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  1. An accurate assay for HCV based on real-time fluorescence detection of isothermal RNA amplification.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuping; Wang, Jianfang; Song, Jinyun; Li, Jiayan; Yang, Yongfeng

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the common reasons of liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Early, rapid and accurate HCV RNA detection is important to prevent and control liver disease. A simultaneous amplification and testing (SAT) assay, which is based on isothermal amplification of RNA and real-time fluorescence detection, was designed to optimize routine HCV RNA detection. In this study, HCV RNA and an internal control (IC) were amplified and analyzed simultaneously by SAT assay and detection of fluorescence using routine real-time PCR equipment. The assay detected as few as 10 copies of HCV RNA transcripts. We tested 705 serum samples with SAT, among which 96.4% (680/705) showed consistent results compared with routine real-time PCR. About 92% (23/25) discordant samples were confirmed to be same results as SAT-HCV by using a second real-time PCR. The sensitivity and specificity of SAT-HCV assay were 99.6% (461/463) and 100% (242/242), respectively. In conclusion, the SAT assay is an accurate test with a high specificity and sensitivity which may increase the detection rate of HCV. It is therefore a promising tool to diagnose HCV infection. PMID:27283884

  2. An accurate assay for HCV based on real-time fluorescence detection of isothermal RNA amplification.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuping; Wang, Jianfang; Song, Jinyun; Li, Jiayan; Yang, Yongfeng

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the common reasons of liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Early, rapid and accurate HCV RNA detection is important to prevent and control liver disease. A simultaneous amplification and testing (SAT) assay, which is based on isothermal amplification of RNA and real-time fluorescence detection, was designed to optimize routine HCV RNA detection. In this study, HCV RNA and an internal control (IC) were amplified and analyzed simultaneously by SAT assay and detection of fluorescence using routine real-time PCR equipment. The assay detected as few as 10 copies of HCV RNA transcripts. We tested 705 serum samples with SAT, among which 96.4% (680/705) showed consistent results compared with routine real-time PCR. About 92% (23/25) discordant samples were confirmed to be same results as SAT-HCV by using a second real-time PCR. The sensitivity and specificity of SAT-HCV assay were 99.6% (461/463) and 100% (242/242), respectively. In conclusion, the SAT assay is an accurate test with a high specificity and sensitivity which may increase the detection rate of HCV. It is therefore a promising tool to diagnose HCV infection.

  3. A fluorescence-based quantitative real-time PCR assay for accurate Pocillopora damicornis species identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Luke; Stat, Michael; Evans, Richard D.; Kennington, W. Jason

    2016-09-01

    Pocillopora damicornis is one of the most extensively studied coral species globally, but high levels of phenotypic plasticity within the genus make species identification based on morphology alone unreliable. As a result, there is a compelling need to develop cheap and time-effective molecular techniques capable of accurately distinguishing P. damicornis from other congeneric species. Here, we develop a fluorescence-based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay to genotype a single nucleotide polymorphism that accurately distinguishes P. damicornis from other morphologically similar Pocillopora species. We trial the assay across colonies representing multiple Pocillopora species and then apply the assay to screen samples of Pocillopora spp. collected at regional scales along the coastline of Western Australia. This assay offers a cheap and time-effective alternative to Sanger sequencing and has broad applications including studies on gene flow, dispersal, recruitment and physiological thresholds of P. damicornis.

  4. Joint iris boundary detection and fit: a real-time method for accurate pupil tracking.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Marconi; James, Andrew C

    2014-08-01

    A range of applications in visual science rely on accurate tracking of the human pupil's movement and contraction in response to light. While the literature for independent contour detection and fitting of the iris-pupil boundary is vast, a joint approach, in which it is assumed that the pupil has a given geometric shape has been largely overlooked. We present here a global method for simultaneously finding and fitting of an elliptic or circular contour against a dark interior, which produces consistently accurate results even under non-ideal recording conditions, such as reflections near and over the boundary, droopy eye lids, or the sudden formation of tears. The specific form of the proposed optimization problem allows us to write down closed analytic formulae for the gradient and the Hessian of the objective function. Moreover, both the objective function and its derivatives can be cast into vectorized form, making the proposed algorithm significantly faster than its closest relative in the literature. We compare methods in multiple ways, both analytically and numerically, using real iris images as well as idealizations of the iris for which the ground truth boundary is precisely known. The method proposed here is illustrated under challenging recording conditions and it is shown to be robust. PMID:25136477

  5. Quantitative real-time PCR for rapid and accurate titration of recombinant baculovirus particles.

    PubMed

    Hitchman, Richard B; Siaterli, Evangelia A; Nixon, Clare P; King, Linda A

    2007-03-01

    We describe the use of quantitative PCR (QPCR) to titer recombinant baculoviruses. Custom primers and probe were designed to gp64 and used to calculate a standard curve of QPCR derived titers from dilutions of a previously titrated baculovirus stock. Each dilution was titrated by both plaque assay and QPCR, producing a consistent and reproducible inverse relationship between C(T) and plaque forming units per milliliter. No significant difference was observed between titers produced by QPCR and plaque assay for 12 recombinant viruses, confirming the validity of this technique as a rapid and accurate method of baculovirus titration.

  6. Accurate real-time depth control for CP-SSOCT distal sensor based handheld microsurgery tools

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Gyeong Woo; Huang, Yong; Cha, Jaepyeng; Gehlbach, Peter L.; Kang, Jin U.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel intuitive targeting and tracking scheme that utilizes a common-path swept source optical coherence tomography (CP-SSOCT) distal sensor integrated handheld microsurgical tool. To achieve micron-order precision control, a reliable and accurate OCT distal sensing method is required; simultaneously, a prediction algorithm is necessary to compensate for the system delay associated with the computational, mechanical and electronic latencies. Due to the multi-layered structure of retina, it is necessary to develop effective surface detection methods rather than simple peak detection. To achieve this, a shifted cross-correlation method is applied for surface detection in order to increase robustness and accuracy in distal sensing. A predictor based on Kalman filter was implemented for more precise motion compensation. The performance was first evaluated using an established dry phantom consisting of stacked cellophane tape. This was followed by evaluation in an ex-vivo bovine retina model to assess system accuracy and precision. The results demonstrate highly accurate depth targeting with less than 5 μm RMSE depth locking. PMID:26137393

  7. Accurate identification of Candida parapsilosis (sensu lato) by use of mitochondrial DNA and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana Carolina R; Ferreira, Renata C; Gonçalves, Sarah S; Quindós, Guillermo; Eraso, Elena; Bizerra, Fernando C; Briones, Marcelo R S; Colombo, Arnaldo L

    2012-07-01

    Candida parapsilosis is the Candida species isolated the second most frequently from blood cultures in South America and some European countries, such as Spain. Since 2005, this species has been considered a complex of 3 closely related species: C. parapsilosis, Candida metapsilosis, and Candida orthopsilosis. Here, we describe a real-time TaqMan-MGB PCR assay, using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as the target, which readily distinguishes these 3 species. We first used comparative genomics to locate syntenic regions between these 3 mitochondrial genomes and then selected NADH5 as the target for the real-time PCR assay. Probes were designed to include a combination of different single-nucleotide polymorphisms that are able to differentiate each species within the C. parapsilosis complex. This new methodology was first tested using mtDNA and then genomic DNA from 4 reference and 5 clinical strains. For assay validation, a total of 96 clinical isolates and 4 American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) isolates previously identified by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing were tested. Real-time PCR using genomic DNA was able to differentiate the 3 species with 100% accuracy. No amplification was observed when DNA from other species was used as the template. We observed 100% congruence with ITS rDNA sequencing identification, including for 30 strains used in blind testing. This novel method allows a quick and accurate intracomplex identification of C. parapsilosis and saves time compared with sequencing, which so far has been considered the "gold standard" for Candida yeast identification. In addition, this assay provides a useful tool for epidemiological and clinical studies of these emergent species.

  8. Providing accurate near real-time fire alerts for Protected Areas through NASA FIRMS: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilavajhala, S.; Davies, D.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Wong, M.; Murphy, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) is at the forefront of providing global near real-time (NRT) MODIS thermal anomalies / hotspot location data to end-users . FIRMS serves the data via an interactive Web GIS named Web Fire Mapper, downloads of NRT active fire, archive data downloads for MODIS hotspots dating back to 1999 and a hotspot email alert system The FIRMS Email Alerts system has been successfully alerting users of fires in their area of interest in near real-time and/or via daily and weekly email summaries, with an option to receive MODIS hotspot data as a text file (CSV) attachment. Currently, there are more than 7000 email alert subscriptions from more than 100 countries. Specifically, the email alerts system is designed to generate and send an email alert for any region or area on the globe, with a special focus on providing alerts for protected areas worldwide. For many protected areas, email alerts are particularly useful for early fire detection, monitoring on going fires, as well as allocating resources to protect wildlife and natural resources of particular value. For protected areas, FIRMS uses the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) supplied by United Nations Environment Program - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). Maintaining the most up-to-date, accurate boundary geometry for the protected areas for the email alerts is a challenge as the WDPA is continuously updated due to changing boundaries, merging or delisting of certain protected areas. Because of this dynamic nature of the protected areas database, the FIRMS protected areas database is frequently out-of-date with the most current version of WDPA database. To maintain the most up-to-date boundary information for protected areas and to be in compliance with the WDPA terms and conditions, FIRMS needs to constantly update its database of protected areas. Currently, FIRMS strives to keep its database up to date by downloading the most recent

  9. Near real time, accurate, and sensitive microbiological safety monitoring using an all-fibre spectroscopic fluorescence system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanholsbeeck, F.; Swift, S.; Cheng, M.; Bogomolny, E.

    2013-11-01

    Enumeration of microorganisms is an essential microbiological task for many industrial sectors and research fields. Various tests for detection and counting of microorganisms are used today. However most of the current methods to enumerate bacteria require either long incubation time for limited accuracy, or use complicated protocols along with bulky equipment. We have developed an accurate, all-fibre spectroscopic system to measure fluorescence signal in-situ. In this paper, we examine the potential of this setup for near real time bacteria enumeration in aquatic environment. The concept is based on a well-known phenomenon that the fluorescence quantum yields of some nucleic acid stains significantly increase upon binding with nucleic acids of microorganisms. In addition we have used GFP labeled organisms. The fluorescence signal increase can be correlated to the amount of nucleic acid present in the sample. In addition we have used GFP labeled organisms. Our results show that we are able to detect a wide range of bacteria concentrations without dilution or filtration (1-108 CFU/ml) using different optical probes we designed. This high sensitivity is due to efficient light delivery with an appropriate collection volume and in situ fluorescence detection as well as the use of a sensitive CCD spectrometer. By monitoring the laser power, we can account for laser fluctuations while measuring the fluorescence signal which improves as well the system accuracy. A synchronized laser shutter allows us to achieve a high SNR with minimal integration time, thereby reducing the photobleaching effect. In summary, we conclude that our optical setup may offer a robust method for near real time bacterial detection in aquatic environment.

  10. Accurate and rapid identification of the Burkholderia pseudomallei near-neighbour, Burkholderia ubonensis, using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Price, Erin P; Sarovich, Derek S; Webb, Jessica R; Ginther, Jennifer L; Mayo, Mark; Cook, James M; Seymour, Meagan L; Kaestli, Mirjam; Theobald, Vanessa; Hall, Carina M; Busch, Joseph D; Foster, Jeffrey T; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M; Tuanyok, Apichai; Pearson, Talima; Currie, Bart J

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia ubonensis is an environmental bacterium belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), a group of genetically related organisms that are associated with opportunistic but generally nonfatal infections in healthy individuals. In contrast, the near-neighbour species Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis, a disease that can be fatal in up to 95% of cases if left untreated. B. ubonensis is frequently misidentified as B. pseudomallei from soil samples using selective culturing on Ashdown's medium, reflecting both the shared environmental niche and morphological similarities of these species. Additionally, B. ubonensis shows potential as an important biocontrol agent in B. pseudomallei-endemic regions as certain strains possess antagonistic properties towards B. pseudomallei. Current methods for characterising B. ubonensis are laborious, time-consuming and costly, and as such this bacterium remains poorly studied. The aim of our study was to develop a rapid and inexpensive real-time PCR-based assay specific for B. ubonensis. We demonstrate that a novel B. ubonensis-specific assay, Bu550, accurately differentiates B. ubonensis from B. pseudomallei and other species that grow on selective Ashdown's agar. We anticipate that Bu550 will catalyse research on B. ubonensis by enabling rapid identification of this organism from Ashdown's-positive colonies that are not B. pseudomallei.

  11. Accurate, fast and cost-effective diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36 using real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Pricila da Silva; Pena, Heloisa B; D'Angelo, Carla Sustek; Koiffmann, Celia P; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Shaffer, Lisa G; Stofanko, Martin; Gonçalves-Dornelas, Higgor; Pena, Sérgio Danilo Junho

    2014-01-01

    Monosomy 1p36 is considered the most common subtelomeric deletion syndrome in humans and it accounts for 0.5-0.7% of all the cases of idiopathic intellectual disability. The molecular diagnosis is often made by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), which has the drawback of being a high-cost technique. However, patients with classic monosomy 1p36 share some typical clinical characteristics that, together with its common prevalence, justify the development of a less expensive, targeted diagnostic method. In this study, we developed a simple, rapid, and inexpensive real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for targeted diagnosis of monosomy 1p36, easily accessible for low-budget laboratories in developing countries. For this, we have chosen two target genes which are deleted in the majority of patients with monosomy 1p36: PRKCZ and SKI. In total, 39 patients previously diagnosed with monosomy 1p36 by aCGH, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) all tested positive on our qPCR assay. By simultaneously using these two genes we have been able to detect 1p36 deletions with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. We conclude that qPCR of PRKCZ and SKI is a fast and accurate diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36, costing less than 10 US dollars in reagent costs.

