A highly accurate ab initio potential energy surface for methane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owens, Alec; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Yachmenev, Andrey; Tennyson, Jonathan; Thiel, Walter
2016-09-01
A new nine-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for methane has been generated using state-of-the-art ab initio theory. The PES is based on explicitly correlated coupled cluster calculations with extrapolation to the complete basis set limit and incorporates a range of higher-level additive energy corrections. These include core-valence electron correlation, higher-order coupled cluster terms beyond perturbative triples, scalar relativistic effects, and the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction. Sub-wavenumber accuracy is achieved for the majority of experimentally known vibrational energy levels with the four fundamentals of 12CH4 reproduced with a root-mean-square error of 0.70 cm-1. The computed ab initio equilibrium C-H bond length is in excellent agreement with previous values despite pure rotational energies displaying minor systematic errors as J (rotational excitation) increases. It is shown that these errors can be significantly reduced by adjusting the equilibrium geometry. The PES represents the most accurate ab initio surface to date and will serve as a good starting point for empirical refinement.
A highly accurate ab initio potential energy surface for methane.
Owens, Alec; Yurchenko, Sergei N; Yachmenev, Andrey; Tennyson, Jonathan; Thiel, Walter
2016-09-14
A new nine-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for methane has been generated using state-of-the-art ab initio theory. The PES is based on explicitly correlated coupled cluster calculations with extrapolation to the complete basis set limit and incorporates a range of higher-level additive energy corrections. These include core-valence electron correlation, higher-order coupled cluster terms beyond perturbative triples, scalar relativistic effects, and the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction. Sub-wavenumber accuracy is achieved for the majority of experimentally known vibrational energy levels with the four fundamentals of (12)CH4 reproduced with a root-mean-square error of 0.70 cm(-1). The computed ab initio equilibrium C-H bond length is in excellent agreement with previous values despite pure rotational energies displaying minor systematic errors as J (rotational excitation) increases. It is shown that these errors can be significantly reduced by adjusting the equilibrium geometry. The PES represents the most accurate ab initio surface to date and will serve as a good starting point for empirical refinement. PMID:27634258
A highly accurate ab initio potential energy surface for methane.
Owens, Alec; Yurchenko, Sergei N; Yachmenev, Andrey; Tennyson, Jonathan; Thiel, Walter
2016-09-14
A new nine-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for methane has been generated using state-of-the-art ab initio theory. The PES is based on explicitly correlated coupled cluster calculations with extrapolation to the complete basis set limit and incorporates a range of higher-level additive energy corrections. These include core-valence electron correlation, higher-order coupled cluster terms beyond perturbative triples, scalar relativistic effects, and the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction. Sub-wavenumber accuracy is achieved for the majority of experimentally known vibrational energy levels with the four fundamentals of (12)CH4 reproduced with a root-mean-square error of 0.70 cm(-1). The computed ab initio equilibrium C-H bond length is in excellent agreement with previous values despite pure rotational energies displaying minor systematic errors as J (rotational excitation) increases. It is shown that these errors can be significantly reduced by adjusting the equilibrium geometry. The PES represents the most accurate ab initio surface to date and will serve as a good starting point for empirical refinement.
Accurate global potential energy surface for the H + OH+ collision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gannouni, M. A.; Jaidane, N. E.; Halvick, P.; Stoecklin, T.; Hochlaf, M.
2014-05-01
We mapped the global three-dimensional potential energy surface (3D-PES) of the water cation at the MRCI/aug-cc-pV5Z including the basis set superposition (BSSE) correction. This PES covers the molecular region and the long ranges close to the H + OH+(X3Σ-), the O + H2+(X2Σg+), and the hydrogen exchange channels. The quality of the PES is checked after comparison to previous experimental and theoretical results of the spectroscopic constants of H2O+(tilde X2B1) and of the diatomic fragments, the vibronic spectrum, the dissociation energy, and the barrier to linearity for H2O+(tilde X2B1). Our data nicely approach those measured and computed previously. The long range parts reproduce quite well the diatomic potentials. In whole, a good agreement is found, which validates our 3D-PES.
An Accurate Potential Energy Surface for H2O
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwenke, David W.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
We have carried out extensive high quality ab initio electronic structure calculations of the ground state potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment function (DMF) for H2O. A small adjustment is made to the PES to improve the agreement of line positions from theory and experiment. The theoretical line positions are obtained from variational ro-vibrational calculations using the exact kinetic energy operator. For the lines being fitted, the root-mean-square error was reduced from 6.9 to 0.08 /cm. We were then able to match 30,092 of the 30,117 lines from the HITRAN 96 data base to theoretical lines, and 80% of the line positions differed less than 0.1 /cm. About 3% of the line positions in the experimental data base appear to be incorrect. Theory predicts the existence of many additional weak lines with intensities above the cutoff used in the data base. To obtain results of similar accuracy for HDO, a mass dependent correction to the PH is introduced and is parameterized by simultaneously fitting line positions for HDO and D2O. The mass dependent PH has good predictive value for T2O and HTO. Nonadiabatic effects are not explicitly included. Line strengths for vibrational bands summed over rotational levels usually agree well between theory and experiment, but individual line strengths can differ greatly. A high temperature line list containing about 380 million lines has been generated using the present PES and DMF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rhee, Young Min
2000-10-01
A modified method to construct an accurate potential energy surface by interpolation is presented. The modification is based on the use of Cartesian coordinates in the weighting function. The translational and rotational invariance of the potential is incorporated by a proper definition of the distance between two Cartesian configurations. A numerical algorithm to find the distance is developed. It is shown that the present method is more exact in describing a planar system compared to the previous methods with weightings in internal coordinates. The applicability of the method to reactive systems is also demonstrated by performing classical trajectory simulations on the surface.
Ab Initio Potential Energy Surfaces and the Calculation of Accurate Vibrational Frequencies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Timothy J.; Dateo, Christopher E.; Martin, Jan M. L.; Taylor, Peter R.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
Due to advances in quantum mechanical methods over the last few years, it is now possible to determine ab initio potential energy surfaces in which fundamental vibrational frequencies are accurate to within plus or minus 8 cm(exp -1) on average, and molecular bond distances are accurate to within plus or minus 0.001-0.003 Angstroms, depending on the nature of the bond. That is, the potential energy surfaces have not been scaled or empirically adjusted in any way, showing that theoretical methods have progressed to the point of being useful in analyzing spectra that are not from a tightly controlled laboratory environment, such as vibrational spectra from the interstellar medium. Some recent examples demonstrating this accuracy will be presented and discussed. These include the HNO, CH4, C2H4, and ClCN molecules. The HNO molecule is interesting due to the very large H-N anharmonicity, while ClCN has a very large Fermi resonance. The ab initio studies for the CH4 and C2H4 molecules present the first accurate full quartic force fields of any kind (i.e., whether theoretical or empirical) for a five-atom and six-atom system, respectively.
An accurate potential energy curve for helium based on ab initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janzen, A. R.; Aziz, R. A.
1997-07-01
Korona, Williams, Bukowski, Jeziorski, and Szalewicz [J. Chem. Phys. 106, 1 (1997)] constructed a completely ab initio potential for He2 by fitting their calculations using infinite order symmetry adapted perturbation theory at intermediate range, existing Green's function Monte Carlo calculations at short range and accurate dispersion coefficients at long range to a modified Tang-Toennies potential form. The potential with retardation added to the dipole-dipole dispersion is found to predict accurately a large set of microscopic and macroscopic experimental data. The potential with a significantly larger well depth than other recent potentials is judged to be the most accurate characterization of the helium interaction yet proposed.
Low-energy structures of benzene clusters with a novel accurate potential surface.
Bartolomei, M; Pirani, F; Marques, J M C
2015-12-01
The benzene-benzene (Bz-Bz) interaction is present in several chemical systems and it is known to be crucial in understanding the specificity of important biological phenomena. In this work, we propose a novel Bz-Bz analytical potential energy surface which is fine-tuned on accurate ab initio calculations in order to improve its reliability. Once the Bz-Bz interaction is modeled, an analytical function for the energy of the Bzn clusters may be obtained by summing up over all pair potentials. We apply an evolutionary algorithm (EA) to discover the lowest-energy structures of Bzn clusters (for n=2-25), and the results are compared with previous global optimization studies where different potential functions were employed. Besides the global minimum, the EA also gives the structures of other low-lying isomers ranked by the corresponding energy. Additional ab initio calculations are carried out for the low-lying isomers of Bz3 and Bz4 clusters, and the global minimum is confirmed as the most stable structure for both sizes. Finally, a detailed analysis of the low-energy isomers of the n = 13 and 19 magic-number clusters is performed. The two lowest-energy Bz13 isomers show S6 and C3 symmetry, respectively, which is compatible with the experimental results available in the literature. The Bz19 structures reported here are all non-symmetric, showing two central Bz molecules surrounded by 12 nearest-neighbor monomers in the case of the five lowest-energy structures.
Temperature dependent effective potential method for accurate free energy calculations of solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hellman, Olle; Steneteg, Peter; Abrikosov, I. A.; Simak, S. I.
2013-03-01
We have developed a thorough and accurate method of determining anharmonic free energies, the temperature dependent effective potential technique (TDEP). It is based on ab initio molecular dynamics followed by a mapping onto a model Hamiltonian that describes the lattice dynamics. The formalism and the numerical aspects of the technique are described in detail. A number of practical examples are given, and results are presented, which confirm the usefulness of TDEP within ab initio and classical molecular dynamics frameworks. In particular, we examine from first principles the behavior of force constants upon the dynamical stabilization of the body centered phase of Zr, and show that they become more localized. We also calculate the phase diagram for 4He modeled with the Aziz potential and obtain results which are in favorable agreement both with respect to experiment and established techniques.
Communication: An accurate global potential energy surface for the ground electronic state of ozone
Dawes, Richard E-mail: hguo@unm.edu; Lolur, Phalgun; Li, Anyang; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua E-mail: hguo@unm.edu
2013-11-28
We report a new full-dimensional and global potential energy surface (PES) for the O + O{sub 2} → O{sub 3} ozone forming reaction based on explicitly correlated multireference configuration interaction (MRCI-F12) data. It extends our previous [R. Dawes, P. Lolur, J. Ma, and H. Guo, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 081102 (2011)] dynamically weighted multistate MRCI calculations of the asymptotic region which showed the widely found submerged reef along the minimum energy path to be the spurious result of an avoided crossing with an excited state. A spin-orbit correction was added and the PES tends asymptotically to the recently developed long-range electrostatic model of Lepers et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 137, 234305 (2012)]. This PES features: (1) excellent equilibrium structural parameters, (2) good agreement with experimental vibrational levels, (3) accurate dissociation energy, and (4) most-notably, a transition region without a spurious reef. The new PES is expected to allow insight into the still unresolved issues surrounding the kinetics, dynamics, and isotope signature of ozone.
Guo, Lifen; Han, Huixian; Ma, Jianyi; Guo, Hua
2015-08-01
Vinylidene is a high-energy isomer of acetylene, and the rearrangement of bonds in the two species serves as a prototype for isomerization reactions. Here, a full-dimensional quantum mechanical study of the vinylidene vibration is carried out on a recently developed global acetylene-vinylidene potential energy surface by simulating the photodetachment dynamics of the vinylidene anion. Several low-lying vibrational levels of the anion were first determined on a new ab initio based potential energy surface, and their photoelectron spectra were obtained within the Condon approximation. The vibrational features of the vinylidene isomer are found to agree well with the experiment in both positions and intensities, validating the global acetylene-vinylidene potential energy surface.
Accurate one-dimensional potential energy curve of the linear (H2)2 cluster
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tung, Wei-Cheng; Pavanello, Michele; Adamowicz, Ludwik
2010-09-01
We present a sub-0.3 K accuracy, ground-state one-dimensional potential energy curve of the metastable linear configuration of the (H2)2 cluster calculated exclusively with explicitly correlated Gaussian functions with shifted centers. The H2 internuclear distance is kept at the isolated H2 vibrational ground-state average value of 1.448 736 bohr and the intermonomer separation is varied between 2 and 100 bohrs. The analytical gradient of the energy with respect to the nonlinear parameters of the Gaussians (i.e., the exponents and the coordinates of the shifts) has been employed in the variational optimization of the wave function. Procedures for enlarging the basis set and for adjusting the centers of the Gaussians to the varying intermonomer separation have been developed and used in the calculations.
Han, Huixian; Li, Anyang; Guo, Hua
2014-12-28
A new full-dimensional global potential energy surface (PES) for the acetylene-vinylidene isomerization on the ground (S{sub 0}) electronic state has been constructed by fitting ∼37 000 high-level ab initio points using the permutation invariant polynomial-neural network method with a root mean square error of 9.54 cm{sup −1}. The geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies of acetylene, vinylidene, and all other stationary points (two distinct transition states and one secondary minimum in between) have been determined on this PES. Furthermore, acetylene vibrational energy levels have been calculated using the Lanczos algorithm with an exact (J = 0) Hamiltonian. The vibrational energies up to 12 700 cm{sup −1} above the zero-point energy are in excellent agreement with the experimentally derived effective Hamiltonians, suggesting that the PES is approaching spectroscopic accuracy. In addition, analyses of the wavefunctions confirm the experimentally observed emergence of the local bending and counter-rotational modes in the highly excited bending vibrational states. The reproduction of the experimentally derived effective Hamiltonians for highly excited bending states signals the coming of age for the ab initio based PES, which can now be trusted for studying the isomerization reaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Xinchuan; Schwenke, David W.; Lee, Timothy J.
2008-12-01
A global potential energy surface (PES) that includes short and long range terms has been determined for the NH3 molecule. The singles and doubles coupled-cluster method that includes a perturbational estimate of connected triple excitations and the internally contracted averaged coupled-pair functional electronic structure methods have been used in conjunction with very large correlation-consistent basis sets, including diffuse functions. Extrapolation to the one-particle basis set limit was performed and core correlation and scalar relativistic contributions were included directly, while the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction was added. Our best purely ab initio PES, denoted "mixed," is constructed from two PESs which differ in whether the ic-ACPF higher-order correlation correction was added or not. Rovibrational transition energies computed from the mixed PES agree well with experiment and the best previous theoretical studies, but most importantly the quality does not deteriorate even up to 10300cm-1 above the zero-point energy (ZPE). The mixed PES was improved further by empirical refinement using the most reliable J =0-2 rovibrational transitions in the HITRAN 2004 database. Agreement between high-resolution experiment and rovibrational transition energies computed from our refined PES for J =0-6 is excellent. Indeed, the root mean square (rms) error for 13 HITRAN 2004 bands for J =0-2 is 0.023cm-1 and that for each band is always ⩽0.06cm-1. For J =3-5 the rms error is always ⩽0.15cm-1. This agreement means that transition energies computed with our refined PES should be useful in the assignment of new high-resolution NH3 spectra and in correcting mistakes in previous assignments. Ideas for further improvements to our refined PES and for extension to other isotopolog are discussed.
Accurate Potential Energy Curves for the Ground Electronic States of NeH^{+} and ArH^{+}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coxon, John A.; Hajigeorgiou, Photos G.
2013-06-01
All available microwave and infrared spectroscopic line positions for the ground electronic states of the molecular cations NeH^{+} and ArH^{+} were employed in a direct potential fitting procedure to determine compact analytical potential curves and radial functions describing breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. For NeH^{+}, 17 adjustable parameters were required to represent a total of 183 line positions for 4 isotopologues, whereas for ArH^{+}, 23 adjustable parameters were required to represent 440 line positions for 6 isotopologues. The MLR3 potential energy functional form was employed, taking full account of the proper 1/r{^4} limiting long-range dependence of the ion-atom dispersion energy interactions. Accurate vibrational energies, rotational constants and centrifugal distortion constants have been calculated for both diatomic cations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majumder, Moumita; Dawes, Richard; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker; Li, Jun; Guo, Hua; Manzhos, Sergei
2014-06-01
New potential energy surfaces for methane were constructed, represented as analytic fits to about 100,000 individual high-level ab initio data. Explicitly-correlated multireference data (MRCI-F12(AE)/CVQZ-F12) were computed using Molpro [1] and fit using multiple strategies. Fits with small to negligible errors were obtained using adaptations of the permutation-invariant-polynomials (PIP) approach [2,3] based on neural-networks (PIP-NN) [4,5] and the interpolative moving least squares (IMLS) fitting method [6] (PIP-IMLS). The PESs were used in full-dimensional vibrational calculations with an exact kinetic energy operator by representing the Hamiltonian in a basis of products of contracted bend and stretch functions and using a symmetry adapted Lanczos method to obtain eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Very close agreement with experiment was produced from the purely ab initio PESs. References 1- H.-J. Werner, P. J. Knowles, G. Knizia, 2012.1 ed. 2012, MOLPRO, a package of ab initio programs. see http://www.molpro.net. 2- Z. Xie and J. M. Bowman, J. Chem. Theory Comput 6, 26, 2010. 3- B. J. Braams and J. M. Bowman, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 28, 577, 2009. 4- J. Li, B. Jiang and Hua Guo, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 204103 (2013). 5- S Manzhos, X Wang, R Dawes and T Carrington, JPC A 110, 5295 (2006). 6- R. Dawes, X-G Wang, A.W. Jasper and T. Carrington Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 133, 134304 (2010).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu-Lu, Zhang; Yu-Zhi, Song; Shou-Bao, Gao; Yuan, Zhang; Qing-Tian, Meng
2016-05-01
A globally accurate single-sheeted double many-body expansion potential energy surface is reported for the first excited state of HS2 by fitting the accurate ab initio energies, which are calculated at the multireference configuration interaction level with the aug-cc-pVQZ basis set. By using the double many-body expansion-scaled external correlation method, such calculated ab initio energies are then slightly corrected by scaling their dynamical correlation. A grid of 2767 ab initio energies is used in the least-square fitting procedure with the total root-mean square deviation being 1.406 kcal·mol-1. The topographical features of the HS2(A2A‧) global potential energy surface are examined in detail. The attributes of the stationary points are presented and compared with the corresponding ab initio results as well as experimental and other theoretical data, showing good agreement. The resulting potential energy surface of HS2(A2A‧) can be used as a building block for constructing the global potential energy surfaces of larger S/H molecular systems and recommended for dynamic studies on the title molecular system. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11304185), the Taishan Scholar Project of Shandong Province, China, the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. ZR2014AM022), the Shandong Province Higher Educational Science and Technology Program, China (Grant No. J15LJ03), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M561957), and the Post-doctoral Innovation Project of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. 201402013).
Tung, Wei-Cheng; Adamowicz, Ludwik
2014-03-28
Very accurate calculations of the ground-state potential energy curve (PEC) of the LiH{sup +} ion performed with all-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian functions with shifted centers are presented. The variational method is employed. The calculations involve optimization of nonlinear exponential parameters of the Gaussians performed with the aid of the analytical first derivatives of the energy determined with respect to the parameters. The diagonal adiabatic correction is also calculated for each PEC point. The PEC is then used to calculate the vibrational energies of the system. In that calculation, the non-adiabatic effects are accounted for by using an effective vibrational mass obtained by the minimization of the difference between the vibrational energies obtained from the calculations where the Born-Oppenheimer approximation was not assumed and the results of the present calculations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Timothy J.; Dateo, Christopher E.; Schwenke, David W.; Chaban, Galina M.
2005-01-01
Accurate quartic force fields have been determined for the CCH- and NH2- molecular anions using the singles and doubles coupled-cluster method that includes a perturbational estimate of the effects of connected triple excitations, CCSD(T). Very large one-particle basis sets have been used including diffuse functions and up through g-type functions. Correlation of the nitrogen and carbon core electrons has been included, as well as other "small" effects, such as the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction, and basis set extrapolation, and corrections for higher-order correlation effects and scalar relativistic effects. Fundamental vibrational frequencies have been computed using standard second-order perturbation theory as well as variational methods. Comparison with the available experimental data is presented and discussed. The implications of our research for the astronomical observation of molecular anions will be discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petit, Andrew S.; McCoy, Anne B.
2011-06-01
The accurate calculation of anharmonic vibrational states of highly fluxional systems is complicated by the need to first obtain the full-dimensional potential energy surface(PES). Although commonly exploited as a way around this problem, grid-based methodologies scale exponentially with system size while reduced dimensional approaches are highly system dependent, both in terms of the details of their application and in terms of their suitability. Moreover, the achievement of converged variational calculations of highly anharmonic systems is complicated by the necessity of using a very large basis and hence the construction and diagonalization of enormous Hamiltonian matrices. We report here our recent efforts to develop an algorithm capable of accurately calculating anharmonic vibrational energies, even for very floppy systems, without first obtaining a PES and using only a handful of basis functions per degree of freedom. More specifically, the potential energy and G-matrix elements are calculated on a set of points obtained from a Monte Carlo sampling of the most important regions of configuration space, allowing for a significant reduction in the number of required sampling points. The Hamiltonian matrix is then constructed using an evolving basis which, with each iteration, captures the effect of building H from an ever-expanding basis despite the fact that the actual dimensionality of H is fixed throughout the calculation. This latter property of the algorithm also greatly reduces the size of basis needed for the calculation relative to more traditional variational approaches. The results obtained from the application of our method to several test systems, including ion water complexes, will be reported along with its observed convergence properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delahaye, Thibault; Nikitin, Andrei; Rey, Michaël; Szalay, Péter G.; Tyuterev, Vladimir G.
2014-09-01
In this paper we report a new ground state potential energy surface for ethylene (ethene) C2H4 obtained from extended ab initio calculations. The coupled-cluster approach with the perturbative inclusion of the connected triple excitations CCSD(T) and correlation consistent polarized valence basis set cc-pVQZ was employed for computations of electronic ground state energies. The fit of the surface included 82 542 nuclear configurations using sixth order expansion in curvilinear symmetry-adapted coordinates involving 2236 parameters. A good convergence for variationally computed vibrational levels of the C2H4 molecule was obtained with a RMS(Obs.-Calc.) deviation of 2.7 cm-1 for fundamental bands centers and 5.9 cm-1 for vibrational bands up to 7800 cm-1. Large scale vibrational and rotational calculations for 12C2H4, 13C2H4, and 12C2D4 isotopologues were performed using this new surface. Energy levels for J = 20 up to 6000 cm-1 are in a good agreement with observations. This represents a considerable improvement with respect to available global predictions of vibrational levels of 13C2H4 and 12C2D4 and rovibrational levels of 12C2H4.
Delahaye, Thibault Rey, Michaël Tyuterev, Vladimir G.; Nikitin, Andrei; Szalay, Péter G.
2014-09-14
In this paper we report a new ground state potential energy surface for ethylene (ethene) C{sub 2}H{sub 4} obtained from extended ab initio calculations. The coupled-cluster approach with the perturbative inclusion of the connected triple excitations CCSD(T) and correlation consistent polarized valence basis set cc-pVQZ was employed for computations of electronic ground state energies. The fit of the surface included 82 542 nuclear configurations using sixth order expansion in curvilinear symmetry-adapted coordinates involving 2236 parameters. A good convergence for variationally computed vibrational levels of the C{sub 2}H{sub 4} molecule was obtained with a RMS(Obs.–Calc.) deviation of 2.7 cm{sup −1} for fundamental bands centers and 5.9 cm{sup −1} for vibrational bands up to 7800 cm{sup −1}. Large scale vibrational and rotational calculations for {sup 12}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, {sup 13}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and {sup 12}C{sub 2}D{sub 4} isotopologues were performed using this new surface. Energy levels for J = 20 up to 6000 cm{sup −1} are in a good agreement with observations. This represents a considerable improvement with respect to available global predictions of vibrational levels of {sup 13}C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and {sup 12}C{sub 2}D{sub 4} and rovibrational levels of {sup 12}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}.
Li, Y Q; Zhang, P Y; Han, K L
2015-03-28
A global many-body expansion potential energy surface is reported for the electronic ground state of CH2 (+) by fitting high level ab initio energies calculated at the multireference configuration interaction level with the aug-cc-pV6Z basis set. The topographical features of the new global potential energy surface are examined in detail and found to be in good agreement with those calculated directly from the raw ab initio energies, as well as previous calculations available in the literature. In turn, in order to validate the potential energy surface, a test theoretical study of the reaction CH(+)(X(1)Σ(+))+H((2)S)→C(+)((2)P)+H2(X(1)Σg (+)) has been carried out with the method of time dependent wavepacket on the title potential energy surface. The total integral cross sections and the rate coefficients have been calculated; the results determined that the new potential energy surface can both be recommended for dynamics studies of any type and as building blocks for constructing the potential energy surfaces of larger C(+)/H containing systems.
An accurate potential energy surface for the F + H2 → HF + H reaction by the coupled-cluster method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jun; Sun, Zhigang; Zhang, Dong H.
2015-01-01
A three dimensional potential energy surface for the F + H2 → HF + H reaction has been computed by the spin unrestricted coupled cluster method with singles, doubles, triples, and perturbative quadruples [UCCSDT(2)Q] using the augmented correlation-consistent polarised valence quadruple zeta basis set for the fluorine atom and the correlation-consistent polarised valence quadruple zeta basis set for the hydrogen atom. All the calculations are based on the restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock orbitals, together with the frozen core approximations, and the UCCSD(T)/complete basis set (CBS) correction term was included. The global potential energy surface was calculated by fitting the sampled ab initio points without any scaling factor for the correlation energy part using a neutral network function method. Extensive dynamics calculations have been carried out on the potential energy surface. The reaction rate constants, integral cross sections, product rotational states distribution, and forward and backward scattering as a function of collision energy of the F + HD → HF + D, F + HD → DF + H, and F + H2 reaction, were calculated by the time-independent quantum dynamics scattering theory using the new surface. The satisfactory agreement with the reported experimental observations previously demonstrates the accuracy of the new potential energy surface.
An accurate potential energy surface for the F + H2 → HF + H reaction by the coupled-cluster method.
Chen, Jun; Sun, Zhigang; Zhang, Dong H
2015-01-14
A three dimensional potential energy surface for the F + H2 → HF + H reaction has been computed by the spin unrestricted coupled cluster method with singles, doubles, triples, and perturbative quadruples [UCCSDT(2)Q] using the augmented correlation-consistent polarised valence quadruple zeta basis set for the fluorine atom and the correlation-consistent polarised valence quadruple zeta basis set for the hydrogen atom. All the calculations are based on the restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock orbitals, together with the frozen core approximations, and the UCCSD(T)/complete basis set (CBS) correction term was included. The global potential energy surface was calculated by fitting the sampled ab initio points without any scaling factor for the correlation energy part using a neutral network function method. Extensive dynamics calculations have been carried out on the potential energy surface. The reaction rate constants, integral cross sections, product rotational states distribution, and forward and backward scattering as a function of collision energy of the F + HD → HF + D, F + HD → DF + H, and F + H2 reaction, were calculated by the time-independent quantum dynamics scattering theory using the new surface. The satisfactory agreement with the reported experimental observations previously demonstrates the accuracy of the new potential energy surface.
Mizukami, Wataru Tew, David P.; Habershon, Scott
2014-10-14
We present a new approach to semi-global potential energy surface fitting that uses the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) constrained least squares procedure to exploit an extremely flexible form for the potential function, while at the same time controlling the risk of overfitting and avoiding the introduction of unphysical features such as divergences or high-frequency oscillations. Drawing from a massively redundant set of overlapping distributed multi-dimensional Gaussian functions of inter-atomic separations we build a compact full-dimensional surface for malonaldehyde, fit to explicitly correlated coupled cluster CCSD(T)(F12*) energies with a root mean square deviations accuracy of 0.3%–0.5% up to 25 000 cm{sup −1} above equilibrium. Importance-sampled diffusion Monte Carlo calculations predict zero point energies for malonaldehyde and its deuterated isotopologue of 14 715.4(2) and 13 997.9(2) cm{sup −1} and hydrogen transfer tunnelling splittings of 21.0(4) and 3.2(4) cm{sup −1}, respectively, which are in excellent agreement with the experimental values of 21.583 and 2.915(4) cm{sup −1}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizukami, Wataru; Habershon, Scott; Tew, David P.
2014-10-01
We present a new approach to semi-global potential energy surface fitting that uses the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) constrained least squares procedure to exploit an extremely flexible form for the potential function, while at the same time controlling the risk of overfitting and avoiding the introduction of unphysical features such as divergences or high-frequency oscillations. Drawing from a massively redundant set of overlapping distributed multi-dimensional Gaussian functions of inter-atomic separations we build a compact full-dimensional surface for malonaldehyde, fit to explicitly correlated coupled cluster CCSD(T)(F12*) energies with a root mean square deviations accuracy of 0.3%-0.5% up to 25 000 cm-1 above equilibrium. Importance-sampled diffusion Monte Carlo calculations predict zero point energies for malonaldehyde and its deuterated isotopologue of 14 715.4(2) and 13 997.9(2) cm-1 and hydrogen transfer tunnelling splittings of 21.0(4) and 3.2(4) cm-1, respectively, which are in excellent agreement with the experimental values of 21.583 and 2.915(4) cm-1.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhai, Yu; Li, Hui
2016-06-01
ydrogen is one of the most abundant interstellar species. Observation of rotational and vibrational spectra of H_2 containing complexes is of great importance because they are possible candidates for radio-astronomical detection. CO, HCN, HCCH are as isoelectronic molecules of N_2, each with a strong triple bond. It had been a big challenge to predict reliable theoretical rovibrational spectra of complexes including such species because the higher order electron correlation energy plays a non-negligible role in improving the accuracy. However, recent works on CO-H_2 have shown that it is possible to reproduce the experimental spectra quantitatively. In this work, we calculate a five-dimension potential energy surface (PES) of HCN-H_2 complex which explicitly include the intramolecular asymmetric stretching vibrational mode(C-H,Q_3) coordinate at CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVQZ+3s3p2d1f1g level, corrected with electron correlation energy from the triple and quadruple excitation. Vibrational average over intramolecular vibration mode is made with HCN monomer at ground and the first excited vibrational states respectively, and the averaged data are fitted to two four-dimension Morse/Long-Range (MLR) potential energy functions. Based on the MLR PESs, for the first time, we calculated the spectra of HCN-{para}H_2} and {HCN-{ortho}H_2}. The results for HCN-{ortho}H_2} are in good agreement with the published experimental data with root-mean-square-difference (RMSD) only 0.01wn, which validates the accuracy of the PESs. J. Chem. Phys., 139, 164315 (2013); Science, 336, 1147 (2012). J. Chem. Phys., 115, 5137 (2001).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishikawa, Atsushi; Nakai, Hiromi
2016-04-01
Gibbs free energy of hydration of a proton and standard hydrogen electrode potential were evaluated using high-level quantum chemical calculations. The solvent effect was included using the cluster-continuum model, which treated short-range effects by quantum chemical calculations of proton-water complexes, and the long-range effects by a conductor-like polarizable continuum model. The harmonic solvation model (HSM) was employed to estimate enthalpy and entropy contributions due to nuclear motions of the clusters by including the cavity-cluster interactions. Compared to the commonly used ideal gas model, HSM treatment significantly improved the contribution of entropy, showing a systematic convergence toward the experimental data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, Xinchuan; Schwenke, David W.; Lee, Timothy J.
2014-01-01
A purely ab initio potential energy surface (PES) was refined with selected (32)S(16)O2 HITRAN data. Compared to HITRAN, the root-mean-squares error (RMS) error for all J=0-80 rovibrational energy levels computed on the refined PES (denoted Ames-1) is 0.013 cm(exp -1). Combined with a CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV(Q+d)Z dipole moment surface (DMS), an infrared (IR) line list (denoted Ames-296K) has been computed at 296K and covers up to 8,000 cm(exp -1). Compared to the HITRAN and CDMS databases, the intensity agreement for most vibrational bands is better than 85-90%. Our predictions for (34)S(16)O2 band origins, higher energy (32)S(16)O2 band origins and missing (32)S(16)O2 IR bands have been verified by most recent experiments and available HITRAN data. We conclude that the Ames-1 PES is able to predict (32/34)S(16)O2 band origins below 5500 cm(exp -1) with 0.01-0.03 cm(exp -1) uncertainties, and the Ames-296K line list provides continuous, reliable and accurate IR simulations. The Ka-dependence of both line position and line intensity errors is discussed. The line list will greatly facilitate SO2 IR spectral experimental analysis, as well as elimination of SO2 lines in high-resolution astronomical observations.
Huang, Xinchuan; Schwenke, David W; Lee, Timothy J
2014-03-21
A purely ab initio potential energy surface (PES) was refined with selected (32)S(16)O2 HITRAN data. Compared to HITRAN, the root-mean-squares error (σ(RMS)) for all J = 0-80 rovibrational energy levels computed on the refined PES (denoted Ames-1) is 0.013 cm(-1). Combined with a CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV(Q+d)Z dipole moment surface (DMS), an infrared (IR) line list (denoted Ames-296K) has been computed at 296 K and covers up to 8000 cm(-1). Compared to the HITRAN and CDMS databases, the intensity agreement for most vibrational bands is better than 85%-90%. Our predictions for (34)S(16)O2 band origins, higher energy (32)S(16)O2 band origins and missing (32)S(16)O2 IR bands have been verified by most recent experiments and available HITRAN data. We conclude that the Ames-1 PES is able to predict (32/34)S(16)O2 band origins below 5500 cm(-1) with 0.01-0.03 cm(-1) uncertainties, and the Ames-296K line list provides continuous, reliable and accurate IR simulations. The K(a)-dependence of both line position and line intensity errors is discussed. The line list will greatly facilitate SO2 IR spectral experimental analysis, as well as elimination of SO2 lines in high-resolution astronomical observations. PMID:24655184
Accurate potential energy functions, non-adiabatic and spin-orbit couplings in the ZnH(+) system.
Liang, Guiying; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Xiaomei; Xu, Haifeng; Yan, Bing
2016-03-01
A high-level ab initio calculation on the ZnH(+) cation has been carried out with the multi-reference configuration interaction method plus Davison correction (MRCI+Q). The scalar relativistic effect is included by using the Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) method. The calculated potential energy curves (PECs) of the 7 Λ-S states are associated with the dissociation limits of Zn(+)((2)Sg)+H((2)Sg), Zn((1)Sg)+H(+)((1)Sg), and Zn(+)((2)Pu)+H((2)Sg), respectively (The Λ-S state is labeled as (2S+1)Λ, in which Λ is the quantum number for the projection along the internuclear axis of the total electronic orbital angular momentum and S is the total electron spin). The spectroscopic constants of the bound states are determined and in good agreement with the available theoretical and experimental results. The permanent dipole moments (PDMs) of Λ-S states and the spin-orbit (SO) matrix elements between Λ-S states are also computed. The results show that the abrupt changes of the PDMs and SO matrix elements come into being for the reason of the avoided crossing between the states with the same symmetry. In addition, the non-adiabatic couplings matrix elements between Λ-S states are also evaluated. Finally, the spin-orbit couplings (SOCs) for the low-lying states are considered with Breit-Pauli operator. The SOC effect makes the 7 Λ-S states of the ZnH(+) cation split into 12 Ω states (Ω=Λ+Sz, in which Sz is projection of the total electron spin S along the internuclear Z-axis). For the (3)0(+) state, the two energy minima exhibit in the potential, which could be attributed to the formation of the new avoided crossing point. The transition dipole moments (TDMs), Franck-Condon factors, and the radiative lifetimes of the selected transitions (2)0(+)-X0(+), (3)0(+)-X0(+), (2)1-X0(+) and (3)1-X0(+) have been reported.
Accurate potential energy functions, non-adiabatic and spin-orbit couplings in the ZnH+ system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Guiying; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Xiaomei; Xu, Haifeng; Yan, Bing
2016-03-01
A high-level ab initio calculation on the ZnH+ cation has been carried out with the multi-reference configuration interaction method plus Davison correction (MRCI + Q). The scalar relativistic effect is included by using the Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) method. The calculated potential energy curves (PECs) of the 7 Λ-S states are associated with the dissociation limits of Zn+(2Sg) + H(2Sg), Zn(1Sg) + H+(1Sg), and Zn+(2Pu) + H(2Sg), respectively (The Λ-S state is labeled as 2S + 1Λ, in which Λ is the quantum number for the projection along the internuclear axis of the total electronic orbital angular momentum and S is the total electron spin). The spectroscopic constants of the bound states are determined and in good agreement with the available theoretical and experimental results. The permanent dipole moments (PDMs) of Λ-S states and the spin-orbit (SO) matrix elements between Λ-S states are also computed. The results show that the abrupt changes of the PDMs and SO matrix elements come into being for the reason of the avoided crossing between the states with the same symmetry. In addition, the non-adiabatic couplings matrix elements between Λ-S states are also evaluated. Finally, the spin-orbit couplings (SOCs) for the low-lying states are considered with Breit-Pauli operator. The SOC effect makes the 7 Λ-S states of the ZnH+ cation split into 12 Ω states (Ω = Λ + Sz, in which Sz is projection of the total electron spin S along the internuclear Z-axis). For the (3)0+ state, the two energy minima exhibit in the potential, which could be attributed to the formation of the new avoided crossing point. The transition dipole moments (TDMs), Franck-Condon factors, and the radiative lifetimes of the selected transitions (2)0+-X0+, (3)0+-X0+, (2)1-X0+ and (3)1-X0+ have been reported.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nabok, Dmitrii; Gulans, Andris; Draxl, Claudia
2016-07-01
The G W approach of many-body perturbation theory has become a common tool for calculating the electronic structure of materials. However, with increasing number of published results, discrepancies between the values obtained by different methods and codes become more and more apparent. For a test set of small- and wide-gap semiconductors, we demonstrate how to reach the numerically best electronic structure within the framework of the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FLAPW) method. We first evaluate the impact of local orbitals in the Kohn-Sham eigenvalue spectrum of the underlying starting point. The role of the basis-set quality is then further analyzed when calculating the G0W0 quasiparticle energies. Our results, computed with the exciting code, are compared to those obtained using the projector-augmented plane-wave formalism, finding overall good agreement between both methods. We also provide data produced with a typical FLAPW basis set as a benchmark for other G0W0 implementations.
Meng, Qingyong; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Dong H
2015-09-14
The ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) calculations are performed to calculate rate constants for the title reaction on the recently constructed potential energy surface based on permutation invariant polynomial (PIP) neural-network (NN) fitting [J. Li et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 204302 (2015)]. By inspecting convergence, 16 beads are used in computing free-energy barriers at 300 K ≤ T ≤ 1000 K, while different numbers of beads are used for transmission coefficients. The present RPMD rates are in excellent agreement with quantum rates computed on the same potential energy surface, as well as with the experimental measurements, demonstrating further that the RPMD is capable of producing accurate rates for polyatomic chemical reactions even at rather low temperatures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Qingyong; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Dong H.
2015-09-01
The ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) calculations are performed to calculate rate constants for the title reaction on the recently constructed potential energy surface based on permutation invariant polynomial (PIP) neural-network (NN) fitting [J. Li et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 204302 (2015)]. By inspecting convergence, 16 beads are used in computing free-energy barriers at 300 K ≤ T ≤ 1000 K, while different numbers of beads are used for transmission coefficients. The present RPMD rates are in excellent agreement with quantum rates computed on the same potential energy surface, as well as with the experimental measurements, demonstrating further that the RPMD is capable of producing accurate rates for polyatomic chemical reactions even at rather low temperatures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frutos, Luis Manuel; Castaño, Obis
2005-09-01
The new algorithm presented here allows, for the first time, the determination of the optimal geometrical distortions that an acceptor molecule in the triplet-triplet energy-transfer process undergoes, as well as the dependence of the activation energy of the process on the triplet energy difference of donor and acceptor molecules. This algorithm makes use of the complete potential-energy surfaces (singlet and triplet states), and contrasts with the first-order approximation already published [L. M. Frutos, O. Castaño, J. L. Andrés, M. Merchán, and A. U. Acuña, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 1208 (2004)] in which an expansion of the potential-energy surfaces was used. This algorithm is gradient based and finds the best trajectory for the acceptor molecule, starting from S0 ground-state equilibrium geometry, to achieve the maximum variation of the singlet-triplet energy gap with the minimum energy of activation on S0. Therefore, the algorithm allows the determination of a "reaction path" for the triplet-triplet energy-transfer processes. Also, the algorithm could also serve eventually to find minimum-energy crossing (singlet-triplet) points on the potential-energy surface, which can play an important role in the intersystem crossing process for the acceptor molecules to recover their initial capacity as acceptors. Also addressed is the misleading use of minimum-energy paths in T1 to describe the energy-transfer process by comparing these results with those obtained using the new algorithm. The implementation of the algorithm is illustrated with different potential-energy surface models and it is discussed in the frame of nonvertical behavior.
Cybulski, Hubert; Baranowska-Łączkowska, Angelika; Henriksen, Christian; Fernández, Berta
2014-11-01
By evaluating a representative set of CCSD(T) ground state interaction energies for van der Waals dimers formed by aromatic molecules and the argon atom, we test the performance of the polarized basis sets of Sadlej et al. (J. Comput. Chem. 2005, 26, 145; Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun. 1988, 53, 1995) and the augmented polarization-consistent bases of Jensen (J. Chem. Phys. 2002, 117, 9234) in providing accurate intermolecular potentials for the benzene-, naphthalene-, and anthracene-argon complexes. The basis sets are extended by addition of midbond functions. As reference we consider CCSD(T) results obtained with Dunning's bases. For the benzene complex a systematic basis set study resulted in the selection of the (Z)Pol-33211 and the aug-pc-1-33321 bases to obtain the intermolecular potential energy surface. The interaction energy values and the shape of the CCSD(T)/(Z)Pol-33211 calculated potential are very close to the best available CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ-33211 potential with the former basis set being considerably smaller. The corresponding differences for the CCSD(T)/aug-pc-1-33321 potential are larger. In the case of the naphthalene-argon complex, following a similar study, we selected the (Z)Pol-3322 and aug-pc-1-333221 bases. The potentials show four symmetric absolute minima with energies of -483.2 cm(-1) for the (Z)Pol-3322 and -486.7 cm(-1) for the aug-pc-1-333221 basis set. To further check the performance of the selected basis sets, we evaluate intermolecular bound states of the complexes. The differences between calculated vibrational levels using the CCSD(T)/(Z)Pol-33211 and CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ-33211 benzene-argon potentials are small and for the lowest energy levels do not exceed 0.70 cm(-1). Such differences are substantially larger for the CCSD(T)/aug-pc-1-33321 calculated potential. For naphthalene-argon, bound state calculations demonstrate that the (Z)Pol-3322 and aug-pc-1-333221 potentials are of similar quality. The results show that these
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Roy, Robert J.; Walji, Sadru; Sentjens, Katherine
2013-06-01
Alkali hydride diatomic molecules have long been the object of spectroscopic studies. However, their small reduced mass makes them species for which the conventional semiclassical-based methods of analysis tend to have the largest errors. To date, the only quantum-mechanically accurate direct-potential-fit (DPF) analysis for one of these molecules was the one for LiH reported by Coxon and Dickinson. The present paper extends this level of analysis to NaH, and reports a DPF analysis of all available spectroscopic data for the A ^1Σ^+-X ^1Σ^+ system of NaH which yields analytic potential energy functions for these two states that account for those data (on average) to within the experimental uncertainties. W.C. Stwalley, W.T. Zemke and S.C. Yang, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data {20}, 153-187 (1991). J.A. Coxon and C.S. Dickinson, J. Chem. Phys. {121}, 8378 (2004).
Accurate free energy calculation along optimized paths.
Chen, Changjun; Xiao, Yi
2010-05-01
The path-based methods of free energy calculation, such as thermodynamic integration and free energy perturbation, are simple in theory, but difficult in practice because in most cases smooth paths do not exist, especially for large molecules. In this article, we present a novel method to build the transition path of a peptide. We use harmonic potentials to restrain its nonhydrogen atom dihedrals in the initial state and set the equilibrium angles of the potentials as those in the final state. Through a series of steps of geometrical optimization, we can construct a smooth and short path from the initial state to the final state. This path can be used to calculate free energy difference. To validate this method, we apply it to a small 10-ALA peptide and find that the calculated free energy changes in helix-helix and helix-hairpin transitions are both self-convergent and cross-convergent. We also calculate the free energy differences between different stable states of beta-hairpin trpzip2, and the results show that this method is more efficient than the conventional molecular dynamics method in accurate free energy calculation.
Czakó, Gábor
2013-04-01
Chemically accurate full-dimensional non-spin-orbit and spin-orbit (SO) ground-state potential energy surfaces (PESs) are obtained for the Br + CH4 → HBr + CH3 reaction by fitting 21 574 composite ab initio energy points. The composite method considers electron correlation methods up to CCSD(T), basis sets up to aug-cc-pwCVTZ-PP, correlation of the core electrons, scalar relativistic effects via an effective core potential (ECP), and SO corrections, thereby achieving an accuracy better than 0.5 kcal∕mol. Benchmark structures and relative energies are computed for the stationary points using the ab initio focal-point analysis (FPA) scheme based on both ECP and Douglas-Kroll approaches providing all-electron relativistic CCSDT(Q)∕complete-basis-set quality energies. The PESs accurately describe the saddle point of the abstraction reaction and the van der Waals complexes in the entrance and product channels. The SO-corrected PES provides a classical barrier height of 7285(7232 ± 50) cm(-1), De values of 867(799 ± 10) and 399(344 ± 10) cm(-1) for the complexes CH3-HBr and CH3-BrH, respectively, and reaction endothermicity of 7867(7857 ± 50) cm(-1), in excellent agreement with the new, FPA-based benchmark data shown in parentheses. The difference between the Br + CH4 asymptotes of the non-SO and SO PESs is 1240 cm(-1), in good agreement with the experiment (1228 cm(-1)). Quasiclassical trajectory calculations based on more than 13 million trajectories for the late-barrier Br + CH4(vk = 0, 1) [k = 1, 2, 3, 4] reactions show that the vibrational energy, especially the excitation of the stretching modes, activates the reaction much more efficiently than translational energy, in agreement with the extended Polanyi rules. Angular distributions show dominant backward scattering for the ground-state reaction and forward scattering for the stretching-excited reactions. The reactivity on the non-SO PES is about 3-5 times larger than that on the SO PES in a wide
Janke, Svenja M; Auerbach, Daniel J; Wodtke, Alec M; Kandratsenka, Alexander
2015-09-28
We have constructed a potential energy surface (PES) for H-atoms interacting with fcc Au(111) based on fitting the analytic form of the energy from Effective Medium Theory (EMT) to ab initio energy values calculated with density functional theory. The fit used input from configurations of the H-Au system with Au atoms at their lattice positions as well as configurations with the Au atoms displaced from their lattice positions. It reproduces the energy, in full dimension, not only for the configurations used as input but also for a large number of additional configurations derived from ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) trajectories at finite temperature. Adiabatic molecular dynamics simulations on this PES reproduce the energy loss behavior of AIMD. EMT also provides expressions for the embedding electron density, which enabled us to develop a self-consistent approach to simulate nonadiabatic electron-hole pair excitation and their effect on the motion of the incident H-atoms. For H atoms with an energy of 2.7 eV colliding with Au, electron-hole pair excitation is by far the most important energy loss pathway, giving an average energy loss ≈3 times that of the adiabatic case. This increased energy loss enhances the probability of the H-atom remaining on or in the Au slab by a factor of 2. The most likely outcome for H-atoms that are not scattered also depends prodigiously on the energy transfer mechanism; for the nonadiabatic case, more than 50% of the H-atoms which do not scatter are adsorbed on the surface, while for the adiabatic case more than 50% pass entirely through the 4 layer simulation slab.
Janke, Svenja M.; Auerbach, Daniel J.; Kandratsenka, Alexander; Wodtke, Alec M.
2015-09-28
We have constructed a potential energy surface (PES) for H-atoms interacting with fcc Au(111) based on fitting the analytic form of the energy from Effective Medium Theory (EMT) to ab initio energy values calculated with density functional theory. The fit used input from configurations of the H–Au system with Au atoms at their lattice positions as well as configurations with the Au atoms displaced from their lattice positions. It reproduces the energy, in full dimension, not only for the configurations used as input but also for a large number of additional configurations derived from ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) trajectories at finite temperature. Adiabatic molecular dynamics simulations on this PES reproduce the energy loss behavior of AIMD. EMT also provides expressions for the embedding electron density, which enabled us to develop a self-consistent approach to simulate nonadiabatic electron-hole pair excitation and their effect on the motion of the incident H-atoms. For H atoms with an energy of 2.7 eV colliding with Au, electron-hole pair excitation is by far the most important energy loss pathway, giving an average energy loss ≈3 times that of the adiabatic case. This increased energy loss enhances the probability of the H-atom remaining on or in the Au slab by a factor of 2. The most likely outcome for H-atoms that are not scattered also depends prodigiously on the energy transfer mechanism; for the nonadiabatic case, more than 50% of the H-atoms which do not scatter are adsorbed on the surface, while for the adiabatic case more than 50% pass entirely through the 4 layer simulation slab.
Palma, Juliana; Manthe, Uwe
2015-12-17
Quasiclassical trajectories (QCT) have been employed to elucidate the effect of exciting the C-H bond in F + CHD3 collisions. The calculations were performed on a new potential energy surface that accurately describes the van der Waals complexes in the entrance channel of the reaction. It was found that exciting the C-H bond significantly enhances the yield of HF + CD3, whereas it has a minor effect on the production of DF + CHD2. Therefore, the net effect is that the total reactivity increases upon excitation. This result strongly contradicts recent experimental findings. Significant differences in regard to the yield of each product channel were also found between QCT results calculated with the new surface and those obtained with the surface previously developed by Czakó et al. This shows that relatively small variations in the topography of the entrance channel can result in huge discrepancies in the predicted DF/HF branching ratio. However, in regard to other attributes of the reaction, the agreement between QCT results computed with different surfaces, and between them and experimental results, is good. For the F + CHD3 → HF + CD3 reaction, at a collisional energy of 9.0 kcal/mol, experiments and QCT calculations agree, indicating that the extra energy deposited in the C-H bond is channelled into the HF product. In addition, the angular distribution of CD3 is backward oriented and is not sensitive to the excitation of the C-H bond. PMID:26270126
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Xinchuan; Schwenke, David W.; Lee, Timothy J.
2009-06-01
A further refined, global potential energy surface (PES) is computed for the C_{3v} symmetry isotopologues of ammonia, including ^{14}NH_3, ^{15}NH_3, ^{14}ND_3 and ^{14}NT_3. The refinement procedure was similar to that used in our previously reported PES, but now extends to higher J energy levels and other isotopologues. Both the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction and the non-adiabatic correction were included. J=0-6 rovibrational energy levels and transition frequencies of ^{14}NH_3 computed on this PES are in excellent agreement with HITRAN data. Statistics on nearly 4100 transitions and more than 1000 energy levels demonstrate the accuracy achieved by the state-of-the-art "Best Theory + Experiment" strategy. Most transition frequencies are of ±0.01-0.02 cm^{-1} accuracy. Similar accuracy has been found on ^{15}NH_3 J=0-3 rovibrational energy levels. Several transitions and energy levels in HITRAN have been identified as unreliable or suspicious, and some have been re-assigned. For ^{14}ND_3 and ^{14}NT_3, J=0-3 calculations have been performed. Agreement for pure rotation-inversion transitions is nearly perfect, with more reliable energy levels presented. On the other hand, our J=0 results suggest a re-analysis on the ^{14}ND_3 ν_1 band origin is needed. Finally, we will discuss possible future refinements leading to an even better final PES for Ammonia. X. Huang, D.W. Schwenke, and T.J. Lee, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 214304 (2008).
Homayoon, Zahra
2014-09-28
A new, full (nine)-dimensional potential energy surface and dipole moment surface to describe the NO{sup +}(H{sub 2}O) cluster is reported. The PES is based on fitting of roughly 32 000 CCSD(T)-F12/aug-cc-pVTZ electronic energies. The surface is a linear least-squares fit using a permutationally invariant basis with Morse-type variables. The PES is used in a Diffusion Monte Carlo study of the zero-point energy and wavefunction of the NO{sup +}(H{sub 2}O) and NO{sup +}(D{sub 2}O) complexes. Using the calculated ZPE the dissociation energies of the clusters are reported. Vibrational configuration interaction calculations of NO{sup +}(H{sub 2}O) and NO{sup +}(D{sub 2}O) using the MULTIMODE program are performed. The fundamental, a number of overtone, and combination states of the clusters are reported. The IR spectrum of the NO{sup +}(H{sub 2}O) cluster is calculated using 4, 5, 7, and 8 modes VSCF/CI calculations. The anharmonic, coupled vibrational calculations, and IR spectrum show very good agreement with experiment. Mode coupling of the water “antisymmetric” stretching mode with the low-frequency intermolecular modes results in intensity borrowing.
Munteanu, Cristian Robert; Fernández, Berta
2005-07-01
Accurate ground-state intermolecular potential-energy surfaces are obtained for the HCCH-He, Ne, and Ar van der Waals complexes. The interaction energies are calculated at the coupled cluster singles and doubles including connected triple excitations level and fitted to analytic functions. For the three complexes we start with systematic basis set studies carried out at several intermolecular geometries, and using augmented correlation consistent polarized valence basis sets x-aug-cc-pVXZ (x=-,d; X=D,T,Q,5), also extended with a set of 3s3p2d1f1g midbond functions. The aug-cc-pVQZ-33211 surfaces of HCCH-He, Ne, and Ar complexes are characterized by absolute minima of -24.22, -50.20, and -122.17 cm(-1) at distances R between the rare-gas atom and the HCCH centers of mass of 4.35, 3.95, and 3.99 A, respectively; and at angles between the vector R and the HCCH main symmetry axis of 0 degrees , 43.3 degrees , and 60.6 degrees . The results are compared and considerably improve those previously available.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szabó, István; Telekes, Hajnalka; Czakó, Gábor
2015-06-01
We develop a full-dimensional global analytical potential energy surface (PES) for the F- + CH3F reaction by fitting about 50 000 energy points obtained by an explicitly correlated composite method based on the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation-F12 and coupled-cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples-F12a methods and the cc-pVnZ-F12 [n = D, T] basis sets. The PES accurately describes the (a) back-side attack Walden inversion mechanism involving the pre- and post-reaction (b) ion-dipole and (c) hydrogen-bonded complexes, the configuration-retaining (d) front-side attack and (e) double-inversion substitution pathways, as well as (f) the proton-abstraction channel. The benchmark quality relative energies of all the important stationary points are computed using the focal-point analysis (FPA) approach considering electron correlation up to coupled-cluster singles, doubles, triples, and perturbative quadruples method, extrapolation to the complete basis set limit, core-valence correlation, and scalar relativistic effects. The FPA classical(adiabatic) barrier heights of (a), (d), and (e) are -0.45(-0.61), 46.07(45.16), and 29.18(26.07) kcal mol-1, respectively, the dissociation energies of (b) and (c) are 13.81(13.56) and 13.73(13.52) kcal mol-1, respectively, and the endothermicity of (f) is 42.54(38.11) kcal mol-1. Quasiclassical trajectory computations of cross sections, scattering (θ) and initial attack (α) angle distributions, as well as translational and internal energy distributions are performed for the F- + CH3F(v = 0) reaction using the new PES. Apart from low collision energies (Ecoll), the SN2 excitation function is nearly constant, the abstraction cross sections rapidly increase with Ecoll from a threshold of ˜40 kcal mol-1, and retention trajectories via double inversion are found above Ecoll = ˜ 30 kcal mol-1, and at Ecoll = ˜ 50 kcal mol-1, the front-side attack cross sections start to increase very rapidly. At low Ecoll, the
Szabó, István; Telekes, Hajnalka; Czakó, Gábor
2015-06-28
We develop a full-dimensional global analytical potential energy surface (PES) for the F(-) + CH3F reaction by fitting about 50 000 energy points obtained by an explicitly correlated composite method based on the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation-F12 and coupled-cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples-F12a methods and the cc-pVnZ-F12 [n = D, T] basis sets. The PES accurately describes the (a) back-side attack Walden inversion mechanism involving the pre- and post-reaction (b) ion-dipole and (c) hydrogen-bonded complexes, the configuration-retaining (d) front-side attack and (e) double-inversion substitution pathways, as well as (f) the proton-abstraction channel. The benchmark quality relative energies of all the important stationary points are computed using the focal-point analysis (FPA) approach considering electron correlation up to coupled-cluster singles, doubles, triples, and perturbative quadruples method, extrapolation to the complete basis set limit, core-valence correlation, and scalar relativistic effects. The FPA classical(adiabatic) barrier heights of (a), (d), and (e) are -0.45(-0.61), 46.07(45.16), and 29.18(26.07) kcal mol(-1), respectively, the dissociation energies of (b) and (c) are 13.81(13.56) and 13.73(13.52) kcal mol(-1), respectively, and the endothermicity of (f) is 42.54(38.11) kcal mol(-1). Quasiclassical trajectory computations of cross sections, scattering (θ) and initial attack (α) angle distributions, as well as translational and internal energy distributions are performed for the F(-) + CH3F(v = 0) reaction using the new PES. Apart from low collision energies (Ecoll), the SN2 excitation function is nearly constant, the abstraction cross sections rapidly increase with Ecoll from a threshold of ∼40 kcal mol(-1), and retention trajectories via double inversion are found above Ecoll = ∼ 30 kcal mol(-1), and at Ecoll = ∼ 50 kcal mol(-1), the front-side attack cross sections start to increase very rapidly. At
Szabó, István; Telekes, Hajnalka; Czakó, Gábor
2015-06-28
We develop a full-dimensional global analytical potential energy surface (PES) for the F(-) + CH3F reaction by fitting about 50 000 energy points obtained by an explicitly correlated composite method based on the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation-F12 and coupled-cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples-F12a methods and the cc-pVnZ-F12 [n = D, T] basis sets. The PES accurately describes the (a) back-side attack Walden inversion mechanism involving the pre- and post-reaction (b) ion-dipole and (c) hydrogen-bonded complexes, the configuration-retaining (d) front-side attack and (e) double-inversion substitution pathways, as well as (f) the proton-abstraction channel. The benchmark quality relative energies of all the important stationary points are computed using the focal-point analysis (FPA) approach considering electron correlation up to coupled-cluster singles, doubles, triples, and perturbative quadruples method, extrapolation to the complete basis set limit, core-valence correlation, and scalar relativistic effects. The FPA classical(adiabatic) barrier heights of (a), (d), and (e) are -0.45(-0.61), 46.07(45.16), and 29.18(26.07) kcal mol(-1), respectively, the dissociation energies of (b) and (c) are 13.81(13.56) and 13.73(13.52) kcal mol(-1), respectively, and the endothermicity of (f) is 42.54(38.11) kcal mol(-1). Quasiclassical trajectory computations of cross sections, scattering (θ) and initial attack (α) angle distributions, as well as translational and internal energy distributions are performed for the F(-) + CH3F(v = 0) reaction using the new PES. Apart from low collision energies (Ecoll), the SN2 excitation function is nearly constant, the abstraction cross sections rapidly increase with Ecoll from a threshold of ∼40 kcal mol(-1), and retention trajectories via double inversion are found above Ecoll = ∼ 30 kcal mol(-1), and at Ecoll = ∼ 50 kcal mol(-1), the front-side attack cross sections start to increase very rapidly. At
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Qingyong; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Dong H.
2016-04-01
To fast and accurately compute rate coefficients of the H/D + CH4 → H2/HD + CH3 reactions, we propose a segmented strategy for fitting suitable potential energy surface (PES), on which ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) simulations are performed. On the basis of recently developed permutation invariant polynomial neural-network approach [J. Li et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 204302 (2015)], PESs in local configuration spaces are constructed. In this strategy, global PES is divided into three parts, including asymptotic, intermediate, and interaction parts, along the reaction coordinate. Since less fitting parameters are involved in the local PESs, the computational efficiency for operating the PES routine is largely enhanced by a factor of ˜20, comparing with that for global PES. On interaction part, the RPMD computational time for the transmission coefficient can be further efficiently reduced by cutting off the redundant part of the child trajectories. For H + CH4, good agreements among the present RPMD rates and those from previous simulations as well as experimental results are found. For D + CH4, on the other hand, qualitative agreement between present RPMD and experimental results is predicted.
