenced by earlier extinction history, especially by the demise of volatile taxa in the end-Cretaceous mass extinction. Analyses of the evolutionary roles of ancient extinctions and predictive models of vulnerability of taxa to future natural and anthropogenic stressors should take phylogenetic relationships and extinction history into account.

  2. How reliable are human phylogenetic hypotheses?

    PubMed Central

    Collard, Mark; Wood, Bernard

    2000-01-01

    Cladistic analysis of cranial and dental evidence has been widely used to generate phylogenetic hypotheses about humans and their fossil relatives. However, the reliability of these hypotheses has never been subjected to external validation. To rectify this, we applied identical methods to equivalent evidence from two groups of extant higher primates for whom reliable molecular phylogenies are available, the hominoids and papionins. We found that the phylogenetic hypotheses based on the craniodental data were incompatible with the molecular phylogenies for the groups. Given the robustness of the molecular phylogenies, these results indicate that little confidence can be placed in phylogenies generated solely from higher primate craniodental evidence. The corollary of this is that existing phylogenetic hypotheses about human evolution are unlikely to be reliable. Accordingly, new approaches are required to address the problem of hominin phylogeny. PMID:10781112

  3. Phylogenetics of the laboratory rat Rattus norvegicus.

    PubMed

    Canzian, F

    1997-03-01

    A genealogic tree was constructed for inbred strains of the laboratory rat, including 63 strains and 214 of their substrains. Information on genetic and biochemical marker typings of these lines was collected from the literature and from the World Wide Web. Data on 995 polymorphisms were processed into a phylogenetic distance matrix, and a tree was obtained by the Fitch-Margoliash distance matrix method. The inbred strains of the laboratory rat showed an average polymorphism for pairwise comparison of 53%. Strain BN showed the highest genetic divergence from all the other ones. Comparison with the mouse phylogenetic tree indicated that laboratory rats possess a higher diversity than inbred strains of mice not derived from wild species. These results provide a phylogenetic basis in the choice of rat strains for genetic linkage experiments.

  4. Probabilistic Multilocus Haplotype Reconstruction in Outcrossing Tetraploids.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chaozhi; Voorrips, Roeland E; Jansen, Johannes; Hackett, Christine A; Ho, Julie; Bink, Marco C A M

    2016-05-01

    For both plant (e.g., potato) and animal (e.g., salmon) species, unveiling the genetic architecture of complex traits is key to the genetic improvement of polyploids in agriculture. F1 progenies of a biparental cross are often used for quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in outcrossing polyploids, where haplotype reconstruction by identifying the parental origins of marker alleles is necessary. In this paper, we build a novel and integrated statistical framework for multilocus haplotype reconstruction in a full-sib tetraploid family from biallelic marker dosage data collected from single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays or next-generation sequencing technology given a genetic linkage map. Compared to diploids, in tetraploids, additional complexity needs to be addressed, including double reduction and possible preferential pairing of chromosomes. We divide haplotype reconstruction into two stages: parental linkage phasing for reconstructing the most probable parental haplotypes and ancestral inference for probabilistically reconstructing the offspring haplotypes conditional on the reconstructed parental haplotypes. The simulation studies and the application to real data from potato show that the parental linkage phasing is robust to, and that the subsequent ancestral inference is accurate for, complex chromosome pairing behaviors during meiosis, various marker segregation types, erroneous genetic maps except for long-range disturbances of marker ordering, various amounts of offspring dosage errors (up to ∼20%), and various fractions of missing data in parents and offspring dosages. PMID:26920758

  5. Forensic Facial Reconstruction: The Final Frontier

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vineeta; Vij, Hitesh; Vij, Ruchieka; Tyagi, Nutan

    2015-01-01

    Forensic facial reconstruction can be used to identify unknown human remains when other techniques fail. Through this article, we attempt to review the different methods of facial reconstruction reported in literature. There are several techniques of doing facial reconstruction, which vary from two dimensional drawings to three dimensional clay models. With the advancement in 3D technology, a rapid, efficient and cost effective computerized 3D forensic facial reconstruction method has been developed which has brought down the degree of error previously encountered. There are several methods of manual facial reconstruction but the combination Manchester method has been reported to be the best and most accurate method for the positive recognition of an individual. Recognition allows the involved government agencies to make a list of suspected victims’. This list can then be narrowed down and a positive identification may be given by the more conventional method of forensic medicine. Facial reconstruction allows visual identification by the individual’s family and associates to become easy and more definite. PMID:26501035

  6. Forensic Facial Reconstruction: The Final Frontier.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sonia; Gupta, Vineeta; Vij, Hitesh; Vij, Ruchieka; Tyagi, Nutan

    2015-09-01

    Forensic facial reconstruction can be used to identify unknown human remains when other techniques fail. Through this article, we attempt to review the different methods of facial reconstruction reported in literature. There are several techniques of doing facial reconstruction, which vary from two dimensional drawings to three dimensional clay models. With the advancement in 3D technology, a rapid, efficient and cost effective computerized 3D forensic facial reconstruction method has been developed which has brought down the degree of error previously encountered. There are several methods of manual facial reconstruction but the combination Manchester method has been reported to be the best and most accurate method for the positive recognition of an individual. Recognition allows the involved government agencies to make a list of suspected victims'. This list can then be narrowed down and a positive identification may be given by the more conventional method of forensic medicine. Facial reconstruction allows visual identification by the individual's family and associates to become easy and more definite. PMID:26501035

  7. Nonholonomic catheter path reconstruction using electromagnetic tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugez, Elodie; Sadjadi, Hossein; Akl, Selim G.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2015-03-01

    Catheter path reconstruction is a necessary step in many clinical procedures, such as cardiovascular interventions and high-dose-rate brachytherapy. To overcome limitations of standard imaging modalities, electromagnetic tracking has been employed to reconstruct catheter paths. However, tracking errors pose a challenge in accurate path reconstructions. We address this challenge by means of a filtering technique incorporating the electromagnetic measurements with the nonholonomic motion constraints of the sensor inside a catheter. The nonholonomic motion model of the sensor within the catheter and the electromagnetic measurement data were integrated using an extended Kalman filter. The performance of our proposed approach was experimentally evaluated using the Ascension's 3D Guidance trakStar electromagnetic tracker. Sensor measurements were recorded during insertions of an electromagnetic sensor (model 55) along ten predefined ground truth paths. Our method was implemented in MATLAB and applied to the measurement data. Our reconstruction results were compared to raw measurements as well as filtered measurements provided by the manufacturer. The mean of the root-mean-square (RMS) errors along the ten paths was 3.7 mm for the raw measurements, and 3.3 mm with manufacturer's filters. Our approach effectively reduced the mean RMS error to 2.7 mm. Compared to other filtering methods, our approach successfully improved the path reconstruction accuracy by exploiting the sensor's nonholonomic motion constraints in its formulation. Our approach seems promising for a variety of clinical procedures involving reconstruction of a catheter path.

  8. Molecular evolution of Adh and LEAFY and the phylogenetic utility of their introns in Pyrus (Rosaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The genus Pyrus belongs to the tribe Pyreae (the former subfamily Maloideae) of the family Rosaceae, and includes one of the most important commercial fruit crops, pear. The phylogeny of Pyrus has not been definitively reconstructed. In our previous efforts, the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) revealed a poorly resolved phylogeny due to non-concerted evolution of nrDNA arrays. Therefore, introns of low copy nuclear genes (LCNG) are explored here for improved resolution. However, paralogs and lineage sorting are still two challenges for applying LCNGs in phylogenetic studies, and at least two independent nuclear loci should be compared. In this work the second intron of LEAFY and the alcohol dehydrogenase gene (Adh) were selected to investigate their molecular evolution and phylogenetic utility. Results DNA sequence analyses revealed a complex ortholog and paralog structure of Adh genes in Pyrus and Malus, the pears and apples. Comparisons between sequences from RT-PCR and genomic PCR indicate that some Adh homologs are putatively nonfunctional. A partial region of Adh1 was sequenced for 18 Pyrus species and three subparalogs representing Adh1-1 were identified. These led to poorly resolved phylogenies due to low sequence divergence and the inclusion of putative recombinants. For the second intron of LEAFY, multiple inparalogs were discovered for both LFY1int2 and LFY2int2. LFY1int2 is inadequate for phylogenetic analysis due to lineage sorting of two inparalogs. LFY2int2-N, however, showed a relatively high sequence divergence and led to the best-resolved phylogeny. This study documents the coexistence of outparalogs and inparalogs, and lineage sorting of these paralogs and orthologous copies. It reveals putative recombinants that can lead to incorrect phylogenetic inferences, and presents an improved phylogenetic resolution of Pyrus using LFY2int2-N. Conclusions Our study represents the first phylogenetic analyses based on LCNGs in Pyrus

  9. L1 and total variation regularized C-arm cardiac cone beam CT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Zhou, Fugen

    2013-10-01

    A new iterative reconstruction method based on joint L1 and total variation regularization is proposed for ECG-gated tomographic reconstruction of coronary vessels. The reconstruction problem is formulated as a constrained optimization model and solved using linearized Bregman and forward-backward splitting methods. Experiments were conducted to evaluate its performance using an anthropomorphic phantom, and the results shown that the proposed method could reconstruct accurate vascular morphology from 5-10 angiograms.

  10. Phylogenetic conservatism of functional traits in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Martiny, Adam C; Treseder, Kathleen; Pusch, Gordon

    2013-04-01

    A central question in biology is how biodiversity influences ecosystem functioning. Underlying this is the relationship between organismal phylogeny and the presence of specific functional traits. The relationship is complicated by gene loss and convergent evolution, resulting in the polyphyletic distribution of many traits. In microorganisms, lateral gene transfer can further distort the linkage between phylogeny and the presence of specific functional traits. To identify the phylogenetic conservation of specific traits in microorganisms, we developed a new phylogenetic metric-consenTRAIT-to estimate the clade depth where organisms share a trait. We then analyzed the distribution of 89 functional traits across a broad range of Bacteria and Archaea using genotypic and phenotypic data. A total of 93% of the traits were significantly non-randomly distributed, which suggested that vertical inheritance was generally important for the phylogenetic dispersion of functional traits in microorganisms. Further, traits in microbes were associated with a continuum of trait depths (τD), ranging from a few deep to many shallow clades (average τD: 0.101-0.0011 rRNA sequence dissimilarity). Next, we demonstrated that the dispersion and the depth of clades that contain a trait is correlated with the trait's complexity. Specifically, complex traits encoded by many genes like photosynthesis and methanogenesis were found in a few deep clusters, whereas the ability to use simple carbon substrates was highly phylogenetically dispersed. On the basis of these results, we propose a framework for predicting the phylogenetic conservatism of functional traits depending on the complexity of the trait. This framework enables predicting how variation in microbial composition may affect microbially-mediated ecosystem processes as well as linking phylogenetic and trait-based patterns of biogeography.

  11. [Analysis phylogenetic relationship of Gynostemma (Cucurbitaceae)].

    PubMed

    Qin, Shuang-shuang; Li, Hai-tao; Wang, Zhou-yong; Cui, Zhan-hu; Yu, Li-ying

    2015-05-01

    The sequences of ITS, matK, rbcL and psbA-trnH of 9 Gynostemma species or variety including 38 samples were compared and analyzed by molecular phylogeny method. Hemsleya macrosperma was designated as outgroup. The MP and NJ phylogenetic tree of Gynostemma was built based on ITS sequence, the results of PAUP phylogenetic analysis showed the following results: (1) The eight individuals of G. pentaphyllum var. pentaphyllum were not supported as monophyletic in the strict consensus trees and NJ trees. (2) It is suspected whether G. longipes and G. laxum should be classified as the independent species. (3)The classification of subgenus units of Gynostemma plants is supported.

  12. Understanding phylogenetic incongruence: lessons from phyllostomid bats

    PubMed Central

    Dávalos, Liliana M; Cirranello, Andrea L; Geisler, Jonathan H; Simmons, Nancy B

    2012-01-01

    All characters and trait systems in an organism share a common evolutionary history that can be estimated using phylogenetic methods. However, differential rates of change and the evolutionary mechanisms driving those rates result in pervasive phylogenetic conflict. These drivers need to be uncovered because mismatches between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic models can lead to high confidence in incorrect hypotheses. Incongruence between phylogenies derived from morphological versus molecular analyses, and between trees based on different subsets of molecular sequences has become pervasive as datasets have expanded rapidly in both characters and species. For more than a decade, evolutionary relationships among members of the New World bat family Phyllostomidae inferred from morphological and molecular data have been in conflict. Here, we develop and apply methods to minimize systematic biases, uncover the biological mechanisms underlying phylogenetic conflict, and outline data requirements for future phylogenomic and morphological data collection. We introduce new morphological data for phyllostomids and outgroups and expand previous molecular analyses to eliminate methodological sources of phylogenetic conflict such as taxonomic sampling, sparse character sampling, or use of different algorithms to estimate the phylogeny. We also evaluate the impact of biological sources of conflict: saturation in morphological changes and molecular substitutions, and other processes that result in incongruent trees, including convergent morphological and molecular evolution. Methodological sources of incongruence play some role in generating phylogenetic conflict, and are relatively easy to eliminate by matching taxa, collecting more characters, and applying the same algorithms to optimize phylogeny. The evolutionary patterns uncovered are consistent with multiple biological sources of conflict, including saturation in morphological and molecular changes, adaptive

  13. Reconstruction of ancestral genomic sequences using likelihood.

    PubMed

    Elias, Isaac; Tuller, Tamir

    2007-03-01

    A challenging task in computational biology is the reconstruction of genomic sequences of extinct ancestors, given the phylogenetic tree and the sequences at the leafs. This task is best solved by calculating the most likely estimate of the ancestral sequences, along with the most likely edge lengths. We deal with this problem and also the variant in which the phylogenetic tree in addition to the ancestral sequences need to be estimated. The latter problem is known to be NP-hard, while the computational complexity of the former is unknown. Currently, all algorithms for solving these problems are heuristics without performance guarantees. The biological importance of these problems calls for developing better algorithms with guarantees of finding either optimal or approximate solutions. We develop approximation, fix parameter tractable (FPT), and fast heuristic algorithms for two variants of the problem; when the phylogenetic tree is known and when it is unknown. The approximation algorithm guarantees a solution with a log-likelihood ratio of 2 relative to the optimal solution. The FPT has a running time which is polynomial in the length of the sequences and exponential in the number of taxa. This makes it useful for calculating the optimal solution for small trees. Moreover, we combine the approximation algorithm and the FPT into an algorithm with arbitrary good approximation guarantee (PTAS). We tested our algorithms on both synthetic and biological data. In particular, we used the FPT for computing the most likely ancestral mitochondrial genomes of hominidae (the great apes), thereby answering an interesting biological question. Moreover, we show how the approximation algorithms find good solutions for reconstructing the ancestral genomes for a set of lentiviruses (relatives of HIV). Supplementary material of this work is available at www.nada.kth.se/~isaac/publications/aml/aml.html.