  12. Accurate, Fast and Cost-Effective Diagnostic Test for Monosomy 1p36 Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Pricila da Silva; Pena, Heloisa B.; D'Angelo, Carla Sustek; Koiffmann, Celia P.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Shaffer, Lisa G.; Stofanko, Martin; Gonçalves-Dornelas, Higgor; Pena, Sérgio Danilo Junho

    2014-01-01

    Monosomy 1p36 is considered the most common subtelomeric deletion syndrome in humans and it accounts for 0.5–0.7% of all the cases of idiopathic intellectual disability. The molecular diagnosis is often made by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), which has the drawback of being a high-cost technique. However, patients with classic monosomy 1p36 share some typical clinical characteristics that, together with its common prevalence, justify the development of a less expensive, targeted diagnostic method. In this study, we developed a simple, rapid, and inexpensive real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for targeted diagnosis of monosomy 1p36, easily accessible for low-budget laboratories in developing countries. For this, we have chosen two target genes which are deleted in the majority of patients with monosomy 1p36: PRKCZ and SKI. In total, 39 patients previously diagnosed with monosomy 1p36 by aCGH, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) all tested positive on our qPCR assay. By simultaneously using these two genes we have been able to detect 1p36 deletions with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. We conclude that qPCR of PRKCZ and SKI is a fast and accurate diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36, costing less than 10 US dollars in reagent costs. PMID:24839341

  13. Accurate measurement of circulating mitochondrial DNA content from human blood samples using real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Ajaz, Saima; Czajka, Anna; Malik, Afshan

    2015-01-01

    We describe a protocol to accurately measure the amount of human mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) in peripheral blood samples which can be modified to quantify MtDNA from other body fluids, human cells, and tissues. This protocol is based on the use of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) to quantify the amount of MtDNA relative to nuclear DNA (designated the Mt/N ratio). In the last decade, there have been increasing numbers of studies describing altered MtDNA or Mt/N in circulation in common nongenetic diseases where mitochondrial dysfunction may play a role (for review see Malik and Czajka, Mitochondrion 13:481-492, 2013). These studies are distinct from those looking at genetic mitochondrial disease and are attempting to identify acquired changes in circulating MtDNA content as an indicator of mitochondrial function. However, the methodology being used is not always specific and reproducible. As more than 95 % of the human mitochondrial genome is duplicated in the human nuclear genome, it is important to avoid co-amplification of nuclear pseudogenes. Furthermore, template preparation protocols can also affect the results because of the size and structural differences between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Here we describe how to (1) prepare DNA from blood samples; (2) pretreat the DNA to prevent dilution bias; (3) prepare dilution standards for absolute quantification using the unique primers human mitochondrial genome forward primer (hMitoF3) and human mitochondrial genome reverse primer(hMitoR3) for the mitochondrial genome, and human nuclear genome forward primer (hB2MF1) and human nuclear genome reverse primer (hB2MR1) primers for the human nuclear genome; (4) carry out qPCR for either relative or absolute quantification from test samples; (5) analyze qPCR data; and (6) calculate the sample size to adequately power studies. The protocol presented here is suitable for high-throughput use.

  14. Novel real-time simultaneous amplification and testing method to accurately and rapidly detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhenling; Wang, Yongzhong; Fang, Liang; Zheng, Ruijuan; Huang, Xiaochen; Liu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Gang; Rui, Dongmei; Ju, Jinliang; Hu, Zhongyi

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish and evaluate a simultaneous amplification and testing method for detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (SAT-TB assay) in clinical specimens by using isothermal RNA amplification and real-time fluorescence detection. In the SAT-TB assay, a 170-bp M. tuberculosis 16S rRNA fragment is reverse transcribed to DNA by use of Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MLV) reverse transcriptase, using specific primers incorporating the T7 promoter sequence, and undergoes successive cycles of amplification using T7 RNA polymerase. Using a real-time PCR instrument, hybridization of an internal 6-carboxyfluorescein-4-[4-(dimethylamino)phenylazo] benzoic acid N-succinimidyl ester (FAM-DABCYL)-labeled fluorescent probe can be used to detect RNA amplification. The SAT-TB assay takes less than 1.5 h to perform, and the sensitivity of the assay for detection of M. tuberculosis H37Rv is 100 CFU/ml. The TB probe has no cross-reactivity with nontuberculous mycobacteria or other common respiratory tract pathogens. For 253 pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) specimens and 134 non-TB specimens, the SAT-TB results correlated with 95.6% (370/387 specimens) of the Bactec MGIT 960 culture assay results. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the SAT-TB test for the diagnosis of PTB were 67.6%, 100%, 100%, and 62.0%, respectively, compared to 61.7%, 100%, 100%, and 58.0% for Bactec MGIT 960 culture. For PTB diagnosis, the sensitivities of the SAT-TB and Bactec MGIT 960 culture methods were 97.6% and 95.9%, respectively, for smear-positive specimens and 39.2% and 30.2%, respectively, for smear-negative specimens. In conclusion, the SAT-TB assay is a novel, simple test with a high specificity which may enhance the detection rate of TB. It is therefore a promising tool for rapid diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  15. Rapid and accurate identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and common non-tuberculous mycobacteria by multiplex real-time PCR targeting different housekeeping genes.

    PubMed

    Nasr Esfahani, Bahram; Rezaei Yazdi, Hadi; Moghim, Sharareh; Ghasemian Safaei, Hajieh; Zarkesh Esfahani, Hamid

    2012-11-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of mycobacteria isolates from primary culture is important due to timely and appropriate antibiotic therapy. Conventional methods for identification of Mycobacterium species based on biochemical tests needs several weeks and may remain inconclusive. In this study, a novel multiplex real-time PCR was developed for rapid identification of Mycobacterium genus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and the most common non-tuberculosis mycobacteria species including M. abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. avium complex, M. kansasii, and the M. gordonae in three reaction tubes but under same PCR condition. Genetic targets for primer designing included the 16S rDNA gene, the dnaJ gene, the gyrB gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS). Multiplex real-time PCR was setup with reference Mycobacterium strains and was subsequently tested with 66 clinical isolates. Results of multiplex real-time PCR were analyzed with melting curves and melting temperature (T (m)) of Mycobacterium genus, MTC, and each of non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium species were determined. Multiplex real-time PCR results were compared with amplification and sequencing of 16S-23S rDNA ITS for identification of Mycobacterium species. Sensitivity and specificity of designed primers were each 100 % for MTC, M. abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. avium complex, M. kansasii, and M. gordonae. Sensitivity and specificity of designed primer for genus Mycobacterium was 96 and 100 %, respectively. According to the obtained results, we conclude that this multiplex real-time PCR with melting curve analysis and these novel primers can be used for rapid and accurate identification of genus Mycobacterium, MTC, and the most common non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium species.

  16. An Accurate, Flexible and Small Optical Fiber Sensor: A Novel Technological Breakthrough for Real-Time Analysis of Dynamic Blood Flow Data In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Qiao-ying; Zhang, Ling; Xiao, Dan; Zhao, Kun; Lin, Chun; Si, Liang-yi

    2014-01-01

    Because of the limitations of existing methods and techniques for directly obtaining real-time blood data, no accurate microflow in vivo real-time analysis method exists. To establish a novel technical platform for real-time in vivo detection and to analyze average blood pressure and other blood flow parameters, a small, accurate, flexible, and nontoxic Fabry-Perot fiber sensor was designed. The carotid sheath was implanted through intubation of the rabbit carotid artery (n = 8), and the blood pressure and other detection data were determined directly through the veins. The fiber detection results were compared with test results obtained using color Doppler ultrasound and a physiological pressure sensor recorder. Pairwise comparisons among the blood pressure results obtained using the three methods indicated that real-time blood pressure information obtained through the fiber sensor technique exhibited better correlation than the data obtained with the other techniques. The highest correlation (correlation coefficient of 0.86) was obtained between the fiber sensor and pressure sensor. The blood pressure values were positively related to the total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein level, number of red blood cells, and hemoglobin level, with correlation coefficients of 0.033, 0.129, 0.358, and 0.373, respectively. The blood pressure values had no obvious relationship with the number of white blood cells and high-density lipoprotein and had a negative relationship with triglyceride levels, with a correlation coefficient of –0.031. The average ambulatory blood pressure measured by the fiber sensor exhibited a negative correlation with the quantity of blood platelets (correlation coefficient of −0.839, P<0.05). The novel fiber sensor can thus obtain in vivo blood pressure data accurately, stably, and in real time; the sensor can also determine the content and status of the blood flow to some extent. Therefore, the fiber sensor can obtain partially real-time

  17. An accurate, flexible and small optical fiber sensor: a novel technological breakthrough for real-time analysis of dynamic blood flow data in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qiao-ying; Zhang, Ling; Xiao, Dan; Zhao, Kun; Lin, Chun; Si, Liang-yi

    2014-01-01

    Because of the limitations of existing methods and techniques for directly obtaining real-time blood data, no accurate microflow in vivo real-time analysis method exists. To establish a novel technical platform for real-time in vivo detection and to analyze average blood pressure and other blood flow parameters, a small, accurate, flexible, and nontoxic Fabry-Perot fiber sensor was designed. The carotid sheath was implanted through intubation of the rabbit carotid artery (n = 8), and the blood pressure and other detection data were determined directly through the veins. The fiber detection results were compared with test results obtained using color Doppler ultrasound and a physiological pressure sensor recorder. Pairwise comparisons among the blood pressure results obtained using the three methods indicated that real-time blood pressure information obtained through the fiber sensor technique exhibited better correlation than the data obtained with the other techniques. The highest correlation (correlation coefficient of 0.86) was obtained between the fiber sensor and pressure sensor. The blood pressure values were positively related to the total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein level, number of red blood cells, and hemoglobin level, with correlation coefficients of 0.033, 0.129, 0.358, and 0.373, respectively. The blood pressure values had no obvious relationship with the number of white blood cells and high-density lipoprotein and had a negative relationship with triglyceride levels, with a correlation coefficient of -0.031. The average ambulatory blood pressure measured by the fiber sensor exhibited a negative correlation with the quantity of blood platelets (correlation coefficient of -0.839, P<0.05). The novel fiber sensor can thus obtain in vivo blood pressure data accurately, stably, and in real time; the sensor can also determine the content and status of the blood flow to some extent. Therefore, the fiber sensor can obtain partially real-time

  18. Real-time Accurate Surface Reconstruction Pipeline for Vision Guided Planetary Exploration Using Unmanned Ground and Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almeida, Eduardo DeBrito

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses work completed over the summer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology. A system is presented to guide ground or aerial unmanned robots using computer vision. The system performs accurate camera calibration, camera pose refinement and surface extraction from images collected by a camera mounted on the vehicle. The application motivating the research is planetary exploration and the vehicles are typically rovers or unmanned aerial vehicles. The information extracted from imagery is used primarily for navigation, as robot location is the same as the camera location and the surfaces represent the terrain that rovers traverse. The processed information must be very accurate and acquired very fast in order to be useful in practice. The main challenge being addressed by this project is to achieve high estimation accuracy and high computation speed simultaneously, a difficult task due to many technical reasons.

  19. Accurate and in situ monitoring of bacterial concentration using a real time all-fibre spectroscopic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, W.; McGoverin, C.; Lydiard, S.; Song, Y.; Cheng, M.; Swift, S.; Singhal, N.; Vanholsbeeck, F.

    2015-07-01

    Accurate in situ monitoring of bacterial transport is important for increased understanding and improvement of bioremediation processes where microorganisms convert toxic compounds to more benign compounds. Bioremediation methods have become the preferred mechanism for the rehabilitation of hard to reach contaminated environments. In this study, we have used fluorescence spectroscopy to monitor the movement of fluorescently labelled bacteria (Rhodococcus erythropolis and Pseudomonas putida) within a bench-top column filled with a porous medium. In situ fluorescence measurements made using a fibre optic based instrument (`optrode') were compared to ex situ measurements made using a plate reader. In situ monitoring using this fibre optic based instrument is a promising alternative to ex situ measurements as the initial flow of bacteria is reliably observed. However, a greater understanding of the effect of the porous medium on fluorescence measurements is required to develop an accurate calibration for bacterial concentration based in situ measurements.

  20. Validation of Reference Genes for Accurate Normalization of Gene Expression in Lilium davidii var. unicolor for Real Time Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.; Wang, ChunXia; Sun, HongMei

    2015-01-01

    Lilium is an important commercial market flower bulb. qRT-PCR is an extremely important technique to track gene expression levels. The requirement of suitable reference genes for normalization has become increasingly significant and exigent. The expression of internal control genes in living organisms varies considerably under different experimental conditions. For economically important Lilium, only a limited number of reference genes applied in qRT-PCR have been reported to date. In this study, the expression stability of 12 candidate genes including α-TUB, β-TUB, ACT, eIF, GAPDH, UBQ, UBC, 18S, 60S, AP4, FP, and RH2, in a diverse set of 29 samples representing different developmental processes, three stress treatments (cold, heat, and salt) and different organs, has been evaluated. For different organs, the combination of ACT, GAPDH, and UBQ is appropriate whereas ACT together with AP4, or ACT along with GAPDH is suitable for normalization of leaves and scales at different developmental stages, respectively. In leaves, scales and roots under stress treatments, FP, ACT and AP4, respectively showed the most stable expression. This study provides a guide for the selection of a reference gene under different experimental conditions, and will benefit future research on more accurate gene expression studies in a wide variety of Lilium genotypes. PMID:26509446

  1. Validation of Reference Genes for Accurate Normalization of Gene Expression in Lilium davidii var. unicolor for Real Time Quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Li, XueYan; Cheng, JinYun; Zhang, Jing; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Wang, ChunXia; Sun, HongMei

    2015-01-01

    Lilium is an important commercial market flower bulb. qRT-PCR is an extremely important technique to track gene expression levels. The requirement of suitable reference genes for normalization has become increasingly significant and exigent. The expression of internal control genes in living organisms varies considerably under different experimental conditions. For economically important Lilium, only a limited number of reference genes applied in qRT-PCR have been reported to date. In this study, the expression stability of 12 candidate genes including α-TUB, β-TUB, ACT, eIF, GAPDH, UBQ, UBC, 18S, 60S, AP4, FP, and RH2, in a diverse set of 29 samples representing different developmental processes, three stress treatments (cold, heat, and salt) and different organs, has been evaluated. For different organs, the combination of ACT, GAPDH, and UBQ is appropriate whereas ACT together with AP4, or ACT along with GAPDH is suitable for normalization of leaves and scales at different developmental stages, respectively. In leaves, scales and roots under stress treatments, FP, ACT and AP4, respectively showed the most stable expression. This study provides a guide for the selection of a reference gene under different experimental conditions, and will benefit future research on more accurate gene expression studies in a wide variety of Lilium genotypes. PMID:26509446

  2. Accurate real-time ionospheric corrections as the key to extend the centimeter-error-level GNSS navigation at continental scale (WARTK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Pajares, M.; Juan, J.; Sanz, J.; Aragon-Angel, A.