Huang, Xinchuan; Schwenke, David W; Tashkun, Sergey A; Lee, Timothy J
2012-03-28
An isotopic-independent, highly accurate potential energy surface (PES) has been determined for CO(2) by refining a purely ab initio PES with selected, purely experimentally determined rovibrational energy levels. The purely ab initio PES is denoted Ames-0, while the refined PES is denoted Ames-1. Detailed tests are performed to demonstrate the spectroscopic accuracy of the Ames-1 PES. It is shown that Ames-1 yields σ(rms) (root-mean-squares error) = 0.0156 cm(-1) for 6873 J = 0-117 (12)C(16)O(2) experimental energy levels, even though less than 500 (12)C(16)O(2) energy levels were included in the refinement procedure. It is also demonstrated that, without any additional refinement, Ames-1 yields very good agreement for isotopologues. Specifically, for the (12)C(16)O(2) and (13)C(16)O(2) isotopologues, spectroscopic constants G(v) computed from Ames-1 are within ±0.01 and 0.02 cm(-1) of reliable experimentally derived values, while for the (16)O(12)C(18)O, (16)O(12)C(17)O, (16)O(13)C(18)O, (16)O(13)C(17)O, (12)C(18)O(2), (17)O(12)C(18)O, (12)C(17)O(2), (13)C(18)O(2), (13)C(17)O(2), (17)O(13)C(18)O, and (14)C(16)O(2) isotopologues, the differences are between ±0.10 and 0.15 cm(-1). To our knowledge, this is the first time a polyatomic PES has been refined using such high J values, and this has led to new challenges in the refinement procedure. An initial high quality, purely ab initio dipole moment surface (DMS) is constructed and used to generate a 296 K line list. For most bands, experimental IR intensities are well reproduced for (12)C(16)O(2) using Ames-1 and the DMS. For more than 80% of the bands, the experimental intensities are reproduced with σ(rms)(ΔI) < 20% or σ(rms)(ΔI∕δ(obs)) < 5. A few exceptions are analyzed and discussed. Directions for future improvements are discussed, though it is concluded that the current Ames-1 and the DMS should be useful in analyzing and assigning high-resolution laboratory or astronomical spectra. PMID:22462861
Li, Y. Q.; Zhang, P. Y.; Han, K. L.
2015-03-28
A global many-body expansion potential energy surface is reported for the electronic ground state of CH{sub 2}{sup +} by fitting high level ab initio energies calculated at the multireference configuration interaction level with the aug-cc-pV6Z basis set. The topographical features of the new global potential energy surface are examined in detail and found to be in good agreement with those calculated directly from the raw ab initio energies, as well as previous calculations available in the literature. In turn, in order to validate the potential energy surface, a test theoretical study of the reaction CH{sup +}(X{sup 1}Σ{sup +})+H({sup 2}S)→C{sup +}({sup 2}P)+H{sub 2}(X{sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +}) has been carried out with the method of time dependent wavepacket on the title potential energy surface. The total integral cross sections and the rate coefficients have been calculated; the results determined that the new potential energy surface can both be recommended for dynamics studies of any type and as building blocks for constructing the potential energy surfaces of larger C{sup +}/H containing systems.
Dawes, R.; Wagner, A. F.; Thompson, D. L.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Univ. of Missouri at Columbia
2009-04-23
We report here calculated J = 0 vibrational frequencies for {sup 1}CH{sub 2} and HCN with root-mean-square error relative to available measurements of 2.0 cm{sup -1} and 3.2 cm{sup -1}, respectively. These results are obtained with DVR calculations with a dense grid on ab initio potential energy surfaces (PESs). The ab initio electronic structure calculations employed are Davidson-corrected MRCI calculations with double-, triple-, and quadruple-{zeta} basis sets extrapolated to the complete basis set (CBS) limit. In the {sup 1}CH{sub 2} case, Full CI tests of the Davidson correction at small basis set levels lead to a scaling of the correction with the bend angle that can be profitably applied at the CBS limit. Core-valence corrections are added derived from CCSD(T) calculations with and without frozen cores. Relativistic and non-Born-Oppenheimer corrections are available for HCN and were applied. CBS limit CCSD(T) and CASPT2 calculations with the same basis sets were also tried for HCN. The CCSD(T) results are noticeably less accurate than the MRCI results while the CASPT2 results are much poorer. The PESs were generated automatically using the local interpolative moving least-squares method (L-IMLS). A general triatomic code is described where the L-IMLS method is interfaced with several common electronic structure packages. All PESs were computed with this code running in parallel on eight processors. The L-IMLS method provides global and local fitting error measures important in automatically growing the PES from initial ab initio seed points. The reliability of this approach was tested for {sup 1}CH{sub 2} by comparing DVR-calculated vibrational levels on an L-IMLS ab initio surface with levels generated by an explicit ab initio calculation at each DVR grid point. For all levels ({approx}200) below 20000 cm{sup -1}, the mean unsigned difference between the levels of these two calculations was 0.1 cm{sup -1}, consistent with the L-IMLS estimated mean unsigned
Chen, Jun; Sun, Zhigang E-mail: zhangdh@dicp.ac.cn; Zhang, Dong H. E-mail: zhangdh@dicp.ac.cn
2015-01-14
A three dimensional potential energy surface for the F + H{sub 2} → HF + H reaction has been computed by the spin unrestricted coupled cluster method with singles, doubles, triples, and perturbative quadruples [UCCSDT(2){sub Q}] using the augmented correlation-consistent polarised valence quadruple zeta basis set for the fluorine atom and the correlation-consistent polarised valence quadruple zeta basis set for the hydrogen atom. All the calculations are based on the restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock orbitals, together with the frozen core approximations, and the UCCSD(T)/complete basis set (CBS) correction term was included. The global potential energy surface was calculated by fitting the sampled ab initio points without any scaling factor for the correlation energy part using a neutral network function method. Extensive dynamics calculations have been carried out on the potential energy surface. The reaction rate constants, integral cross sections, product rotational states distribution, and forward and backward scattering as a function of collision energy of the F + HD → HF + D, F + HD → DF + H, and F + H{sub 2} reaction, were calculated by the time-independent quantum dynamics scattering theory using the new surface. The satisfactory agreement with the reported experimental observations previously demonstrates the accuracy of the new potential energy surface.
Hua -Gen Yu; Han, Huixian; Guo, Hua
2016-03-29
Vibrational energy levels of the ammonium cation (NH4+) and its deuterated isotopomers are calculated using a numerically exact kinetic energy operator on a recently developed nine-dimensional permutation invariant semiglobal potential energy surface fitted to a large number of high-level ab initio points. Like CH4, the vibrational levels of NH4+ and ND4+ exhibit a polyad structure, characterized by a collective quantum number P = 2(v1 + v3) + v2 + v4. As a result, the low-lying vibrational levels of all isotopomers are assigned and the agreement with available experimental data is better than 1 cm–1.
Yu, Hua-Gen; Han, Huixian; Guo, Hua
2016-04-14
Vibrational energy levels of the ammonium cation (NH4(+)) and its deuterated isotopomers are calculated using a numerically exact kinetic energy operator on a recently developed nine-dimensional permutation invariant semiglobal potential energy surface fitted to a large number of high-level ab initio points. Like CH4, the vibrational levels of NH4(+) and ND4(+) exhibit a polyad structure, characterized by a collective quantum number P = 2(v1 + v3) + v2 + v4. The low-lying vibrational levels of all isotopomers are assigned and the agreement with available experimental data is better than 1 cm(-1).
Calvo, F; Falvo, Cyril; Parneix, Pascal
2013-01-21
An explicit polarizable potential for the naphthalene-argon complex has been derived assuming only atomic contributions, aiming at large scale simulations of naphthalene under argon environment. The potential was parametrized from dedicated quantum chemical calculations at the CCSD(T) level, and satisfactorily reproduces available structural and energetic properties. Combining this potential with a tight-binding model for naphthalene, collisional energy transfer is studied by means of dedicated molecular dynamics simulations, nuclear quantum effects being accounted for in the path-integral framework. Except at low target temperature, nuclear quantum effects do not alter the average energies transferred by the collision or the collision duration. However, the distribution of energy transferred is much broader in the quantum case due to the significant zero-point energy and the higher density of states. Using an ab initio potential for the Ar-Ar interaction, the IR absorption spectrum of naphthalene solvated by argon clusters or an entire Ar matrix is computed via classical and centroid molecular dynamics. The classical spectra exhibit variations with growing argon environment that are absent from quantum spectra. This is interpreted by the greater fluxional character experienced by the argon atoms due to vibrational delocalization.
Ma, Jianyi; Guo, Hua; Dawes, Richard
2012-09-21
The title reaction is thought to be responsible for the production of molecular nitrogen in interstellar clouds. In this work, we report quantum capture calculations on a new two-dimensional potential energy surface determined by interpolating high-level ab initio data. The low-temperature rate constant calculated using a capture model is quite large and has a positive temperature dependence, in agreement with a recent experiment. The origin of the aforementioned behaviors of the rate constant is analyzed.
Araujo, Rafael B.; Almeida, J. de S; Ferreira da Silva, A.; Ahuja, Rajeev
2015-09-28
The main goals of this paper are to investigate the accuracy of the Tran-Blaha modified Becke Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential to predict the electronic structure of lithium iron phosphate and the related redox reaction energy with the lithium deintercalation process. The computed electronic structures show that the TB-mBJ method is able to partially localize Fe-3d electrons in LiFePO{sub 4} and FePO{sub 4} which usually is a problem for the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) due to the self interaction error. The energy band gap is also improved by the TB-mBJ calculations in comparison with the GGA results. It turned out, however, that the redox reaction energy evaluated by the TB-mBJ technique is not in good agreement with the measured one. It is speculated that this disagreement in the computed redox energy and the experimental value is due to the lack of a formal expression to evaluate the exchange and correlation energy. Therefore, the TB-mBJ is an efficient method to improve the prediction of the electronic structures coming form the standard GGA functional in LiFePO{sub 4} and FePO{sub 4}. However, it does not appear to have the same efficiency for evaluating the redox reaction energies for the investigated system.
Le, Hung M; Dinh, Thach S; Le, Hieu V
2011-10-13
The singlet-triplet transformation and molecular dissociation of ozone (O(3)) gas is investigated by performing quasi-classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on an ab initio potential energy surface (PES) with visible and near-infrared excitations. MP4(SDQ) level of theory with the 6-311g(2d,2p) basis set is executed for three different electronic spin states (singlet, triplet, and quintet). In order to simplify the potential energy function, an approximation is adopted by ignoring the spin-orbit coupling and allowing the molecule to switch favorably and instantaneously to the spin state that is more energetically stable (lowest in energy among the three spin states). This assumption has previously been utilized to study the SiO(2) system as reported by Agrawal et al. (J. Chem. Phys. 2006, 124 (13), 134306). The use of such assumption in this study probably makes the upper limits of computed rate coefficients the true rate coefficients. The global PES for ozone is constructed by fitting 5906 ab initio data points using a 60-neuron two-layer feed-forward neural network. The mean-absolute error and root-mean-squared error of this fit are 0.0446 eV (1.03 kcal/mol) and 0.0756 eV (1.74 kcal/mol), respectively, which reveal very good fitting accuracy. The parameter coefficients of the global PES are reported in this paper. In order to identify the spin state with high confidence, we propose the use of a pattern-recognition neural network, which is trained to predict the spin state of a given configuration (with a prediction accuracy being 95.6% on a set of testing data points). To enhance the prediction effectiveness, a buffer series of five points are validated to confirm the spin state during the MD process to gain better confidence. Quasi-classical MD simulations from 1.2 to 2.4 eV of total internal energy (including zero-point energy) result in rate coefficients of singlet-triplet transformation in the range of 0.027 ps(-1) to 1.21 ps(-1). Also, we find very
Boschen, Jeffery S.; Theis, Daniel; Ruedenberg, Klaus; Windus, Theresa L.
2013-12-07
The diatomic carbon molecule has a complex electronic structure with a large number of low-lying electronic excited states. In this work, the potential energy curves (PECs) of the four lowest lying singlet states (X-1 Sigma(+)(g), A(1)Pi(u), B-1 Delta(g), and B'(1)Sigma(+)(g)) were obtained by high-level ab initio calculations. Valence electron correlation was accounted for by the correlation energy extrapolation by intrinsic scaling (CEEIS) method. Additional corrections to the PECs included core-valence correlation and relativistic effects. Spin-orbit corrections were found to be insignificant. The impact of using dynamically weighted reference wave functions in conjunction with CEEIS was examined and found to give indistinguishable results from the even weighted method. The PECs showed multiple curve crossings due to the B-1 Delta(g) state as well as an avoided crossing between the two (1)Sigma(+)(g) states. Vibrational energy levels were computed for each of the four electronic states, as well as rotational constants and spectroscopic parameters. Comparison between the theoretical and experimental results showed excellent agreement overall. Equilibrium bond distances are reproduced to within 0.05 %. The dissociation energies of the states agree with experiment to within similar to 0.5 kcal/mol, achieving "chemical accuracy." Vibrational energy levels show average deviations of similar to 20 cm(-1) or less. The B-1 Delta(g) state shows the best agreement with a mean absolute deviation of 2.41 cm(-1). Calculated rotational constants exhibit very good agreement with experiment, as do the spectroscopic constants.
Accurate ionization potential of semiconductors from efficient density functional calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Lin-Hui
2016-07-01
Despite its huge successes in total-energy-related applications, the Kohn-Sham scheme of density functional theory cannot get reliable single-particle excitation energies for solids. In particular, it has not been able to calculate the ionization potential (IP), one of the most important material parameters, for semiconductors. We illustrate that an approximate exact-exchange optimized effective potential (EXX-OEP), the Becke-Johnson exchange, can be used to largely solve this long-standing problem. For a group of 17 semiconductors, we have obtained the IPs to an accuracy similar to that of the much more sophisticated G W approximation (GWA), with the computational cost of only local-density approximation/generalized gradient approximation. The EXX-OEP, therefore, is likely as useful for solids as for finite systems. For solid surfaces, the asymptotic behavior of the vx c has effects similar to those of finite systems which, when neglected, typically cause the semiconductor IPs to be underestimated. This may partially explain why standard GWA systematically underestimates the IPs and why using the same GWA procedures has not been able to get an accurate IP and band gap at the same time.
Wang, Yimin; Braams, Bastiaan J; Bowman, Joel M; Carter, Stuart; Tew, David P
2008-06-14
Quantum calculations of the ground vibrational state tunneling splitting of H-atom and D-atom transfer in malonaldehyde are performed on a full-dimensional ab initio potential energy surface (PES). The PES is a fit to 11 147 near basis-set-limit frozen-core CCSD(T) electronic energies. This surface properly describes the invariance of the potential with respect to all permutations of identical atoms. The saddle-point barrier for the H-atom transfer on the PES is 4.1 kcalmol, in excellent agreement with the reported ab initio value. Model one-dimensional and "exact" full-dimensional calculations of the splitting for H- and D-atom transfer are done using this PES. The tunneling splittings in full dimensionality are calculated using the unbiased "fixed-node" diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method in Cartesian and saddle-point normal coordinates. The ground-state tunneling splitting is found to be 21.6 cm(-1) in Cartesian coordinates and 22.6 cm(-1) in normal coordinates, with an uncertainty of 2-3 cm(-1). This splitting is also calculated based on a model which makes use of the exact single-well zero-point energy (ZPE) obtained with the MULTIMODE code and DMC ZPE and this calculation gives a tunneling splitting of 21-22 cm(-1). The corresponding computed splittings for the D-atom transfer are 3.0, 3.1, and 2-3 cm(-1). These calculated tunneling splittings agree with each other to within less than the standard uncertainties obtained with the DMC method used, which are between 2 and 3 cm(-1), and agree well with the experimental values of 21.6 and 2.9 cm(-1) for the H and D transfer, respectively.
Varandas, A J C
2013-04-01
The Combined-Hyperbolic-Inverse-Power-Representation method, which treats evenly both short- and long-range interactions, is used to fit an extensive set of ab initio points for HO2 previously utilized [Xu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 122, 244305 (2005)] to develop a spline interpolant. The novel form is shown to perform accurately when compared with others, while quasiclassical trajectory calculations of the O + OH reaction clearly pinpoint the role of long-range forces at low temperatures. PMID:23574218
Meng, Qingyong Chen, Jun Zhang, Dong H.
2015-09-14
The ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) calculations are performed to calculate rate constants for the title reaction on the recently constructed potential energy surface based on permutation invariant polynomial (PIP) neural-network (NN) fitting [J. Li et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 204302 (2015)]. By inspecting convergence, 16 beads are used in computing free-energy barriers at 300 K ≤ T ≤ 1000 K, while different numbers of beads are used for transmission coefficients. The present RPMD rates are in excellent agreement with quantum rates computed on the same potential energy surface, as well as with the experimental measurements, demonstrating further that the RPMD is capable of producing accurate rates for polyatomic chemical reactions even at rather low temperatures.
Lin, Shi Ying; Sun, Zhigang; Guo, Hua; Zhang, Dong Hui; Honvault, Pascal; Xie, Daiqian; Lee, Soo-Y
2008-01-31
We present accurate quantum calculations of the integral cross section and rate constant for the H + O2 --> OH + O combustion reaction on a recently developed ab initio potential energy surface using parallelized time-dependent and Chebyshev wavepacket methods. Partial wave contributions up to J = 70 were computed with full Coriolis coupling, which enabled us to obtain the initial state-specified integral cross sections up to 2.0 eV of the collision energy and thermal rate constants up to 3000 K. The integral cross sections show a large reaction threshold due to the quantum endothermicity of the reaction, and they monotonically increase with the collision energy. As a result, the temperature dependence of the rate constant is of the Arrhenius type. In addition, it was found that reactivity is enhanced by reactant vibrational excitation. The calculated thermal rate constant shows a significant improvement over that obtained on the DMBE IV potential, but it still underestimates the experimental consensus.
Accurate momentum transfer cross section for the attractive Yukawa potential
Khrapak, S. A.
2014-04-15
Accurate expression for the momentum transfer cross section for the attractive Yukawa potential is proposed. This simple analytic expression agrees with the numerical results better than to within ±2% in the regime relevant for ion-particle collisions in complex (dusty) plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varandas, A. J. C.
2013-04-01
The Combined-Hyperbolic-Inverse-Power-Representation method, which treats evenly both short- and long-range interactions, is used to fit an extensive set of ab initio points for HO2 previously utilized [Xu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 122, 244305 (2005), 10.1063/1.1944290] to develop a spline interpolant. The novel form is shown to perform accurately when compared with others, while quasiclassical trajectory calculations of the O + OH reaction clearly pinpoint the role of long-range forces at low temperatures.
Huang, Xinchuan E-mail: Timothy.J.Lee@nasa.gov; Schwenke, David W.; Lee, Timothy J. E-mail: Timothy.J.Lee@nasa.gov
2014-03-21
A purely ab initio potential energy surface (PES) was refined with selected {sup 32}S{sup 16}O{sub 2} HITRAN data. Compared to HITRAN, the root-mean-squares error (σ{sub RMS}) for all J = 0–80 rovibrational energy levels computed on the refined PES (denoted Ames-1) is 0.013 cm{sup −1}. Combined with a CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV(Q+d)Z dipole moment surface (DMS), an infrared (IR) line list (denoted Ames-296K) has been computed at 296 K and covers up to 8000 cm{sup −1}. Compared to the HITRAN and CDMS databases, the intensity agreement for most vibrational bands is better than 85%–90%. Our predictions for {sup 34}S{sup 16}O{sub 2} band origins, higher energy {sup 32}S{sup 16}O{sub 2} band origins and missing {sup 32}S{sup 16}O{sub 2} IR bands have been verified by most recent experiments and available HITRAN data. We conclude that the Ames-1 PES is able to predict {sup 32/34}S{sup 16}O{sub 2} band origins below 5500 cm{sup −1} with 0.01–0.03 cm{sup −1} uncertainties, and the Ames-296K line list provides continuous, reliable and accurate IR simulations. The K{sub a}-dependence of both line position and line intensity errors is discussed. The line list will greatly facilitate SO{sub 2} IR spectral experimental analysis, as well as elimination of SO{sub 2} lines in high-resolution astronomical observations.
Li, Y. Q.; Ma, F. C.; Sun, M. T.
2013-10-21
A full three-dimensional global potential energy surface is reported first time for the title system, which is important for the photodissociation processes. It is obtained using double many-body expansion theory and an extensive set of accurate ab initio energies extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. Such a work can be recommended for dynamics studies of the N({sup 2}D) + H{sub 2} reaction, a reliable theoretical treatment of the photodissociation dynamics and as building blocks for constructing the double many-body expansion potential energy surface of larger nitrogen/hydrogen containing systems. In turn, a preliminary theoretical study of the reaction N({sup 2}D)+H{sub 2}(X{sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +})(ν=0,j=0)→NH(a{sup 1}Δ)+H({sup 2}S) has been carried out with the method of quasi-classical trajectory on the new potential energy surface. Integral cross sections and thermal rate constants have been calculated, providing perhaps the most reliable estimate of the integral cross sections and the rate constants known thus far for such a reaction.
Accurate calculation of diffraction-limited encircled and ensquared energy.
Andersen, Torben B
2015-09-01
Mathematical properties of the encircled and ensquared energy functions for the diffraction-limited point-spread function (PSF) are presented. These include power series and a set of linear differential equations that facilitate the accurate calculation of these functions. Asymptotic expressions are derived that provide very accurate estimates for the relative amount of energy in the diffraction PSF that fall outside a square or rectangular large detector. Tables with accurate values of the encircled and ensquared energy functions are also presented. PMID:26368873
Accurate ab initio vibrational energies of methyl chloride
Owens, Alec; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Yachmenev, Andrey; Tennyson, Jonathan; Thiel, Walter
2015-06-28
Two new nine-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) have been generated using high-level ab initio theory for the two main isotopologues of methyl chloride, CH{sub 3}{sup 35}Cl and CH{sub 3}{sup 37}Cl. The respective PESs, CBS-35{sup HL}, and CBS-37{sup HL}, are based on explicitly correlated coupled cluster calculations with extrapolation to the complete basis set (CBS) limit, and incorporate a range of higher-level (HL) additive energy corrections to account for core-valence electron correlation, higher-order coupled cluster terms, scalar relativistic effects, and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections. Variational calculations of the vibrational energy levels were performed using the computer program TROVE, whose functionality has been extended to handle molecules of the form XY {sub 3}Z. Fully converged energies were obtained by means of a complete vibrational basis set extrapolation. The CBS-35{sup HL} and CBS-37{sup HL} PESs reproduce the fundamental term values with root-mean-square errors of 0.75 and 1.00 cm{sup −1}, respectively. An analysis of the combined effect of the HL corrections and CBS extrapolation on the vibrational wavenumbers indicates that both are needed to compute accurate theoretical results for methyl chloride. We believe that it would be extremely challenging to go beyond the accuracy currently achieved for CH{sub 3}Cl without empirical refinement of the respective PESs.
Accurate and efficient loop selections by the DFIRE-based all-atom statistical potential.
Zhang, Chi; Liu, Song; Zhou, Yaoqi
2004-02-01
The conformations of loops are determined by the water-mediated interactions between amino acid residues. Energy functions that describe the interactions can be derived either from physical principles (physical-based energy function) or statistical analysis of known protein structures (knowledge-based statistical potentials). It is commonly believed that statistical potentials are appropriate for coarse-grained representation of proteins but are not as accurate as physical-based potentials when atomic resolution is required. Several recent applications of physical-based energy functions to loop selections appear to support this view. In this article, we apply a recently developed DFIRE-based statistical potential to three different loop decoy sets (RAPPER, Jacobson, and Forrest-Woolf sets). Together with a rotamer library for side-chain optimization, the performance of DFIRE-based potential in the RAPPER decoy set (385 loop targets) is comparable to that of AMBER/GBSA for short loops (two to eight residues). The DFIRE is more accurate for longer loops (9 to 12 residues). Similar trend is observed when comparing DFIRE with another physical-based OPLS/SGB-NP energy function in the large Jacobson decoy set (788 loop targets). In the Forrest-Woolf decoy set for the loops of membrane proteins, the DFIRE potential performs substantially better than the combination of the CHARMM force field with several solvation models. The results suggest that a single-term DFIRE-statistical energy function can provide an accurate loop prediction at a fraction of computing cost required for more complicate physical-based energy functions. A Web server for academic users is established for loop selection at the softwares/services section of the Web site http://theory.med.buffalo.edu/.
Chemically accurate energy barriers of small gas molecules moving through hexagonal water rings.
Hjertenæs, Eirik; Trinh, Thuat T; Koch, Henrik
2016-07-21
We present chemically accurate potential energy curves of CH4, CO2 and H2 moving through hexagonal water rings, calculated by CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ with counterpoise correction. The barriers are extracted from a potential energy surface obtained by allowing the water ring to expand while the gas molecule diffuses through. State-of-the-art XC-functionals are evaluated against the CCSD(T) potential energy surface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al Mogren, M. M.; Denis-Alpizar, O.; Abdallah, D. Ben; Stoecklin, T.; Halvick, P.; Senent, M.-L.; Hochlaf, M.
2014-07-01
Through the study of the C3({tilde X}1Σg+) + He(1S) astrophysical relevant system using standard (CCSD(T)) and explicitly correlated (CCSD(T)-F12) coupled cluster approaches, we show that the CCSD(T)-F12/aug-cc-pVTZ level represents a good compromise between accuracy and low computational cost for the generation of multi-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) over both intra- and inter-monomer degrees of freedom. Indeed, the CCSD(T)-F12/aug-cc-pVTZ 2D-PES for linear C3 and the CCSD(T)-F12/aug-cc-pVTZ 4D-PES for bent C3 configurations gently approach those mapped at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVXZ (X = T,Q) + bond functions level, whereas a strong reduction of computational effort is observed. After exact dynamical computations, the pattern of the rovibrational levels of the intermediate C3-He complex and the rotational and rovibrational (de-) excitation of C3 by He derived using both sets of PESs agree quite well. Since C3 shows a floppy character, the interaction PES is defined in four dimensions to obtain realistic collisional parameters. The C-C-C bending mode, which fundamental lies at 63 cm-1 and can be excited at very low temperatures is explicitly considered as independent coordinate. Our work suggests hence that CCSD(T)-F12/aug-cc-pVTZ methodology is the key method for the generation of accurate polyatomic - He/H2 multi-dimensional PESs.
Cation-π interactions: accurate intermolecular potential from symmetry-adapted perturbation theory.
Ansorg, Kay; Tafipolsky, Maxim; Engels, Bernd
2013-09-01
Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) is used to decompose the total intermolecular interaction energy between the ammonium cation and a benzene molecule into four physically motivated individual contributions: electrostatics, exchange, dispersion, and induction. Based on this rigorous decomposition, it is shown unambiguously that both the electrostatic and the induction energy components contribute almost equally to the attractive forces stabilizing the dimer with a nonnegligible contribution coming from the dispersion term. A polarizable potential model for the interaction of ammonium cation with benzene is parametrized by fitting these four energy components separately using the functional forms of the AMOEBA force field augmented with the missing charge penetration energy term calculated as a sum over pairwise electrostatic energies between spherical atoms. It is shown that the proposed model is able to produce accurate intermolecular interaction energies as compared to ab initio results, thus avoiding error compensation to a large extent.
Szabó, István; Telekes, Hajnalka; Czakó, Gábor
2015-06-28
We develop a full-dimensional global analytical potential energy surface (PES) for the F{sup −} + CH{sub 3}F reaction by fitting about 50 000 energy points obtained by an explicitly correlated composite method based on the second-order Møller–Plesset perturbation-F12 and coupled-cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples-F12a methods and the cc-pVnZ-F12 [n = D, T] basis sets. The PES accurately describes the (a) back-side attack Walden inversion mechanism involving the pre- and post-reaction (b) ion-dipole and (c) hydrogen-bonded complexes, the configuration-retaining (d) front-side attack and (e) double-inversion substitution pathways, as well as (f) the proton-abstraction channel. The benchmark quality relative energies of all the important stationary points are computed using the focal-point analysis (FPA) approach considering electron correlation up to coupled-cluster singles, doubles, triples, and perturbative quadruples method, extrapolation to the complete basis set limit, core-valence correlation, and scalar relativistic effects. The FPA classical(adiabatic) barrier heights of (a), (d), and (e) are −0.45(−0.61), 46.07(45.16), and 29.18(26.07) kcal mol{sup −1}, respectively, the dissociation energies of (b) and (c) are 13.81(13.56) and 13.73(13.52) kcal mol{sup −1}, respectively, and the endothermicity of (f) is 42.54(38.11) kcal mol{sup −1}. Quasiclassical trajectory computations of cross sections, scattering (θ) and initial attack (α) angle distributions, as well as translational and internal energy distributions are performed for the F{sup −} + CH{sub 3}F(v = 0) reaction using the new PES. Apart from low collision energies (E{sub coll}), the S{sub N}2 excitation function is nearly constant, the abstraction cross sections rapidly increase with E{sub coll} from a threshold of ∼40 kcal mol{sup −1}, and retention trajectories via double inversion are found above E{sub coll} = ∼ 30 kcal mol{sup −1}, and at E{sub coll} =
Thompson, A.P.; Swiler, L.P.; Trott, C.R.; Foiles, S.M.; Tucker, G.J.
2015-03-15
We present a new interatomic potential for solids and liquids called Spectral Neighbor Analysis Potential (SNAP). The SNAP potential has a very general form and uses machine-learning techniques to reproduce the energies, forces, and stress tensors of a large set of small configurations of atoms, which are obtained using high-accuracy quantum electronic structure (QM) calculations. The local environment of each atom is characterized by a set of bispectrum components of the local neighbor density projected onto a basis of hyperspherical harmonics in four dimensions. The bispectrum components are the same bond-orientational order parameters employed by the GAP potential [1]. The SNAP potential, unlike GAP, assumes a linear relationship between atom energy and bispectrum components. The linear SNAP coefficients are determined using weighted least-squares linear regression against the full QM training set. This allows the SNAP potential to be fit in a robust, automated manner to large QM data sets using many bispectrum components. The calculation of the bispectrum components and the SNAP potential are implemented in the LAMMPS parallel molecular dynamics code. We demonstrate that a previously unnoticed symmetry property can be exploited to reduce the computational cost of the force calculations by more than one order of magnitude. We present results for a SNAP potential for tantalum, showing that it accurately reproduces a range of commonly calculated properties of both the crystalline solid and the liquid phases. In addition, unlike simpler existing potentials, SNAP correctly predicts the energy barrier for screw dislocation migration in BCC tantalum.
Accurate nuclear radii and binding energies from a chiral interaction
Ekstrom, Jan A.; Jansen, G. R.; Wendt, Kyle A.; Hagen, Gaute; Papenbrock, Thomas F.; Carlsson, Boris; Forssen, Christian; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Navratil, Petr; Nazarewicz, Witold
2015-05-01
With the goal of developing predictive ab initio capability for light and medium-mass nuclei, two-nucleon and three-nucleon forces from chiral effective field theory are optimized simultaneously to low-energy nucleon-nucleon scattering data, as well as binding energies and radii of few-nucleon systems and selected isotopes of carbon and oxygen. Coupled-cluster calculations based on this interaction, named NNLO_{sat}, yield accurate binding energies and radii of nuclei up to ^{40}Ca, and are consistent with the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. In addition, the low-lying collective J^{π}=3^{-} states in ^{16}O and ^{40}Ca are described accurately, while spectra for selected p- and sd-shell nuclei are in reasonable agreement with experiment.
Accurate nuclear radii and binding energies from a chiral interaction
Ekstrom, Jan A.; Jansen, G. R.; Wendt, Kyle A.; Hagen, Gaute; Papenbrock, Thomas F.; Carlsson, Boris; Forssen, Christian; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Navratil, Petr; Nazarewicz, Witold
2015-05-01
With the goal of developing predictive ab initio capability for light and medium-mass nuclei, two-nucleon and three-nucleon forces from chiral effective field theory are optimized simultaneously to low-energy nucleon-nucleon scattering data, as well as binding energies and radii of few-nucleon systems and selected isotopes of carbon and oxygen. Coupled-cluster calculations based on this interaction, named NNLOsat, yield accurate binding energies and radii of nuclei up to 40Ca, and are consistent with the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. In addition, the low-lying collective Jπ=3- states in 16O and 40Ca are described accurately, while spectra for selected p- and sd-shellmore » nuclei are in reasonable agreement with experiment.« less
Accurate first principles model potentials for intermolecular interactions.
Gordon, Mark S; Smith, Quentin A; Xu, Peng; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V
2013-01-01
The general effective fragment potential (EFP) method provides model potentials for any molecule that is derived from first principles, with no empirically fitted parameters. The EFP method has been interfaced with most currently used ab initio single-reference and multireference quantum mechanics (QM) methods, ranging from Hartree-Fock and coupled cluster theory to multireference perturbation theory. The most recent innovations in the EFP model have been to make the computationally expensive charge transfer term much more efficient and to interface the general EFP dispersion and exchange repulsion interactions with QM methods. Following a summary of the method and its implementation in generally available computer programs, these most recent new developments are discussed.
A fast, time-accurate unsteady full potential scheme
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shankar, V.; Ide, H.; Gorski, J.; Osher, S.
1985-01-01
The unsteady form of the full potential equation is solved in conservation form by an implicit method based on approximate factorization. At each time level, internal Newton iterations are performed to achieve time accuracy and computational efficiency. A local time linearization procedure is introduced to provide a good initial guess for the Newton iteration. A novel flux-biasing technique is applied to generate proper forms of the artificial viscosity to treat hyperbolic regions with shocks and sonic lines present. The wake is properly modeled by accounting not only for jumps in phi, but also for jumps in higher derivatives of phi, obtained by imposing the density to be continuous across the wake. The far field is modeled using the Riemann invariants to simulate nonreflecting boundary conditions. The resulting unsteady method performs well which, even at low reduced frequency levels of 0.1 or less, requires fewer than 100 time steps per cycle at transonic Mach numbers. The code is fully vectorized for the CRAY-XMP and the VPS-32 computers.
Development and application of accurate analytical models for single active electron potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Michelle; Jaron-Becker, Agnieszka; Becker, Andreas
2015-05-01
The single active electron (SAE) approximation is a theoretical model frequently employed to study scenarios in which inner-shell electrons may productively be treated as frozen spectators to a physical process of interest, and accurate analytical approximations for these potentials are sought as a useful simulation tool. Density function theory is often used to construct a SAE potential, requiring that a further approximation for the exchange correlation functional be enacted. In this study, we employ the Krieger, Li, and Iafrate (KLI) modification to the optimized-effective-potential (OEP) method to reduce the complexity of the problem to the straightforward solution of a system of linear equations through simple arguments regarding the behavior of the exchange-correlation potential in regions where a single orbital dominates. We employ this method for the solution of atomic and molecular potentials, and use the resultant curve to devise a systematic construction for highly accurate and useful analytical approximations for several systems. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (Grant No. DE-FG02-09ER16103), and the U.S. National Science Foundation (Graduate Research Fellowship, Grants No. PHY-1125844 and No. PHY-1068706).
Toward Hamiltonian Adaptive QM/MM: Accurate Solvent Structures Using Many-Body Potentials.
Boereboom, Jelle M; Potestio, Raffaello; Donadio, Davide; Bulo, Rosa E
2016-08-01
Adaptive quantum mechanical (QM)/molecular mechanical (MM) methods enable efficient molecular simulations of chemistry in solution. Reactive subregions are modeled with an accurate QM potential energy expression while the rest of the system is described in a more approximate manner (MM). As solvent molecules diffuse in and out of the reactive region, they are gradually included into (and excluded from) the QM expression. It would be desirable to model such a system with a single adaptive Hamiltonian, but thus far this has resulted in distorted structures at the boundary between the two regions. Solving this long outstanding problem will allow microcanonical adaptive QM/MM simulations that can be used to obtain vibrational spectra and dynamical properties. The difficulty lies in the complex QM potential energy expression, with a many-body expansion that contains higher order terms. Here, we outline a Hamiltonian adaptive multiscale scheme within the framework of many-body potentials. The adaptive expressions are entirely general, and complementary to all standard (nonadaptive) QM/MM embedding schemes available. We demonstrate the merit of our approach on a molecular system defined by two different MM potentials (MM/MM'). For the long-range interactions a numerical scheme is used (particle mesh Ewald), which yields energy expressions that are many-body in nature. Our Hamiltonian approach is the first to provide both energy conservation and the correct solvent structure everywhere in this system. PMID:27332140
Śmiga, Szymon; Della Sala, Fabio; Buksztel, Adam; Grabowski, Ireneusz; Fabiano, Eduardo
2016-08-15
One important property of Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory is the exact equality of the energy of the highest occupied KS orbital (HOMO) with the negative ionization potential of the system. This exact feature is out of reach for standard density-dependent semilocal functionals. Conversely, accurate results can be obtained using orbital-dependent functionals in the optimized effective potential (OEP) approach. In this article, we investigate the performance, in this context, of some advanced OEP methods, with special emphasis on the recently proposed scaled-opposite-spin OEP functional. Moreover, we analyze the impact of the so-called HOMO condition on the final quality of the HOMO energy. Results are compared to reference data obtained at the CCSD(T) level of theory. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Accurate energy levels for singly ionized platinum (Pt II)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reader, Joseph; Acquista, Nicolo; Sansonetti, Craig J.; Engleman, Rolf, Jr.
1988-01-01
New observations of the spectrum of Pt II have been made with hollow-cathode lamps. The region from 1032 to 4101 A was observed photographically with a 10.7-m normal-incidence spectrograph. The region from 2245 to 5223 A was observed with a Fourier-transform spectrometer. Wavelength measurements were made for 558 lines. The uncertainties vary from 0.0005 to 0.004 A. From these measurements and three parity-forbidden transitions in the infrared, accurate values were determined for 28 even and 72 odd energy levels of Pt II.
Accurate bond dissociation energies (D 0) for FHF- isotopologues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stein, Christopher; Oswald, Rainer; Sebald, Peter; Botschwina, Peter; Stoll, Hermann; Peterson, Kirk A.
2013-09-01
Accurate bond dissociation energies (D 0) are determined for three isotopologues of the bifluoride ion (FHF-). While the zero-point vibrational contributions are taken from our previous work (P. Sebald, A. Bargholz, R. Oswald, C. Stein, P. Botschwina, J. Phys. Chem. A, DOI: 10.1021/jp3123677), the equilibrium dissociation energy (D e ) of the reaction ? was obtained by a composite method including frozen-core (fc) CCSD(T) calculations with basis sets up to cardinal number n = 7 followed by extrapolation to the complete basis set limit. Smaller terms beyond fc-CCSD(T) cancel each other almost completely. The D 0 values of FHF-, FDF-, and FTF- are predicted to be 15,176, 15,191, and 15,198 cm-1, respectively, with an uncertainty of ca. 15 cm-1.
Spectroscopically Accurate Calculations of the Rovibrational Energies of Diatomic Hydrogen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perry, Jason
2005-05-01
The Born-Oppenheimer approximation has been used to calculate the rotational and vibrational states of diatomic hydrogen. Because it is an approximation, our group now wants to use a Born-Oppenheimer potential to calculate the electronic energy that has been corrected to match closely with spectroscopic results. We are using a code that has corrections for adiabatic, relativistic, radiative, and non-adiabatic effects. The rovibrational energies have now been calculated for both bound and quasi-bound states. We also want to compute quadrupole transition probabilities for diatomic hydrogen. These calculations aspire to investigate diatomic hydrogen in astrophysical environments.
Accurate intermolecular ground state potential of the Ne-N2 van der Waals complex.
Munteanu, Cristian R; López Cacheiro, Javier; Fernández, Berta
2004-05-15
Ab initio ground state potential energy surfaces are obtained from interaction energies calculated with the coupled cluster singles and doubles model including connected triples corrections [CCSD(T)] and the aug-cc-pVXZ (X=5,Q,T,D) basis sets augmented with two different sets of midbond functions (denoted 33221 and 33211). The aug-cc-pV5Z-33221 surface is characterized by a T-shaped 49.5 cm(-1) minimum at Re=3.38 Angstroms and a linear saddle point at 3.95 Angstroms with De=36.6 cm(-1). These results agree well with the values provided by the accurate semiempirical potentials available. The rovibronic spectroscopic properties are determined and compared to the available experimental data and previous theoretical results. We study the basis set convergence of the intermolecular potentials and the rotational frequencies. The aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets provide reasonable binding parameters, but seem not to be converged enough for the evaluation of the microwave spectra. The aug-cc-pVQZ basis sets considerably improve the triple zeta results. The differences between the results obtained with the aug-cc-pVTZ-33221 basis set surface and those with the aug-cc-pVQZ-33221 are smaller than those of the corresponding bases with the set of 33211 midbond functions. The aug-cc-pVQZ surfaces are close to the aug-cc-pV5Z, that are expected to be close to convergence. With our best surfaces the errors in the frequencies with respect to the accurate experimental results go down to 0.6%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, Aidan; Foiles, Stephen; Schultz, Peter; Swiler, Laura; Trott, Christian; Tucker, Garritt
2013-03-01
Molecular dynamics (MD) is a powerful condensed matter simulation tool for bridging between macroscopic continuum models and quantum models (QM) treating a few hundred atoms, but is limited by the accuracy of available interatomic potentials. Sound physical and chemical understanding of these interactions have resulted in a variety of concise potentials for certain systems, but it is difficult to extend them to new materials and properties. The growing availability of large QM data sets has made it possible to use more automated machine-learning approaches. Bartók et al. demonstrated that the bispectrum of the local neighbor density provides good regression surrogates for QM models. We adopt a similar bispectrum representation within a linear regression scheme. We have produced potentials for silicon and tantalum, and we are currently extending the method to III-V compounds. Results will be presented demonstrating the accuracy of these potentials relative to the training data, as well as their ability to accurately predict material properties not explicitly included in the training data. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy Nat. Nuclear Security Admin. under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colalongo, Luigi; Ghittorelli, Matteo; Torricelli, Fabrizio; Kovács-Vajna, Zsolt Miklos
2015-12-01
Surface-potential-based mathematical models are among the most accurate and physically based compact models of Thin-Film Transistors (TFTs) and, in turn, of Organic Thin-Film Transistors (OTFTs), available today. However, the need for iterative computations of the surface potential limits their computational efficiency and diffusion in CAD applications. The existing closed-form approximations of the surface potential are based on regional approximations and empirical smoothing functions that could result not enough accurate to model OTFTs and, in particular, transconductances and transcapacitances. In this paper we present an accurate and computationally efficient closed-form approximation of the surface potential, based on the Lagrange Reversion Theorem, that can be exploited in advanced surface-potential-based OTFTs and TFTs device models.
Bai, O; Nakamura, M; Kanda, M; Nagamine, T; Shibasaki, H
2001-11-01
This study introduces a method for accurate identification of the waveform of the evoked potentials by decomposing the component responses. The decomposition was achieved by zero-pole modeling of the evoked potentials in the discrete cosine transform (DCT) domain. It was found that the DCT coefficients of a component response in the evoked potentials could be modeled sufficiently by a second order transfer function in the DCT domain. The decomposition of the component responses was approached by using partial expansion of the estimated model for the evoked potentials, and the effectiveness of the decomposition method was evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. Because of the overlap of the different component responses, the proposed method enables an accurate identification of the evoked potentials, which is useful for clinical and neurophysiological investigations.
Accurate intermolecular ground state potential of the Ar-N2 van der Waals complex.
Munteanu, Cristian R; Cacheiro, Javier López; Fernández, Berta
2004-12-01
After carrying out a systematic basis set convergence study, we evaluate several ground state potential energy surfaces of the Ar-N(2) van der Waals complex at the coupled cluster singles and doubles model including connected triples corrections. We use the aug-cc-pVXZ (X=5,Q,D) and the daug-cc-pVQZ basis sets augmented with a set of 3s3p2d1f1g (denoted 33211) and 3s3p2d2f1g (denoted 33221) midbond functions, respectively. aug-cc-pVTZ-33211 results were available in the literature. The aug-cc-pV5Z-33211 (daug-cc-pVQZ-33221) surface is characterized by a T-shaped minimum at R(e)=3.709 (3.701) A and of 99.01 (102.50) cm(-1), and a linear saddle point at 4.260 (4.257) A and D(e)=75.28 (79.73) cm(-1). These results are compared with the values provided by the semiempirical potentials available, and those of previous theoretical studies. The basis set convergence of the intermolecular potentials is also analyzed. From the potentials the rovibronic spectroscopic properties are determined. We study the basis set convergence of the rotational frequencies. The binding parameters that characterized the aug-cc-pVTZ-33211 surface are reasonable, but the surface is not good enough to evaluate the microwave spectra. The aug-cc-pVQZ-33211 basis set results considerably improve the triple zeta and are close to the aug-cc-pV5Z-33211. Considering the small differences between the quadruple and the quintuple zeta surfaces, the latter results can be expected to be close to convergence. At this level the differences with respect to the accurate experimental frequencies are in the order of 0.7%. In the case of the daug-cc-pVXZ-33211,33221 (X=5,Q,T,D) series, the convergence of the interaction energies with respect to basis set improvement is not so smooth. The errors in the frequencies obtained with the daug-cc-pVQZ-33221 basis set with respect to experiment are in the order of 0.4%.
Navratil, P; Caurier, E
2003-10-14
The authors calculate properties of A = 6 system using the accurate charge-dependent nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential at fourth order of chiral perturbation theory. By application of the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) and a variational calculation in the harmonic oscillator basis with basis size up to 16 {h_bar}{Omega} they obtain the {sup 6}Li binding energy of 28.5(5) MeV and a converged excitation spectrum. Also, they calculate properties of {sup 10}B using the same NN potential in a basis space of up to 8 {h_bar}{Omega}. The results are consistent with results obtained by standard accurate NN potentials and demonstrate a deficiency of Hamiltonians consisting of only two-body terms. At this order of chiral perturbation theory three-body terms appear. It is expected that inclusion of such terms in the Hamiltonian will improve agreement with experiment.
Shuber, Anthony P; Ascaño, Jennifer J; Boynton, Kevin A; Mitchell, Anastasia; Frierson, Henry F; El-Rifai, Wa'el; Powell, Steven M
2002-01-01
A novel DNA assay demonstrating sensitive and accurate detection of Helicobacter pylori from stool samples is reported. Moreover, in three individuals tested for therapeutic response, the assay showed the disappearance of H. pylori DNA during treatment. Thus, this noninvasive molecular biology-based assay has the potential to be a powerful diagnostic tool given its ability to specifically identify H. pylori DNA.
The Calculation of Accurate Metal-Ligand Bond Energies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Partridge, Harry, III; Ricca, Alessandra; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
The optimization of the geometry and calculation of zero-point energies are carried out at the B3LYP level of theory. The bond energies are determined at this level, as well as at the CCSD(T) level using very large basis sets. The successive OH bond energies to the first row transition metal cations are reported. For most systems there has been an experimental determination of the first OH. In general, the CCSD(T) values are in good agreement with experiment. The bonding changes from mostly covalent for the early metals to mostly electrostatic for the late transition metal systems.
Alaska's renewable energy potential.
Not Available
2009-02-01
This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.
Baer, M.R.; Hobbs, M.L.; McGee, B.C.
1998-11-03
Exponential-13,6 (EXP-13,6) potential pammeters for 750 gases composed of 48 elements were determined and assembled in a database, referred to as the JCZS database, for use with the Jacobs Cowperthwaite Zwisler equation of state (JCZ3-EOS)~l) The EXP- 13,6 force constants were obtained by using literature values of Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential functions, by using corresponding states (CS) theory, by matching pure liquid shock Hugoniot data, and by using molecular volume to determine the approach radii with the well depth estimated from high-pressure isen- tropes. The JCZS database was used to accurately predict detonation velocity, pressure, and temperature for 50 dif- 3 Accurate predictions were also ferent explosives with initial densities ranging from 0.25 glcm3 to 1.97 g/cm . obtained for pure liquid shock Hugoniots, static properties of nitrogen, and gas detonations at high initial pressures.
The free energy cost of accurate biochemical oscillations
Cao, Yuansheng; Wang, Hongli; Ouyang, Qi; Tu, Yuhai
2015-01-01
Oscillation is an important cellular process that regulates timing of different vital life cycles. However, in the noisy cellular environment, oscillations can be highly inaccurate due to phase fluctuations. It remains poorly understood how biochemical circuits suppress phase fluctuations and what is the incurred thermodynamic cost. Here, we study three different types of biochemical oscillations representing three basic oscillation motifs shared by all known oscillatory systems. In all the systems studied, we find that the phase diffusion constant depends on the free energy dissipation per period following the same inverse relation parameterized by system specific constants. This relationship and its range of validity are shown analytically in a model of noisy oscillation. Microscopically, we find that the oscillation is driven by multiple irreversible cycles that hydrolyze the fuel molecules such as ATP; the number of phase coherent periods is proportional to the free energy consumed per period. Experimental evidence in support of this general relationship and testable predictions are also presented. PMID:26566392
The free-energy cost of accurate biochemical oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Yuansheng; Wang, Hongli; Ouyang, Qi; Tu, Yuhai
2015-09-01
Oscillations within the cell regulate the timing of many important life cycles. However, in this noisy environment, oscillations can be highly inaccurate owing to phase fluctuations. It remains poorly understood how biochemical circuits suppress these phase fluctuations and what is the incurred thermodynamic cost. Here, we study three different types of biochemical oscillation, representing three basic oscillation motifs shared by all known oscillatory systems. In all the systems studied, we find that the phase diffusion constant depends on the free-energy dissipation per period, following the same inverse relation parameterized by system-specific constants. This relationship and its range of validity are shown analytically in a model of noisy oscillation. Microscopically, we find that the oscillation is driven by multiple irreversible cycles that hydrolyse fuel molecules such as ATP; the number of phase coherent periods is proportional to the free energy consumed per period. Experimental evidence in support of this general relationship and testable predictions are also presented.
Waldrop, Jonathan M; Song, Bo; Patkowski, Konrad; Wang, Xiaopo
2015-05-28
A new highly accurate potential energy curve for the krypton dimer was constructed using coupled-cluster calculations up to the singles, doubles, triples, and perturbative quadruples level, including corrections for core-core and core-valence correlation and for relativistic effects. The ab initio data points were fitted to an analytic potential which was used to compute the most important transport properties of the krypton gas. The viscosity, thermal conductivity, self-diffusion coefficient, and thermal diffusion factor were calculated by the kinetic theory at low density and temperatures from 116 to 5000 K. The comparisons with literature experimental data as well as with values from other pair potentials indicate that our new potential is superior to all previous ones. The transport property values computed in this work are recommended as standard values over the complete temperature range.
Waldrop, Jonathan M; Song, Bo; Patkowski, Konrad; Wang, Xiaopo
2015-05-28
A new highly accurate potential energy curve for the krypton dimer was constructed using coupled-cluster calculations up to the singles, doubles, triples, and perturbative quadruples level, including corrections for core-core and core-valence correlation and for relativistic effects. The ab initio data points were fitted to an analytic potential which was used to compute the most important transport properties of the krypton gas. The viscosity, thermal conductivity, self-diffusion coefficient, and thermal diffusion factor were calculated by the kinetic theory at low density and temperatures from 116 to 5000 K. The comparisons with literature experimental data as well as with values from other pair potentials indicate that our new potential is superior to all previous ones. The transport property values computed in this work are recommended as standard values over the complete temperature range. PMID:26026447
Hansen, Katja; Biegler, Franziska; Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan; Pronobis, Wiktor; von Lilienfeld, O Anatole; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Tkatchenko, Alexandre
2015-06-18
Simultaneously accurate and efficient prediction of molecular properties throughout chemical compound space is a critical ingredient toward rational compound design in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Aiming toward this goal, we develop and apply a systematic hierarchy of efficient empirical methods to estimate atomization and total energies of molecules. These methods range from a simple sum over atoms, to addition of bond energies, to pairwise interatomic force fields, reaching to the more sophisticated machine learning approaches that are capable of describing collective interactions between many atoms or bonds. In the case of equilibrium molecular geometries, even simple pairwise force fields demonstrate prediction accuracy comparable to benchmark energies calculated using density functional theory with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals; however, accounting for the collective many-body interactions proves to be essential for approaching the “holy grail” of chemical accuracy of 1 kcal/mol for both equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium geometries. This remarkable accuracy is achieved by a vectorized representation of molecules (so-called Bag of Bonds model) that exhibits strong nonlocality in chemical space. In addition, the same representation allows us to predict accurate electronic properties of molecules, such as their polarizability and molecular frontier orbital energies.
Hansen, Katja; Biegler, Franziska; Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan; Pronobis, Wiktor; von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole; Müller, Klaus -Robert; Tkatchenko, Alexandre
2015-06-04
Simultaneously accurate and efficient prediction of molecular properties throughout chemical compound space is a critical ingredient toward rational compound design in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Aiming toward this goal, we develop and apply a systematic hierarchy of efficient empirical methods to estimate atomization and total energies of molecules. These methods range from a simple sum over atoms, to addition of bond energies, to pairwise interatomic force fields, reaching to the more sophisticated machine learning approaches that are capable of describing collective interactions between many atoms or bonds. In the case of equilibrium molecular geometries, even simple pairwise force fields demonstrate prediction accuracy comparable to benchmark energies calculated using density functional theory with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals; however, accounting for the collective many-body interactions proves to be essential for approaching the “holy grail” of chemical accuracy of 1 kcal/mol for both equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium geometries. This remarkable accuracy is achieved by a vectorized representation of molecules (so-called Bag of Bonds model) that exhibits strong nonlocality in chemical space. The same representation allows us to predict accurate electronic properties of molecules, such as their polarizability and molecular frontier orbital energies.
Hansen, Katja; Biegler, Franziska; Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan; Pronobis, Wiktor; von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole; Müller, Klaus -Robert; Tkatchenko, Alexandre
2015-06-04
Simultaneously accurate and efficient prediction of molecular properties throughout chemical compound space is a critical ingredient toward rational compound design in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Aiming toward this goal, we develop and apply a systematic hierarchy of efficient empirical methods to estimate atomization and total energies of molecules. These methods range from a simple sum over atoms, to addition of bond energies, to pairwise interatomic force fields, reaching to the more sophisticated machine learning approaches that are capable of describing collective interactions between many atoms or bonds. In the case of equilibrium molecular geometries, even simple pairwise force fields demonstratemore » prediction accuracy comparable to benchmark energies calculated using density functional theory with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals; however, accounting for the collective many-body interactions proves to be essential for approaching the “holy grail” of chemical accuracy of 1 kcal/mol for both equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium geometries. This remarkable accuracy is achieved by a vectorized representation of molecules (so-called Bag of Bonds model) that exhibits strong nonlocality in chemical space. The same representation allows us to predict accurate electronic properties of molecules, such as their polarizability and molecular frontier orbital energies.« less
2015-01-01
Simultaneously accurate and efficient prediction of molecular properties throughout chemical compound space is a critical ingredient toward rational compound design in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Aiming toward this goal, we develop and apply a systematic hierarchy of efficient empirical methods to estimate atomization and total energies of molecules. These methods range from a simple sum over atoms, to addition of bond energies, to pairwise interatomic force fields, reaching to the more sophisticated machine learning approaches that are capable of describing collective interactions between many atoms or bonds. In the case of equilibrium molecular geometries, even simple pairwise force fields demonstrate prediction accuracy comparable to benchmark energies calculated using density functional theory with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals; however, accounting for the collective many-body interactions proves to be essential for approaching the “holy grail” of chemical accuracy of 1 kcal/mol for both equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium geometries. This remarkable accuracy is achieved by a vectorized representation of molecules (so-called Bag of Bonds model) that exhibits strong nonlocality in chemical space. In addition, the same representation allows us to predict accurate electronic properties of molecules, such as their polarizability and molecular frontier orbital energies. PMID:26113956
Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces
Harding, L.B.
1993-12-01
The goal of this program is to calculate accurate potential energy surfaces (PES) for both reactive and nonreactive systems. To do this the electronic Schrodinger equation must be solved. Our approach to this problem starts with multiconfiguration self-consistent field (MCSCF) reference wavefunctions. These reference wavefunctions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to accurately describe changes in electronic structure over a broad range of geometries. Electron correlation effects are included via multireference, singles and doubles configuration interaction (MRSDCI) calculations. With this approach, the authors are able to provide useful predictions of the energetics for a broad range of systems.
Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walch, Stephen P.
1990-01-01
The objective was to obtain accurate potential energy surfaces (PES's) for a number of reactions which are important in the H/N/O combustion process. The interest in this is centered around the design of the SCRAM jet engine for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), which was envisioned as an air-breathing hydrogen-burning vehicle capable of reaching velocities as large as Mach 25. Preliminary studies indicated that the supersonic flow in the combustor region of the scram jet engine required accurate reaction rate data for reactions in the H/N/O system, some of which was not readily available from experiment. The most important class of combustion reactions from the standpoint of the NASP project are radical recombinaton reactions, since these reactions result in most of the heat release in the combustion process. Theoretical characterizations of the potential energy surfaces for these reactions are presented and discussed.
Zhao, Juan; Luo, Yi
2012-03-15
The quantum scattering dynamics and quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations have been carried out for the title reaction on an accurate potential energy surface (PES) computed using the full configuration interaction (FCI). On the basis of the PES, the integral cross-sections of He + H₂⁺ (v = 0-3, j = 1) → HeH⁺ + H reaction have been calculated, and the results are generally agreed with the experimental cross-sections obtained by Tang et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 2005, 122, 164301] after taking into account the experimental uncertainties, which proves the reliability of implementing dynamics calculations on the FCI PES. The reaction probability of He + D₂⁺ (v = 0-2, j = 0) → HeD⁺ + D reactions for total angular momentum J = 0 and the integral cross-section (ICS) have been calculated. The significant quantum effect has been explored by the comparison between the QCT reaction probabilities (or ICS) and the quantum mechanical (QM) reaction probabilities (or ICS), which may be attributed to the deep well in the PES of this light atoms system. Furthermore, the role of Coriolis coupling (CC) effects has also been found not important by the comparison between the CC calculation and the centrifugal sudden (CS) approximation calculation, except that the CC total cross-sections for the v = 1 and 2 states show the collision energy-dependent behaviors in the low-energy area, which are different from those based on the CS calculation.
Taylor, Mark P; Ye, Yuting; Adhikari, Shishir R
2015-11-28
The conformation of a polymer chain in solution is coupled to the local structure of the surrounding solvent and can undergo large changes in response to variations in solvent density and temperature. The many-body effects of solvent on the structure of an n-mer polymer chain can be formally mapped to an exact n-body solvation potential. Here, we use a pair decomposition of this n-body potential to construct a set of two-body potentials for a Lennard-Jones (LJ) polymer chain in explicit LJ solvent. The solvation potentials are built from numerically exact results for 5-mer chains in solvent combined with an approximate asymptotic expression for the solvation potential between sites that are distant along the chain backbone. These potentials map the many-body chain-in-solvent problem to a few-body single-chain problem and can be used to study a chain of arbitrary length, thereby dramatically reducing the computational complexity of the polymer chain-in-solvent problem. We have constructed solvation potentials at a large number of state points across the LJ solvent phase diagram including the vapor, liquid, and super-critical regions. We use these solvation potentials in single-chain Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with n ≤ 800 to determine the size, intramolecular structure, and scaling behavior of chains in solvent. To assess our results, we have carried out full chain-in-solvent MC simulations (with n ≤ 100) and find that our solvation potential approach is quantitatively accurate for a wide range of solvent conditions for these chain lengths. PMID:26627969
Accurate potential drop sheet resistance measurements of laser-doped areas in semiconductors
Heinrich, Martin; Kluska, Sven; Binder, Sebastian; Hameiri, Ziv; Hoex, Bram; Aberle, Armin G.
2014-10-07
It is investigated how potential drop sheet resistance measurements of areas formed by laser-assisted doping in crystalline Si wafers are affected by typically occurring experimental factors like sample size, inhomogeneities, surface roughness, or coatings. Measurements are obtained with a collinear four point probe setup and a modified transfer length measurement setup to measure sheet resistances of laser-doped lines. Inhomogeneities in doping depth are observed from scanning electron microscope images and electron beam induced current measurements. It is observed that influences from sample size, inhomogeneities, surface roughness, and coatings can be neglected if certain preconditions are met. Guidelines are given on how to obtain accurate potential drop sheet resistance measurements on laser-doped regions.