  14. Temporal and phylogenetic evolution of the sauropod dinosaur body plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Karl T.; Mannion, Philip D.; Falkingham, Peter L.; Brusatte, Stephen L.; Hutchinson, John R.; Otero, Alejandro; Sellers, William I.; Sullivan, Corwin; Stevens, Kent A.; Allen, Vivian

    2016-03-01

    The colossal size and body plan of sauropod dinosaurs are unparalleled in terrestrial vertebrates. However, to date, there have been only limited attempts to examine temporal and phylogenetic patterns in the sauropod bauplan. Here, we combine three-dimensional computational models with phylogenetic reconstructions to quantify the evolution of whole-body shape and body segment properties across the sauropod radiation. Limitations associated with the absence of soft tissue preservation in fossils result in large error bars about mean absolute body shape predictions. However, applying any consistent skeleton : body volume ratio to all taxa does yield changes in body shape that appear concurrent with major macroevolutionary events in sauropod history. A caudad shift in centre-of-mass (CoM) in Middle Triassic Saurischia, associated with the evolution of bipedalism in various dinosaur lineages, was reversed in Late Triassic sauropodomorphs. A craniad CoM shift coincided with the evolution of quadrupedalism in the Late Triassic, followed by a more striking craniad shift in Late Jurassic-Cretaceous titanosauriforms, which included the largest sauropods. These craniad CoM shifts are strongly correlated with neck enlargement, a key innovation in sauropod evolution and pivotal to their gigantism. By creating a much larger feeding envelope, neck elongation is thought to have increased feeding efficiency and opened up trophic niches that were inaccessible to other herbivores. However, we find that relative neck size and CoM position are not strongly correlated with inferred feeding habits. Instead the craniad CoM positions of titanosauriforms appear closely linked with locomotion and environmental distributions, potentially contributing to the continued success of this group until the end-Cretaceous, with all other sauropods having gone extinct by the early Late Cretaceous.

  15. Phylogenetic species delimitation for crayfishes of the genus Pacifastacus.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric R; Castelin, Magalie; Williams, Bronwyn W; Olden, Julian D; Abbott, Cathryn L

    2016-01-01

    Molecular genetic approaches are playing an increasing role in conservation science by identifying biodiversity that may not be evident by morphology-based taxonomy and systematics. So-called cryptic species are particularly prevalent in freshwater environments, where isolation of dispersal-limited species, such as crayfishes, within dendritic river networks often gives rise to high intra- and inter-specific genetic divergence. We apply here a multi-gene molecular approach to investigate relationships among extant species of the crayfish genus Pacifastacus, representing the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this taxonomic group. Importantly, Pacifastacus includes both the widely invasive signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, as well as several species of conservation concern like the Shasta crayfish Pacifastacus fortis. Our analysis used 83 individuals sampled across the four extant Pacifastacus species (omitting the extinct Pacifastacus nigrescens), representing the known taxonomic diversity and geographic distributions within this genus as comprehensively as possible. We reconstructed phylogenetic trees from mitochondrial (16S, COI) and nuclear genes (GAPDH), both separately and using a combined or concatenated dataset, and performed several species delimitation analyses (PTP, ABGD, GMYC) on the COI phylogeny to propose Primary Species Hypotheses (PSHs) within the genus. All phylogenies recovered the genus Pacifastacus as monophyletic, within which we identified a range of six to 21 PSHs; more abundant PSHs delimitations from GMYC and ABGD were always nested within PSHs delimited by the more conservative PTP method. Pacifastacus leniusculus included the majority of PSHs and was not monophyletic relative to the other Pacifastacus species considered. Several of these highly distinct P. leniusculus PSHs likely require urgent conservation attention. Our results identify research needs and conservation priorities for Pacifastacus crayfishes in western

  16. Temporal and phylogenetic evolution of the sauropod dinosaur body plan

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Karl T.; Mannion, Philip D.; Falkingham, Peter L.; Brusatte, Stephen L.; Hutchinson, John R.; Otero, Alejandro; Sellers, William I.; Sullivan, Corwin; Stevens, Kent A.; Allen, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    The colossal size and body plan of sauropod dinosaurs are unparalleled in terrestrial vertebrates. However, to date, there have been only limited attempts to examine temporal and phylogenetic patterns in the sauropod bauplan. Here, we combine three-dimensional computational models with phylogenetic reconstructions to quantify the evolution of whole-body shape and body segment properties across the sauropod radiation. Limitations associated with the absence of soft tissue preservation in fossils result in large error bars about mean absolute body shape predictions. However, applying any consistent skeleton : body volume ratio to all taxa does yield changes in body shape that appear concurrent with major macroevolutionary events in sauropod history. A caudad shift in centre-of-mass (CoM) in Middle Triassic Saurischia, associated with the evolution of bipedalism in various dinosaur lineages, was reversed in Late Triassic sauropodomorphs. A craniad CoM shift coincided with the evolution of quadrupedalism in the Late Triassic, followed by a more striking craniad shift in Late Jurassic–Cretaceous titanosauriforms, which included the largest sauropods. These craniad CoM shifts are strongly correlated with neck enlargement, a key innovation in sauropod evolution and pivotal to their gigantism. By creating a much larger feeding envelope, neck elongation is thought to have increased feeding efficiency and opened up trophic niches that were inaccessible to other herbivores. However, we find that relative neck size and CoM position are not strongly correlated with inferred feeding habits. Instead the craniad CoM positions of titanosauriforms appear closely linked with locomotion and environmental distributions, potentially contributing to the continued success of this group until the end-Cretaceous, with all other sauropods having gone extinct by the early Late Cretaceous. PMID:27069652

  17. Temporal and phylogenetic evolution of the sauropod dinosaur body plan.

    PubMed

    Bates, Karl T; Mannion, Philip D; Falkingham, Peter L; Brusatte, Stephen L; Hutchinson, John R; Otero, Alejandro; Sellers, William I; Sullivan, Corwin; Stevens, Kent A; Allen, Vivian

    2016-03-01

    The colossal size and body plan of sauropod dinosaurs are unparalleled in terrestrial vertebrates. However, to date, there have been only limited attempts to examine temporal and phylogenetic patterns in the sauropod bauplan. Here, we combine three-dimensional computational models with phylogenetic reconstructions to quantify the evolution of whole-body shape and body segment properties across the sauropod radiation. Limitations associated with the absence of soft tissue preservation in fossils result in large error bars about mean absolute body shape predictions. However, applying any consistent skeleton : body volume ratio to all taxa does yield changes in body shape that appear concurrent with major macroevolutionary events in sauropod history. A caudad shift in centre-of-mass (CoM) in Middle Triassic Saurischia, associated with the evolution of bipedalism in various dinosaur lineages, was reversed in Late Triassic sauropodomorphs. A craniad CoM shift coincided with the evolution of quadrupedalism in the Late Triassic, followed by a more striking craniad shift in Late Jurassic-Cretaceous titanosauriforms, which included the largest sauropods. These craniad CoM shifts are strongly correlated with neck enlargement, a key innovation in sauropod evolution and pivotal to their gigantism. By creating a much larger feeding envelope, neck elongation is thought to have increased feeding efficiency and opened up trophic niches that were inaccessible to other herbivores. However, we find that relative neck size and CoM position are not strongly correlated with inferred feeding habits. Instead the craniad CoM positions of titanosauriforms appear closely linked with locomotion and environmental distributions, potentially contributing to the continued success of this group until the end-Cretaceous, with all other sauropods having gone extinct by the early Late Cretaceous.

  18. The phylogenetic significance of colour patterns in marine teleost larvae

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Carole C

    2013-01-01

    colour patterns, including whether the pattern comprises xanthophores or erythrophores, often distinguish species. The homology, ontogeny, and possible functional significance of colour patterns in larvae are discussed. Considerably more investigation of larval colour patterns in marine teleosts is needed to assess fully their value in phylogenetic reconstruction. PMID:24039297

  19. Phylogenetic species delimitation for crayfishes of the genus Pacifastacus

    PubMed Central

    Castelin, Magalie; Williams, Bronwyn W.; Olden, Julian D.; Abbott, Cathryn L.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular genetic approaches are playing an increasing role in conservation science by identifying biodiversity that may not be evident by morphology-based taxonomy and systematics. So-called cryptic species are particularly prevalent in freshwater environments, where isolation of dispersal-limited species, such as crayfishes, within dendritic river networks often gives rise to high intra- and inter-specific genetic divergence. We apply here a multi-gene molecular approach to investigate relationships among extant species of the crayfish genus Pacifastacus, representing the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this taxonomic group. Importantly, Pacifastacus includes both the widely invasive signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, as well as several species of conservation concern like the Shasta crayfish Pacifastacus fortis. Our analysis used 83 individuals sampled across the four extant Pacifastacus species (omitting the extinct Pacifastacus nigrescens), representing the known taxonomic diversity and geographic distributions within this genus as comprehensively as possible. We reconstructed phylogenetic trees from mitochondrial (16S, COI) and nuclear genes (GAPDH), both separately and using a combined or concatenated dataset, and performed several species delimitation analyses (PTP, ABGD, GMYC) on the COI phylogeny to propose Primary Species Hypotheses (PSHs) within the genus. All phylogenies recovered the genus Pacifastacus as monophyletic, within which we identified a range of six to 21 PSHs; more abundant PSHs delimitations from GMYC and ABGD were always nested within PSHs delimited by the more conservative PTP method. Pacifastacus leniusculus included the majority of PSHs and was not monophyletic relative to the other Pacifastacus species considered. Several of these highly distinct P. leniusculus PSHs likely require urgent conservation attention. Our results identify research needs and conservation priorities for Pacifastacus crayfishes in western

  20. The phylogenetic significance of colour patterns in marine teleost larvae.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carole C

    2013-07-01

    colour patterns, including whether the pattern comprises xanthophores or erythrophores, often distinguish species. The homology, ontogeny, and possible functional significance of colour patterns in larvae are discussed. Considerably more investigation of larval colour patterns in marine teleosts is needed to assess fully their value in phylogenetic reconstruction. PMID:24039297

  1. A phylogenetic perspective on the evolution of Mediterranean teleost fishes.

    PubMed

    Meynard, Christine N; Mouillot, David; Mouquet, Nicolas; Douzery, Emmanuel J P

    2012-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a highly diverse, highly studied, and highly impacted biogeographic region, yet no phylogenetic reconstruction of fish diversity in this area has been published to date. Here, we infer the timing and geographic origins of Mediterranean teleost species diversity using nucleotide sequences collected from GenBank. We assembled a DNA supermatrix composed of four mitochondrial genes (12S ribosomal DNA, 16S ribosomal DNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b) and two nuclear genes (rhodopsin and recombination activating gene I), including 62% of Mediterranean teleost species plus 9 outgroups. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic and dating analyses were calibrated using 20 fossil constraints. An additional 124 species were grafted onto the chronogram according to their taxonomic affinity, checking for the effects of taxonomic coverage in subsequent diversification analyses. We then interpreted the time-line of teleost diversification in light of Mediterranean historical biogeography, distinguishing non-endemic natives, endemics and exotic species. Results show that the major Mediterranean orders are of Cretaceous origin, specifically ~100-80 Mya, and most Perciformes families originated 80-50 Mya. Two important clade origin events were detected. The first at 100-80 Mya, affected native and exotic species, and reflects a global diversification period at a time when the Mediterranean Sea did not yet exist. The second occurred during the last 50 Mya, and is noticeable among endemic and native species, but not among exotic species. This period corresponds to isolation of the Mediterranean from Indo-Pacific waters before the Messinian salinity crisis. The Mediterranean fish fauna illustrates well the assembly of regional faunas through origination and immigration, where dispersal and isolation have shaped the emergence of a biodiversity hotspot. PMID:22590545

  2. Temporal and phylogenetic evolution of the sauropod dinosaur body plan.

    PubMed

    Bates, Karl T; Mannion, Philip D; Falkingham, Peter L; Brusatte, Stephen L; Hutchinson, John R; Otero, Alejandro; Sellers, William I; Sullivan, Corwin; Stevens, Kent A; Allen, Vivian