    2007-05-01

    The main focus of this presentation is to show the recent improvements in real-time GNSS ionospheric determination extending the service area of the so called "Wide Area Real Time Kinematic" technique (WARTK), which allow centimeter-error-level navigation up to hundreds of kilometers far from the nearest GNSS reference site.[-4mm] The real-time GNSS navigation with centimeters of error has been feasible since the nineties thanks to the so- called "Real-Time Kinematic" technique (RTK), by exactly solving the integer values of the double-differenced carrier phase ambiguities. This was possible thanks to dual-frequency carrier phase data acquired simultaneously with data from a close (less than 10-20 km) reference GNSS site, under the assumption of common atmospheric effects on the satellite signal. This technique has been improved by different authors with the consideration of a network of reference sites. However the differential ionospheric refraction has remained as the main limiting factor in the extension of the applicability distance regarding to the reference site.[-4mm] In this context the authors have been developing the Wide Area RTK technique (WARTK) in different works and projects since 1998, overworking the mentioned limitations. In this way the RTK applicability with the existing sparse (Wide Area) networks of reference GPS stations, separated hundreds of kilometers, is feasible. And such networks are presently deployed in the context of other projects, such as SBAS support, over Europe and North America (EGNOS and WAAS respectively) among other regions.[-4mm] In particular WARTK is based on computing very accurate differential ionospheric corrections from a Wide Area network of permanent GNSS receivers, and providing them in real-time to the users. The key points addressed by the technique are an accurate real-time ionospheric modeling -combined with the corresponding geodetic model- by means of:[-4mm] a) A tomographic voxel model of the ionosphere

  3. Fast and Accurate Data Extraction for Near Real-Time Registration of 3-D Ultrasound and Computed Tomography in Orthopedic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Brounstein, Anna; Hacihaliloglu, Ilker; Guy, Pierre; Hodgson, Antony; Abugharbieh, Rafeef

    2015-12-01

    Automatic, accurate and real-time registration is an important step in providing effective guidance and successful anatomic restoration in ultrasound (US)-based computer assisted orthopedic surgery. We propose a method in which local phase-based bone surfaces, extracted from intra-operative US data, are registered to pre-operatively segmented computed tomography data. Extracted bone surfaces are downsampled and reinforced with high curvature features. A novel hierarchical simplification algorithm is used to further optimize the point clouds. The final point clouds are represented as Gaussian mixture models and iteratively matched by minimizing the dissimilarity between them using an L2 metric. For 44 clinical data sets from 25 pelvic fracture patients and 49 phantom data sets, we report mean surface registration accuracies of 0.31 and 0.77 mm, respectively, with an average registration time of 1.41 s. Our results suggest the viability and potential of the chosen method for real-time intra-operative registration in orthopedic surgery.

  4. Fast and Accurate Data Extraction for Near Real-Time Registration of 3-D Ultrasound and Computed Tomography in Orthopedic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Brounstein, Anna; Hacihaliloglu, Ilker; Guy, Pierre; Hodgson, Antony; Abugharbieh, Rafeef

    2015-12-01

    Automatic, accurate and real-time registration is an important step in providing effective guidance and successful anatomic restoration in ultrasound (US)-based computer assisted orthopedic surgery. We propose a method in which local phase-based bone surfaces, extracted from intra-operative US data, are registered to pre-operatively segmented computed tomography data. Extracted bone surfaces are downsampled and reinforced with high curvature features. A novel hierarchical simplification algorithm is used to further optimize the point clouds. The final point clouds are represented as Gaussian mixture models and iteratively matched by minimizing the dissimilarity between them using an L2 metric. For 44 clinical data sets from 25 pelvic fracture patients and 49 phantom data sets, we report mean surface registration accuracies of 0.31 and 0.77 mm, respectively, with an average registration time of 1.41 s. Our results suggest the viability and potential of the chosen method for real-time intra-operative registration in orthopedic surgery. PMID:26365924

  5. Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of Osteoid Osteomas with Use of Real-Time Needle Guidance for Accurate Needle Placement: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Busser, Wendy M. H. Hoogeveen, Yvonne L.; Veth, Rene P. H.; Schreuder, H. W. Bart; Balguid, Angelique; Renema, W. KlaasJan; SchultzeKool, Leo J.

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy and technical success of positioning a radiofrequency ablation (RFA) electrode in osteoid osteomas by use of a new real-time needle guidance technology combining cone-beam computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopy. Materials and Methods: Percutaneous RFA of osteoid osteomas was performed in five patients (median age 18 years), under general anesthesia, with the use of cone-beam CT and fluoroscopic guidance for electrode positioning. The outcome parameters were technical success, meaning correct needle placement in the nidus; accuracy defined as the deviation (in mm) from the center of the nidus; and clinical outcome at follow-up. Results: In all five cases, positioning was possible within 3 mm of the determined target location (median nidus size 6.8 mm; range 5-10.2 mm). All procedures were technically successful. All patients were free of pain at clinical follow-up. No complications were observed. Conclusion: Real-time fluoroscopy needle guidance based on cone-beam CT is a useful tool to accurately position radiofrequency needles for minimally invasive treatment of osteoid osteomas.

  6. Influence of storage time on DNA of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae for accurate detection by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Rong, C Z; Zhao, J Y; Lao, X J; Xie, L; Li, S; Qin, X

    2016-01-01

    The shipment and storage conditions of clinical samples pose a major challenge to the detection accuracy of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) when using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of storage time at 4°C on the DNA of these pathogens and its effect on their detection by qRT-PCR. CT, NG, and UU positive genital swabs from 70 patients were collected, and DNA of all samples were extracted and divided into eight aliquots. One aliquot was immediately analyzed with qRT-PCR to assess the initial pathogen load, whereas the remaining samples were stored at 4°C and analyzed after 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. No significant differences in CT, NG, and UU DNA loads were observed between baseline (day 0) and the subsequent time points (days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28) in any of the 70 samples. Although a slight increase in DNA levels was observed at day 28 compared to day 0, paired sample t-test results revealed no significant differences between the mean DNA levels at different time points following storage at 4°C (all P>0.05). Overall, the CT, UU, and NG DNA loads from all genital swab samples were stable at 4°C over a 28-day period. PMID:27580005

  7. Influence of storage time on DNA of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae for accurate detection by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Rong, C Z; Zhao, J Y; Lao, X J; Xie, L; Li, S; Qin, X

    2016-08-25

    The shipment and storage conditions of clinical samples pose a major challenge to the detection accuracy of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) when using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of storage time at 4°C on the DNA of these pathogens and its effect on their detection by qRT-PCR. CT, NG, and UU positive genital swabs from 70 patients were collected, and DNA of all samples were extracted and divided into eight aliquots. One aliquot was immediately analyzed with qRT-PCR to assess the initial pathogen load, whereas the remaining samples were stored at 4°C and analyzed after 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. No significant differences in CT, NG, and UU DNA loads were observed between baseline (day 0) and the subsequent time points (days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28) in any of the 70 samples. Although a slight increase in DNA levels was observed at day 28 compared to day 0, paired sample t-test results revealed no significant differences between the mean DNA levels at different time points following storage at 4°C (all P>0.05). Overall, the CT, UU, and NG DNA loads from all genital swab samples were stable at 4°C over a 28-day period.

  8. Influence of storage time on DNA of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae for accurate detection by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y.; Rong, C.Z.; Zhao, J.Y.; Lao, X.J.; Xie, L.; Li, S.; Qin, X.

    2016-01-01

    The shipment and storage conditions of clinical samples pose a major challenge to the detection accuracy of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) when using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of storage time at 4°C on the DNA of these pathogens and its effect on their detection by qRT-PCR. CT, NG, and UU positive genital swabs from 70 patients were collected, and DNA of all samples were extracted and divided into eight aliquots. One aliquot was immediately analyzed with qRT-PCR to assess the initial pathogen load, whereas the remaining samples were stored at 4°C and analyzed after 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. No significant differences in CT, NG, and UU DNA loads were observed between baseline (day 0) and the subsequent time points (days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28) in any of the 70 samples. Although a slight increase in DNA levels was observed at day 28 compared to day 0, paired sample t-test results revealed no significant differences between the mean DNA levels at different time points following storage at 4°C (all P>0.05). Overall, the CT, UU, and NG DNA loads from all genital swab samples were stable at 4°C over a 28-day period. PMID:27580005

  9. Purification of pharmaceutical preparations using thin-layer chromatography to obtain mass spectra with Direct Analysis in Real Time and accurate mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jessica L; Steiner, Robert R

    2011-06-01

    Forensic analysis of pharmaceutical preparations requires a comparative analysis with a standard of the suspected drug in order to identify the active ingredient. Purchasing analytical standards can be expensive or unattainable from the drug manufacturers. Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART™) is a novel, ambient ionization technique, typically coupled with a JEOL AccuTOF™ (accurate mass) mass spectrometer. While a fast and easy technique to perform, a drawback of using DART™ is the lack of component separation of mixtures prior to ionization. Various in-house pharmaceutical preparations were purified using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and mass spectra were subsequently obtained using the AccuTOF™- DART™ technique. Utilizing TLC prior to sample introduction provides a simple, low-cost solution to acquiring mass spectra of the purified preparation. Each spectrum was compared against an in-house molecular formula list to confirm the accurate mass elemental compositions. Spectra of purified ingredients of known pharmaceuticals were added to an in-house library for use as comparators for casework samples. Resolving isomers from one another can be accomplished using collision-induced dissociation after ionization. Challenges arose when the pharmaceutical preparation required an optimized TLC solvent to achieve proper separation and purity of the standard. Purified spectra were obtained for 91 preparations and included in an in-house drug standard library. Primary standards would only need to be purchased when pharmaceutical preparations not previously encountered are submitted for comparative analysis. TLC prior to DART™ analysis demonstrates a time efficient and cost saving technique for the forensic drug analysis community. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA as a non-invasive biomarker: Accurate quantification using real time quantitative PCR without co-amplification of pseudogenes and dilution bias

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, Afshan N.; Shahni, Rojeen; Rodriguez-de-Ledesma, Ana; Laftah, Abas; Cunningham, Phil

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} Mitochondrial dysfunction is central to many diseases of oxidative stress. {yields} 95% of the mitochondrial genome is duplicated in the nuclear genome. {yields} Dilution of untreated genomic DNA leads to dilution bias. {yields} Unique primers and template pretreatment are needed to accurately measure mitochondrial DNA content. -- Abstract: Circulating mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) is a potential non-invasive biomarker of cellular mitochondrial dysfunction, the latter known to be central to a wide range of human diseases. Changes in MtDNA are usually determined by quantification of MtDNA relative to nuclear DNA (Mt/N) using real time quantitative PCR. We propose that the methodology for measuring Mt/N needs to be improved and we have identified that current methods have at least one of the following three problems: (1) As much of the mitochondrial genome is duplicated in the nuclear genome, many commonly used MtDNA primers co-amplify homologous pseudogenes found in the nuclear genome; (2) use of regions from genes such as {beta}-actin and 18S rRNA which are repetitive and/or highly variable for qPCR of the nuclear genome leads to errors; and (3) the size difference of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes cause a 'dilution bias' when template DNA is diluted. We describe a PCR-based method using unique regions in the human mitochondrial genome not duplicated in the nuclear genome; unique single copy region in the nuclear genome and template treatment to remove dilution bias, to accurately quantify MtDNA from human samples.

  11. Integrating GPS, GYRO, vehicle speed sensor, and digital map to provide accurate and real-time position in an intelligent navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingquan; Fang, Zhixiang; Li, Hanwu; Xiao, Hui

    2005-10-01

    The global positioning system (GPS) has become the most extensively used positioning and navigation tool in the world. Applications of GPS abound in surveying, mapping, transportation, agriculture, military planning, GIS, and the geosciences. However, the positional and elevation accuracy of any given GPS location is prone to error, due to a number of factors. The applications of Global Positioning System (GPS) positioning is more and more popular, especially the intelligent navigation system which relies on GPS and Dead Reckoning technology is developing quickly for future huge market in China. In this paper a practical combined positioning model of GPS/DR/MM is put forward, which integrates GPS, Gyro, Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS) and digital navigation maps to provide accurate and real-time position for intelligent navigation system. This model is designed for automotive navigation system making use of Kalman filter to improve position and map matching veracity by means of filtering raw GPS and DR signals, and then map-matching technology is used to provide map coordinates for map displaying. In practical examples, for illustrating the validity of the model, several experiments and their results of integrated GPS/DR positioning in intelligent navigation system will be shown for the conclusion that Kalman Filter based GPS/DR integrating position approach is necessary, feasible and efficient for intelligent navigation application. Certainly, this combined positioning model, similar to other model, can not resolve all situation issues. Finally, some suggestions are given for further improving integrated GPS/DR/MM application.

  12. Quantification of reverse transcriptase activity by real-time PCR as a fast and accurate method for titration of HIV, lenti- and retroviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Vermeire, Jolien; Naessens, Evelien; Vanderstraeten, Hanne; Landi, Alessia; Iannucci, Veronica; Van Nuffel, Anouk; Taghon, Tom; Pizzato, Massimo; Verhasselt, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Quantification of retroviruses in cell culture supernatants and other biological preparations is required in a diverse spectrum of laboratories and applications. Methods based on antigen detection, such as p24 for HIV, or on genome detection are virus specific and sometimes suffer from a limited dynamic range of detection. In contrast, measurement of reverse transcriptase (RT) activity is a generic method which can be adapted for higher sensitivity using real-time PCR quantification (qPCR-based product-enhanced RT (PERT) assay). We present an evaluation of a modified SYBR Green I-based PERT assay (SG-PERT), using commercially available reagents such as MS2 RNA and ready-to-use qPCR mixes. This assay has a dynamic range of 7 logs, a sensitivity of 10 nU HIV-1 RT and outperforms p24 ELISA for HIV titer determination by lower inter-run variation, lower cost and higher linear range. The SG-PERT values correlate with transducing and infectious units in HIV-based viral vector and replication-competent HIV-1 preparations respectively. This assay can furthermore quantify Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus-derived vectors and can be performed on different instruments, such as Roche Lightcycler® 480 and Applied Biosystems ABI 7300. We consider this test to be an accurate, fast and relatively cheap method for retroviral quantification that is easily implemented for use in routine and research laboratories.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA as a non-invasive biomarker: accurate quantification using real time quantitative PCR without co-amplification of pseudogenes and dilution bias.

    PubMed

    Malik, Afshan N; Shahni, Rojeen; Rodriguez-de-Ledesma, Ana; Laftah, Abas; Cunningham, Phil

    2011-08-19

    Circulating mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) is a potential non-invasive biomarker of cellular mitochondrial dysfunction, the latter known to be central to a wide range of human diseases. Changes in MtDNA are usually determined by quantification of MtDNA relative to nuclear DNA (Mt/N) using real time quantitative PCR. We propose that the methodology for measuring Mt/N needs to be improved and we have identified that current methods have at least one of the following three problems: (1) As much of the mitochondrial genome is duplicated in the nuclear genome, many commonly used MtDNA primers co-amplify homologous pseudogenes found in the nuclear genome; (2) use of regions from genes such as β-actin and 18S rRNA which are repetitive and/or highly variable for qPCR of the nuclear genome leads to errors; and (3) the size difference of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes cause a "dilution bias" when template DNA is diluted. We describe a PCR-based method using unique regions in the human mitochondrial genome not duplicated in the nuclear genome; unique single copy region in the nuclear genome and template treatment to remove dilution bias, to accurately quantify MtDNA from human samples.