Intermolecular potentials and the accurate prediction of the thermodynamic properties of water
Shvab, I.; Sadus, Richard J.
2013-11-21
The ability of intermolecular potentials to correctly predict the thermodynamic properties of liquid water at a density of 0.998 g/cm{sup 3} for a wide range of temperatures (298–650 K) and pressures (0.1–700 MPa) is investigated. Molecular dynamics simulations are reported for the pressure, thermal pressure coefficient, thermal expansion coefficient, isothermal and adiabatic compressibilities, isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, and Joule-Thomson coefficient of liquid water using the non-polarizable SPC/E and TIP4P/2005 potentials. The results are compared with both experiment data and results obtained from the ab initio-based Matsuoka-Clementi-Yoshimine non-additive (MCYna) [J. Li, Z. Zhou, and R. J. Sadus, J. Chem. Phys. 127, 154509 (2007)] potential, which includes polarization contributions. The data clearly indicate that both the SPC/E and TIP4P/2005 potentials are only in qualitative agreement with experiment, whereas the polarizable MCYna potential predicts some properties within experimental uncertainty. This highlights the importance of polarizability for the accurate prediction of the thermodynamic properties of water, particularly at temperatures beyond 298 K.
Haley, William E; Ibrahim, El-Sayed H; Qu, Mingliang; Cernigliaro, Joseph G; Goldfarb, David S; McCollough, Cynthia H
2015-01-01
Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has recently been suggested as the imaging modality of choice for kidney stones due to its ability to provide information on stone composition. Standard postprocessing of the dual-energy images accurately identifies uric acid stones, but not other types. Cystine stones can be identified from DECT images when analyzed with advanced postprocessing. This case report describes clinical implications of accurate diagnosis of cystine stones using DECT.
Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces.
Harding, L. B.
2006-01-01
The goal of this program is to calculate accurate potential energy surfaces for both reactive and nonreactive systems. To do this the electronic Schroedinger equation must be solved. Our approach starts with multiconfiguration self-consistent field (MCSCF) reference wave functions. These reference wavefunctions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to accurately describe changes in electronic structure over a broad range of geometries. Dynamical electron correlation effects are included via multireference, singles and doubles configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations. With this approach, we are able to provide chemically useful predictions of the energetics for many systems. A second aspect of this program is the development of techniques to fit multi-dimensional potential surfaces to convenient, global, analytic functions that can then be used in dynamics calculations.
LHC Physics Potential versus Energy
Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab
2009-08-01
Parton luminosities are convenient for estimating how the physics potential of Large Hadron Collider experiments depends on the energy of the proton beams. I present parton luminosities, ratios of parton luminosities, and contours of fixed parton luminosity for gg, u{bar d}, and qq interactions over the energy range relevant to the Large Hadron Collider, along with example analyses for specific processes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, R.; Flynn, C.; Candlish, G. N.; Fellhauer, M.; Gibson, B. K.
2015-04-01
We present accurate models of the gravitational potential produced by a radially exponential disc mass distribution. The models are produced by combining three separate Miyamoto-Nagai discs. Such models have been used previously to model the disc of the Milky Way, but here we extend this framework to allow its application to discs of any mass, scalelength, and a wide range of thickness from infinitely thin to near spherical (ellipticities from 0 to 0.9). The models have the advantage of simplicity of implementation, and we expect faster run speeds over a double exponential disc treatment. The potentials are fully analytical, and differentiable at all points. The mass distribution of our models deviates from the radial mass distribution of a pure exponential disc by <0.4 per cent out to 4 disc scalelengths, and <1.9 per cent out to 10 disc scalelengths. We tabulate fitting parameters which facilitate construction of exponential discs for any scalelength, and a wide range of disc thickness (a user-friendly, web-based interface is also available). Our recipe is well suited for numerical modelling of the tidal effects of a giant disc galaxy on star clusters or dwarf galaxies. We consider three worked examples; the Milky Way thin and thick disc, and a discy dwarf galaxy.
Holton, James M; Classen, Scott; Frankel, Kenneth A; Tainer, John A
2014-01-01
In macromolecular crystallography, the agreement between observed and predicted structure factors (Rcryst and Rfree) is seldom better than 20%. This is much larger than the estimate of experimental error (Rmerge). The difference between Rcryst and Rmerge is the R-factor gap. There is no such gap in small-molecule crystallography, for which calculated structure factors are generally considered more accurate than the experimental measurements. Perhaps the true noise level of macromolecular data is higher than expected? Or is the gap caused by inaccurate phases that trap refined models in local minima? By generating simulated diffraction patterns using the program MLFSOM, and including every conceivable source of experimental error, we show that neither is the case. Processing our simulated data yielded values that were indistinguishable from those of real data for all crystallographic statistics except the final Rcryst and Rfree. These values decreased to 3.8% and 5.5% for simulated data, suggesting that the reason for high R-factors in macromolecular crystallography is neither experimental error nor phase bias, but rather an underlying inadequacy in the models used to explain our observations. The present inability to accurately represent the entire macromolecule with both its flexibility and its protein-solvent interface may be improved by synergies between small-angle X-ray scattering, computational chemistry and crystallography. The exciting implication of our finding is that macromolecular data contain substantial hidden and untapped potential to resolve ambiguities in the true nature of the nanoscale, a task that the second century of crystallography promises to fulfill. Database Coordinates and structure factors for the real data have been submitted to the Protein Data Bank under accession 4tws. PMID:25040949
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trautt, Zachary T.; Tavazza, Francesca; Becker, Chandler A.
2015-10-01
The Materials Genome Initiative seeks to significantly decrease the cost and time of development and integration of new materials. Within the domain of atomistic simulations, several roadblocks stand in the way of reaching this goal. While the NIST Interatomic Potentials Repository hosts numerous interatomic potentials (force fields), researchers cannot immediately determine the best choice(s) for their use case. Researchers developing new potentials, specifically those in restricted environments, lack a comprehensive portfolio of efficient tools capable of calculating and archiving the properties of their potentials. This paper elucidates one solution to these problems, which uses Python-based scripts that are suitable for rapid property evaluation and human knowledge transfer. Calculation results are visible on the repository website, which reduces the time required to select an interatomic potential for a specific use case. Furthermore, property evaluation scripts are being integrated with modern platforms to improve discoverability and access of materials property data. To demonstrate these scripts and features, we will discuss the automation of stacking fault energy calculations and their application to additional elements. While the calculation methodology was developed previously, we are using it here as a case study in simulation automation and property calculations. We demonstrate how the use of Python scripts allows for rapid calculation in a more easily managed way where the calculations can be modified, and the results presented in user-friendly and concise ways. Additionally, the methods can be incorporated into other efforts, such as openKIM.
Relativity, potential energy, and mass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hecht, Eugene
2016-11-01
This paper is an exploration of the concept of energy, illuminated by the transformative insights of the special theory of relativity. Focusing on potential energy (PE), it will be shown that PE as presently defined is in conflict with the tenets of special relativity. Even though PE remains an indispensable theoretical device its actual physicality is questionable. Moreover its ontological status is quite different from that of both kinetic energy and mass, a significant point that is not widely appreciated. We will establish that PE is a theoretical concept as opposed to an empirical one; it is a descriptor of mass-energy without a detectable physical presence of its own. PE is a measure of energy stored, it is not the energy stored.
Renewable energy potential in Colombia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Correa Guzman, Jose Luis
2008-12-01
Renewable energy flows are very large in comparison with humankind's use of energy. In principle, all our energy needs, both now and into the future, can be met by energy from renewable sources. After many years trying to develop the alternative energy potential of Colombia, a major effort is principally being made since 2000 to explore and assess the renewable resources of the entire country. Until 2000, the availability of conventional energy sources in Colombia prevented renewable energy exploration from reaching a higher level. However, the extreme energy crisis of 1992 - 1993 alerted the authorities and the community to the necessity for exploring alternative energy sources. This energy study is a general approach to the current and future renewable energy scenario of Colombia. It was prepared in response to the increased interest around the world and in particular in Colombia to develop its non-fossil energy prospective. It, therefore, represents a working document giving an initial impression of the possible scale of the main renewables sources as a response to the concern about energy security and fossil fuel dependence problems. The assumptions made and calculations reported may therefore be subject to revision as more information becomes available. The aim of this dissertation is not only to improve the public understanding and discussion of renewable energy matters in Colombia but also to stimulate the development and application of renewable energy, wherever they have prospects of economic viability and environmental acceptability. To achieve such goal this paper reviews several renewable technologies, their availability, contribution and feasibility in Colombia.
Sun, Y. Y.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, K.; Zhang, S. B.
2008-01-01
Density functional theory (DFT) in the commonly used local density or generalized gradient approximation fails to describe van der Waals (vdW) interactions that are vital to organic, biological, and other molecular systems. Here, we propose a simple, efficient, yet accurate local atomic potential (LAP) approach, named DFT+LAP, for including vdW interactions in the framework of DFT. The LAPs for H, C, N, and O are generated by fitting the DFT+LAP potential energy curves of small molecule dimers to those obtained from coupled cluster calculations with single, double, and perturbatively treated triple excitations, CCSD(T). Excellent transferability of the LAPs is demonstrated by remarkable agreement with the JSCH-2005 benchmark database [P. Jurecka et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 1985 (2006)], which provides the interaction energies of CCSD(T) quality for 165 vdW and hydrogen-bonded complexes. For over 100 vdW dominant complexes in this database, our DFT+LAP calculations give a mean absolute deviation from the benchmark results less than 0.5 kcal/mol. The DFT+LAP approach involves no extra computational cost other than standard DFT calculations and no modification of existing DFT codes, which enables straightforward quantum simulations, such as ab initio molecular dynamics, on biomolecular systems, as well as on other organic systems.
The potential of renewable energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
1990-03-01
On June 27 and 28, 1989, the U.S. DOE national labs were convened to discuss plans for the development of a National Energy Strategy (NES) and, in particular, the analytic needs in support of NES that could be addressed by the labs. As a result of that meeting, interlabor teams were formed to produce analytic white papers on key topics, and a lead lab was designated for each core lab team. The broad-ranging renewables assignment is summarized by the following issue statement from the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis: to what extent can renewable energy technologies contribute to diversifying sources of energy supply; What are the major barriers to greater renewable energy use and what is the potential timing of widespread commercialization for various categories of applications. The results are presented of the intensive activity initiated by the June 1989 meeting to produce a white paper on renewable energy.
Energies of Screened Coulomb Potentials.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lai, C. S.
1979-01-01
This article shows that, by applying the Hellman-Feynman theorem alone to screened Coulomb potentials, the first four coefficients in the energy series in powers of the perturbation parameter can be obtained from the unperturbed Coulomb system. (Author/HM)
An accurate dynamical electron diffraction algorithm for reflection high-energy electron diffraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, J.; Cai, C. Y.; Lv, C. L.; Zhou, G. W.; Wang, Y. G.
2015-12-01
The conventional multislice method (CMS) method, one of the most popular dynamical electron diffraction calculation procedures in transmission electron microscopy, was introduced to calculate reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) as it is well adapted to deal with the deviations from the periodicity in the direction parallel to the surface. However, in the present work, we show that the CMS method is no longer sufficiently accurate for simulating RHEED with the accelerating voltage 3-100 kV because of the high-energy approximation. An accurate multislice (AMS) method can be an alternative for more accurate RHEED calculations with reasonable computing time. A detailed comparison of the numerical calculation of the AMS method and the CMS method is carried out with respect to different accelerating voltages, surface structure models, Debye-Waller factors and glancing angles.
California Industrial Energy Efficiency Potential
Coito, Fred; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Masanet, Eric; RafaelFriedmann; Rufo, Mike
2005-06-01
This paper presents an overview of the modeling approach andhighlights key findings of a California industrial energy efficiencypotential study. In addition to providing estimates of technical andeconomic potential, the study examines achievable program potential undervarious program-funding scenarios. The focus is on electricity andnatural gas savings for manufacturing in the service territories ofCalifornia's investor-owned utilities (IOUs). The assessment is conductedby industry type and by end use. Both crosscutting technologies andindustry-specific process measures are examined. Measure penetration intothe marketplace is modeled as a function of customer awareness, measurecost effectiveness, and perceived market barriers. Data for the studycomes from a variety of sources, including: utility billing records, theEnergy Information Association (EIA) Manufacturing Energy ConsumptionSurvey (MECS), state-sponsored avoided cost studies, energy efficiencyprogram filings, and technology savings and cost data developed throughLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The study identifies 1,706GWh and 47 Mth (million therms) per year of achievable potential over thenext twelve years under recent levels of program expenditures, accountingfor 5.2 percent of industrial electricity consumption and 1.3 percent ofindustrial natural gas consumption. These estimates grow to 2,748 GWh and192 Mth per year if all cost-effective and achievable opportunities arepursued. Key industrial electricity end uses, in terms of energy savingspotential, include compressed air and pumping systems that combine toaccount for about half of the total achievable potential estimates. Fornatural gas, savings are concentrated in the boiler and process heatingend uses, accounting for over 99 percent to total achievablepotential.
The potential of renewable energy
Not Available
1990-03-01
On June 27 and 28, 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories were convened to discuss plans for the development of a National Energy Strategy (NES) and, in particular, the analytic needs in support of NES that could be addressed by the laboratories. As a result of that meeting, interlaboratory teams were formed to produce analytic white papers on key topics, and a lead laboratory was designated for each core laboratory team. The broad-ranging renewables assignment is summarized by the following issue statement from the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis: to what extent can renewable energy technologies contribute to diversifying sources of energy supply What are the major barriers to greater renewable energy use and what is the potential timing of widespread commercialization for various categories of applications This report presents the results of the intensive activity initiated by the June 1989 meeting to produce a white paper on renewable energy. Scores of scientists, analysts, and engineers in the five core laboratories gave generously of their time over the past eight months to produce this document. Their generous, constructive efforts are hereby gratefully acknowledged. 126 refs., 44 figs., 32 tabs.
Kearns, F L; Hudson, P S; Boresch, S; Woodcock, H L
2016-01-01
Enzyme activity is inherently linked to free energies of transition states, ligand binding, protonation/deprotonation, etc.; these free energies, and thus enzyme function, can be affected by residue mutations, allosterically induced conformational changes, and much more. Therefore, being able to predict free energies associated with enzymatic processes is critical to understanding and predicting their function. Free energy simulation (FES) has historically been a computational challenge as it requires both the accurate description of inter- and intramolecular interactions and adequate sampling of all relevant conformational degrees of freedom. The hybrid quantum mechanical molecular mechanical (QM/MM) framework is the current tool of choice when accurate computations of macromolecular systems are essential. Unfortunately, robust and efficient approaches that employ the high levels of computational theory needed to accurately describe many reactive processes (ie, ab initio, DFT), while also including explicit solvation effects and accounting for extensive conformational sampling are essentially nonexistent. In this chapter, we will give a brief overview of two recently developed methods that mitigate several major challenges associated with QM/MM FES: the QM non-Boltzmann Bennett's acceptance ratio method and the QM nonequilibrium work method. We will also describe usage of these methods to calculate free energies associated with (1) relative properties and (2) along reaction paths, using simple test cases with relevance to enzymes examples.
Kearns, F L; Hudson, P S; Boresch, S; Woodcock, H L
2016-01-01
Enzyme activity is inherently linked to free energies of transition states, ligand binding, protonation/deprotonation, etc.; these free energies, and thus enzyme function, can be affected by residue mutations, allosterically induced conformational changes, and much more. Therefore, being able to predict free energies associated with enzymatic processes is critical to understanding and predicting their function. Free energy simulation (FES) has historically been a computational challenge as it requires both the accurate description of inter- and intramolecular interactions and adequate sampling of all relevant conformational degrees of freedom. The hybrid quantum mechanical molecular mechanical (QM/MM) framework is the current tool of choice when accurate computations of macromolecular systems are essential. Unfortunately, robust and efficient approaches that employ the high levels of computational theory needed to accurately describe many reactive processes (ie, ab initio, DFT), while also including explicit solvation effects and accounting for extensive conformational sampling are essentially nonexistent. In this chapter, we will give a brief overview of two recently developed methods that mitigate several major challenges associated with QM/MM FES: the QM non-Boltzmann Bennett's acceptance ratio method and the QM nonequilibrium work method. We will also describe usage of these methods to calculate free energies associated with (1) relative properties and (2) along reaction paths, using simple test cases with relevance to enzymes examples. PMID:27498635
Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walch, Stephen P.; Levin, Eugene
1993-01-01
A new global potential energy surface (PES) is being generated for O(P-3) + H2 yields OH + H. This surface is being fit using the rotated Morse oscillator method, which was used to fit the previous POL-CI surface. The new surface is expected to be more accurate and also includes a much more complete sampling of bent geometries. A new study has been undertaken of the reaction N + O2 yields NO + O. The new studies have focused on the region of the surface near a possible minimum corresponding to the peroxy form of NOO. A large portion of the PES for this second reaction has been mapped out. Since state to state cross sections for the reaction are important in the chemistry of high temperature air, these studies will probably be extended to permit generation of a new global potential for reaction.
An accurate nucleon-nucleon potential with charge-independence breaking
Wiringa, R.B.; Stoks, V.G.J.; Schiavilla, R.
1995-08-01
We constructed a new NN potential, designated Argonne v{sub 18}, with explicit charge-independence breaking. It supersedes our older v{sub 14} model, which was our standard nonrelativistic NN potential for most of the last decade. The main part of the new potential is charge-independent, like the old v{sub 14} model, with 14 components, each consisting of a radial function v{sub p}(r{sub 12}) multiplied by an operator: 1, {sigma}{sub 1}{center_dot}{sigma}{sub 2}, S{sub 12}, L{center_dot}S, L{sup 2}, L{sup 2}{sigma}{sub 1}{center_dot}{sigma}{sub 2}, and (L{center_dot}S){sup 2}, and each of these times {tau}{sub l}{center_dot}{tau}{sub 2}. Three charge-dependent and one charge-asymmetric operators are added along with a complete electromagnetic interaction, resulting in a model that fits pp, np, and nn data simultaneously. The charge-dependent operators are obtained by multiplying the spin operators 1, {sigma}{sub 1}{center_dot}{sigma}{sub 2}, and S{sub 12} by the isotensor T{sub 12} = 3{tau}{sub 1z}{tau}{sub 2z} - {tau}{sub 1}{center_dot}{tau}{sub 2}, which differentiates between np and pp or nn T = 1 states. A major source of charge dependence in NN interactions is the mass difference of the charged and neutral pions, which is carefully treated in the new model. The charge-asymmetric operator is {tau}{sub 1z}+{tau}{sub 2z} which splits pp and nn states; it is constrained by the difference between nn and pp scattering lengths. The electromagnetic interaction includes Coulomb, Darwin-Foldy, vacuum polarization, and magnetic moment terms. The potential was fit directly to the Nijmegen pp and np scattering database as well as the nn scattering length and deuteron binding energy. With {approximately}40 adjustable parameters it gives an excellent {chi}{sup 2}/degree of freedom of 1.09 for 4301 pp and np data in the range 0-350 MeV. A consistent set of two-body charge and current operators has also been derived to evaluate the deuteron electromagnetic form factors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lao, Ka Un; Herbert, John M.
2013-06-01
An efficient, monomer-based electronic structure method is introduced for computing non-covalent interactions in molecular and ionic clusters. It builds upon our ``explicit polarization" (XPol) with pairwise-additive symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) using the Kohn-Sham (KS) version of SAPT, but replaces the problematic and expensive sum-over-states dispersion terms with empirical potentials. This modification reduces the scaling from {O}(N^5) to {O}(N^3) and also facilitates the use of Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT) as a low-cost means to capture intramolecular electron correlation. Accurate binding energies are obtained for benchmark databases of dimer binding energies, and potential energy curves are also captured accurately, for a variety of challenging systems. As compared to traditional DFT-SAPT or SAPT(DFT) methods, it removes the limitation to dimers and extends SAPT-based methodology to many-body systems. For many-body systems such as water clusters and halide-water cluster anions, the new method is superior to established density-functional methods for non-covalent interactions. We suggest that using different asymptotic corrections for different monomers is necessary to get good binding energies in general, as DFT-SAPT or SAPT(DFT), especially for hydrogen-bonded complexes. We also introduce a decomposition scheme for the interaction energy that extends traditional SAPT energy decomposition analysis to systems containing more than two monomers, and we find that the various energy components (electrostatic, exchange, induction, and dispersion) are in very good agreement with high-level SAPT benchmarks for dimers. For (H_2O)_6, the many-body contribution to the interaction energy agrees well with that obtained from traditional Kitaura-Morokuma energy decomposition analysis.
White, J A; Dutton, A W; Schmidt, J A; Roemer, R B
2000-01-01
An automated three-element meshing method for generating finite element based models for the accurate thermal analysis of blood vessels imbedded in tissue has been developed and evaluated. The meshing method places eight noded hexahedral elements inside the vessels where advective flows exist, and four noded tetrahedral elements in the surrounding tissue. The higher order hexahedrals are used where advective flow fields occur, since high accuracy is required and effective upwinding algorithms exist. Tetrahedral elements are placed in the remaining tissue region, since they are computationally more efficient and existing automatic tetrahedral mesh generators can be used. Five noded pyramid elements connect the hexahedrals and tetrahedrals. A convective energy equation (CEE) based finite element algorithm solves for the temperature distributions in the flowing blood, while a finite element formulation of a generalized conduction equation is used in the surrounding tissue. Use of the CEE allows accurate solutions to be obtained without the necessity of assuming ad hoc values for heat transfer coefficients. Comparisons of the predictions of the three-element model to analytical solutions show that the three-element model accurately simulates temperature fields. Energy balance checks show that the three-element model has small, acceptable errors. In summary, this method provides an accurate, automatic finite element gridding procedure for thermal analysis of irregularly shaped tissue regions that contain important blood vessels. At present, the models so generated are relatively large (in order to obtain accurate results) and are, thus, best used for providing accurate reference values for checking other approximate formulations to complicated, conjugated blood heat transfer problems.
Oyeyemi, Victor B.; Krisiloff, David B.; Keith, John A.; Libisch, Florian; Pavone, Michele; Carter, Emily A.
2014-01-28
Oxygenated hydrocarbons play important roles in combustion science as renewable fuels and additives, but many details about their combustion chemistry remain poorly understood. Although many methods exist for computing accurate electronic energies of molecules at equilibrium geometries, a consistent description of entire combustion reaction potential energy surfaces (PESs) requires multireference correlated wavefunction theories. Here we use bond dissociation energies (BDEs) as a foundational metric to benchmark methods based on multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) for several classes of oxygenated compounds (alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, and methyl esters). We compare results from multireference singles and doubles configuration interaction to those utilizing a posteriori and a priori size-extensivity corrections, benchmarked against experiment and coupled cluster theory. We demonstrate that size-extensivity corrections are necessary for chemically accurate BDE predictions even in relatively small molecules and furnish examples of unphysical BDE predictions resulting from using too-small orbital active spaces. We also outline the specific challenges in using MRCI methods for carbonyl-containing compounds. The resulting complete basis set extrapolated, size-extensivity-corrected MRCI scheme produces BDEs generally accurate to within 1 kcal/mol, laying the foundation for this scheme's use on larger molecules and for more complex regions of combustion PESs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oyeyemi, Victor B.; Krisiloff, David B.; Keith, John A.; Libisch, Florian; Pavone, Michele; Carter, Emily A.
2014-01-01
Oxygenated hydrocarbons play important roles in combustion science as renewable fuels and additives, but many details about their combustion chemistry remain poorly understood. Although many methods exist for computing accurate electronic energies of molecules at equilibrium geometries, a consistent description of entire combustion reaction potential energy surfaces (PESs) requires multireference correlated wavefunction theories. Here we use bond dissociation energies (BDEs) as a foundational metric to benchmark methods based on multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) for several classes of oxygenated compounds (alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, and methyl esters). We compare results from multireference singles and doubles configuration interaction to those utilizing a posteriori and a priori size-extensivity corrections, benchmarked against experiment and coupled cluster theory. We demonstrate that size-extensivity corrections are necessary for chemically accurate BDE predictions even in relatively small molecules and furnish examples of unphysical BDE predictions resulting from using too-small orbital active spaces. We also outline the specific challenges in using MRCI methods for carbonyl-containing compounds. The resulting complete basis set extrapolated, size-extensivity-corrected MRCI scheme produces BDEs generally accurate to within 1 kcal/mol, laying the foundation for this scheme's use on larger molecules and for more complex regions of combustion PESs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, Keith; McLaughlin, Brendan M.; Lane, Ian C.
2016-04-01
BaH (and its isotopomers) is an attractive molecular candidate for laser cooling to ultracold temperatures and a potential precursor for the production of ultracold gases of hydrogen and deuterium. The theoretical challenge is to simulate the laser cooling cycle as reliably as possible and this paper addresses the generation of a highly accurate ab initio 2Σ+ potential for such studies. The performance of various basis sets within the multi-reference configuration-interaction (MRCI) approximation with the Davidson correction is tested and taken to the Complete Basis Set (CBS) limit. It is shown that the calculated molecular constants using a 46 electron effective core-potential and even-tempered augmented polarized core-valence basis sets (aug-pCVnZ-PP, n = 4 and 5) but only including three active electrons in the MRCI calculation are in excellent agreement with the available experimental values. The predicted dissociation energy De for the X2Σ+ state (extrapolated to the CBS limit) is 16 895.12 cm-1 (2.094 eV), which agrees within 0.1% of a revised experimental value of <16 910.6 cm-1, while the calculated re is within 0.03 pm of the experimental result.
Potential Energy Curves for CO
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tobias, Irwin; Fallon, Robert J.; Vanderslice, Joseph T.
1960-01-01
Potential energy curves for the Chi (sup 1) Epsilon (sup plus), alpha (sup 3) II (sub r), alpha prime (sup 3) epsilon (sup plus), d (sup 3) delta, e (sup 3) Epsilon (sup minus), Alpha (sup 1) II, and Beta (sup 1) Epsilon (sup plus), electronic states of the CO molecule have been calculated by the Rydberg-Klein-Rees method. The curve for the A III state will have to bend sharply in the range between 1.9 and 2.1 angstroms or it will have to pass through a maximum to reach the proper dissociation limit.
Search for dark energy potentials in quintessence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muromachi, Yusuke; Okabayashi, Akira; Okada, Daiki; Hara, Tetsuya; Itoh, Yutaka
2015-09-01
The time evolution of the equation of state w for quintessence models with a scalar field as dark energy is studied up to the third derivative big (d^3w/da^3big ) with respect to the scale factor a, in order to predict future observations and specify the scalar potential parameters with the observables. The third derivative of w for general potential V is derived and applied to several types of potentials. They are the inverse power law big (V=M^{4+α }/Q^{α }big ), the exponential big (V=M^4exp {β M/Q}big ), the mixed big (V=M^{4+γ }exp {β M/Q}/Q^{γ }big ), the cosine big (V=M^4[cos (Q/f)+1]big ), and the Gaussian types big (V=M^4exp big {-Q^2/σ ^2big }big ), which are prototypical potentials for the freezing and thawing models. If the parameter number for a potential form is n, it is necessary to find at least n+2 independent observations to identify the potential form and the evolution of the scalar field (Q and dot {Q}). Such observations would be the values of Ω _Q, w, dw/da,ldots , dw^n/da^n. From these specific potentials, we can predict the n+1 and higher derivatives of w: dw^{n+1}/da^{n+1},ldots . Since four of the abovementioned potentials have two parameters, it is necessary to calculate the third derivative of w for them to estimate the predicted values. If they are tested observationally, it will be understood whether the dark energy can be described by a scalar field with this potential. At least it will satisfy the necessary conditions. Numerical analysis for d^3w/da^3 is performed with some specified parameters in the investigated potentials, except for the mixed one. It becomes possible to distinguish the potentials by accurately observing dw/da and d^2w/da^2 for some parameters.
Convective Available Potential Energy of World Ocean
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Z.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Thompson, A. F.
2012-12-01
Here, for the first time, we propose the concept of Ocean Convective Available Potential Energy (OCAPE), which is the maximum kinetic energy (KE) per unit seawater mass achievable by ocean convection. OCAPE occurs through a different mechanism from atmospheric CAPE, and involves the interplay of temperature and salinity on the equation of state of seawater. The thermobaric effect, which arises because the thermal coefficient of expansion increases with depth, is an important ingredient of OCAPE. We develop an accurate algorithm to calculate the OCAPE for a given temperature and salinity profile. We then validate our calculation of OCAPE by comparing it with the conversion of OCAPE to KE in a 2-D numerical model. We propose that OCAPE is an important energy source of ocean deep convection and contributes to deep water formation. OCAPE, like Atmospheric CAPE, can help predict deep convection and may also provide a useful constraint for modelling deep convection in ocean GCMs. We plot the global distribution of OCAPE using data from the World Ocean Atlas 2009 (WOA09) and see many important features. These include large values of OCAPE in the Labrador, Greenland, Weddell and Mediterranean Seas, which are consistent with our present observations and understanding, but also identify some new features like the OCAPE pattern in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). We propose that the diagnosis of OCAPE can improve our understanding of global patterns of ocean convection and deep water formation as well as ocean stratification, the meridional overturning circulation and mixed layer processes. The background of this work is briefly introduced as below. Open-ocean deep convection can significantly modify water properties both at the ocean surface and throughout the water column (Gordon 1982). Open-ocean convection is also an important mechanism for Ocean Deep Water formation and the transport of heat, freshwater and nutrient (Marshall and Schott 1999). Open
Toward Accurate Modeling of the Effect of Ion-Pair Formation on Solute Redox Potential.
Qu, Xiaohui; Persson, Kristin A
2016-09-13
A scheme to model the dependence of a solute redox potential on the supporting electrolyte is proposed, and the results are compared to experimental observations and other reported theoretical models. An improved agreement with experiment is exhibited if the effect of the supporting electrolyte on the redox potential is modeled through a concentration change induced via ion pair formation with the salt, rather than by only considering the direct impact on the redox potential of the solute itself. To exemplify the approach, the scheme is applied to the concentration-dependent redox potential of select molecules proposed for nonaqueous flow batteries. However, the methodology is general and enables rational computational electrolyte design through tuning of the operating window of electrochemical systems by shifting the redox potential of its solutes; including potentially both salts as well as redox active molecules. PMID:27500744
Accurate interatomic potentials for Ni, Al and Ni/sub 3/Al
Voter, A.F.; Chen, Shao Ping
1986-01-01
To obtain meaningful results from atomistic simulations of materials, the interatomic potentials must be capable of reproducing the thermodynamic properties of the system of interest. Pairwise potentials have known deficiencies that make them unsuitable for quantitative investigations of defective regions such as crack tips and free surfaces. Daw and Baskes (Phys. Rev. B 29, 6443 (1984)) have shown that including a local ''volume'' term for each atom gives the necessary many-body character without the severe computational dependence of explicit n-body potential terms. Using a similar approach, we have fit an interatomic potential to the Ni/sub 3/Al alloy system. This potential can treat diatomic Ni/sub 2/, diatomic Al/sub 2/, fcc Ni, fcc Al and L1/sub 2/ Ni/sub 3/Al on an equal footing. Details of the fitting procedure are presented, along with the calculation of some properties not included in the fit.
Puzzarini, Cristina; Ali, Ashraf; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Barone, Vincenzo
2015-01-01
An accurate spectroscopic characterization of protonated oxirane has been carried out by means of state-of-the-art computational methods and approaches. The calculated spectroscopic parameters from our recent computational investigation of oxirane together with the corresponding experimental data available were used to assess the accuracy of our predicted rotational and IR spectra of protonated oxirane. We found an accuracy of about 10 cm−1 for vibrational transitions (fundamentals as well as overtones and combination bands) and, in relative terms, of 0.1% for rotational transitions. We are therefore confident that the spectroscopic data provided herein are a valuable support for the detection of protonated oxirane not only in Titan’s atmosphere but also in the interstellar medium. PMID:26543241
Puzzarini, Cristina; Ali, Ashraf; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Barone, Vincenzo
2014-09-10
An accurate spectroscopic characterization of protonated oxirane has been carried out by means of state-of-the-art computational methods and approaches. The calculated spectroscopic parameters from our recent computational investigation of oxirane together with the corresponding experimental data available were used to assess the accuracy of our predicted rotational and IR spectra of protonated oxirane. We found an accuracy of about 10 cm{sup –1} for vibrational transitions (fundamentals as well as overtones and combination bands) and, in relative terms, of 0.1% for rotational transitions. We are therefore confident that the spectroscopic data provided herein are a valuable support for the detection of protonated oxirane not only in Titan's atmosphere but also in the interstellar medium.
Sansone, Giuseppe; Maschio, Lorenzo; Usvyat, Denis; Schütz, Martin; Karttunen, Antti
2016-01-01
The black phosphorus (black-P) crystal is formed of covalently bound layers of phosphorene stacked together by weak van der Waals interactions. An experimental measurement of the exfoliation energy of black-P is not available presently, making theoretical studies the most important source of information for the optimization of phosphorene production. Here, we provide an accurate estimate of the exfoliation energy of black-P on the basis of multilevel quantum chemical calculations, which include the periodic local Møller-Plesset perturbation theory of second order, augmented by higher-order corrections, which are evaluated with finite clusters mimicking the crystal. Very similar results are also obtained by density functional theory with the D3-version of Grimme's empirical dispersion correction. Our estimate of the exfoliation energy for black-P of -151 meV/atom is substantially larger than that of graphite, suggesting the need for different strategies to generate isolated layers for these two systems. PMID:26651397
Sansone, Giuseppe; Maschio, Lorenzo; Usvyat, Denis; Schütz, Martin; Karttunen, Antti
2016-01-01
The black phosphorus (black-P) crystal is formed of covalently bound layers of phosphorene stacked together by weak van der Waals interactions. An experimental measurement of the exfoliation energy of black-P is not available presently, making theoretical studies the most important source of information for the optimization of phosphorene production. Here, we provide an accurate estimate of the exfoliation energy of black-P on the basis of multilevel quantum chemical calculations, which include the periodic local Møller-Plesset perturbation theory of second order, augmented by higher-order corrections, which are evaluated with finite clusters mimicking the crystal. Very similar results are also obtained by density functional theory with the D3-version of Grimme's empirical dispersion correction. Our estimate of the exfoliation energy for black-P of -151 meV/atom is substantially larger than that of graphite, suggesting the need for different strategies to generate isolated layers for these two systems.
Kalescky, Robert; Kraka, Elfi; Cremer, Dieter
2014-02-28
The formic acid dimer in its C2h-symmetrical cyclic form is stabilized by two equivalent H-bonds. The currently accepted interaction energy is 18.75 kcal/mol whereas the experimental binding energy D0 value is only 14.22 ±0.12 kcal/mol [F. Kollipost, R. W. Larsen, A. V. Domanskaya, M. Nörenberg, and M. A. Suhm, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 151101 (2012)]. Calculation of the binding energies De and D0 at the CCSD(T) (Coupled Cluster with Single and Double excitations and perturbative Triple excitations)/CBS (Complete Basis Set) level of theory, utilizing CCSD(T)/CBS geometries and the frequencies of the dimer and monomer, reveals that there is a 3.2 kcal/mol difference between interaction energy and binding energy De, which results from (i) not relaxing the geometry of the monomers upon dissociation of the dimer and (ii) approximating CCSD(T) correlation effects with MP2. The most accurate CCSD(T)/CBS values obtained in this work are De = 15.55 and D0 = 14.32 kcal/mol where the latter binding energy differs from the experimental value by 0.1 kcal/mol. The necessity of employing augmented VQZ and VPZ calculations and relaxing monomer geometries of H-bonded complexes upon dissociation to obtain reliable binding energies is emphasized.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalescky, Robert; Kraka, Elfi; Cremer, Dieter
2014-02-01
The formic acid dimer in its C2h-symmetrical cyclic form is stabilized by two equivalent H-bonds. The currently accepted interaction energy is 18.75 kcal/mol whereas the experimental binding energy D0 value is only 14.22 ±0.12 kcal/mol [F. Kollipost, R. W. Larsen, A. V. Domanskaya, M. Nörenberg, and M. A. Suhm, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 151101 (2012)]. Calculation of the binding energies De and D0 at the CCSD(T) (Coupled Cluster with Single and Double excitations and perturbative Triple excitations)/CBS (Complete Basis Set) level of theory, utilizing CCSD(T)/CBS geometries and the frequencies of the dimer and monomer, reveals that there is a 3.2 kcal/mol difference between interaction energy and binding energy De, which results from (i) not relaxing the geometry of the monomers upon dissociation of the dimer and (ii) approximating CCSD(T) correlation effects with MP2. The most accurate CCSD(T)/CBS values obtained in this work are De = 15.55 and D0 = 14.32 kcal/mol where the latter binding energy differs from the experimental value by 0.1 kcal/mol. The necessity of employing augmented VQZ and VPZ calculations and relaxing monomer geometries of H-bonded complexes upon dissociation to obtain reliable binding energies is emphasized.
Accurate nonrelativistic ground-state energies of 3d transition metal atoms
Scemama, A.; Applencourt, T.; Giner, E.; Caffarel, M.
2014-12-28
We present accurate nonrelativistic ground-state energies of the transition metal atoms of the 3d series calculated with Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo (FN-DMC). Selected multi-determinantal expansions obtained with the CIPSI (Configuration Interaction using a Perturbative Selection made Iteratively) method and including the most prominent determinants of the full configuration interaction expansion are used as trial wavefunctions. Using a maximum of a few tens of thousands determinants, fixed-node errors on total DMC energies are found to be greatly reduced for some atoms with respect to those obtained with Hartree-Fock nodes. To the best of our knowledge, the FN-DMC/(CIPSI nodes) ground-state energies presented here are the lowest variational total energies reported so far. They differ from the recently recommended non-variational values of McCarthy and Thakkar [J. Chem. Phys. 136, 054107 (2012)] only by a few percents of the correlation energy. Thanks to the variational property of FN-DMC total energies, our results provide exact lower bounds for the absolute value of all-electron correlation energies, |E{sub c}|.
Do Bond Functions Help for the Calculation of Accurate Bond Energies?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
The bond energies of 8 chemically bound diatomics are computed using several basis sets with and without bond functions (BF). The bond energies obtained using the aug-pVnZ+BF basis sets (with a correction for basis set superposition error, BSSE) tend to be slightly smaller that the results obtained using the aug-pV(n+I)Z basis sets, but slightly larger than the BSSE corrected aug-pV(n+I)Z results. The aug-cc-pVDZ+BF and aug-cc-pVTZ+BF basis sets yield reasonable estimates of bond energies, but, in most cases, these results cannot be considered highly accurate. Extrapolation of the results obtained with basis sets including bond functions appears to be inferior to the results obtained by extrapolation using atom-centered basis sets. Therefore bond functions do not appear to offer a path for obtaining highly accurate results for chemically bound systems at a lower computational cost than atom centered basis sets.
Highly accurate analytical energy of a two-dimensional exciton in a constant magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoang, Ngoc-Tram D.; Nguyen, Duy-Anh P.; Hoang, Van-Hung; Le, Van-Hoang
2016-08-01
Explicit expressions are given for analytically describing the dependence of the energy of a two-dimensional exciton on magnetic field intensity. These expressions are highly accurate with the precision of up to three decimal places for the whole range of the magnetic field intensity. The results are shown for the ground state and some excited states; moreover, we have all formulae to obtain similar expressions of any excited state. Analysis of numerical results shows that the precision of three decimal places is maintained for the excited states with the principal quantum number of up to n=100.
Accurate Energy Spectrum for the Quantum Yang-Mills Mechanics with Nonlinear Color Oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedram, Pouria
2015-01-01
Yang-Mills theory as the foundation for quantum chromodynamics is a non-Abelian gauge theory with self-interactions between vector particles. Here, we study the Yang-Mills Hamiltonian with nonlinear color oscillations in the absence of external sources corresponding to the group SU(2). In the quantum domain, we diagonalize the Hamiltonian using the optimized trigonometric basis expansion method and find accurate energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for one and two degrees of freedom. We also compare our results with the semiclassical solutions.
Accurate thermochemistry for larger molecules : gaussian-2 theory with bond separation energies.
Raghavachari, K.; Stefanov, B. B.; Curtiss, L. A.; Lucent Tech.
1997-04-22
Gaussian-2 (G2) theory is combined with isodesmic bond separation reaction energies to yield accurate thermochemistry for larger molecules. For a test set of 40 molecules composed of H, C, O, and N, our method yields enthalpies of formation, {Delta}H{sub f}{sup 0}(298 K), with a mean absolute deviation from experiment of only 0.5 kcal/mol. This is an improvement of a factor of three over the deviation of 1.5 kcal/mol seen in standard G2 theory.
Apparatus for use in rapid and accurate controlled-potential coulometric analysis
Frazzini, Thomas L.; Holland, Michael K.; Pietri, Charles E.; Weiss, Jon R.
1981-01-01
An apparatus for controlled-potential coulometric analysis of a solution includes a cell to contain the solution to be analyzed and a plurality of electrodes to contact the solution in the cell. Means are provided to stir the solution and to control the atmosphere above it. A potentiostat connected to the electrodes controls potential differences among the electrodes. An electronic circuit connected to the potentiostat provides analog-to-digital conversion and displays a precise count of charge transfer during a desired chemical process. This count provides a measure of the amount of an unknown substance in the solution.
Exact kinetic energy enables accurate evaluation of weak interactions by the FDE-vdW method
Sinha, Debalina; Pavanello, Michele
2015-08-28
The correlation energy of interaction is an elusive and sought-after interaction between molecular systems. By partitioning the response function of the system into subsystem contributions, the Frozen Density Embedding (FDE)-vdW method provides a computationally amenable nonlocal correlation functional based on the adiabatic connection fluctuation dissipation theorem applied to subsystem density functional theory. In reproducing potential energy surfaces of weakly interacting dimers, we show that FDE-vdW, either employing semilocal or exact nonadditive kinetic energy functionals, is in quantitative agreement with high-accuracy coupled cluster calculations (overall mean unsigned error of 0.5 kcal/mol). When employing the exact kinetic energy (which we term the Kohn-Sham (KS)-vdW method), the binding energies are generally closer to the benchmark, and the energy surfaces are also smoother.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krieger, J. B.; Chen, Jiqiang; Iafrate, G. J.; Savin, A.
1998-03-01
We have obtained an analytic approximation to E_c(r_g, ζ,G) where G is an energy gap separating the occupied and unoccupied states of a homogeneous electron gas for ζ=3D0 and ξ=3D1. When G=3D0, E_c(r_g, ζ) reduces to the usual LSD result. This functional is employed in calculating correlation energies for unpolarized atoms and ions for Z <= 18 by taking G[n]=3D1/8|nabla ln n|^2, which reduces to the ionization energy in the large r limit in an exact Kohn-Sham (KS) theory. The resulting functional is self-interaction-corrected employing a method which is invariant under a unitary transformation. We find that the application of this approach to the calculation of the Ec functional reduces the error in the LSD result by more than 95%. When the value of G is approximately corrected to include the effect of higher lying unoccupied localized states, the resulting values of Ec are within a few percent of the exact results.
Santra, Robin; Christ, Kevin V.; Greene, Chris H.
2004-04-01
The first three electronically excited states in the alkaline-earth-metal atoms magnesium, calcium, and strontium comprise the (nsnp){sup 3}P{sub J}{sup o}(J=0,1,2) fine-structure manifold. All three states are metastable and are of interest for optical atomic clocks as well as for cold-collision physics. An efficient technique--based on a physically motivated potential that models the presence of the ionic core--is employed to solve the Schroedinger equation for the two-electron valence shell. In this way, radiative lifetimes, laser-induced clock shifts, and long-range interaction parameters are calculated for metastable Mg, Ca, and Sr.
Accurate calculation of binding energies for molecular clusters - Assessment of different models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedrich, Joachim; Fiedler, Benjamin
2016-06-01
In this work we test different strategies to compute high-level benchmark energies for medium-sized molecular clusters. We use the incremental scheme to obtain CCSD(T)/CBS energies for our test set and carefully validate the accuracy for binding energies by statistical measures. The local errors of the incremental scheme are <1 kJ/mol. Since they are smaller than the basis set errors, we obtain higher total accuracy due to the applicability of larger basis sets. The final CCSD(T)/CBS benchmark values are ΔE = - 278.01 kJ/mol for (H2O)10, ΔE = - 221.64 kJ/mol for (HF)10, ΔE = - 45.63 kJ/mol for (CH4)10, ΔE = - 19.52 kJ/mol for (H2)20 and ΔE = - 7.38 kJ/mol for (H2)10 . Furthermore we test state-of-the-art wave-function-based and DFT methods. Our benchmark data will be very useful for critical validations of new methods. We find focal-point-methods for estimating CCSD(T)/CBS energies to be highly accurate and efficient. For foQ-i3CCSD(T)-MP2/TZ we get a mean error of 0.34 kJ/mol and a standard deviation of 0.39 kJ/mol.
Lee, M.W.; Meuwly, M.
2013-01-01
The evaluation of hydration free energies is a sensitive test to assess force fields used in atomistic simulations. We showed recently that the vibrational relaxation times, 1D- and 2D-infrared spectroscopies for CN(-) in water can be quantitatively described from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with multipolar force fields and slightly enlarged van der Waals radii for the C- and N-atoms. To validate such an approach, the present work investigates the solvation free energy of cyanide in water using MD simulations with accurate multipolar electrostatics. It is found that larger van der Waals radii are indeed necessary to obtain results close to the experimental values when a multipolar force field is used. For CN(-), the van der Waals ranges refined in our previous work yield hydration free energy between -72.0 and -77.2 kcal mol(-1), which is in excellent agreement with the experimental data. In addition to the cyanide ion, we also study the hydroxide ion to show that the method used here is readily applicable to similar systems. Hydration free energies are found to sensitively depend on the intermolecular interactions, while bonded interactions are less important, as expected. We also investigate in the present work the possibility of applying the multipolar force field in scoring trajectories generated using computationally inexpensive methods, which should be useful in broader parametrization studies with reduced computational resources, as scoring is much faster than the generation of the trajectories.
Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Bill
2008-01-01
Ground source geothermal energy enables one to tap into the earth's stored renewable energy for heating and cooling facilities. Proper application of ground-source geothermal technology can have a dramatic impact on the efficiency and financial performance of building energy utilization (30%+). At the same time, using this alternative energy…
Handley, Chris M; Hawe, Glenn I; Kell, Douglas B; Popelier, Paul L A
2009-08-14
To model liquid water correctly and to reproduce its structural, dynamic and thermodynamic properties warrants models that account accurately for electronic polarisation. We have previously demonstrated that polarisation can be represented by fluctuating multipole moments (derived by quantum chemical topology) predicted by multilayer perceptrons (MLPs) in response to the local structure of the cluster. Here we further develop this methodology of modeling polarisation enabling control of the balance between accuracy, in terms of errors in Coulomb energy and computing time. First, the predictive ability and speed of two additional machine learning methods, radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN) and Kriging, are assessed with respect to our previous MLP based polarisable water models, for water dimer, trimer, tetramer, pentamer and hexamer clusters. Compared to MLPs, we find that RBFNNs achieve a 14-26% decrease in median Coulomb energy error, with a factor 2.5-3 slowdown in speed, whilst Kriging achieves a 40-67% decrease in median energy error with a 6.5-8.5 factor slowdown in speed. Then, these compromises between accuracy and speed are improved upon through a simple multi-objective optimisation to identify Pareto-optimal combinations. Compared to the Kriging results, combinations are found that are no less accurate (at the 90th energy error percentile), yet are 58% faster for the dimer, and 26% faster for the pentamer.
Ab initio Potential Energy Surface for H-H2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Stallcop, James R.; Levin, Eugene
1993-01-01
Ab initio calculations employing large basis sets are performed to determine an accurate potential energy surface for H-H2 interactions for a broad range of separation distances. At large distances, the spherically averaged potential determined from the calculated energies agrees well with the corresponding results determined from dispersion coefficients; the van der Waals well depth is predicted to be 75 +/- (mu)E(sub h). Large basis sets have also been applied to reexamine the accuracy of theoretical repulsive potential energy surfaces. Multipolar expansions of the computed H-H2 potential energy surface are reported for four internuclear separation distances (1.2, 1.401, 1.449, and 1.7a(sub 0) of the hydrogen molecule. The differential elastic scattering cross section calculated from the present results is compared with the measurements from a crossed beam experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Jianwei; Remsing, Richard C.; Zhang, Yubo; Sun, Zhaoru; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Peng, Haowei; Yang, Zenghui; Paul, Arpita; Waghmare, Umesh; Wu, Xifan; Klein, Michael L.; Perdew, John P.
2016-09-01
One atom or molecule binds to another through various types of bond, the strengths of which range from several meV to several eV. Although some computational methods can provide accurate descriptions of all bond types, those methods are not efficient enough for many studies (for example, large systems, ab initio molecular dynamics and high-throughput searches for functional materials). Here, we show that the recently developed non-empirical strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) meta-generalized gradient approximation (meta-GGA) within the density functional theory framework predicts accurate geometries and energies of diversely bonded molecules and materials (including covalent, metallic, ionic, hydrogen and van der Waals bonds). This represents a significant improvement at comparable efficiency over its predecessors, the GGAs that currently dominate materials computation. Often, SCAN matches or improves on the accuracy of a computationally expensive hybrid functional, at almost-GGA cost. SCAN is therefore expected to have a broad impact on chemistry and materials science.
Extensions and applications of the A24 data set of accurate interaction energies.
Řezáč, Jan; Dubecký, Matúš; Jurečka, Petr; Hobza, Pavel
2015-07-15
The A24 data set (Řezáč and Hobza, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2013, 9, 2151-2155) is a set of noncovalent complexes large enough to showcase various types of interactions yet small enough to make highly accurate calculations possible. It is intended for the testing of accurate computational methods which are then used as a benchmark in larger model systems. In this work, we improve the best estimate of the interaction energies in the set by updating their CCSD(T)/CBS and CCSDT(Q) components with calculations in larger basis sets. The data set is then used to test a large number of composite CCSD(T) approaches. Special attention is paid to the use of the explicitly correlated MP2-F12 method in these composite calculations. It is shown that an accuracy of 1-2% can be achieved with setups applicable to larger molecules. The effect of frozen natural orbital approximation on the accuracy of composite CCSD(T)/CBS calculations is also quantified. In four trivially saturated complexes where CCSDT(Q)/CBS data are now available, the convergence of the many-body correlation effects is assessed by fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo (FN-DMC) calculations. A good agreement is achieved between FN-DMC and high-level coupled-cluster which represents an important cross-check of both approaches.
Sun, Jianwei; Remsing, Richard C; Zhang, Yubo; Sun, Zhaoru; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Peng, Haowei; Yang, Zenghui; Paul, Arpita; Waghmare, Umesh; Wu, Xifan; Klein, Michael L; Perdew, John P
2016-09-01
One atom or molecule binds to another through various types of bond, the strengths of which range from several meV to several eV. Although some computational methods can provide accurate descriptions of all bond types, those methods are not efficient enough for many studies (for example, large systems, ab initio molecular dynamics and high-throughput searches for functional materials). Here, we show that the recently developed non-empirical strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) meta-generalized gradient approximation (meta-GGA) within the density functional theory framework predicts accurate geometries and energies of diversely bonded molecules and materials (including covalent, metallic, ionic, hydrogen and van der Waals bonds). This represents a significant improvement at comparable efficiency over its predecessors, the GGAs that currently dominate materials computation. Often, SCAN matches or improves on the accuracy of a computationally expensive hybrid functional, at almost-GGA cost. SCAN is therefore expected to have a broad impact on chemistry and materials science. PMID:27554409
Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.
2015-11-01
The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.
Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Caldeweyher, Eike; Grimme, Stefan
2016-06-21
We extend the recently introduced PBEh-3c global hybrid density functional [S. Grimme et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2015, 143, 054107] by a screened Fock exchange variant based on the Henderson-Janesko-Scuseria exchange hole model. While the excellent performance of the global hybrid is maintained for small covalently bound molecules, its performance for computed condensed phase mass densities is further improved. Most importantly, a speed up of 30 to 50% can be achieved and especially for small orbital energy gap cases, the method is numerically much more robust. The latter point is important for many applications, e.g., for metal-organic frameworks, organic semiconductors, or protein structures. This enables an accurate density functional based electronic structure calculation of a full DNA helix structure on a single core desktop computer which is presented as an example in addition to comprehensive benchmark results. PMID:27240749
Generation IV nuclear energy systems and the need of accurate nuclear data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colonna, N.
2009-05-01
To satisfy the world's demand of energy, constantly increasing over the years, a suitable mix of different energy sources has to be envisaged. In this scenario, an important role may be played by nuclear energy, provided that major safety, waste and proliferation issues affecting current nuclear reactors are satisfactorily addressed. In this respect, a large effort is under way since a few years towards the development of advanced nuclear systems that would use more efficiently the uranium resources, and produce a minimal amount of long-lived nuclear waste. The main activity concerns Generation IV reactors, with full or partial waste recycling capability. Their design requires R&D in numerous fields. Among the different needs, it is of fundamental importance to improve the knowledge of basic nuclear data, such as cross-sections for neutron-induced reactions on actinides. The main characteristics and principle of operation of the new generation nuclear systems are here described, together with the related needs of new and accurate nuclear data. Finally, an example of activity currently undergoing in the field is shown, with the recent experimental results obtained at the neutron facility n_TOF at CERN.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Jianwei
The accuracy and computational efficiency of the widely used Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) are limited by the approximation to its exchange-correlation energy Exc. The earliest local density approximation (LDA) overestimates the strengths of all bonds near equilibrium (even the vdW bonds). By adding the electron density gradient to model Exc, generalized gradient approximations (GGAs) generally soften the bonds to give robust and overall more accurate descriptions, except for the vdW interaction which is largely lost. Further improvement for covalent, ionic, and hydrogen bonds can be obtained by the computationally more expensive hybrid GGAs, which mix GGAs with the nonlocal exact exchange. Meta-GGAs are still semilocal in computation and thus efficient. Compared to GGAs, they add the kinetic energy density that enables them to recognize and accordingly treat different bonds, which no LDA or GGA can. We show here that the recently developed non-empirical strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) meta-GGA improves significantly over LDA and the standard Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof GGA for geometries and energies of diversely-bonded materials (including covalent, metallic, ionic, hydrogen, and vdW bonds) at comparable efficiency. Often SCAN matches or improves upon the accuracy of a hybrid functional, at almost-GGA cost. This work has been supported by NSF under DMR-1305135 and CNS-09-58854, and by DOE BES EFRC CCDM under DE-SC0012575.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mead, A. J.; Heymans, C.; Lombriser, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Steele, O. I.; Winther, H. A.
2016-06-01
We present an accurate non-linear matter power spectrum prediction scheme for a variety of extensions to the standard cosmological paradigm, which uses the tuned halo model previously developed in Mead et al. We consider dark energy models that are both minimally and non-minimally coupled, massive neutrinos and modified gravitational forces with chameleon and Vainshtein screening mechanisms. In all cases, we compare halo-model power spectra to measurements from high-resolution simulations. We show that the tuned halo-model method can predict the non-linear matter power spectrum measured from simulations of parametrized w(a) dark energy models at the few per cent level for k < 10 h Mpc-1, and we present theoretically motivated extensions to cover non-minimally coupled scalar fields, massive neutrinos and Vainshtein screened modified gravity models that result in few per cent accurate power spectra for k < 10 h Mpc-1. For chameleon screened models, we achieve only 10 per cent accuracy for the same range of scales. Finally, we use our halo model to investigate degeneracies between different extensions to the standard cosmological model, finding that the impact of baryonic feedback on the non-linear matter power spectrum can be considered independently of modified gravity or massive neutrino extensions. In contrast, considering the impact of modified gravity and massive neutrinos independently results in biased estimates of power at the level of 5 per cent at scales k > 0.5 h Mpc-1. An updated version of our publicly available HMCODE can be found at https://github.com/alexander-mead/hmcode.
Esque, Jeremy; Cecchini, Marco
2015-04-23
The calculation of the free energy of conformation is key to understanding the function of biomolecules and has attracted significant interest in recent years. Here, we present an improvement of the confinement method that was designed for use in the context of explicit solvent MD simulations. The development involves an additional step in which the solvation free energy of the harmonically restrained conformers is accurately determined by multistage free energy perturbation simulations. As a test-case application, the newly introduced confinement/solvation free energy (CSF) approach was used to compute differences in free energy between conformers of the alanine dipeptide in explicit water. The results are in excellent agreement with reference calculations based on both converged molecular dynamics and umbrella sampling. To illustrate the general applicability of the method, conformational equilibria of met-enkephalin (5 aa) and deca-alanine (10 aa) in solution were also analyzed. In both cases, smoothly converged free-energy results were obtained in agreement with equilibrium sampling or literature calculations. These results demonstrate that the CSF method may provide conformational free-energy differences of biomolecules with small statistical errors (below 0.5 kcal/mol) and at a moderate computational cost even with a full representation of the solvent.
Exam Question Exchange: Potential Energy Surfaces.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alexander, John J., Ed.
1988-01-01
Presents three examination questions, graded in difficulty, that explore the topic of potential energy surfaces using a diagrammatic approach. Provides and discusses acceptable solutions including diagrams. (CW)
New Methods for Exploring QM:MM Potential Energy Landscapes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hratchian, Hrant P.
2010-06-01
In recent years, the applicability of quantum chemical methods for large system studies has been greatly enhanced by the development of hybrid QM:MM techniques. Despite these advancements, exploring the associated potential energy surfaces continues to present two key challenges. First, the QM energy and derivative evaluations may be too costly for simulations; and second, the system size for many QM:MM cases are too large to effectively store or use second-order information, an approach often used in QM studies to allow for larger integration steps and fewer QM evaluations of the potential energy surface. Our most recent work is focused on overcoming both computational bottlenecks. Using surface fitting models together with direct Hessian-vector and diagonalization algorithms, we are developing models that can accurately and efficiently explore QM:MM potential energy landscapes for very large systems. Our current development status and results from initial applications will be described.
Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Jungwirth, Pavel; Makowski, Lee
2012-01-01
Two mechanisms have been proposed to drive asymmetric solvent response to a solute charge: a static potential contribution similar to the liquid-vapor potential, and a steric contribution associated with a water molecule's structure and charge distribution. In this work, we use free-energy perturbation molecular-dynamics calculations in explicit water to show that these mechanisms act in complementary regimes; the large static potential (∼44 kJ/mol/e) dominates asymmetric response for deeply buried charges, and the steric contribution dominates for charges near the solute-solvent interface. Therefore, both mechanisms must be included in order to fully account for asymmetric solvation in general. Our calculations suggest that the steric contribution leads to a remarkable deviation from the popular “linear response” model in which the reaction potential changes linearly as a function of charge. In fact, the potential varies in a piecewise-linear fashion, i.e., with different proportionality constants depending on the sign of the charge. This discrepancy is significant even when the charge is completely buried, and holds for solutes larger than single atoms. Together, these mechanisms suggest that implicit-solvent models can be improved using a combination of affine response (an offset due to the static potential) and piecewise-linear response (due to the steric contribution). PMID:23020318
No galaxy left behind: accurate measurements with the faintest objects in the Dark Energy Survey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suchyta, E.; Huff, E. M.; Aleksić, J.; Melchior, P.; Jouvel, S.; MacCrann, N.; Ross, A. J.; Crocce, M.; Gaztanaga, E.; Honscheid, K.; Leistedt, B.; Peiris, H. V.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sheldon, E.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Banerji, M.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Neilsen, E.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Percival, W. J.; Reil, K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Zhang, Y.; DES Collaboration
2016-03-01
Accurate statistical measurement with large imaging surveys has traditionally required throwing away a sizable fraction of the data. This is because most measurements have relied on selecting nearly complete samples, where variations in the composition of the galaxy population with seeing, depth, or other survey characteristics are small. We introduce a new measurement method that aims to minimize this wastage, allowing precision measurement for any class of detectable stars or galaxies. We have implemented our proposal in BALROG, software which embeds fake objects in real imaging to accurately characterize measurement biases. We demonstrate this technique with an angular clustering measurement using Dark Energy Survey (DES) data. We first show that recovery of our injected galaxies depends on a variety of survey characteristics in the same way as the real data. We then construct a flux-limited sample of the faintest galaxies in DES, chosen specifically for their sensitivity to depth and seeing variations. Using the synthetic galaxies as randoms in the Landy-Szalay estimator suppresses the effects of variable survey selection by at least two orders of magnitude. With this correction, our measured angular clustering is found to be in excellent agreement with that of a matched sample from much deeper, higher resolution space-based Cosmological Evolution Survey (COSMOS) imaging; over angular scales of 0.004° < θ < 0.2°, we find a best-fitting scaling amplitude between the DES and COSMOS measurements of 1.00 ± 0.09. We expect this methodology to be broadly useful for extending measurements' statistical reach in a variety of upcoming imaging surveys.