    2016-03-01

    The colossal size and body plan of sauropod dinosaurs are unparalleled in terrestrial vertebrates. However, to date, there have been only limited attempts to examine temporal and phylogenetic patterns in the sauropod bauplan. Here, we combine three-dimensional computational models with phylogenetic reconstructions to quantify the evolution of whole-body shape and body segment properties across the sauropod radiation. Limitations associated with the absence of soft tissue preservation in fossils result in large error bars about mean absolute body shape predictions. However, applying any consistent skeleton : body volume ratio to all taxa does yield changes in body shape that appear concurrent with major macroevolutionary events in sauropod history. A caudad shift in centre-of-mass (CoM) in Middle Triassic Saurischia, associated with the evolution of bipedalism in various dinosaur lineages, was reversed in Late Triassic sauropodomorphs. A craniad CoM shift coincided with the evolution of quadrupedalism in the Late Triassic, followed by a more striking craniad shift in Late Jurassic-Cretaceous titanosauriforms, which included the largest sauropods. These craniad CoM shifts are strongly correlated with neck enlargement, a key innovation in sauropod evolution and pivotal to their gigantism. By creating a much larger feeding envelope, neck elongation is thought to have increased feeding efficiency and opened up trophic niches that were inaccessible to other herbivores. However, we find that relative neck size and CoM position are not strongly correlated with inferred feeding habits. Instead the craniad CoM positions of titanosauriforms appear closely linked with locomotion and environmental distributions, potentially contributing to the continued success of this group until the end-Cretaceous, with all other sauropods having gone extinct by the early Late Cretaceous. PMID:27069652

  3. PHYML Online—a web server for fast maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic inference

    PubMed Central

    Guindon, Stéphane; Lethiec, Franck; Duroux, Patrice; Gascuel, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    PHYML Online is a web interface to PHYML, a software that implements a fast and accurate heuristic for estimating maximum likelihood phylogenies from DNA and protein sequences. This tool provides the user with a number of options, e.g. nonparametric bootstrap and estimation of various evolutionary parameters, in order to perform comprehensive phylogenetic analyses on large datasets in reasonable computing time. The server and its documentation are available at . PMID:15980534

  4. PHYML Online--a web server for fast maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic inference.

    PubMed

    Guindon, Stéphane; Lethiec, Franck; Duroux, Patrice; Gascuel, Olivier

    2005-07-01

    PHYML Online is a web interface to PHYML, a software that implements a fast and accurate heuristic for estimating maximum likelihood phylogenies from DNA and protein sequences. This tool provides the user with a number of options, e.g. nonparametric bootstrap and estimation of various evolutionary parameters, in order to perform comprehensive phylogenetic analyses on large datasets in reasonable computing time. The server and its documentation are available at http://atgc.lirmm.fr/phyml.

  5. Blastocystis elongation factor-1alpha: genomic organization, taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships.

    PubMed

    Ho, L C; Armiugam, A; Jeyaseelan, K; Yap, E H; Singh, M

    2000-08-01

    The elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1alpha) is a highly conserved ubiquitous protein that is involved in translation and is desirable for use in phylogenetic studies on Blastocystis, an enigmatic intestinal parasite with a contentious taxonomic position. In the present study, a PCR product (BEalpha) that codes for a major part of the coding region of the EF-lalpha protein was amplified. Genome walking experiments together with cloning were implemented to elucidate the 5' and 3' ends of the EF-1alpha gene of the human isolate, Blastocystis hominis C. The genomic organization and the potential transcription factor binding sites of the 5' end of B. hominis C EF-1alpha were identified. A comparative study on the deduced amino acid sequences of BEalpha of 13 Blastocystis isolates from various hosts was done to evaluate the phylogenetic relationship among the species. A phylogenetic reconstruction analysis with other eukaryotic EF-1alpha sequences was carried out to trace the phylogenetic position of Blastocystis among eukaryotic organisms. PMID:11085233

  6. Ovary structure and early oogenesis in the remipede, Godzilliognomus frondosus (Crustacea, Remipedia): phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Kubrakiewicz, Janusz; Jaglarz, Mariusz K; Iliffe, Thomas M; Bilinski, Szczepan M; Koenemann, Stefan

    2012-08-01

    Remipedia are enigmatic crustaceans of uncertain phylogenetic position with the general consensus that they are crucial for understanding the crustacean/arthropod evolution. It has been demonstrated previously that the features of the ovary organization and subcellular aspects of oogenesis are useful in resolving phylogenetic relationships in arthropods such as hexapods and onychophorans. The structure of the female gonads in Remipedia remains largely unknown; therefore, we examined the gross morphology and ultrastructural details of the ovary in a remipede, Godzilliognomus frondosus, with special emphasis on characters relevant to phylogenetic reconstructions. The ovaries of G. frondosus are located in the anterior part of the body and are composed of a single anterior proliferative zone (the germarium) and paired ovarian tubes (the vitellarium). The oocytes undergo subsequent stages of development within the lumen of the ovarian tubes, hence the remipede ovaries can be classified as endogenous. During oogenesis, each oocyte is enveloped by a set of characteristic somatic follicular cells, which results in the formation of distinct ovarian follicles. Here, we demonstrate that Remipedia share significant similarities in the ovary organization with Cephalocarida, including the anterior location of the ovary, the anterior-most position of the germarium and the endogenous type of oocyte development. Phylogenetic implications of our findings are discussed.

  7. Phylogenetic origins of Lophocereus (Cactaceae) and the senita cactus-senita moth pollination mutualism.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Stefanie; Nason, John D; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2002-07-01

    Recent ecological research has revealed that the Sonoran Desert columnar cactus Lophocereus and the pyralid moth Upiga virescens form an obligate pollination mutualism, a rare but important case of coevolution. To investigate the phylogenetic origins of this unusual pollination system, we used molecular sequence data to reconstruct the phylogeny of the four taxa within the genus Lophocereus and to determine the phylogenetic position of Lophocereus within the North American columnar cacti (tribe Pachycereeae). Our analysis included Lophocereus, six Pachycereus species, Carnegiea gigantea, and Neobuxbaumia tetetzo within the subtribe Pachycereinae, and Stenocereus thurberi as an outgroup within the Stenocereinae. Extensive screening of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes failed to reveal sequence variation within Lophocereus. At a deeper phylogenetic level, however, we found strong support for the placement of Lophocereus within Pachycereus as sister group to the hummingbird-pollinated P. marginatus. We discuss possible hypotheses that may explain the transition from bat pollination (ancestral) to moth and hummingbird pollination in Lophocereus and P. marginatus, respectively. Additional phylogenetic analyses suggest that the genus Pachycereus should be expanded to include Lophocereus, Carnegiea, Neobuxbaumia, and perhaps other species, whereas P. hollianus may need to be excluded from this clade. Future study will be needed to test taxonomic distinctions within Lophocereus, to test for parallel cladogenesis between phylogroups within Lophocereus and Upiga, and to fully delineate the genus Pachycereus and relationships among genera in the Pachycereinae.

  8. Phylogenetic Information Content of Copepoda Ribosomal DNA Repeat Units: ITS1 and ITS2 Impact

    PubMed Central

    Zagoskin, Maxim V.; Lazareva, Valentina I.; Grishanin, Andrey K.; Mukha, Dmitry V.

    2014-01-01

    The utility of various regions of the ribosomal repeat unit for phylogenetic analysis was examined in 16 species representing four families, nine genera, and two orders of the subclass Copepoda (Crustacea). Fragments approximately 2000 bp in length containing the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) 18S and 28S gene fragments, the 5.8S gene, and the internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS1 and ITS2) were amplified and analyzed. The DAMBE (Data Analysis in Molecular Biology and Evolution) software was used to analyze the saturation of nucleotide substitutions; this test revealed the suitability of both the 28S gene fragment and the ITS1/ITS2 rDNA regions for the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees. Distance (minimum evolution) and probabilistic (maximum likelihood, Bayesian) analyses of the data revealed that the 28S rDNA and the ITS1 and ITS2 regions are informative markers for inferring phylogenetic relationships among families of copepods and within the Cyclopidae family and associated genera. Split-graph analysis of concatenated ITS1/ITS2 rDNA regions of cyclopoid copepods suggested that the Mesocyclops, Thermocyclops, and Macrocyclops genera share complex evolutionary relationships. This study revealed that the ITS1 and ITS2 regions potentially represent different phylogenetic signals. PMID:25215300

  9. Extracting Time-Accurate Acceleration Vectors From Nontrivial Accelerometer Arrangements.

    PubMed

    Franck, Jennifer A; Blume, Janet; Crisco, Joseph J; Franck, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Sports-related concussions are of significant concern in many impact sports, and their detection relies on accurate measurements of the head kinematics during impact. Among the most prevalent recording technologies are videography, and more recently, the use of single-axis accelerometers mounted in a helmet, such as the HIT system. Successful extraction of the linear and angular impact accelerations depends on an accurate analysis methodology governed by the equations of motion. Current algorithms are able to estimate the magnitude of acceleration and hit location, but make assumptions about the hit orientation and are often limited in the position and/or orientation of the accelerometers. The newly formulated algorithm presented in this manuscript accurately extracts the full linear and rotational acceleration vectors from a broad arrangement of six single-axis accelerometers directly from the governing set of kinematic equations. The new formulation linearizes the nonlinear centripetal acceleration term with a finite-difference approximation and provides a fast and accurate solution for all six components of acceleration over long time periods (>250 ms). The approximation of the nonlinear centripetal acceleration term provides an accurate computation of the rotational velocity as a function of time and allows for reconstruction of a multiple-impact signal. Furthermore, the algorithm determines the impact location and orientation and can distinguish between glancing, high rotational velocity impacts, or direct impacts through the center of mass. Results are shown for ten simulated impact locations on a headform geometry computed with three different accelerometer configurations in varying degrees of signal noise. Since the algorithm does not require simplifications of the actual impacted geometry, the impact vector, or a specific arrangement of accelerometer orientations, it can be easily applied to many impact investigations in which accurate kinematics need to

  10. Extinction in Phylogenetics and Biogeography: From Timetrees to Patterns of Biotic Assemblage

    PubMed Central

    Meseguer, Andrea S.

    2016-01-01

    Global climate change and its impact on biodiversity levels have made extinction a relevant topic in biological research. Yet, until recently, extinction has received less attention in macroevolutionary studies than speciation; the reason is the difficulty to infer an event that actually eliminates rather than creates new taxa. For example, in biogeography, extinction has often been seen as noise, introducing homoplasy in biogeographic relationships, rather than a pattern-generating process. The molecular revolution and the possibility to integrate time into phylogenetic reconstructions have allowed studying extinction under different perspectives. Here, we review phylogenetic (temporal) and biogeographic (spatial) approaches to the inference of extinction and the challenges this process poses for reconstructing evolutionary history. Specifically, we focus on the problem of discriminating between alternative high extinction scenarios using time trees with only extant taxa, and on the confounding effect introduced by asymmetric spatial extinction – different rates of extinction across areas – in biogeographic inference. Finally, we identify the most promising avenues of research in both fields, which include the integration of additional sources of evidence such as the fossil record or environmental information in birth–death models and biogeographic reconstructions, the development of new models that tie extinction rates to phenotypic or environmental variation, or the implementation within a Bayesian framework of parametric non-stationary biogeographic models. PMID:27047538

  11. Extinction in Phylogenetics and Biogeography: From Timetrees to Patterns of Biotic Assemblage.

    PubMed

    Sanmartín, Isabel; Meseguer, Andrea S

    2016-01-01

    Global climate change and its impact on biodiversity levels have made extinction a relevant topic in biological research. Yet, until recently, extinction has received less attention in macroevolutionary studies than speciation; the reason is the difficulty to infer an event that actually eliminates rather than creates new taxa. For example, in biogeography, extinction has often been seen as noise, introducing homoplasy in biogeographic relationships, rather than a pattern-generating process. The molecular revolution and the possibility to integrate time into phylogenetic reconstructions have allowed studying extinction under different perspectives. Here, we review phylogenetic (temporal) and biogeographic (spatial) approaches to the inference of extinction and the challenges this process poses for reconstructing evolutionary history. Specifically, we focus on the problem of discriminating between alternative high extinction scenarios using time trees with only extant taxa, and on the confounding effect introduced by asymmetric spatial extinction - different rates of extinction across areas - in biogeographic inference. Finally, we identify the most promising avenues of research in both fields, which include the integration of additional sources of evidence such as the fossil record or environmental information in birth-death models and biogeographic reconstructions, the development of new models that tie extinction rates to phenotypic or environmental variation, or the implementation within a Bayesian framework of parametric non-stationary biogeographic models. PMID:27047538

  12. Head and neck reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Prabha

    2013-01-01

    Whatever is excisable, is reconstructable! “You excise, we will reconstruct” are the confident words of reconstructive surgeons today. Reconstruction with multiple flaps has become routine. Radial artery (FRAF), Antero lateral thigh (ALT) and Fibula osteo cutaneous flap (FFOCF) are three most popular free flaps which can reconstruct any defect with excellent asthetics and performance. Radial Artery provides thin, pliable innervated skin; ALT large amount of skin & bulk; and FFOCF strong 22 to 25 centimetres of bone and reliable skin paddle. Free flap survival has gone to 98% in most of the renouned institutes and is an established escalator in management of defects. PMID:24501464

  13. Flexor pulley reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dy, Christopher J; Daluiski, Aaron

    2013-05-01

    Flexor pulley reconstruction is a challenging surgery. Injuries often occur after traumatic lacerations or forceful extension applied to an acutely flexed finger. Surgical treatment is reserved for patients with multiple closed pulley ruptures, persistent pain, or dysfunction after attempted nonoperative management of a single pulley rupture, or during concurrent or staged flexor tendon repair or reconstruction. If the pulley cannot be repaired primarily, pulley reconstruction can be performed using graft woven into remnant pulley rim or looping graft around the phalanx. Regardless of the reconstructive technique, the surgeon should emulate the length, tension, and glide of the native pulley. PMID:23660059

  14. Spectral image reconstruction through the PCA transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Long; Qiu, Xuewei; Cong, Yangming

    2015-12-01

    Digital color image reproduction based on spectral information has become a field of much interest and practical importance in recent years. The representation of color in digital form with multi-band images is not very accurate, hence the use of spectral image is justified. Reconstructing high-dimensional spectral reflectance images from relatively low-dimensional camera signals is generally an ill-posed problem. The aim of this study is to use the Principal component analysis (PCA) transform in spectral reflectance images reconstruction. The performance is evaluated by the mean, median and standard deviation of color difference values. The values of mean, median and standard deviation of root mean square (GFC) errors between the reconstructed and the actual spectral image were also calculated. Simulation experiments conducted on a six-channel camera system and on spectral test images show the performance of the suggested method.