  14. Quantification of Reverse Transcriptase Activity by Real-Time PCR as a Fast and Accurate Method for Titration of HIV, Lenti- and Retroviral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Vermeire, Jolien; Naessens, Evelien; Vanderstraeten, Hanne; Landi, Alessia; Iannucci, Veronica; Van Nuffel, Anouk; Taghon, Tom; Pizzato, Massimo; Verhasselt, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Quantification of retroviruses in cell culture supernatants and other biological preparations is required in a diverse spectrum of laboratories and applications. Methods based on antigen detection, such as p24 for HIV, or on genome detection are virus specific and sometimes suffer from a limited dynamic range of detection. In contrast, measurement of reverse transcriptase (RT) activity is a generic method which can be adapted for higher sensitivity using real-time PCR quantification (qPCR-based product-enhanced RT (PERT) assay). We present an evaluation of a modified SYBR Green I-based PERT assay (SG-PERT), using commercially available reagents such as MS2 RNA and ready-to-use qPCR mixes. This assay has a dynamic range of 7 logs, a sensitivity of 10 nU HIV-1 RT and outperforms p24 ELISA for HIV titer determination by lower inter-run variation, lower cost and higher linear range. The SG-PERT values correlate with transducing and infectious units in HIV-based viral vector and replication-competent HIV-1 preparations respectively. This assay can furthermore quantify Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus-derived vectors and can be performed on different instruments, such as Roche Lightcycler® 480 and Applied Biosystems ABI 7300. We consider this test to be an accurate, fast and relatively cheap method for retroviral quantification that is easily implemented for use in routine and research laboratories. PMID:23227216

  15. A rapid and accurate quantification method for real-time dynamic analysis of cellular lipids during microalgal fermentation processes in Chlorella protothecoides with low field nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Zejian; Tian, Xiwei; Yang, Yi; Guo, Meijin; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping

    2016-05-01

    The rapid and real-time lipid determination can provide valuable information on process regulation and optimization in the algal lipid mass production. In this study, a rapid, accurate and precise quantification method of in vivo cellular lipids of Chlorella protothecoides using low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) was newly developed. LF-NMR was extremely sensitive to the algal lipids with the limits of the detection (LOD) of 0.0026g and 0.32g/L in dry lipid samples and algal broth, respectively, as well as limits of quantification (LOQ) of 0.0093g and 1.18g/L. Moreover, the LF-NMR signal was specifically proportional to the cellular lipids of C. protothecoides, thus the superior regression curves existing in a wide detection range from 0.02 to 0.42g for dry lipids and from 1.12 to 8.97gL(-1) of lipid concentration for in vivo lipid quantification were obtained with all R(2) higher than 0.99, irrespective of the lipid content and fatty acids profile variations. The accuracy of this novel method was further verified to be reliable by comparing lipid quantification results to those obtained by GC-MS. And the relative standard deviation (RSD) of LF-NMR results were smaller than 2%, suggesting the precision of this method. Finally, this method was successfully used in the on-line lipid monitoring during the algal lipid fermentation processes, making it possible for better understanding of the lipid accumulation mechanism and dynamic bioprocess control. PMID:26948045

  16. Accurate molecular dynamics and nuclear quantum effects at low cost by multiple steps in real and imaginary time: Using density functional theory to accelerate wavefunction methods.

    PubMed

    Kapil, V; VandeVondele, J; Ceriotti, M

    2016-02-01

    The development and implementation of increasingly accurate methods for electronic structure calculations mean that, for many atomistic simulation problems, treating light nuclei as classical particles is now one of the most serious approximations. Even though recent developments have significantly reduced the overhead for modeling the quantum nature of the nuclei, the cost is still prohibitive when combined with advanced electronic structure methods. Here we present how multiple time step integrators can be combined with ring-polymer contraction techniques (effectively, multiple time stepping in imaginary time) to reduce virtually to zero the overhead of modelling nuclear quantum effects, while describing inter-atomic forces at high levels of electronic structure theory. This is demonstrated for a combination of MP2 and semi-local DFT applied to the Zundel cation. The approach can be seamlessly combined with other methods to reduce the computational cost of path integral calculations, such as high-order factorizations of the Boltzmann operator or generalized Langevin equation thermostats.

  17. Accurate molecular dynamics and nuclear quantum effects at low cost by multiple steps in real and imaginary time: Using density functional theory to accelerate wavefunction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapil, V.; VandeVondele, J.; Ceriotti, M.

    2016-02-01

    The development and implementation of increasingly accurate methods for electronic structure calculations mean that, for many atomistic simulation problems, treating light nuclei as classical particles is now one of the most serious approximations. Even though recent developments have significantly reduced the overhead for modeling the quantum nature of the nuclei, the cost is still prohibitive when combined with advanced electronic structure methods. Here we present how multiple time step integrators can be combined with ring-polymer contraction techniques (effectively, multiple time stepping in imaginary time) to reduce virtually to zero the overhead of modelling nuclear quantum effects, while describing inter-atomic forces at high levels of electronic structure theory. This is demonstrated for a combination of MP2 and semi-local DFT applied to the Zundel cation. The approach can be seamlessly combined with other methods to reduce the computational cost of path integral calculations, such as high-order factorizations of the Boltzmann operator or generalized Langevin equation thermostats.

  18. Real time polarimetric dehazing.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Jason; Virgen, Miguel

    2013-03-20

    Remote sensing is a rich topic due to its utility in gathering detailed accurate information from locations that are not economically feasible traveling destinations or are physically inaccessible. However, poor visibility over long path lengths is problematic for a variety of reasons. Haze induced by light scatter is one cause for poor visibility and is the focus of this article. Image haze comes about as a result of light scattering off particles and into the imaging path causing a haziness to appear on the image. Image processing using polarimetric information of light scatter can be used to mitigate image haze. An imaging polarimeter which provides the Stokes values in real time combined with a "dehazing" algorithm can automate image haze removal for instant applications. Example uses are to improve visual display providing on-the-spot detection or imbedding in an active control loop to improve viewing and tracking while on a moving platform. In addition, removing haze in this manner allows the trade space for a system operational waveband to be opened up to bands which are object matched and not necessarily restricted by scatter effects. PMID:23518739

  19. Accurate Detection and Quantification of the Fish Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv) with a Two-Color Fluorometric Real-Time PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Palsule, Vrushalee V.; Yeo, Jiyoun; Shepherd, Brian S.; Crawford, Erin L.; Stepien, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv) is one of the world's most serious fish pathogens, infecting >80 marine, freshwater, and estuarine fish species from Eurasia and North America. A novel and especially virulent strain – IVb – appeared in the Great Lakes in 2003, has killed many game fish species in a series of outbreaks in subsequent years, and shut down interstate transport of baitfish. Cell culture is the diagnostic method approved by the USDA-APHIS, which takes a month or longer, lacks sensitivity, and does not quantify the amount of virus. We thus present a novel, easy, rapid, and highly sensitive real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assay that incorporates synthetic competitive template internal standards for quality control to circumvent false negative results. Results demonstrate high signal-to-analyte response (slope = 1.00±0.02) and a linear dynamic range that spans seven orders of magnitude (R2 = 0.99), ranging from 6 to 6,000,000 molecules. Infected fishes are found to harbor levels of virus that range to 1,200,000 VHSv molecules/106 actb1 molecules with 1,000 being a rough cut-off for clinical signs of disease. This new assay is rapid, inexpensive, and has significantly greater accuracy than other published qRT-PCR tests and traditional cell culture diagnostics. PMID:23977162

  20. Rapid and accurate detection of the CFTR gene mutation 1811+1.6 kbA>G by real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR.

    PubMed

    Reboul, Marie-Pierre; Higueret, Laurent; Biteau, Nicolas; Iron, Albert

    2005-10-01

    The CFTR gene mutation 1811+1.6 kbA>G has been reported as associated with a severe phenotype of cystic fibrosis with pancreatic insufficiency. This mutation has been identified as a rather common one in the South West of France and in the Iberian Peninsula. Because of the precise geographical origin of the subjects and its frequency, the mutation has to be investigated with accuracy. We have developed an original real-time Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) PCR assay for genotyping the mutation 1811+1.6 kbA>G. It is based on the amplification of a region spanning the mutation with simultaneous detection of the amplicon by hybridization with a bi-probe followed by a melting curve analysis. The results obtained are identical with those resulting from either restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis or sequencing. The distinction between the wild type and the mutation 1811+1.6 kbA>G is easy because the corresponding melting points shows a difference of 6 or 9.5 degrees C depending on the associated SNP A/T located 16 bp downstream. We demonstrated that a FRET assay showed enough sensitivity to discriminate between two nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the sequence of the sensor. In conclusion, this method is specific, fast, easy to perform, reproducible, inexpensive as it uses only one bi-probe and well adapted to daily practice.

  1. Rapid and accurate detection of bacteriophage activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 by propidium monoazide real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Niu, Yan D; Li, Jinquan; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A

    2014-01-01

    Conventional methods to determine the efficacy of bacteriophage (phage) for biocontrol of E. coli require several days, due to the need to culture bacteria. Furthermore, cell surface-attached phage particles may lyse bacterial cells during experiments, leading to an overestimation of phage activity. DNA-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a fast, sensitive, and highly specific means of enumerating pathogens. However, qPCR may underestimate phage activity due to its inability to distinguish viable from nonviable cells. In this study, we evaluated the suitability of propidium monoazide (PMA), a microbial membrane-impermeable dye that inhibits amplification of extracellular DNA and DNA within dead or membrane-compromised cells as a means of using qPCR to identify only intact E. coli cells that survive phage exposure. Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain R508N and 4 phages (T5-like, T1-like, T4-like, and O1-like) were studied. Results compared PMA-qPCR and direct plating and confirmed that PMA could successfully inhibit amplification of DNA from compromised/damaged cells E. coli O157:H7. Compared to PMA-qPCR, direct plating overestimated (P < 0.01) phage efficacy as cell surface-attached phage particles lysed E. coli O157:H7 during the plating process. Treatment of samples with PMA in combination with qPCR can therefore be considered beneficial when assessing the efficacy of bacteriophage for biocontrol of E. coli O157:H7.

  2. Evaluation of reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression for real time-quantitative PCR in Pyrus pyrifolia using different tissue samples and seasonal conditions.

    PubMed

    Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ubi, Benjamin E; Saito, Takanori; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2014-01-01

    We have evaluated suitable reference genes for real time (RT)-quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia). We tested most frequently used genes in the literature such as β-Tubulin, Histone H3, Actin, Elongation factor-1α, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, together with newly added genes Annexin, SAND and TIP41. A total of 17 primer combinations for these eight genes were evaluated using cDNAs synthesized from 16 tissue samples from four groups, namely: flower bud, flower organ, fruit flesh and fruit skin. Gene expression stabilities were analyzed using geNorm and NormFinder software packages or by ΔCt method. geNorm analysis indicated three best performing genes as being sufficient for reliable normalization of RT-qPCR data. Suitable reference genes were different among sample groups, suggesting the importance of validation of gene expression stability of reference genes in the samples of interest. Ranking of stability was basically similar between geNorm and NormFinder, suggesting usefulness of these programs based on different algorithms. ΔCt method suggested somewhat different results in some groups such as flower organ or fruit skin; though the overall results were in good correlation with geNorm or NormFinder. Gene expression of two cold-inducible genes PpCBF2 and PpCBF4 were quantified using the three most and the three least stable reference genes suggested by geNorm. Although normalized quantities were different between them, the relative quantities within a group of samples were similar even when the least stable reference genes were used. Our data suggested that using the geometric mean value of three reference genes for normalization is quite a reliable approach to evaluating gene expression by RT-qPCR. We propose that the initial evaluation of gene expression stability by ΔCt method, and subsequent evaluation by geNorm or NormFinder for limited number of superior gene candidates will be a practical way of finding out

  3. Real-time radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bossi, R.H.; Oien, C.T.

    1981-02-26

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components.

  4. Real-time sonography

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischey, A.C.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This textbook acquaints the reader with normal and pathologic anatomy as depicted on dynamic or real-time scanning. Chapters are organized by specialty, such as abdominal, urologic, or pediatric. The text is illustrated with still-frame images and line drawings. The drawings show important areas of interest and provide graphic notation as to where and in what orientation the scan was obtained.

  5. Validation of reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression for real time-quantitative PCR in strawberry fruits using different cultivars and osmotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Galli, Vanessa; Borowski, Joyce Moura; Perin, Ellen Cristina; Messias, Rafael da Silva; Labonde, Julia; Pereira, Ivan dos Santos; Silva, Sérgio Delmar Dos Anjos; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor

    2015-01-10

    The increasing demand of strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch) fruits is associated mainly with their sensorial characteristics and the content of antioxidant compounds. Nevertheless, the strawberry production has been hampered due to its sensitivity to abiotic stresses. Therefore, to understand the molecular mechanisms highlighting stress response is of great importance to enable genetic engineering approaches aiming to improve strawberry tolerance. However, the study of expression of genes in strawberry requires the use of suitable reference genes. In the present study, seven traditional and novel candidate reference genes were evaluated for transcript normalization in fruits of ten strawberry cultivars and two abiotic stresses, using RefFinder, which integrates the four major currently available software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and the comparative delta-Ct method. The results indicate that the expression stability is dependent on the experimental conditions. The candidate reference gene DBP (DNA binding protein) was considered the most suitable to normalize expression data in samples of strawberry cultivars and under drought stress condition, and the candidate reference gene HISTH4 (histone H4) was the most stable under osmotic stresses and salt stress. The traditional genes GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and 18S (18S ribosomal RNA) were considered the most unstable genes in all conditions. The expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) genes were used to further confirm the validated candidate reference genes, showing that the use of an inappropriate reference gene may induce erroneous results. This study is the first survey on the stability of reference genes in strawberry cultivars and osmotic stresses and provides guidelines to obtain more accurate RT-qPCR results for future breeding efforts.

  6. Real-Time PCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, A.; Boulle, N.; Lutfalla, G. S.

    Over the past few years there has been a considerable development of DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time PCR has now superseded conventional PCR techniques in many areas, e.g., the quantification of nucleic acids and genotyping. This new approach is based on the detection and quantification of a fluorescent signal proportional to the amount of amplicons generated by PCR. Real-time detection is achieved by coupling a thermocycler with a fluorimeter. This chapter discusses the general principles of quantitative real-time PCR, the different steps involved in implementing the technique, and some examples of applications in medicine. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provides a way of obtaining a large number of copies of a double-stranded DNA fragment of known sequence. This DNA amplification technique, developed in 1985 by K. Mullis (Cetus Corporation), saw a spectacular development over the space of a few years, revolutionising the methods used up to then in molecular biology. Indeed, PCR has many applications, such as the detection of small amounts of DNA, cloning, and quantitative analysis (assaying), each of which will be discussed further below.

  7. Real time Faraday spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Tommy E.; Struve, Kenneth W.; Colella, Nicholas J.

    1991-01-01

    This invention uses a dipole magnet to bend the path of a charged particle beam. As the deflected particles exit the magnet, they are spatially dispersed in the bend-plane of the magnet according to their respective momenta and pass to a plurality of chambers having Faraday probes positioned therein. Both the current and energy distribution of the particles is then determined by the non-intersecting Faraday probes located along the chambers. The Faraday probes are magnetically isolated from each other by thin metal walls of the chambers, effectively providing real time current-versus-energy particle measurements.