No Galaxy Left Behind: Accurate Measurements with the Faintest Objects in the Dark Energy Survey
Suchyta, E.
2016-01-27
Accurate statistical measurement with large imaging surveys has traditionally required throwing away a sizable fraction of the data. This is because most measurements have have relied on selecting nearly complete samples, where variations in the composition of the galaxy population with seeing, depth, or other survey characteristics are small. We introduce a new measurement method that aims to minimize this wastage, allowing precision measurement for any class of stars or galaxies detectable in an imaging survey. We have implemented our proposal in Balrog, a software package which embeds fake objects in real imaging in order to accurately characterize measurement biases.more » We also demonstrate this technique with an angular clustering measurement using Dark Energy Survey (DES) data. We first show that recovery of our injected galaxies depends on a wide variety of survey characteristics in the same way as the real data. We then construct a flux-limited sample of the faintest galaxies in DES, chosen specifically for their sensitivity to depth and seeing variations. Using the synthetic galaxies as randoms in the standard LandySzalay correlation function estimator suppresses the effects of variable survey selection by at least two orders of magnitude. Now our measured angular clustering is found to be in excellent agreement with that of a matched sample drawn from much deeper, higherresolution space-based COSMOS imaging; over angular scales of 0.004° < θ < 0.2 ° , we find a best-fit scaling amplitude between the DES and COSMOS measurements of 1.00 ± 0.09. We expect this methodology to be broadly useful for extending the statistical reach of measurements in a wide variety of coming imaging surveys.« less
Bailey, P.G.; Grotz, T.; Hurtak, J.J.
1998-07-01
A methodology is presented to collect, document, and summarize the findings of the various experiments, motors, generators, devices, and demonstrations in the innovative energy conversion areas that have been reported in the past several years to produce very high-efficiency or so-called over-unity operation. The concepts of free-energy and over-unity devices are not new, and many examples of such devices have been built utilizing various forms of potential energy within the last 100 years, such as hydro-electric dams and nuclear reactors. As many such devices and experiments are currently being reported, it has become very important and necessary to collect the data available on each, cross-check the data with other researchers, and maintain an accurate and truthful accounting of the status of each device and experiment. The INE Database has become an internationally recognized summary of such data. This paper presents a complete description of this database, its location on the publicly available internet, provides detailed instruction on how to add new devices and experiments to this database, and also explains how to modify and update any of the existing data. Selection criteria based upon technical interest, and also on commercialization interest, allow these data to be easily ranked for comparison and reference.
Potential Water and Energy Savings from Showerheads
Biermayer, Peter J.
2005-09-28
This paper estimates the benefits and costs of six water reduction scenarios. Benefits and costs of showerhead scenarios are ranked in this paper by an estimated water reduction percentage. To prioritize potential water and energy saving scenarios regarding showerheads, six scenarios were analyzed for their potential water and energy savings and the associated dollar savings to the consumer.
Accurate Diels-Alder reaction energies from efficient density functional calculations.
Mezei, Pál D; Csonka, Gábor I; Kállay, Mihály
2015-06-01
, the SIE11 test sets, and for the H2(+) and H2 potential energy curves showing no one-electron self-interaction error and reduced static correlation errors at the same time. We also suggest simplified DARC6 and SIE9 test sets for future benchmarking. PMID:26575577
Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pryde, Philip R.
1977-01-01
Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feller, David; Peterson, Kirk A.; Dixon, David A.
2008-11-01
High level electronic structure predictions of thermochemical properties and molecular structure are capable of accuracy rivaling the very best experimental measurements as a result of rapid advances in hardware, software, and methodology. Despite the progress, real world limitations require practical approaches designed for handling general chemical systems that rely on composite strategies in which a single, intractable calculation is replaced by a series of smaller calculations. As typically implemented, these approaches produce a final, or "best," estimate that is constructed from one major component, fine-tuned by multiple corrections that are assumed to be additive. Though individually much smaller than the original, unmanageable computational problem, these corrections are nonetheless extremely costly. This study presents a survey of the widely varying magnitude of the most important components contributing to the atomization energies and structures of 106 small molecules. It combines large Gaussian basis sets and coupled cluster theory up to quadruple excitations for all systems. In selected cases, the effects of quintuple excitations and/or full configuration interaction were also considered. The availability of reliable experimental data for most of the molecules permits an expanded statistical analysis of the accuracy of the approach. In cases where reliable experimental information is currently unavailable, the present results are expected to provide some of the most accurate benchmark values available.
LiF TLD-100 as a Dosimeter in High Energy Proton Beam Therapy-Can It Yield Accurate Results?
Zullo, John R. Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Zhu, X. Ronald; Sahoo, Narayan; Gillin, Michael T.
2010-04-01
In the region of high-dose gradients at the end of the proton range, the stopping power ratio of the protons undergoes significant changes, allowing for a broad spectrum of proton energies to be deposited within a relatively small volume. Because of the potential linear energy transfer dependence of LiF TLD-100 (thermolumescent dosimeter), dose measurements made in the distal fall-off region of a proton beam may be less accurate than those made in regions of low-dose gradients. The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy and precision of dose measured using TLD-100 for a pristine Bragg peak, particularly in the distal fall-off region. All measurements were made along the central axis of an unmodulated 200-MeV proton beam from a Probeat passive beam-scattering proton accelerator (Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) at varying depths along the Bragg peak. Measurements were made using TLD-100 powder flat packs, placed in a virtual water slab phantom. The measurements were repeated using a parallel plate ionization chamber. The dose measurements using TLD-100 in a proton beam were accurate to within {+-}5.0% of the expected dose, previously seen in our past photon and electron measurements. The ionization chamber and the TLD relative dose measurements agreed well with each other. Absolute dose measurements using TLD agreed with ionization chamber measurements to within {+-} 3.0 cGy, for an exposure of 100 cGy. In our study, the differences in the dose measured by the ionization chamber and those measured by TLD-100 were minimal, indicating that the accuracy and precision of measurements made in the distal fall-off region of a pristine Bragg peak is within the expected range. Thus, the rapid change in stopping power ratios at the end of the range should not affect such measurements, and TLD-100 may be used with confidence as an in vivo dosimeter for proton beam therapy.
Energy potential of modern landfills
Bogner, J.E.
1990-01-01
Methane produced by refuse decomposition in a sanitary landfill can be recovered for commercial use. Landfill methane is currently under-utilized, with commercial recovery at only a small percentage of US landfills. New federal regulations mandating control of landfill gas migration and atmospheric emissions are providing impetus to methane recovery schemes as a means of recovering costs for increased environmental control. The benefits of landfill methane recovery include utilization of an inexpensive renewable energy resource, removal of explosive gas mixtures from the subsurface, and mitigation of observed historic increases in atmospheric methane. Increased commercial interest in landfill methane recovery is dependent on the final form of Clean Air Act amendments pertaining to gaseous emissions from landfills; market shifts in natural gas prices; financial incentives for development of renewable energy resources; and support for applied research and development to develop techniques for increased control of the gas generation process in situ. This paper will discuss the controls on methane generation in landfills. In addition, it will address how landfill regulations affect landfill design and site management practices which, in turn, influence decomposition rates. Finally, future trends in landfilling, and their relationship to gas production, will be examined. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.
Improved DFT Potential Energy Surfaces via Improved Densities.
Kim, Min-Cheol; Park, Hansol; Son, Suyeon; Sim, Eunji; Burke, Kieron
2015-10-01
Density-corrected DFT is a method that cures several failures of self-consistent semilocal DFT calculations by using a more accurate density instead. A novel procedure employs the Hartree-Fock density to bonds that are more severely stretched than ever before. This substantially increases the range of accurate potential energy surfaces obtainable from semilocal DFT for many heteronuclear molecules. We show that this works for both neutral and charged molecules. We explain why and explore more difficult cases, for example, CH(+), where density-corrected DFT results are even better than sophisticated methods like CCSD. We give a simple criterion for when DC-DFT should be more accurate than self-consistent DFT that can be applied for most cases. PMID:26722874
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Du; Yang, Weitao
2016-10-01
An efficient method for calculating excitation energies based on the particle-particle random phase approximation (ppRPA) is presented. Neglecting the contributions from the high-lying virtual states and the low-lying core states leads to the significantly smaller active-space ppRPA matrix while keeping the error to within 0.05 eV from the corresponding full ppRPA excitation energies. The resulting computational cost is significantly reduced and becomes less than the construction of the non-local Fock exchange potential matrix in the self-consistent-field (SCF) procedure. With only a modest number of active orbitals, the original ppRPA singlet-triplet (ST) gaps as well as the low-lying single and double excitation energies can be accurately reproduced at much reduced computational costs, up to 100 times faster than the iterative Davidson diagonalization of the original full ppRPA matrix. For high-lying Rydberg excitations where the Davidson algorithm fails, the computational savings of active-space ppRPA with respect to the direct diagonalization is even more dramatic. The virtues of the underlying full ppRPA combined with the significantly lower computational cost of the active-space approach will significantly expand the applicability of the ppRPA method to calculate excitation energies at a cost of O(K4), with a prefactor much smaller than a single SCF Hartree-Fock (HF)/hybrid functional calculation, thus opening up new possibilities for the quantum mechanical study of excited state electronic structure of large systems.
Zhang, Du; Yang, Weitao
2016-10-13
An efficient method for calculating excitation energies based on the particle-particle random phase approximation (ppRPA) is presented. Neglecting the contributions from the high-lying virtual states and the low-lying core states leads to the significantly smaller active-space ppRPA matrix while keeping the error to within 0.05 eV from the corresponding full ppRPA excitation energies. The resulting computational cost is significantly reduced and becomes less than the construction of the non-local Fock exchange potential matrix in the self-consistent-field (SCF) procedure. With only a modest number of active orbitals, the original ppRPA singlet-triplet (ST) gaps as well as the low-lying single and doublemore » excitation energies can be accurately reproduced at much reduced computational costs, up to 100 times faster than the iterative Davidson diagonalization of the original full ppRPA matrix. For high-lying Rydberg excitations where the Davidson algorithm fails, the computational savings of active-space ppRPA with respect to the direct diagonalization is even more dramatic. The virtues of the underlying full ppRPA combined with the significantly lower computational cost of the active-space approach will significantly expand the applicability of the ppRPA method to calculate excitation energies at a cost of O(K^{4}), with a prefactor much smaller than a single SCF Hartree-Fock (HF)/hybrid functional calculation, thus opening up new possibilities for the quantum mechanical study of excited state electronic structure of large systems.« less
Wave Energy Potential in the Latvian EEZ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beriņš, J.; Beriņš, J.; Kalnačs, J.; Kalnačs, A.
2016-06-01
The present article deals with one of the alternative forms of energy - sea wave energy potential in the Latvian Exclusice Economic Zone (EEZ). Results have been achieved using a new method - VEVPP. Calculations have been performed using the data on wave parameters over the past five years (2010-2014). We have also considered wave energy potential in the Gulf of Riga. The conclusions have been drawn on the recommended methodology for the sea wave potential and power calculations for wave-power plant pre-design stage.
A global potential energy surface for ArH2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwenke, David W.; Walch, Stephen P.; Taylor, Peter R.
1992-01-01
We describe a simple analytic representation of the ArH2 potential energy surface which well reproduces the results of extensive ab initio electronic structure calculations. The analytic representation smoothly interpolates between the dissociated H2 and strong bonding limits. In the fitting process, emphasis is made on accurately reproducing regions of the potential expected to be important for high temperature (ca. 3000 K) collision processes. Overall, the anisotropy and H2 bond length dependence of the analytic representation well reproduce the input data.
A global potential energy surface for ArH2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwenke, David W.; Walch, Stephen P.; Taylor, Peter R.
1993-01-01
We describe a simple analytic representation of the ArH2 potential energy surface which well reproduces the results of extensive ab initio electronic structure calculations. The analytic representation smoothly interpolates between the dissociated H2 and strong bonding limits. In the fitting process, emphasis is made on accurately reproducing regions of the potential expected to be important for high temperature (ca. 3000 K) collision processes. Overall, the anisotropy and H2 bond length dependence of the analytic representation well reproduce the input data.
Oyeyemi, Victor B; Keith, John A; Carter, Emily A
2014-09-01
Accurate bond dissociation energies (BDEs) are important for characterizing combustion chemistry, particularly the initial stages of pyrolysis. Here we contribute to evaluating the thermochemistry of biodiesel methyl ester molecules using ab initio BDEs derived from a multireference averaged coupled-pair functional (MRACPF2)-based scheme. Having previously validated this approach for hydrocarbons and a variety of oxygenates, herein we provide further validation for bonds within carboxylic acids and methyl esters, finding our scheme predicts BDEs within chemical accuracy (i.e., within 1 kcal/mol) for these molecules. Insights into BDE trends with ester size are then analyzed for methyl formate through methyl crotonate. We find that the carbonyl group in the ester moiety has only a local effect on BDEs. C═C double bonds in ester alkyl chains are found to increase the strengths of bonds adjacent to the double bond. An important exception are bonds beta to C═C or C═O bonds, which produce allylic-like radicals upon dissociation. The observed trends arise from different degrees of geometric relaxation and resonance stabilization in the radicals produced. We also compute BDEs in various small alkanes and alkenes as models for the long hydrocarbon chain of actual biodiesel methyl esters. We again show that allylic bonds in the alkenes are much weaker than those in the small methyl esters, indicating that hydrogen abstractions are more likely at the allylic site and even more likely at bis-allylic sites of alkyl chains due to more electrons involved in π-resonance in the latter. Lastly, we use the BDEs in small surrogates to estimate heretofore unknown BDEs in large methyl esters of biodiesel fuels.
Oyeyemi, Victor B; Keith, John A; Carter, Emily A
2014-09-01
Accurate bond dissociation energies (BDEs) are important for characterizing combustion chemistry, particularly the initial stages of pyrolysis. Here we contribute to evaluating the thermochemistry of biodiesel methyl ester molecules using ab initio BDEs derived from a multireference averaged coupled-pair functional (MRACPF2)-based scheme. Having previously validated this approach for hydrocarbons and a variety of oxygenates, herein we provide further validation for bonds within carboxylic acids and methyl esters, finding our scheme predicts BDEs within chemical accuracy (i.e., within 1 kcal/mol) for these molecules. Insights into BDE trends with ester size are then analyzed for methyl formate through methyl crotonate. We find that the carbonyl group in the ester moiety has only a local effect on BDEs. C═C double bonds in ester alkyl chains are found to increase the strengths of bonds adjacent to the double bond. An important exception are bonds beta to C═C or C═O bonds, which produce allylic-like radicals upon dissociation. The observed trends arise from different degrees of geometric relaxation and resonance stabilization in the radicals produced. We also compute BDEs in various small alkanes and alkenes as models for the long hydrocarbon chain of actual biodiesel methyl esters. We again show that allylic bonds in the alkenes are much weaker than those in the small methyl esters, indicating that hydrogen abstractions are more likely at the allylic site and even more likely at bis-allylic sites of alkyl chains due to more electrons involved in π-resonance in the latter. Lastly, we use the BDEs in small surrogates to estimate heretofore unknown BDEs in large methyl esters of biodiesel fuels. PMID:24621192
Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces and computational methods.
Shepard, R.
2006-01-01
This project involves the development, implementation, and application of theoretical methods for the calculation and characterization of potential energy surfaces (PES) involving molecular species that occur in hydrocarbon combustion. These potential energy surfaces require an accurate and balanced treatment of reactants, intermediates, and products. Most of our work focuses on general multiconfiguration self-consistent-field (MCSCF) and multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) methods. In contrast to the more common single-reference electronic structure methods, this approach is capable of describing accurately molecular systems that are highly distorted away from their equilibrium geometries, including reactant, fragment, and transition-state geometries, and of describing regions of the potential surface that are associated with electronic wave functions of widely varying nature. The MCSCF reference wave functions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to describe qualitatively the changes in the electronic structure over the broad range of molecular geometries of interest. The necessary mixing of ionic, covalent, and Rydberg contributions, along with the appropriate treatment of the different electron-spin components (e.g. closed shell, high-spin open-shell, low-spin open shell, radical, diradical, etc.) of the wave functions are treated correctly at this level. Further treatment of electron correlation effects is included using large scale multireference CI wave functions, particularly including the single and double excitations relative to the MCSCF reference space. This leads to the most flexible and accurate large-scale MRSDCI wave functions that have been used to date in global PES studies.
Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces and computational methods
Shepard, R.
1993-12-01
This project involves the development, implementation, and application of theoretical methods for the calculation and characterization of potential energy surfaces involving molecular species that occur in hydrocarbon combustion. These potential energy surfaces require an accurate and balanced treatment of reactants, intermediates, and products. This difficult challenge is met with general multiconfiguration self-consistent-field (MCSCF) and multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) methods. In contrast to the more common single-reference electronic structure methods, this approach is capable of describing accurately molecular systems that are highly distorted away from their equilibrium geometries, including reactant, fragment, and transition-state geometries, and of describing regions of the potential surface that are associated with electronic wave functions of widely varying nature. The MCSCF reference wave functions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to describe qualitatively the changes in the electronic structure over the broad range of geometries of interest. The necessary mixing of ionic, covalent, and Rydberg contributions, along with the appropriate treatment of the different electron-spin components (e.g. closed shell, high-spin open-shell, low-spin open shell, radical, diradical, etc.) of the wave functions, are treated correctly at this level. Further treatment of electron correlation effects is included using large scale multireference CI wave functions, particularly including the single and double excitations relative to the MCSCF reference space. This leads to the most flexible and accurate large-scale MRSDCI wave functions that have been used to date in global PES studies.
Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface for H-H2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Stallcop, James R.; Levin, Eugene
1993-01-01
Ab initio calculations employing large basis sets are performed to determine an accurate potential energy surface for H-H2 interactions for a broad range of separation distances. At large distances, the spherically averaged potential determined from the calculated energies agrees well with the corresponding results determined from dispersion coefficients; the van der Waals well depth is predicted to be 75 +/- 3 micro E(h). Large basis sets have also been applied to reexamine the accuracy of theoretical repulsive potential energy surfaces (25-70 kcal/mol above the H-H2 asymptote) at small interatomic separations; the Boothroyd, Keogh, Martin, and Peterson (BKMP) potential energy surface is found to agree with results of the present calculations within the expected uncertainty (+/- 1 kcal/mol) of the fit. Multipolar expansions of the computed H-H2 potential energy surface are reported for four internuclear separation distances (1.2, 1.401, 1.449, and 1.7a(0)) of the hydrogen molecule. The differential elastic scattering cross section calculated from the present results is compared with the measurements from a crossed beam experiment.
Wind energy in China: Estimating the potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Jiahai
2016-07-01
Persistent and significant curtailment has cast concern over the prospects of wind power in China. A comprehensive assessment of the production of energy from wind has identified grid-integrated wind generation potential at 11.9–14% of China's projected energy demand by 2030.
Economic Energy Savings Potential in Federal Buildings
Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Hunt, Diane M.
2000-09-04
The primary objective of this study was to estimate the current life-cycle cost-effective (i.e., economic) energy savings potential in Federal buildings and the corresponding capital investment required to achieve these savings, with Federal financing. Estimates were developed for major categories of energy efficiency measures such as building envelope, heating system, cooling system, and lighting. The analysis was based on conditions (building stock and characteristics, retrofit technologies, interest rates, energy prices, etc.) existing in the late 1990s. The potential impact of changes to any of these factors in the future was not considered.
Applying supersymmetry to energy dependent potentials
Yekken, R.; Lassaut, M.; Lombard, R.J.
2013-11-15
We investigate the supersymmetry properties of energy dependent potentials in the D=1 dimensional space. We show the main aspects of supersymmetry to be preserved, namely the factorization of the Hamiltonian, the connections between eigenvalues and wave functions of the partner Hamiltonians. Two methods are proposed. The first one requires the extension of the usual rules via the concept of local equivalent potential. In this case, the superpotential becomes depending on the state. The second method, applicable when the potential depends linearly on the energy, is similar to what has been already achieved by means of the Darboux transform. -- Highlights: •Supersymmetry extended to energy dependent potentials. •Generalization of the concept of superpotential. •An alternative method used for linear E-dependence leads to the same results as Darboux transform.
Energy conservation in Kenya: progress, potentials, problems
Schipper, L.; Hollander, J.M.; Milukas, M.; Alcamo, J.; Meyers, S.; Noll, S.
1981-09-01
A study was carried out of the flows of commercial energy in the economy of Kenya. Indications were sought of the extent to which energy conservation, (i.e., increase in efficiency of energy use) has reduced the ratio of energy inputs to economic outputs, in the post-1973 years. An assessment was made of the potential for energy conservation to reduce the growth of Kenyan energy use in the future and of significant barriers to increasing energy efficiency. Consideration was given to the role of government policy and of international assistance in fostering energy conservation in Kenya and other developing countries. The study was performed by analyzing available energy data and statistics from the largest oil companies, the Kenyan electric utility, and the government. These sources were supplemented by conducting personal interviews with personnel of nearly 50 commercial firms in Kenya. Direct consumption of fuel accounts for 94% of the commercial energy use in Kenya, while electricity accounts for 6%. The sectoral division of fuel use is: transportation 53%, industry 21%, energy production 11%, agriculture 9%, buildings and residences 5%, and construction 1%. For electricity the division is: buildings and residences 48%, industry 45%, energy production 4%, agriculture 2%, and construction 1%. Recent progress in conservation is reported.
Effective approach for accurately calculating individual energy of polar heterojunction interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akiyama, Toru; Nakane, Harunobu; Nakamura, Kohji; Ito, Tomonori
2016-09-01
We propose a direct approach for calculating individual energy of polar semiconductor interfaces using density functional theory calculations. This approach is applied to polar interfaces between group-III nitrides (AlN and GaN) and SiC and clarifies the interplay of chemical bonding and charge neutrality at the interface, which is crucial for the stability and polarity of group-III nitrides on SiC substrates. The ideal interface is stabilized among various atomic arrangements over the wide range of the chemical potential on Si-face SiC, whereas those with intermixing are favorable on C-face SiC. The stabilization of the ideal interfaces resulting in Ga-polar GaN and Al-polar AlN films on Si-face SiC is consistent with experiments, suggesting that our approach is versatile to evaluate various polar heterojunction interfaces as well as group-III nitrides on semiconductor substrates.
Computed rotational rainbows from realistic potential energy surfaces
Gianturco, F.A.; Palma, A.
1985-08-01
The quantal IOS approximation in here employed to study interference structures in the rotationally inelastic, state-to-state differential cross sections for polar diatomic targets (LiH, FH, and CO) interacting with He atoms. Quite realistic expressions are used to describe the relevant potential energy surfaces (PES) which were taken from previous works that tested them against accurate experimental findings for total and partial differential cross sections. Specific features like short-range anisotropy and well depth, long-range attractive regions and overall range of action for each potential employed are analyzed and discussed in relation to their influence on rotational rainbows appearance and on the possible observation of cross section extrema in rotational energy distributions.
Laurens, L. M. L.; Quinn, M.; Van Wychen, S.; Templeton, D. W.; Wolfrum, E. J.
2012-04-01
In the context of algal biofuels, lipids, or better aliphatic chains of the fatty acids, are perhaps the most important constituents of algal biomass. Accurate quantification of lipids and their respective fuel yield is crucial for comparison of algal strains and growth conditions and for process monitoring. As an alternative to traditional solvent-based lipid extraction procedures, we have developed a robust whole-biomass in situ transesterification procedure for quantification of algal lipids (as fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) that (a) can be carried out on a small scale (using 4-7 mg of biomass), (b) is applicable to a range of different species, (c) consists of a single-step reaction, (d) is robust over a range of different temperature and time combinations, and (e) tolerant to at least 50% water in the biomass. Unlike gravimetric lipid quantification, which can over- or underestimate the lipid content, whole biomass transesterification reflects the true potential fuel yield of algal biomass. We report here on the comparison of the yield of FAMEs by using different catalysts and catalyst combinations, with the acid catalyst HCl providing a consistently high level of conversion of fatty acids with a precision of 1.9% relative standard deviation. We investigate the influence of reaction time, temperature, and biomass water content on the measured FAME content and profile for 4 different samples of algae (replete and deplete Chlorella vulgaris, replete Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and replete Nannochloropsis sp.). We conclude by demonstrating a full mass balance closure of all fatty acids around a traditional lipid extraction process.
Laurens, Lieve M L; Quinn, Matthew; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Templeton, David W; Wolfrum, Edward J
2012-04-01
In the context of algal biofuels, lipids, or better aliphatic chains of the fatty acids, are perhaps the most important constituents of algal biomass. Accurate quantification of lipids and their respective fuel yield is crucial for comparison of algal strains and growth conditions and for process monitoring. As an alternative to traditional solvent-based lipid extraction procedures, we have developed a robust whole-biomass in situ transesterification procedure for quantification of algal lipids (as fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) that (a) can be carried out on a small scale (using 4-7 mg of biomass), (b) is applicable to a range of different species, (c) consists of a single-step reaction, (d) is robust over a range of different temperature and time combinations, and (e) tolerant to at least 50% water in the biomass. Unlike gravimetric lipid quantification, which can over- or underestimate the lipid content, whole biomass transesterification reflects the true potential fuel yield of algal biomass. We report here on the comparison of the yield of FAMEs by using different catalysts and catalyst combinations, with the acid catalyst HCl providing a consistently high level of conversion of fatty acids with a precision of 1.9% relative standard deviation. We investigate the influence of reaction time, temperature, and biomass water content on the measured FAME content and profile for 4 different samples of algae (replete and deplete Chlorella vulgaris, replete Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and replete Nannochloropsis sp.). We conclude by demonstrating a full mass balance closure of all fatty acids around a traditional lipid extraction process. PMID:22349344
Potential energy function for the hydroperoxyl radical
Lemon, W.J.; Hase, W.L.
1987-03-12
A switching function formalism is used to derive an analytic potential energy surface for the O + OH in equilibrium HO/sub 2/ in equilibrium H + O/sub 2/ reactive system. Both experimental and ab initio data are used to derive parameters for the potential energy surface. Trajectory calculations for highly excited HO/sub 2/ are performed on this surface. From these trajectories quasi-periodic eigentrajectories are found for vibrational levels near the HO/sub 2/ dissociation threshold with small amounts of quanta in the OH stretch mode and large amounts of quanta in the OO stretch mode.
Terahertz absorption spectra and potential energy distribution of liquid crystals.
Chen, Zezhang; Jiang, Yurong; Jiang, Lulu; Ma, Heng
2016-01-15
In this work, the terahertz (THz) absorption spectra of a set of nematic liquid crystals were studied using the density functional theories (DFT). An accurate assignment of the vibrational modes corresponding to absorption frequencies were performed using potential energy distribution (PED) in a frequency range of 0-3 THz. The impacts of different core structures on THz absorption spectra were discussed. The results indicate that scope of application must be considered in the LC-based THz device designing. This proposed work may give a useful suggestion on the design of novel liquid crystal material in THz wave. PMID:26476072
Intermolecular potential energy surface and thermophysical properties of ethylene oxide
Crusius, Johann-Philipp Hassel, Egon; Hellmann, Robert; Bich, Eckard
2014-10-28
A six-dimensional potential energy hypersurface (PES) for two interacting rigid ethylene oxide (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O) molecules was determined from high-level quantum-chemical ab initio calculations. The counterpoise-corrected supermolecular approach at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory was utilized to determine interaction energies for 10178 configurations of two molecules. An analytical site-site potential function with 19 sites per ethylene oxide molecule was fitted to the interaction energies and fine tuned to agree with data for the second acoustic virial coefficient from accurate speed of sound measurements. The PES was validated by computing the second virial coefficient, shear viscosity, and thermal conductivity. The values of these properties are substantiated by the best experimental data as they tend to fall within the uncertainty intervals and also obey the experimental temperature functions, except for viscosity, where experimental data are insufficient. Due to the lack of reliable data, especially for the transport properties, our calculated values are currently the most accurate estimates for these properties of ethylene oxide.
Biomass resource potential using energy crops
Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Martin, S.A.
1993-09-01
Biomass energy crops can provide a significant and environmentally beneficial source of renewable energy feedstocks for the future. They can revitalize the agricultural sector of the US economy by providing profitable uses for marginal cropland. Energy crops include fast-growing trees, perennial grasses, and annual grasses, all capable of collecting solar energy and storing it as cellulosic compounds for several months to several years. Once solar energy is thus captured, it can be converted by means of currently available technologies to a wide variety of energy products such as electricity, heat, liquid transportation fuels, and gases. Experimental results from field trials have generated optimism that selected and improved energy crops, established on cropland with moderate limitations for crop production, have the potential for producing high yields. Both trees and grasses, under very good growing conditions, have produced average annual yields of 20 to 40 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1}. Sorghum has shown especially high yields in the Midwest. Hybrids between sugar cane and its wild relatives, called energy cane, have yielded as much as 50 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} in Florida. These experimental results demonstrate that some species have the genetic potential for very rapid growth rates. New wood energy crop systems developed by the Department of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program offer, at a minimum, a 100% increase in biomass production rates over the 2 to 4 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} of dry leafless woody biomass produced by most natural forest systems. Experimental data indicate that short rotation wood crops established on cropland with moderate limitations are capable of producing biomass yields of 8--20 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} with a present average about 11 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} on typical cropland sites.
Supporting middle school students' development of an accurate and applicable energy concept
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nordine, Jeffrey Carl
Energy is a fundamental unifying concept of science, yet common approaches to energy instruction in middle school have shown little success with helping students develop their naive ideas about energy into more sophisticated understandings that are useful for making sense of their experiences. While traditional approaches to energy focus on performing calculations in idealized systems, our development team produced a new middle school energy unit that focuses qualitatively on the energy transformations that occur in everyday, non-idealized, systems. This approach uses project-based pedagogy to contextualize instruction with the driving question, "How can I use trash to power my stereo?" In this study, I investigate the effectiveness of our approach by tracking 8th grade students' conceptual development during the unit, following up with students who participated in the unit a year previously, and comparing the energy conceptions and content knowledge between energy unit participants and older students in the same school who learned about energy in an approach that did not emphasize energy transformations in non-idealized systems. Results indicate that during instruction, students' energy conceptions progress from a set of disconnected ideas toward a coherent understanding that is organized around the principle of transformation. After instruction, students who participated in the energy unit were generally more capable of using their understanding of energy to make sense of everyday scenarios than were older non-participants. Furthermore, 9th grade students who participated in the energy unit in their 8th grade year continued to develop more sophisticated understandings of energy during their 9th grade biology course. These 9th grade students seemed better prepared to learn about energy content in their biology course than 10th graders, who did not participate in the energy unit, but took the same biology course during their 9th grade year. Overall, my results
Potential reduction of DSN uplink energy cost
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dolinsky, S.; Degroot, N. F.
1982-01-01
DSN Earth stations typically transmit more power than that required to meet minimum specifications for uplink performance. Energy and cost savings that could result from matching the uplink power to the amount required for specified performance are studied. The Galileo mission was selected as a case study. Although substantial reduction in transmitted energy is possible, potential savings in source energy (oil or electricity) savings are much less. This is because of the rising inefficiency in power conversion and radio frequency power generation that accompanies reduced power output.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiarelli, Antonio M.; Maclin, Edward L.; Low, Kathy A.; Mathewson, Kyle E.; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele
2016-03-01
Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides data about brain function using surface recordings. Despite recent advancements, an unbiased method for estimating the depth of absorption changes and for providing an accurate three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction remains elusive. DOT involves solving an ill-posed inverse problem, requiring additional criteria for finding unique solutions. The most commonly used criterion is energy minimization (energy constraint). However, as measurements are taken from only one side of the medium (the scalp) and sensitivity is greater at shallow depths, the energy constraint leads to solutions that tend to be small and superficial. To correct for this bias, we combine the energy constraint with another criterion, minimization of spatial derivatives (Laplacian constraint, also used in low resolution electromagnetic tomography, LORETA). Used in isolation, the Laplacian constraint leads to solutions that tend to be large and deep. Using simulated, phantom, and actual brain activation data, we show that combining these two criteria results in accurate (error <2 mm) absorption depth estimates, while maintaining a two-point spatial resolution of <24 mm up to a depth of 30 mm. This indicates that accurate 3-D reconstruction of brain activity up to 30 mm from the scalp can be obtained with DOT.
Accurate Analytic Potential Functions for the a ^3Π_1 and X ^1Σ^+ States of {IBr}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yukiya, Tokio; Nishimiya, Nobuo; Suzuki, Masao; Le Roy, Robert
2014-06-01
Spectra of IBr in various wavelength regions have been measured by a number of researchers using traditional diffraction grating and microwave methods, as well as using high-resolution laser techniques combined with a Fourier transform spectrometer. In a previous paper at this meeting, we reported a preliminary determination of analytic potential energy functions for the A ^3Π_1 and X ^1Σ^+ states of IBr from a direct-potential-fit (DPF) analysis of all of the data available at that time. That study also confirmed the presence of anomalous fluctuations in the v--dependence of the first differences of the inertial rotational constant, Δ Bv=Bv+1-Bv in the A ^3Π_1 state for vibrational levels with v'(A) in the mid 20's. However, our previous experience in a recent study of the analogous A ^3Π_1-X ^1Σ_g^+ system of Br_2 suggested that the effect of such fluctuations may be overcome if sufficient data are available. The present work therefore reports new measurements of transitions to levels in the v'(A)=23-26 region, together with a new global DPF analysis that uses ``robust" least-squares fits to average properly over the effect of such fluctuations in order to provide an optimum delineation of the underlying potential energy curve(s). L.E.Selin,Ark. Fys. 21,479(1962) E. Tiemann and Th. Moeller, Z. Naturforsch. A 30,986 (1975) E.M. Weinstock and A. Preston, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 70, 188 (1978) D.R.T. Appadoo, P.F. Bernath, and R.J. Le Roy, Can. J. Phys. 72, 1265 (1994) N. Nishimiya, T. Yukiya and M. Suzuki, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 173, 8 (1995). T. Yukiya, N. Nishimiya, and R.J. Le Roy, Paper MF12 at the 65th Ohio State University International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Columbus, Ohio, June 20-24, 2011. T. Yukiya, N. Nishimiya, Y. Samajima, K. Yamaguchi, M. Suzuki, C.D. Boone, I. Ozier and R.J. Le Roy, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 283, 32 (2013) J.K.G. Watson, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 219, 326 (2003).
Potential energy savings from aquifer thermal energy storage
Anderson, M.R.; Weijo, R.O.
1988-07-01
Pacific Northwest Laboratory researchers developed an aggregate-level model to estimate the short- and long-term potential energy savings from using aquifer thermal storage (ATES) in the United States. The objectives of this effort were to (1) develop a basis from which to recommend whether heat or chill ATES should receive future research focus and (2) determine which market sector (residential, commercial, or industrial) offers the largest potential energy savings from ATES. Information was collected on the proportion of US land area suitable for ATES applications. The economic feasibility of ATES applications was then evaluated. The potential energy savings from ATES applications was calculated. Characteristic energy use in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors was examined, as was the relationship between waste heat production and consumption by industrial end-users. These analyses provided the basis for two main conclusions: heat ATES applications offer higher potential for energy savings than do chill ATES applications; and the industrial sector can achieve the highest potential energy savings for the large consumption markets. Based on these findings, it is recommended that future ATES research and development efforts be directed toward heat ATES applications in the industrial sector. 11 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.
Pseudospectral Gaussian quantum dynamics: Efficient sampling of potential energy surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heaps, Charles W.; Mazziotti, David A.
2016-04-01
Trajectory-based Gaussian basis sets have been tremendously successful in describing high-dimensional quantum molecular dynamics. In this paper, we introduce a pseudospectral Gaussian-based method that achieves accurate quantum dynamics using efficient, real-space sampling of the time-dependent basis set. As in other Gaussian basis methods, we begin with a basis set expansion using time-dependent Gaussian basis functions guided by classical mechanics. Unlike other Gaussian methods but characteristic of the pseudospectral and collocation methods, the basis set is tested with N Dirac delta functions, where N is the number of basis functions, rather than using the basis function as test functions. As a result, the integration for matrix elements is reduced to function evaluation. Pseudospectral Gaussian dynamics only requires O ( N ) potential energy calculations, in contrast to O ( N 2 ) evaluations in a variational calculation. The classical trajectories allow small basis sets to sample high-dimensional potentials. Applications are made to diatomic oscillations in a Morse potential and a generalized version of the Henon-Heiles potential in two, four, and six dimensions. Comparisons are drawn to full analytical evaluation of potential energy integrals (variational) and the bra-ket averaged Taylor (BAT) expansion, an O ( N ) approximation used in Gaussian-based dynamics. In all cases, the pseudospectral Gaussian method is competitive with full variational calculations that require a global, analytical, and integrable potential energy surface. Additionally, the BAT breaks down when quantum mechanical coherence is particularly strong (i.e., barrier reflection in the Morse oscillator). The ability to obtain variational accuracy using only the potential energy at discrete points makes the pseudospectral Gaussian method a promising avenue for on-the-fly dynamics, where electronic structure calculations become computationally significant.
Pseudospectral Gaussian quantum dynamics: Efficient sampling of potential energy surfaces.
Heaps, Charles W; Mazziotti, David A
2016-04-28
Trajectory-based Gaussian basis sets have been tremendously successful in describing high-dimensional quantum molecular dynamics. In this paper, we introduce a pseudospectral Gaussian-based method that achieves accurate quantum dynamics using efficient, real-space sampling of the time-dependent basis set. As in other Gaussian basis methods, we begin with a basis set expansion using time-dependent Gaussian basis functions guided by classical mechanics. Unlike other Gaussian methods but characteristic of the pseudospectral and collocation methods, the basis set is tested with N Dirac delta functions, where N is the number of basis functions, rather than using the basis function as test functions. As a result, the integration for matrix elements is reduced to function evaluation. Pseudospectral Gaussian dynamics only requires O(N) potential energy calculations, in contrast to O(N(2)) evaluations in a variational calculation. The classical trajectories allow small basis sets to sample high-dimensional potentials. Applications are made to diatomic oscillations in a Morse potential and a generalized version of the Henon-Heiles potential in two, four, and six dimensions. Comparisons are drawn to full analytical evaluation of potential energy integrals (variational) and the bra-ket averaged Taylor (BAT) expansion, an O(N) approximation used in Gaussian-based dynamics. In all cases, the pseudospectral Gaussian method is competitive with full variational calculations that require a global, analytical, and integrable potential energy surface. Additionally, the BAT breaks down when quantum mechanical coherence is particularly strong (i.e., barrier reflection in the Morse oscillator). The ability to obtain variational accuracy using only the potential energy at discrete points makes the pseudospectral Gaussian method a promising avenue for on-the-fly dynamics, where electronic structure calculations become computationally significant.
Pseudospectral Gaussian quantum dynamics: Efficient sampling of potential energy surfaces.
Heaps, Charles W; Mazziotti, David A
2016-04-28
Trajectory-based Gaussian basis sets have been tremendously successful in describing high-dimensional quantum molecular dynamics. In this paper, we introduce a pseudospectral Gaussian-based method that achieves accurate quantum dynamics using efficient, real-space sampling of the time-dependent basis set. As in other Gaussian basis methods, we begin with a basis set expansion using time-dependent Gaussian basis functions guided by classical mechanics. Unlike other Gaussian methods but characteristic of the pseudospectral and collocation methods, the basis set is tested with N Dirac delta functions, where N is the number of basis functions, rather than using the basis function as test functions. As a result, the integration for matrix elements is reduced to function evaluation. Pseudospectral Gaussian dynamics only requires O(N) potential energy calculations, in contrast to O(N(2)) evaluations in a variational calculation. The classical trajectories allow small basis sets to sample high-dimensional potentials. Applications are made to diatomic oscillations in a Morse potential and a generalized version of the Henon-Heiles potential in two, four, and six dimensions. Comparisons are drawn to full analytical evaluation of potential energy integrals (variational) and the bra-ket averaged Taylor (BAT) expansion, an O(N) approximation used in Gaussian-based dynamics. In all cases, the pseudospectral Gaussian method is competitive with full variational calculations that require a global, analytical, and integrable potential energy surface. Additionally, the BAT breaks down when quantum mechanical coherence is particularly strong (i.e., barrier reflection in the Morse oscillator). The ability to obtain variational accuracy using only the potential energy at discrete points makes the pseudospectral Gaussian method a promising avenue for on-the-fly dynamics, where electronic structure calculations become computationally significant. PMID:27131532
Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs
McNeil, Michael A; McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie; de la Rue du Can, Stephane
2008-06-15
This report estimates the global potential reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 for energy efficiency improvements associated with equipment (appliances, lighting, and HVAC) in buildings by means of energy efficiency standards and labels (EES&L). A consensus has emerged among the world's scientists and many corporate and political leaders regarding the need to address the threat of climate change through emissions mitigation and adaptation. A further consensus has emerged that a central component of these strategies must be focused around energy, which is the primary generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Two important questions result from this consensus: 'what kinds of policies encourage the appropriate transformation to energy efficiency' and 'how much impact can these policies have'? This report aims to contribute to the dialogue surrounding these issues by considering the potential impacts of a single policy type, applied on a global scale. The policy addressed in this report is Energy Efficient Standards and Labeling (EES&L) for energy-consuming equipment, which has now been implemented in over 60 countries. Mandatory energy performance standards are important because they contribute positively to a nation's economy and provide relative certainty about the outcome (both timing and magnitudes). Labels also contribute positively to a nation's economy and importantly increase the awareness of the energy-consuming public. Other policies not analyzed here (utility incentives, tax credits) are complimentary to standards and labels and also contribute in significant ways to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We believe the analysis reported here to be the first systematic attempt to evaluate the potential of savings from EES&L for all countries and for such a large set of products. The goal of the analysis is to provide an assessment that is sufficiently well-quantified and accurate to allow comparison and integration with other strategies under
An Energy-Efficient Strategy for Accurate Distance Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks
Tarrío, Paula; Bernardos, Ana M.; Casar, José R.
2012-01-01
In line with recent research efforts made to conceive energy saving protocols and algorithms and power sensitive network architectures, in this paper we propose a transmission strategy to minimize the energy consumption in a sensor network when using a localization technique based on the measurement of the strength (RSS) or the time of arrival (TOA) of the received signal. In particular, we find the transmission power and the packet transmission rate that jointly minimize the total consumed energy, while ensuring at the same time a desired accuracy in the RSS or TOA measurements. We also propose some corrections to these theoretical results to take into account the effects of shadowing and packet loss in the propagation channel. The proposed strategy is shown to be effective in realistic scenarios providing energy savings with respect to other transmission strategies, and also guaranteeing a given accuracy in the distance estimations, which will serve to guarantee a desired accuracy in the localization result. PMID:23202218
Asmadi, Aldi; Neumann, Marcus A; Kendrick, John; Girard, Pascale; Perrin, Marc-Antoine; Leusen, Frank J J
2009-12-24
In the 2007 blind test of crystal structure prediction hosted by the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), a hybrid DFT/MM method correctly ranked each of the four experimental structures as having the lowest lattice energy of all the crystal structures predicted for each molecule. The work presented here further validates this hybrid method by optimizing the crystal structures (experimental and submitted) of the first three CCDC blind tests held in 1999, 2001, and 2004. Except for the crystal structures of compound IX, all structures were reminimized and ranked according to their lattice energies. The hybrid method computes the lattice energy of a crystal structure as the sum of the DFT total energy and a van der Waals (dispersion) energy correction. Considering all four blind tests, the crystal structure with the lowest lattice energy corresponds to the experimentally observed structure for 12 out of 14 molecules. Moreover, good geometrical agreement is observed between the structures determined by the hybrid method and those measured experimentally. In comparison with the correct submissions made by the blind test participants, all hybrid optimized crystal structures (apart from compound II) have the smallest calculated root mean squared deviations from the experimentally observed structures. It is predicted that a new polymorph of compound V exists under pressure.
Asmadi, Aldi; Neumann, Marcus A; Kendrick, John; Girard, Pascale; Perrin, Marc-Antoine; Leusen, Frank J J
2009-12-24
In the 2007 blind test of crystal structure prediction hosted by the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), a hybrid DFT/MM method correctly ranked each of the four experimental structures as having the lowest lattice energy of all the crystal structures predicted for each molecule. The work presented here further validates this hybrid method by optimizing the crystal structures (experimental and submitted) of the first three CCDC blind tests held in 1999, 2001, and 2004. Except for the crystal structures of compound IX, all structures were reminimized and ranked according to their lattice energies. The hybrid method computes the lattice energy of a crystal structure as the sum of the DFT total energy and a van der Waals (dispersion) energy correction. Considering all four blind tests, the crystal structure with the lowest lattice energy corresponds to the experimentally observed structure for 12 out of 14 molecules. Moreover, good geometrical agreement is observed between the structures determined by the hybrid method and those measured experimentally. In comparison with the correct submissions made by the blind test participants, all hybrid optimized crystal structures (apart from compound II) have the smallest calculated root mean squared deviations from the experimentally observed structures. It is predicted that a new polymorph of compound V exists under pressure. PMID:19950907
Nuclear binding energy and symmetry energy of nuclear matter with modern nucleon-nucleon potentials
Hassaneen, Kh.S.A.; Abo-Elsebaa, H.M.; Sultan, E.A.; Mansour, H.M.M.
2011-03-15
Research Highlights: > The nuclear matter is studied within the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) approach employing the most recent accurate nucleon-nucleon potentials. > The results come out by approximating the single particle self-consistent potential with a parabolic form. > We discuss the current status of the Coester line, i.e., density and energy of the various saturation points being strongly linearly correlated. > The nuclear symmetry energy is calculated as the difference between the binding energy of pure neutron matter and that of symmetric nuclear matter. - Abstract: The binding energy of nuclear matter at zero temperature in the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation with modern nucleon-nucleon potentials is studied. Both the standard and continuous choices of single particle energies are used. These modern nucleon-nucleon potentials fit the deuteron properties and are phase shifts equivalent. Comparison with other calculations is made. In addition we present results for the symmetry energy obtained with different potentials, which is of great importance in astrophysical calculation.
Gapsys, Vytautas; Michielssens, Servaas; Seeliger, Daniel; de Groot, Bert L
2016-06-20
The prediction of mutation-induced free-energy changes in protein thermostability or protein-protein binding is of particular interest in the fields of protein design, biotechnology, and bioengineering. Herein, we achieve remarkable accuracy in a scan of 762 mutations estimating changes in protein thermostability based on the first principles of statistical mechanics. The remaining error in the free-energy estimates appears to be due to three sources in approximately equal parts, namely sampling, force-field inaccuracies, and experimental uncertainty. We propose a consensus force-field approach, which, together with an increased sampling time, leads to a free-energy prediction accuracy that matches those reached in experiments. This versatile approach enables accurate free-energy estimates for diverse proteins, including the prediction of changes in the melting temperature of the membrane protein neurotensin receptor 1. PMID:27122231
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Artrith, Nongnuch; Kolpak, Alexie
2014-03-01
The shape, size, and composition of catalyst nanoparticles can have a significant influence on their catalytic activity. Understanding such structure-reactivity relationships is crucial for the optimization of industrial catalysts and the design of novel catalysts with enhanced properties. In this work, we investigate the equilibrium shape and surface structure/composition of Au/Cu nanoparticles in solution, which have recently been shown to be stable and efficient catalysts for CO2 reduction. Using a combination of density functional theory calculations and large-scale Monte-Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations with reactive atomistic potentials, we determine how the nanoparticle shape, surface structure, and surface stoichiometry (i.e., fraction of Au at the surface relative to overall composition), evolve as a function of varying catalytic conditions. We discuss the effects of these changes on the surface electronic structure and binding energies of CO2, H2, and CH3OH. Our results emphasize the important relationships between catalytic environment (e.g., solvent effects), catalyst structure, and catalytic activity. We thank the Schlumberger Foundation Faculty for the Future for financial support. Computing time at XSEDE and NERSC clusters are gratefully acknowledged.
Potential energy hypersurface and molecular flexibility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koča, Jaroslav
1993-02-01
The molecular flexibility phenomenon is discussed from the conformational potential energy(hyper) surface (PES) point of view. Flexibility is considered as a product of three terms: thermodynamic, kinetic and geometrical. Several expressions characterizing absolute and relative molecular flexibility are introduced, depending on a subspace studied of the entire conformational space, energy level E of PES as well as absolute temperature. Results obtained by programs DAISY, CICADA and PANIC in conjunction with molecular mechanics program MMX for flexibility analysis of isopentane, 2,2-dimethylpentane and isohexane molecules are introduced.
Sparse representation for a potential energy surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seko, Atsuto; Takahashi, Akira; Tanaka, Isao
2014-07-01
We propose a simple scheme to estimate the potential energy surface (PES) for which the accuracy can be easily controlled and improved. It is based on model selection within the framework of linear regression using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) technique. Basis functions are selected from a systematic large set of candidate functions. The sparsity of the PES significantly reduces the computational cost of evaluating the energy and force in molecular dynamics simulations without losing accuracy. The usefulness of the scheme for describing the elemental metals Na and Mg is clearly demonstrated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balabin, Roman M.; Lomakina, Ekaterina I.
2009-08-01
Artificial neural network (ANN) approach has been applied to estimate the density functional theory (DFT) energy with large basis set using lower-level energy values and molecular descriptors. A total of 208 different molecules were used for the ANN training, cross validation, and testing by applying BLYP, B3LYP, and BMK density functionals. Hartree-Fock results were reported for comparison. Furthermore, constitutional molecular descriptor (CD) and quantum-chemical molecular descriptor (QD) were used for building the calibration model. The neural network structure optimization, leading to four to five hidden neurons, was also carried out. The usage of several low-level energy values was found to greatly reduce the prediction error. An expected error, mean absolute deviation, for ANN approximation to DFT energies was 0.6±0.2 kcal mol-1. In addition, the comparison of the different density functionals with the basis sets and the comparison of multiple linear regression results were also provided. The CDs were found to overcome limitation of the QD. Furthermore, the effective ANN model for DFT/6-311G(3df,3pd) and DFT/6-311G(2df,2pd) energy estimation was developed, and the benchmark results were provided.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chachiyo, Teepanis
2016-07-01
A simple correlation energy functional for the uniform electron gas is derived based on the second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory. It can reproduce the known correlation functional in the high-density limit, while in the mid-density range maintaining a good agreement with the near-exact correlation energy of the uniform electron gas to within 2 × 10-3 hartree. The correlation energy is a function of a density parameter rs and is of the form a * ln ( 1 + /b r s + /b rs 2 ) . The constants "a" and "b" are derived from the known correlation functional in the high-density limit. Comparisons to the Ceperley-Alder's near-exact Quantum Monte Carlo results and the Vosko-Wilk-Nusair correlation functional are also reported.
Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walch, Stephen P.
1994-01-01
Quantum mechanical methods have been used to compute potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions. The reactions studied were among those believed to be important to the NASP and HSR programs and included the recombination of two H atoms with several different third bodies; the reactions in the thermal Zeldovich mechanism; the reactions of H atom with O2, N2, and NO; reactions involved in the thermal De-NO(x) process; and the reaction of CH(squared Pi) with N2 (leading to 'prompt NO'). These potential energy surfaces have been used to compute reaction rate constants and rates of unimolecular decomposition. An additional application was the calculation of transport properties of gases using a semiclassical approximation (and in the case of interactions involving hydrogen inclusion of quantum mechanical effects).
Potential Energy Curves of Hydrogen Fluoride
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fallon, Robert J.; Vanderslice, Joseph T.; Mason, Edward A.
1960-01-01
Potential energy curves for the X(sup 1)sigma+ and V(sup 1)sigma+ states of HF and DF have been calculated by the Rydberg-Klein-Rees method. The results calculated from the different sets of data for HF and DF are found to be in very good agreement. The theoretical results of Karo are compared to the experimental results obtained here.
Energy Savings Potential of Radiative Cooling Technologies
Fernandez, Nicholas; Wang, Weimin; Alvine, Kyle J.; Katipamula, Srinivas
2015-11-30
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP), conducted a study to estimate, through simulation, the potential cooling energy savings that could be achieved through novel approaches to capturing free radiative cooling in buildings, particularly photonic ‘selective emittance’ materials. This report documents the results of that study.
Global Expression for Representing Diatomic Potential-Energy Curves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferrante, John; Schlosser, Herbert; Smith, John R.
1991-01-01
A three-parameter expression that gives an accurate fit to diatomic potential curves over the entire range of separation for charge transfers between 0 and 1. It is based on a generalization of the universal binding-energy relation of Smith et al. (1989) with a modification that describes the crossover from a partially ionic state to the neutral state at large separations. The expression is tested by comparison with first-principles calculations of the potential curves ranging from covalently bonded to ionically bonded. The expression is also used to calculate spectroscopic constants form a curve fit to the first-principles curves. A comparison is made with experimental values of the spectroscopic constants.
The Wind Energy Potential of Iceland
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nawri, Nikolai; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Bjornsson, Halldór; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Jónasson, Kristján; Bay Hasager, Charlotte; Clausen, Niels-Erik
2014-05-01
While Iceland has an abundant wind energy resource, its use for electrical power production has so far been limited. Electricity in Iceland is generated primarily from hydro- and geothermal sources, and adding wind energy has so far not been considered practical or even necessary. However, wind energy is becoming a more viable option, as opportunities for new hydro- or geothermal power installations become limited. In order to obtain an estimate of the wind energy potential of Iceland, a wind atlas has been developed as part of the joint Nordic project 'Improved Forecast of Wind, Waves and Icing' (IceWind). Downscaling simulations performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to determine the large-scale wind energy potential of Iceland. Local wind speed distributions are represented by Weibull statistics. The shape parameter across Iceland varies between 1.2 and 3.6, with the lowest values indicative of near-exponential distributions at sheltered locations, and the highest values indicative of normal distributions at exposed locations in winter. Compared with summer, average power density in winter is increased throughout Iceland by a factor of 2.0 - 5.5. In any season, there are also considerable spatial differences in average wind power density. Relative to the average value within 10 km of the coast, power density across Iceland varies between 50 - 250%, excluding glaciers, or between 300 - 1500 W m-2 at 50 m above ground level in winter. At intermediate elevations of 500 - 1000 m above mean sea level, power density is independent of the distance to the coast. In addition to seasonal and spatial variability, differences in average wind speed and power density also exist for different wind directions. Along the coast in winter, power density of onshore winds is higher by 100 - 700 W m-2 than that of offshore winds. The regions with the highest average wind speeds are impractical for wind farms, due to the distances from road
Potential energy surfaces of Polonium isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nerlo-Pomorska, B.; Pomorski, K.; Schmitt, C.; Bartel, J.
2015-11-01
The evolution of the potential energy landscape is analysed in detail for ten even-even polonium isotopes in the mass range 188\\lt A\\lt 220 as obtained within the macroscopic-microscopic approach, relying on the Lublin-Strasbourg drop model and the Yukawa-folded single-particle energies for calculating the microscopic shell and pairing corrections. A variant of the modified Funny-Hills nuclear shape parametrization is used to efficiently map possible fission paths. The approach explains the main features of the fragment partition as measured in low-energy fission along the polonium chain. The latter lies in a transitional region of the nuclear chart, and will be essential to consistently understand the evolution of fission properties from neutron-deficient mercury to heavy actinides. The ability of our method to predict fission observables over such an extended region looks promising.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sellers, Michael; Lisal, Martin; Brennan, John
2015-06-01
Investigating the ability of a molecular model to accurately represent a real material is crucial to model development and use. When the model simulates materials in extreme conditions, one such property worth evaluating is the phase transition point. However, phase transitions are often overlooked or approximated because of difficulty or inaccuracy when simulating them. Techniques such as super-heating or super-squeezing a material to induce a phase change suffer from inherent timescale limitations leading to ``over-driving,'' and dual-phase simulations require many long-time runs to seek out what frequently results in an inexact location of phase-coexistence. We present a compilation of methods for the determination of solid-solid and solid-liquid phase transition points through the accurate calculation of the chemical potential. The methods are applied to the Smith-Bharadwaj atomistic potential's representation of cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) to accurately determine its melting point (Tm) and the alpha to gamma solid phase transition pressure. We also determine Tm for a coarse-grain model of RDX, and compare its value to experiment and atomistic counterpart. All methods are employed via the LAMMPS simulator, resulting in 60-70 simulations that total 30-50 ns. Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited.
Photodissociation of methane: Exploring potential energy surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Harrevelt, Rob
2006-09-01
The potential energy surface for the first excited singlet state (S1) of methane is explored using multireference singles and doubles configuration interaction calculations, employing a valence triple zeta basis set. A larger valence quadruple zeta basis is used to calculate the vertical excitation energy and dissociation energies. All stationary points found on the S1 surface are saddle points and have imaginary frequencies for symmetry-breaking vibrations. By studying several two-dimensional cuts through the potential energy surfaces, it is argued that CH4 in the S1 state will distort to planar structures. Several conical intersection seams between the ground state surface S0 and the S1 surface have been identified at planar geometries. The conical intersections provide electronically nonadiabatic pathways towards products CH3(X˜A2″2)+H, CH2(ãA11)+H2, or CH2(X˜B13)+H +H. The present results thereby make it plausible that the CH3(X˜A2″2)+H and CH2(ãA11)+H2 channels are major dissociation channels, as has been observed experimentally.
Henderson, Hugh I.; Parker, Danny; Huang, Yu J.
2000-08-04
In hourly energy simulations, it is important to properly predict the performance of air conditioning systems over a range of full and part load operating conditions. An important component of these calculations is to properly consider the performance of the cycling air conditioner and how it interacts with the building. This paper presents improved approaches to properly account for the part load performance of residential and light commercial air conditioning systems in DOE-2. First, more accurate correlations are given to predict the degradation of system efficiency at part load conditions. In addition, a user-defined function for RESYS is developed that provides improved predictions of air conditioner sensible and latent capacity at part load conditions. The user function also provides more accurate predictions of space humidity by adding ''lumped'' moisture capacitance into the calculations. The improved cooling coil model and the addition of moisture capacitance predicts humidity swings that are more representative of the performance observed in real buildings.
Communication: Accurate hydration free energies at a wide range of temperatures from 3D-RISM.
Misin, Maksim; Fedorov, Maxim V; Palmer, David S
2015-03-01
We present a new model for computing hydration free energies by 3D reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) that uses an appropriate initial state of the system (as suggested by Sergiievskyi et al.). The new adjustment to 3D-RISM theory significantly improves hydration free energy predictions for various classes of organic molecules at both ambient and non-ambient temperatures. An extensive benchmarking against experimental data shows that the accuracy of the model is comparable to (much more computationally expensive) molecular dynamics simulations. The calculations can be readily performed with a standard 3D-RISM algorithm. In our work, we used an open source package AmberTools; a script to automate the whole procedure is available on the web (https://github.com/MTS-Strathclyde/ISc). PMID:25747054
Palmer, David S; Sergiievskyi, Volodymyr P; Jensen, Frank; Fedorov, Maxim V
2010-07-28
We report on the results of testing the reference interaction site model (RISM) for the estimation of the hydration free energy of druglike molecules. The optimum model was selected after testing of different RISM free energy expressions combined with different quantum mechanics and empirical force-field methods of structure optimization and atomic partial charge calculation. The final model gave a systematic error with a standard deviation of 2.6 kcal/mol for a test set of 31 molecules selected from the SAMPL1 blind challenge set [J. P. Guthrie, J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 4501 (2009)]. After parametrization of this model to include terms for the excluded volume and the number of atoms of different types in the molecule, the root mean squared error for a test set of 19 molecules was less than 1.2 kcal/mol.
Accurate Exchange-Correlation Energies for the Warm Dense Electron Gas.