  15. Fast iterative image reconstruction of 3D PET data

    SciTech Connect

    Kinahan, P.E.; Townsend, D.W.; Michel, C.

    1996-12-31

    For count-limited PET imaging protocols, two different approaches to reducing statistical noise are volume, or 3D, imaging to increase sensitivity, and statistical reconstruction methods to reduce noise propagation. These two approaches have largely been developed independently, likely due to the perception of the large computational demands of iterative 3D reconstruction methods. We present results of combining the sensitivity of 3D PET imaging with the noise reduction and reconstruction speed of 2D iterative image reconstruction methods. This combination is made possible by using the recently-developed Fourier rebinning technique (FORE), which accurately and noiselessly rebins 3D PET data into a 2D data set. The resulting 2D sinograms are then reconstructed independently by the ordered-subset EM (OSEM) iterative reconstruction method, although any other 2D reconstruction algorithm could be used. We demonstrate significant improvements in image quality for whole-body 3D PET scans by using the FORE+OSEM approach compared with the standard 3D Reprojection (3DRP) algorithm. In addition, the FORE+OSEM approach involves only 2D reconstruction and it therefore requires considerably less reconstruction time than the 3DRP algorithm, or any fully 3D statistical reconstruction algorithm.

  16. Constructing Student Problems in Phylogenetic Tree Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Steven D.

    Evolution is often equated with natural selection and is taught from a primarily functional perspective while comparative and historical approaches, which are critical for developing an appreciation of the power of evolutionary theory, are often neglected. This report describes a study of expert problem-solving in phylogenetic tree construction.…

  17. Quantifying MCMC exploration of phylogenetic tree space.

    PubMed

    Whidden, Chris; Matsen, Frederick A

    2015-05-01

    In order to gain an understanding of the effectiveness of phylogenetic Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), it is important to understand how quickly the empirical distribution of the MCMC converges to the posterior distribution. In this article, we investigate this problem on phylogenetic tree topologies with a metric that is especially well suited to the task: the subtree prune-and-regraft (SPR) metric. This metric directly corresponds to the minimum number of MCMC rearrangements required to move between trees in common phylogenetic MCMC implementations. We develop a novel graph-based approach to analyze tree posteriors and find that the SPR metric is much more informative than simpler metrics that are unrelated to MCMC moves. In doing so, we show conclusively that topological peaks do occur in Bayesian phylogenetic posteriors from real data sets as sampled with standard MCMC approaches, investigate the efficiency of Metropolis-coupled MCMC (MCMCMC) in traversing the valleys between peaks, and show that conditional clade distribution (CCD) can have systematic problems when there are multiple peaks.

  18. Mitochondrial phylogenetics and evolution of mysticete whales.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Nikaido, Masato; Hamilton, Healy; Goto, Mutsuo; Kato, Hidehiro; Kanda, Naohisa; Pastene, Luis; Cao, Ying; Fordyce, R; Hasegawa, Masami; Okada, Norihiro

    2005-02-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among baleen whales (Order: Cetacea) remain uncertain despite extensive research in cetacean molecular phylogenetics and a potential morphological sample size of over 2 million animals harvested. Questions remain regarding the number of species and the monophyly of genera, as well as higher order relationships. Here, we approach mysticete phylogeny with complete mitochondrial genome sequence analysis. We determined complete mtDNA sequences of 10 extant Mysticeti species, inferred their phylogenetic relationships, and estimated node divergence times. The mtDNA sequence analysis concurs with previous molecular studies in the ordering of the principal branches, with Balaenidae (right whales) as sister to all other mysticetes base, followed by Neobalaenidae (pygmy right whale), Eschrichtiidae (gray whale), and finally Balaenopteridae (rorquals + humpback whale). The mtDNA analysis further suggests that four lineages exist within the clade of Eschrichtiidae + Balaenopteridae, including a sister relationship between the humpback and fin whales, and a monophyletic group formed by the blue, sei, and Bryde's whales, each of which represents a newly recognized phylogenetic relationship in Mysticeti. We also estimated the divergence times of all extant mysticete species, accounting for evolutionary rate heterogeneity among lineages. When the mtDNA divergence estimates are compared with the mysticete fossil record, several lineages have molecular divergence estimates strikingly older than indicated by paleontological data. We suggest this discrepancy reflects both a large amount of ancestral polymorphism and long generation times of ancestral baleen whale populations.

  19. On the analysis of phylogenetically paired designs

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Jennifer L; Rakovski, Cyril S; Macpherson, J Michael

    2015-01-01

    As phylogenetically controlled experimental designs become increasingly common in ecology, the need arises for a standardized statistical treatment of these datasets. Phylogenetically paired designs circumvent the need for resolved phylogenies and have been used to compare species groups, particularly in the areas of invasion biology and adaptation. Despite the widespread use of this approach, the statistical analysis of paired designs has not been critically evaluated. We propose a mixed model approach that includes random effects for pair and species. These random effects introduce a “two-layer” compound symmetry variance structure that captures both the correlations between observations on related species within a pair as well as the correlations between the repeated measurements within species. We conducted a simulation study to assess the effect of model misspecification on Type I and II error rates. We also provide an illustrative example with data containing taxonomically similar species and several outcome variables of interest. We found that a mixed model with species and pair as random effects performed better in these phylogenetically explicit simulations than two commonly used reference models (no or single random effect) by optimizing Type I error rates and power. The proposed mixed model produces acceptable Type I and II error rates despite the absence of a phylogenetic tree. This design can be generalized to a variety of datasets to analyze repeated measurements in clusters of related subjects/species. PMID:25750719

  20. Quantifying MCMC Exploration of Phylogenetic Tree Space

    PubMed Central

    Whidden, Chris; Matsen, Frederick A.

    2015-01-01

    In order to gain an understanding of the effectiveness of phylogenetic Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), it is important to understand how quickly the empirical distribution of the MCMC converges to the posterior distribution. In this article, we investigate this problem on phylogenetic tree topologies with a metric that is especially well suited to the task: the subtree prune-and-regraft (SPR) metric. This metric directly corresponds to the minimum number of MCMC rearrangements required to move between trees in common phylogenetic MCMC implementations. We develop a novel graph-based approach to analyze tree posteriors and find that the SPR metric is much more informative than simpler metrics that are unrelated to MCMC moves. In doing so, we show conclusively that topological peaks do occur in Bayesian phylogenetic posteriors from real data sets as sampled with standard MCMC approaches, investigate the efficiency of Metropolis-coupled MCMC (MCMCMC) in traversing the valleys between peaks, and show that conditional clade distribution (CCD) can have systematic problems when there are multiple peaks. PMID:25631175

  1. Probabilistic phylogenetic inference with insertions and deletions.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Elena; Eddy, Sean R

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental task in sequence analysis is to calculate the probability of a multiple alignment given a phylogenetic tree relating the sequences and an evolutionary model describing how sequences change over time. However, the most widely used phylogenetic models only account for residue substitution events. We describe a probabilistic model of a multiple sequence alignment that accounts for insertion and deletion events in addition to substitutions, given a phylogenetic tree, using a rate matrix augmented by the gap character. Starting from a continuous Markov process, we construct a non-reversible generative (birth-death) evolutionary model for insertions and deletions. The model assumes that insertion and deletion events occur one residue at a time. We apply this model to phylogenetic tree inference by extending the program dnaml in phylip. Using standard benchmarking methods on simulated data and a new "concordance test" benchmark on real ribosomal RNA alignments, we show that the extended program dnamlepsilon improves accuracy relative to the usual approach of ignoring gaps, while retaining the computational efficiency of the Felsenstein peeling algorithm. PMID:18787703

  2. WEAK LENSING MASS RECONSTRUCTION: FLEXION VERSUS SHEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Pires, S.

    2010-11-10

    Weak gravitational lensing has proven to be a powerful tool to map directly the distribution of dark matter in the universe. The technique, currently used, relies on the accurate measurement of the gravitational shear that corresponds to the first-order distortion of the background galaxy images. More recently, a new technique has been introduced that relies on the accurate measurement of the gravitational flexion that corresponds to the second-order distortion of the background galaxy images. This technique should probe structures on smaller scales than that of shear analysis. The goal of this paper is to compare the ability of shear and flexion to reconstruct the dark matter distribution by taking into account the dispersion in shear and flexion measurements. Our results show that the flexion is less sensitive than shear for constructing the convergence maps on scales that are physically feasible for mapping, meaning that flexion alone should not be used to do convergence map reconstruction, even on small scales.

  3. Reconstructing Spatial Distributions from Anonymized Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Horey, James L; Forrest, Stephanie; Groat, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Devices such as mobile phones, tablets, and sensors are often equipped with GPS that accurately report a person's location. Combined with wireless communication, these devices enable a wide range of new social tools and applications. These same qualities, however, leave location-aware applications vulnerable to privacy violations. This paper introduces the Negative Quad Tree, a privacy protection method for location aware applications. The method is broadly applicable to applications that use spatial density information, such as social applications that measure the popularity of social venues. The method employs a simple anonymization algorithm running on mobile devices, and a more complex reconstruction algorithm on a central server. This strategy is well suited to low-powered mobile devices. The paper analyzes the accuracy of the reconstruction method in a variety of simulated and real-world settings and demonstrates that the method is accurate enough to be used in many real-world scenarios.

  4. Pragmatic reconstruction methods in atom probe tomography.

    PubMed

    Vurpillot, F; Gruber, M; Da Costa, G; Martin, I; Renaud, L; Bostel, A

    2011-07-01

    Data collected in atom probe tomography have to be carefully analysed in order to give reliable composition data accurately and precisely positioned in the probed volume. Indeed, the large analysed surfaces of recent instruments require reconstruction methods taking into account not only the tip geometry but also accurate knowledge of geometrical projection parameters. This is particularly crucial in the analysis of multilayers materials or planar interfaces. The current work presents a simulation model that enables extraction of the two main projection features as a function of the tip and atom probe instrumentation geometries. Conversely to standard assumptions, the image compression factor and the field factor vary significantly during the analysis. An improved reconstruction method taking into account the intrinsic shape of a sample containing planar features is proposed to overcome this shortcoming.

  5. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the vampire moths and their fruit-piercing relatives (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Calpinae).

    PubMed

    Zaspel, J M; Zahiri, R; Hoy, M A; Janzen, D; Weller, S J; Wahlberg, N

    2012-11-01

    Within butterflies and moths, adult hematophagy is limited to species within the vampire moth genus Calyptra. These moths are placed within the subfamily Calpinae, whose other members are known to exhibit a broad range of feeding behaviors including those that can be considered 'piercers' of fruits or other hosts and 'tear feeders'. Here, we reconstruct a phylogenetic hypothesis of Calpinae using molecular data to test whether hematophagy in Calyptra arose from plant or animal-related behaviors. We use a Bayesian method of ancestral state reconstruction to determine the most likely feeding behaviors for the subtribes and genera within this lineage.

  6. Evaluating the Phylogenetic Status of the Extinct Japanese Otter on the Basis of Mitochondrial Genome Analysis.

    PubMed

    Waku, Daisuke; Segawa, Takahiro; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Akiyoshi, Ayumi; Ishige, Taichiro; Ueda, Miya; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Ando, Motokazu; Kohno, Naoki; Sasaki, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese otter lived throughout four main Japanese islands, but it has not been observed in the wild since 1979 and was declared extinct in 2012. Although recent taxonomic and molecular phylogenetic studies suggest that it should be treated as an independent species, International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List considers it as subspecies of Lutra lutra. Therefore, the taxonomic status of this species needs to be resolved. Here we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of two Japanese otters caught in Kanagawa and Kochi prefectures and five Eurasian otters (L. lutra). We reconstructed a molecular phylogenetic tree to estimate the phylogenetic position of the Japanese otter in Lutrinae using the Japanese otters and the other 11 Lutrinae species on the basis of ND5 (692 bp) and cytochrome b (1,140 bp) sequences. We observed that the two Japanese otters had close relationships with Eurasian otters, forming a monophyletic group (100% bootstrap probability). To elucidate detailed phylogenetic relationships among the Japanese and Eurasian otters, we reconstructed a maximum likelihood tree according to mitochondrial genome sequences (14,740 bp). The Japanese otter (JO1) collected in Kanagawa was deeply nested in the Eurasian otter clade, whereas the Japanese otter (JO2) collected in Kochi formed a distinct independent lineage in the Lutra clade. The estimated molecular divergences time for the ancestral lineages of the Japanese otters was 0.10 Ma (95%: 0.06-0.16 Ma) and 1.27 Ma (95%: 0.98-1.59 Ma) for JO1 and JO2 lineages, respectively. Thus, JO1 was identified as a member of L. lutra; JO2 represented the old Japanese otter lineage, which may be a distinct new species or subspecies of Lutra. We suggest that the ancestral population of the JO2 lineage migrated to Japan via the land bridge that existed between western Japanese islands and Asian continent at 1.27 Ma.