  8. Real time SAR processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premkumar, A. B.; Purviance, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    A simplified model for the SAR imaging problem is presented. The model is based on the geometry of the SAR system. Using this model an expression for the entire phase history of the received SAR signal is formulated. From the phase history, it is shown that the range and the azimuth coordinates for a point target image can be obtained by processing the phase information during the intrapulse and interpulse periods respectively. An architecture for a VLSI implementation for the SAR signal processor is presented which generates images in real time. The architecture uses a small number of chips, a new correlation processor, and an efficient azimuth correlation process.

  9. Real-Time Revolution?

    PubMed

    Berlin, Joey

    2016-03-01

    Austin Regional Clinic (ARC) physicians and officials know patient feedback is important, but getting patients to provide it can be a challenge. A pilot program of a new, real-time feedback system provided ARC patients a high-tech convenience previous attempts lacked and produced participation numbers dwarfing those past efforts. ARC's initial results with the system, in which patients answer five to seven questions on a computer tablet and can leave free-text comments, were so successful the clinic is already planning to expand it to all of its locations by the end of June.

  10. Real time automated inspection

    DOEpatents

    Fant, K.M.; Fundakowski, R.A.; Levitt, T.S.; Overland, J.E.; Suresh, B.R.; Ulrich, F.W.

    1985-05-21

    A method and apparatus are described relating to the real time automatic detection and classification of characteristic type surface imperfections occurring on the surfaces of material of interest such as moving hot metal slabs produced by a continuous steel caster. A data camera transversely scans continuous lines of such a surface to sense light intensities of scanned pixels and generates corresponding voltage values. The voltage values are converted to corresponding digital values to form a digital image of the surface which is subsequently processed to form an edge-enhanced image having scan lines characterized by intervals corresponding to the edges of the image. The edge-enhanced image is thresholded to segment out the edges and objects formed by the edges by interval matching and bin tracking. Features of the objects are derived and such features are utilized to classify the objects into characteristic type surface imperfections. 43 figs.

  11. Real time automated inspection

    DOEpatents

    Fant, Karl M.; Fundakowski, Richard A.; Levitt, Tod S.; Overland, John E.; Suresh, Bindinganavle R.; Ulrich, Franz W.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus relating to the real time automatic detection and classification of characteristic type surface imperfections occurring on the surfaces of material of interest such as moving hot metal slabs produced by a continuous steel caster. A data camera transversely scans continuous lines of such a surface to sense light intensities of scanned pixels and generates corresponding voltage values. The voltage values are converted to corresponding digital values to form a digital image of the surface which is subsequently processed to form an edge-enhanced image having scan lines characterized by intervals corresponding to the edges of the image. The edge-enhanced image is thresholded to segment out the edges and objects formed by the edges are segmented out by interval matching and bin tracking. Features of the objects are derived and such features are utilized to classify the objects into characteristic type surface imperfections.

  12. Real-Time Benchmark Suite

    1992-01-17

    This software provides a portable benchmark suite for real time kernels. It tests the performance of many of the system calls, as well as the interrupt response time and task response time to interrupts. These numbers provide a baseline for comparing various real-time kernels and hardware platforms.

  13. The Power of Real-Time PCR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valasek, Mark A.; Repa, Joyce J.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has emerged as a robust and widely used methodology for biological investigation because it can detect and quantify very small amounts of specific nucleic acid sequences. As a research tool, a major application of this technology is the rapid and accurate assessment of changes in gene…

  14. Real Time Baseball Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Yasuhiro

    The author describes the system outline, features and operations of "Nikkan Sports Realtime Basaball Database" which was developed and operated by Nikkan Sports Shimbun, K. K. The system enables to input numerical data of professional baseball games as they proceed simultaneously, and execute data updating at realtime, just-in-time. Other than serving as supporting tool for prepareing newspapers it is also available for broadcasting media, general users through NTT dial Q2 and others.

  15. Real-time flutter identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, R.; Walker, R.

    1985-01-01

    The techniques and a FORTRAN 77 MOdal Parameter IDentification (MOPID) computer program developed for identification of the frequencies and damping ratios of multiple flutter modes in real time are documented. Physically meaningful model parameterization was combined with state of the art recursive identification techniques and applied to the problem of real time flutter mode monitoring. The performance of the algorithm in terms of convergence speed and parameter estimation error is demonstrated for several simulated data cases, and the results of actual flight data analysis from two different vehicles are presented. It is indicated that the algorithm is capable of real time monitoring of aircraft flutter characteristics with a high degree of reliability.

  16. Real-time vision systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee

    1994-11-15

    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  17. Real-time software receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledvina, Brent M. (Inventor); Psiaki, Mark L. (Inventor); Powell, Steven P. (Inventor); Kintner, Jr., Paul M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A real-time software receiver that executes on a general purpose processor. The software receiver includes data acquisition and correlator modules that perform, in place of hardware correlation, baseband mixing and PRN code correlation using bit-wise parallelism.

  18. Real-time software receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledvina, Brent M. (Inventor); Psiaki, Mark L. (Inventor); Powell, Steven P. (Inventor); Kintner, Jr., Paul M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A real-time software receiver that executes on a general purpose processor. The software receiver includes data acquisition and correlator modules that perform, in place of hardware correlation, baseband mixing and PRN code correlation using bit-wise parallelism.

  19. Real-Time Moire Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, O. D. D.; Lage, A. I. V. S.

    1986-08-01

    Interferometric techniques including hologrametry, both classical and electronic, present high sensitivity making difficult its practical use in real-time. The introduction of the differencial concept as moire evaluation techniques permits to use with advantage an arbitrary reference pattern within the correlation range. The carrier spatial spectrum can be directly the interferogram fringe pattern instead of the original interference pattern of wavelength dimensional scale. A moire techniques is in itself an optical processing method reducing evaluation time which is advantageous when real-time response is desired from hybrid metrological systems. The moire evaluation is performed via a dynamical digital memory that executes arithmetic operations on two frames temporally in sequence, at TV rate. These characteristics of the moire evaluation techniques can be implemented on a real-time holographic (or speckle based) hybrid system with great practical advantage for dynamical studies.

  20. REAL TIME SYSTEM OPERATIONS 2006-2007

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Parashar, Manu; Lewis, Nancy Jo

    2008-08-15

    The Real Time System Operations (RTSO) 2006-2007 project focused on two parallel technical tasks: (1) Real-Time Applications of Phasors for Monitoring, Alarming and Control; and (2) Real-Time Voltage Security Assessment (RTVSA) Prototype Tool. The overall goal of the phasor applications project was to accelerate adoption and foster greater use of new, more accurate, time-synchronized phasor measurements by conducting research and prototyping applications on California ISO's phasor platform - Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS) -- that provide previously unavailable information on the dynamic stability of the grid. Feasibility assessment studies were conducted on potential application of this technology for small-signal stability monitoring, validating/improving existing stability nomograms, conducting frequency response analysis, and obtaining real-time sensitivity information on key metrics to assess grid stress. Based on study findings, prototype applications for real-time visualization and alarming, small-signal stability monitoring, measurement based sensitivity analysis and frequency response assessment were developed, factory- and field-tested at the California ISO and at BPA. The goal of the RTVSA project was to provide California ISO with a prototype voltage security assessment tool that runs in real time within California ISO?s new reliability and congestion management system. CERTS conducted a technical assessment of appropriate algorithms, developed a prototype incorporating state-of-art algorithms (such as the continuation power flow, direct method, boundary orbiting method, and hyperplanes) into a framework most suitable for an operations environment. Based on study findings, a functional specification was prepared, which the California ISO has since used to procure a production-quality tool that is now a part of a suite of advanced computational tools that is used by California ISO for reliability and congestion management.

  1. Real Time Sonic Boom Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Ed

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will provide general information about sonic boom mitigation technology to the public in order to supply information to potential partners and licensees. The technology is a combination of flight data, atmospheric data and terrain information implemented into a control room real time display for flight planning. This research is currently being performed and as such, any results and conclusions are ongoing.

  2. Real Time Radiation Exposure And Health Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shaowen; Barzilla, Janet E.; Semones, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation from solar particle events (SPEs) poses a serious threat to future manned missions outside of low Earth orbit (LEO). Accurate characterization of the radiation environment in the inner heliosphere and timely monitoring the health risks to crew are essential steps to ensure the safety of future Mars missions. In this project we plan to develop an approach that can use the particle data from multiple satellites and perform near real-time simulations of radiation exposure and health risks for various exposure scenarios. Time-course profiles of dose rates will be calculated with HZETRN and PDOSE from the energy spectrum and compositions of the particles archived from satellites, and will be validated from recent radiation exposure measurements in space. Real-time estimation of radiation risks will be investigated using ARRBOD. This cross discipline integrated approach can improve risk mitigation by providing critical information for risk assessment and medical guidance to crew during SPEs.

  3. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  4. [Real time 3D echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D

    2001-07-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630

  5. Steering a mobile robot in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuah, Mei C.; Fennema, Claude L., Jr.

    1994-10-01

    Using computer vision for mobile robot navigation has been of interest since the 1960s. This interest is evident in even the earliest robot projects: at SRI International (`Shakey') and at the Stanford University (`Stanford Cart'). These pioneering projects provided a foundation for late work but fell far short of providing real time solutions. Since the mid 1980s, the ARPA sponsored ALV and UGV projects have established a need for real time navigation. To achieve the necessary speed, some researchers have focused on building faster hardware; others have turned to the use of new computational architectures, such as neural nets. The work described in this paper uses another approach that has become known as `perceptual servoing.' Previously reported results show that perceptual servoing is both fast and accurate when used to steer vehicles equipped with precise odometers. When the instrumentation on the vehicle does not give precise measurements of distance traveled, as could be the case for a vehicle traveling on ice or mud, new techniques are required to accommodate the reduced ability to make accurate predictions about motion and control. This paper presents a method that computes estimates of distance traveled using landmarks and path information. The new method continues to perform in real time using modest computational facilities, and results demonstrate the effects of the new implementation on steering accuracy.

  6. Real time psychrometric data collection

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, K.H.

    1996-12-31

    Eight Mine Weather Stations (MWS) installed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to monitor the underground ventilation system are helping to simulate real-time ventilation scenarios. Seasonal weather extremes can result in variations of Natural Ventilation Pressure (NVP) which can significantly effect the ventilation system. The eight MWS(s) (which previously collected and stored temperature, barometric pressure and relative humidity data for subsequent NVP calculations) were upgraded to provide continuous real-time data to the site wide Central monitoring System. This data can now be utilized by the ventilation engineer to create realtime ventilation simulations and trends which assist in the prediction and mitigation of NVP and psychrometric related events.

  7. Real-time tritium imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Malinowski, M.E.

    1981-09-15

    A real-time image of a tritium-containing titanium film has been made by detecting the secondary electrons produced by tritium ..beta.. decay with a simple two-element electrostatic lens and microchannel plate image intensifier. The obtained image indicates that a resolution of better than 100 ..mu..m is currently obtainable and suggests that image magnification to enhance resolution should be possible.

  8. Real-time exploitation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, Richard D.

    1998-11-01

    The proliferation and technology advances of digital sensors for reconnaissance imaging require a commensurate increase in the productivity of ground-based exploitation system to process the increased volume of remotely-sensed data. Systems to support this level of production, themselves, must have significantly reduced development and life-cycle costs from previously installed systems. For cost, growth, and integration advantages, reconnaissance exploitation systems should be designed to maximize Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) hardware and software. As an example, the Real-Time Exploitation System is a state-of-the-art system for photo interpretation and exploitation of real-time digital reconnaissance imagery. Using COTS hardware, the system is able to receive imagery at rates greater than 80 Mpixels/sec; perform detailed interpretation, exploitation and report generation, and; disseminate reports to intelligence users over secure networks. New technologies have been applied in workflow management, database management, and user interfaces to provide the image analyst with superior analysis tools and access to other intelligence data sources. Photogrammetric functions are also provided for monoscopic and stereoscopic imagery. These functions provide greater geographic accuracy than is achievable in most reconnaissance exploitation systems. The Real-Time Exploitation System significantly reduces timelines for the analysis and report generation process, and significantly increases the quality and accuracy of reports.

  9. Abstraction Planning in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, Richard

    1994-01-01

    When a planning agent works in a complex, real-world domain, it is unable to plan for and store all possible contingencies and problem situations ahead of time. The agent needs to be able to fall back on an ability to construct plans at run time under time constraints. This thesis presents a method for planning at run time that incrementally builds up plans at multiple levels of abstraction. The plans are continually updated by information from the world, allowing the planner to adjust its plan to a changing world during the planning process. All the information is represented over intervals of time, allowing the planner to reason about durations, deadlines, and delays within its plan. In addition to the method, the thesis presents a formal model of the planning process and uses the model to investigate planning strategies. The method has been implemented, and experiments have been run to validate the overall approach and the theoretical model.

  10. Real-time flutter analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R.; Gupta, N.

    1984-01-01

    The important algorithm issues necessary to achieve a real time flutter monitoring system; namely, the guidelines for choosing appropriate model forms, reduction of the parameter convergence transient, handling multiple modes, the effect of over parameterization, and estimate accuracy predictions, both online and for experiment design are addressed. An approach for efficiently computing continuous-time flutter parameter Cramer-Rao estimate error bounds were developed. This enables a convincing comparison of theoretical and simulation results, as well as offline studies in preparation for a flight test. Theoretical predictions, simulation and flight test results from the NASA Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Test (DAST) Program are compared.

  11. Abstraction Planning in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, R.

    1994-01-01

    When a planning agent works in a complex, real-world domain, it is unable to plan for and store all possible contingencies and problem situations ahead of time. This thesis presents a method for planning a run time that incrementally builds up plans at multiple levels of abstraction. The plans are continually updated by information from the world, allowing the planner to adjust its plan to a changing world during the planning process. All the information is represented over intervals of time, allowing the planner to reason about durations, deadlines, and delays within its plan. In addition to the method, the thesis presents a formal model of the planning process and uses the model to investigate planning strategies.

  12. Real-time streamflow conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, David J.; Gebert, Warren A.

    1996-01-01

    Would you like to know streamflow conditions before you go fishing in Wisconsin or in more distant locations? Real-time streamflow data throughout Wisconsin and the United States are available on the Internet from the U.S. Geological Survey. You can see if the stream you are interested in fishing is high due to recent rain or low because of an extended dry spell. Flow conditions at more than 100 stream-gaging stations located throughout Wisconsin can be viewed by accessing the Wisconsin District Home Page at: http://wwwdwimdn.er.usgs.gov

  13. Real time infrared aerosol analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Stanley A.; Reedy, Gerald T.; Kumar, Romesh

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for analyzing aerosols in essentially real time includes a virtual impactor which separates coarse particles from fine and ultrafine particles in an aerosol sample. The coarse and ultrafine particles are captured in PTFE filters, and the fine particles impact onto an internal light reflection element. The composition and quantity of the particles on the PTFE filter and on the internal reflection element are measured by alternately passing infrared light through the filter and the internal light reflection element, and analyzing the light through infrared spectrophotometry to identify the particles in the sample.