Malone, Fionn D; Blunt, N S; Brown, Ethan W; Lee, D K K; Spencer, J S; Foulkes, W M C; Shepherd, James J
2016-09-01
The density matrix quantum Monte Carlo (DMQMC) method is used to sample exact-on-average N-body density matrices for uniform electron gas systems of up to 10^{124} matrix elements via a stochastic solution of the Bloch equation. The results of these calculations resolve a current debate over the accuracy of the data used to parametrize finite-temperature density functionals. Exchange-correlation energies calculated using the real-space restricted path-integral formalism and the k-space configuration path-integral formalism disagree by up to ∼10% at certain reduced temperatures T/T_{F}≤0.5 and densities r_{s}≤1. Our calculations confirm the accuracy of the configuration path-integral Monte Carlo results available at high density and bridge the gap to lower densities, providing trustworthy data in the regime typical of planetary interiors and solids subject to laser irradiation. We demonstrate that the DMQMC method can calculate free energies directly and present exact free energies for T/T_{F}≥1 and r_{s}≤2.
Accurate Exchange-Correlation Energies for the Warm Dense Electron Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malone, Fionn D.; Blunt, N. S.; Brown, Ethan W.; Lee, D. K. K.; Spencer, J. S.; Foulkes, W. M. C.; Shepherd, James J.
2016-09-01
The density matrix quantum Monte Carlo (DMQMC) method is used to sample exact-on-average N -body density matrices for uniform electron gas systems of up to 10124 matrix elements via a stochastic solution of the Bloch equation. The results of these calculations resolve a current debate over the accuracy of the data used to parametrize finite-temperature density functionals. Exchange-correlation energies calculated using the real-space restricted path-integral formalism and the k -space configuration path-integral formalism disagree by up to ˜10 % at certain reduced temperatures T /TF≤0.5 and densities rs≤1 . Our calculations confirm the accuracy of the configuration path-integral Monte Carlo results available at high density and bridge the gap to lower densities, providing trustworthy data in the regime typical of planetary interiors and solids subject to laser irradiation. We demonstrate that the DMQMC method can calculate free energies directly and present exact free energies for T /TF≥1 and rs≤2 .
Yoshidome, Takashi; Ekimoto, Toru; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki; Harano, Yuichi; Kinoshita, Masahiro; Ikeguchi, Mitsunori
2015-05-01
The hydration free energy (HFE) is a crucially important physical quantity to discuss various chemical processes in aqueous solutions. Although an explicit-solvent computation with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations is a preferable treatment of the HFE, huge computational load has been inevitable for large, complex solutes like proteins. In the present paper, we propose an efficient computation method for the HFE. In our method, the HFE is computed as a sum of 〈UUV〉/2 (〈UUV〉 is the ensemble average of the sum of pair interaction energy between solute and water molecule) and the water reorganization term mainly reflecting the excluded volume effect. Since 〈UUV〉 can readily be computed through a MD of the system composed of solute and water, an efficient computation of the latter term leads to a reduction of computational load. We demonstrate that the water reorganization term can quantitatively be calculated using the morphometric approach (MA) which expresses the term as the linear combinations of the four geometric measures of a solute and the corresponding coefficients determined with the energy representation (ER) method. Since the MA enables us to finish the computation of the solvent reorganization term in less than 0.1 s once the coefficients are determined, the use of the MA enables us to provide an efficient computation of the HFE even for large, complex solutes. Through the applications, we find that our method has almost the same quantitative performance as the ER method with substantial reduction of the computational load. PMID:25956125
Accurate Exchange-Correlation Energies for the Warm Dense Electron Gas.
Malone, Fionn D; Blunt, N S; Brown, Ethan W; Lee, D K K; Spencer, J S; Foulkes, W M C; Shepherd, James J
2016-09-01
The density matrix quantum Monte Carlo (DMQMC) method is used to sample exact-on-average N-body density matrices for uniform electron gas systems of up to 10^{124} matrix elements via a stochastic solution of the Bloch equation. The results of these calculations resolve a current debate over the accuracy of the data used to parametrize finite-temperature density functionals. Exchange-correlation energies calculated using the real-space restricted path-integral formalism and the k-space configuration path-integral formalism disagree by up to ∼10% at certain reduced temperatures T/T_{F}≤0.5 and densities r_{s}≤1. Our calculations confirm the accuracy of the configuration path-integral Monte Carlo results available at high density and bridge the gap to lower densities, providing trustworthy data in the regime typical of planetary interiors and solids subject to laser irradiation. We demonstrate that the DMQMC method can calculate free energies directly and present exact free energies for T/T_{F}≥1 and r_{s}≤2. PMID:27661699
Yamagishi, Junya; Okimoto, Noriaki; Morimoto, Gentaro; Taiji, Makoto
2014-11-01
The Poisson-Boltzmann implicit solvent (PB) is widely used to estimate the solvation free energies of biomolecules in molecular simulations. An optimized set of atomic radii (PB radii) is an important parameter for PB calculations, which determines the distribution of dielectric constants around the solute. We here present new PB radii for the AMBER protein force field to accurately reproduce the solvation free energies obtained from explicit solvent simulations. The presented PB radii were optimized using results from explicit solvent simulations of the large systems. In addition, we discriminated PB radii for N- and C-terminal residues from those for nonterminal residues. The performances using our PB radii showed high accuracy for the estimation of solvation free energies at the level of the molecular fragment. The obtained PB radii are effective for the detailed analysis of the solvation effects of biomolecules.
2006-01-01
Tertiary interactions are crucial in maintaining the tRNA structure and functionality. We used a combined sequence analysis and quantum mechanics approach to calculate accurate energies of the most frequent tRNA tertiary base pairing interactions. Our analysis indicates that six out of the nine classical tertiary interactions are held in place mainly by H-bonds between the bases. In the remaining three cases other effects have to be considered. Tertiary base pairing interaction energies range from −8 to −38 kcal/mol in yeast tRNAPhe and are estimated to contribute roughly 25% of the overall tRNA base pairing interaction energy. Six analyzed posttranslational chemical modifications were shown to have minor effect on the geometry of the tertiary interactions. Modifications that introduce a positive charge strongly stabilize the corresponding tertiary interactions. Non-additive effects contribute to the stability of base triplets. PMID:16461956
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Yuansheng; Periasamy, Ammasi
2010-03-01
Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy is commonly used to monitor protein interactions with filter-based imaging systems, which require spectral bleedthrough (or cross talk) correction to accurately measure energy transfer efficiency (E). The double-label (donor+acceptor) specimen is excited with the donor wavelength, the acceptor emission provided the uncorrected FRET signal and the donor emission (the donor channel) represents the quenched donor (qD), the basis for the E calculation. Our results indicate this is not the most accurate determination of the quenched donor signal as it fails to consider the donor spectral bleedthrough (DSBT) signals in the qD for the E calculation, which our new model addresses, leading to a more accurate E result. This refinement improves E comparisons made with lifetime and spectral FRET imaging microscopy as shown here using several genetic (FRET standard) constructs, where cerulean and venus fluorescent proteins are tethered by different amino acid linkers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Levin, Eugene; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The potential energy surfaces for H2-N and N2-N interactions are calculated by accurate ab initio methods and applied to determine transport data. The results confirm that an effective potential energy for accurately determining transport properties can be calculated using a single orientation. A simple method is developed to determine the dispersion coefficients of effective potential energies Effective potential energies required for O2-O collisions are determ=ined. The H2-N, N2-N, O2-H, and O2-O collision integrals are calculated and tabulated for a large range of temperatures. The theoretical values of the N2-N and O2-O diffusion coefficients compare well with measured data available at room temperature.
Friedrich, Joachim
2015-08-11
In this work we analyze the accuracy and the efficiency of different schemes to obtain the complete basis set limit for CCSD(T). It is found that composite schemes using an MP2 increment to reach the basis set limit provide high accuracy combined with high efficiency. In these composite schemes the MP2-F12/cc-pVTZ-F12 method is suitable to compute the MP2 contribution at the basis set limit. We propose to use the def2-TZVP or the TZVPP basis sets at the coupled cluster level in combination with the cc-pVTZ-F12 basis set at the MP2 level to compute reaction energies close to the basis set limit, if high accuracy methods like CCSD(T)(F12*) or 56-extrapolations are no longer feasible due to the computational effort. The standard deviation of CCSD(T)+ΔMP2/cc-pVTZ-F12/def2-TZVP and CCSD(T)+ΔMP2/cc-pVTZ-F12/TZVPP is found to be only 0.93 and 0.65 kJ/mol for a test set of 51 closed shell reactions. Furthermore, we provide a comprehensive list of different computational strategies to obtain CCSD(T) reaction energies with an efficiency and accuracy measure. Finally we analyze how different choices of the exponent in the correlation factor (γ) change the results when using explicitly correlated methods. The statistical results in this study are based on a set of 51 reaction energies in the range of 0.7 to 631.5 kJ/mol.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Desmarais, R. N.
1982-01-01
The method is capable of generating approximations of arbitrary accuracy. It is based on approximating the algebraic part of the nonelementary integrals in the kernel by exponential functions and then integrating termwise. The exponent spacing in the approximation is a geometric sequence. The coefficients and exponent multiplier of the exponential approximation are computed by least squares so the method is completely automated. Exponential approximates generated in this manner are two orders of magnitude more accurate than the exponential approximation that is currently most often used for this purpose. The method can be used to generate approximations to attain any desired trade-off between accuracy and computing cost.
Potential Energy Curves for Excited States of the Hydrogen-Antihydrogen System
Sharipov, V.; Labzowsky, L.; Plunien, G.
2006-09-08
The potential energy curves for the hydrogen-antihydrogen (HH) system in states with a leptonic orbital angular momentum projection {lambda}=0, 1, 2, 6, and 30 are presented. Within the framework of the adiabatic picture, explicitly correlated Gaussians are used as basis functions which describe accurately the hydrogen-antihydrogen interaction. The critical internuclear distances where the system transforms into positronium and protonium atoms are found. Adiabatic corrections to the potential energy curves are also estimated.
Potential energy curves for excited states of the hydrogen-antihydrogen system.
Sharipov, V; Labzowsky, L; Plunien, G
2006-09-01
The potential energy curves for the hydrogen-antihydrogen (HH) system in states with a leptonic orbital angular momentum projection Lambda=0, 1, 2, 6, and 30 are presented. Within the framework of the adiabatic picture, explicitly correlated Gaussians are used as basis functions which describe accurately the hydrogen-antihydrogen interaction. The critical internuclear distances where the system transforms into positronium and protonium atoms are found. Adiabatic corrections to the potential energy curves are also estimated.
Accurate electron affinity of Pb and isotope shifts of binding energies of Pb(.).
Chen, Xiaolin; Ning, Chuangang
2016-08-28
Lead (Pb) was the last element of the group IVA whose electron affinity had a low accuracy around 10 meV before the present work. This was due to the generic threshold photodetachment measurement that cannot extent well below 0.5 eV due to the light source limitation. In the present work, the electron affinity of Pb was determined to be 2877.33(13) cm(-1) or 0.356 743(16) eV for the isotope m = 208. The accuracy was improved by a factor of 500 with respect to the previous laser photodetachment electron spectroscopy. Moreover, remarkable isotope shifts of the binding energy of Pb(-) 6p(3) (4)S3/2 - Pb 6p(2) (3)P2 were observed for m = 206, 207, and 208. PMID:27586918
Accurate electron affinity of Pb and isotope shifts of binding energies of Pb-
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xiaolin; Ning, Chuangang
2016-08-01
Lead (Pb) was the last element of the group IVA whose electron affinity had a low accuracy around 10 meV before the present work. This was due to the generic threshold photodetachment measurement that cannot extent well below 0.5 eV due to the light source limitation. In the present work, the electron affinity of Pb was determined to be 2877.33(13) cm-1 or 0.356 743(16) eV for the isotope m = 208. The accuracy was improved by a factor of 500 with respect to the previous laser photodetachment electron spectroscopy. Moreover, remarkable isotope shifts of the binding energy of Pb- 6p3 4S3/2 - Pb 6p2 3P2 were observed for m = 206, 207, and 208.
Accurate human tissue characterization for energy-efficient wireless on-body communications.
Vallejo, Mónica; Recas, Joaquín; del Valle, Pablo García; Ayala, José L
2013-06-10
The demand for Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) is rapidly increasing due to the revolution in wearable systems demonstrated by the penetration of on-the-body sensors in hospitals, sports medicine and general health-care practices. In WBSN, the body acts as a communication channel for the propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves, where losses are mainly due to absorption of power in the tissue. This paper shows the effects of the dielectric properties of biological tissues in the signal strength and, for the first time, relates these effects with the human body composition. After a careful analysis of results, this work proposes a reactive algorithm for power transmission to alleviate the effect of body movement and body type. This policy achieves up to 40.8% energy savings in a realistic scenario with no performance overhead.
Accurate Human Tissue Characterization for Energy-Efficient Wireless On-Body Communications
Vallejo, Mónica; Recas, Joaquín; del Valle, Pablo García; Ayala, José L.
2013-01-01
The demand for Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) is rapidly increasing due to the revolution in wearable systems demonstrated by the penetration of on-the-body sensors in hospitals, sports medicine and general health-care practices. In WBSN, the body acts as a communication channel for the propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves, where losses are mainly due to absorption of power in the tissue. This paper shows the effects of the dielectric properties of biological tissues in the signal strength and, for the first time, relates these effects with the human body composition. After a careful analysis of results, this work proposes a reactive algorithm for power transmission to alleviate the effect of body movement and body type. This policy achieves up to 40.8% energy savings in a realistic scenario with no performance overhead. PMID:23752565
California's biomass and its energy potential
Lucarelli, F.B. Jr.
1980-04-01
The potentials for using California's biomass for energy have been assessed. The study relies on the recent work of Amory Lovins and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Distributed Energy System's Project to specify an energy future for Californians. These works identify transportation fuels as the most valuable energy conversion for biomass. Within this context, the extent of five categories of terrestial biomass is estimated, in addition to the environmental impacts and monetary cost of collecting and transporting each biomass category. Estimates of the costs of transforming biomass into different fuels as well as a survey of government's role in a biomass energy program are presented. The major findings are summarized below. (1) California's existing biomass resources are sufficient to provide only 20 percent of its future liquid fuel requirements. (2) Meeting the full transportation demand with biomass derived fuels will require the development of exotic biomass sources such as kelp farms and significant reductions in automobile travel in the State. (3) Under assumptions of moderate increases in gasoline prices and without major new government incentives, the cost of transforming biomass into transport fuels will be competitive with the price of gasoline on a Btu basis by the year 1990. (4) The environmental impacts of collecting most forms of biomass are beneficial and should reduce air pollution from agricultural burning and water pollution from feedlot and dairy farm runoff. Moreover, the collection of logging residues should improve timber stand productivity and the harvest of chaparral should reduce the risk of wildfire in the State. (5) The institutional context for implementing biomass energy projects is complex and fragmented.
The molecular potential energy surface and vibrational energy levels of methyl fluoride. Part II.
Manson, Steven A; Law, Mark M; Atkinson, Ian A; Thomson, Grant A
2006-06-28
New analytical bending and stretching, ground electronic state, potential energy surfaces for CH(3)F are reported. The surfaces are expressed in bond-length, bond-angle internal coordinates. The four-dimensional stretching surface is an accurate, least squares fit to over 2000 symmetrically unique ab initio points calculated at the CCSD(T) level. Similarly, the five-dimensional bending surface is a fit to over 1200 symmetrically unique ab initio points. This is an important first stage towards a full nine-dimensional potential energy surface for the prototype CH(3)F molecule. Using these surfaces, highly excited stretching and (separately) bending vibrational energy levels of CH(3)F are calculated variationally using a finite basis representation method. The method uses the exact vibrational kinetic energy operator derived for XY(3)Z systems by Manson and Law (preceding paper, Part I, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2006, 8, DOI: 10.1039/b603106d). We use the full C(3v) symmetry and the computer codes are designed to use an arbitrary potential energy function. Ultimately, these results will be used to design a compact basis for fully coupled stretch-bend calculations of the vibrational energy levels of the CH(3)F system.
Spatial Pattern Classification for More Accurate Forecasting of Variable Energy Resources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novakovskaia, E.; Hayes, C.; Collier, C.
2014-12-01
The accuracy of solar and wind forecasts is becoming increasingly essential as grid operators continue to integrate additional renewable generation onto the electric grid. Forecast errors affect rate payers, grid operators, wind and solar plant maintenance crews and energy traders through increases in prices, project down time or lost revenue. While extensive and beneficial efforts were undertaken in recent years to improve physical weather models for a broad spectrum of applications these improvements have generally not been sufficient to meet the accuracy demands of system planners. For renewables, these models are often used in conjunction with additional statistical models utilizing both meteorological observations and the power generation data. Forecast accuracy can be dependent on specific weather regimes for a given location. To account for these dependencies it is important that parameterizations used in statistical models change as the regime changes. An automated tool, based on an artificial neural network model, has been developed to identify different weather regimes as they impact power output forecast accuracy at wind or solar farms. In this study, improvements in forecast accuracy were analyzed for varying time horizons for wind farms and utility-scale PV plants located in different geographical regions.
Chawla, Mohit; Oliva, Romina; Bujnicki, Janusz M.; Cavallo, Luigi
2015-01-01
Posttranscriptional modifications greatly enhance the chemical information of RNA molecules, contributing to explain the diversity of their structures and functions. A significant fraction of RNA experimental structures available to date present modified nucleobases, with half of them being involved in H-bonding interactions with other bases, i.e. ‘modified base pairs’. Herein we present a systematic investigation of modified base pairs, in the context of experimental RNA structures. To this end, we first compiled an atlas of experimentally observed modified base pairs, for which we recorded occurrences and structural context. Then, for each base pair, we selected a representative for subsequent quantum mechanics calculations, to find out its optimal geometry and interaction energy. Our structural analyses show that most of the modified base pairs are non Watson–Crick like and are involved in RNA tertiary structure motifs. In addition, quantum mechanics calculations quantify and provide a rationale for the impact of the different modifications on the geometry and stability of the base pairs they participate in. PMID:26117545
Chawla, Mohit; Oliva, Romina; Bujnicki, Janusz M; Cavallo, Luigi
2015-08-18
Posttranscriptional modifications greatly enhance the chemical information of RNA molecules, contributing to explain the diversity of their structures and functions. A significant fraction of RNA experimental structures available to date present modified nucleobases, with half of them being involved in H-bonding interactions with other bases, i.e. 'modified base pairs'. Herein we present a systematic investigation of modified base pairs, in the context of experimental RNA structures. To this end, we first compiled an atlas of experimentally observed modified base pairs, for which we recorded occurrences and structural context. Then, for each base pair, we selected a representative for subsequent quantum mechanics calculations, to find out its optimal geometry and interaction energy. Our structural analyses show that most of the modified base pairs are non Watson-Crick like and are involved in RNA tertiary structure motifs. In addition, quantum mechanics calculations quantify and provide a rationale for the impact of the different modifications on the geometry and stability of the base pairs they participate in. PMID:26117545
Assessment of wind energy potential in Poland
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Starosta, Katarzyna; Linkowska, Joanna; Mazur, Andrzej
2014-05-01
The aim of the presentation is to show the suitability of using numerical model wind speed forecasts for the wind power industry applications in Poland. In accordance with the guidelines of the European Union, the consumption of wind energy in Poland is rapidly increasing. According to the report of Energy Regulatory Office from 30 March 2013, the installed capacity of wind power in Poland was 2807MW from 765 wind power stations. Wind energy is strongly dependent on the meteorological conditions. Based on the climatological wind speed data, potential energy zones within the area of Poland have been developed (H. Lorenc). They are the first criterion for assessing the location of the wind farm. However, for exact monitoring of a given wind farm location the prognostic data from numerical model forecasts are necessary. For the practical interpretation and further post-processing, the verification of the model data is very important. Polish Institute Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMWM-NRI) runs an operational model COSMO (Consortium for Small-scale Modelling, version 4.8) using two nested domains at horizontal resolutions of 7 km and 2.8 km. The model produces 36 hour and 78 hour forecasts from 00 UTC, for 2.8 km and 7 km domain resolutions respectively. Numerical forecasts were compared with the observation of 60 SYNOP and 3 TEMP stations in Poland, using VERSUS2 (Unified System Verification Survey 2) and R package. For every zone the set of statistical indices (ME, MAE, RMSE) was calculated. Forecast errors for aerological profiles are shown for Polish TEMP stations at Wrocław, Legionowo and Łeba. The current studies are connected with a topic of the COST ES1002 WIRE-Weather Intelligence for Renewable Energies.
Potential energy surfaces of superheavy nuclei
Bender, M.; Rutz, K.; Maruhn, J.A.; Greiner, W.; Reinhard, P.-G. Rutz, K.; Maruhn, J.A.; Greiner, W.
1998-10-01
We investigate the structure of the potential energy surfaces of the superheavy nuclei {sub 158}{sup 258}Fm{sub 100}, {sub 156}{sup 264}Hs{sub 108}, {sub 166}{sup 278}112, {sub 184}{sup 298}114, and {sub 172}{sup 292}120 within the framework of self-consistent nuclear models, i.e., the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock approach and the relativistic mean-field model. We compare results obtained with one representative parametrization of each model which is successful in describing superheavy nuclei. We find systematic changes as compared to the potential energy surfaces of heavy nuclei in the uranium region: there is no sufficiently stable fission isomer any more, the importance of triaxial configurations to lower the first barrier fades away, and asymmetric fission paths compete down to rather small deformation. Comparing the two models, it turns out that the relativistic mean-field model gives generally smaller fission barriers. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Nonintuitive Diabatic Potential Energy Surfaces for Thioanisole.
Li, Shaohong L; Xu, Xuefei; Hoyer, Chad E; Truhlar, Donald G
2015-09-01
Diabatization of potential energy surfaces is a technique that enables convenient molecular dynamics simulations of electronically nonadiabatic processes, but diabatization itself is nonunique and can be inconvenient; the best methods to achieve diabatization are still under study. Here, we present the diabatization of two electronic states of thioanisole in the S-CH3 bond stretching and C-C-S-C torsion two-dimensional nuclear coordinate space containing a conical intersection. We use two systematic methods: the (orbital-dependent) 4-fold way and the (orbital-free) Boys localization diabatization method. These very different methods yield strikingly similar diabatic potential energy surfaces that cross at geometries where the adiabatic surfaces are well separated and do not exhibit avoided crossings, and the contours of the diabatic gap and diabatic coupling are similar for the two methods. The validity of the diabatization is supported by comparing the nonadiabatic couplings calculated from the diabatic matrix elements to those calculated by direct differentiation of the adiabatic states.
Energy potential of sugarcane and sweet sorghum
Elawad, S.H.; Gascho, G.J.; Shih, S.F.
1980-01-01
The potential of sugarcane and sweet sorghum as raw materials for the production of ethanol and petrochemical substitutes is discussed. Both crops belong to the grass family and are classified as C/sub 4/ malateformers which have the highest rate of photosynthesis among terrestrial plants. Large amounts of biomass are required to supply a significant fraction of US energy consumption. Biomass production could be substantially increased by including tops and leaves, adopting narrow row spacing and improving cultural practices. This presents challenges for cultivating, harvesting, and hauling the biomass to processing centers. Large plants and heavy capital investment are essential for energy production. Ethanol and ammonia are the most promising candidates of a biomass program. If sugarcane were to be used for biomass production, breeding programs should be directed for more fermentable sugars and fiber. Energy research on sweet sorghum should be done with syrup varieties. Sweet sorghum needs to be incorporated with other crops because of its short growing season. The disposal of stillage from an extensive ethanol industry may pose environmental problems.
Computed Potential Energy Surfaces and Minimum Energy Pathway for Chemical Reactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walch, Stephen P.; Langhoff, S. R. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
Computed potential energy surfaces are often required for computation of such observables as rate constants as a function of temperature, product branching ratios, and other detailed properties. We have found that computation of the stationary points/reaction pathways using CASSCF/derivative methods, followed by use of the internally contracted CI method with the Dunning correlation consistent basis sets to obtain accurate energetics, gives useful results for a number of chemically important systems. Applications to complex reactions leading to NO and soot formation in hydrocarbon combustion are discussed.
Induced Seismicity Potential of Energy Technologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hitzman, Murray
2013-03-01
Earthquakes attributable to human activities-``induced seismic events''-have received heightened public attention in the United States over the past several years. Upon request from the U.S. Congress and the Department of Energy, the National Research Council was asked to assemble a committee of experts to examine the scale, scope, and consequences of seismicity induced during fluid injection and withdrawal associated with geothermal energy development, oil and gas development, and carbon capture and storage (CCS). The committee's report, publicly released in June 2012, indicates that induced seismicity associated with fluid injection or withdrawal is caused in most cases by change in pore fluid pressure and/or change in stress in the subsurface in the presence of faults with specific properties and orientations and a critical state of stress in the rocks. The factor that appears to have the most direct consequence in regard to induced seismicity is the net fluid balance (total balance of fluid introduced into or removed from the subsurface). Energy technology projects that are designed to maintain a balance between the amount of fluid being injected and withdrawn, such as most oil and gas development projects, appear to produce fewer seismic events than projects that do not maintain fluid balance. Major findings from the study include: (1) as presently implemented, the process of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas recovery does not pose a high risk for inducing felt seismic events; (2) injection for disposal of waste water derived from energy technologies does pose some risk for induced seismicity, but very few events have been documented over the past several decades relative to the large number of disposal wells in operation; and (3) CCS, due to the large net volumes of injected fluids suggested for future large-scale carbon storage projects, may have potential for inducing larger seismic events.
Communication: Certifying the potential energy landscape
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehta, Dhagash; Hauenstein, Jonathan D.; Wales, David J.
2013-05-01
It is highly desirable for numerical approximations to stationary points for a potential energy landscape to lie in the corresponding quadratic convergence basin. However, it is possible that an approximation may lie only in the linear convergence basin, or even in a chaotic region, and hence not converge to the actual stationary point when further optimization is attempted. Proving that a numerical approximation will quadratically converge to the associated stationary point is termed certification. Here, we apply Smale's α-theory to stationary points, providing a certification serving as a mathematical proof that the numerical approximation does indeed correspond to an actual stationary point, independent of the precision employed. As a practical example, employing recently developed certification algorithms, we show how the α-theory can be used to certify all the known minima and transition states of Lennard-Jones LJN atomic clusters for N = 7, …, 14.
Certification and the potential energy landscape
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehta, Dhagash; Hauenstein, Jonathan D.; Wales, David J.
2014-06-01
Typically, there is no guarantee that a numerical approximation obtained using standard nonlinear equation solvers is indeed an actual solution, meaning that it lies in the quadratic convergence basin. Instead, it may lie only in the linear convergence basin, or even in a chaotic region, and hence not converge to the corresponding stationary point when further optimization is attempted. In some cases, these non-solutions could be misleading. Proving that a numerical approximation will quadratically converge to a stationary point is termed certification. In this report, we provide details of how Smale's α-theory can be used to certify numerically obtained stationary points of a potential energy landscape, providing a mathematical proof that the numerical approximation does indeed correspond to an actual stationary point, independent of the precision employed.
Tensor decomposition in potential energy surface representations.
Ostrowski, Lukas; Ziegler, Benjamin; Rauhut, Guntram
2016-09-14
In order to reduce the operation count in vibration correlation methods, e.g., vibrational configuration interaction (VCI) theory, a tensor decomposition approach has been applied to the analytical representations of multidimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs). It is shown that a decomposition of the coefficients within the individual n-mode coupling terms in a multimode expansion of the PES is feasible and allows for convenient contractions of one-dimensional integrals with these newly determined factor matrices. Deviations in the final VCI frequencies of a set of small molecules were found to be negligible once the rank of the factors matrices is chosen appropriately. Recommendations for meaningful ranks are provided and different algorithms are discussed. PMID:27634247
Certification and the potential energy landscape
Mehta, Dhagash; Hauenstein, Jonathan D.; Wales, David J.
2014-06-14
Typically, there is no guarantee that a numerical approximation obtained using standard nonlinear equation solvers is indeed an actual solution, meaning that it lies in the quadratic convergence basin. Instead, it may lie only in the linear convergence basin, or even in a chaotic region, and hence not converge to the corresponding stationary point when further optimization is attempted. In some cases, these non-solutions could be misleading. Proving that a numerical approximation will quadratically converge to a stationary point is termed certification. In this report, we provide details of how Smale's α-theory can be used to certify numerically obtained stationary points of a potential energy landscape, providing a mathematical proof that the numerical approximation does indeed correspond to an actual stationary point, independent of the precision employed.
Vibrational energies for HFCO using a neural network sum of exponentials potential energy surface.
Pradhan, Ekadashi; Brown, Alex
2016-05-01
A six-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for formyl fluoride (HFCO) is fit in a sum-of-products form using neural network exponential fitting functions. The ab initio data upon which the fit is based were computed at the explicitly correlated coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)-F12]/cc-pVTZ-F12 level of theory. The PES fit is accurate (RMSE = 10 cm(-1)) up to 10 000 cm(-1) above the zero point energy and covers most of the experimentally measured IR data. The PES is validated by computing vibrational energies for both HFCO and deuterated formyl fluoride (DFCO) using block improved relaxation with the multi-configuration time dependent Hartree approach. The frequencies of the fundamental modes, and all other vibrational states up to 5000 cm(-1) above the zero-point energy, are more accurate than those obtained from the previous MP2-based PES. The vibrational frequencies obtained on the PES are compared to anharmonic frequencies at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ and CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ levels of theory obtained using second-order vibrational perturbation theory. The new PES will be useful for quantum dynamics simulations for both HFCO and DFCO, e.g., studies of intramolecular vibrational redistribution leading to unimolecular dissociation and its laser control.
Vibrational energies for HFCO using a neural network sum of exponentials potential energy surface.
Pradhan, Ekadashi; Brown, Alex
2016-05-01
A six-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for formyl fluoride (HFCO) is fit in a sum-of-products form using neural network exponential fitting functions. The ab initio data upon which the fit is based were computed at the explicitly correlated coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)-F12]/cc-pVTZ-F12 level of theory. The PES fit is accurate (RMSE = 10 cm(-1)) up to 10 000 cm(-1) above the zero point energy and covers most of the experimentally measured IR data. The PES is validated by computing vibrational energies for both HFCO and deuterated formyl fluoride (DFCO) using block improved relaxation with the multi-configuration time dependent Hartree approach. The frequencies of the fundamental modes, and all other vibrational states up to 5000 cm(-1) above the zero-point energy, are more accurate than those obtained from the previous MP2-based PES. The vibrational frequencies obtained on the PES are compared to anharmonic frequencies at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ and CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ levels of theory obtained using second-order vibrational perturbation theory. The new PES will be useful for quantum dynamics simulations for both HFCO and DFCO, e.g., studies of intramolecular vibrational redistribution leading to unimolecular dissociation and its laser control. PMID:27155638
Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walch, Stephen P.
1988-01-01
The minimum energy path for the addition of a hydrogen atom to N2 is characterized in CASSCF/CCI calculations using the (4s3p2d1f/3s2p1d) basis set, with additional single point calculations at the stationary points of the potential energy surface using the (5s4p3d2f/4s3p2d) basis set. These calculations represent the most extensive set of ab initio calculations completed to date, yielding a zero point corrected barrier for HN2 dissociation of approx. 8.5 kcal mol/1. The lifetime of the HN2 species is estimated from the calculated geometries and energetics using both conventional Transition State Theory and a method which utilizes an Eckart barrier to compute one dimensional quantum mechanical tunneling effects. It is concluded that the lifetime of the HN2 species is very short, greatly limiting its role in both termolecular recombination reactions and combustion processes.
The Wind Energy Potential of Kurdistan, Iran.
Arefi, Farzad; Moshtagh, Jamal; Moradi, Mohammad
2014-01-01
In the current work by using statistical methods and available software, the wind energy assessment of prone regions for installation of wind turbines in, Qorveh, has been investigated. Information was obtained from weather stations of Baneh, Bijar, Zarina, Saqez, Sanandaj, Qorveh, and Marivan. The monthly average and maximum of wind speed were investigated between the years 2000-2010 and the related curves were drawn. The Golobad curve (direction and percentage of dominant wind and calm wind as monthly rate) between the years 1997-2000 was analyzed and drawn with plot software. The ten-minute speed (at 10, 30, and 60 m height) and direction (at 37.5 and 10 m height) wind data were collected from weather stations of Iranian new energy organization. The wind speed distribution during one year was evaluated by using Weibull probability density function (two-parametrical), and the Weibull curve histograms were drawn by MATLAB software. According to the average wind speed of stations and technical specifications of the types of turbines, the suitable wind turbine for the station was selected. Finally, the Divandareh and Qorveh sites with favorable potential were considered for installation of wind turbines and construction of wind farms.
The Wind Energy Potential of Kurdistan, Iran
Arefi, Farzad; Moshtagh, Jamal; Moradi, Mohammad
2014-01-01
In the current work by using statistical methods and available software, the wind energy assessment of prone regions for installation of wind turbines in, Qorveh, has been investigated. Information was obtained from weather stations of Baneh, Bijar, Zarina, Saqez, Sanandaj, Qorveh, and Marivan. The monthly average and maximum of wind speed were investigated between the years 2000–2010 and the related curves were drawn. The Golobad curve (direction and percentage of dominant wind and calm wind as monthly rate) between the years 1997–2000 was analyzed and drawn with plot software. The ten-minute speed (at 10, 30, and 60 m height) and direction (at 37.5 and 10 m height) wind data were collected from weather stations of Iranian new energy organization. The wind speed distribution during one year was evaluated by using Weibull probability density function (two-parametrical), and the Weibull curve histograms were drawn by MATLAB software. According to the average wind speed of stations and technical specifications of the types of turbines, the suitable wind turbine for the station was selected. Finally, the Divandareh and Qorveh sites with favorable potential were considered for installation of wind turbines and construction of wind farms. PMID:27355042
Thermophotovoltaic energy conversion: Technology and market potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostrowski, Leon J.; Pernisz, Udo C.; Fraas, Lewis M.
1996-02-01
This report contains material displayed on poster panels during the Conference. The purpose of the contribution was to present a summary of the business overview of thermophotovoltaic generation of electricity and its market potential. The market analysis has shown that the TPV market, while currently still in an early nucleation phase, is evolving into a range of small niche markets out of which larger-size opportunities can emerge. Early commercial applications on yachts and recreational vehicles which require a quiet and emission-free compact electrical generator fit the current TPV technology and economics. Follow-on residential applications are attractive since they can combine generation of electricity with space and hot water heating in a co-generation system. Development of future markets in transportation, both private and communal or industrial, will be driven by legislation requiring emission-free vehicles, and by a reduction in TPV systems cost. As a result of ``moving down the learning curve,'' growing power and consumer markets are predicted to come into reach of TPV systems, a development favored by high overall energy conversion efficiency due to high radiation energy density and to high electric conversion efficiency available with photovoltaic cells.
The Wind Energy Potential of Kurdistan, Iran.
Arefi, Farzad; Moshtagh, Jamal; Moradi, Mohammad
2014-01-01
In the current work by using statistical methods and available software, the wind energy assessment of prone regions for installation of wind turbines in, Qorveh, has been investigated. Information was obtained from weather stations of Baneh, Bijar, Zarina, Saqez, Sanandaj, Qorveh, and Marivan. The monthly average and maximum of wind speed were investigated between the years 2000-2010 and the related curves were drawn. The Golobad curve (direction and percentage of dominant wind and calm wind as monthly rate) between the years 1997-2000 was analyzed and drawn with plot software. The ten-minute speed (at 10, 30, and 60 m height) and direction (at 37.5 and 10 m height) wind data were collected from weather stations of Iranian new energy organization. The wind speed distribution during one year was evaluated by using Weibull probability density function (two-parametrical), and the Weibull curve histograms were drawn by MATLAB software. According to the average wind speed of stations and technical specifications of the types of turbines, the suitable wind turbine for the station was selected. Finally, the Divandareh and Qorveh sites with favorable potential were considered for installation of wind turbines and construction of wind farms. PMID:27355042
Effective Potential Energies and Transport Cross Sections for Interactions of Hydrogen and Nitrogen
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Levin, Eugene; Arnold, James R. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
The interaction energies for N2-He and N2-H2 are calculated by accurate ab initio methods. The virial coefficient and differential scattering cross section for N2-H2 are calculated; the theoretical results are compared with experimental data. The transport collision integrals for N2-H2 and N2-N2 interactions are calculated and tabulated; the results yield transport coefficients that compare well with measured data. Transport coefficients are found to be determined accurately from the interaction energies for a specific configuration of the molecule formed from the interaction partners. Comparisons with results of measurement and accurate calculations demonstrate that the transport properties of complex molecular interactions can be determined rapidly and fairly accurately from the interaction energies of simpler system using combination rules for the short-range parameters of effective interaction energies and the coefficients for the long-range forces. The coefficients for a two-parameter temperature expansion of diffusion and viscosity are tabulated for a realistic universal potential energy that is based primarily on the results of very accurate calculations of the He-He interaction energy.
Energy resource potential of natural gas hydrates
Collett, T.S.
2002-01-01
The discovery of large gas hydrate accumulations in terrestrial permafrost regions of the Arctic and beneath the sea along the outer continental margins of the world's oceans has heightened interest in gas hydrates as a possible energy resource. However, significant to potentially insurmountable technical issues must be resolved before gas hydrates can be considered a viable option for affordable supplies of natural gas. The combined information from Arctic gas hydrate studies shows that, in permafrost regions, gas hydrates may exist at subsurface depths ranging from about 130 to 2000 m. The presence of gas hydrates in offshore continental margins has been inferred mainly from anomalous seismic reflectors, known as bottom-simulating reflectors, that have been mapped at depths below the sea floor ranging from about 100 to 1100 m. Current estimates of the amount of gas in the world's marine and permafrost gas hydrate accumulations are in rough accord at about 20,000 trillion m3. Disagreements over fundamental issues such as the volume of gas stored within delineated gas hydrate accumulations and the concentration of gas hydrates within hydrate-bearing strata have demonstrated that we know little about gas hydrates. Recently, however, several countries, including Japan, India, and the United States, have launched ambitious national projects to further examine the resource potential of gas hydrates. These projects may help answer key questions dealing with the properties of gas hydrate reservoirs, the design of production systems, and, most important, the costs and economics of gas hydrate production.
Issack, Bilkiss B; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas
2005-08-22
An approach for the inclusion of geometric constraints in semiclassical initial value representation calculations is introduced. An important aspect of the approach is that Cartesian coordinates are used throughout. We devised an algorithm for the constrained sampling of initial conditions through the use of multivariate Gaussian distribution based on a projected Hessian. We also propose an approach for the constrained evaluation of the so-called Herman-Kluk prefactor in its exact log-derivative form. Sample calculations are performed for free and constrained rare-gas trimers. The results show that the proposed approach provides an accurate evaluation of the reduction in zero-point energy. Exact basis set calculations are used to assess the accuracy of the semiclassical results. Since Cartesian coordinates are used, the approach is general and applicable to a variety of molecular and atomic systems.
Computed Potential Energy Surfaces and Minimum Energy Pathways for Chemical Reactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walch, Stephen P.; Langhoff, S. R. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
Computed potential energy surfaces are often required for computation of such parameters as rate constants as a function of temperature, product branching ratios, and other detailed properties. For some dynamics methods, global potential energy surfaces are required. In this case, it is necessary to obtain the energy at a complete sampling of all the possible arrangements of the nuclei, which are energetically accessible, and then a fitting function must be obtained to interpolate between the computed points. In other cases, characterization of the stationary points and the reaction pathway connecting them is sufficient. These properties may be readily obtained using analytical derivative methods. We have found that computation of the stationary points/reaction pathways using CASSCF/derivative methods, followed by use of the internally contracted CI method to obtain accurate energetics, gives usefull results for a number of chemically important systems. The talk will focus on a number of applications including global potential energy surfaces, H + O2, H + N2, O(3p) + H2, and reaction pathways for complex reactions, including reactions leading to NO and soot formation in hydrocarbon combustion.
An ab initio method for locating potential energy minima
Bock, Nicolas; Peery, Travis; Venneri, Giulia; Chisolm, Eric; Wallace, Duane; Lizarraga, Raquel; Holmstrom, Erik
2009-01-01
We study the potential energy landscape underlying the motion of monatomic liquids by quenching from random initial configurations (stochastic configurations) to the nearest local minimum of the potential energy. We show that this procedure reveals the underlying potential energy surface directly. This is in contrast to the common technique of quenching from a molecular dynamics trajectory which does not allow a direct view of the underlying potential energy surface, but needs to be corrected for thermodynamic weighting factors.
Johnson, Bruce D.; Golub, Andrew
2007-01-01
There are numerous analytic and methodological limitations to current measures of drug market activity. This paper explores the structure of markets and individual user behavior to provide an integrated understanding of behavioral and economic (and market) aspects of illegal drug use with an aim toward developing improved procedures for measurement. This involves understanding the social processes that structure illegal distribution networks and drug users’ interactions with them. These networks are where and how social behaviors, prices, and markets for illegal drugs intersect. Our focus is upon getting an up close measurement of these activities. Building better measures of consumption behaviors necessitates building better rapport with subjects than typically achieved with one-time surveys in order to overcome withholding and underreporting and to get a comprehensive understanding of the processes involved. This can be achieved through repeated interviews and observations of behaviors. This paper also describes analytic advances that could be adopted to direct this inquiry including behavioral templates, and insights into the economic valuation of labor inputs and cash expenditures for various illegal drugs. Additionally, the paper makes recommendations to funding organizations for developing the mechanisms that would support behavioral scientists to weigh specimens and to collect small samples for laboratory analysis—by providing protection from the potential for arrest. The primary focus is upon U.S. markets. The implications for other countries are discussed. PMID:16978801
Johnson, Bruce D; Golub, Andrew
2007-09-01
There are numerous analytic and methodological limitations to current measures of drug market activity. This paper explores the structure of markets and individual user behavior to provide an integrated understanding of behavioral and economic (and market) aspects of illegal drug use with an aim toward developing improved procedures for measurement. This involves understanding the social processes that structure illegal distribution networks and drug users' interactions with them. These networks are where and how social behaviors, prices, and markets for illegal drugs intersect. Our focus is upon getting an up close measurement of these activities. Building better measures of consumption behaviors necessitates building better rapport with subjects than typically achieved with one-time surveys in order to overcome withholding and underreporting and to get a comprehensive understanding of the processes involved. This can be achieved through repeated interviews and observations of behaviors. This paper also describes analytic advances that could be adopted to direct this inquiry including behavioral templates, and insights into the economic valuation of labor inputs and cash expenditures for various illegal drugs. Additionally, the paper makes recommendations to funding organizations for developing the mechanisms that would support behavioral scientists to weigh specimens and to collect small samples for laboratory analysis-by providing protection from the potential for arrest. The primary focus is upon U.S. markets. The implications for other countries are discussed. PMID:16978801
Transportation Energy Use and Conservation Potential
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hirst, Eric
1973-01-01
Analyzes transportation energy consumption and energy intensiveness for inter-city freight and passenger traffic and urban passenger traffic with the definition of energy intensiveness as Btu per ton-mile or per passenger-mile. Indicates that public education is one of three ways to achieve the goals of energy conservation. (CC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deguchi, Daiki; Sato, Kazunori; Kino, Hiori; Kotani, Takao
2016-05-01
We have recently implemented a new version of the quasiparticle self-consistent GW (QSGW) method in the ecalj package released at http://github.com/tkotani/ecalj. Since the new version of the ecalj package is numerically stable and more accurate than the previous versions, we can perform calculations easily without being bothered with tuning input parameters. Here we examine its ability to describe energy band properties, e.g., band-gap energy, eigenvalues at special points, and effective mass, for a variety of semiconductors and insulators. We treat C, Si, Ge, Sn, SiC (in 2H, 3C, and 4H structures), (Al, Ga, In) × (N, P, As, Sb), (Zn, Cd, Mg) × (O, S, Se, Te), SiO2, HfO2, ZrO2, SrTiO3, PbS, PbTe, MnO, NiO, and HgO. We propose that a hybrid QSGW method, where we mix 80% of QSGW and 20% of LDA, gives universally good agreement with experiments for these materials.
Advanced Potential Energy Surfaces for Molecular Simulation.
Albaugh, Alex; Boateng, Henry A; Bradshaw, Richard T; Demerdash, Omar N; Dziedzic, Jacek; Mao, Yuezhi; Margul, Daniel T; Swails, Jason; Zeng, Qiao; Case, David A; Eastman, Peter; Wang, Lee-Ping; Essex, Jonathan W; Head-Gordon, Martin; Pande, Vijay S; Ponder, Jay W; Shao, Yihan; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton; Todorov, Ilian T; Tuckerman, Mark E; Head-Gordon, Teresa
2016-09-22
Advanced potential energy surfaces are defined as theoretical models that explicitly include many-body effects that transcend the standard fixed-charge, pairwise-additive paradigm typically used in molecular simulation. However, several factors relating to their software implementation have precluded their widespread use in condensed-phase simulations: the computational cost of the theoretical models, a paucity of approximate models and algorithmic improvements that can ameliorate their cost, underdeveloped interfaces and limited dissemination in computational code bases that are widely used in the computational chemistry community, and software implementations that have not kept pace with modern high-performance computing (HPC) architectures, such as multicore CPUs and modern graphics processing units (GPUs). In this Feature Article we review recent progress made in these areas, including well-defined polarization approximations and new multipole electrostatic formulations, novel methods for solving the mutual polarization equations and increasing the MD time step, combining linear-scaling electronic structure methods with new QM/MM methods that account for mutual polarization between the two regions, and the greatly improved software deployment of these models and methods onto GPU and CPU hardware platforms. We have now approached an era where multipole-based polarizable force fields can be routinely used to obtain computational results comparable to state-of-the-art density functional theory while reaching sampling statistics that are acceptable when compared to that obtained from simpler fixed partial charge force fields.
Advanced Potential Energy Surfaces for Molecular Simulation.
Albaugh, Alex; Boateng, Henry A; Bradshaw, Richard T; Demerdash, Omar N; Dziedzic, Jacek; Mao, Yuezhi; Margul, Daniel T; Swails, Jason; Zeng, Qiao; Case, David A; Eastman, Peter; Wang, Lee-Ping; Essex, Jonathan W; Head-Gordon, Martin; Pande, Vijay S; Ponder, Jay W; Shao, Yihan; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton; Todorov, Ilian T; Tuckerman, Mark E; Head-Gordon, Teresa
2016-09-22
Advanced potential energy surfaces are defined as theoretical models that explicitly include many-body effects that transcend the standard fixed-charge, pairwise-additive paradigm typically used in molecular simulation. However, several factors relating to their software implementation have precluded their widespread use in condensed-phase simulations: the computational cost of the theoretical models, a paucity of approximate models and algorithmic improvements that can ameliorate their cost, underdeveloped interfaces and limited dissemination in computational code bases that are widely used in the computational chemistry community, and software implementations that have not kept pace with modern high-performance computing (HPC) architectures, such as multicore CPUs and modern graphics processing units (GPUs). In this Feature Article we review recent progress made in these areas, including well-defined polarization approximations and new multipole electrostatic formulations, novel methods for solving the mutual polarization equations and increasing the MD time step, combining linear-scaling electronic structure methods with new QM/MM methods that account for mutual polarization between the two regions, and the greatly improved software deployment of these models and methods onto GPU and CPU hardware platforms. We have now approached an era where multipole-based polarizable force fields can be routinely used to obtain computational results comparable to state-of-the-art density functional theory while reaching sampling statistics that are acceptable when compared to that obtained from simpler fixed partial charge force fields. PMID:27513316
Band-Filling Correction Method for Accurate Adsorption Energy Calculations: A Cu/ZnO Case Study.
Hellström, Matti; Spångberg, Daniel; Hermansson, Kersti; Broqvist, Peter
2013-11-12
We present a simple method, the "band-filling correction", to calculate accurate adsorption energies (Eads) in the low coverage limit from finite-size supercell slab calculations using DFT. We show that it is necessary to use such a correction if charge transfer takes place between the adsorbate and the substrate, resulting in the substrate bands either filling up or becoming depleted. With this correction scheme, we calculate Eads of an isolated Cu atom adsorbed on the ZnO(101̅0) surface. Without the correction, the calculated Eads is highly coverage-dependent, even for surface supercells that would typically be considered very large (in the range from 1 nm × 1 nm to 2.5 nm × 2.5 nm). The correction scheme works very well for semilocal functionals, where the corrected Eads is converged within 0.01 eV for all coverages. The correction scheme also works well for hybrid functionals if a large supercell is used and the exact exchange interaction is screened. PMID:26583386
Lee, Yu Ran; Kang, Do Won; Kim, Hong Lae; Kwon, Chan Ho
2014-11-01
Ionization energies and cationic structures of pyridine were intensively investigated utilizing one-photon mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy with vacuum ultraviolet radiation generated by four-wave difference frequency mixing in Kr. The present one-photon high-resolution MATI spectrum of pyridine demonstrated a much finer and richer vibrational structure than that of the previously reported two-photon MATI spectrum. From the MATI spectrum and photoionization efficiency curve, the accurate ionization energy of the ionic ground state of pyridine was confidently determined to be 73,570 ± 6 cm(-1) (9.1215 ± 0.0007 eV). The observed spectrum was almost completely assigned by utilizing Franck-Condon factors and vibrational frequencies calculated through adjustments of the geometrical parameters of cationic pyridine at the B3LYP/cc-pVTZ level. A unique feature unveiled through rigorous analysis was the prominent progression of the 10 vibrational mode, which corresponds to in-plane ring bending, and the combination of other totally symmetric fundamentals with the ring bending overtones, which contribute to the geometrical change upon ionization. Notably, the remaining peaks originate from the upper electronic state ((2)A2), as predicted by high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy studies and symmetry-adapted cluster configuration interaction calculations. Based on the quantitatively good agreement between the experimental and calculated results, it was concluded that upon ionization the pyridine cation in the ground electronic state should have a planar structure of C(2v) symmetry through the C-N axis.
Lee, Yu Ran; Kang, Do Won; Kim, Hong Lae E-mail: hlkim@kangwon.ac.kr; Kwon, Chan Ho E-mail: hlkim@kangwon.ac.kr
2014-11-07
Ionization energies and cationic structures of pyridine were intensively investigated utilizing one-photon mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy with vacuum ultraviolet radiation generated by four-wave difference frequency mixing in Kr. The present one-photon high-resolution MATI spectrum of pyridine demonstrated a much finer and richer vibrational structure than that of the previously reported two-photon MATI spectrum. From the MATI spectrum and photoionization efficiency curve, the accurate ionization energy of the ionic ground state of pyridine was confidently determined to be 73 570 ± 6 cm{sup −1} (9.1215 ± 0.0007 eV). The observed spectrum was almost completely assigned by utilizing Franck-Condon factors and vibrational frequencies calculated through adjustments of the geometrical parameters of cationic pyridine at the B3LYP/cc-pVTZ level. A unique feature unveiled through rigorous analysis was the prominent progression of the 10 vibrational mode, which corresponds to in-plane ring bending, and the combination of other totally symmetric fundamentals with the ring bending overtones, which contribute to the geometrical change upon ionization. Notably, the remaining peaks originate from the upper electronic state ({sup 2}A{sub 2}), as predicted by high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy studies and symmetry-adapted cluster configuration interaction calculations. Based on the quantitatively good agreement between the experimental and calculated results, it was concluded that upon ionization the pyridine cation in the ground electronic state should have a planar structure of C{sub 2v} symmetry through the C-N axis.
Ovchinnikov, Victor; Nam, Kwangho; Karplus, Martin
2016-08-25
A method is developed to obtain simultaneously free energy profiles and diffusion constants from restrained molecular simulations in diffusive systems. The method is based on low-order expansions of the free energy and diffusivity as functions of the reaction coordinate. These expansions lead to simple analytical relationships between simulation statistics and model parameters. The method is tested on 1D and 2D model systems; its accuracy is found to be comparable to or better than that of the existing alternatives, which are briefly discussed. An important aspect of the method is that the free energy is constructed by integrating its derivatives, which can be computed without need for overlapping sampling windows. The implementation of the method in any molecular simulation program that supports external umbrella potentials (e.g., CHARMM) requires modification of only a few lines of code. As a demonstration of its applicability to realistic biomolecular systems, the method is applied to model the α-helix ↔ β-sheet transition in a 16-residue peptide in implicit solvent, with the reaction coordinate provided by the string method. Possible modifications of the method are briefly discussed; they include generalization to multidimensional reaction coordinates [in the spirit of the model of Ermak and McCammon (Ermak, D. L.; McCammon, J. A. J. Chem. Phys. 1978, 69, 1352-1360)], a higher-order expansion of the free energy surface, applicability in nonequilibrium systems, and a simple test for Markovianity. In view of the small overhead of the method relative to standard umbrella sampling, we suggest its routine application in the cases where umbrella potential simulations are appropriate.
Accurate quantum chemical calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.
1989-01-01
An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.
Energy in America: Progress and Potential.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC.
An overview of America's energy situation is presented with emphasis on recent progress, the risk of depending upon foreign oil, and policy choices. Section one reviews the energy problems of the 1970s, issues of the 1980s, concerns for the future, and choices that if made today could alleviate future problems. Section two examines past problems,…
Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies
Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.
1985-09-01
This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.
The Potential Energy of an Autoencoder.
Kamyshanska, Hanna; Memisevic, Roland
2015-06-01
Autoencoders are popular feature learning models, that are conceptually simple, easy to train and allow for efficient inference. Recent work has shown how certain autoencoders can be associated with an energy landscape, akin to negative log-probability in a probabilistic model, which measures how well the autoencoder can represent regions in the input space. The energy landscape has been commonly inferred heuristically, by using a training criterion that relates the autoencoder to a probabilistic model such as a Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM). In this paper we show how most common autoencoders are naturally associated with an energy function, independent of the training procedure, and that the energy landscape can be inferred analytically by integrating the reconstruction function of the autoencoder. For autoencoders with sigmoid hidden units, the energy function is identical to the free energy of an RBM, which helps shed light onto the relationship between these two types of model. We also show that the autoencoder energy function allows us to explain common regularization procedures, such as contractive training, from the perspective of dynamical systems. As a practical application of the energy function, a generative classifier based on class-specific autoencoders is presented.
HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS POTENTIAL AT MUON COLLIDERS
PARSA,Z.
2000-04-07
In this paper, high energy physics possibilities and future colliders are discussed. The {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup {minus}} collider and experiments with high intensity muon beams as the stepping phase towards building Higher Energy Muon Colliders (HEMC) are briefly reviewed and encouraged.
Surveying a complex potential energy landscape: Overcoming broken ergodicity using basin-sampling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wales, David J.
2013-10-01
A new basin-sampling scheme is introduced to obtain equilibrium thermodynamic properties by combining results from global optimisation and parallel tempering calculations. Regular minimisation is used to obtain a two-dimensional density of states. A model anharmonic form is optimised using a multihistogram approach for potential energy bins corresponding to local minima, connecting the results obtained for low and high temperatures. This procedure provides accurate densities of states and thermodynamic properties for benchmark atomic clusters exhibiting broken ergodicity. It can also be used to calculate the potential energy density of local minima for distinct permutation-inversion isomers and distinct structures.
Vibrational energy levels for CH4 from an ab initio potential
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwenke, D. W.; Partridge, H.
2001-01-01
Many areas of astronomy and astrophysics require an accurate high temperature spectrum of methane (CH4). The goal of the present research is to determine an accurate ab initio potential energy surface (PES) for CH4. As a first step towards this goal, we have determined a PES including up to octic terms. We compare our results with experiment and to a PES based on a quartic expansion. Our octic PES gives good agreement with experiment for all levels, while the quartic PES only for the lower levels.
Karton, A.; Martin, J. M. L.; Ruscic, B.; Chemistry; Weizmann Institute of Science
2007-06-01
A benchmark calculation of the atomization energy of the 'simple' organic molecule C2H6 (ethane) has been carried out by means of W4 theory. While the molecule is straightforward in terms of one-particle and n-particle basis set convergence, its large zero-point vibrational energy (and anharmonic correction thereto) and nontrivial diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction (DBOC) represent interesting challenges. For the W4 set of molecules and C2H6, we show that DBOCs to the total atomization energy are systematically overestimated at the SCF level, and that the correlation correction converges very rapidly with the basis set. Thus, even at the CISD/cc-pVDZ level, useful correlation corrections to the DBOC are obtained. When applying such a correction, overall agreement with experiment was only marginally improved, but a more significant improvement is seen when hydrogen-containing systems are considered in isolation. We conclude that for closed-shell organic molecules, the greatest obstacles to highly accurate computational thermochemistry may not lie in the solution of the clamped-nuclei Schroedinger equation, but rather in the zero-point vibrational energy and the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction.
Energy Savings Potential and Research & Development Opportunities for Commercial Refrigeration
none,
2009-09-01
This study documents the energy consumption of commercial refrigeration equipment (CRE) in the U.S. and evaluated the energy savings potential of various technologies and energy efficiency measures that could be applied to such equipment. The study provided an overview of CRE applications, assessed the energy-savings potential of CRE in the U.S., outline key barriers to adoption of energy-savings technologies, and recommended opportunities for advanced energy saving technology research. The study was modeled after an earlier 1996 report by Arthur D. Little, Inc., and updated key information, examined more equipment types, and outlined long-term research and development opportunities.
Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems
Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.
1982-11-01
This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.
Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions. Semiannual report, 1 January-30 June 1990
Walch, S.P.
1990-01-01
The objective was to obtain accurate potential energy surfaces (PES's) for a number of reactions which are important in the H/N/O combustion process. The interest in this is centered around the design of the SCRAM jet engine for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), which was envisioned as an air-breathing hydrogen-burning vehicle capable of reaching velocities as large as Mach 25. Preliminary studies indicated that the supersonic flow in the combustor region of the scram jet engine required accurate reaction rate data for reactions in the H/N/O system, some of which was not readily available from experiment. The most important class of combustion reactions from the standpoint of the NASP project are radical recombinaton reactions, since these reactions result in most of the heat release in the combustion process. Theoretical characterizations of the potential energy surfaces for these reactions are presented and discussed.
Yu, Dequan; Chen, Jun; Cong, Shulin; Sun, Zhigang
2015-12-17
The FH2– anion has a stable structure that resembles a configuration in the vicinity of the transition state for neutral reaction F + H2 → HF + H. Electron photodetachment spectra of the FH2– anion reveal the neutral reaction dynamics in the critical transition-state region. Accurate quantum dynamics simulations of the photodetachment spectra using highly accurate new ab initio potential energy surfaces for both anionic and neutral FH2 are performed and compared with all available experimental results. The results provide reliable interpretations for the experimental observations of FH2– photoelectron detachment and reveal a detailed picture of the molecular dynamics around the transition state of the F + H2 reaction. The latest high-resolution photoelectron detachment spectra [Kim et al. Science, 2015, 349, 510-513] confirm the high accuracy of our new potential energy surface for describing the resonance-enhanced reactivity of the neutral F + H2 reaction.
Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean
Samuels, G.
1984-12-01
Sugarcane presents a tremendous potential as a renewable energy source for the non-oil producing countries of the Caribbean. The energy cane concept is sugarcane managed for maximum dry matter (total fermentable solids for alcohol fuel and combustible solids for electricity) rather than sucrose. The use of sugarcane as a renewable energy source can provide a solution, either partial or total, to the Caribbean energy problem. Sugar cane production and the use of this crop as a renewable energy source are described.
Energy expressions for Kohn-Sham potentials and their relation to the Slater-Janak theorem.
Elkind, Pavel D; Staroverov, Viktor N
2012-03-28
Direct approximation of exchange-correlation potentials is a promising approach to accurate prediction of molecular response properties. However, little is known about ways of obtaining total energies from model potentials other than by using the Levy-Perdew virial relation. We introduce and explore several alternative formulas which arise as line integrals of potentials taken along density scaling and aufbau-filling paths, and which are not limited to the exchange term. The relaxed-orbital variant of the aufbau-path energy expression is shown to be closely related to the Slater-Janak theorem. Although the Levy-Perdew relation generally yields reasonable energies for all model exchange potentials, the relaxed-orbital aufbau path gives better results for those potentials that predict accurate highest-occupied orbital eigenvalues, such as the potential of Räsänen, Pittalis, and Proetto [J. Chem. Phys. 132, 044112 (2010)]. The ideas presented in this work may guide the development of new types of density-functional approximations for exchange and correlation.