  7. Phylogenetic relationships of Darwin's "Mr. Arthrobalanus": The burrowing barnacles (Cirripedia: Acrothoracica).

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiu-Chin; Kobasov, Gregory A; Chan, Benny K K

    2016-07-01

    The barnacles of the superorder Acrothoracica are small, burrowing, epibiotic, and dioecious (large female with dwarf male) crustaceans largely found in the carbonate sediments and skeletons of marine invertebrates. The acrothoracicans represent the Cirripedia with the most plesiomorphic characters and have prominently featured in phylogenetic speculations concerning these crustaceans. Traditionally, Acrothoracica was divided into two main orders, Pygophora and Apygophora. The Apygophora had uniramus cirri and no anus. The Pygophora had biramus terminal cirri and an anus and was further divided into two families, Lithoglyptidae and Cryptophialidae. Kolbasov (2009) revised the superorder Acrothoracica on the basis of morphological examinations of females, dwarf males, and cyprids and rearranged the acrothoracican species into two new orders, Lithoglyptida and Cryptophialida. The present study is the first attempt to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of acrothoracican barnacles by sequencing two mitochondrial (cytochrome C oxidase I and 16S ribosomal DNA) and two nuclear (18S ribosomal DNA and histone H3) markers of 8 of the 11 genera comprising 23 acrothoracican species. All monophylies of the eight acrothoracican genera sampled in this study were strongly supported. The deep interfamilial relationship constructed is consistent with the recent morphological phylogenetic relationship proposed by Kolbasov, Newman, and Høeg (Kolbasov, 2009) that Cryptophialidae (order Cryptophialida) is the sister group to all other acrothoracicans (order Lithoglyptida). According to an ancestral character state reconstruction analysis, the posterior lobes of females; armament of opercular bars, attachment stalk, lateral projections of the body, and aperture slits in dwarf males; and habitat use appear to have phylogenetic importance. PMID:26988415

  8. Toward a phylogenetic chronology of ancient Gaulish, Celtic, and Indo-European.

    PubMed

    Forster, Peter; Toth, Alfred

    2003-07-22

    Indo-European is the largest and best-documented language family in the world, yet the reconstruction of the Indo-European tree, first proposed in 1863, has remained controversial. Complications may include ascertainment bias when choosing the linguistic data, and disregard for the wave model of 1872 when attempting to reconstruct the tree. Essentially analogous problems were solved in evolutionary genetics by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic network methods, respectively. We now adapt these tools to linguistics, and analyze Indo-European language data, focusing on Celtic and in particular on the ancient Celtic language of Gaul (modern France), by using bilingual Gaulish-Latin inscriptions. Our phylogenetic network reveals an early split of Celtic within Indo-European. Interestingly, the next branching event separates Gaulish (Continental Celtic) from the British (Insular Celtic) languages, with Insular Celtic subsequently splitting into Brythonic (Welsh, Breton) and Goidelic (Irish and Scottish Gaelic). Taken together, the network thus suggests that the Celtic language arrived in the British Isles as a single wave (and then differentiated locally), rather than in the traditional two-wave scenario ("P-Celtic" to Britain and "Q-Celtic" to Ireland). The phylogenetic network furthermore permits the estimation of time in analogy to genetics, and we obtain tentative dates for Indo-European at 8100 BC +/- 1,900 years, and for the arrival of Celtic in Britain at 3200 BC +/- 1,500 years. The phylogenetic method is easily executed by hand and promises to be an informative approach for many problems in historical linguistics.

  9. Evaluating the Phylogenetic Status of the Extinct Japanese Otter on the Basis of Mitochondrial Genome Analysis.

    PubMed

    Waku, Daisuke; Segawa, Takahiro; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Akiyoshi, Ayumi; Ishige, Taichiro; Ueda, Miya; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Ando, Motokazu; Kohno, Naoki; Sasaki, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese otter lived throughout four main Japanese islands, but it has not been observed in the wild since 1979 and was declared extinct in 2012. Although recent taxonomic and molecular phylogenetic studies suggest that it should be treated as an independent species, International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List considers it as subspecies of Lutra lutra. Therefore, the taxonomic status of this species needs to be resolved. Here we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of two Japanese otters caught in Kanagawa and Kochi prefectures and five Eurasian otters (L. lutra). We reconstructed a molecular phylogenetic tree to estimate the phylogenetic position of the Japanese otter in Lutrinae using the Japanese otters and the other 11 Lutrinae species on the basis of ND5 (692 bp) and cytochrome b (1,140 bp) sequences. We observed that the two Japanese otters had close relationships with Eurasian otters, forming a monophyletic group (100% bootstrap probability). To elucidate detailed phylogenetic relationships among the Japanese and Eurasian otters, we reconstructed a maximum likelihood tree according to mitochondrial genome sequences (14,740 bp). The Japanese otter (JO1) collected in Kanagawa was deeply nested in the Eurasian otter clade, whereas the Japanese otter (JO2) collected in Kochi formed a distinct independent lineage in the Lutra clade. The estimated molecular divergences time for the ancestral lineages of the Japanese otters was 0.10 Ma (95%: 0.06-0.16 Ma) and 1.27 Ma (95%: 0.98-1.59 Ma) for JO1 and JO2 lineages, respectively. Thus, JO1 was identified as a member of L. lutra; JO2 represented the old Japanese otter lineage, which may be a distinct new species or subspecies of Lutra. We suggest that the ancestral population of the JO2 lineage migrated to Japan via the land bridge that existed between western Japanese islands and Asian continent at 1.27 Ma. PMID:26938434

  10. Evaluating the Phylogenetic Status of the Extinct Japanese Otter on the Basis of Mitochondrial Genome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Waku, Daisuke; Segawa, Takahiro; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Akiyoshi, Ayumi; Ishige, Taichiro; Ueda, Miya; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Ando, Motokazu; Kohno, Naoki; Sasaki, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese otter lived throughout four main Japanese islands, but it has not been observed in the wild since 1979 and was declared extinct in 2012. Although recent taxonomic and molecular phylogenetic studies suggest that it should be treated as an independent species, International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List considers it as subspecies of Lutra lutra. Therefore, the taxonomic status of this species needs to be resolved. Here we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of two Japanese otters caught in Kanagawa and Kochi prefectures and five Eurasian otters (L. lutra). We reconstructed a molecular phylogenetic tree to estimate the phylogenetic position of the Japanese otter in Lutrinae using the Japanese otters and the other 11 Lutrinae species on the basis of ND5 (692 bp) and cytochrome b (1,140 bp) sequences. We observed that the two Japanese otters had close relationships with Eurasian otters, forming a monophyletic group (100% bootstrap probability). To elucidate detailed phylogenetic relationships among the Japanese and Eurasian otters, we reconstructed a maximum likelihood tree according to mitochondrial genome sequences (14,740 bp). The Japanese otter (JO1) collected in Kanagawa was deeply nested in the Eurasian otter clade, whereas the Japanese otter (JO2) collected in Kochi formed a distinct independent lineage in the Lutra clade. The estimated molecular divergences time for the ancestral lineages of the Japanese otters was 0.10 Ma (95%: 0.06–0.16 Ma) and 1.27 Ma (95%: 0.98–1.59 Ma) for JO1 and JO2 lineages, respectively. Thus, JO1 was identified as a member of L. lutra; JO2 represented the old Japanese otter lineage, which may be a distinct new species or subspecies of Lutra. We suggest that the ancestral population of the JO2 lineage migrated to Japan via the land bridge that existed between western Japanese islands and Asian continent at 1.27 Ma. PMID:26938434

  11. Cnidarian phylogenetic relationships as revealed by mitogenomics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cnidaria (corals, sea anemones, hydroids, jellyfish) is a phylum of relatively simple aquatic animals characterized by the presence of the cnidocyst: a cell containing a giant capsular organelle with an eversible tubule (cnida). Species within Cnidaria have life cycles that involve one or both of the two distinct body forms, a typically benthic polyp, which may or may not be colonial, and a typically pelagic mostly solitary medusa. The currently accepted taxonomic scheme subdivides Cnidaria into two main assemblages: Anthozoa (Hexacorallia + Octocorallia) – cnidarians with a reproductive polyp and the absence of a medusa stage – and Medusozoa (Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, Staurozoa) – cnidarians that usually possess a reproductive medusa stage. Hypothesized relationships among these taxa greatly impact interpretations of cnidarian character evolution. Results We expanded the sampling of cnidarian mitochondrial genomes, particularly from Medusozoa, to reevaluate phylogenetic relationships within Cnidaria. Our phylogenetic analyses based on a mitochogenomic dataset support many prior hypotheses, including monophyly of Hexacorallia, Octocorallia, Medusozoa, Cubozoa, Staurozoa, Hydrozoa, Carybdeida, Chirodropida, and Hydroidolina, but reject the monophyly of Anthozoa, indicating that the Octocorallia + Medusozoa relationship is not the result of sampling bias, as proposed earlier. Further, our analyses contradict Scyphozoa [Discomedusae + Coronatae], Acraspeda [Cubozoa + Scyphozoa], as well as the hypothesis that Staurozoa is the sister group to all the other medusozoans. Conclusions Cnidarian mitochondrial genomic data contain phylogenetic signal informative for understanding the evolutionary history of this phylum. Mitogenome-based phylogenies, which reject the monophyly of Anthozoa, provide further evidence for the polyp-first hypothesis. By rejecting the traditional Acraspeda and Scyphozoa hypotheses, these analyses suggest that

  12. Phylemon 2.0: a suite of web-tools for molecular evolution, phylogenetics, phylogenomics and hypotheses testing.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Rubén; Serra, François; Tárraga, Joaquín; Medina, Ignacio; Carbonell, José; Pulido, Luis; de María, Alejandro; Capella-Gutíerrez, Salvador; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Gabaldón, Toni; Dopazo, Joaquín; Dopazo, Hernán

    2011-07-01

    Phylemon 2.0 is a new release of the suite of web tools for molecular evolution, phylogenetics, phylogenomics and hypotheses testing. It has been designed as a response to the increasing demand of molecular sequence analyses for experts and non-expert users. Phylemon 2.0 has several unique features that differentiates it from other similar web resources: (i) it offers an integrated environment that enables evolutionary analyses, format conversion, file storage and edition of results; (ii) it suggests further analyses, thereby guiding the users through the web server; and (iii) it allows users to design and save phylogenetic pipelines to be used over multiple genes (phylogenomics). Altogether, Phylemon 2.0 integrates a suite of 30 tools covering sequence alignment reconstruction and trimming; tree reconstruction, visualization and manipulation; and evolutionary hypotheses testing.

  13. Recent work on material interface reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Mosso, S.J.; Swartz, B.K.

    1997-12-31

    For the last 15 years, many Eulerian codes have relied on a series of piecewise linear interface reconstruction algorithms developed by David Youngs. In a typical Youngs` method, the material interfaces were reconstructed based upon nearly cell values of volume fractions of each material. The interfaces were locally represented by linear segments in two dimensions and by pieces of planes in three dimensions. The first step in such reconstruction was to locally approximate an interface normal. In Youngs` 3D method, a local gradient of a cell-volume-fraction function was estimated and taken to be the local interface normal. A linear interface was moved perpendicular to the now known normal until the mass behind it matched the material volume fraction for the cell in question. But for distorted or nonorthogonal meshes, the gradient normal estimate didn`t accurately match that of linear material interfaces. Moreover, curved material interfaces were also poorly represented. The authors will present some recent work in the computation of more accurate interface normals, without necessarily increasing stencil size. Their estimate of the normal is made using an iterative process that, given mass fractions for nearby cells of known but arbitrary variable density, converges in 3 or 4 passes in practice (and quadratically--like Newton`s method--in principle). The method reproduces a linear interface in both orthogonal and nonorthogonal meshes. The local linear approximation is generally 2nd-order accurate, with a 1st-order accurate normal for curved interfaces in both two and three dimensional polyhedral meshes. Recent work demonstrating the interface reconstruction for curved surfaces will /be discussed.

  14. Ultra short pulse reconstruction software: GROG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galletti, M.; Galimberti, M.; Giulietti, D.; Curcio, A.

    2016-07-01

    A new algorithmic method based on the 1D Conjugate Gradient Minimization Method, is presented. The purpose is, analyzing experimental FROG/GRENOUILLE traces, to accurately retrieve intensity and phase both in temporal and spectral domain so as to completely characterize an Ultra Short High Power laser pulse. This algorithm shows important features in the reconstruction of many different pulse classes. The employment of this algorithm also permits the inclusion of material response function present in the FROG/GRENOUILLE set-up.