  14. Real-time analysis keratometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adachi, Iwao P. (Inventor); Adachi, Yoshifumi (Inventor); Frazer, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A computer assisted keratometer in which a fiducial line pattern reticle illuminated by CW or pulsed laser light is projected on a corneal surface through lenses, a prismoidal beamsplitter quarterwave plate, and objective optics. The reticle surface is curved as a conjugate of an ideal corneal curvature. The fiducial image reflected from the cornea undergoes a polarization shift through the quarterwave plate and beamsplitter whereby the projected and reflected beams are separated and directed orthogonally. The reflected beam fiducial pattern forms a moire pattern with a replica of the first recticle. This moire pattern contains transverse aberration due to differences in curvature between the cornea and the ideal corneal curvature. The moire pattern is analyzed in real time by computer which displays either the CW moire pattern or a pulsed mode analysis of the transverse aberration of the cornea under observation, in real time. With the eye focused on a plurality of fixation points in succession, a survey of the entire corneal topography is made and a contour map or three dimensional plot of the cornea can be made as a computer readout in addition to corneal radius and refractive power analysis.

  15. Real time analysis under EDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneberk, D.

    1985-07-01

    The analysis component of the Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described. Four different types of analysis are performed on data acquired through EDS: (1) absorption spectroscopy on laser-generated spectral lines, (2) mass spectrometer analysis, (3) general purpose waveform analysis, and (4) separation performance calculations. The information produced from this data includes: measures of particle density and velocity, partial pressures of residual gases, and overall measures of isotope enrichment. The analysis component supports a variety of real-time modeling tasks, a means for broadcasting data to other nodes, and a great degree of flexibility for tailoring computations to the exact needs of the process. A particular data base structure and program flow is common to all types of analysis. Key elements of the analysis component are: (1) a fast access data base which can configure all types of analysis, (2) a selected set of analysis routines, (3) a general purpose data manipulation and graphics package for the results of real time analysis.

  16. Real-time face tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yufeng; Wilder, Joseph

    1998-10-01

    A real-time face tracker is presented in this paper. The system has achieved 15 frames/second tracking using a Pentium 200 PC with a Datacube MaxPCI image processing board and a Panasonic RGB color camera. It tracks human faces in the camera's field of view while people move freely. A stochastic model to characterize the skin color distribution of human skin is used to segment the face and other skin areas from the background. Median filtering is then used to clean up the background noise. Geometric constraints are applied to the segmented image to extract the face from the background. To reduce computation and achieve real-time tracking, 1D projections (horizontal and vertical) of the image are analyzed instead of the 2D image. Run-length- encoding and frequency domain analysis algorithms are used to separate faces from other skin-like blobs. The system is robust to illumination intensity variations and different skin colors. It can be applied to many human-computer interaction applications such as sound locating, lip- reading, gaze tracking and face recognition.

  17. ALMA Correlator Real-Time Data Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, J.; Amestica, R.; Perez, J.

    2005-10-01

    The design of a real-time Linux application utilizing Real-Time Application Interface (RTAI) to process real-time data from the radio astronomy correlator for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is described. The correlator is a custom-built digital signal processor which computes the cross-correlation function of two digitized signal streams. ALMA will have 64 antennas with 2080 signal streams each with a sample rate of 4 giga-samples per second. The correlator's aggregate data output will be 1 gigabyte per second. The software is defined by hard deadlines with high input and processing data rates, while requiring interfaces to non real-time external computers. The designed computer system - the Correlator Data Processor or CDP, consists of a cluster of 17 SMP computers, 16 of which are compute nodes plus a master controller node all running real-time Linux kernels. Each compute node uses an RTAI kernel module to interface to a 32-bit parallel interface which accepts raw data at 64 megabytes per second in 1 megabyte chunks every 16 milliseconds. These data are transferred to tasks running on multiple CPUs in hard real-time using RTAI's LXRT facility to perform quantization corrections, data windowing, FFTs, and phase corrections for a processing rate of approximately 1 GFLOPS. Highly accurate timing signals are distributed to all seventeen computer nodes in order to synchronize them to other time-dependent devices in the observatory array. RTAI kernel tasks interface to the timing signals providing sub-millisecond timing resolution. The CDP interfaces, via the master node, to other computer systems on an external intra-net for command and control, data storage, and further data (image) processing. The master node accesses these external systems utilizing ALMA Common Software (ACS), a CORBA-based client-server software infrastructure providing logging, monitoring, data delivery, and intra-computer function invocation. The software is being developed in tandem

  18. Real-time flood forecasting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lai, C.; Tsay, T.-K.; Chien, C.-H.; Wu, I.-L.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers at the Hydroinformatic Research and Development Team (HIRDT) of the National Taiwan University undertook a project to create a real time flood forecasting model, with an aim to predict the current in the Tamsui River Basin. The model was designed based on deterministic approach with mathematic modeling of complex phenomenon, and specific parameter values operated to produce a discrete result. The project also devised a rainfall-stage model that relates the rate of rainfall upland directly to the change of the state of river, and is further related to another typhoon-rainfall model. The geographic information system (GIS) data, based on precise contour model of the terrain, estimate the regions that were perilous to flooding. The HIRDT, in response to the project's progress, also devoted their application of a deterministic model to unsteady flow of thermodynamics to help predict river authorities issue timely warnings and take other emergency measures.

  19. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  20. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plattsmier, George I.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto-Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner- TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  1. Real time cardiac radionuclide imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jarkewicz, G.G.

    1986-04-29

    A data acquisition system is described for use in radionuclide cardiac imaging of a patient having been administered a myocardium specific radionuclide, comprising: (a) means for monitoring the electrical activity of the heart; (b) first temporary storage means for accumulating respective pages of data corresponding to nuclear events during each cardiac cycle; (c) means, responsive to the means for monitoring, for determining the time duration of each successive cardiac cycle; (d) means for comparing each determined duration of a cardiac cycle with a preselected time duration range; (e) second temporary storage means; and (f) means for conditionally transferring pages of data from the first temporary storage means to the second temporary storage means if the measured duration associated with each page has predetermined correspondence with the preselected duration range, whereby pages of data having the predetermined correspondence may be collated into a quasi-real time study, while pages of data having different correspondence with the preselected time duration range are discarded from the study.

  2. Real-time interactive treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Otto, Karl

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this work is to develop an interactive treatment planning platform that permits real-time manipulation of dose distributions including DVHs and other dose metrics. The hypothesis underlying the approach proposed here is that the process of evaluating potential dose distribution options and deciding on the best clinical trade-offs may be separated from the derivation of the actual delivery parameters used for the patient's treatment. For this purpose a novel algorithm for deriving an Achievable Dose Estimate (ADE) was developed. The ADE algorithm is computationally efficient so as to update dose distributions in effectively real-time while accurately incorporating the limits of what can be achieved in practice. The resulting system is a software environment for interactive real-time manipulation of dose that permits the clinician to rapidly develop a fully customized 3D dose distribution. Graphical navigation of dose distributions is achieved by a sophisticated method of identifying contributing fluence elements, modifying those elements and re-computing the entire dose distribution. 3D dose distributions are calculated in ~2-20 ms. Including graphics processing overhead, clinicians may visually interact with the dose distribution (e.g. 'drag' a DVH) and display updates of the dose distribution at a rate of more than 20 times per second. Preliminary testing on various sites shows that interactive planning may be completed in ~1-5 min, depending on the complexity of the case (number of targets and OARs). Final DVHs are derived through a separate plan optimization step using a conventional VMAT planning system and were shown to be achievable within 2% and 4% in high and low dose regions respectively. With real-time interactive planning trade-offs between Target(s) and OARs may be evaluated efficiently providing a better understanding of the dosimetric options available to each patient in static or adaptive RT.

  3. Real-Time and Near Real-Time Data for Space Weather Applications and Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, H. J.; Balch, C. C.; Biesecker, D. A.; Matsuo, T.; Onsager, T. G.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather can be defined as conditions in the vicinity of Earth and in the interplanetary environment that are caused primarily by solar processes and influenced by conditions on Earth and its atmosphere. Examples of space weather are the conditions that result from geomagnetic storms, solar particle events, and bursts of intense solar flare radiation. These conditions can have impacts on modern-day technologies such as GPS or electric power grids and on human activities such as astronauts living on the International Space Station or explorers traveling to the moon or Mars. While the ultimate space weather goal is accurate prediction of future space weather conditions, for many applications and services, we rely on real-time and near-real time observations and model results for the specification of current conditions. In this presentation, we will describe the space weather system and the need for real-time and near-real time data that drive the system, characterize conditions in the space environment, and are used by models for assimilation and validation. Currently available data will be assessed and a vision for future needs will be given. The challenges for establishing real-time data requirements, as well as acquiring, processing, and disseminating the data will be described, including national and international collaborations. In addition to describing how the data are used for official government products, we will also give examples of how these data are used by both the public and private sector for new applications that serve the public.

  4. Accurate Fiber Length Measurement Using Time-of-Flight Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terra, Osama; Hussein, Hatem

    2016-06-01

    Fiber artifacts of very well-measured length are required for the calibration of optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR). In this paper accurate length measurement of different fiber lengths using the time-of-flight technique is performed. A setup is proposed to measure accurately lengths from 1 to 40 km at 1,550 and 1,310 nm using high-speed electro-optic modulator and photodetector. This setup offers traceability to the SI unit of time, the second (and hence to meter by definition), by locking the time interval counter to the Global Positioning System (GPS)-disciplined quartz oscillator. Additionally, the length of a recirculating loop artifact is measured and compared with the measurement made for the same fiber by the National Physical Laboratory of United Kingdom (NPL). Finally, a method is proposed to relatively correct the fiber refractive index to allow accurate fiber length measurement.

  5. A time-accurate multiple-grid algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jespersen, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    A time-accurate multiple-grid algorithm is described. The algorithm allows one to take much larger time steps with an explicit time-marching scheme than would otherwise be the case. Sample calculations of a scalar advection equation and the Euler equations for an oscillating airfoil are shown. For the oscillating airfoil, time steps an order of magnitude larger than the single-grid algorithm are possible.

  6. Real-time scene generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, Eric; Shand, David J.; Cantle, Allan J.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the techniques which have been developed for an infra-red (IR) target, countermeasure and background image generation system working in real time for HWIL and Trial Proving applications. Operation is in the 3 to 5 and 8 to 14 micron bands. The system may be used to drive a scene projector (otherwise known as a thermal picture synthesizer) or for direct injection into equipment under test. The provision of realistic IR target and countermeasure trajectories and signatures, within representative backgrounds, enables the full performance envelope of a missile system to be evaluated. It also enables an operational weapon system to be proven in a trials environment without compromising safety. The most significant technique developed has been that of line by line synthesis. This minimizes the processing delays to the equivalent of 1.5 frames from input of target and sightline positions to the completion of an output image scan. Using this technique a scene generator has been produced for full closed loop HWIL performance analysis for the development of an air to air missile system. Performance of the synthesis system is as follows: 256 * 256 pixels per frame; 350 target polygons per frame; 100 Hz frame rate; and Gouraud shading, simple reflections, variable geometry targets and atmospheric scaling. A system using a similar technique has also bee used for direct insertion into the video path of a ground to air weapon system in live firing trials. This has provided realistic targets without degrading the closed loop performance. Delay of the modified video signal has been kept to less than 5 lines. The technique has been developed using a combination of 4 high speed Intel i860 RISC processors in parallel with the 4000 series XILINX field programmable gate arrays (FPGA). Start and end conditions for each line of target pixels are prepared and ordered in the I860. The merging with background pixels and output shading and scaling is then carried out in

  7. Real-Time Data Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedings, Marc

    2007-01-01

    RT-Display is a MATLAB-based data acquisition environment designed to use a variety of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware to digitize analog signals to a standard data format usable by other post-acquisition data analysis tools. This software presents the acquired data in real time using a variety of signal-processing algorithms. The acquired data is stored in a standard Operator Interactive Signal Processing Software (OISPS) data-formatted file. RT-Display is primarily configured to use the Agilent VXI (or equivalent) data acquisition boards used in such systems as MIDDAS (Multi-channel Integrated Dynamic Data Acquisition System). The software is generalized and deployable in almost any testing environment, without limitations or proprietary configuration for a specific test program or project. With the Agilent hardware configured and in place, users can start the program and, in one step, immediately begin digitizing multiple channels of data. Once the acquisition is completed, data is converted into a common binary format that also can be translated to specific formats used by external analysis software, such as OISPS and PC-Signal (product of AI Signal Research Inc.). RT-Display at the time of this reporting was certified on Agilent hardware capable of acquisition up to 196,608 samples per second. Data signals are presented to the user on-screen simultaneously for 16 channels. Each channel can be viewed individually, with a maximum capability of 160 signal channels (depending on hardware configuration). Current signal presentations include: time data, fast Fourier transforms (FFT), and power spectral density plots (PSD). Additional processing algorithms can be easily incorporated into this environment.

  8. Mobile real time radiography system

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.

    1997-11-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights {approximately}38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility.

  9. Students Collecting Real time Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, P.

    2006-05-01

    Students Collecting Real-Time Data The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary has created opportunities for middle and high school students to become Student Researchers and to be involved in real-time marine data collection. It is important that we expose students to different fields of science and encourage them to enter scientific fields of study. The Humpback Whale Sanctuary has an education visitor center in Kihei, Maui. Located right on the beach, the site has become a living classroom facility. There is a traditional Hawaiian fishpond fronting the property. The fishpond wall is being restored, using traditional methods. The site has the incredible opportunity of incorporating Hawaiian cultural practices with scientific studies. The Sanctuary offers opportunities for students to get involved in monitoring and data collection studies. Invasive Seaweed Study: Students are collecting data on invasive seaweed for the University of Hawaii. They pull a large net through the shallow waters. Seaweed is sorted, identified and weighed. The invasive seaweeds are removed. The data is recorded and sent to UH. Remote controlled monitoring boats: The sanctuary has 6 boogie board sized remote controlled boats used to monitor reefs. Boats have a camera with lights on the underside. The boats have water quality monitoring devices and GPS units. The video from the underwater camera is transmitted via a wireless transmission. Students are able to monitor the fish, limu and invertebrate populations on the reef and collect water quality data via television monitors or computers. The boat can also pull a small plankton tow net. Data is being compiled into data bases. Artificial Reef Modules: The Sanctuary has a scientific permit from the state to build and deploy artificial reef modules. High school students are designing and building modules. These are deployed out in the Fishpond fronting the Sanctuary site and students are monitoring them on a weekly basis

  10. In-line real time air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Wise, M.B.; Thompson, C.V.

    1998-07-14

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds. 3 figs.

  11. In-line real time air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Wise, Marcus B.; Thompson, Cyril V.

    1998-01-01

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds.