Energy expressions for Kohn-Sham potentials and their relation to the Slater-Janak theorem.
Elkind, Pavel D; Staroverov, Viktor N
2012-03-28
Direct approximation of exchange-correlation potentials is a promising approach to accurate prediction of molecular response properties. However, little is known about ways of obtaining total energies from model potentials other than by using the Levy-Perdew virial relation. We introduce and explore several alternative formulas which arise as line integrals of potentials taken along density scaling and aufbau-filling paths, and which are not limited to the exchange term. The relaxed-orbital variant of the aufbau-path energy expression is shown to be closely related to the Slater-Janak theorem. Although the Levy-Perdew relation generally yields reasonable energies for all model exchange potentials, the relaxed-orbital aufbau path gives better results for those potentials that predict accurate highest-occupied orbital eigenvalues, such as the potential of Räsänen, Pittalis, and Proetto [J. Chem. Phys. 132, 044112 (2010)]. The ideas presented in this work may guide the development of new types of density-functional approximations for exchange and correlation. PMID:22462843
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Timothy J.; Martin, Jan M. L.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The CCSD(T) method has been used to compute a highly accurate quartic force field and fundamental frequencies for all N-14 and N-15 isotopomers of the high energy density material T(sub d)N(sub 4). The computed fundamental frequencies show beyond doubt that the bands observed in a matrix isolation experiment by Radziszewski and coworkers are not due to different isotopomers of T(sub d)N(sub 4). The most sophisticated thermochemical calculations to date yield a N(sub 4) -> 2N(sub 2) heat of reaction of 182.22 +/- 0.5 kcal/mol at 0 K (180.64 +/- 0.5 at 298 K). It is hoped that the data reported herein will aid in the ultimate detection of T(sub d)N(sub 4).
Realizing the potential of nuclear energy. [Monograph
Walske, C.
1982-01-01
The future of nuclear power, just as the future of America, can be viewed with optimism. There is hope in America's record of overcoming obstacles, but growth is essential for that hope to be realized. Despite the downturn in energy demand made possible by conservation, we will need a 35% growth in total energy for new workers and production. Electricity generated by nuclear or coal can make US production more cost-competitive, and it can power mass-transit systems, electric heat pumps, and communications and information systems. Changes in electricity and gross national product (GNP) have been more closely in step since 1973 than have total energy and GNP. The nuclear power units now under construction will add 80,000 megawatts to the 56,000 now on line. It is important to note that, while utilities are cancelling plans for nuclear plants, they aren't ordering new coal plants, which shows the impact of the high cost of money. Interest rates must come down and public-relations efforts to sell electricity must improve to change the situation. Although capital shortages are real, waste disposal is a problem of perception that was politically induced because the government failed to provide a demonstration of safety as the French are doing. Streamlined regulatory and insurance procedures can help to justify optimism in the nuclear option. 4 figures. (DCK)
Koput, Jacek
2015-06-30
The accurate ground-state potential energy function of imidogen, NH, has been determined from ab initio calculations using the multireference averaged coupled-pair functional (MR-ACPF) method in conjunction with the correlation-consistent core-valence basis sets up to octuple-zeta quality. The importance of several effects, including electron correlation beyond the MR-ACPF level of approximation, the scalar relativistic, adiabatic, and nonadiabatic corrections were discussed. Along with the large one-particle basis set, all of these effects were found to be crucial to attain "spectroscopic" accuracy of the theoretical predictions of vibration-rotation energy levels of NH.
Geothermal energy potential in the San Luis Valley, Colorado
Coe, B.A.
1980-01-01
The background of the area itself is investigated considering the geography, population, economy, attitudes of residents, and energy demands of the area. The requirements for geothermal energy development are considered, including socio-economic, institutional, and environmental conditions as well as some technical aspects. The current, proposed, and potential geothermal energy developments are described. The summary, conclusions, and methodology are included. (MHR)
Preliminary evaluation of wind energy potential: Cook Inlet area, Alaska
Hiester, T.R.
1980-06-01
This report summarizes work on a project performed under contract to the Alaska Power Administration (APA). The objective of this research was to make a preliminary assessment of the wind energy potential for interconnection with the Cook Inlet area electric power transmission and distribution systems, to identify the most likely candidate regions (25 to 100 square miles each) for energy potential, and to recommend a monitoring program sufficient to quantify the potential.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolb, Brian; Zhao, Bin; Li, Jun; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua
2016-06-01
The applicability and accuracy of the Behler-Parrinello atomistic neural network method for fitting reactive potential energy surfaces is critically examined in three systems, H + H2 → H2 + H, H + H2O → H2 + OH, and H + CH4 → H2 + CH3. A pragmatic Monte Carlo method is proposed to make efficient choice of the atom-centered mapping functions. The accuracy of the potential energy surfaces is not only tested by fitting errors but also validated by direct comparison in dynamically important regions and by quantum scattering calculations. Our results suggest this method is both accurate and efficient in representing multidimensional potential energy surfaces even when dissociation continua are involved.
Kolb, Brian; Zhao, Bin; Li, Jun; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua
2016-06-14
The applicability and accuracy of the Behler-Parrinello atomistic neural network method for fitting reactive potential energy surfaces is critically examined in three systems, H + H2 → H2 + H, H + H2O → H2 + OH, and H + CH4 → H2 + CH3. A pragmatic Monte Carlo method is proposed to make efficient choice of the atom-centered mapping functions. The accuracy of the potential energy surfaces is not only tested by fitting errors but also validated by direct comparison in dynamically important regions and by quantum scattering calculations. Our results suggest this method is both accurate and efficient in representing multidimensional potential energy surfaces even when dissociation continua are involved.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jaffe, Richard L.; Pattengill, Merle D.; Schwenke, David W.
1989-01-01
Strategies for constructing global potential energy surfaces from a limited number of accurate ab initio electronic energy calculations are discussed. Generally, these data are concentrated in small regions of configuration space (e.g., in the vicinity of saddle points and energy minima) and difficulties arise in generating a potential function that is globally well-behaved. Efficient computer codes for carrying out classical trajectory calculations on vector and parallel processors are also described. Illustrations are given from recent work on the following chemical systems: Ca + HF yields CaF + H, H + H + H2 yields H2 + H2, N + O2 yields NO + O and O + N2 yields NO + N. The dynamics and kinetics of metathesis, dissociation, recombination, energy transfer and complex formation processes will be discussed.
Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher
2015-06-01
Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. chemical manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in the production of 74 individual chemicals, representing 57% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual chemicals and for 15 subsectors of chemicals manufacturing are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.
Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Savings Opportunities in U.S. Petroleum Refining
Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher
2015-06-01
Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas, representing 68% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.
Dawes, R.; Thompson, D. L.; Guo, Y.; Wagner, A. F.; Minkoff, M.; Chemistry; Univ. of Missouri-Columbia; Oklahoma State Univ.
2007-05-11
A highly accurate and efficient method for molecular global potential energy surface (PES) construction and fitting is demonstrated. An interpolating-moving-least-squares (IMLS)-based method is developed using low-density ab initio Hessian values to compute high-density PES parameters suitable for accurate and efficient PES representation. The method is automated and flexible so that a PES can be optimally generated for classical trajectories, spectroscopy, or other applications. Two important bottlenecks for fitting PESs are addressed. First, high accuracy is obtained using a minimal density of ab initio points, thus overcoming the bottleneck of ab initio point generation faced in applications of modified-Shepard-based methods. Second, high efficiency is also possible (suitable when a huge number of potential energy and gradient evaluations are required during a trajectory calculation). This overcomes the bottleneck in high-order IMLS-based methods, i.e., the high cost/accuracy ratio for potential energy evaluations. The result is a set of hybrid IMLS methods in which high-order IMLS is used with low-density ab initio Hessian data to compute a dense grid of points at which the energy, Hessian, or even high-order IMLS fitting parameters are stored. A series of hybrid methods is then possible as these data can be used for neural network fitting, modified-Shepard interpolation, or approximate IMLS. Results that are indicative of the accuracy, efficiency, and scalability are presented for one-dimensional model potentials as well as for three-dimensional (HCN) and six-dimensional (HOOH) molecular PESs
Periodic discrete energy for long-range potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hardin, D. P.; Saff, E. B.; Simanek, B.
2014-12-01
We consider periodic energy problems in Euclidean space with a special emphasis on long-range potentials that cannot be defined through the usual infinite sum. One of our main results builds on more recent developments of Ewald summation to define the periodic energy corresponding to a large class of long-range potentials. Two particularly interesting examples are the logarithmic potential and the Riesz potential when the Riesz parameter is smaller than the dimension of the space. For these examples, we use analytic continuation methods to provide concise formulas for the periodic kernel in terms of the Epstein Hurwitz Zeta function. We apply our energy definition to deduce several properties of the minimal energy including the asymptotic order of growth and the distribution of points in energy minimizing configurations as the number of points becomes large. We conclude with some detailed calculations in the case of one dimension, which shows the utility of this approach.
Potential for energy recovery from solid wastes
Velzy, C.O.
1983-01-01
This paper discusses the technologies, opportunities, and problems of energy-from-refuse systems. Topics considered include the direct combustion of as-received refuse, the mass-burn systems, the combustion of refuse-derived fuel, and the production of methane gas from the organic and cellulosic fraction of solid waste. A DOE-sponsored methane plant operated by Waste Management is now being evaluated at Pompano Beach, Florida. The Europeans have moved ahead so rapidly in the beneficial use of heat from the combustion of their solid waste because of the availability of a ready market for the heat in municipal facilities and/or town district heating systems. It is suggested that the use of the heat from the combustion of solid waste should be broadened to include district heating and cooling, complementary municipal functions (e.g. the disposal of sludges from wastewater treatment), integration in power generation facilities in uses other than direct production of power (e.g. boiler feedwater heating), and in industrial processing.
Energy Consumption and Renewable Energy Development Potential on Indian Lands
2000-01-01
Includes information on the electricity use and needs of Indian households and tribes, the comparative electricity rates that Indian households are paying, and the potential for renewable resources development of Indian lands.
Babin, Volodymyr; Medders, Gregory R; Paesani, Francesco
2014-04-01
A full-dimensional potential energy function (MB-pol) for simulations of water from the dimer to bulk phases is developed entirely from "first principles" by building upon the many-body expansion of the interaction energy. Specifically, the MB-pol potential is constructed by combining a highly accurate dimer potential energy surface [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2013, 9, 5395] with explicit three-body and many-body polarization terms. The three-body contribution, expressed as a combination of permutationally invariant polynomials and classical polarizability, is derived from a fit to more than 12000 three-body energies calculated at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory, imposing the correct asymptotic behavior as predicted from "first principles". Here, the accuracy of MB-pol is demonstrated through comparison of the calculated third virial coefficient with the corresponding experimental data as well as through analysis of the relative energy differences of small clusters.
New approach to calculating the potential energy of colliding nuclei
Kurmanov, R. S.; Kosenko, G. I.
2014-12-15
The differential method proposed by the present authors earlier for the reduction of volume integrals in calculating the potential energy of a compound nucleus is generalized to the case of two interacting nuclei. The Coulomb interaction energy is obtained for the cases of a sharp and a diffuse boundary of nuclei, while the nuclear interaction energy is found only for nuclei with a sharp boundary, the finiteness of the nuclear-force range being taken into account. The present method of calculations permits reducing the time it takes to compute the potential energy at least by two orders of magnitude.
Godsi, Oded; Peskin, Uri; Collins, Michael A.
2010-03-28
A quantum sampling algorithm for the interpolation of diabatic potential energy matrices by the Grow method is introduced. The new procedure benefits from penetration of the wave packet into classically forbidden regions, and the accurate quantum mechanical description of nonadiabatic transitions. The increased complexity associated with running quantum dynamics is reduced by using approximate low order expansions of the nuclear wave function within a Multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree scheme during the Grow process. The sampling algorithm is formulated and applied for three representative test cases, demonstrating the recovery of analytic potentials by the interpolated ones, and the convergence of a dynamic observable.
Re-examining Potential for Geothermal Energy in United States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Showstack, Randy
New technological initiatives, along with potential policy and economic incentives, could help to bring about a resurgence in geothermal energy development in the United States, said several experts at a 22 May forum in Washington, D.C. The forum was sponsored by the House and Senate Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Caucuses, the Sustainable Energy Coalition, and the Environmental and Energy Study Institute. Among these initiatives is an ambitious program of the U.S. Department of Energy to expand existing geothermal energy fields and potentially create new fields through ``enhanced geothermal systems.'' In addition, a program of the Bush administration encourages geothermal development on some public lands, and current legislation would provide tax credits and other incentives for geothermal development.
A Frontier orbital energy approach to redox potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conradie, Jeanet
2015-09-01
The prediction of the oxidation and reduction potentials of molecules is important in many research areas. A review of relationships obtained between frontier orbital energies (eV), the calculated ionization potentials (IP in eV), or adiabatic electron affinities (EA in eV) with the experimental oxidation and reduction potentials is presented, for selected series of β- diketones, rhodium-β-diketonato complexes, as well as metal-tris-β-diketonato complexes, with the metal Fe or Mn. The good linear relationships obtained for related series of complexes show that the oxidation and reduction potentials of these complexes can be predicted by their DFT-calculated energies.
Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource.
Field, Christopher B; Campbell, J Elliott; Lobell, David B
2008-02-01
Increased production of biomass for energy has the potential to offset substantial use of fossil fuels, but it also has the potential to threaten conservation areas, pollute water resources and decrease food security. The net effect of biomass energy agriculture on climate could be either cooling or warming, depending on the crop, the technology for converting biomass into useable energy, and the difference in carbon stocks and reflectance of solar radiation between the biomass crop and the pre-existing vegetation. The area with the greatest potential for yielding biomass energy that reduces net warming and avoids competition with food production is land that was previously used for agriculture or pasture but that has been abandoned and not converted to forest or urban areas. At the global scale, potential above-ground plant growth on these abandoned lands has an energy content representing approximately 5% of world primary energy consumption in 2006. The global potential for biomass energy production is large in absolute terms, but it is not enough to replace more than a few percent of current fossil fuel usage. Increasing biomass energy production beyond this level would probably reduce food security and exacerbate forcing of climate change. PMID:18215439
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yarkony, David
2015-03-01
The construction of fit single state potential energy surfaces (PESs), analytic representations of ab initio electronic energies and energy gradients, is now well established. These single state PESs, which are essential for accurate quantum dynamics and have found wide application in more approximate quasi-classical treatments, have revolutionized adiabatic dynamics. The situation for nonadiabatic processes involving dissociative and large amplitude motion is less sanguine. In these cases, compared to single electronic state dynamics, both the electronic structure data and the representation are more challenging to determine. We describe the recent development and applications of algorithms that enable description of multiple adiabatic electronic potential energy surfaces coupled by conical intersections in their full dimensionality using coupled quasi-diabatic states. These representations are demonstrably quasi-diabatic, provide accurate representations of conical intersection seams and can smooth out the discontinuities in electronic structure energies due to changing active orbital spaces that routinely afflict global multistate representations.
Potential energy stored by planets and grand minima events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cionco, Rodolfo G.
2012-07-01
Recently, Wolff & Patrone (2010), have developed a simple but very interesting model by which the movement of the Sun around the barycentre of the Solar system could create potential energy that could be released by flows pre-existing inside the Sun. The authors claim that it is the first mechanism showing how planetary movements can modify internal structure in the Sun that can be related to solar cycle. In this work we point out limitations of mentioned mechanism (which is based on interchange arguments), which could be inapplicable to a real star. Then, we calculate the temporal evolution of potential energy stored in zones of Sun's interior in which the potential energy could be most efficiently stored taking into account detailed barycentric Sun dynamics. We show strong variations of potential energy related to Maunder Minimum, Dalton Minimum and the maximum of Cycle 22, around 1990. We discuss briefly possible implications of this putative mechanism to solar cycle specially Grand Minima events.
Calibration-quality adiabatic potential energy surfaces for H3+ and its isotopologues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavanello, Michele; Adamowicz, Ludwik; Alijah, Alexander; Zobov, Nikolai F.; Mizus, Irina I.; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Szidarovszky, Tamás; Császár, Attila G.
2012-05-01
Calibration-quality ab initio adiabatic potential energy surfaces (PES) have been determined for all isotopologues of the molecular ion H_3^+. The underlying Born-Oppenheimer electronic structure computations used optimized explicitly correlated shifted Gaussian functions. The surfaces include diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections computed from the accurate electronic wave functions. A fit to the 41 655 ab initio points is presented which gives a standard deviation better than 0.1 cm-1 when restricted to the points up to 6000 cm-1 above the first dissociation asymptote. Nuclear motion calculations utilizing this PES, called GLH3P, and an exact kinetic energy operator given in orthogonal internal coordinates are presented. The ro-vibrational transition frequencies for H_3^+, H2D+, and HD_2^+ are compared with high resolution measurements. The most sophisticated and complete procedure employed to compute ro-vibrational energy levels, which makes explicit allowance for the inclusion of non-adiabatic effects, reproduces all the known ro-vibrational levels of the H_3^+ isotopologues considered to better than 0.2 cm-1. This represents a significant (order-of-magnitude) improvement compared to previous studies of transitions in the visible. Careful treatment of linear geometries is important for high frequency transitions and leads to new assignments for some of the previously observed lines. Prospects for further investigations of non-adiabatic effects in the H_3^+ isotopologues are discussed. In short, the paper presents (a) an extremely accurate global potential energy surface of H_3^+ resulting from high accuracy ab initio computations and global fit, (b) very accurate nuclear motion calculations of all available experimental line data up to 16 000 cm-1, and (c) results suggest that we can predict accurately the lines of H_3^+ towards dissociation and thus facilitate their experimental observation.
Teaching Potential Energy Functions and Stability with Slap Bracelets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Hook, Stephen J.
2005-10-01
The slap bracelet, an inexpensive child's toy, makes it easy to engage students in hands-on exploration of potential energy curves as well as of stable, unstable, and meta-stable states. Rather than just observing the teacher performing a demonstration, the students can manipulate the equipment themselves and make their own observations, which are then pooled to focus a class discussion on potential energy functions and stability.
Potential energy landscapes of elemental and heterogeneous chalcogen clusters
Mauro, John C.; Loucks, Roger J.; Balakrishnan, Jitendra; Varshneya, Arun K.
2006-02-15
We describe the potential energy landscapes of elemental S{sub 8}, Se{sub 8}, and Te{sub 8} clusters using disconnectivity graphs. Inherent structures include both ring and chain configurations, with rings especially dominant in Se{sub 8}. We also map the potential energy landscapes of heterogeneous Se{sub n}(S,Te){sub 8-n} clusters, which offer insights into the structure of heterogeneous chalcogen glasses.
Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean
Samuels, G.
1984-08-01
Sugarcane grown as energy cane presents a new potential to the Caribbean countries to provide their own energy needs and to reduce or eliminate fuel oil imports. The use of proper agronomic techniques can convert conventional sugarcane growing to a crop capable of giving energy feedstocks in the form of fiber for boiler fuel for electricity and fermentable solids for alcohol for motor fuel. Sugarcane can still be obtained from the energy cane for domestic consumption and export if desired. The aerable land now devoted to sugarcane can utilized for energy-cane production without causing any serious imbalance in food crop production.
DoD energy vulnerabilities: potential problems and observations
Freiwald, D A; Berger, M E; Roach, J F
1982-08-01
The Department of Defense is almost entirely dependent on civilian energy supplies to meet its needs in both peacetime and periods of heightened conflict. There are a number of potential vulnerabilities to the continual and timely supply of energy to both the civilian and military sectors. These include denial of the energy resources themselves, disruption of critical transportation networks, destruction of storage facilities, and interruption of electrical power. This report briefly reviews the present situation for provision of energy from the civilian sector to the military. General vulnerabilities of the existing energy supply system are identified, along with the potential for armed aggression (including terrorist and sabotage activities) against the energy network. Conclusions and some tentative observations are made as to a proper response to the existing vulnerabilities.
Saint Paul Energy Park: the potential for district heating
Lee, C.; Kron, R.; Davis, H.
1980-03-01
The results of ANL's study of the energy and economic aspects of using district heating in the St. Paul Energy Park are summarized. The Energy Park is a 6 million ft/sup 2/ residential, commercial office, and light industrial complex to be built in the midway area of St. Paul, Minnesota. Space heating and cooling design loads for the park were calculated assuming that the ASHRAE's 90-75 energy-conserving construction standards would be used in constructing the park's buildings. Based in part on this assumption, ANL estimated the costs and energy use characteristics of six possible energy system options for supplying Energy Park's space heating, space cooling, and domestic hot water heating needs. The results indicate that in today's economy, a central heating and cooling plant with natural gas boilers and electrically driven centrifugal chillers with thermal storage has good potential for energy and economic savings and clearly merits further consideration.
Geospatial Analysis of Renewable Energy Technical Potential on Tribal Lands
Doris, E.; Lopez, A.; Beckley, D.
2013-02-01
This technical report uses an established geospatial methodology to estimate the technical potential for renewable energy on tribal lands for the purpose of allowing Tribes to prioritize the development of renewable energy resources either for community scale on-tribal land use or for revenue generating electricity sales.
Gravitational potential as a source of earthquake energy
Barrows, L.; Langer, C.J.
1981-01-01
Some degree of tectonic stress within the earth originates from gravity acting upon density structures. The work performed by this "gravitational tectonics stress" must have formerly existed as gravitational potential energy contained in the stress-causing density structure. According to the elastic rebound theory (Reid, 1910), the energy of earthquakes comes from an elastic strain field built up by fairly continuous elastic deformation in the period between events. For earthquakes resulting from gravitational tectonic stress, the elastic rebound theory requires the transfer of energy from the gravitational potential of the density structures into an elastic strain field prior to the event. An alternate theory involves partial gravitational collapse of the stress-causing density structures. The earthquake energy comes directly from a net decrease in gravitational potential energy. The gravitational potential energy released at the time of the earthquake is split between the energy released by the earthquake, including work done in the fault zone and an increase in stored elastic strain energy. The stress associated with this elastic strain field should oppose further fault slip. ?? 1981.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dixit, V. K.; Porwal, S.; Singh, S. D.; Sharma, T. K.; Ghosh, Sandip; Oak, S. M.
2014-02-01
Temperature dependence of the photoluminescence (PL) peak energy of bulk and quantum well (QW) structures is studied by using a new phenomenological model for including the effect of localized states. In general an anomalous S-shaped temperature dependence of the PL peak energy is observed for many materials which is usually associated with the localization of excitons in band-tail states that are formed due to potential fluctuations. Under such conditions, the conventional models of Varshni, Viña and Passler fail to replicate the S-shaped temperature dependence of the PL peak energy and provide inconsistent and unrealistic values of the fitting parameters. The proposed formalism persuasively reproduces the S-shaped temperature dependence of the PL peak energy and provides an accurate determination of the exciton localization energy in bulk and QW structures along with the appropriate values of material parameters. An example of a strained InAs0.38P0.62/InP QW is presented by performing detailed temperature and excitation intensity dependent PL measurements and subsequent in-depth analysis using the proposed model. Versatility of the new formalism is tested on a few other semiconductor materials, e.g. GaN, nanotextured GaN, AlGaN and InGaN, which are known to have a significant contribution from the localized states. A quantitative evaluation of the fractional contribution of the localized states is essential for understanding the temperature dependence of the PL peak energy of bulk and QW well structures having a large contribution of the band-tail states.
Potential geothermal energy applications for Idaho Elks Rehabilitation Hospital
Austin, J.C.
1981-11-01
Several potential applications of geothermal energy for the Idaho Elks Rehabilitation Hospital are outlined. A brief background on the resource and distribution system, is provided; which hospital heating systems should be considered for potential geothermal retrofit is discussed; and technical and economic feasibility are addressed.
Fusion at deep subbarrier energies: potential inversion revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hagino, K.; Rowley, N.
2009-03-01
For a single potential barrier, the barrier penetrability can be inverted based on the WKB approximation to yield the barrier thickness. We apply this method to heavy-ion fusion reactions at energies well below the Coulomb barrier and directly determine the inter-nucleus potential between the colliding nuclei. To this end, we assume that fusion cross sections at deep subbarrier energies are governed by the lowest barrier in the barrier distribution. The inverted inter-nucleus potentials for the 16O+144Sm and 16O+208Pb reactions show that they are much thicker than phenomenological potentials. We discuss a consequence of such thick potential by fitting the inverted potentials with the Bass function.
Fusion at deep subbarrier energies: potential inversion revisited
Hagino, K.; Rowley, N.
2009-03-04
For a single potential barrier, the barrier penetrability can be inverted based on the WKB approximation to yield the barrier thickness. We apply this method to heavy-ion fusion reactions at energies well below the Coulomb barrier and directly determine the inter-nucleus potential between the colliding nuclei. To this end, we assume that fusion cross sections at deep subbarrier energies are governed by the lowest barrier in the barrier distribution. The inverted inter-nucleus potentials for the {sup 16}O+{sup 144}Sm and {sup 16}O+{sup 208}Pb reactions show that they are much thicker than phenomenological potentials. We discuss a consequence of such thick potential by fitting the inverted potentials with the Bass function.
Investigating energy-saving potentials in the cloud.
Lee, Da-Sheng
2014-01-01
Collecting webpage messages can serve as a sensor for investigating the energy-saving potential of buildings. Focusing on stores, a cloud sensor system is developed to collect data and determine their energy-saving potential. The owner of a store under investigation must register online, report the store address, area, and the customer ID number on the electric meter. The cloud sensor system automatically surveys the energy usage records by connecting to the power company website and calculating the energy use index (EUI) of the store. Other data includes the chain store check, company capital, location price, and the influence of weather conditions on the store; even the exposure frequency of store under investigation may impact the energy usage collected online. After collecting data from numerous stores, a multi-dimensional data array is constructed to determine energy-saving potential by identifying stores with similarity conditions. Similarity conditions refer to analyzed results that indicate that two stores have similar capital, business scale, weather conditions, and exposure frequency on web. Calculating the EUI difference or pure technical efficiency of stores, the energy-saving potential is determined. In this study, a real case study is performed. An 8-dimensional (8D) data array is constructed by surveying web data related to 67 stores. Then, this study investigated the savings potential of the 33 stores, using a site visit, and employed the cloud sensor system to determine the saving potential. The case study results show good agreement between the data obtained by the site visit and the cloud investigation, with errors within 4.17%. Among 33 the samples, eight stores have low saving potentials of less than 5%. The developed sensor on the cloud successfully identifies them as having low saving potential and avoids wasting money on the site visit. PMID:24561405
Electrical energy and cost savings potential at DOD facilities
Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.; Lister, L.; DeBaille, L.
1996-06-01
The US Department of Defense (DOD) has been mandated to reduce energy consumption and costs by 20% from 1985 to 2000 and by 30% from 1985 to 2005. Reduction of electrical energy consumption at DOD facilities requires a better understanding of energy consumption patterns and energy and financial savings potential. This paper utilizes two independent studies--EDA (End-Use Disaggregation Algorithm) and MEIP (Model Energy Installation Program)--and whole-installation electricity use data obtained from a state utility to estimate electrical energy conservation potential (ECP) and cost savings potential (CSP) at the Fort Hood, Texas, military installation and at DOD nationwide. At Fort Hood, the authors estimated an annual electricity savings of 62.2 GWh/yr (18%), a peak demand savings of 10.1 MW (14%), and an annual energy cost savings of $6.5 million per year. These savings could be attained with an initial investment of $41.1 million, resulting in a simple payback of 6.3 years. Across the DOD, they estimated an annual electricity savings of 4,900 GWh/yr, a peak demand savings of 694 MW, and an annual energy cost savings of $316 million per year. The estimated cost savings is 16% of the total nationwide DOD 1993 annual energy costs. These savings could be attained with an initial investment of $1.23 billion, resulting in a simple payback of 3.9 years.
Separable representation of energy-dependent optical potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hlophe, L.; Elster, Ch.
2016-03-01
Background: One important ingredient for many applications of nuclear physics to astrophysics, nuclear energy, and stockpile stewardship are cross sections for reactions of neutrons with rare isotopes. Since direct measurements are often not feasible, indirect methods, e.g., (d ,p ) reactions, should be used. Those (d ,p ) reactions may be viewed as three-body reactions and described with Faddeev techniques. Purpose: Faddeev equations in momentum space have a long tradition of utilizing separable interactions in order to arrive at sets of coupled integral equations in one variable. Optical potentials representing the effective interactions in the neutron (proton) nucleus subsystem are usually non-Hermitian as well as energy dependent. Potential matrix elements as well as transition matrix elements calculated with them must fulfill the reciprocity theorem. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a separable, energy-dependent representation of complex, energy-dependent optical potentials that fulfill reciprocity exactly. Methods: Momentum space Lippmann-Schwinger integral equations are solved with standard techniques to obtain the form factors for the separable representation. Results: Starting from a separable, energy-independent representation of global optical potentials based on a generalization of the Ernst-Shakin-Thaler (EST) scheme, a further generalization is needed to take into account the energy dependence. Applications to n +48Ca ,n +208Pb , and p +208Pb are investigated for energies from 0 to 50 MeV with special emphasis on fulfilling reciprocity. Conclusions: We find that the energy-dependent separable representation of complex, energy-dependent phenomenological optical potentials fulfills reciprocity exactly. In addition, taking into account the explicit energy dependence slightly improves the description of the S matrix elements.
Potential of energy farms in the Dominican Republic
Newman, L.C.; Park, W.R.; Trehan, R.K.
1980-12-01
This report assesses the potential of biomass energy farms to supply feedstock for electrical energy needs in the Dominican Republic. That part of the dry forest area not used for agriculture production (1.3 million acres) is found to have a production potential of 200 MW to 1400 MW, depending upon the level of management and choice of species. A biomass energy farm design and conversion facility is described and the economics of operating a wood fired facility of 50 MW, 20 MW, 5 MW, and 2 MW is compared to 50 MW and 20 MW.
A triangular element based on generalized potential energy concepts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, G. R.; Gallagher, R. H.
1976-01-01
Stiffness equations are formulated for a doubly-curved triangular thin shell finite element. The strain energy component of the potential energy is first expressed in terms of displacements and displacement gradients with the aid of consistent deep shell strain-displacement equations. The element in-plane and normal displacement fields are approximated by complete cubic polynomials. These functions do not satisfy the interelement displacement admissibility conditions. Satisfaction is forced by the imposition of constraint conditions on the interelement boundaries; the constraints represent the modification of the potential energy. Some numerical results for a pinched cylinder, a cylindrical sphere, and a pinched sphere are examined.
Communication: Separable potential energy surfaces from multiplicative artificial neural networks
Koch, Werner Zhang, Dong H.
2014-07-14
We present a potential energy surface fitting scheme based on multiplicative artificial neural networks. It has the sum of products form required for efficient computation of the dynamics of multidimensional quantum systems with the multi configuration time dependent Hartree method. Moreover, it results in analytic potential energy matrix elements when combined with quantum dynamics methods using Gaussian basis functions, eliminating the need for a local harmonic approximation. Scaling behavior with respect to the complexity of the potential as well as the requested accuracy is discussed.
Framework for State-Level Renewable Energy Market Potential Studies
Kreycik, C.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Doris, E.
2010-01-01
State-level policymakers are relying on estimates of the market potential for renewable energy resources as they set goals and develop policies to accelerate the development of these resources. Therefore, accuracy of such estimates should be understood and possibly improved to appropriately support these decisions. This document provides a framework and next steps for state officials who require estimates of renewable energy market potential. The report gives insight into how to conduct a market potential study, including what supporting data are needed and what types of assumptions need to be made. The report distinguishes between goal-oriented studies and other types of studies, and explains the benefits of each.
Assaraf, Roland; Caffarel, Michel; Kollias, A C
2011-04-15
We present a method to efficiently evaluate small energy differences of two close N-body systems by employing stochastic processes having a stability versus chaos property. By using the same random noise, energy differences are computed from close trajectories without reweighting procedures. The approach is presented for quantum systems but can be applied to classical N-body systems as well. It is exemplified with diffusion Monte Carlo simulations for long chains of hydrogen atoms and molecules for which it is shown that the long-standing problem of computing energy derivatives is solved. PMID:21568537
Nonequilibrium molecular transport photoinduced by potential energy fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dekhtyar, Marina L.; Rozenbaum, Viktor M.
2011-01-01
The mechanism of directed substrate-parallel motion of molecules caused by photoinduced potential energy fluctuations is investigated. Unlike simplistic models (e.g., an on-off ratchet), the approach suggested implies that the necessary asymmetry of the potential energy can arise not only from the asymmetry of the substrate potential but also from an asymmetric distribution of the fluctuating charge density in the molecule. The thus induced asymmetry of the potential energy governs the direction motion and enables, under certain conditions, its reversal at some frequencies of resonant laser pulses or temperature. These inferences are exemplified by the model charge distributions in the molecule and substrate, and the charge density fluctuations which are obtained by quantum chemical calculations for the realistic molecule of a substituted phenylpyrene compound on a model substrate.
Savings potential of ENERGY STAR (registered trademark) voluntary labeling programs
Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.
1998-06-19
In 1993 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced ENERGY STAR (registered trademark), a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products. Since then EPA, now in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has introduced programs for more than twenty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating and cooling equipment, new homes, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. We present potential energy, dollar and carbon savings forecasts for these programs for the period 1998 to 2010. Our target market penetration case represents our best estimate of future ENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goals for each of the products. We also provide results under the assumption of 100% market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasers buy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products throughout the analysis period. Finally, we assess the sensitivity of our target penetration case forecasts to greater or lesser marketing success by EPA and DOE, lower-than-expected future energy prices, and higher or lower rates of carbon emission by electricity generators. The potential savings of ENERGY STAR are substantial. If all purchasers chose Energy Star-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products over the next 15 years, they would save more than $100 billion on their energy bills during those 15 years. (Bill savings are in 1995 dollars, discounted at a 4% real discount rate.)
Prediction of Dyke Propagation using the Minimum Potential Energy Principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heimisson, Elías; Hooper, Andrew; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn
2015-04-01
An important aspect of eruption forecasting is the prediction and monitoring of dyke propagation. Eruptions occur where dykes propagate to the surface, with lava flows causing a major threat. When such eruption occur under ice, as is common in Iceland, they become explosive and often cause hazardous and destructive floods. Dykes have also been known to trigger explosive eruption when hot basaltic magma comes in contact with more developed volatile saturated magma. Such explosive eruptions pose a danger to both lives and property. At divergent plate boundaries new crust is formed primarily by dyke injections. These injections usually grow laterally away from a central volcano. Lateral growth of a dyke is expected to follow the minimum potential energy principle. Assuming a closed system, a dyke will tend to be emplaced such that it minimizes the total potential energy, ΦT, given by: ΦT = Φs + Φg (1) where Φs is the strain potential and Φg the gravitational energy potential. Assuming that the elastic medium behaves linearly the strain potential can be calculated by numerically integrating the strain energy density over a large volume. If the dyke is assumed to be propagating at a constant depth with respect to sea level the gravitational potential energy can be turned into a two dimensional integral. We do this by integrating the predicted vertical displacements multiplied by the local topographic load above a reference surface and the acceleration of gravity. We approximate strain and stress due to plate movements and then consider strain changes induced by the dyke formation. Opening of a dyke is energetically favourable when it releases strain energy built up at a divergent plate boundary, but once deviatoric stress in the crust adjacent to a segment is released it becomes favourable to propagate laterally. Dyke formation is associated with uplift on their flanks; the lower the topographic load over the flanks, the less energy it costs. For any given
Scenarios of energy demand and efficiency potential for Bulgaria
Tzvetanov, P.; Ruicheva, M.; Denisiev, M.
1996-12-31
The paper presents aggregated results on macroeconomic and final energy demand scenarios developed within the Bulgarian Country Study on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation, supported by US Country Studies Program. The studies in this area cover 5 main stages: (1) {open_quotes}Baseline{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Energy Efficiency{close_quotes} socioeconomic and energy policy philosophy; (2) Modeling of macroeconomic and sectoral development till 2020; (3) Expert assessments on the technological options for energy efficiency increase and GHG mitigation in the Production, Transport and Households and Services Sectors; (4) Bottom-up modeling of final energy demand; and (5) Sectoral and overall energy efficiency potential and policy. Within the Bulgarian Country Study, the presented results have served as a basis for the final integration stage {open_quotes}Assessment of the Mitigation Policy and Measures in the Energy System of Bulgaria{close_quotes}.
Solar energy in California industry - Applications, characteristics and potential
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. S.
1978-01-01
Results of a survey to determine the potential applicability of solar thermal energy to industrial processes in California are presented. It is found that if the heat for all industrial processes at temperatures below 212 F were supplied by solar energy, total state energy consumption could be reduced by 100 trillion Btus (2%), while the use of solar energy in processes between 212 and 350 F could displace 500 trillion Btus. The issues and problems with which solar energy must contend are illustrated by a description of fluid milk processing operations. Solar energy application is found to be technically feasible for processes with thermal energy requirements below 212 F, with design, and degree of technical, economic and management feasibility being site specific. It is recommended that the state provide support for federal and industrial research, development and demonstration programs in order to stimulate acceptance of solar process heat application by industry.
Criticality of the electron-nucleus cusp condition to local effective potential-energy theories
Pan Xiaoyin; Sahni, Viraht
2003-01-01
Local(multiplicative) effective potential energy-theories of electronic structure comprise the transformation of the Schroedinger equation for interacting Fermi systems to model noninteracting Fermi or Bose systems whereby the equivalent density and energy are obtained. By employing the integrated form of the Kato electron-nucleus cusp condition, we prove that the effective electron-interaction potential energy of these model fermions or bosons is finite at a nucleus. The proof is general and valid for arbitrary system whether it be atomic, molecular, or solid state, and for arbitrary state and symmetry. This then provides justification for all prior work in the literature based on the assumption of finiteness of this potential energy at a nucleus. We further demonstrate the criticality of the electron-nucleus cusp condition to such theories by an example of the hydrogen molecule. We show thereby that both model system effective electron-interaction potential energies, as determined from densities derived from accurate wave functions, will be singular at the nucleus unless the wave function satisfies the electron-nucleus cusp condition.
Potential for energy conservation in the glass industry
Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, A.G.; Bruno, G.A.
1986-06-01
While the glass industry (flat glass, container glass, pressed and blown glass, and insulation fiber glass) has reduced its specific energy use (Btu/ton) by almost 30% since 1972, significant potential for further reduction still remains. State-of-the-art technologies are available which could lead to incremental improvements in glass industry energy productivity; however, these technologies must compete for capital with projects undertaken for other reasons (e.g., capacity expansion, equipment rebuild, labor cost reduction, product quality improvement, or compliance with environmental, health or safety regulations). Narrowing profit margins in the large tonnage segments of the glass industry in recent years and the fact that energy costs represent less than 25% of the value added in glass manufacture have combined to impede the widespread adoption of many state-of-the-art conservation technologies. Savings in energy costs alone have not provided the incentive to justify the capital expenditures required to realize the energy savings. Beyond implementation of state-of-the-art technologies, significant potential energy savings could accrue from advanced technologies which represent a radical departure from current glass making technology. Long-term research and development (R and D) programs, which address the technical and economic barriers associated with advanced, energy-conserving technologies, offer the opportunity to realize this energy-saving potential.
Semi-infinite jellium: Thermodynamic potential, chemical potential, and surface energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kostrobij, P. P.; Markovych, B. M.
2015-08-01
A general expression for the thermodynamic potential of the model of semi-infinite jellium is obtained. By using this expression, the surface energy for the infinite barrier model is calculated. The behavior of the surface energy and of the chemical potential as functions of the Wigner-Seitz radius and the influence of the Coulomb interaction between electrons on the calculated values is studied. It is shown that taking into account the Coulomb interaction between electrons leads to growth of the surface energy. The surface energy is positive in the entire area of the Wigner-Seitz radius. It is shown that taking into account the Coulomb interaction between electrons leads to a decrease of the chemical potential.
Li, Y.; Krieger, J.B. ); Norman, M.R. ); Iafrate, G.J. )
1991-11-15
The optimized-effective-potential (OEP) method and a method developed recently by Krieger, Li, and Iafrate (KLI) are applied to the band-structure calculations of noble-gas and alkali halide solids employing the self-interaction-corrected (SIC) local-spin-density (LSD) approximation for the exchange-correlation energy functional. The resulting band gaps from both calculations are found to be in fair agreement with the experimental values. The discrepancies are typically within a few percent with results that are nearly the same as those of previously published orbital-dependent multipotential SIC calculations, whereas the LSD results underestimate the band gaps by as much as 40%. As in the LSD---and it is believed to be the case even for the exact Kohn-Sham potential---both the OEP and KLI predict valence-band widths which are narrower than those of experiment. In all cases, the KLI method yields essentially the same results as the OEP.
Split kinetic energy method for quantum systems with competing potentials
Mineo, H.; Chao, Sheng D.
2012-09-15
For quantum systems with competing potentials, the conventional perturbation theory often yields an asymptotic series and the subsequent numerical outcome becomes uncertain. To tackle such a kind of problems, we develop a general solution scheme based on a new energy dissection idea. Instead of dividing the potential energy into 'unperturbed' and 'perturbed' terms, a partition of the kinetic energy is performed. By distributing the kinetic energy term in part into each individual potential, the Hamiltonian can be expressed as the sum of the subsystem Hamiltonians with respective competing potentials. The total wavefunction is expanded by using a linear combination of the basis sets of respective subsystem Hamiltonians. We first illustrate the solution procedure using a simple system consisting of a particle under the action of double {delta}-function potentials. Next, this method is applied to the prototype systems of a charged harmonic oscillator in strong magnetic field and the hydrogen molecule ion. Compared with the usual perturbation approach, this new scheme converges much faster to the exact solutions for both eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. When properly extended, this new solution scheme can be very useful for dealing with strongly coupling quantum systems. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new basis set expansion method is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Split kinetic energy method is proposed to solve quantum eigenvalue problems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant improvement has been obtained in converging to exact results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extension of such methods is promising and discussed.
The metabolic energy cost of action potential velocity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crotty, Patrick; Sangrey, Thomas; Levy, William
2006-03-01
Voltage changes in neurons and other active cells are caused by the passage of ions across the cell membrane. These ionic currents depend on the transmembrane ion concentration gradients, which in unmyelinated axons are maintained during rest and restored after electrical activity by an ATPase sodium-potassium exchanger in the membrane. The amount of ATP consumed by this exchanger can be taken as the metabolic energy cost of any electrical activity in the axon. We use this measure, along with biophysical models of voltage-gated sodium and potassium ion channels, to quantify the energy cost of action potentials propagating in squid giant axons. We find that the energy of an action potential can be naturally divided into three separate components associated with different aspects of the action potential. We calculate these energy components as functions of the ion channel densities and axon diameters and find that the component associated with the rising phase and velocity of the action potential achieves a minimum near the biological values of these parameters. This result, which is robust with respect to other parameters such as temperature, suggests that evolution has optimized the axon for the energy of the action potential wavefront.
Juniper, Michael P N; Besseling, Rut; Aarts, Dirk G A L; Dullens, Roel P A
2012-12-17
Optical potential energy landscapes created using acousto-optical deflectors are characterized via solvent-driven colloidal particles. The full potential energy of both single optical traps and complex landscapes composed of multiple overlapping traps are determined using a simple force balance argument. The potential of a single trap is shown to be well described by a Gaussian trap with stiffness found to be consistent with those obtained by a thermal equilibrium method. We also obtain directly the depth of the well, which (as with stiffness) varies with laser power. Finally, various complex systems ranging from double-well potentials to random landscapes are generated from individually controlled optical traps. Predictions of these landscapes as a sum of single Gaussian wells are shown to be a good description of experimental results, offering the potential for fully controlled design of optical landscapes, constructed from single optical traps.
Optimizing potential energy functions for maximal intrinsic hyperpolarizability
Zhou Juefei; Szafruga, Urszula B.; Kuzyk, Mark G.; Watkins, David S.
2007-11-15
We use numerical optimization to study the properties of (1) the class of one-dimensional potential energy functions and (2) systems of point nuclei in two dimensions that yield the largest intrinsic hyperpolarizabilities, which we find to be within 30% of the fundamental limit. In all cases, we use a one-electron model. It is found that a broad range of optimized potentials, each of very different character, yield the same intrinsic hyperpolarizability ceiling of 0.709. Furthermore, all optimized potential energy functions share common features such as (1) the value of the normalized transition dipole moment to the dominant state, which forces the hyperpolarizability to be dominated by only two excited states and (2) the energy ratio between the two dominant states. All optimized potentials are found to obey the three-level ansatz to within about 1%. Many of these potential energy functions may be implementable in multiple quantum well structures. The subset of potentials with undulations reaffirm that modulation of conjugation may be an approach for making better organic molecules, though there appear to be many others. Additionally, our results suggest that one-dimensional molecules may have larger diagonal intrinsic hyperpolarizability {beta}{sub xxx}{sup int} than higher-dimensional systems.
Wind energy potential analysis in Al-Fattaih-Darnah
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tjahjana, Dominicus Danardono Dwi Prija; Salem, Abdelkarim Ali; Himawanto, Dwi Aries
2016-03-01
In this paper the wind energy potential in Al-Fattaih-Darnah, Libya, had been studied. Wind energy is very attractive because it can provide a clean and renewable energy. Due mostly to the uncertainty caused by the chaotic characteristics of wind near the earth's surface, wind energy characteristic need to be investigated carefully in order to get consistent power generation. This investigation was based on one year wind data measured in 2003. As a result of the analysis, wind speed profile and wind energy potential have been developed. The wind energy potential of the location is looked very promising to generate electricity. The annual wind speed of the site is 8.21 m/s and the wind speed carrying maximum energy is 7.97 m/s. The annual power density of the site is classified into class 3. The Polaris P50-500 wind turbine can produce 768.39 M Wh/year and has capacity factor of 17.54%.
Warm Body Temperature Facilitates Energy Efficient Cortical Action Potentials
Yu, Yuguo; Hill, Adam P.; McCormick, David A.
2012-01-01
The energy efficiency of neural signal transmission is important not only as a limiting factor in brain architecture, but it also influences the interpretation of functional brain imaging signals. Action potential generation in mammalian, versus invertebrate, axons is remarkably energy efficient. Here we demonstrate that this increase in energy efficiency is due largely to a warmer body temperature. Increases in temperature result in an exponential increase in energy efficiency for single action potentials by increasing the rate of Na+ channel inactivation, resulting in a marked reduction in overlap of the inward Na+, and outward K+, currents and a shortening of action potential duration. This increase in single spike efficiency is, however, counterbalanced by a temperature-dependent decrease in the amplitude and duration of the spike afterhyperpolarization, resulting in a nonlinear increase in the spike firing rate, particularly at temperatures above approximately 35°C. Interestingly, the total energy cost, as measured by the multiplication of total Na+ entry per spike and average firing rate in response to a constant input, reaches a global minimum between 37–42°C. Our results indicate that increases in temperature result in an unexpected increase in energy efficiency, especially near normal body temperature, thus allowing the brain to utilize an energy efficient neural code. PMID:22511855
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dattani, Nikesh S.; Welsh, Staszek
2014-06-01
Being the simplest neutral open shell molecule, BeH is a very important benchmark system for ab initio calculations. However, the most accurate empirical potentials and Born-Oppenheimer breakdown (BOB) functions for this system are nearly a decade old and are not reliable in the long-range region. Particularly, the uncertainties in their dissociation energies were about ±200 cm-1, and even the number of vibrational levels predicted was at the time very questionable, meaning that no good benchmark exists for ab initio calculations on neutral open shell molecules. We build new empirical potentials for BeH, BeD, and BeT that are much more reliable in the long-range. Being the second lightest heteronuclear molecule with a stable ground electronic state, BeH is also very important for the study of isotope effects, such as BOB. We extensively study isotope effects in this system, and we show that the empirical BOB functions fitted from the data of any two isotopologues, is sufficient to predict crucial properties of the third isotopologue.
Pavanello, Michele; Van Voorhis, Troy; Visscher, Lucas; Neugebauer, Johannes
2013-02-07
Quantum-mechanical methods that are both computationally fast and accurate are not yet available for electronic excitations having charge transfer character. In this work, we present a significant step forward towards this goal for those charge transfer excitations that take place between non-covalently bound molecules. In particular, we present a method that scales linearly with the number of non-covalently bound molecules in the system and is based on a two-pronged approach: The molecular electronic structure of broken-symmetry charge-localized states is obtained with the frozen density embedding formulation of subsystem density-functional theory; subsequently, in a post-SCF calculation, the full-electron Hamiltonian and overlap matrix elements among the charge-localized states are evaluated with an algorithm which takes full advantage of the subsystem DFT density partitioning technique. The method is benchmarked against coupled-cluster calculations and achieves chemical accuracy for the systems considered for intermolecular separations ranging from hydrogen-bond distances to tens of Angstroms. Numerical examples are provided for molecular clusters comprised of up to 56 non-covalently bound molecules.
Saturation wind power potential and its implications for wind energy
Jacobson, Mark Z.; Archer, Cristina L.
2012-01-01
Wind turbines convert kinetic to electrical energy, which returns to the atmosphere as heat to regenerate some potential and kinetic energy. As the number of wind turbines increases over large geographic regions, power extraction first increases linearly, but then converges to a saturation potential not identified previously from physical principles or turbine properties. These saturation potentials are >250 terawatts (TW) at 100 m globally, approximately 80 TW at 100 m over land plus coastal ocean outside Antarctica, and approximately 380 TW at 10 km in the jet streams. Thus, there is no fundamental barrier to obtaining half (approximately 5.75 TW) or several times the world’s all-purpose power from wind in a 2030 clean-energy economy. PMID:23019353
Communication: Fitting potential energy surfaces with fundamental invariant neural network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, Kejie; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Dong H.
2016-08-01
A more flexible neural network (NN) method using the fundamental invariants (FIs) as the input vector is proposed in the construction of potential energy surfaces for molecular systems involving identical atoms. Mathematically, FIs finitely generate the permutation invariant polynomial (PIP) ring. In combination with NN, fundamental invariant neural network (FI-NN) can approximate any function to arbitrary accuracy. Because FI-NN minimizes the size of input permutation invariant polynomials, it can efficiently reduce the evaluation time of potential energy, in particular for polyatomic systems. In this work, we provide the FIs for all possible molecular systems up to five atoms. Potential energy surfaces for OH3 and CH4 were constructed with FI-NN, with the accuracy confirmed by full-dimensional quantum dynamic scattering and bound state calculations.
Communication: Fitting potential energy surfaces with fundamental invariant neural network.
Shao, Kejie; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Dong H
2016-08-21
A more flexible neural network (NN) method using the fundamental invariants (FIs) as the input vector is proposed in the construction of potential energy surfaces for molecular systems involving identical atoms. Mathematically, FIs finitely generate the permutation invariant polynomial (PIP) ring. In combination with NN, fundamental invariant neural network (FI-NN) can approximate any function to arbitrary accuracy. Because FI-NN minimizes the size of input permutation invariant polynomials, it can efficiently reduce the evaluation time of potential energy, in particular for polyatomic systems. In this work, we provide the FIs for all possible molecular systems up to five atoms. Potential energy surfaces for OH3 and CH4 were constructed with FI-NN, with the accuracy confirmed by full-dimensional quantum dynamic scattering and bound state calculations.
Collisionless Plasma Modeling in an Arbitrary Potential Energy Distribution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liemohn, M. W.; Khazanov, G. V.
1997-01-01
A new technique for calculating a collisionless plasma along a field line is presented. The primary feature of the new model is that it can handle an arbitrary (including nonmonotonic) potential energy distribution. This was one of the limiting constraints on the existing models in this class, and these constraints are generalized for an arbitrary potential energy composition. The formulation for relating current density to the field-aligned potential as well as formulas for density, temperature and energy flux calculations are presented for several distribution functions, ranging from a bi-Lorentzian with a loss cone to an isotropic Maxwellian. A comparison of these results with previous models shows that the formulation reduces.to the earlier models under similar assumptions.
Saturation wind power potential and its implications for wind energy.
Jacobson, Mark Z; Archer, Cristina L
2012-09-25
Wind turbines convert kinetic to electrical energy, which returns to the atmosphere as heat to regenerate some potential and kinetic energy. As the number of wind turbines increases over large geographic regions, power extraction first increases linearly, but then converges to a saturation potential not identified previously from physical principles or turbine properties. These saturation potentials are >250 terawatts (TW) at 100 m globally, approximately 80 TW at 100 m over land plus coastal ocean outside Antarctica, and approximately 380 TW at 10 km in the jet streams. Thus, there is no fundamental barrier to obtaining half (approximately 5.75 TW) or several times the world's all-purpose power from wind in a 2030 clean-energy economy.
Communication: Fitting potential energy surfaces with fundamental invariant neural network.
Shao, Kejie; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Dong H
2016-08-21
A more flexible neural network (NN) method using the fundamental invariants (FIs) as the input vector is proposed in the construction of potential energy surfaces for molecular systems involving identical atoms. Mathematically, FIs finitely generate the permutation invariant polynomial (PIP) ring. In combination with NN, fundamental invariant neural network (FI-NN) can approximate any function to arbitrary accuracy. Because FI-NN minimizes the size of input permutation invariant polynomials, it can efficiently reduce the evaluation time of potential energy, in particular for polyatomic systems. In this work, we provide the FIs for all possible molecular systems up to five atoms. Potential energy surfaces for OH3 and CH4 were constructed with FI-NN, with the accuracy confirmed by full-dimensional quantum dynamic scattering and bound state calculations. PMID:27544080
Photodissociation of CH2. I - Potential energy surfaces of the dissociation into CH and H
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bearda, Robert A.; Van Hemert, Marc C.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.
1992-01-01
The possible photodissociation pathways of the CH2 radical are studied using ab initio multireference configuration-interaction methods, and accurate photodissociation cross sections and branching ratios for the production of CH + H and C + H2 are obtained. Potential energy surfaces were calculated using the Wuppertal-Bonn self-consistent field plus a multireference single and double-excitation configuration interaction package of programs. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces of the ten lowest triplet states correlating with the seven lowest states of CH were calculated as functions of bond angle and one C-H bond distance, keeping the other C-H bond distance fixed at the equilibrium CH2 value.
A global ab initio potential for HCN/HNC, exact vibrational energies, and comparison to experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bentley, Joseph A.; Bowman, Joel M.; Gazdy, Bela; Lee, Timothy J.; Dateo, Christopher E.
1992-01-01
An ab initio (i.e., from first principles) calculation of vibrational energies of HCN and HNC is reported. The vibrational calculations were done with a new potential derived from a fit to 1124 ab initio electronic energies which were calculated using the highly accurate CCSD(T) coupled-cluster method in conjunction with a large atomic natural orbital basis set. The properties of this potential are presented, and the vibrational calculations are compared to experiment for 54 vibrational transitions, 39 of which are for zero total angular momentum, J = 0, and 15 of which are for J = 1. The level of agreement with experiment is unprecedented for a triatomic with two nonhydrogen atoms, and demonstrates the capability of the latest computational methods to give reliable predictions on a strongly bound triatomic molecule at very high levels of vibrational excitation.
Potential structural material problems in a hydrogen energy system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gray, H. R.; Nelson, H. G.; Johnson, R. E.; Mcpherson, W. B.; Howard, F. S.; Swisher, J. H.
1976-01-01
Potential structural material problems that may be encountered in the three components of a hydrogen energy system - production, transmission/storage, and utilization - have been identified. Hydrogen embrittlement, corrosion, oxidation, and erosion may occur during the production of hydrogen. Hydrogen embrittlement is of major concern during both transmission and utilization of hydrogen. Specific materials research and development programs necessary to support a hydrogen energy system are described. An awareness of probable shortages of strategic materials has been maintained in these suggested programs.
Potential structural material problems in a hydrogen energy system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gray, H. R.; Nelson, H. G.; Johnson, R. E.; Mcpherson, B.; Howard, F. S.; Swisher, J. H.
1975-01-01
Potential structural material problems that may be encountered in the three components of a hydrogen energy system - production, transmission/storage, and utilization - were identified. Hydrogen embrittlement, corrosion, oxidation, and erosion may occur during the production of hydrogen. Hydrogen embrittlement is of major concern during both transmission and utilization of hydrogen. Specific materials research and development programs necessary to support a hydrogen energy system are described.
Reference pressure changes and available potential energy in isobaric coordinates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robertson, F. R.
1985-01-01
A formulation of the available potential energy (APE) equation in isobaric coordinates which alleviates the need for computing temporal derivatives of reference pressure and describes how work done relates to changes in the APE of a limited region is presented. The APE budget equation possesses terms analogous to those in Johnson's (1970) isentropic version. It is shown that APE changes result from either mechanical work inside the domain or an exchange of energy via boundary processes with the surrounding environment.
Finding reaction paths using the potential energy as reaction coordinate.
Aguilar-Mogas, Antoni; Giménez, Xavier; Bofill, Josep Maria
2008-03-14
The intrinsic reaction coordinate curve (IRC), normally proposed as a representation of a reaction path, is parametrized as a function of the potential energy rather than the arc-length. This change in the parametrization of the curve implies that the values of the energy of the potential energy surface points, where the IRC curve is located, play the role of reaction coordinate. We use Caratheodory's relation to derive in a rigorous manner the proposed parametrization of the IRC path. Since this Caratheodory's relation is the basis of the theory of calculus of variations, then this fact permits to reformulate the IRC model from this mathematical theory. In this mathematical theory, the character of the variational solution (either maximum or minimum) is given through the Weierstrass E-function. As proposed by Crehuet and Bofill [J. Chem. Phys. 122, 234105 (2005)], we use the minimization of the Weierstrass E-function, as a function of the potential energy, to locate an IRC path between two minima from an arbitrary curve on the potential energy surface, and then join these two minima. We also prove, from the analysis of the Weierstrass E-function, the mathematical bases for the algorithms proposed to locate the IRC path. The proposed algorithm is applied to a set of examples. Finally, the algorithm is used to locate a discontinuous, or broken, IRC path, namely, when the path connects two first order saddle points through a valley-ridged inflection point. PMID:18345872
Finding reaction paths using the potential energy as reaction coordinate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aguilar-Mogas, Antoni; Giménez, Xavier; Bofill, Josep Maria
2008-03-01
The intrinsic reaction coordinate curve (IRC), normally proposed as a representation of a reaction path, is parametrized as a function of the potential energy rather than the arc-length. This change in the parametrization of the curve implies that the values of the energy of the potential energy surface points, where the IRC curve is located, play the role of reaction coordinate. We use Carathéodory's relation to derive in a rigorous manner the proposed parametrization of the IRC path. Since this Carathéodory's relation is the basis of the theory of calculus of variations, then this fact permits to reformulate the IRC model from this mathematical theory. In this mathematical theory, the character of the variational solution (either maximum or minimum) is given through the Weierstrass E-function. As proposed by Crehuet and Bofill [J. Chem. Phys. 122, 234105 (2005)], we use the minimization of the Weierstrass E-function, as a function of the potential energy, to locate an IRC path between two minima from an arbitrary curve on the potential energy surface, and then join these two minima. We also prove, from the analysis of the Weierstrass E-function, the mathematical bases for the algorithms proposed to locate the IRC path. The proposed algorithm is applied to a set of examples. Finally, the algorithm is used to locate a discontinuous, or broken, IRC path, namely, when the path connects two first order saddle points through a valley-ridged inflection point.
Energy and water potential of the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP)
Kaygusuz, K.
1999-12-01
This article gives an overview of energy and water potential of the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) in Turkey. This integrated socioeconomic development project is one of the largest of its kind in the world. The GAP region is rich in water and soil resources. The Euphrates and Tigris Rivers represent over 28% of the nation's water supply by rivers, and the economically irrigatable areas in the region make up 20% of those for the entire country. On the other hand, the GAP region is the richest region of the country in terms of its hydroelectric potential as well as its oil and asphalt reserves. The GAP region has a 22% share of the country's total hydroelectric potential, with plans for 22 dams and 19 hydropower plants. Once completed, 27 billion kWh of electricity will be generated. In addition to this hydropower and oil potential, the GAP region is also the richest region of Turkey as far as solar energy production is concerned. In meeting the energy requirements of the developing regions worldwide and in Turkey, solar energy is being taken into account as an important renewable source of energy.