  15. Adaptive self-calibrating iterative GRAPPA reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Park, Suhyung; Park, Jaeseok

    2012-06-01

    Parallel magnetic resonance imaging in k-space such as generalized auto-calibrating partially parallel acquisition exploits spatial correlation among neighboring signals over multiple coils in calibration to estimate missing signals in reconstruction. It is often challenging to achieve accurate calibration information due to data corruption with noises and spatially varying correlation. The purpose of this work is to address these problems simultaneously by developing a new, adaptive iterative generalized auto-calibrating partially parallel acquisition with dynamic self-calibration. With increasing iterations, under a framework of the Kalman filter spatial correlation is estimated dynamically updating calibration signals in a measurement model and using fixed-point state transition in a process model while missing signals outside the step-varying calibration region are reconstructed, leading to adaptive self-calibration and reconstruction. Noise statistic is incorporated in the Kalman filter models, yielding coil-weighted de-noising in reconstruction. Numerical and in vivo studies are performed, demonstrating that the proposed method yields highly accurate calibration and thus reduces artifacts and noises even at high acceleration. PMID:21994010

  16. Adaptive self-calibrating iterative GRAPPA reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Park, Suhyung; Park, Jaeseok

    2012-06-01

    Parallel magnetic resonance imaging in k-space such as generalized auto-calibrating partially parallel acquisition exploits spatial correlation among neighboring signals over multiple coils in calibration to estimate missing signals in reconstruction. It is often challenging to achieve accurate calibration information due to data corruption with noises and spatially varying correlation. The purpose of this work is to address these problems simultaneously by developing a new, adaptive iterative generalized auto-calibrating partially parallel acquisition with dynamic self-calibration. With increasing iterations, under a framework of the Kalman filter spatial correlation is estimated dynamically updating calibration signals in a measurement model and using fixed-point state transition in a process model while missing signals outside the step-varying calibration region are reconstructed, leading to adaptive self-calibration and reconstruction. Noise statistic is incorporated in the Kalman filter models, yielding coil-weighted de-noising in reconstruction. Numerical and in vivo studies are performed, demonstrating that the proposed method yields highly accurate calibration and thus reduces artifacts and noises even at high acceleration.

  17. A Metric on the Space of Partly Reduced Phylogenetic Networks

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that allow for the representation of evolutionary events acting at the population level, such as recombination between genes, hybridization between lineages, and horizontal gene transfer. The researchers have designed several measures for computing the dissimilarity between two phylogenetic networks, and each measure has been proven to be a metric on a special kind of phylogenetic networks. However, none of the existing measures is a metric on the space of partly reduced phylogenetic networks. In this paper, we provide a metric, de-distance, on the space of partly reduced phylogenetic networks, which is polynomial-time computable. PMID:27419137

  18. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  19. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  20. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  1. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  2. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  3. Phylogenetic character mapping of proteomic diversity shows high correlation with subspecific phylogenetic diversity in Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Telleria, Jenny; Biron, David G.; Brizard, Jean-Paul; Demettre, Edith; Séveno, Martial; Barnabé, Christian; Ayala, Francisco J.; Tibayrenc, Michel

    2010-01-01

    We performed a phylogenetic character mapping on 26 stocks of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite responsible for Chagas disease, and 2 stocks of the sister taxon T. cruzi marinkellei to test for possible associations between T. cruzi–subspecific phylogenetic diversity and levels of protein expression, as examined by proteomic analysis and mass spectrometry. We observed a high level of correlation (P < 10−4) between genetic distance, as established by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, and proteomic dissimilarities estimated by proteomic Euclidian distances. Several proteins were found to be specifically associated to T. cruzi phylogenetic subdivisions (discrete typing units). This study explores the previously uncharacterized links between infraspecific phylogenetic diversity and gene expression in a human pathogen. It opens the way to searching for new vaccine and drug targets and for identification of specific biomarkers at the subspecific level of pathogens. PMID:21059959

  4. Education for Reconstruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David; And Others

    This report describes the main questions that various international agencies must address in order to reconstruct education in countries that have experienced crisis. "Crisis" is defined as war, natural disaster, and extreme political and economic upheaval. Many of the problems of educational reconstruction with which the Allies contended in…

  5. Misguided phylogenetic comparisons using DGGE excised bands may contaminate public sequence databases.

    PubMed

    Pylro, Victor Satler; Morais, Daniel Kumazawa; Kalks, Karlos Henrique Martins; Roesch, Luiz Fernando Wurdig; Hirsch, Penny R; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Yotoko, Karla

    2016-07-01

    Controversy surrounding bacterial phylogenies has become one of the most important challenges for microbial ecology. Comparative analyses with nucleotide databases and phylogenetic reconstruction of the amplified 16S rRNA genes from DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) excised bands have been used by several researchers for the identification of organisms in complex samples. Here, we individually analyzed DGGE-excised 16S rRNA gene bands from 10 certified bacterial strains of different species, and demonstrated that this kind of approach can deliver erroneous outcomes to researchers, besides causing/emphasizing errors in public databases. PMID:27109483

  6. New approach for phylogenetic tree recovery based on genome-scale metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Gamermann, Daniel; Montagud, Arnaud; Conejero, J Alberto; Urchueguía, Javier F; de Córdoba, Pedro Fernández

    2014-07-01

    A wide range of applications and research has been done with genome-scale metabolic models. In this work, we describe an innovative methodology for comparing metabolic networks constructed from genome-scale metabolic models and how to apply this comparison in order to infer evolutionary distances between different organisms. Our methodology allows a quantification of the metabolic differences between different species from a broad range of families and even kingdoms. This quantification is then applied in order to reconstruct phylogenetic trees for sets of various organisms.

  7. Strong phylogenetic inertia on genome size and transposable element content among 26 species of flies.

    PubMed

    Sessegolo, Camille; Burlet, Nelly; Haudry, Annabelle

    2016-08-01

    While the evolutionary mechanisms driving eukaryote genome size evolution are still debated, repeated element content appears to be crucial. Here, we reconstructed the phylogeny and identified repeats in the genome of 26 Drosophila exhibiting a twofold variation in genome size. The content in transposable elements (TEs) is highly correlated to genome size evolution among these closely related species. We detected a strong phylogenetic signal on the evolution of both genome size and TE content, and a genome contraction in the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup. PMID:27576524

  8. Strong phylogenetic inertia on genome size and transposable element content among 26 species of flies

    PubMed Central

    Burlet, Nelly

    2016-01-01

    While the evolutionary mechanisms driving eukaryote genome size evolution are still debated, repeated element content appears to be crucial. Here, we reconstructed the phylogeny and identified repeats in the genome of 26 Drosophila exhibiting a twofold variation in genome size. The content in transposable elements (TEs) is highly correlated to genome size evolution among these closely related species. We detected a strong phylogenetic signal on the evolution of both genome size and TE content, and a genome contraction in the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup. PMID:27576524

  9. Posterolateral knee reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Djian, P

    2015-02-01

    Injury to the cruciate ligaments of the knee commonly occurs in association with posterolateral instability, which can cause severe functional disability including varus, posterior translation, and external rotational instability. Failure to diagnose and treat an injury of the posterolateral corner in a patient who has a tear of the cruciate ligament can also result in the failure of the reconstructed cruciate ligament. There seems to be a consensus of opinion that injury to the posterolateral corner, whether isolated or combined, is best treated by reconstructing the posterolateral corner along with the coexisting cruciate ligament injury, if combined. Commonly proposed methods of reconstructing the posterolateral corner have focused on the reconstruction of the popliteus, the popliteofibular ligament, and the lateral collateral ligament. The aim of this conference is to describe the posterolateral corner reconstruction technique and to provide an algorithm of treatment. PMID:25596981

  10. Missing Data and Influential Sites: Choice of Sites for Phylogenetic Analysis Can Be As Important As Taxon Sampling and Model Choice

    PubMed Central

    Shavit Grievink, Liat; Penny, David; Holland, Barbara R.

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic studies based on molecular sequence alignments are expected to become more accurate as the number of sites in the alignments increases. With the advent of genomic-scale data, where alignments have very large numbers of sites, bootstrap values close to 100% and posterior probabilities close to 1 are the norm, suggesting that the number of sites is now seldom a limiting factor on phylogenetic accuracy. This provokes the question, should we be fussy about the sites we choose to include in a genomic-scale phylogenetic analysis? If some sites contain missing data, ambiguous character states, or gaps, then why not just throw them away before conducting the phylogenetic analysis? Indeed, this is exactly the approach taken in many phylogenetic studies. Here, we present an example where the decision on how to treat sites with missing data is of equal importance to decisions on taxon sampling and model choice, and we introduce a graphical method for illustrating this. PMID:23471508

  11. Phylogenomic reconstruction supports supercontinent origins for Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Harkins, Kelly M; Schwartz, Rachel S; Cartwright, Reed A; Stone, Anne C

    2016-03-01

    Leishmania, a genus of parasites transmitted to human hosts and mammalian/reptilian reservoirs by an insect vector, is the causative agent of the human disease complex leishmaniasis. The evolutionary relationships within the genus Leishmania and its origins are the source of ongoing debate, reflected in conflicting phylogenetic and biogeographic reconstructions. This study employs a recently described bioinformatics method, SISRS, to identify over 200,000 informative sites across the genome from newly sequenced and publicly available Leishmania data. This dataset is used to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships of this genus. Additionally, we constructed a large multi-gene dataset, using it to reconstruct the phylogeny and estimate divergence dates for species. We conclude that the genus Leishmania evolved at least 90-100 million years ago, supporting a modified version of the Multiple Origins hypothesis that we call the Supercontinent hypothesis. According to this scenario, separate Leishmania clades emerged prior to, and during, the breakup of Gondwana. Additionally, we confirm that reptile-infecting Leishmania are derived from mammalian forms and that the species that infect porcupines and sloths form a clade long separated from other species. Finally, we firmly place the guinea-pig infecting species, Leishmaniaenriettii, the globally dispersed Leishmaniasiamensis, and the newly identified Australian species from a kangaroo, as sibling species whose distribution arises from the ancient connection between Australia, Antarctica, and South America. PMID:26708057

  12. Malate dehydrogenase: a useful phylogenetic marker for the genus Aeromonas.

    PubMed

    Farfán, Maribel; Miñana-Galbis, David; Garreta, Albert; Lorén, J Gaspar; Fusté, M Carmen

    2010-12-01

    The reconstruction of correct genealogies among biological entities, the estimation of the divergence time between organisms or the study of the different events that occur along evolutionary lineages are not always based on suitable genes. For reliable results, it is necessary to look at full-length sequences of genes under stabilizing selection (neutral or purifying) and behaving as good molecular clocks. In bacteria it has been proved that the malate dehydrogenase gene (mdh) can be used to determine the inter- and intraspecies divergence, and hence this gene constitutes a potential marker for phylogeny and bacterial population genetics. We have sequenced the full-length mdh gene in 36 type and reference strains of Aeromonas. The species grouping obtained in the phylogenetic tree derived from mdh sequences was in agreement with that currently accepted for the genus Aeromonas. The maximum likelihood models applied to our sequences indicated that the mdh gene is highly conserved among the Aeromonas species and the main evolutionary force acting on it is purifying selection. Only two sites under potential diversifying selection were identified (T 108 and S 193). In order to determine if these two residues could have an influence on the MDH structure, we mapped them in a three-dimensional model constructed from the sequence of A. hydrophila using the human mitochondrial MDH as a template. The presence of purifying selection together with the linear relationship between substitutions and gene divergence makes the mdh an excellent candidate gene for a phylogeny of Aeromonas and probably for other bacterial groups.

  13. The Evolution of Ribosomal DNA: Divergent Paralogues and Phylogenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Buckler-IV, E. S.; Ippolito, A.; Holtsford, T. P.

    1997-01-01

    Although nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeats evolve together through concerted evolution, some genomes contain a considerable diversity of paralogous rDNA. This diversity includes not only multiple functional loci but also putative pseudogenes and recombinants. We examined the occurrence of divergent paralogues and recombinants in Gossypium, Nicotiana, Tripsacum, Winteraceae, and Zea ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Some of the divergent paralogues are probably rDNA pseudogenes, since they have low predicted secondary structure stability, high substitution rates, and many deamination-driven substitutions at methylation sites. Under standard PCR conditions, the low stability paralogues amplified well, while many high-stability paralogues amplified poorly. Under highly denaturing PCR conditions (i.e., with dimethylsulfoxide), both low- and high-stability paralogues amplified well. We also found recombination between divergent paralogues. For phylogenetics, divergent ribosomal paralogues can aid in reconstructing ancestral states and thus serve as good outgroups. Divergent paralogues can also provide companion rDNA phylogenies. However, phylogeneticists must discriminate among families of divergent paralogues and recombinants or suffer from muddled and inaccurate organismal phylogenies. PMID:9055091

  14. Reconstruction of dynamic gated cardiac SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Mingwu; Yang Yongyi; King, Michael A.

    2006-11-15

    In this paper we propose an image reconstruction procedure which aims to unify gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and dynamic SPECT into a single method. We divide the cardiac cycle into a number of gate intervals as in gated SPECT, but treat the tracer distribution for each gate as a time-varying signal. By using both dynamic and motion-compensated temporal regularization, our reconstruction procedure will produce an image sequence that shows both cardiac motion and time-varying tracer distribution simultaneously. To demonstrate the proposed reconstruction method, we simulated gated cardiac perfusion imaging using the gated mathematical cardiac-torso (gMCAT) phantom with Tc99m-Teboroxime as the imaging agent. Our results show that the proposed method can produce more accurate reconstruction of gated dynamic images than independent reconstruction of individual gate frames with spatial smoothness alone. In particular, our results show that the former could improve the contrast to noise ratio of a simulated perfusion defect by as much as 100% when compared to the latter.