  12. Extracting Time-Accurate Acceleration Vectors From Nontrivial Accelerometer Arrangements.

    PubMed

    Franck, Jennifer A; Blume, Janet; Crisco, Joseph J; Franck, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Sports-related concussions are of significant concern in many impact sports, and their detection relies on accurate measurements of the head kinematics during impact. Among the most prevalent recording technologies are videography, and more recently, the use of single-axis accelerometers mounted in a helmet, such as the HIT system. Successful extraction of the linear and angular impact accelerations depends on an accurate analysis methodology governed by the equations of motion. Current algorithms are able to estimate the magnitude of acceleration and hit location, but make assumptions about the hit orientation and are often limited in the position and/or orientation of the accelerometers. The newly formulated algorithm presented in this manuscript accurately extracts the full linear and rotational acceleration vectors from a broad arrangement of six single-axis accelerometers directly from the governing set of kinematic equations. The new formulation linearizes the nonlinear centripetal acceleration term with a finite-difference approximation and provides a fast and accurate solution for all six components of acceleration over long time periods (>250 ms). The approximation of the nonlinear centripetal acceleration term provides an accurate computation of the rotational velocity as a function of time and allows for reconstruction of a multiple-impact signal. Furthermore, the algorithm determines the impact location and orientation and can distinguish between glancing, high rotational velocity impacts, or direct impacts through the center of mass. Results are shown for ten simulated impact locations on a headform geometry computed with three different accelerometer configurations in varying degrees of signal noise. Since the algorithm does not require simplifications of the actual impacted geometry, the impact vector, or a specific arrangement of accelerometer orientations, it can be easily applied to many impact investigations in which accurate kinematics need to

  13. Real-time virtual room acoustic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carneal, James P.; Johnson, Jan; Johnson, Troge; Johnson, Marty

    2003-10-01

    A realistic virtual room acoustic simulation has been implemented on a PC-based computer in near real-time. Room acoustics are calculated by the image source method using realistic absorption coefficients for a variety of realistic surfaces and programmed in MATLAB. The resulting impulse response filters are then applied in near real-time using fast convolution DSP techniques using data being read from a CD-ROM. The system was implemented in a virtual acoustic room facility. Optimizations have been performed to retain the realistic virtual room effect while minimizing computations through limited psycho-acoustic testing. In general, realistic anechoic to reverberant virtual rooms have been re-created with six 8192 coefficient filters. To provide realistic simulations, special care must be taken to accurately reproduce the low frequency acoustics. Since the virtual room acoustic facility was not totally anechoic (as are most anechoic chambers), inverse filters were applied to compensate for over-amplified acoustics at frequencies below 350 Hz.

  14. Research in Distributed Real-Time Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.

    1997-01-01

    This document summarizes the progress we have made on our study of issues concerning the schedulability of real-time systems. Our study has produced several results in the scalability issues of distributed real-time systems. In particular, we have used our techniques to resolve schedulability issues in distributed systems with end-to-end requirements. During the next year (1997-98), we propose to extend the current work to address the modeling and workload characterization issues in distributed real-time systems. In particular, we propose to investigate the effect of different workload models and component models on the design and the subsequent performance of distributed real-time systems.

  15. A real-time prediction of UTC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Claudine; Allan, David W.

    1994-01-01

    The reference time scale for all scientific and technologic applications on the Earth, the Universal Coordinated Time (UTC), must be as stable, reliable, and accurate as possible. With this in view the BIPM and before it the BIH, have always calculated and then disseminated UTC with a delay of about 80 days. There are three fundamental reasons for doing this: (1) It takes some weeks for data, gathered from some 200 clocks spread world-wide, to be collected and for errors to be eliminated; (2) changes in clock rates can only be measured with high precision well after the fact; and (3) the measurement noise originating in time links, in particular using Loran-C, is smoothed out only when averaging over an extended period. Until mid-1992, the ultimate stability of UTC was reached at averaging times of about 100 days and corresponded to an Allan deviation sigma(sub y)(tau) of about 1,5x10(exp -14) then compared to the best primary clock in the world, the PTB CS2. For several years now, a predicted UTC has been computed by the USNO through an extrapolation of the values as published in deferred time by the BIPM. This is made available through the USNO Series 4, through the USNO Automated Data Service, and through GPS signals. Due to the instability of UTC, the poor predictability of the available clocks, and the intentional SA degradation of GPS signals, the real-time access to this extrapolated UTC has represented the true deferred-time UTC only to within several hundreds of nanoseconds.

  16. Real time programming environment for Windows

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, D.R.

    1998-04-01

    This document provides a description of the Real Time Programming Environment (RTProE). RTProE tools allow a programmer to create soft real time projects under general, multi-purpose operating systems. The basic features necessary for real time applications are provided by RTProE, leaving the programmer free to concentrate efforts on his specific project. The current version supports Microsoft Windows{trademark} 95 and NT. The tasks of real time synchronization and communication with other programs are handled by RTProE. RTProE includes a generic method for connecting a graphical user interface (GUI) to allow real time control and interaction with the programmer`s product. Topics covered in this paper include real time performance issues, portability, details of shared memory management, code scheduling, application control, Operating System specific concerns and the use of Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools. The development of RTProE is an important step in the expansion of the real time programming community. The financial costs associated with using the system are minimal. All source code for RTProE has been made publicly available. Any person with access to a personal computer, Windows 95 or NT, and C or FORTRAN compilers can quickly enter the world of real time modeling and simulation.

  17. A New Multiscale Technique for Time-Accurate Geophysics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omelchenko, Y. A.; Karimabadi, H.

    2006-12-01

    Large-scale geophysics systems are frequently described by multiscale reactive flow models (e.g., wildfire and climate models, multiphase flows in porous rocks, etc.). Accurate and robust simulations of such systems by traditional time-stepping techniques face a formidable computational challenge. Explicit time integration suffers from global (CFL and accuracy) timestep restrictions due to inhomogeneous convective and diffusion processes, as well as closely coupled physical and chemical reactions. Application of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to such systems may not be always sufficient since its success critically depends on a careful choice of domain refinement strategy. On the other hand, implicit and timestep-splitting integrations may result in a considerable loss of accuracy when fast transients in the solution become important. To address this issue, we developed an alternative explicit approach to time-accurate integration of such systems: Discrete-Event Simulation (DES). DES enables asynchronous computation by automatically adjusting the CPU resources in accordance with local timescales. This is done by encapsulating flux- conservative updates of numerical variables in the form of events, whose execution and synchronization is explicitly controlled by imposing accuracy and causality constraints. As a result, at each time step DES self- adaptively updates only a fraction of the global system state, which eliminates unnecessary computation of inactive elements. DES can be naturally combined with various mesh generation techniques. The event-driven paradigm results in robust and fast simulation codes, which can be efficiently parallelized via a new preemptive event processing (PEP) technique. We discuss applications of this novel technology to time-dependent diffusion-advection-reaction and CFD models representative of various geophysics applications.

  18. Real-Time Parameter Estimation in the Frequency Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1999-01-01

    A method for real-time estimation of parameters in a linear dynamic state space model was developed and studied. The application is aircraft dynamic model parameter estimation from measured data in flight for indirect adaptive or reconfigurable control. Equation error in the frequency domain was used with a recursive Fourier transform for the real-time data analysis. Linear and nonlinear simulation examples and flight test data from the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle HARV) were used to demonstrate that the technique produces accurate model parameter estimates with appropriate error bounds. Parameter estimates converged in less than 1 cycle of the dominant dynamic mode natural frequencies, using control surface inputs measured in flight during ordinary piloted maneuvers. The real-time parameter estimation method has low computational requirements, and could be implemented aboard an aircraft in real time.

  19. Real time monitoring of electroless nickel plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rains, Aaron E.; Kline, Ronald A.

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the design and manufacturing of the heat and chemical resistant transducer case required for on-line immersion testing, experimental design, data acquisition and signal processing. Results are presented for several depositions with an accuracy of two ten-thousandths of an inch in coating thickness obtained. Monitoring the deposition rate of Electroless Nickel (EN) plating in-situ will provide measurement of the accurate dimensions of the component being plated, in real time. EN is used as for corrosion and wear protection for automotive an - Electroless Nickel (EN) plating is commonly used for corrosion and wear protection for automotive and aerospace components. It plates evenly and symmetrically, theoretically allowing the part to be plated to its final dimension. Currently the standard approach to monitoring the thickness of the deposited nickel is to remove the component from the plating bath and physically measure the part. This can lead to plating problems such as pitting, non-adhesion of the deposit and contamination of the plating solution. The goal of this research effort is to demonstrate that plating thickness can be rapidly and accurately measured using ultrasonic testing. Here a special housing is designed to allow immersion of the ultrasonic transducers directly into the plating bath. An FFT based signal processing algorithm was developed to resolve closely spaced echoes for precise thickness determination. The technique in this research effort was found to be capable of measuring plating thicknesses to within 0.0002 inches. It is expected that this approach will lead to cost savings in many EN plating operations.

  20. Research of real-time communication software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Maotang; Guo, Jingbo; Liu, Yuzhong; Li, Jiahong

    2003-11-01

    Real-time communication has been playing an increasingly important role in our work, life and ocean monitor. With the rapid progress of computer and communication technique as well as the miniaturization of communication system, it is needed to develop the adaptable and reliable real-time communication software in the ocean monitor system. This paper involves the real-time communication software research based on the point-to-point satellite intercommunication system. The object-oriented design method is adopted, which can transmit and receive video data and audio data as well as engineering data by satellite channel. In the real-time communication software, some software modules are developed, which can realize the point-to-point satellite intercommunication in the ocean monitor system. There are three advantages for the real-time communication software. One is that the real-time communication software increases the reliability of the point-to-point satellite intercommunication system working. Second is that some optional parameters are intercalated, which greatly increases the flexibility of the system working. Third is that some hardware is substituted by the real-time communication software, which not only decrease the expense of the system and promotes the miniaturization of communication system, but also aggrandizes the agility of the system.

  1. The ALMA Real Time Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Jeffrey S.; Juerges, Thomas A.; Marson, Ralph G.

    2009-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a revolutionary millimeter and submillimeter array being developed on the Atacama plateau of northern Chile. An international partnership lead by NRAO, ESO, and NAOJ this powerful and flexible telescope will provide unprecedented observations of this relatively unexplored frequency range. The control subsystem for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array must coordinate the monitor and control of at least sixty six antennas (in four different styles), two correlators, and all of the ancillary equipment (samplers, local oscillators, front ends, etc.). This equipment will be spread over tens of kilometers and operated remotely. Operation of the array requires a robust, scalable, and maintainable real time control system. The real time control system is responsible for monitoring and control of any devices where there are fixed deadlines. Examples in the ALMA context are antenna pointing and fringe tracking. Traditionally the real time portion of a large software system is an intricate and error prone portion of the software. As a result the real time portion is very expensive in terms of effort expended both during construction and during maintenance phases of a project. The ALMA real time control system uses a Linux based real time operating system to interact with the hardware and the CORBA based ALMA Common Software to communicate in the distributed computing environment. Mixing the requirements of real time computing and the non-deterministic CORBA middleware has produced an interesting design. We discuss the architecture, design, and implementation of the ALMA real time control system. Highlight some lessons learned along the way, and justify our assertion that this should be the last large scale real time control system in radio astronomy.

  2. Accurate finite difference methods for time-harmonic wave propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harari, Isaac; Turkel, Eli

    1994-01-01

    Finite difference methods for solving problems of time-harmonic acoustics are developed and analyzed. Multidimensional inhomogeneous problems with variable, possibly discontinuous, coefficients are considered, accounting for the effects of employing nonuniform grids. A weighted-average representation is less sensitive to transition in wave resolution (due to variable wave numbers or nonuniform grids) than the standard pointwise representation. Further enhancement in method performance is obtained by basing the stencils on generalizations of Pade approximation, or generalized definitions of the derivative, reducing spurious dispersion, anisotropy and reflection, and by improving the representation of source terms. The resulting schemes have fourth-order accurate local truncation error on uniform grids and third order in the nonuniform case. Guidelines for discretization pertaining to grid orientation and resolution are presented.

  3. Real time sensor for therapeutic radiation delivery

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, Mary; Craig, Richard A.; Reeder, Paul L.

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a real time sensor for therapeutic radiation. A probe is placed in or near the patient that senses in real time the dose at the location of the probe. The strength of the dose is determined by either an insertion or an exit probe. The location is determined by a series of vertical and horizontal sensing elements that gives the operator a real time read out dose location relative to placement of the patient. The increased accuracy prevents serious tissue damage to the patient by preventing overdose or delivery of a dose to a wrong location within the body.

  4. Real time sensor for therapeutic radiation delivery

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.; Reeder, P.L.

    1998-01-06

    The invention is a real time sensor for therapeutic radiation. A probe is placed in or near the patient that senses in real time the dose at the location of the probe. The strength of the dose is determined by either an insertion or an exit probe. The location is determined by a series of vertical and horizontal sensing elements that gives the operator a real time read out dose location relative to placement of the patient. The increased accuracy prevents serious tissue damage to the patient by preventing overdose or delivery of a dose to a wrong location within the body. 14 figs.

  5. Real-time monitoring of landslides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Mark E.; LaHusen, Richard G.; Baum, Rex L.; Kean, Jason W.; Schulz, William H.; Highland, Lynn M.

    2012-01-01

    Landslides cause fatalities and property damage throughout the Nation. To reduce the impact from hazardous landslides, the U.S. Geological Survey develops and uses real-time and near-real-time landslide monitoring systems. Monitoring can detect when hillslopes are primed for sliding and can provide early indications of rapid, catastrophic movement. Continuous information from up-to-the-minute or real-time monitoring provides prompt notification of landslide activity, advances our understanding of landslide behavior, and enables more effective engineering and planning efforts.

  6. Real-time medical applications and telecommunications.

    PubMed

    Stravs, M

    1999-01-01

    Telecommunications play an important role in telemedicine. Many forms of telecommunication services based on different telecommunication technologies are developed for various needs. The paper deals with complex real-time applications which demand high telecommunication requirements. At the beginning, medical applications are categorised and real-time applications qualified as multimedia applications. Requirements for multimedia elements are listed separately. Later on, short introduction of related telecommunication protocols is given. Real-time medical applications can show their ability in case of guaranteed quality of services delivered by telecommunication network as it is explained in the end.

  7. High-fidelity real-time maritime scene rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyu, Hawjye; Taczak, Thomas M.; Cox, Kevin; Gover, Robert; Maraviglia, Carlos; Cahill, Colin

    2011-06-01

    The ability to simulate authentic engagements using real-world hardware is an increasingly important tool. For rendering maritime environments, scene generators must be capable of rendering radiometrically accurate scenes with correct temporal and spatial characteristics. When the simulation is used as input to real-world hardware or human observers, the scene generator must operate in real-time. This paper introduces a novel, real-time scene generation capability for rendering radiometrically accurate scenes of backgrounds and targets in maritime environments. The new model is an optimized and parallelized version of the US Navy CRUISE_Missiles rendering engine. It was designed to accept environmental descriptions and engagement geometry data from external sources, render a scene, transform the radiometric scene using the electro-optical response functions of a sensor under test, and output the resulting signal to real-world hardware. This paper reviews components of the scene rendering algorithm, and details the modifications required to run this code in real-time. A description of the simulation architecture and interfaces to external hardware and models is presented. Performance assessments of the frame rate and radiometric accuracy of the new code are summarized. This work was completed in FY10 under Office of Secretary of Defense (OSD) Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) funding and will undergo a validation process in FY11.