An adaptive interpolation scheme for molecular potential energy surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kowalewski, Markus; Larsson, Elisabeth; Heryudono, Alfa
2016-08-01
The calculation of potential energy surfaces for quantum dynamics can be a time consuming task—especially when a high level of theory for the electronic structure calculation is required. We propose an adaptive interpolation algorithm based on polyharmonic splines combined with a partition of unity approach. The adaptive node refinement allows to greatly reduce the number of sample points by employing a local error estimate. The algorithm and its scaling behavior are evaluated for a model function in 2, 3, and 4 dimensions. The developed algorithm allows for a more rapid and reliable interpolation of a potential energy surface within a given accuracy compared to the non-adaptive version.
An adaptive interpolation scheme for molecular potential energy surfaces.
Kowalewski, Markus; Larsson, Elisabeth; Heryudono, Alfa
2016-08-28
The calculation of potential energy surfaces for quantum dynamics can be a time consuming task-especially when a high level of theory for the electronic structure calculation is required. We propose an adaptive interpolation algorithm based on polyharmonic splines combined with a partition of unity approach. The adaptive node refinement allows to greatly reduce the number of sample points by employing a local error estimate. The algorithm and its scaling behavior are evaluated for a model function in 2, 3, and 4 dimensions. The developed algorithm allows for a more rapid and reliable interpolation of a potential energy surface within a given accuracy compared to the non-adaptive version. PMID:27586901
An adaptive interpolation scheme for molecular potential energy surfaces.
Kowalewski, Markus; Larsson, Elisabeth; Heryudono, Alfa
2016-08-28
The calculation of potential energy surfaces for quantum dynamics can be a time consuming task-especially when a high level of theory for the electronic structure calculation is required. We propose an adaptive interpolation algorithm based on polyharmonic splines combined with a partition of unity approach. The adaptive node refinement allows to greatly reduce the number of sample points by employing a local error estimate. The algorithm and its scaling behavior are evaluated for a model function in 2, 3, and 4 dimensions. The developed algorithm allows for a more rapid and reliable interpolation of a potential energy surface within a given accuracy compared to the non-adaptive version.
A Global Analytical Representation of the Potential Energy Surface of the FHF(-) Anion.
Cornaton, Yann; Marquardt, Roberto
2016-08-01
A global analytical representation of the potential energy hypersurface of the lowest adiabatic electronic state of the FHF(-) anion is derived from ab initio calculations at the coupled cluster level of theory with full single and double and perturbative triple excitations using explicitly correlated atomic basis functions. The new compact function of interatomic distances combines covalent short-range and long-range electrostatic interaction forms and assesses accurately both the lowest reaction channels between the F(-) and HF fragments, with reaction enthalpies to within 1 kJ mol(-1), as well as vibrational terms to within 1.5 cm(-1) deviation from experimental values.
A Global Analytical Representation of the Potential Energy Surface of the FHF(-) Anion.
Cornaton, Yann; Marquardt, Roberto
2016-08-01
A global analytical representation of the potential energy hypersurface of the lowest adiabatic electronic state of the FHF(-) anion is derived from ab initio calculations at the coupled cluster level of theory with full single and double and perturbative triple excitations using explicitly correlated atomic basis functions. The new compact function of interatomic distances combines covalent short-range and long-range electrostatic interaction forms and assesses accurately both the lowest reaction channels between the F(-) and HF fragments, with reaction enthalpies to within 1 kJ mol(-1), as well as vibrational terms to within 1.5 cm(-1) deviation from experimental values. PMID:27400137
Fractal energy spectrum of a polariton gas in a Fibonacci quasiperiodic potential.
Tanese, D; Gurevich, E; Baboux, F; Jacqmin, T; Lemaître, A; Galopin, E; Sagnes, I; Amo, A; Bloch, J; Akkermans, E
2014-04-11
We report on the study of a polariton gas confined in a quasiperiodic one-dimensional cavity, described by a Fibonacci sequence. Imaging the polariton modes both in real and reciprocal space, we observe features characteristic of their fractal energy spectrum such as the opening of minigaps obeying the gap labeling theorem and log-periodic oscillations of the integrated density of states. These observations are accurately reproduced solving an effective 1D Schrödinger equation, illustrating the potential of cavity polaritons as a quantum simulator in complex topological geometries. PMID:24765996
Renewable energy technologies adoption in Kazakhstan: potentials, barriers and solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karatayev, Marat; Marazza, Diego; Contin, Andrea
2015-04-01
The growth in environmental pollution alongside an increasing demand for electricity in Kazakhstan calls for a higher level of renewable energy penetration into national power systems. Kazakhstan has great potential for renewable energies from wind, solar, hydro and biomass resources that can be exploited for electricity production. In 2013, the Kazakhstani Ministry of Energy initiated a new power development plan, which aims to bring the share of renewable energy to 3% by 2020 rising to 30% by 2030 and 50% by 2050. The current contribution of renewable energy resources in the national electricity mix, however, is less than 1%. As a developing country, Kazakhstan has faced a number of barriers to increase renewable energy use, which have to be analysed and translated into a comprehensive renewable energy policy framework. This study presents an overview of the current conditions of renewable energy development in Kazakhstan. Secondly, it identifies and describes the main barriers that prevent diffusion of renewable energy technologies in Kazakhstan. Finally, the paper provides solutions to overcome specific barriers in order to successfully develop a renewable energy technology sector in Kazakhstan.
Fu, Haohao; Shao, Xueguang; Chipot, Christophe; Cai, Wensheng
2016-08-01
Proper use of the adaptive biasing force (ABF) algorithm in free-energy calculations needs certain prerequisites to be met, namely, that the Jacobian for the metric transformation and its first derivative be available and the coarse variables be independent and fully decoupled from any holonomic constraint or geometric restraint, thereby limiting singularly the field of application of the approach. The extended ABF (eABF) algorithm circumvents these intrinsic limitations by applying the time-dependent bias onto a fictitious particle coupled to the coarse variable of interest by means of a stiff spring. However, with the current implementation of eABF in the popular molecular dynamics engine NAMD, a trajectory-based post-treatment is necessary to derive the underlying free-energy change. Usually, such a posthoc analysis leads to a decrease in the reliability of the free-energy estimates due to the inevitable loss of information, as well as to a drop in efficiency, which stems from substantial read-write accesses to file systems. We have developed a user-friendly, on-the-fly code for performing eABF simulations within NAMD. In the present contribution, this code is probed in eight illustrative examples. The performance of the algorithm is compared with traditional ABF, on the one hand, and the original eABF implementation combined with a posthoc analysis, on the other hand. Our results indicate that the on-the-fly eABF algorithm (i) supplies the correct free-energy landscape in those critical cases where the coarse variables at play are coupled to either each other or to geometric restraints or holonomic constraints, (ii) greatly improves the reliability of the free-energy change, compared to the outcome of a posthoc analysis, and (iii) represents a negligible additional computational effort compared to regular ABF. Moreover, in the proposed implementation, guidelines for choosing two parameters of the eABF algorithm, namely the stiffness of the spring and the mass
Fu, Haohao; Shao, Xueguang; Chipot, Christophe; Cai, Wensheng
2016-08-01
Proper use of the adaptive biasing force (ABF) algorithm in free-energy calculations needs certain prerequisites to be met, namely, that the Jacobian for the metric transformation and its first derivative be available and the coarse variables be independent and fully decoupled from any holonomic constraint or geometric restraint, thereby limiting singularly the field of application of the approach. The extended ABF (eABF) algorithm circumvents these intrinsic limitations by applying the time-dependent bias onto a fictitious particle coupled to the coarse variable of interest by means of a stiff spring. However, with the current implementation of eABF in the popular molecular dynamics engine NAMD, a trajectory-based post-treatment is necessary to derive the underlying free-energy change. Usually, such a posthoc analysis leads to a decrease in the reliability of the free-energy estimates due to the inevitable loss of information, as well as to a drop in efficiency, which stems from substantial read-write accesses to file systems. We have developed a user-friendly, on-the-fly code for performing eABF simulations within NAMD. In the present contribution, this code is probed in eight illustrative examples. The performance of the algorithm is compared with traditional ABF, on the one hand, and the original eABF implementation combined with a posthoc analysis, on the other hand. Our results indicate that the on-the-fly eABF algorithm (i) supplies the correct free-energy landscape in those critical cases where the coarse variables at play are coupled to either each other or to geometric restraints or holonomic constraints, (ii) greatly improves the reliability of the free-energy change, compared to the outcome of a posthoc analysis, and (iii) represents a negligible additional computational effort compared to regular ABF. Moreover, in the proposed implementation, guidelines for choosing two parameters of the eABF algorithm, namely the stiffness of the spring and the mass
Vancoillie, Steven; Malmqvist, Per Åke; Veryazov, Valera
2016-04-12
The chromium dimer has long been a benchmark molecule to evaluate the performance of different computational methods ranging from density functional theory to wave function methods. Among the latter, multiconfigurational perturbation theory was shown to be able to reproduce the potential energy surface of the chromium dimer accurately. However, for modest active space sizes, it was later shown that different definitions of the zeroth-order Hamiltonian have a large impact on the results. In this work, we revisit the system for the third time with multiconfigurational perturbation theory, now in order to increase the active space of the reference wave function. This reduces the impact of the choice of zeroth-order Hamiltonian and improves the shape of the potential energy surface significantly. We conclude by comparing our results of the dissocation energy and vibrational spectrum to those obtained from several highly accurate multiconfigurational methods and experiment. For a meaningful comparison, we used the extrapolation to the complete basis set for all methods involved.
Low-energy potential scattering in two and three dimensions
Khuri, N. N.; Martin, Andre; Richard, J.-M.; Wu, T. T.
2009-07-15
Conditions are established for the existence of a scattering length and an effective range in the low-energy expansion of the S-wave phase shift of a central potential in two and three dimensions. The behavior of the phase shift as a function of the momentum is also derived for longer-range power-law potentials which do not fulfill these conditions.
Ab initio potential energy surface and vibration-rotation energy levels of silicon dicarbide, SiC2.
Koput, Jacek
2016-10-01
The accurate ground-state potential energy surface of silicon dicarbide, SiC2 , has been determined from ab initio calculations using the coupled-cluster approach. Results obtained with the conventional and explicitly correlated coupled-cluster methods were compared. The core-electron correlation, higher-order valence-electron correlation, and scalar relativistic effects were taken into account. The potential energy barrier to the linear SiCC configuration was predicted to be 1782 cm(-1) . The vibration-rotation energy levels of the SiC2 , (29) SiC2 , (30) SiC2 , and SiC(13) C isotopologues were calculated using a variational method. The experimental vibration-rotation energy levels of the main isotopologue were reproduced to high accuracy. In particular, the experimental energy levels of the highly anharmonic vibrational ν3 mode of SiC2 were reproduced to within 6.7 cm(-1) , up to as high as the v3 = 16 state.
Ab initio potential energy surface and vibration-rotation energy levels of silicon dicarbide, SiC2.
Koput, Jacek
2016-10-01
The accurate ground-state potential energy surface of silicon dicarbide, SiC2 , has been determined from ab initio calculations using the coupled-cluster approach. Results obtained with the conventional and explicitly correlated coupled-cluster methods were compared. The core-electron correlation, higher-order valence-electron correlation, and scalar relativistic effects were taken into account. The potential energy barrier to the linear SiCC configuration was predicted to be 1782 cm(-1) . The vibration-rotation energy levels of the SiC2 , (29) SiC2 , (30) SiC2 , and SiC(13) C isotopologues were calculated using a variational method. The experimental vibration-rotation energy levels of the main isotopologue were reproduced to high accuracy. In particular, the experimental energy levels of the highly anharmonic vibrational ν3 mode of SiC2 were reproduced to within 6.7 cm(-1) , up to as high as the v3 = 16 state. PMID:27481562
Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems
Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham
2014-01-22
In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment costmore » and pay back periods were calculated.« less
LHC Physics Potential vs. Energy: Considerations for the 2011 Run
Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab /CERN
2011-02-01
Parton luminosities are convenient for estimating how the physics potential of Large Hadron Collider experiments depends on the energy of the proton beams. I quantify the advantage of increasing the beam energy from 3.5 TeV to 4 TeV. I present parton luminosities, ratios of parton luminosities, and contours of fixed parton luminosity for gg, u {bar d}, qq, and gq interactions over the energy range relevant to the Large Hadron Collider, along with example analyses for specific processes. This note extends the analysis presented in Ref. [1]. Full-size figures are available as pdf files at lutece.fnal.gov/PartonLum11/.
Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems
Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham
2014-01-22
In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment cost and pay back periods were calculated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turino, Chiara; Scafidi, Davide; Eva, Elena; Solarino, Stefano
2009-10-01
Seismotectonic studies concern themselves with understanding the distribution of earthquakes in space, time, size and style. Therefore, the better these parameters are known, the most correct the association of any seismic event with the faulting structure that caused it will result. The use of accurate location methods is especially required when dealing with very complex areas, where several faulting systems or relatively small seismogenic structures exist. In fact, even though routinely determined epicentres are capable of revealing the rough picture of the seismicity, they are not suitable for studies of the fine structure of the causative fault, as their location uncertainties are often larger than the source dimension itself. In this work the probabilistic approach of the "Non Linear Localization" has been used to compute precise locations for earthquakes occurred in the last twenty years nearby the Saorge-Taggia line, a complex fault system situated in Western Liguria, close to the border between Italy and France. Together with the Breil-Sospel-Monaco and the Peille-Laghet faults, this line is responsible for the seismic activity of the area. The seismotectonic study is completed through a local tomographic study and the analysis of the focal mechanisms computed for an enlarged area. The results show that the seismicity associated with this fault system is confined within the first 10 km depth. Many clusters of seismic events are identified along the Saorge-Taggia line. The existence of a not previously mapped branch perpendicular to the Saorge-Taggia line is also recognized. Although its position may suggest it to be the continuation of the Breil-Sospel-Monaco fault system towards NE, our finding would rather suggest no association with the fault. The overall results confirm the complexity of the area; in particular the hypothesis that the Saorge-Taggia system may represent the eastward limit of a subalpine crustal block comprised within the Nice Arc, the
Abramyan, Tigran M; Snyder, James A; Yancey, Jeremy A; Thyparambil, Aby A; Wei, Yang; Stuart, Steven J; Latour, Robert A
2015-01-01
Interfacial force field (IFF) parameters for use with the CHARMM force field have been developed for interactions between peptides and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Parameterization of the IFF was performed to achieve agreement between experimental and calculated adsorption free energies of small TGTG-X-GTGT host-guest peptides (T = threonine, G = glycine, and X = variable amino-acid residue) on HDPE, with ±0.5 kcal/mol agreement. This IFF parameter set consists of tuned nonbonded parameters (i.e., partial charges and Lennard-Jones parameters) for use with an in-house-modified CHARMM molecular dynamic program that enables the use of an independent set of force field parameters to control molecular behavior at a solid-liquid interface. The R correlation coefficient between the simulated and experimental peptide adsorption free energies increased from 0.00 for the standard CHARMM force field parameters to 0.88 for the tuned IFF parameters. Subsequent studies are planned to apply the tuned IFF parameter set for the simulation of protein adsorption behavior on an HDPE surface for comparison with experimental values of adsorbed protein orientation and conformation. PMID:25818122
Riahi, Saleh; Rowley, Christopher N
2014-10-30
The quantum mechanical (QM)/molecular mechanical (MM) interface between Chemistry at HARvard Molecular Mechanics (CHARMM) and TURBOMOLE is described. CHARMM provides an extensive set of simulation algorithms, like molecular dynamics (MD) and free energy perturbation, and support for mature nonpolarizable and Drude polarizable force fields. TURBOMOLE provides fast QM calculations using density functional theory or wave function methods and excited state properties. CHARMM-TURBOMOLE is well-suited for extended QM/MM MD simulations using first principles methods with large (triple-ζ) basis sets. We demonstrate these capabilities with a QM/MM simulation of Mg(2+) (aq), where the MM outer sphere water molecules are represented using the SWM4-NDP Drude polarizable force field and the ion and inner coordination sphere are represented using QM PBE, PBE0, and MP2 methods. The relative solvation free energies of Mg(2+) and Zn(2+) were calculated using thermodynamic integration. We also demonstrate the features for excited state properties. We calculate the time-averaged solution absorption spectrum of indole, the emission spectrum of the indole 1La excited state, and the electronic circular dichroism spectrum of an oxacepham.
Abramyan, Tigran M.; Snyder, James A.; Yancey, Jeremy A.; Thyparambil, Aby A.; Wei, Yang; Stuart, Steven J.; Latour, Robert A.
2015-01-01
Interfacial force field (IFF) parameters for use with the CHARMM force field have been developed for interactions between peptides and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Parameterization of the IFF was performed to achieve agreement between experimental and calculated adsorption free energies of small TGTG–X–GTGT host–guest peptides (T = threonine, G = glycine, and X = variable amino-acid residue) on HDPE, with ±0.5 kcal/mol agreement. This IFF parameter set consists of tuned nonbonded parameters (i.e., partial charges and Lennard–Jones parameters) for use with an in-house-modified CHARMM molecular dynamic program that enables the use of an independent set of force field parameters to control molecular behavior at a solid–liquid interface. The R correlation coefficient between the simulated and experimental peptide adsorption free energies increased from 0.00 for the standard CHARMM force field parameters to 0.88 for the tuned IFF parameters. Subsequent studies are planned to apply the tuned IFF parameter set for the simulation of protein adsorption behavior on an HDPE surface for comparison with experimental values of adsorbed protein orientation and conformation. PMID:25818122
Dryza, V; Bieske, E J
2009-10-28
The infrared spectrum of the T-shaped (52)Cr(+)-D(2) complex is measured over the 2742-2820 cm(-1) range by detecting Cr(+) photofragments. The main band, due to the D-D stretch excitation, is shifted at 215 cm(-1) to lower energy from the Q(0) (1) transition of the free D(2) molecule and displays clearly resolved rovibrational transitions. Observation of a photodissociation onset for the N(')=8 rotational level is used to infer that the dissociation energy of Cr(+)-D(2), with respect to ground-state Cr(+) and D(2) fragments, lies between 2839.7 and 2856.9 cm(-1). Perturbations to the upper state levels are presumed to arise from interactions with quasibound combination levels involving the intermolecular stretch and bend vibrational modes. A vibrationally averaged Cr(+)...D(2) separation of 2.023 A and an estimate of 394 cm(-1) for the intermolecular harmonic stretching frequency are derived from the measured rotational constants.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dryza, V.; Bieske, E. J.
2009-10-01
The infrared spectrum of the T-shaped C52r+-D2 complex is measured over the 2742-2820 cm-1 range by detecting Cr+ photofragments. The main band, due to the D-D stretch excitation, is shifted at 215 cm-1 to lower energy from the Q01 transition of the free D2 molecule and displays clearly resolved rovibrational transitions. Observation of a photodissociation onset for the N'=8 rotational level is used to infer that the dissociation energy of Cr+-D2, with respect to ground-state Cr+ and D2 fragments, lies between 2839.7 and 2856.9 cm-1. Perturbations to the upper state levels are presumed to arise from interactions with quasibound combination levels involving the intermolecular stretch and bend vibrational modes. A vibrationally averaged Cr+⋯D2 separation of 2.023 Å and an estimate of 394 cm-1 for the intermolecular harmonic stretching frequency are derived from the measured rotational constants.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harvey, J.-P.; Gheribi, A. E.; Chartrand, P.
2011-08-01
The design of multicomponent alloys used in different applications based on specific thermo-physical properties determined experimentally or predicted from theoretical calculations is of major importance in many engineering applications. A procedure based on Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) and the thermodynamic integration (TI) method to improve the quality of the predicted thermodynamic properties calculated from classical thermodynamic calculations is presented in this study. The Gibbs energy function of the liquid phase of the Cu-Zr system at 1800 K has been determined based on this approach. The internal structure of Cu-Zr melts and amorphous alloys at different temperatures, as well as other physical properties were also obtained from MCS in which the phase trajectory was modeled by the modified embedded atom model formalism. A rigorous comparison between available experimental data and simulated thermo-physical properties obtained from our MCS is presented in this work. The modified quasichemical model in the pair approximation was parameterized using the internal structure data obtained from our MCS and the precise Gibbs energy function calculated at 1800 K from the TI method. The predicted activity of copper in Cu-Zr melts at 1499 K obtained from our thermodynamic optimization was corroborated by experimental data found in the literature. The validity of the amplitude of the entropy of mixing obtained from the in silico procedure presented in this work was analyzed based on the thermodynamic description of hard sphere mixtures.
Goldman, N; Leforestier, C; Saykally, R J
2004-05-25
We present results of gas phase cluster and liquid water simulations from the recently determined VRT(ASP-W)III water dimer potential energy surface. VRT(ASP-W)III is shown to not only be a model of high ''spectroscopic'' accuracy for the water dimer, but also makes accurate predictions of vibrational ground-state properties for clusters up through the hexamer. Results of ambient liquid water simulations from VRT(ASP-W)III are compared to those from ab initio Molecular Dynamics, other potentials of ''spectroscopic'' accuracy, and to experiment. The results herein represent the first time that a ''spectroscopic'' potential surface is able to correctly model condensed phase properties of water.
Potentials and policy implications of energy and material efficiency improvement
Worrell, Ernst; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Martin, Nathan; van den Broek, Richard; Block, Kornelis
1997-01-01
There is a growing awareness of the serious problems associated with the provision of sufficient energy to meet human needs and to fuel economic growth world-wide. This has pointed to the need for energy and material efficiency, which would reduce air, water and thermal pollution, as well as waste production. Increasing energy and material efficiency also have the benefits of increased employment, improved balance of imports and exports, increased security of energy supply, and adopting environmentally advantageous energy supply. A large potential exists for energy savings through energy and material efficiency improvements. Technologies are not now, nor will they be, in the foreseeable future, the limiting factors with regard to continuing energy efficiency improvements. There are serious barriers to energy efficiency improvement, including unwillingness to invest, lack of available and accessible information, economic disincentives and organizational barriers. A wide range of policy instruments, as well as innovative approaches have been tried in some countries in order to achieve the desired energy efficiency approaches. These include: regulation and guidelines; economic instruments and incentives; voluntary agreements and actions, information, education and training; and research, development and demonstration. An area that requires particular attention is that of improved international co-operation to develop policy instruments and technologies to meet the needs of developing countries. Material efficiency has not received the attention that it deserves. Consequently, there is a dearth of data on the qualities and quantities for final consumption, thus, making it difficult to formulate policies. Available data, however, suggest that there is a large potential for improved use of many materials in industrialized countries.
Shie, Je-Lueng; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Chen, Ci-Syuan; Shaw, Dai-Gee; Chen, Yi-Hung; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Ma, Hsiao-Kan
2011-06-01
To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain and be capable of being produced in large quantities without reducing food supplies. Amounts of agricultural waste are produced and require treatment, with rice straw contributing the greatest source of such potential bio-fuel in Taiwan. Through life-cycle accounting, several energy indicators and four potential gasification technologies (PGT) were evaluated. The input energy steps for the energy life cycle assessment (ELCA) include collection, generator, torrefaction, crushing, briquetting, transportation, energy production, condensation, air pollution control and distribution of biofuels to the point of end use. Every PGT has a positive energy benefit. The input of energy required for the transportation and pre-treatment are major steps in the ELCA. On-site briquetting of refused-derived fuel (RDF) provides an alternative means of reducing transportation energy requirements. Bio-energy sources, such as waste rice straw, provide an ideal material for the bio-fuel plant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoyos, Isabel; Baquero-Bernal, Astrid; Hagemann, Stefan
2013-09-01
In Colombia, the access to climate related observational data is restricted and their quantity is limited. But information about the current climate is fundamental for studies on present and future climate changes and their impacts. In this respect, this information is especially important over the Colombian Caribbean Catchment Basin (CCCB) that comprises over 80 % of the population of Colombia and produces about 85 % of its GDP. Consequently, an ensemble of several datasets has been evaluated and compared with respect to their capability to represent the climate over the CCCB. The comparison includes observations, reconstructed data (CPC, Delaware), reanalyses (ERA-40, NCEP/NCAR), and simulated data produced with the regional climate model REMO. The capabilities to represent the average annual state, the seasonal cycle, and the interannual variability are investigated. The analyses focus on surface air temperature and precipitation as well as on surface water and energy balances. On one hand the CCCB characteristics poses some difficulties to the datasets as the CCCB includes a mountainous region with three mountain ranges, where the dynamical core of models and model parameterizations can fail. On the other hand, it has the most dense network of stations, with the longest records, in the country. The results can be summarised as follows: all of the datasets demonstrate a cold bias in the average temperature of CCCB. However, the variability of the average temperature of CCCB is most poorly represented by the NCEP/NCAR dataset. The average precipitation in CCCB is overestimated by all datasets. For the ERA-40, NCEP/NCAR, and REMO datasets, the amplitude of the annual cycle is extremely high. The variability of the average precipitation in CCCB is better represented by the reconstructed data of CPC and Delaware, as well as by NCEP/NCAR. Regarding the capability to represent the spatial behaviour of CCCB, temperature is better represented by Delaware and REMO, while
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hangele, Tim; Dolg, Michael; Hanrath, Michael; Cao, Xiaoyan; Schwerdtfeger, Peter
2012-06-01
Energy-consistent two-component semi-local pseudopotentials for the superheavy elements with atomic numbers 111-118 have been adjusted to fully relativistic multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations based on the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian, including perturbative corrections for the frequency-dependent Breit interaction in the Coulomb gauge and lowest-order quantum electrodynamic effects. The pseudopotential core includes 92 electrons corresponding to the configuration [Xe]4f 145d105f 14. The parameters for the elements 111-118 were fitted by two-component multi-configuration Hartree-Fock calculations in the intermediate coupling scheme to the total energies of 267 up to 797 J levels arising from 31 up to 62 nonrelativistic configurations, including also anionic and highly ionized states, with mean absolute errors clearly below 0.02 eV for averages corresponding to nonrelativistic configurations. Primitive basis sets for one- and two-component pseudopotential calculations have been optimized for the ground and excited states and exhibit finite basis set errors with respect to the finite-difference Hartree-Fock limit below 0.01 and 0.02 eV, respectively. General contraction schemes have been applied to obtain valence basis sets of polarized valence double- to quadruple-zeta quality. Results of atomic test calculations in the intermediate coupling scheme at the Fock-space coupled-cluster level are in good agreement with those of corresponding fully relativistic all-electron calculations based on the Dirac-Coulomb-Breit Hamiltonian. The results demonstrate besides the well-known need of a relativistic treatment at the Dirac-Coulomb level also the necessity to include higher-order corrections for the superheavy elements.
Hangele, Tim; Dolg, Michael; Hanrath, Michael; Cao, Xiaoyan; Schwerdtfeger, Peter
2012-06-01
Energy-consistent two-component semi-local pseudopotentials for the superheavy elements with atomic numbers 111-118 have been adjusted to fully relativistic multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations based on the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian, including perturbative corrections for the frequency-dependent Breit interaction in the Coulomb gauge and lowest-order quantum electrodynamic effects. The pseudopotential core includes 92 electrons corresponding to the configuration [Xe]4f(14)5d(10)5f(14). The parameters for the elements 111-118 were fitted by two-component multi-configuration Hartree-Fock calculations in the intermediate coupling scheme to the total energies of 267 up to 797 J levels arising from 31 up to 62 nonrelativistic configurations, including also anionic and highly ionized states, with mean absolute errors clearly below 0.02 eV for averages corresponding to nonrelativistic configurations. Primitive basis sets for one- and two-component pseudopotential calculations have been optimized for the ground and excited states and exhibit finite basis set errors with respect to the finite-difference Hartree-Fock limit below 0.01 and 0.02 eV, respectively. General contraction schemes have been applied to obtain valence basis sets of polarized valence double- to quadruple-zeta quality. Results of atomic test calculations in the intermediate coupling scheme at the Fock-space coupled-cluster level are in good agreement with those of corresponding fully relativistic all-electron calculations based on the Dirac-Coulomb-Breit Hamiltonian. The results demonstrate besides the well-known need of a relativistic treatment at the Dirac-Coulomb level also the necessity to include higher-order corrections for the superheavy elements. PMID:22697528
High energy scattering of Dirac particles on smooth potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Nguyen Suan; Dung, Le Anh; Xuan, Nguyen Nhu; Thang, Vu Toan
2016-08-01
The derivation of the Glauber type representation for the high energy scattering amplitude of particles of spin 1/2 is given within the framework of the Dirac equation in the Foldy-Wouthuysen (FW) representation and two-component formalism. The differential cross-sections on the Yukawa and Gaussian potentials are also considered and discussed.
Potential Energy Surface Database of Group II Dimer
National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway
SRD 143 NIST Potential Energy Surface Database of Group II Dimer (Web, free access) This database provides critical atomic and molecular data needed in order to evaluate the feasibility of using laser cooled and trapped Group II atomic species (Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba) for ultra-precise optical clocks or quantum information processing devices.
Teaching Field Concept and Potential Energy at A-Level.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Poon, C. H.
1986-01-01
Argues for a greater emphasis on the reality of fields in electronics and gravitation instruction. Advocates that the potential energy in a system be regarded as stored in the field rather than in the material bodies of the system. Provides a rationale and examples for this position. (ML)
Unified Technical Concepts. Module 7: Potential and Kinetic Energy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.
This concept module on potential and kinetic energy is one of thirteen modules that provide a flexible, laboratory-based physics instructional package designed to meet the specialized needs of students in two-year, postsecondary technical schools. Each of the thirteen concept modules discusses a single physics concept and how it is applied to each…
Technical Potential of Solar Energy to Address Energy Poverty and Avoid GHG Emissions in Africa
Cowlin, S. C.; Heimiller, D.; Bilello, D.; Renne, D.
2008-01-01
This analysis explores the technical potential of photovoltaics (PV) or concentrating solar power (CSP) to address energy poverty in Africa through a geographic information system (GIS) screening of solar resource data developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).
Corzo, H H; Galano, Annia; Dolgounitcheva, O; Zakrzewski, V G; Ortiz, J V
2015-08-20
Two accurate and computationally efficient electron-propagator (EP) methods for calculating the valence, vertical ionization energies (VIEs) of closed-shell molecules have been identified through comparisons with related approximations. VIEs of a representative set of closed-shell molecules were calculated with EP methods using 10 basis sets. The most easily executed method, the diagonal, second-order (D2) EP approximation, produces results that steadily rise as basis sets are improved toward values based on extrapolated coupled-cluster singles and doubles plus perturbative triples calculations, but its mean errors remain unacceptably large. The outer valence Green function, partial third-order and renormalized partial third-order methods (P3+), which employ the diagonal self-energy approximation, produce markedly better results but have a greater tendency to overestimate VIEs with larger basis sets. The best combination of accuracy and efficiency with a diagonal self-energy matrix is the P3+ approximation, which exhibits the best trends with respect to basis-set saturation. Several renormalized methods with more flexible nondiagonal self-energies also have been examined: the two-particle, one-hole Tamm-Dancoff approximation (2ph-TDA), the third-order algebraic diagrammatic construction or ADC(3), the renormalized third-order (3+) method, and the nondiagonal second-order renormalized (NR2) approximation. Like D2, 2ph-TDA produces steady improvements with basis set augmentation, but its average errors are too large. Errors obtained with 3+ and ADC(3) are smaller on average than those of 2ph-TDA. These methods also have a greater tendency to overestimate VIEs with larger basis sets. The smallest average errors occur for the NR2 approximation; these errors decrease steadily with basis augmentations. As basis sets approach saturation, NR2 becomes the most accurate and efficient method with a nondiagonal self-energy. PMID:26226061
Corzo, H H; Galano, Annia; Dolgounitcheva, O; Zakrzewski, V G; Ortiz, J V
2015-08-20
Two accurate and computationally efficient electron-propagator (EP) methods for calculating the valence, vertical ionization energies (VIEs) of closed-shell molecules have been identified through comparisons with related approximations. VIEs of a representative set of closed-shell molecules were calculated with EP methods using 10 basis sets. The most easily executed method, the diagonal, second-order (D2) EP approximation, produces results that steadily rise as basis sets are improved toward values based on extrapolated coupled-cluster singles and doubles plus perturbative triples calculations, but its mean errors remain unacceptably large. The outer valence Green function, partial third-order and renormalized partial third-order methods (P3+), which employ the diagonal self-energy approximation, produce markedly better results but have a greater tendency to overestimate VIEs with larger basis sets. The best combination of accuracy and efficiency with a diagonal self-energy matrix is the P3+ approximation, which exhibits the best trends with respect to basis-set saturation. Several renormalized methods with more flexible nondiagonal self-energies also have been examined: the two-particle, one-hole Tamm-Dancoff approximation (2ph-TDA), the third-order algebraic diagrammatic construction or ADC(3), the renormalized third-order (3+) method, and the nondiagonal second-order renormalized (NR2) approximation. Like D2, 2ph-TDA produces steady improvements with basis set augmentation, but its average errors are too large. Errors obtained with 3+ and ADC(3) are smaller on average than those of 2ph-TDA. These methods also have a greater tendency to overestimate VIEs with larger basis sets. The smallest average errors occur for the NR2 approximation; these errors decrease steadily with basis augmentations. As basis sets approach saturation, NR2 becomes the most accurate and efficient method with a nondiagonal self-energy.
Understanding Potential Climate Variability Impacts on the Offshore Energy Industry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stear, J.
2014-12-01
Climate variability may have important implications for the offshore energy industry. Scenarios of increased storm activity and changes in sea level could require the retrofit of existing offshore platforms and coastal infrastructure, the decommissioning of facilities for which upgrade or relocation is not economically viable, and the development of new methods and equipment which are removed from or less sensitive to environmental loads. Over the past years the energy industry has been actively involved in collaborative research efforts with government and academia to identify the potential changes in the offshore operating environment, and corresponding risk implications. This presentation will review several of these efforts, and for several of the hypothetical climate variation scenarios, review the potential impacts on and possible mitigations for offshore and coastal energy infrastructure and operations.
Three-dimensional potential energy surface of Ar–CO
Sumiyoshi, Yoshihiro; Endo, Yasuki
2015-01-14
A three-dimensional intermolecular potential energy surface of the Ar–CO complex has been determined by fitting most of the previously reported spectroscopic data, where observed transition frequencies by microwave, millimeter-wave, submillimeter-wave, and infrared spectroscopy were reproduced simultaneously within their experimental accuracies. A free rotor model Hamiltonian considering all the freedom of motions for an atom-diatom system was applied to calculate vibration-rotation energies. A three-dimensional potential energy surface obtained by ab initio calculations at the CCSD(T)-F12b/aug-cc-pV5Z level of theory was parameterized by a model function consisting of 46 parameters. They were used as initial values for the least-squares analysis of the experimental data. A total of 20 parameters were optimized to reproduce all the spectroscopic data.
Heterobarrier for converting hot-phonon energy to electric potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shin, Seungha; Melnick, Corey; Kaviany, Massoud
2013-02-01
We show that hot phonons emitted in energy conversion or resistive processes can be converted to electric potential in heterobarrier structures. Using phonon and electron interaction kinetics and self-consistent ensemble Monte Carlo, we find the favorable conditions for unassisted absorption of hot phonons and design graded heterobarriers for their direct conversion into electric energy. Tandem barriers with nearly optical-phonon height allow for substantial potential gain without current loss. We find that 19% of hot phonons can be harvested with an optimized GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs barrier structure over a range of current and electron densities, thus enhancing the overall energy conversion efficiency and reducing waste heat.
Turkey's High Temperature Geothermal Energy Resources and Electricity Production Potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bilgin, Ö.
2012-04-01
Turkey is in the first 7 countries in the world in terms of potential and applications. Geothermal energy which is an alternative energy resource has advantages such as low-cost, clean, safe and natural resource. Geothermal energy is defined as hot water and steam which is formed by heat that accumulated in various depths of the Earth's crust; with more than 20oC temperature and which contain more than fused minerals, various salts and gases than normal underground and ground water. It is divided into three groups as low, medium and high temperature. High-temperature fluid is used in electricity generation, low and medium temperature fluids are used in greenhouses, houses, airport runways, animal farms and places such as swimming pools heating. In this study high temperature geothermal fields in Turkey which is suitable for electricity production, properties and electricity production potential was investigated.
Global interior eddy available potential energy diagnosed from Argo floats
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roullet, Guillaume; Capet, Xavier; Maze, Guillaume
2014-03-01
By combining all Argo profiles for the period 2002 to present, a cumulative density function is constructed on a 3-D grid of the global ocean. This function quantifies the statistics of isopycnals: time-averaged density, root-mean square of isopycnal displacement, and eddy available potential energy (EAPE). EAPE is the analogue of the eddy kinetic energy, but for the potential energy reservoir. Because it is essentially tied to the spatial structure and magnitude of mesoscale activity, EAPE is an important quantity that should be useful to evaluate eddy resolving/permitting model turbulence and circulation. Among other striking features are the turbulent behavior of Pacific and southern Atlantic Tsuchiya jets and subsurface EAPE maxima in some parts of the ocean, particularly in the Southern Ocean.
Contrastive studies of potential energy functions of some diatomic molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdallah, Hassan H.; Abdullah, Hewa Y.
2016-03-01
It was proposed that iron hydride, FeH, would be formed only on grains at the clouds through the reaction of the adsorbed H atoms or H2 molecules with the adsorbed Fe atoms on the grains. The importance of FeH in Astrophysics presents an additional motivation to study its energetic, spectroscopic constants and Potential Energy Curves. The structural optimization for ground state of FeH was calculated by different theoretical methods, namely, Hartree-Fock (HF), the density functional theory (DFT), B3LYP, MP2 method and QCISD(T) methods and compared with available data from the literature. The single ionized forms, cation and anion, were also obtained at the same level of calculations. Charges, dipole moment, geometrical parameters, molecular orbital energies and spectroscopic parameters were calculated and reported. In addition, the molecular ionization potential, electron affinity and dissociation energy were investigated.
N2(+) bound quartet and sextet state potential energy curves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Partridge, H.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Stallcop, J. R.
1985-01-01
The N2(+) potential energies have been determined from a complete active space self-consistent field calculation with active 2s and 2p electrons. A (6s 4p 3d 1f) Gaussian basis set was used together with additional higher angular momentum and diffuse functions. The calculated potential energy curves for the states 4Sigma(mu)(+), 4Pi(g), and 6Sigma(g)(+), for which there are no spectroscopic observations, are presented. The corresponding spectroscopic constants have been determined from a polynomial curve fit to the computed energies near the well minima and are shown. The 6Sigma(g)(+) state is found to be significantly bound, with a minimum at 1.72 A.
Novel mixture model for the representation of potential energy surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pham, Tien Lam; Kino, Hiori; Terakura, Kiyoyuki; Miyake, Takashi; Dam, Hieu Chi
2016-10-01
We demonstrate that knowledge of chemical physics on a materials system can be automatically extracted from first-principles calculations using a data mining technique; this information can then be utilized to construct a simple empirical atomic potential model. By using unsupervised learning of the generative Gaussian mixture model, physically meaningful patterns of atomic local chemical environments can be detected automatically. Based on the obtained information regarding these atomic patterns, we propose a chemical-structure-dependent linear mixture model for estimating the atomic potential energy. Our experiments show that the proposed mixture model significantly improves the accuracy of the prediction of the potential energy surface for complex systems that possess a large diversity in their local structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Juste, B.; Miró, R.; Verdú, G.; Santos, A.
2014-06-01
This work presents a methodology to reconstruct a Linac high energy photon spectrum beam. The method is based on EPID scatter images generated when the incident photon beam impinges onto a plastic block. The distribution of scatter radiation produced by this scattering object placed on the external EPID surface and centered at the beam field size was measured. The scatter distribution was also simulated for a series of monoenergetic identical geometry photon beams. Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict the scattered photons for monoenergetic photon beams at 92 different locations, with 0.5 cm increments and at 8.5 cm from the centre of the scattering material. Measurements were performed with the same geometry using a 6 MeV photon beam produced by the linear accelerator. A system of linear equations was generated to combine the polyenergetic EPID measurements with the monoenergetic simulation results. Regularization techniques were applied to solve the system for the incident photon spectrum. A linear matrix system, A×S=E, was developed to describe the scattering interactions and their relationship to the primary spectrum (S). A is the monoenergetic scatter matrix determined from the Monte Carlo simulations, S is the incident photon spectrum, and E represents the scatter distribution characterized by EPID measurement. Direct matrix inversion methods produce results that are not physically consistent due to errors inherent in the system, therefore Tikhonov regularization methods were applied to address the effects of these errors and to solve the system for obtaining a consistent bremsstrahlung spectrum.
U.S. Building-Sector Energy Efficiency Potential
Brown, Rich; Borgeson, Sam; Koomey, Jon; Biermayer, Peter
2008-09-30
This paper presents an estimate of the potential for energy efficiency improvements in the U.S. building sector by 2030. The analysis uses the Energy Information Administration's AEO 2007 Reference Case as a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, and applies percentage savings estimates by end use drawn from several prior efficiency potential studies. These prior studies include the U.S. Department of Energy's Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future (CEF) study and a recent study of natural gas savings potential in New York state. For a few end uses for which savings estimates are not readily available, the LBNL study team compiled technical data to estimate savings percentages and costs of conserved energy. The analysis shows that for electricity use in buildings, approximately one-third of the BAU consumption can be saved at a cost of conserved energy of 2.7 cents/kWh (all values in 2007 dollars), while for natural gas approximately the same percentage savings is possible at a cost of between 2.5 and 6.9 $/million Btu. This cost-effective level of savings results in national annual energy bill savings in 2030 of nearly $170 billion. To achieve these savings, the cumulative capital investment needed between 2010 and 2030 is about $440 billion, which translates to a 2-1/2 year simple payback period, or savings over the life of the measures that are nearly 3.5 times larger than the investment required (i.e., a benefit-cost ratio of 3.5).
Modeling Molecular Interactions in Water: From Pairwise to Many-Body Potential Energy Functions.
Cisneros, Gerardo Andrés; Wikfeldt, Kjartan Thor; Ojamäe, Lars; Lu, Jibao; Xu, Yao; Torabifard, Hedieh; Bartók, Albert P; Csányi, Gábor; Molinero, Valeria; Paesani, Francesco
2016-07-13
Almost 50 years have passed from the first computer simulations of water, and a large number of molecular models have been proposed since then to elucidate the unique behavior of water across different phases. In this article, we review the recent progress in the development of analytical potential energy functions that aim at correctly representing many-body effects. Starting from the many-body expansion of the interaction energy, specific focus is on different classes of potential energy functions built upon a hierarchy of approximations and on their ability to accurately reproduce reference data obtained from state-of-the-art electronic structure calculations and experimental measurements. We show that most recent potential energy functions, which include explicit short-range representations of two-body and three-body effects along with a physically correct description of many-body effects at all distances, predict the properties of water from the gas to the condensed phase with unprecedented accuracy, thus opening the door to the long-sought "universal model" capable of describing the behavior of water under different conditions and in different environments.
Modeling Molecular Interactions in Water: From Pairwise to Many-Body Potential Energy Functions.
Cisneros, Gerardo Andrés; Wikfeldt, Kjartan Thor; Ojamäe, Lars; Lu, Jibao; Xu, Yao; Torabifard, Hedieh; Bartók, Albert P; Csányi, Gábor; Molinero, Valeria; Paesani, Francesco
2016-07-13
Almost 50 years have passed from the first computer simulations of water, and a large number of molecular models have been proposed since then to elucidate the unique behavior of water across different phases. In this article, we review the recent progress in the development of analytical potential energy functions that aim at correctly representing many-body effects. Starting from the many-body expansion of the interaction energy, specific focus is on different classes of potential energy functions built upon a hierarchy of approximations and on their ability to accurately reproduce reference data obtained from state-of-the-art electronic structure calculations and experimental measurements. We show that most recent potential energy functions, which include explicit short-range representations of two-body and three-body effects along with a physically correct description of many-body effects at all distances, predict the properties of water from the gas to the condensed phase with unprecedented accuracy, thus opening the door to the long-sought "universal model" capable of describing the behavior of water under different conditions and in different environments. PMID:27186804
80 and 100 Meter Wind Energy Resource Potential for the United States (Poster)
Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; Scott, G.; Flowers, L.; Brower, M.; Hale, E.; Phelps, B.
2010-05-01
Accurate information about the wind potential in each state is required for federal and state policy initiatives that will expand the use of wind energy in the United States. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and AWS Truewind have collaborated to produce the first comprehensive new state-level assessment of wind resource potential since 1993. The estimates are based on high-resolution maps of predicted mean annual wind speeds for the contiguous 48 states developed by AWS Truewind. These maps, at spatial resolution of 200 meters and heights of 60 to 100 meters, were created with a mesoscale-microscale modeling technique and adjusted to reduce errors through a bias-correction procedure involving data from more than 1,000 measurement masts. NREL used the capacity factor maps to estimate the wind energy potential capacity in megawatts for each state by capacity factor ranges. The purpose of this presentation is to (1) inform state and federal policy makers, regulators, developers, and other stakeholders on the availability of the new wind potential information that may influence development, (2) inform the audience of how the new information was derived, and (3) educate the audience on how the information should be interpreted in developing state and federal policy initiatives.
Sharkey, Keeper L.; Bubin, Sergiy; Adamowicz, Ludwik
2011-05-21
Very accurate variational non-relativistic calculations are performed for four higher Rydberg {sup 2}D states (1s{sup 2}nd{sup 1}, n= 8, ..., 11) of the lithium atom ({sup 7}Li). The wave functions of the states are expanded in terms of all-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian functions and finite nuclear mass is used. The exponential parameters of the Gaussians are optimized using the variational method with the aid of the analytical energy gradient determined with respect to those parameters. The results of the calculations allow for refining the experimental energy levels determined with respect to the {sup 2}S 1s{sup 2}2s{sup 1} ground state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Xinchuan; Schwenke, David W.; Lee, Timothy J.
2011-01-01
In this work, we build upon our previous work on the theoretical spectroscopy of ammonia, NH3. Compared to our 2008 study, we include more physics in our rovibrational calculations and more experimental data in the refinement procedure, and these enable us to produce a potential energy surface (PES) of unprecedented accuracy. We call this the HSL-2 PES. The additional physics we include is a second-order correction for the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, and we find it to be critical for improved results. By including experimental data for higher rotational levels in the refinement procedure, we were able to greatly reduce our systematic errors for the rotational dependence of our predictions. These additions together lead to a significantly improved total angular momentum (J) dependence in our computed rovibrational energies. The root-mean-square error between our predictions using the HSL-2 PES and the reliable energy levels from the HITRAN database for J = 0-6 and J = 7/8 for 14NH3 is only 0.015 cm-1 and 0.020/0.023 cm-1, respectively. The root-mean-square errors for the characteristic inversion splittings are approximately 1/3 smaller than those for energy levels. The root-mean-square error for the 6002 J = 0-8 transition energies is 0.020 cm-1. Overall, for J = 0-8, the spectroscopic data computed with HSL-2 is roughly an order of magnitude more accurate relative to our previous best ammonia PES (denoted HSL-1). These impressive numbers are eclipsed only by the root-mean-square error between our predictions for purely rotational transition energies of 15NH3 and the highly accurate Cologne database (CDMS): 0.00034 cm-1 (10 MHz), in other words, 2 orders of magnitude smaller. In addition, we identify a deficiency in the 15NH3 energy levels determined from a model of the experimental data .
Huang, Xinchuan; Schwenke, David W; Lee, Timothy J
2011-01-28
In this work, we build upon our previous work on the theoretical spectroscopy of ammonia, NH(3). Compared to our 2008 study, we include more physics in our rovibrational calculations and more experimental data in the refinement procedure, and these enable us to produce a potential energy surface (PES) of unprecedented accuracy. We call this the HSL-2 PES. The additional physics we include is a second-order correction for the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, and we find it to be critical for improved results. By including experimental data for higher rotational levels in the refinement procedure, we were able to greatly reduce our systematic errors for the rotational dependence of our predictions. These additions together lead to a significantly improved total angular momentum (J) dependence in our computed rovibrational energies. The root-mean-square error between our predictions using the HSL-2 PES and the reliable energy levels from the HITRAN database for J = 0-6 and J = 7∕8 for (14)NH(3) is only 0.015 cm(-1) and 0.020∕0.023 cm(-1), respectively. The root-mean-square errors for the characteristic inversion splittings are approximately 1∕3 smaller than those for energy levels. The root-mean-square error for the 6002 J = 0-8 transition energies is 0.020 cm(-1). Overall, for J = 0-8, the spectroscopic data computed with HSL-2 is roughly an order of magnitude more accurate relative to our previous best ammonia PES (denoted HSL-1). These impressive numbers are eclipsed only by the root-mean-square error between our predictions for purely rotational transition energies of (15)NH(3) and the highly accurate Cologne database (CDMS): 0.00034 cm(-1) (10 MHz), in other words, 2 orders of magnitude smaller. In addition, we identify a deficiency in the (15)NH(3) energy levels determined from a model of the experimental data. PMID:21280738
An exploration of the ozone dimer potential energy surface
Azofra, Luis Miguel; Alkorta, Ibon; Scheiner, Steve
2014-06-28
The (O{sub 3}){sub 2} dimer potential energy surface is thoroughly explored at the ab initio CCSD(T) computational level. Five minima are characterized with binding energies between 0.35 and 2.24 kcal/mol. The most stable may be characterized as slipped parallel, with the two O{sub 3} monomers situated in parallel planes. Partitioning of the interaction energy points to dispersion and exchange as the prime contributors to the stability, with varying contributions from electrostatic energy, which is repulsive in one case. Atoms in Molecules analysis of the wavefunction presents specific O⋯O bonding interactions, whose number is related to the overall stability of each dimer. All internal vibrational frequencies are shifted to the red by dimerization, particularly the antisymmetric stretching mode whose shift is as high as 111 cm{sup −1}. In addition to the five minima, 11 higher-order stationary points are identified.
Wang, Jiyao; Deng, Yuqing; Roux, Benoît
2006-01-01
The absolute (standard) binding free energy of eight FK506-related ligands to FKBP12 is calculated using free energy perturbation molecular dynamics (FEP/MD) simulations with explicit solvent. A number of features are implemented to improve the accuracy and enhance the convergence of the calculations. First, the absolute binding free energy is decomposed into sequential steps during which the ligand-surrounding interactions as well as various biasing potentials restraining the translation, orientation, and conformation of the ligand are turned “on” and “off.” Second, sampling of the ligand conformation is enforced by a restraining potential based on the root mean-square deviation relative to the bound state conformation. The effect of all the restraining potentials is rigorously unbiased, and it is shown explicitly that the final results are independent of all artificial restraints. Third, the repulsive and dispersive free energy contribution arising from the Lennard-Jones interactions of the ligand with its surrounding (protein and solvent) is calculated using the Weeks-Chandler-Andersen separation. This separation also improves convergence of the FEP/MD calculations. Fourth, to decrease the computational cost, only a small number of atoms in the vicinity of the binding site are simulated explicitly, while all the influence of the remaining atoms is incorporated implicitly using the generalized solvent boundary potential (GSBP) method. With GSBP, the size of the simulated FKBP12/ligand systems is significantly reduced, from ∼25,000 to 2500. The computations are very efficient and the statistical error is small (∼1 kcal/mol). The calculated binding free energies are generally in good agreement with available experimental data and previous calculations (within ∼2 kcal/mol). The present results indicate that a strategy based on FEP/MD simulations of a reduced GSBP atomic model sampled with conformational, translational, and orientational restraining
Varandas, A J C
2013-02-01
The purpose is to fit an accurate smooth function of the many-body expansion type to a multidimensional large data set using a basis-set type method. By adopting a combined-hyperbolic-inverse-power-representation for the basis, the novel approach is tested in detail for the ground electronic state of tri-hydrogen and hydroperoxyl systems, assuming that their potential energy surfaces are single-sheeted representable. It is also shown that the method can be easily applicable to potential energy curves by considering as prototypes molecular oxygen and the hydroxyl radical. PMID:23406111
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varandas, A. J. C.
2013-02-01
The purpose is to fit an accurate smooth function of the many-body expansion type to a multidimensional large data set using a basis-set type method. By adopting a combined-hyperbolic-inverse-power-representation for the basis, the novel approach is tested in detail for the ground electronic state of tri-hydrogen and hydroperoxyl systems, assuming that their potential energy surfaces are single-sheeted representable. It is also shown that the method can be easily applicable to potential energy curves by considering as prototypes molecular oxygen and the hydroxyl radical.
Bifurcations on Potential Energy Surfaces of Organic Reactions
Ess, Daniel H.; Wheeler, Steven E.; Iafe, Robert G.; Xu, Lai; Çelebi-Ölçüm, Nihan; Houk, K. N.
2009-01-01
A single transition state may lead to multiple intermediates or products if there is a post-transition state reaction path bifurcation. These bifurcations arise when there are sequential transition states with no intervening energy minimum. For such systems, the shape of the potential energy surface and dynamic effects control selectivity rather than transition state energetics. This minireview covers recent investigations of organic reactions exhibiting reaction pathway bifurcations. Such phenomena are surprisingly general and affect experimental observables such as kinetic isotope effects and product distributions. PMID:18767086
Using peat for energy: Potential environmental restraints. Overview
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reed, R. M.; Voorhees, L. D.; Mulholland, P. J.
Serious consideration is being given to using peat as an energy resource in Minnesota, North Carolina, Florida, and some New England States. Potential environmental constraints for using peat as an energy resource are associated with disruption of important regional wetland ecosystems. Mining peatlands may significantly modify ground and surface water hydrology, degrade water quality in downstream receiving systems, contribute to the deterioration of local air quality, disrupt or eliminate plant and animal populations having specialized requirements and limited distributions, and destroy unique wetland ecosystems representing important scientific and educational resources. Careful selection of peatlands to be developed and application of appropriate mitigation and monitoring programs will be necessary to offset these impacts.
Evaluation of global onshore wind energy potential and generation costs.
Zhou, Yuyu; Luckow, Patrick; Smith, Steven J; Clarke, Leon
2012-07-17
In this study, we develop an updated global estimate of onshore wind energy potential using reanalysis wind speed data, along with updated wind turbine technology performance, land suitability factors, cost assumptions, and explicit consideration of transmission distance in the calculation of transmission costs. We find that wind has the potential to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region and with assumptions such as on what types of land can be used to site wind farms. Total global economic wind potential under central assumptions, that is, intermediate between optimistic and pessimistic, is estimated to be approximately 119.5 petawatt hours per year (13.6 TW) at less than 9 cents/kWh. A sensitivity analysis of eight key parameters is presented. Wind potential is sensitive to a number of input parameters, particularly wind speed (varying by -70% to +450% at less than 9 cents/kWh), land suitability (by -55% to +25%), turbine density (by -60% to +80%), and cost and financing options (by -20% to +200%), many of which have important policy implications. As a result of sensitivities studied here we suggest that further research intended to inform wind supply curve development focus not purely on physical science, such as better resolved wind maps, but also on these less well-defined factors, such as land-suitability, that will also have an impact on the long-term role of wind power.
Evaluation of global onshore wind energy potential and generation costs.
Zhou, Yuyu; Luckow, Patrick; Smith, Steven J; Clarke, Leon
2012-07-17
In this study, we develop an updated global estimate of onshore wind energy potential using reanalysis wind speed data, along with updated wind turbine technology performance, land suitability factors, cost assumptions, and explicit consideration of transmission distance in the calculation of transmission costs. We find that wind has the potential to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region and with assumptions such as on what types of land can be used to site wind farms. Total global economic wind potential under central assumptions, that is, intermediate between optimistic and pessimistic, is estimated to be approximately 119.5 petawatt hours per year (13.6 TW) at less than 9 cents/kWh. A sensitivity analysis of eight key parameters is presented. Wind potential is sensitive to a number of input parameters, particularly wind speed (varying by -70% to +450% at less than 9 cents/kWh), land suitability (by -55% to +25%), turbine density (by -60% to +80%), and cost and financing options (by -20% to +200%), many of which have important policy implications. As a result of sensitivities studied here we suggest that further research intended to inform wind supply curve development focus not purely on physical science, such as better resolved wind maps, but also on these less well-defined factors, such as land-suitability, that will also have an impact on the long-term role of wind power. PMID:22715929
CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries
Duke, J.A.
1986-01-01
This book provides background information on the agroenergetic potential of 65 countries and offers summaries of major crops planted, total area planted, yield per hectare, and total production. Total land area is categorized as to agriculture, forest, and woodland, and is discussed with demographic statistics for each country. The potential for agricultural by-products and biomass to contribute to energy availability is explored, with reference to each major crop. Vegetation and/or economic activity, or soil maps are presented for most countries, as are climatic data, with crop yields and residues which are compared with production elsewhere.
The Potential For Energy Efficiency In The State of Iowa
Hadley, SW
2001-12-05
The purpose of this study was to do an initial estimate of the potential for energy savings in the state of Iowa. Several methods for determining savings were examined, including existing programs, surveys, savings calculators, and economic simulation. Each method has advantages and disadvantages, trading off between detail of information, accuracy of results, and scope. This paper concentrated on using economic simulation (the NEMS model (EIA 2000a)) to determine market potential for energy savings for the residential and commercial sectors. The results of surveys were used to calculate the economic potential for savings in the industrial sector. The NEMS model is used by the Energy Information Administration to calculate twenty-year projections of energy use for every region of the country. The results of the Annual Energy Outlook 2000 were used as the Base case (EIA 1999a). Two alternative cases were created to simulate energy savings policies. Voluntary, market-related programs were simulated by lowering the effective discount rates that end-users use when making decisions on equipment purchases. Standards programs in the residential sector were simulated by eliminating the availability of low efficiency equipment in future years. The parameters for these programs were based on the Moderate scenario from the DOE Clean Energy Futures study (Interlaboratory Working Group 2000), which assumed increased concern by society on energy efficiency but not to the point of fiscal policies such as taxes or direct subsidies. The study only considered a subset of the various programs, policies, and technologies that could reduce energy use. The major end-uses in the residential sector affected by the policies were space cooling (20% savings by 2020) and water heating (14% savings by 2020.) Figure S-1 shows the space cooling savings when voluntary programs and minimum efficiency standards were implemented. Refrigerators, freezers, and clothes dryers saw slight improvements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Modak, Viraj P.; Wyslouzil, Barbara E.; Singer, Sherwin J.
2016-08-01
The crystal-vapor surface free energy γ is an important physical parameter governing physical processes, such as wetting and adhesion. We explore exact and approximate routes to calculate γ based on cleaving an intact crystal into non-interacting sub-systems with crystal-vapor interfaces. We do this by turning off the interactions, ΔV, between the sub-systems. Using the soft-core scheme for turning off ΔV, we find that the free energy varies smoothly with the coupling parameter λ, and a single thermodynamic integration yields the exact γ. We generate another exact method, and a cumulant expansion for γ by expressing the surface free energy in terms of an average of e-βΔV in the intact crystal. The second cumulant, or Gaussian approximation for γ is surprisingly accurate in most situations, even though we find that the underlying probability distribution for ΔV is clearly not Gaussian. We account for this fact by developing a non-Gaussian theory for γ and find that the difference between the non-Gaussian and Gaussian expressions for γ consist of terms that are negligible in many situations. Exact and approximate methods are applied to the (111) surface of a Lennard-Jones crystal and are also tested for more complex molecular solids, the surface of octane and nonadecane. Alkane surfaces were chosen for study because their crystal-vapor surface free energy has been of particular interest for understanding surface freezing in these systems.