  15. Double bundle posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: surgical technique and results.

    PubMed

    Fanelli, Gregory C; Beck, John D; Edson, Craig J

    2010-12-01

    The keys to successful posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction are to identify and treat all pathology, use strong graft material, accurately place tunnels in anatomic insertion sites, minimize graft bending, use a mechanical graft tensioning device, use primary and back-up graft fixation, and use the appropriate postoperative rehabilitation program. Adherence to these technical principles results in successful single and double-bundle arthroscopic transtibial tunnel posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction based upon stress radiography, arthrometer, knee ligament rating scales, and patient satisfaction measurements.

  16. Reconstruction-classification method for quantitative photoacoustic tomography.

    PubMed

    Malone, Emma; Powell, Samuel; Cox, Ben T; Arridge, Simon

    2015-01-01

    We propose a combined reconstruction-classification method for simultaneously recovering absorption and scattering in turbid media from images of absorbed optical energy. This method exploits knowledge that optical parameters are determined by a limited number of classes to iteratively improve their estimate. Numerical experiments show that the proposed approach allows for accurate recovery of absorption and scattering in two and three dimensions, and delivers superior image quality with respect to traditional reconstruction-only approaches. PMID:26662815

  17. Reconstruction-classification method for quantitative photoacoustic tomography.

    PubMed

    Malone, Emma; Powell, Samuel; Cox, Ben T; Arridge, Simon

    2015-01-01

    We propose a combined reconstruction-classification method for simultaneously recovering absorption and scattering in turbid media from images of absorbed optical energy. This method exploits knowledge that optical parameters are determined by a limited number of classes to iteratively improve their estimate. Numerical experiments show that the proposed approach allows for accurate recovery of absorption and scattering in two and three dimensions, and delivers superior image quality with respect to traditional reconstruction-only approaches.

  18. The molecular symplesiomorphies shared by the stem groups of metazoan evolution: can sites as few as 1% have a significant impact on recognizing the phylogenetic position of myzostomida?

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhui; Xie, Qiang

    2014-08-01

    Although it is clear that taxon sampling, alignments, gene sampling, tree reconstruction methods and the total length of the sequences used are critical to the reconstruction of evolutionary history, weakly supported or misleading nodes exist in phylogenetic studies with no obvious flaw in those aspects. The phylogenetic studies focusing on the basal part of bilaterian evolution are such a case. During the past decade, Myzostomida has appeared in the basal part of Bilateria in several phylogenetic studies of Metazoa. However, most researchers have entertained only two competing hypotheses about the position of Myzostomida-an affinity with Annelida and an affinity with Platyhelminthes. In this study, dozens of symplesiomorphies were discovered by means of ancestral state reconstruction in the complete 18S and 28S rDNAs shared by the stem groups of Metazoa. By contrastive analysis on the datasets with or without such symplesiomorphic sites, we discovered that Myzostomida and other basal groups are basal lineages of Bilateria due to the corresponding symplesiomorphies shared with earlier lineages. As such, symplesiomorphies account for approximately 1-2% of the whole dataset have an essential impact on phylogenetic inference, and this study reminds molecular systematists of the importance of carrying out ancestral state reconstruction at each site in sequence-based phylogenetic studies. In addition, reasons should be explored for the low support of the hypothesis that Myzostomida belongs to Annelida in the results of phylogenomic studies. Future phylogenetic studies concerning Myzostomida should include all of the basal lineages of Bilateria to avoid directly neglecting the stand-alone basal position of Myzostomida as a potential hypothesis. PMID:25128981

  19. A phylogenetic analysis of the brassicales clade based on an alignment-free sequence comparison method.

    PubMed

    Hatje, Klas; Kollmar, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses reveal the evolutionary derivation of species. A phylogenetic tree can be inferred from multiple sequence alignments of proteins or genes. The alignment of whole genome sequences of higher eukaryotes is a computational intensive and ambitious task as is the computation of phylogenetic trees based on these alignments. To overcome these limitations, we here used an alignment-free method to compare genomes of the Brassicales clade. For each nucleotide sequence a Chaos Game Representation (CGR) can be computed, which represents each nucleotide of the sequence as a point in a square defined by the four nucleotides as vertices. Each CGR is therefore a unique fingerprint of the underlying sequence. If the CGRs are divided by grid lines each grid square denotes the occurrence of oligonucleotides of a specific length in the sequence (Frequency Chaos Game Representation, FCGR). Here, we used distance measures between FCGRs to infer phylogenetic trees of Brassicales species. Three types of data were analyzed because of their different characteristics: (A) Whole genome assemblies as far as available for species belonging to the Malvidae taxon. (B) EST data of species of the Brassicales clade. (C) Mitochondrial genomes of the Rosids branch, a supergroup of the Malvidae. The trees reconstructed based on the Euclidean distance method are in general agreement with single gene trees. The Fitch-Margoliash and Neighbor joining algorithms resulted in similar to identical trees. Here, for the first time we have applied the bootstrap re-sampling concept to trees based on FCGRs to determine the support of the branchings. FCGRs have the advantage that they are fast to calculate, and can be used as additional information to alignment based data and morphological characteristics to improve the phylogenetic classification of species in ambiguous cases.

  20. A chloroplast tree for Viburnum (Adoxaceae) and its implications for phylogenetic classification and character evolution.

    PubMed

    Clement, Wendy L; Arakaki, Mónica; Sweeney, Patrick W; Edwards, Erika J; Donoghue, Michael J

    2014-06-13

    • Premise of the study: Despite recent progress, significant uncertainties remain concerning relationships among early-branching lineages within Viburnum (Adoxaceae), prohibiting a new classification and hindering studies of character evolution and the increasing use of Viburnum in addressing a wide range of ecological and evolutionary questions. We hoped to resolve these issues by sequencing whole plastid genomes for representative species and combining these with molecular data previously obtained from an expanded taxon sample.• Methods: We performed paired-end Illumina sequencing of plastid genomes of 22 Viburnum species and combined these data with a 10-gene data set to infer phylogenetic relationships for 113 species. We used the results to devise a comprehensive phylogenetic classification and to analyze the evolution of eight morphological characters that vary among early-branching lineages.• Key results: With greatly increased levels of confidence in most of the early branches, we propose a phylogenetic classification of Viburnum, providing formal phylogenetic definitions for 30 clades, including 13 with names recognized under the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants, eight with previously proposed informal names, and nine newly proposed names for major branches. Our parsimony reconstructions of bud structure, leaf margins, inflorescence form, ruminate endosperm, extrafloral nectaries, glandular trichomes, palisade anatomy, and pollen exine showed varying levels of homoplasy, but collectively provided morphological support for some, though not all, of the major clades.• Conclusions: Our study demonstrates the value of next-generation plastid sequencing, the ease of creating a formal phylogenetic classification, and the utility of such a system in describing patterns of character evolution. PMID:24928633

  1. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Acridoidea (Orthoptera: Caelifera) based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit sequences.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lijun; Shi, Jianping; Zhang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yulong; Li, Xinjiang; Yin, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of Acridoidea were examined using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit sequences (COI, COII and COIII, total 2970bp). Fourteen grasshopper species of thirteen genera from seven families were sequenced to obtain mitochondrial genes data, along with twenty-two grasshopper species were obtained from the GenBank nucleotide database. The purpose of this study is to infer the phylogenetic relationships among families within Acridoidea and testing the monophyly of Acridoidea and each families of it. Phylogenic trees were reconstructed using Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Maximum Parsimony (MP) methods with Tettigonioidea and Gryllotalpoidea as outgroups. The putative initiation codon for COI is CCG in thirteen studied species and ATC in Bryodema luctuosum luctuosum. The 2970 bp concatenated sequences included 1431 conserved sites, 1539 variable sites, and 1216 parsimony-informative sites, the nucleotide compositions were significantly biased toward A and T (68.8%). The resulted phylogenetic trees supported the monophyly of Acridoidea, but did not entirely agree with the traditional morphology-based taxonomic system of grasshoppers within Acridoidea. The monophyly of three families of Acrididae, Catantopidae and Arcypteridae were not supported; Gomphoceridae and Arcypteridae were recovered together as a monophyletic group because of closer phylogenetic relationships; Pyrgomorphidae and Chrotogonidae have the same closer relationships; Pneumoridae, Pyrgomorphidae and Chrotogonidae were the most basal groups; while the taxonomic status of Pamphagidae, which was revealed as a monophyletic group, was not clear in this analysis. Moreover, the results indicate that a phylogeny inferred from the combination of several genes is more reliable than that from only a single gene sequence, and the third codon positions of protein coding genes can improve the topology and node supports of the phylogenetic trees. PMID:26624048

  2. A new Late Carboniferous Pangea reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, X.

    2014-12-01

    Paleomagnetically reconstructed Laurasia and Gondwana are well satisfied. However, the Pangea reconstruction remains controversial. The Late Triassic-Early Jurassic reconstruction, Pangea A, is consistent with one derived by closure of the Atlantic Ocean. As going back to older Period, the Pangea A reconstruction cannot stand. Particularly, the Late Carboniferous and Permian reconstruction, Pangea B, placed Gondwana ~3500 km eastward relative to its Pangea A configuration. This might indicate that the super continent was tectonically evolving during the period. For instance, an intra Pangean megashear zone has been proposed to show the evolution from Pangea B to Pangea A. On the other hand, researchers suspected that the Pangea B reconstruction is not accurate, because of several factors, i.e., the effect of persistent, large non-dipole field, remagnetization, errors in paleomagnetic record (inclination shallowing), and so on. To test the effect of inclination shallowing on the Pangea reconstruction, we here focus on the Late Carboniferous time, because, the Laurasian poles are mainly from volcanic rocks, and the Gondwana poles dominantly from sediments. This makes the test rather simple. Assuming a flattening factor of 0.5, we corrected the paleomagnetic inclinations of the Late Carboniferous results from Gondwana, and the inclination-corrected poles are thus achieved. The mean Laurasia and Gondwana poles can largely be accommodated by closure of the Atlantic Ocean, and the remaining offset may be solved by a ~15 degree relative rotation between the two continents. Relative rotation is often observed during continental collision (e.g., the collision between the North and South China blocks, the India-Asia collision, and so on), and more likely than the large scale shear. Our test indicates that Pangea B is probably the artifact of paleomagnetic inclination shallowing in sedimentary rocks.

  3. Phylogenetic niche conservatism explains an inverse latitudinal diversity gradient in freshwater arthropods.

    PubMed

    Morinière, Jérôme; Van Dam, Matthew H; Hawlitschek, Oliver; Bergsten, Johannes; Michat, Mariano C; Hendrich, Lars; Ribera, Ignacio; Toussaint, Emmanuel F A; Balke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms responsible for the general increase in species richness from temperate regions to the tropics remain equivocal. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this astonishing pattern but additional empirical studies are needed to shed light on the drivers at work. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of the cosmopolitan diving beetle subfamily Colymbetinae, the majority of which are found in the Northern hemisphere, hence exhibiting an inversed latitudinal diversity gradient. We reconstructed a dated phylogeny using 12 genes, to investigate the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics in the Colymbetinae. We aimed to identify the role that phylogenetic niche conservatism plays in the inversed diversification pattern seen in this group. Our results suggest that Colymbetinae originated in temperate climates, which supports the hypothesis that their distribution is the result of an ancestral adaptation to temperate environmental conditions rather than tropical origins, and that temperate niche conservatism can generate and/or maintain inverse latitudinal diversity gradients. PMID:27215956

  4. Phylogenetic niche conservatism explains an inverse latitudinal diversity gradient in freshwater arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Morinière, Jérôme; Van Dam, Matthew H.; Hawlitschek, Oliver; Bergsten, Johannes; Michat, Mariano C.; Hendrich, Lars; Ribera, Ignacio; Toussaint, Emmanuel F.A.; Balke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms responsible for the general increase in species richness from temperate regions to the tropics remain equivocal. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this astonishing pattern but additional empirical studies are needed to shed light on the drivers at work. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of the cosmopolitan diving beetle subfamily Colymbetinae, the majority of which are found in the Northern hemisphere, hence exhibiting an inversed latitudinal diversity gradient. We reconstructed a dated phylogeny using 12 genes, to investigate the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics in the Colymbetinae. We aimed to identify the role that phylogenetic niche conservatism plays in the inversed diversification pattern seen in this group. Our results suggest that Colymbetinae originated in temperate climates, which supports the hypothesis that their distribution is the result of an ancestral adaptation to temperate environmental conditions rather than tropical origins, and that temperate niche conservatism can generate and/or maintain inverse latitudinal diversity gradients. PMID:27215956

  5. Phylogenetic niche conservatism explains an inverse latitudinal diversity gradient in freshwater arthropods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morinière, Jérôme; van Dam, Matthew H.; Hawlitschek, Oliver; Bergsten, Johannes; Michat, Mariano C.; Hendrich, Lars; Ribera, Ignacio; Toussaint, Emmanuel F. A.; Balke, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The underlying mechanisms responsible for the general increase in species richness from temperate regions to the tropics remain equivocal. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this astonishing pattern but additional empirical studies are needed to shed light on the drivers at work. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of the cosmopolitan diving beetle subfamily Colymbetinae, the majority of which are found in the Northern hemisphere, hence exhibiting an inversed latitudinal diversity gradient. We reconstructed a dated phylogeny using 12 genes, to investigate the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics in the Colymbetinae. We aimed to identify the role that phylogenetic niche conservatism plays in the inversed diversification pattern seen in this group. Our results suggest that Colymbetinae originated in temperate climates, which supports the hypothesis that their distribution is the result of an ancestral adaptation to temperate environmental conditions rather than tropical origins, and that temperate niche conservatism can generate and/or maintain inverse latitudinal diversity gradients.

  6. Reversible polymorphism-aware phylogenetic models and their application to tree inference.

    PubMed

    Schrempf, Dominik; Minh, Bui Quang; De Maio, Nicola; von Haeseler, Arndt; Kosiol, Carolin

    2016-10-21

    We present a reversible Polymorphism-Aware Phylogenetic Model (revPoMo) for species tree estimation from genome-wide data. revPoMo enables the reconstruction of large scale species trees for many within-species samples. It expands the alphabet of DNA substitution models to include polymorphic states, thereby, naturally accounting for incomplete lineage sorting. We implemented revPoMo in the maximum likelihood software IQ-TREE. A simulation study and an application to great apes data show that the runtimes of our approach and standard substitution models are comparable but that revPoMo has much better accuracy in estimating trees, divergence times and mutation rates. The advantage of revPoMo is that an increase of sample size per species improves estimations but does not increase runtime. Therefore, revPoMo is a valuable tool with several applications, from speciation dating to species tree reconstruction. PMID:27480613

  7. Accurate and occlusion-robust multi-view stereo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhaokun; Stamatopoulos, Christos; Fraser, Clive S.

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes an accurate multi-view stereo method for image-based 3D reconstruction that features robustness in the presence of occlusions. The new method offers improvements in dealing with two fundamental image matching problems. The first concerns the selection of the support window model, while the second centers upon accurate visibility estimation for each pixel. The support window model is based on an approximate 3D support plane described by a depth and two per-pixel depth offsets. For the visibility estimation, the multi-view constraint is initially relaxed by generating separate support plane maps for each support image using a modified PatchMatch algorithm. Then the most likely visible support image, which represents the minimum visibility of each pixel, is extracted via a discrete Markov Random Field model and it is further augmented by parameter clustering. Once the visibility is estimated, multi-view optimization taking into account all redundant observations is conducted to achieve optimal accuracy in the 3D surface generation for both depth and surface normal estimates. Finally, multi-view consistency is utilized to eliminate any remaining observational outliers. The proposed method is experimentally evaluated using well-known Middlebury datasets, and results obtained demonstrate that it is amongst the most accurate of the methods thus far reported via the Middlebury MVS website. Moreover, the new method exhibits a high completeness rate.

  8. A phylogenetic analysis of the phylum Fibrobacteres.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Kelsea A; Scott, Jarrod J; Adams, Sandra M; Suen, Garret

    2013-09-01

    Members of the phylum Fibrobacteres are highly efficient cellulolytic bacteria, best known for their role in rumen function and as potential sources of novel enzymes for bioenergy applications. Despite being key members of ruminants and other digestive microbial communities, our knowledge of this phylum remains incomplete, as much of our understanding is focused on two recognized species, Fibrobacter succinogenes and F. intestinalis. As a result, we lack insights regarding the environmental niche, host range, and phylogenetic organization of this phylum. Here, we analyzed over 1000 16S rRNA Fibrobacteres sequences available from public databases to establish a phylogenetic framework for this phylum. We identify both species- and genus-level clades that are suggestive of previously unknown taxonomic relationships between Fibrobacteres in addition to their putative lifestyles as host-associated or free-living. Our results shed light on this poorly understood phylum and will be useful for elucidating the function, distribution, and diversity of these bacteria in their niches.

  9. Molecular phylogenetics of mastodon and Tyrannosaurus rex.

    PubMed

    Organ, Chris L; Schweitzer, Mary H; Zheng, Wenxia; Freimark, Lisa M; Cantley, Lewis C; Asara, John M

    2008-04-25

    We report a molecular phylogeny for a nonavian dinosaur, extending our knowledge of trait evolution within nonavian dinosaurs into the macromolecular level of biological organization. Fragments of collagen alpha1(I) and alpha2(I) proteins extracted from fossil bones of Tyrannosaurus rex and Mammut americanum (mastodon) were analyzed with a variety of phylogenetic methods. Despite missing sequence data, the mastodon groups with elephant and the T. rex groups with birds, consistent with predictions based on genetic and morphological data for mastodon and on morphological data for T. rex. Our findings suggest that molecular data from long-extinct organisms may have the potential for resolving relationships at critical areas in the vertebrate evolutionary tree that have, so far, been phylogenetically intractable.

  10. Visualizing phylogenetic trees using TreeView.

    PubMed

    Page, Roderic D M

    2002-08-01

    TreeView provides a simple way to view the phylogenetic trees produced by a range of programs, such as PAUP*, PHYLIP, TREE-PUZZLE, and ClustalX. While some phylogenetic programs (such as the Macintosh version of PAUP*) have excellent tree printing facilities, many programs do not have the ability to generate publication quality trees. TreeView addresses this need. The program can read and write a range of tree file formats, display trees in a variety of styles, print trees, and save the tree as a graphic file. Protocols in this unit cover both displaying and printing a tree. Support protocols describe how to download and install TreeView, and how to display bootstrap values in trees generated by ClustalX and PAUP*. PMID:18792942

  11. A phylogenetic analysis of Aquifex pyrophilus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burggraf, S.; Olsen, G. J.; Stetter, K. O.; Woese, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    The 16S rRNA of the bacterion Aquifex pyrophilus, a microaerophilic, oxygen-reducing hyperthermophile, has been sequenced directly from the the PCR amplified gene. Phylogenetic analyses show the Aq. pyrophilus lineage to be probably the deepest (earliest) in the (eu)bacterial tree. The addition of this deep branching to the bacterial tree further supports the argument that the Bacteria are of thermophilic ancestry.

  12. Tumor classification using phylogenetic methods on expression data.

    PubMed

    Desper, Richard; Khan, Javed; Schäffer, Alejandro A

    2004-06-21

    Tumor classification is a well-studied problem in the field of bioinformatics. Developments in the field of DNA chip design have now made it possible to measure the expression levels of thousands of genes in sample tissue from healthy cell lines or tumors. A number of studies have examined the problems of tumor classification: class discovery, the problem of defining a number of classes of tumors using the data from a DNA chip, and class prediction, the problem of accurately classifying an unknown tumor, given expression data from the unknown tumor and from a learning set. The current work has applied phylogenetic methods to both problems. To solve the class discovery problem, we impose a metric on a set of tumors as a function of their gene expression levels, and impose a tree structure on this metric, using standard tree fitting methods borrowed from the field of phylogenetics. Phylogenetic methods provide a simple way of imposing a clear hierarchical relationship on the data, with branch lengths in the classification tree representing the degree of separation witnessed. We tested our method for class discovery on two data sets: a data set of 87 tissues, comprised mostly of small, round, blue-cell tumors (SRBCTs), and a data set of 22 breast tumors. We fit the 87 samples of the first set to a classification tree, which neatly separated into four major clusters corresponding exactly to the four groups of tumors, namely neuroblastomas, rhabdomyosarcomas, Burkitt's lymphomas, and the Ewing's family of tumors. The classification tree built using the breast cancer data separated tumors with BRCA1 mutations from those with BRCA2 mutations, with sporadic tumors separated from both groups and from each other. We also demonstrate the flexibility of the class discovery method with regard to standard resampling methodology such as jackknifing and noise perturbation. To solve the class prediction problem, we built a classification tree on the learning set, and then sought

  13. Keyhole Flap Nipple Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Joseph I; Cash, Camille G; Iman, Al-Haj; Spiegel, Aldona J; Cronin, Ernest D

    2016-05-01

    Nipple-areola reconstruction is often one of the final but most challenging aspects of breast reconstruction. However, it is an integral and important component of breast reconstruction because it transforms the mound into a breast. We performed 133 nipple-areola reconstructions during a period of 4 years. Of these reconstructions, 76 of 133 nipple-areola complexes were reconstructed using the keyhole flap technique. The tissue used for the keyhole dermoadipose flap technique include transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous flaps (60/76), latissimus dorsi flaps (15/76), or mastectomy skin flaps after tissue expanders (1/76). The average patient follow-up was 17 months. The design of the flap is based on a keyhole configuration. The base of the flap determines the width of the future nipple, whereas the length of the flap determines the projection. We try to match the projection of the contralateral nipple if present. The keyhole flap is simple to construct yet reliable. It provides good symmetry and projection and avoids the creation of new scars. The areola is then tattooed approximately 3 months after the nipple reconstruction. PMID:27579228

  14. Posterior Predictive Bayesian Phylogenetic Model Selection

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Paul O.; Xie, Wangang; Chen, Ming-Hui; Fan, Yu; Kuo, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    We present two distinctly different posterior predictive approaches to Bayesian phylogenetic model selection and illustrate these methods using examples from green algal protein-coding cpDNA sequences and flowering plant rDNA sequences. The Gelfand–Ghosh (GG) approach allows dissection of an overall measure of model fit into components due to posterior predictive variance (GGp) and goodness-of-fit (GGg), which distinguishes this method from the posterior predictive P-value approach. The conditional predictive ordinate (CPO) method provides a site-specific measure of model fit useful for exploratory analyses and can be combined over sites yielding the log pseudomarginal likelihood (LPML) which is useful as an overall measure of model fit. CPO provides a useful cross-validation approach that is computationally efficient, requiring only a sample from the posterior distribution (no additional simulation is required). Both GG and CPO add new perspectives to Bayesian phylogenetic model selection based on the predictive abilities of models and complement the perspective provided by the marginal likelihood (including Bayes Factor comparisons) based solely on the fit of competing models to observed data. [Bayesian; conditional predictive ordinate; CPO; L-measure; LPML; model selection; phylogenetics; posterior predictive.] PMID:24193892

  15. Marine turtle mitogenome phylogenetics and evolution.

    PubMed

    Duchene, Sebastián; Frey, Amy; Alfaro-Núñez, Alonzo; Dutton, Peter H; Thomas P Gilbert, M; Morin, Phillip A

    2012-10-01

    The sea turtles are a group of cretaceous origin containing seven recognized living species: leatherback, hawksbill, Kemp's ridley, olive ridley, loggerhead, green, and flatback. The leatherback is the single member of the Dermochelidae family, whereas all other sea turtles belong in Cheloniidae. Analyses of partial mitochondrial sequences and some nuclear markers have revealed phylogenetic inconsistencies within Cheloniidae, especially regarding the placement of the flatback. Population genetic studies based on D-Loop sequences have shown considerable structuring in species with broad geographic distributions, shedding light on complex migration patterns and possible geographic or climatic events as driving forces of sea-turtle distribution. We have sequenced complete mitogenomes for all sea-turtle species, including samples from their geographic range extremes, and performed phylogenetic analyses to assess sea-turtle evolution with a large molecular dataset. We found variation in the length of the ATP8 gene and a highly variable site in ND4 near a proton translocation channel in the resulting protein. Complete mitogenomes show strong support and resolution for phylogenetic relationships among all sea turtles, and reveal phylogeographic patterns within globally-distributed species. Although there was clear concordance between phylogenies and geographic origin of samples in most taxa, we found evidence of more recent dispersal events in the loggerhead and olive ridley turtles, suggesting more recent migrations (<1 Myr) in these species. Overall, our results demonstrate the complexity of sea-turtle diversity, and indicate the need for further research in phylogeography and molecular evolution. PMID:22750111

  16. Phylogenetic conservatism of environmental niches in mammals.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Natalie; Freckleton, Rob P; Jetz, Walter

    2011-08-01

    Phylogenetic niche conservatism is the pattern where close relatives occupy similar niches, whereas distant relatives are more dissimilar. We suggest that niche conservatism will vary across clades in relation to their characteristics. Specifically, we investigate how conservatism of environmental niches varies among mammals according to their latitude, range size, body size and specialization. We use the Brownian rate parameter, σ(2), to measure the rate of evolution in key variables related to the ecological niche and define the more conserved group as the one with the slower rate of evolution. We find that tropical, small-ranged and specialized mammals have more conserved thermal niches than temperate, large-ranged or generalized mammals. Partitioning niche conservatism into its spatial and phylogenetic components, we find that spatial effects on niche variables are generally greater than phylogenetic effects. This suggests that recent evolution and dispersal have more influence on species' niches than more distant evolutionary events. These results have implications for our understanding of the role of niche conservatism in species richness patterns and for gauging the potential for species to adapt to global change.

  17. [3D reconstruction of multiple views based on trifocal tensor].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunxiao; Zhang, Juan

    2012-08-01

    Reconstruction of 3D structure of an object from 2D views plays an important role in plastic surgery and orthopedics. This method doesn't need camera to do specific movements, such as translation or rotation independently. It only needs a hand-hold camera arbitrarily to take a few pictures, and apply the geometry relationship among the three views to obtain the projective reconstruction of the object. Then, it needs to introduce cheirality constraint in stratified reconstruction to determine the search area of the infinity plane, and finally achieve the camera intrinsic parameters calibration, and complete the metric reconstruction. This model has also been reconstructed with mouse and keyboard response coordinates to observe the model from different angles. Experiments with both pictures of object and face pictures show that the proposed method is very robust and accurate. PMID:23016433

  18. Analytic TOF PET reconstruction algorithm within DIRECT data partitioning framework.

    PubMed

    Matej, Samuel; Daube-Witherspoon, Margaret E; Karp, Joel S

    2016-05-01

    Iterative reconstruction algorithms are routinely used for clinical practice; however, analytic algorithms are relevant candidates for quantitative research studies due to their linear behavior. While iterative algorithms also benefit from the inclusion of accurate data and noise models the widespread use of time-of-flight (TOF) scanners with less sensitivity to noise and data imperfections make analytic algorithms even more promising. In our previous work we have developed a