Modak, Viraj P; Wyslouzil, Barbara E; Singer, Sherwin J
2016-08-01
The crystal-vapor surface free energy γ is an important physical parameter governing physical processes, such as wetting and adhesion. We explore exact and approximate routes to calculate γ based on cleaving an intact crystal into non-interacting sub-systems with crystal-vapor interfaces. We do this by turning off the interactions, ΔV, between the sub-systems. Using the soft-core scheme for turning off ΔV, we find that the free energy varies smoothly with the coupling parameter λ, and a single thermodynamic integration yields the exact γ. We generate another exact method, and a cumulant expansion for γ by expressing the surface free energy in terms of an average of e(-βΔV) in the intact crystal. The second cumulant, or Gaussian approximation for γ is surprisingly accurate in most situations, even though we find that the underlying probability distribution for ΔV is clearly not Gaussian. We account for this fact by developing a non-Gaussian theory for γ and find that the difference between the non-Gaussian and Gaussian expressions for γ consist of terms that are negligible in many situations. Exact and approximate methods are applied to the (111) surface of a Lennard-Jones crystal and are also tested for more complex molecular solids, the surface of octane and nonadecane. Alkane surfaces were chosen for study because their crystal-vapor surface free energy has been of particular interest for understanding surface freezing in these systems.
The potential impact of hydrogen energy use on the atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Ruijven, B. J.; Lamarque, J. F.; van Vuuren, D. P.; Kram, T.; Eerens, H.
2009-04-01
Energy models show very different trajectories for future energy systems (partly as function of future climate policy). One possible option is a transition towards a hydrogen-based energy system. The potential impact of such hydrogen economy on atmospheric emissions is highly uncertain. On the one hand, application of hydrogen in clean fuel cells reduces emissions of local air pollutants, like SOx and NOx. On the other hand, emissions of hydrogen from system leakages are expected to change the atmospheric concentrations and behaviour (see also Price et al., 2007; Sanderson et al., 2003; Schultz et al., 2003; Tromp et al., 2003). The uncertainty arises from several sources: the expected use of hydrogen, the intensity of leakages and emissions, and the atmospheric chemical behaviour of hydrogen. Existing studies to the potential impacts of a hydrogen economy on the atmosphere mostly use hydrogen emission scenarios that are based on simple assumptions. This research combines two different modelling efforts to explore the range of impacts of hydrogen on atmospheric chemistry. First, the potential role of hydrogen in the global energy system and the related emissions of hydrogen and other air pollutants are derived from the global energy system simulation model TIMER (van Vuuren, 2007). A set of dedicated scenarios on hydrogen technology development explores the most pessimistic and optimistic cases for hydrogen deployment (van Ruijven et al., 2008; van Ruijven et al., 2007). These scenarios are combined with different assumptions on hydrogen emission factors. Second, the emissions from the TIMER model are linked to the NCAR atmospheric model (Lamarque et al., 2005; Lamarque et al., 2008), in order to determine the impacts on atmospheric chemistry. By combining an energy system model and an atmospheric model, we are able to consistently explore the boundaries of both hydrogen use, emissions and impacts on atmospheric chemistry. References: Lamarque, J.-F., Kiehl, J. T
Assessment of Tidal Stream Energy Potential for the United States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haas, K. A.; Defne, Z.; Jiang, L.; Fritz, H. M.
2010-12-01
Tidal streams are high velocity sea currents created by periodic horizontal movement of the tides, often magnified by local topographical features such as headlands, inlets to inland lagoons, and straits. Tidal stream energy extraction is derived from the kinetic energy of the moving flow; analogous to the way a wind turbine operates in air, and as such differs from tidal barrages, which relies on providing a head of water for energy extraction. With the constantly increasing effort in promoting alternative energy, tidal streams have become promising energy sources due to their continuous, predictable and concentrated characteristics. However, the present lack of a full spatial-temporal assessment of tidal currents for the U.S. coastline down to the scale of individual devices is a barrier to the comprehensive development of tidal current energy technology. A methodology for creating a national database of tidal stream energy potential, as well as a GIS tool usable by industry in order to accelerate the market for tidal energy conversion technology has been developed. The tidal flows are simulated using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). The model is calibrated and validated using observations and tidal predictions. The calibration includes adjustments to model parameters such as bottom friction coefficient, changed land/water masks, or increased grid resolutions. A systematic validation process has been developed after defining various parameters to quantify the validation results. In order to determine the total tidal stream power resource, a common method frequently proposed is to estimate it as a fraction of the total kinetic energy flux passing through a vertical section; however, this now has been shown to generally underestimate the total available resource. The total tidal energy flux includes not just the kinetic energy but also the energy flux due to the work done by the pressure force associated with the tidal motion on the water column as well
Electronic structure, molecular bonding and potential energy surfaces
Ruedenberg, K.
1993-12-01
By virtue of the universal validity of the generalized Born-Oppenheimer separation, potential energy surfaces (PES`) represent the central conceptual as well as quantitative entities of chemical physics and provide the basis for the understanding of most physicochemical phenomena in many diverse fields. The research in this group deals with the elucidation of general properties of PES` as well as with the quantitative determination of PES` for concrete systems, in particular pertaining to reactions involving carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen molecules.
Theoretical characterization of the potential energy surface for NH + NO
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walch, Stephen P.
1993-01-01
The potential energy surface for NH + NO was characterized using complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) gradient calculation to determine the stationary point geometries and frequencies followed by CASSCF/internally contracted configuration interaction calculations to refine the energetics. The present results are in qualitative accord with the BAC-MP4 calculations, but there are differences as large as 8 kcal/mol in the detailed energetics.
MCSCF potential energy surface for photodissociation of formaldehyde
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jaffe, R. L.; Morokuma, K.
1976-01-01
The ground state potential energy surface for the dissociation of formaldehyde (H2CO to H2 and CO) is calculated with the ab initio MCSCF method with an extended (4-31G) basis set. The location, barrier height, and force constants of the transition state are determined, and the normal coordinate analysis is carried out. The calculated barrier height is 4.5 eV. Based on the calculated quantities, the detailed mechanism of the photochemical dissociation is discussed.
Data Network Equipment Energy Use and Savings Potential in Buildings
Lanzisera, Steven; Nordman, Bruce; Brown, Richard E.
2010-06-09
Network connectivity has become nearly ubiquitous, and the energy use of the equipment required for this connectivity is growing. Network equipment consists of devices that primarily switch and route Internet Protocol (IP) packets from a source to a destination, and this category specifically excludes edge devices like PCs, servers and other sources and sinks of IP traffic. This paper presents the results of a study of network equipment energy use and includes case studies of networks in a campus, a medium commercial building, and a typical home. The total energy use of network equipment is the product of the stock of equipment in use, the power of each device, and their usage patterns. This information was gathered from market research reports, broadband market penetration studies, field metering, and interviews with network administrators and service providers. We estimate that network equipment in the USA used 18 TWh, or about 1percent of building electricity, in 2008 and that consumption is expected to grow at roughly 6percent per year to 23 TWh in 2012; world usage in 2008 was 51 TWh. This study shows that office building network switches and residential equipment are the two largest categories of energy use consuming 40percent and 30percent of the total respectively. We estimate potential energy savings for different scenarios using forecasts of equipment stock and energy use, and savings estimates range from 20percent to 50percent based on full market penetration of efficient technologies.
Mashreq Arab interconnected power system potential for economic energy trading
Al-Shehri, A.M.; El-Amin, I.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.
1994-12-01
The Mashreq Arab countries covered in this study are Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. A feasibility study for the interconnection of the electrical networks of the Mashreq Arab countries, sponsored by the Arab Fund, was completed in June 1992. Each country is served by one utility except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The Mashreq Arab region has a considerable mix of energy resources. Egypt and Syria have some limited amounts of hydropower resources, and the Arabian Gulf region is abundant in fossil fuel reserves. Owing to the differences in energy production costs, a potential exists for substantial energy trading between electric utilities in the region. The major objective of this project is to study the feasibility of electric energy trading between the Mashreq Arab countries. The basis, assumptions, and methodologies on which this energy trading study is based relate to the results and conclusions arising out of the previous study, power plant characteristics and costs, assumptions on economic parameters, rules for economy energy exchange, etc. This paper presents the basis, methodology, and major findings of the study.
Electromagnetic potentials basis for energy density and power flux
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puthoff, H. E.
2016-09-01
In rounding out the education of students in advanced courses in applied electromagnetics it is incumbent on us as mentors to raise issues that encourage appreciation of certain subtle aspects that are often overlooked during first exposure to the field. One of these has to do with the interplay between fields and potentials, with the latter often seen as just a convenient mathematical artifice useful in solving Maxwell’s equations. Nonetheless, to those practiced in application it is well understood that various alternatives in the use of fields and potentials are available within electromagnetic (EM) theory for the definitions of energy density, momentum transfer, EM stress-energy tensor, and so forth. Although the various options are all compatible with the basic equations of electrodynamics (e.g., Maxwell’s equations, Lorentz force law, gauge invariance), nonetheless certain alternative formulations lend themselves to being seen as preferable to others with regard to the transparency of their application to physical problems of interest. Here we argue for the transparency of an energy density/power flux option based on the EM potentials alone.
Electromagnetic potentials basis for energy density and power flux
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puthoff, H. E.
2016-09-01
In rounding out the education of students in advanced courses in applied electromagnetics it is incumbent on us as mentors to raise issues that encourage appreciation of certain subtle aspects that are often overlooked during first exposure to the field. One of these has to do with the interplay between fields and potentials, with the latter often seen as just a convenient mathematical artifice useful in solving Maxwell’s equations. Nonetheless, to those practiced in application it is well understood that various alternatives in the use of fields and potentials are available within electromagnetic (EM) theory for the definitions of energy density, momentum transfer, EM stress–energy tensor, and so forth. Although the various options are all compatible with the basic equations of electrodynamics (e.g., Maxwell’s equations, Lorentz force law, gauge invariance), nonetheless certain alternative formulations lend themselves to being seen as preferable to others with regard to the transparency of their application to physical problems of interest. Here we argue for the transparency of an energy density/power flux option based on the EM potentials alone.
The Potential of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakipova, S.; Jakovics, A.; Gendelis, S.
2016-02-01
The article discusses some aspects of the use of renewable energy sources in the climatic conditions prevailing in most of the territory of Latvia, with relatively low wind speeds and a small number of sunny days a year. The paper gives a brief description of the measurement equipment and technology to determine the parameters of the outer air; the results of the measurements are also analysed. On the basis of the data obtained during the last two years at the meteorological station at the Botanical Garden of the University of Latvia, the energy potential of solar radiation and wind was estimated. The values of the possible and the actual amount of produced energy were determined.
A new ab initio potential energy surface for the Ne-H 2 interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lique, François
2009-03-01
A new accurate three-dimensional potential energy surface for the Ne-H 2 system, which explicitly takes into account the r-dependence of the H 2 vibration, was determined from ab initio calculations. It was obtained with the single and double excitation coupled-cluster method with noniterative perturbational treatment of triple excitation [CCSD(T)]. Calculations was been performed using the augmented correlation-consistent polarized quintuple zeta basis set (aug-cc-pV5Z) for the three atoms. We checked the accuracy of the present ab initio calculations. We have determined, using the new Ne-H 2 potential energy surface, differential cross-sections for the rotational excitation of the H 2 and D 2 molecules in collision with Ne and we have compared them with experimental results of Faubel et al. [M. Faubel, F.A. Gianturco, F. Ragnetti, L.Y. Rusin, F. Sondermann, U. Tappe, J.P. Toennies, J. Chem. Phys. 101 (1994) 8800]. The overall agreement confirms that the new potential energy surface can be used for the simulation of molecular collisions and/or molecular spectroscopy of the van der Waals complex Ne-H 2.
Potential energy surface of triplet N2O2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varga, Zoltan; Meana-Pañeda, Rubén; Song, Guoliang; Paukku, Yuliya; Truhlar, Donald G.
2016-01-01
We present a global ground-state triplet potential energy surface for the N2O2 system that is suitable for treating high-energy vibrational-rotational energy transfer and collision-induced dissociation. The surface is based on multi-state complete-active-space second-order perturbation theory/minimally augmented correlation-consistent polarized valence triple-zeta electronic structure calculations plus dynamically scaled external correlation. In the multireference calculations, the active space has 14 electrons in 12 orbitals. The calculations cover nine arrangements corresponding to dissociative diatom-diatom collisions of N2, O2, and nitric oxide (NO), the interaction of a triatomic molecule (N2O and NO2) with the fourth atom, and the interaction of a diatomic molecule with a single atom (i.e., the triatomic subsystems). The global ground-state potential energy surface was obtained by fitting the many-body interaction to 54 889 electronic structure data points with a fitting function that is a permutationally invariant polynomial in terms of bond-order functions of the six interatomic distances.
Potential energy surface of triplet N2O2.
Varga, Zoltan; Meana-Pañeda, Rubén; Song, Guoliang; Paukku, Yuliya; Truhlar, Donald G
2016-01-14
We present a global ground-state triplet potential energy surface for the N2O2 system that is suitable for treating high-energy vibrational-rotational energy transfer and collision-induced dissociation. The surface is based on multi-state complete-active-space second-order perturbation theory/minimally augmented correlation-consistent polarized valence triple-zeta electronic structure calculations plus dynamically scaled external correlation. In the multireference calculations, the active space has 14 electrons in 12 orbitals. The calculations cover nine arrangements corresponding to dissociative diatom-diatom collisions of N2, O2, and nitric oxide (NO), the interaction of a triatomic molecule (N2O and NO2) with the fourth atom, and the interaction of a diatomic molecule with a single atom (i.e., the triatomic subsystems). The global ground-state potential energy surface was obtained by fitting the many-body interaction to 54 889 electronic structure data points with a fitting function that is a permutationally invariant polynomial in terms of bond-order functions of the six interatomic distances.
Spectroscopic constants and potential energy curves of yttrium carbide (YC).
Suo, Bingbing; Balasubramanian, Krishnan
2007-06-14
The potential energy curves of the low-lying electronic states of yttrium carbide (YC) and its cation are calculated at the complete active space self-consistent field and the multireference single and double excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) levels of theory. Fifteen low-lying electronic states of YC with different spin and spatial symmetries were identified. The X (4)Sigma- state prevails as the ground state of YC, and a low-lying excited A (4)Pi state is found to be 1661 cm(-1) higher at the MRSDCI level. The computations of the authors support the assignment of the observed spectra to a B (4)Delta(Omega=72)<--A (4)Pi(Omega=52) transition with a reinterpretation that the A (4)Pi state is appreciably populated under the experimental conditions as it is less than 2000 cm(-1) of the X (4)Sigma- ground state, and the previously suggested (4)Pi ground state is reassigned to the first low-lying excited state of YC. The potential energy curves of YC+ confirm a previous prediction by Seivers et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 105, 6322 (1996)] that the ground state of YC+ is formed through a second pathway at higher energies. The calculated ionization energy of YC is 6.00 eV, while the adiabatic electron affinity is 0.95 eV at the MRSDCI level. The computed ionization energy of YC and dissociation energy of YC+ confirm the revised experimental estimates provided by Seivers et al. although direct experimental measurements yielded results with greater errors due to uncertainty in collisional cross sections for YC+ formation.
Characterization of the potential energy landscape of an antiplasticized polymer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riggleman, Robert A.; Douglas, Jack F.; de Pablo, Juan J.
2007-07-01
The nature of the individual transitions on the potential energy landscape (PEL) associated with particle motion are directly examined for model fragile glass-forming polymer melts, and the results are compared to those of an antiplasticized polymer system. In previous work, we established that the addition of antiplasticizer reduces the fragility of glass formation so that the antiplasticized material is a stronger glass former. In the present work, we find that the antiplasticizing molecules reduce the energy barriers for relaxation compared to the pure polymer, implying that the antiplasticized system has smaller barriers to overcome in order to explore its configuration space. We examine the cooperativity of segmental motion in these bulk fluids and find that more extensive stringlike collective motion enables the system to overcome larger potential energy barriers, in qualitative agreement with both the Stillinger-Weber and Adam-Gibbs views of glass formation. Notably, the stringlike collective motion identified by our PEL analysis corresponds to incremental displacements that occur within larger-scale stringlike particle displacement processes associated with PEL metabasin transitions that mediate structural relaxation. These “substrings” nonetheless seem to exhibit changes in relative size with antiplasticization similar to those observed in “superstrings” that arise at elevated temperatures. We also study the effects of confinement on the energy barriers in each system. Film confinement makes the energy barriers substantially smaller in the pure polymer, while it has little effect on the energy barriers in the antiplasticized system. This observation is qualitatively consistent with our previous studies of stringlike motion in these fluids at higher temperatures and with recent experimental measurements by Torkelson and co-workers.
Spectroscopic constants and potential energy curves of yttrium carbide (YC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suo, Bingbing; Balasubramanian, Krishnan
2007-06-01
The potential energy curves of the low-lying electronic states of yttrium carbide (YC) and its cation are calculated at the complete active space self-consistent field and the multireference single and double excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) levels of theory. Fifteen low-lying electronic states of YC with different spin and spatial symmetries were identified. The XΣ-4 state prevails as the ground state of YC, and a low-lying excited AΠ4 state is found to be 1661cm-1 higher at the MRSDCI level. The computations of the authors support the assignment of the observed spectra to a BΔ4(Ω =7/2)←AΠ4(Ω=5/2) transition with a reinterpretation that the AΠ4 state is appreciably populated under the experimental conditions as it is less than 2000cm-1 of the XΣ-4 ground state, and the previously suggested Π4 ground state is reassigned to the first low-lying excited state of YC. The potential energy curves of YC + confirm a previous prediction by Seivers et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 105, 6322 (1996)] that the ground state of YC+ is formed through a second pathway at higher energies. The calculated ionization energy of YC is 6.00eV, while the adiabatic electron affinity is 0.95eV at the MRSDCI level. The computed ionization energy of YC and dissociation energy of YC+ confirm the revised experimental estimates provided by Seivers et al. although direct experimental measurements yielded results with greater errors due to uncertainty in collisional cross sections for YC+ formation.
Nuclear momentum distribution and potential energy surface in hexagonal ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Lin; Morrone, Joseph; Car, Roberto; Parrinello, Michele
2011-03-01
The proton momentum distribution in ice Ih has been recently measured by deep inelastic neutron scattering and calculated from open path integral Car-Parrinello simulation. Here we report a detailed investigation of the relation between momentum distribution and potential energy surface based on both experiment and simulation results. The potential experienced by the proton is largely harmonic and characterized by 3 principal frequencies, which can be associated to weighted averages of phonon frequencies via lattice dynamics calculations. This approach also allows us to examine the importance of quantum effects on the dynamics of the oxygen nuclei close to the melting temperature. Finally we quantify the anharmonicity that is present in the potential acting on the protons. This work is supported by NSF and by DOE.
Potential energy curves and electronic structure of 3d transition metal hydrides and their cations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goel, Satyender; Masunov, Artëm E.
2008-12-01
We investigate gas-phase neutral and cationic hydrides formed by 3d transition metals from Sc to Cu with density functional theory (DFT) methods. The performance of two exchange-correlation functionals, Boese-Martin for kinetics (BMK) and Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS), in predicting bond lengths and energetics, electronic structures, dipole moments, and ionization potentials is evaluated in comparison with available experimental data. To ensure a unique self-consistent field (SCF) solution, we use stability analysis, Fermi smearing, and continuity analysis of the potential energy curves. Broken-symmetry approach was adapted in order to get the qualitatively correct description of the bond dissociation. We found that on average BMK predicted values of dissociation energies and ionization potentials are closer to experiment than those obtained with high level wave function theory methods. This agreement deteriorates quickly when the fraction of the Hartree-Fock exchange in DFT functional is decreased. Natural bond orbital (NBO) population analysis was used to describe the details of chemical bonding in the systems studied. The multireference character in the wave function description of the hydrides is reproduced in broken-symmetry DFT description, as evidenced by NBO analysis. We also propose a new scheme to correct for spin contamination arising in broken-symmetry DFT approach. Unlike conventional schemes, our spin correction is introduced for each spin-polarized electron pair individually and therefore is expected to yield more accurate energy values. We derive an expression to extract the energy of the pure singlet state from the energy of the broken-symmetry DFT description of the low spin state and the energies of the high spin states (pentuplet and two spin-contaminated triplets in the case of two spin-polarized electron pairs). The high spin states are build with canonical natural orbitals and do not require SCF convergence.
Energy aspects and potential energy savings of the new DASI process for milk sterilization
Frey, B.C.; Stewart, L.E.; Chandarana, D.; Wolfson, R.P.
1981-01-01
An experimental study was conducted to determine the difference in total processing energy required by the DASI ultra-high temperature (UHT) system and a conventional high temperature short time (HTST) fluid milk system. Data available in the literature were used to develop an energy use profile for the current US fluid milk system from processor to consumer. The energy data measured and the profile developed were used to estimate the potential energy savings resulting from the introduction of sterile milk in the US fluid milk market. Savings of energy resulting from the introduction of sterile milk were estimated to be 12 million barrels of oil annually.
GIS Assessment of Wind Energy Potential in California and Florida
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Snow, R. K.; Snow, M. M.
2008-05-01
Energy efficiency coupled with renewable energy technologies can provide most of the U.S. carbon emissions reductions needed to contain atmospheric carbon concentrations at 450-500 parts per million, considered by many to be a tipping point in mitigating climate change. Among the leaders in the alternative energy sector is wind power, which is now one of the largest sources of new power generation in the U.S. creating jobs and revenue for rural communities while powering our economy with an emissions-free source of energy. In 2006, wind turbines capable of generating more than 2,400 megawatts of electricity were installed in the U.S. and by 2007 this number had risen to 3,000 megawatts. The U.S. generated 31 billion kilowatt-hours of wind power in 2007, which is enough electricity to power the equivalent of nearly 3 million average homes. It is estimated that generating the same amount of electricity would require burning 16 million tons of coal or 50 million barrels of oil. This study examines the wind power potential of sites near populated areas in Florida and California to determine the practicability of installing wind turbines at these locations. A GIS was developed in order to conduct a spatial analysis of these sites based on mean annual wind speed measured in meters per second and wind power density ratings measured in watts per square meter. The analysis indicates that coastal areas of Cocoa Beach, Key West, Hollywood, and West Palm Beach, respectively, possess the greatest potential for wind energy in Florida with mean annual wind speeds of 4.9 m/s and average wind power density ratings of 171 w/m2 peaking at Cocoa Beach followed by wind speeds of 4.64 m/s and wind power ratings of 115 w/m2 at Key West. California wind energy potential is even greater than that of Florida with Fairfield exhibiting mean annual wind speeds of 5.9 m/s and average wind power density ratings of 327 w/m2 followed by the Mojave and Palmdale areas with mean annual wind speeds of
Thunderstorm Electric Potential Profiles: Electrical Evolution and Lightning Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stolzenburg, M.; Marshall, T. C.
2005-05-01
From a balloon sounding of electric field through a thunderstorm, one can calculate the vertical profile of potential, V, within the storm. In this presentation we investigate thunderstorm electrical evolution by examining V profiles through various stages of a storm's life. We present data from New Mexico mountain thunderstorms in which we made a series of 4 to 6 balloon soundings. Several of the successive V profiles in the same storm are quite similar, in spite of the numerous lightning flashes that occurred during the balloon flights. These similarities suggest that the V profiles are reasonable estimates of the in-cloud potential. The similar profiles occur during the mature phase of the storm, and mature phase profiles are even similar from one storm to another. This is true despite different lightning flashing rates and, presumably, different charge generation rates in the different storms. Another result of this work is that potential profiles during the early and late stages of the storm do not resemble those from the mature stage. Recently, Coleman et al. [2003] showed that intra-cloud (IC) flashes connect potential extrema of opposite polarity and that normal (negative) cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes connect a potential minimum to ground. Thus we can use the V profiles to estimate the potential difference spanned by lightning flashes during the evolution of the storm and, with this, estimate the lightning energy. Typical potential differences spanned by IC and CG flashes will be presented from four storms. Reference: Coleman, L.M., T.C. Marshall, M. Stolzenburg, T. Hamlin, P.R. Krehbiel, W. Rison, and R.J. Thomas, Effects of charge and electrostatic potential on lightning propagation, J. Geophys. Res., 108, doi:10.1029/2002JD002718, 2003.
Rotational Energy Transfer of N2 Gas Determined Using a New Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huo, Winifred M.; Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
Rotational energy transfer between two N2 molecules is a fundamental process of some importance. Exchange is expected to play a role, but its importance is somewhat uncertain. Rotational energy transfer cross sections of N2 also have applications in many other fields including modeling of aerodynamic flows, laser operations, and linewidth analysis in nonintrusive laser diagnostics. A number of N2-N2 rigid rotor potential energy surface (PES) has been reported in the literature.
Gravitational potential energy of the earth - A spherical harmonic approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubincam, D. P.
1979-01-01
A spherical harmonic equation for the gravitational potential energy of the earth is derived for an arbitrary density distribution by conceptually bringing in mass-elements from infinity and building up the earth shell upon spherical shell. The zeroth degree term in the spherical harmonic expansion agrees with the usual expression for the energy of a radial density distribution. The second degree terms give a maximum nonhydrostatic energy in the crust and mantle of -2.77 x 10 to the 29th ergs, an order of magnitude below McKenzie's (1966) estimate. McKenzie's result stems from mathematical error. Our figure is almost identical with Kaula's (1963) estimate of the minimum shear strain energy in the mantle, a not unexpected result on the basis of the virial theorem. If the earth is assumed to be a homogeneous viscous oblate spheroid relaxing to an equilibrium shape, then a lower limit to the mantle viscosity of 1.3 x 10 to the 20th P is found by assuming that the total geothermal flux is due to viscous dissipation of energy. This number is almost six orders of magnitude below MacDonald's (1966) estimate of the viscosity and removes his objection to convection. If the nonequilibrium figure is dynamically maintained by the earth acting as a heat engine at 1% efficiency, then the viscosity is 10 to the 22nd P, a number preferred by Cathles (1975) and Peltier and Andrew (1976) as the viscosity of the mantle.
Onshore wind energy potential over Iberia: present and future projections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rochinha, Carlos A.; Santos, João A.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Pinto, Joaquim G.
2014-05-01
Onshore grid-connected wind power generation has been explored for more than three decades in the Iberian Peninsula. Further, increasing attention has been devoted to renewable energy sources in a climate change context. While advantages of wind energy are widely recognized, its distribution is not spatially homogeneous and not uniform throughout the year. Hence, understanding these spatial-temporal distributions is critical in power system planning. The present study aims at assessing the potential power output estimated from 10 m wind components simulated by a regional climate model (CCLM), driven by ERA40 reanalysis. Datasets are available on a grid with a high spatial resolution (approximately 20 km) and over a 40-yr period (1961-2000). Furthermore, several target sites, located in areas with high installed wind generation capacity, are selected for local-to-regional scale assessments. The results show that potential wind power is higher over northern Iberia, mostly in Cantabria and Galicia, while Andalucía and Cataluña record the lowest values. With respect to the intra-annual variability, summer is by far the season with the lowest potential energy outputs. Furthermore, the inter-annual variability reveals an overall downward long-term trend over the 40-yr period, particularly in the winter time series. A CCLM transient experiment, forced by the SRES A1B emission scenario, is also discussed for a future period (2041-2070), after a model validation/calibration process (bias corrections). Significant changes in the wind power potential are projected for the future throughout Iberia, but their magnitude largely depends on the locations. This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER- 019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010).
Losilla, S A; Sundholm, D
2012-06-01
A computational scheme to perform accurate numerical calculations of electrostatic potentials and interaction energies for molecular systems has been developed and implemented. Molecular electron and energy densities are divided into overlapping atom-centered atomic contributions and a three-dimensional molecular remainder. The steep nuclear cusps are included in the atom-centered functions making the three-dimensional remainder smooth enough to be accurately represented with a tractable amount of grid points. The one-dimensional radial functions of the atom-centered contributions as well as the three-dimensional remainder are expanded using finite element functions. The electrostatic potential is calculated by integrating the Coulomb potential for each separate density contribution, using our tensorial finite element method for the three-dimensional remainder. We also provide algorithms to compute accurate electron-electron and electron-nuclear interactions numerically using the proposed partitioning. The methods have been tested on all-electron densities of 18 reasonable large molecules containing elements up to Zn. The accuracy of the calculated Coulomb interaction energies is in the range of 10(-3) to 10(-6) E(h) when using an equidistant grid with a step length of 0.05 a(0).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karton, Amir; Martin, Jan M. L.
2012-10-01
Accurate isomerization energies are obtained for a set of 45 C8H8 isomers by means of the high-level, ab initio W1-F12 thermochemical protocol. The 45 isomers involve a range of hydrocarbon functional groups, including (linear and cyclic) polyacetylene, polyyne, and cumulene moieties, as well as aromatic, anti-aromatic, and highly-strained rings. Performance of a variety of DFT functionals for the isomerization energies is evaluated. This proves to be a challenging test: only six of the 56 tested functionals attain root mean square deviations (RMSDs) below 3 kcal mol-1 (the performance of MP2), namely: 2.9 (B972-D), 2.8 (PW6B95), 2.7 (B3PW91-D), 2.2 (PWPB95-D3), 2.1 (ωB97X-D), and 1.2 (DSD-PBEP86) kcal mol-1. Isomers involving highly-strained fused rings or long cumulenic chains provide a 'torture test' for most functionals. Finally, we evaluate the performance of composite procedures (e.g. G4, G4(MP2), CBS-QB3, and CBS-APNO), as well as that of standard ab initio procedures (e.g. MP2, SCS-MP2, MP4, CCSD, and SCS-CCSD). Both connected triples and post-MP4 singles and doubles are important for accurate results. SCS-MP2 actually outperforms MP4(SDQ) for this problem, while SCS-MP3 yields similar performance as CCSD and slightly bests MP4. All the tested empirical composite procedures show excellent performance with RMSDs below 1 kcal mol-1.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polyansky, Oleg L.; Ovsyannikov, Roman I.; Kyuberis, Aleksandra A.; Lodi, Lorenzo; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yachmenev, Andrey; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Zobov, Nikolai F.
2016-09-01
An ab initio potential energy surface (PES) for gas-phase ammonia NH3 has been computed using the methodology pioneered for water (Polyansky et al., 2013). Multireference configuration interaction calculations are performed at about 50 000 points using the aug-cc-pCVQZ and aug-cc-pCV5Z basis sets and basis set extrapolation. Relativistic and adiabatic surfaces are also computed. The points are fitted to a suitable analytical form, producing the most accurate ab initio PES for this molecule available. The rotation-vibration energy levels are computed using nuclear motion program TROVE in both linearised and curvilinear coordinates. Better convergence is obtained using curvilinear coordinates. Our results are used to assign the visible spectrum of 14NH3 recorded by Coy and Lehmann (1986). Rotation-vibration energy levels for the isotopologues NH2D, NHD2, ND3 and 15NH3 are also given. An ab initio value for the dissociation energy D0 of 14NH3 is also presented.
Potential for energy conservation in the cement industry
Garrett-Price, B.A.
1985-02-01
This report assesses the potential for energy conservation in the cement industry. Energy consumption per ton of cement decreased 20% between 1972 and 1982. During this same period, the cement industry became heavily dependent on coal and coke as its primary fuel source. Although the energy consumed per ton of cement has declined markedly in the past ten years, the industry still uses more than three and a half times the fuel that is theoretically required to produce a ton of clinker. Improving kiln thermal efficiency offers the greatest opportunity for saving fuel. Improving the efficiency of finish grinding offers the greatest potential for reducing electricity use. Technologies are currently available to the cement industry to reduce its average fuel consumption per ton by product by as much as 40% and its electricity consumption per ton by about 10%. The major impediment to adopting these technologies is the cement industry's lack of capital as a result of low or no profits in recent years.
Potential environmental effects of energy conservation measures in northwest industries
Baechler, M C; Gygi, K F; Hendrickson, P L
1992-01-01
The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has identified 101 plants in the Pacific Northwest that account for 80% of the region's industrial electricity consumption. These plants offer a precise target for a conservation program. PNL determined that most of these 101 plants were represented by 11 major industries. We then reviewed 36 major conservation technologies used in these 11 industrial settings to determine their potential environmental impacts. Energy efficiency technologies designed for industrial use may result in direct or indirect environmental impacts. Effects may result from the production of the conservation measure technology, changes in the working environment due to different energy and material requirements, or changes to waste streams. Industry type, work-place conditions, worker training, and environmental conditions inside and outside the plant are all key variables that may affect environmental outcomes. To address these issues this report has three objectives: Describe potential conservation measures that Bonneville may employ in industrial programs and discuss potential primary impacts. Characterize industrial systems and processes where the measure may be employed and describe general environmental issues associated with each industry type. Review environmental permitting, licensing, and other regulatory actions required for industries and summarize the type of information available from these sources for further analysis.
Potential impacts of nanotechnology on energy transmission applications and needs.
Elcock, D.; Environmental Science Division
2007-11-30
The application of nanotechnologies to energy transmission has the potential to significantly impact both the deployed transmission technologies and the need for additional development. This could be a factor in assessing environmental impacts of right-of-way (ROW) development and use. For example, some nanotechnology applications may produce materials (e.g., cables) that are much stronger per unit volume than existing materials, enabling reduced footprints for construction and maintenance of electricity transmission lines. Other applications, such as more efficient lighting, lighter-weight materials for vehicle construction, and smaller batteries having greater storage capacities may reduce the need for long-distance transport of energy, and possibly reduce the need for extensive future ROW development and many attendant environmental impacts. This report introduces the field of nanotechnology, describes some of the ways in which processes and products developed with or incorporating nanomaterials differ from traditional processes and products, and identifies some examples of how nanotechnology may be used to reduce potential ROW impacts. Potential environmental, safety, and health impacts are also discussed.
Axelsson, B O; Jörnten-Karlsson, M; Michelsen, P; Abou-Shakra, F
2001-01-01
Quantification of unknown components in pharmaceutical, metabolic and environmental samples is an important but difficult task. Most commonly used detectors (like UV, RI or MS) require standards of each analyte for accurate quantification. Even if the chemical structure or elemental composition is known, the response from these detectors is difficult to predict with any accuracy. In inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) compounds are atomised and ionised irrespective of the chemical structure(s) incorporating the element of interest. Liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC/ICP-MS) has been shown to provide a generic detection for structurally non-correlated compounds with common elements like phosphorus and iodine. Detection of selected elements gives a better quantification of tested 'unknowns' than UV and organic mass spectrometric detection. It was shown that the ultrasonic nebuliser did not introduce any measurable dead volume and preserves the separation efficiency of the system. ICP-MS can be used in combination with many different mobile phases ranging from 0-100% organic modifier. The dynamic range was found to exceed 2.5 orders of magnitude. The application of LC/ICP-MS to pharmaceutical drugs and formulations has shown that impurities can be quantified below the 0.1 mol-% level.
The Potential for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in North Carolina
Hadley, SW
2003-08-06
As many states have restructured their electric power industry, they have established a ''systems benefit charge'' to help fund those activities that will no longer be funded by utilities in the new structure. Examples include weatherization of low-income housing, efficiency programs, and renewable energy development. Varying amounts have been collected and allocated depending on state needs and abilities. One question that arises is what are the potential results of funding the different types of programs. What is the potential for energy efficiency or for renewable power, and what would be accomplished given the amount of funding that the system benefit charge may provide? The purpose of this project is to provide an initial estimate of the potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy in North Carolina. This potential could be funded by a public benefits fund resulting from a green power program being considered in the state. It concentrates on electric energy savings and production. Savings in buildings can include improvements to space conditioning as well as improvements to lighting or other appliances. Distributed power potential, through use of combined heat and power and renewables such as photovoltaic, wind, and biomass were examined. The goal is to provide information to decision makers who are developing a green power program in North Carolina. It will not be a complete and detailed study of all efficiency potentials but is more of a scoping exercise to determine the relative impacts and begin the process for a more definitive study at a later date. Statewide energy savings potential cannot be directly measured but must be calculated. First, the word ''potential'' means that the savings have not occurred yet. Second, the savings are often only indirectly measured by estimating what energy use there would have been without the changes in technology or behavior. Calculations through sampling and statistical analysis or by simulation are a necessary
Stabilized quasi-Newton optimization of noisy potential energy surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaefer, Bastian; Ghasemi, S. Alireza; Roy, Shantanu; Goedecker, Stefan; Goedecker Group Team
Optimizations of atomic positions belong to the most frequently performed tasks in electronic structure calculations. Many simulations like global minimum searches or the identification of chemical reaction pathways can require the computation of hundreds or thousands of minimizations or saddle points. To automatize these tasks, optimization algorithms must not only be efficient but also very reliable. Unfortunately, computational noise in forces and energies is inherent to electronic structure codes. This computational noise poses a severe problem to the stability of efficient optimization methods like the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm. In this talk a recently published technique that allows to obtain significant curvature information of noisy potential energy surfaces is presented. This technique was used to construct both, a stabilized quasi-Newton minimization method and a stabilized quasi-Newton saddle finding approach. With the help of benchmarks both the minimizer and the saddle finding approach were demonstrated to be superior to comparable existing methods.
Stabilized quasi-Newton optimization of noisy potential energy surfaces
Schaefer, Bastian; Goedecker, Stefan; Alireza Ghasemi, S.; Roy, Shantanu
2015-01-21
Optimizations of atomic positions belong to the most commonly performed tasks in electronic structure calculations. Many simulations like global minimum searches or characterizations of chemical reactions require performing hundreds or thousands of minimizations or saddle computations. To automatize these tasks, optimization algorithms must not only be efficient but also very reliable. Unfortunately, computational noise in forces and energies is inherent to electronic structure codes. This computational noise poses a severe problem to the stability of efficient optimization methods like the limited-memory Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno algorithm. We here present a technique that allows obtaining significant curvature information of noisy potential energy surfaces. We use this technique to construct both, a stabilized quasi-Newton minimization method and a stabilized quasi-Newton saddle finding approach. We demonstrate with the help of benchmarks that both the minimizer and the saddle finding approach are superior to comparable existing methods.
Calorific evaluation and energy potential of grape pomace
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burg, Patrik; Ludín, David; Rutkowski, Kazimierz; Krakowiak-Bal, Anna; Trávníček, Petr; Zemánek, Pavel; Turan, Jan; Višacki, Vladimir
2016-04-01
This article deals with energetic evaluation and potential of pomace - a waste product originating during production of grape wine. Calorimetric analysis of 19 grapevine varieties was performed in 2013 and 2014. The aim was to specify their combustible limit and the gross calorific value. The evaluations were performed on pristine pomace, pomace without seeds, and only on seeds themselves. The results obtained imply that pomace is an interesting energetic resource with a gross calorific value of 16.07-18.97 MJ kg-1. Lower calorific values were detected in pomace after seed separation ie 14.60-17.75 MJ kg-1; on the contrary, seeds alone had the highest calorific values of 19.78-21.13 MJ kg-1. It can be assumed from the results of energetic evaluation of pomace in Czech Republic conditions that, by purposeful and efficient usage of pomace, 6.4 GWh of electric energy and 28 GWh of thermal energy can be generated.
Domestic refrigeration appliances in Poland: Potential for improving energy efficiency
Meyers, S.; Schipper, L.; Lebot, B.
1993-08-01
This report is based on information collected from the main Polish manufacturer of refrigeration appliances. We describe their production facilities, and show that the energy consumption of their models for domestic sale is substantially higher than the average for similar models made in W. Europe. Lack of data and uncertainty about future production costs in Poland limits our evaluation of the cost-effective potential to increase energy efficiency, but it appears likely that considerable improvement would be economic from a societal perspective. Many design options are likely to have a simple payback of less than five years. We found that the production facilities are in need of substantial modernization in order to produce higher quality and more efficient appliances. We discuss policy options that could help to build a market for more efficient appliances in Poland and thereby encourage investment to produce such equipment.
Stabilized quasi-Newton optimization of noisy potential energy surfaces.
Schaefer, Bastian; Alireza Ghasemi, S; Roy, Shantanu; Goedecker, Stefan
2015-01-21
Optimizations of atomic positions belong to the most commonly performed tasks in electronic structure calculations. Many simulations like global minimum searches or characterizations of chemical reactions require performing hundreds or thousands of minimizations or saddle computations. To automatize these tasks, optimization algorithms must not only be efficient but also very reliable. Unfortunately, computational noise in forces and energies is inherent to electronic structure codes. This computational noise poses a severe problem to the stability of efficient optimization methods like the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm. We here present a technique that allows obtaining significant curvature information of noisy potential energy surfaces. We use this technique to construct both, a stabilized quasi-Newton minimization method and a stabilized quasi-Newton saddle finding approach. We demonstrate with the help of benchmarks that both the minimizer and the saddle finding approach are superior to comparable existing methods.
Potential for energy savings in old and new auto engines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reitz, John R.
1985-11-01
This paper disucsses the potential for energy savings in the transportation sector through the use of both improved and entirely new automotive engines. Although spark-ignition and diesel internal combustion engines will remain the dominant choices for passenger-car use throughout the rest of this century, improved versions of these engines (lean-burn, low-friction spark-ignition and adiabatic, low-friction diesel engines) could, in the long term, provide a 20-30 percent improvement in fuel economy over what is currently available. The use of new materials, and modifications to both vehicle structure and vehicle transmissions may yield further improvements. Over a longer time frame, the introduction of the high-temperature gas-turbine engine and the use of new synfuels may provide further opportunities for energy conservation.
Potential energy surfaces and reaction dynamics of polyatomic molecules
Chang, Yan-Tyng.
1991-11-01
A simple empirical valence bond (EVB) model approach is suggested for constructing global potential energy surfaces for reactions of polyatomic molecular systems. This approach produces smooth and continuous potential surfaces which can be directly utilized in a dynamical study. Two types of reactions are of special interest, the unimolecular dissociation and the unimolecular isomerization. For the first type, the molecular dissociation dynamics of formaldehyde on the ground electronic surface is investigated through classical trajectory calculations on EVB surfaces. The product state distributions and vector correlations obtained from this study suggest very similar behaviors seen in the experiments. The intramolecular hydrogen atom transfer in the formic acid dimer is an example of the isomerization reaction. High level ab initio quantum chemistry calculations are performed to obtain optimized equilibrium and transition state dimer geometries and also the harmonic frequencies.
Assessing geothermal energy potential in upstate New York. Final report
Hodge, D.S.
1996-08-01
The potential of geothermal energy for future electric power generation in New York State is evaluated using estimates of temperatures of geothermal reservoir rocks. Bottom hole temperatures from over 2000 oil and gas wells in the region were integrated into subsurface maps of the temperatures for specific geothermal reservoirs. The Theresa/Potsdam formation provides the best potential for extraction of high volumes of geothermal fluids. The evaluation of the Theresa/Potsdam geothermal reservoir in upstate New York suggests that an area 30 miles east of Elmira, New York has the highest temperatures in the reservoir rock. The Theresa/Potsdam reservoir rock should have temperatures about 136 {degrees}C and may have as much as 450 feet of porosity in excess of 8%. Estimates of the volumes of geothermal fluids that can be extracted are provided and environmental considerations for production from a geothermal well is discussed.
Potential energy curves and collision integrals of air components
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Partridge, Harry; Stallcop, James R.; Levin, Eugene; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
Collision integrals are fundamental quantities required to determine the transport properties of the environment surrounding aerospace vehicles in the upper atmosphere. These collision integrals can be determined as a function of temperature from the potential energy curves describing the atomic and molecular collisions. Ab initio calculations provide a practical method of computing the required interaction potentials. In this work we will discuss recent advances with an emphasis on the accuracy that is obtainable. Results for interactions, e.g. N+N, N+O, O+O, and H+N2 will be reviewed and their application to the determination of transport properties, such as diffusion and viscosity coefficients, will be examined.
Steam systems in industry: Energy use and energy efficiency improvement potentials
Einstein, Dan; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta
2001-07-22
Steam systems are a part of almost every major industrial process today. Thirty-seven percent of the fossil fuel burned in US industry is burned to produce steam. In this paper we will establish baseline energy consumption for steam systems. Based on a detailed analysis of boiler energy use we estimate current energy use in boilers in U.S. industry at 6.1 Quads (6.4 EJ), emitting almost 66 MtC in CO{sub 2} emissions. We will discuss fuels used and boiler size distribution. We also describe potential savings measures, and estimate the economic energy savings potential in U.S. industry (i.e. having payback period of 3 years or less). We estimate the nationwide economic potential, based on the evaluation of 16 individual measures in steam generation and distribution. The analysis excludes the efficient use of steam and increased heat recovery. Based on the analysis we estimate the economic potential at 18-20% of total boiler energy use, resulting in energy savings approximately 1120-1190 TBtu ( 1180-1260 PJ). This results in a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions equivalent to 12-13 MtC.
Potential energy surface and rovibrational energy levels of the H2-CS van der Waals complex.
Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Stoecklin, Thierry; Halvick, Philippe; Dubernet, Marie-Lise; Marinakis, Sarantos
2012-12-21
Owing to its large dipole, astrophysicists use carbon monosulfide (CS) as a tracer of molecular gas in the interstellar medium, often in regions where H(2) is the most abundant collider. Predictions of the rovibrational energy levels of the weakly bound complex CS-H(2) (not yet observed) and also of rate coefficients for rotational transitions of CS in collision with H(2) should help to interpret the observed spectra. This paper deals with the first goal, i.e., the calculation of the rovibrational energy levels. A new four-dimensional intermolecular potential energy surface for the H(2)-CS complex is presented. Ab initio potential energy calculations were carried out at the coupled-cluster level with single and double excitations and a perturbative treatment of triple excitations, using a quadruple-zeta basis set and midbond functions. The potential energy surface was obtained by an analytic fit of the ab initio data. The equilibrium structure of the H(2)-CS complex is found to be linear with the carbon pointing toward H(2) at the intermolecular separation of 8.6 a(o). The corresponding well depth is -173 cm(-1). The potential was used to calculate the rovibrational energy levels of the para-H(2)-CS and ortho-H(2)-CS complexes. The present work provides the first theoretical predictions of these levels. The calculated dissociation energies are found to be 35.9 cm(-1) and 49.9 cm(-1), respectively, for the para and ortho complexes. The second virial coefficient for the H(2)-CS pair has also been calculated for a large range of temperature. These results could be used to assign future experimental spectra and to check the accuracy of the potential energy surface.
Energy conservation potential of the US Department of Energy interim commercial building standards
Hadley, D.L.; Halverson, M.A.
1993-12-01
This report describes a project conducted to demonstrate the whole-building energy conservation potential achievable from full implementation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Interim Energy Conservation Performance Standards for New Commercial and Multi-Family High Rise Residential Buildings. DOE`s development and implementation of energy performance standards for commercial buildings were established by the Energy Conservation Standards for New Buildings Act of 1976, as amended, Public Law (PL) 94-385, 42 USC 6831 et seq., hereinafter referred to as the Act. In accordance with the Act, DOE was to establish performance standards for both federal and private sector buildings ``to achieve the maximum practicable improvements in energy efficiency and use of non-depletable resources for all new buildings``.
Methods for finding transition states on reduced potential energy surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burger, Steven K.; Ayers, Paul W.
2010-06-01
Three new algorithms are presented for determining transition state (TS) structures on the reduced potential energy surface, that is, for problems in which a few important degrees of freedom can be isolated. All three methods use constrained optimization to rapidly find the TS without an initial Hessian evaluation. The algorithms highlight how efficiently the TS can be located on a reduced surface, where the rest of the degrees of freedom are minimized. The first method uses a nonpositive definite quasi-Newton update for the reduced degrees of freedom. The second uses Shepard interpolation to fit the Hessian and starts from a set of points that bound the TS. The third directly uses a finite difference scheme to calculate the reduced degrees of freedom of the Hessian of the entire system, and searches for the TS on the full potential energy surface. All three methods are tested on an epoxide hydrolase cluster, and the ring formations of cyclohexane and cyclobutenone. The results indicate that all the methods are able to converge quite rapidly to the correct TS, but that the finite difference approach is the most efficient.
An Ab Initio Based Potential Energy Surface for Water
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Partridge, Harry; Schwenke, David W.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
We report a new determination of the water potential energy surface. A high quality ab initio potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment function of water have been computed. This PES is empirically adjusted to improve the agreement between the computed line positions and those from the HITRAN 92 data base. The adjustment is small, nonetheless including an estimate of core (oxygen 1s) electron correlation greatly improves the agreement with experiment. Of the 27,245 assigned transitions in the HITRAN 92 data base for H2(O-16), the overall root mean square (rms) deviation between the computed and observed line positions is 0.125/cm. However the deviations do not correspond to a normal distribution: 69% of the lines have errors less than 0.05/cm. Overall, the agreement between the line intensities computed in the present work and those contained in the data base is quite good, however there are a significant number of line strengths which differ greatly.
Computer simulations of glasses: the potential energy landscape
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raza, Zamaan; Alling, Björn; Abrikosov, Igor A.
2015-07-01
We review the current state of research on glasses, discussing the theoretical background and computational models employed to describe them. This article focuses on the use of the potential energy landscape (PEL) paradigm to account for the phenomenology of glassy systems, and the way in which it can be applied in simulations and the interpretation of their results. This article provides a broad overview of the rich phenomenology of glasses, followed by a summary of the theoretical frameworks developed to describe this phenomonology. We discuss the background of the PEL in detail, the onerous task of how to generate computer models of glasses, various methods of analysing numerical simulations, and the literature on the most commonly used model systems. Finally, we tackle the problem of how to distinguish a good glass former from a good crystal former from an analysis of the PEL. In summarising the state of the potential energy landscape picture, we develop the foundations for new theoretical methods that allow the ab initio prediction of the glass-forming ability of new materials by analysis of the PEL.
Microscopically derived potential energy surfaces from mostly structural considerations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ermamatov, M. J.; Hess, Peter O.
2016-08-01
A simple procedure to estimate the quadrupole Potential-Energy-Surface (PES) is presented, using mainly structural information, namely the content of the shell model space and the Pauli exclusion principle. Further microscopic properties are implicitly contained through the use of results from the Möller and Nix tables or experimental information. A mapping to the geometric potential is performed yielding the PES. The General Collective Model is used in order to obtain an estimate on the spectrum and quadrupole transitions, adjusting only the mass parameter. First, we test the conjecture on known nuclei, deriving the PES and compare them to known data. We will see that the PES approximates very well the structure expected. Having acquired a certain confidence, we predict the PES of several chain of isotopes of heavy and super-heavy nuclei and at the end we investigate the structure of nuclei in the supposed island of stability. One of the main points to show is that simple assumptions can provide already important information on the structure of nuclei outside known regions and that spectra and electromagnetic transitions can be estimated without using involved calculations and assumptions. The procedure does not allow to calculate binding energies. The method presented can be viewed as a starting point for further improvements.
Munier-Jolain, Nathalie; Salon, Christophe
2003-11-01
The composition of the translocates reaching the seeds of pea plants having various nitrogen (N) nutrition regimes was investigated under field situations. Sucrose flow in the phloem sap increased with the node number, but was not significantly different between N nutrition levels. Because N deficiency reduced the number of flowering nodes and the number of seeds per pod, the sucrose flow bleeding from cut peduncles was divided by the number of seeds to give the amount of assimilates available per seed. The sucrose concentration in phloem sap supplied to seeds at the upper nodes was higher than that at the lower nodes. The flow of sucrose delivered to the seeds during the cell division period was correlated with seed growth potential. Seeds from the more N-stressed plants had both the highest seed growth rate and received a higher sucrose flux per seed during the cell division period. As seed growth rate is highly correlated with the number of cotyledonary cells produced during the cell division period, sucrose flow in phloem sap is proposed to be an important determinant of mitotic activity in seed embryos. The carbon (C)/N ratio of the flow of translocates towards seeds was higher under conditions of N-deficiency than with optimal N nutrition, indicating that N flux towards seeds, in itself, is not the main determinant of seed growth potential.
Potential contribution of wind energy to climate change mitigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barthelmie, R. J.; Pryor, S. C.
2014-08-01
It is still possible to limit greenhouse gas emissions to avoid the 2 °C warming threshold for dangerous climate change. Here we explore the potential role of expanded wind energy deployment in climate change mitigation efforts. At present, most turbines are located in extra-tropical Asia, Europe and North America, where climate projections indicate continuity of the abundant wind resource during this century. Scenarios from international agencies indicate that this virtually carbon-free source could supply 10-31% of electricity worldwide by 2050 (refs , ). Using these projections within Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) climate forcing scenarios, we show that dependent on the precise RCP followed, pursuing a moderate wind energy deployment plan by 2050 delays crossing the 2 °C warming threshold by 1-6 years. Using more aggressive wind turbine deployment strategies delays 2 °C warming by 3-10 years, or in the case of RCP4.5 avoids passing this threshold altogether. To maximize these climate benefits, deployment of non-fossil electricity generation must be coupled with reduced energy use.
Transition Metal Oxide Alloys as Potential Solar Energy Conversion Materials
Toroker, Maytal; Carter, Emily A.
2013-02-21
First-row transition metal oxides (TMOs) are inexpensive potentia alternative materials for solar energy conversion devices. However, some TMOs, such as manganese(II) oxide, have band gaps that are too large for efficiently absorbing solar energy. Other TMOs, such as iron(II) oxide, have conduction and valence band edges with the same orbital character that may lead to unfavorably high electron–hole recombination rates. Another limitation of iron(II) oxide is that the calculated valence band edge is not positioned well for oxidizing water. We predict that key properties, including band gaps, band edge positions, and possibly electron–hole recombination rates, may be improved by alloying TMOs that have different band alignments. A new metric, the band gap center offset, is introduced for simple screening of potential parent materials. The concept is illustrated by calculating the electronic structure of binary oxide alloys that contain manganese, nickel, iron, zinc, and/or magnesium, within density functional theory (DFT)+U and hybrid DFT theories. We conclude that alloys of iron(II) oxide are worth evaluating further as solar energy conversion materials.
Gravitational potential energy of the earth: A spherical harmonic approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubincam, D. P.
1977-01-01
A spherical harmonic equation for the gravitational potential energy of the earth is derived for an arbitrary density distribution by conceptually bringing in mass-elements from infinity and building up the earth shell upon spherical shell. The zeroth degree term in the spherical harmonic equation agrees with the usual expression for the energy of a radial density distribution. The second degree terms give a maximum nonhydrostatic energy in the mantle and crust of -2.77 x 10 to the twenty-ninth power ergs, an order of magnitude. If the earth is assumed to be a homogeneous viscous oblate spheroid relaxing to an equilibrium shape, then a lower limit to the mantle viscosity of 1.3 x 10 to the twentieth power poises is found by assuming the total geothermal flux is due to viscous dissipation. If the nonequilibrium figure is dynamically maintained by the earth acting as a heat engine at one per cent efficiency, then the viscosity is ten to the twenty second power poises, a number preferred by some as the viscosity of the mantle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Chun-Sheng; Dai, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Lie-Hui; Liu, Jian-Yi; Zhang, Guang-Dong
2015-01-01
We solve the Klein-Gordon equation with the modified Rosen-Morse potential energy model in D spatial dimensions. The bound state energy equation has been obtained by using the supersymmetric WKB approximation approach. We find that the inter-dimensional degeneracy symmetry exists for the molecular system represented by the modified Rosen-Morse potential. For fixed vibrational and rotational quantum numbers, the relativistic energies for the 61Πu state of the 7Li2 molecule and the X3Π state of the SiC radical increase as D increases. We observe that the behavior of the relativistic vibrational energies in higher dimensions remains similar to that of the three-dimensional system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munsell, Devon R.
Solar radiation is a promising source of renewable energy because it is abundant and the technologies to harvest it are quickly improving. An ongoing challenge is to find suitable and effective areas to implement solar energy technologies without causing ecological harm. In this regard, one type of land use that has been largely overlooked for siting solar technologies is closed or soon to be closed landfills. Utilizing Geographic Information System (GIS) based solar modeling; this study makes an inventory of solar generation potential for such sites in the state of California. The study takes account of various site characteristics in relation to the siting needs of photovoltaic (PV) geomembrane and dish-Stirling technologies (e.g., size, topography, closing date, solar insolation, presence of landfill gas recovery projects, and proximity to transmission grids and roads). This study reaches the three principal conclusions. First, with an estimated annual solar electricity generation potential of 3.7 million megawatt hours (MWh), closed or soon to be closed landfill sites could provide an amount of power significantly larger than California's current solar electric generation. Secondly, the possibility of combining PV geomembrane, dish-Stirling, and landfill gas (LFG) to energy technologies at particular sites deserves further investigation. Lastly, there are many assumptions, challenges, and limitations in conducting inventory studies of solar potential for specific sites, including the difficulty in finding accurate data regarding the location and attributes of potential landfills to be analyzed in the study. Furthermore, solar modeling necessarily simplifies a complex phenomenon, namely incoming solar radiation. Additionally, site visits, while necessary for finding details of the site, are largely impractical for a large scale study.
Cioslowski, Jerzy; Albin, Joanna
2013-09-14
Energies E(N) of assemblies of equicharged particles subject to spherically symmetric power-law confining potentials vary in a convoluted fashion with the particle totalities N. Accurate rigorous upper bounds to these energies, which are amenable to detailed mathematical analysis, are found to comprise terms with smooth, oscillatory, and fluctuating dependences on N. The smooth energy component is obtained as a power series in N(-2/3) with the first two terms corresponding to the bulk and Madelung energies. The oscillatory component possesses the large-N asymptotics given by a product of N(1/(λ + 1)), where λ is the power-law exponent, and a function periodic in N(1/3). The amplitude of the fluctuating component, which originates mostly from the irregular dependence of the Thomson energy E(Th)(n) on n, also scales like N(1/(λ + 1)).
Shang, Cheng; Liu, Zhi-Pan
2012-07-10
To predict the chemical activity of new matter is an ultimate goal in chemistry. The identification of reaction pathways using modern quantum mechanics calculations, however, often requires a high demand in computational power and good chemical intuition on the reaction. Here, a new reaction path searching method is developed by combining our recently developed transition state (TS) location method, namely, the constrained Broyden dimer method, with a basin-filling method via bias potentials, which allows the system to walk out from the energy traps at a given reaction direction. In the new method, the reaction path searching starts from an initial state without the need for preguessing the TS-like or final state structure and can proceed iteratively to the final state by locating all related TSs and intermediates. In each elementary reaction step, a reaction direction, such as a bond breaking, needs to be specified, the information of which is refined and preserved as a normal mode through biased dimer rotation. The method is tested successfully on the Baker reaction system (50 elementary reactions) with good efficiency and stability and is also applied to the potential energy surface exploration of multistep reaction processes in the gas phase and on the surface. The new method can be applied for the computational screening of new catalytic materials with a minimum requirement of chemical intuition.
Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua
2014-07-21
The permutation invariant polynomial-neural network (PIP-NN) method for constructing highly accurate potential energy surfaces (PESs) for gas phase molecules is extended to molecule-surface interaction PESs. The symmetry adaptation in the NN fitting of a PES is achieved by employing as the input symmetry functions that fulfill both the translational symmetry of the surface and permutation symmetry of the molecule. These symmetry functions are low-order PIPs of the primitive symmetry functions containing the surface periodic symmetry. It is stressed that permutationally invariant cross terms are needed to avoid oversymmetrization. The accuracy and efficiency are demonstrated in fitting both a model PES for the H2 + Cu(111) system and density functional theory points for the H2 + Ag(111) system.
Buryak, Ilya; Vigasin, Andrey A.
2015-12-21
The present paper aims at deriving classical expressions which permit calculation of the equilibrium constant for weakly interacting molecular pairs using a complete multidimensional potential energy surface. The latter is often available nowadays as a result of the more and more sophisticated and accurate ab initio calculations. The water dimer formation is considered as an example. It is shown that even in case of a rather strongly bound dimer the suggested expression permits obtaining quite reliable estimate for the equilibrium constant. The reliability of our obtained water dimer equilibrium constant is briefly discussed by comparison with the available data based on experimental observations, quantum calculations, and the use of RRHO approximation, provided the latter is restricted to formation of true bound states only.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua
2014-07-01
The permutation invariant polynomial-neural network (PIP-NN) method for constructing highly accurate potential energy surfaces (PESs) for gas phase molecules is extended to molecule-surface interaction PESs. The symmetry adaptation in the NN fitting of a PES is achieved by employing as the input symmetry functions that fulfill both the translational symmetry of the surface and permutation symmetry of the molecule. These symmetry functions are low-order PIPs of the primitive symmetry functions containing the surface periodic symmetry. It is stressed that permutationally invariant cross terms are needed to avoid oversymmetrization. The accuracy and efficiency are demonstrated in fitting both a model PES for the H2 + Cu(111) system and density functional theory points for the H2 + Ag(111) system.