  8. Geodynamic monitoring in real times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Outkin, V.; Yurkov, A.; Klimshin, A.; Kozlova, I.

    2011-12-01

    For the decision of problems of the short-term and intermediate term forecast of tectonic earthquakes the technique conditionally named - geodynamic monitoring which does not use the data of seismic monitoring for the operative decision of problems of the forecast is offered. Geodynamic monitoring (GDM) is to studying tensely - deformed conditions of the separate block of rock on change of activity natural radioactive gas is carried out by accommodation in the chosen file of specially designed monitors of radon - devices fixing change in time (VAR). The monitor of radon, (the detector of radon) as the basic measuring device located in the block of rocks, possesses enormous tensosensitivity to relative strain condition of a file. Depending on the enclosed pressure choose three characteristic points: 1) 30-35 % of "background" size VAR - the beginning of accumulation of inelastic energy; 2) 50 % of background VAR - the process of stabilization of an elastic condition of a file; 3) 70-75 % "background" VAR - a critical pressure in the mountain block, an opportunity as spontaneous dump of elastic energy, and under action external "triggerring" forces. If the size of the saved up energy is close to critical dump needs energy at a level of energy of variations of rotation of the Earth. Such significant energy causes "plenty" of earthquakes on all planet simultaneously. This fact confirms an opportunity of the short-term forecast of strong (destructive) earthquakes: dump of elastic pressure of the Earth in this case occurs in 25-30 hours after passage of variations of rotation of the Earth. It is for the notification of the population about coming nearer earthquake. External power functions (mechanical, electromagnetic, etc.), preparations influencing system and occurrence of tectonic earthquakes, are divided on two big classes: 1) "forecasting " functions - processes functionally connected to accumulation of elastic pressure and to dump by its rather small dozes; 2

  9. Analysis of real-time vibration data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, E.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, a few structures have been instrumented to provide continuous vibration data in real time, recording not only large-amplitude motions generated by extreme loads, but also small-amplitude motions generated by ambient loads. The main objective in continuous recording is to track any changes in structural characteristics, and to detect damage after an extreme event, such as an earthquake or explosion. The Fourier-based spectral analysis methods have been the primary tool to analyze vibration data from structures. In general, such methods do not work well for real-time data, because real-time data are mainly composed of ambient vibrations with very low amplitudes and signal-to-noise ratios. The long duration, linearity, and the stationarity of ambient data, however, allow us to utilize statistical signal processing tools, which can compensate for the adverse effects of low amplitudes and high noise. The analysis of real-time data requires tools and techniques that can be applied in real-time; i.e., data are processed and analyzed while being acquired. This paper presents some of the basic tools and techniques for processing and analyzing real-time vibration data. The topics discussed include utilization of running time windows, tracking mean and mean-square values, filtering, system identification, and damage detection.

  10. Real-time smart fluorescence sensor platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickens, Jason E.; Vaughn, Mike S.; Taylor, Mervin; Ponstingl, Mike

    2011-06-01

    A novel compact LED array based light induced fluorescence (LIF) sensor has been developed for real-time in-line monitoring of intrinsic fluorophores in the solid and liquid state. The sensor is essential for on-the-spot, routine, and cost effective real-time analysis. The sensor is designed to provide real-time emission response along with various smart sensing parameters to ensure real-time measurement quality that is required for regulated GMP process monitoring applications. This work describes a LIF sensor tailored for solid-phase fluorometry. Fundamental figures of merit, excitation overexposure and smart sensing features required for modern process monitoring and control are discussed within the context of pharmaceutical solid-phase manufacturing and similar applications.

  11. The LAA real-time benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Block, R.K.; Krischer, W.; Lone, S.

    1989-04-01

    In the context of the LAA detector development program a subgroup Real Time Data Processing has tackled the problem of intelligent triggering. The main goal of this group is to show how fast digital devices, implemented as custom-made or commercial processors, can execute some basic algorithms, and how they can be embedded in the data flow between detector readout components and fully programmable commercial processors, which are expected to be the final data processing filter in real time.

  12. Real-time scheduling using minimum search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadepalli, Prasad; Joshi, Varad

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we consider a simple model of real-time scheduling. We present a real-time scheduling system called RTS which is based on Korf's Minimin algorithm. Experimental results show that the schedule quality initially improves with the amount of look-ahead search and tapers off quickly. So it sppears that reasonably good schedules can be produced with a relatively shallow search.

  13. Processing PCM Data in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wissink, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    Novel hardware configuration makes it possible for Space Shuttle launch processing system to monitor pulse-code-modulated data in real time. Using two microprogramable "option planes," incoming PCM data are monitored for changes at rate of one frame of data (80 16-bit words) every 10 milliseconds. Real-time PCM processor utilizes CPU in mini-computer and CPU's in two option planes.

  14. Interferometer real time control development for SIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Charles E.

    2003-02-01

    Real Time Control (RTC) for the Space Interferometry Mission will build on the real time core interferometer control technology under development at JPL since the mid 1990s, with heritage from the ground based MKII and Palomar Testbed Interferometer projects developed in the late '80s and early '90s. The core software and electronics technology for SIM interferometer real time control is successfully operating on several SIM technology demonstration testbeds, including the Real-time Interferometer Control System Testbed, System Testbed-3, and the Microarcsecond Metrology testbed. This paper provides an overview of the architecture, design, integration, and test of the SIM flight interferometer real time control to meet challenging flight system requirements for the high processor throughput, low-latency interconnect, and precise synchronization to support microarcsecond-level astrometric measurements for greater than five years at 1 AU in Earth-trailing orbit. The electronics and software architecture of the interferometer real time control core and its adaptation to a flight design concept are described. Control loops for pointing and pathlength control within each of four flight interferometers and for coordination of control and data across interferometers are illustrated. The nature of onboard data processing to fit average downlink rates while retaining post-processed astrometric measurement precision and accuracy is also addressed. Interferometer flight software will be developed using a software simulation environment incorporating models of the metrology and starlight sensors and actuators to close the real time control loops. RTC flight software and instrument flight electronics will in turn be integrated utilizing the same simulation architecture for metrology and starlight component models to close real time control loops and verify RTC functionality and performance prior to delivery to flight interferometer system integration at Lockheed Martin

  15. Head movement compensation in real-time magnetoencephalographic recordings.

    PubMed

    Little, Graham; Boe, Shaun; Bardouille, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Neurofeedback- and brain-computer interface (BCI)-based interventions can be implemented using real-time analysis of magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings. Head movement during MEG recordings, however, can lead to inaccurate estimates of brain activity, reducing the efficacy of the intervention. Most real-time applications in MEG have utilized analyses that do not correct for head movement. Effective means of correcting for head movement are needed to optimize the use of MEG in such applications. Here we provide preliminary validation of a novel analysis technique, real-time source estimation (rtSE), that measures head movement and generates corrected current source time course estimates in real-time. rtSE was applied while recording a calibrated phantom to determine phantom position localization accuracy and source amplitude estimation accuracy under stationary and moving conditions. Results were compared to off-line analysis methods to assess validity of the rtSE technique. The rtSE method allowed for accurate estimation of current source activity at the source-level in real-time, and accounted for movement of the source due to changes in phantom position. The rtSE technique requires modifications and specialized analysis of the following MEG work flow steps.•Data acquisition•Head position estimation•Source localization•Real-time source estimation This work explains the technical details and validates each of these steps.

  16. ARTEMIS: Ares Real Time Environments for Modeling, Integration, and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Ryan; Walker, David

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ARTEMIS in the development and testing of the ARES launch vehicles. Ares Real Time Environment for Modeling, Simulation and Integration (ARTEMIS) is the real time simulation supporting Ares I hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) testing. ARTEMIS accurately models all Ares/Orion/Ground subsystems which interact with Ares avionics components from pre-launch through orbit insertion The ARTEMIS System integration Lab, and the STIF architecture is reviewed. The functional components of ARTEMIS are outlined. An overview of the models and a block diagram is presented.

  17. Real-time monitoring for low-level pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Kishkovich, O.P.; Joffe, M.A.

    1997-11-01

    Real-time monitors provide a valuable addition to the arsenal of air-sampling methods used for IAQ applications. They are accurate, dependable, flexible, and provide IAQ professionals with more detailed quantitative information. RTM improves efficiency of many IAQ sampling applications and, in some cases, cannot be matched by other sampling techniques. Adequate instrumentation for demanding IAQ applications is available today. Future needs are expanding the range of pollutants that can be monitored with real-time instruments, improving reliability and portability of monitoring instrumentation, and devising cost-effective multiplexing schemes for multi-point RTM sampling.

  18. Can Real-Time Data Also Be Climate Quality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, M.; Wentz, F. J.

    2015-12-01

    GMI, AMSR-2 and WindSat herald a new era of highly accurate and timely microwave data products. Traditionally, there has been a large divide between real-time and re-analysis data products. What if these completely separate processing systems could be merged? Through advanced modeling and physically based algorithms, Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) has narrowed the gap between real-time and research-quality. Satellite microwave ocean products have proven useful for a wide array of timely Earth science applications. Through cloud SST capabilities have enormously benefited tropical cyclone forecasting and day to day fisheries management, to name a few. Oceanic wind vectors enhance operational safety of shipping and recreational boating. Atmospheric rivers are of import to many human endeavors, as are cloud cover and knowledge of precipitation events. Some activities benefit from both climate and real-time operational data used in conjunction. RSS has been consistently improving microwave Earth Science Data Records (ESDRs) for several decades, while making near real-time data publicly available for semi-operational use. These data streams have often been produced in 2 stages: near real-time, followed by research quality final files. Over the years, we have seen this time delay shrink from months or weeks to mere hours. As well, we have seen the quality of near real-time data improve to the point where the distinction starts to blur. We continue to work towards better and faster RFI filtering, adaptive algorithms and improved real-time validation statistics for earlier detection of problems. Can it be possible to produce climate quality data in real-time, and what would the advantages be? We will try to answer these questions…

  19. Approaches for the accurate definition of geological time boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaltegger, Urs; Baresel, Björn; Ovtcharova, Maria; Goudemand, Nicolas; Bucher, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    Which strategies lead to the most precise and accurate date of a given geological boundary? Geological units are usually defined by the occurrence of characteristic taxa and hence boundaries between these geological units correspond to dramatic faunal and/or floral turnovers and they are primarily defined using first or last occurrences of index species, or ideally by the separation interval between two consecutive, characteristic associations of fossil taxa. These boundaries need to be defined in a way that enables their worldwide recognition and correlation across different stratigraphic successions, using tools as different as bio-, magneto-, and chemo-stratigraphy, and astrochronology. Sedimentary sequences can be dated in numerical terms by applying high-precision chemical-abrasion, isotope-dilution, thermal-ionization mass spectrometry (CA-ID-TIMS) U-Pb age determination to zircon (ZrSiO4) in intercalated volcanic ashes. But, though volcanic activity is common in geological history, ashes are not necessarily close to the boundary we would like to date precisely and accurately. In addition, U-Pb zircon data sets may be very complex and difficult to interpret in terms of the age of ash deposition. To overcome these difficulties we use a multi-proxy approach we applied to the precise and accurate dating of the Permo-Triassic and Early-Middle Triassic boundaries in South China. a) Dense sampling of ashes across the critical time interval and a sufficiently large number of analysed zircons per ash sample can guarantee the recognition of all system complexities. Geochronological datasets from U-Pb dating of volcanic zircon may indeed combine effects of i) post-crystallization Pb loss from percolation of hydrothermal fluids (even using chemical abrasion), with ii) age dispersion from prolonged residence of earlier crystallized zircon in the magmatic system. As a result, U-Pb dates of individual zircons are both apparently younger and older than the depositional age

  20. Real-Time Parameter Estimation Using Output Error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grauer, Jared A.

    2014-01-01

    Output-error parameter estimation, normally a post- ight batch technique, was applied to real-time dynamic modeling problems. Variations on the traditional algorithm were investigated with the goal of making the method suitable for operation in real time. Im- plementation recommendations are given that are dependent on the modeling problem of interest. Application to ight test data showed that accurate parameter estimates and un- certainties for the short-period dynamics model were available every 2 s using time domain data, or every 3 s using frequency domain data. The data compatibility problem was also solved in real time, providing corrected sensor measurements every 4 s. If uncertainty corrections for colored residuals are omitted, this rate can be increased to every 0.5 s.

  1. Accurate and Timely Forecasting of CME-Driven Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Kunkel, V.; Skov, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Wide-spread and severe geomagnetic storms are primarily caused by theejecta of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that impose long durations ofstrong southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on themagnetosphere, the duration and magnitude of the southward IMF (Bs)being the main determinants of geoeffectiveness. Another importantquantity to forecast is the arrival time of the expected geoeffectiveCME ejecta. In order to accurately forecast these quantities in atimely manner (say, 24--48 hours of advance warning time), it isnecessary to calculate the evolving CME ejecta---its structure andmagnetic field vector in three dimensions---using remote sensing solardata alone. We discuss a method based on the validated erupting fluxrope (EFR) model of CME dynamics. It has been shown using STEREO datathat the model can calculate the correct size, magnetic field, and theplasma parameters of a CME ejecta detected at 1 AU, using the observedCME position-time data alone as input (Kunkel and Chen 2010). Onedisparity is in the arrival time, which is attributed to thesimplified geometry of circular toroidal axis of the CME flux rope.Accordingly, the model has been extended to self-consistently includethe transverse expansion of the flux rope (Kunkel 2012; Kunkel andChen 2015). We show that the extended formulation provides a betterprediction of arrival time even if the CME apex does not propagatedirectly toward the earth. We apply the new method to a number of CMEevents and compare predicted flux ropes at 1 AU to the observed ejectastructures inferred from in situ magnetic and plasma data. The EFRmodel also predicts the asymptotic ambient solar wind speed (Vsw) foreach event, which has not been validated yet. The predicted Vswvalues are tested using the ENLIL model. We discuss the minimum andsufficient required input data for an operational forecasting systemfor predicting the drivers of large geomagnetic storms.Kunkel, V., and Chen, J., ApJ Lett, 715, L80, 2010. Kunkel, V., Ph

  2. Real-time, high frequency QRS electrocardiograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T. (Inventor); DePalma, Jude L. (Inventor); Moradi, Saeed (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Real time cardiac electrical data are received from a patient, manipulated to determine various useful aspects of the ECG signal, and displayed in real time in a useful form on a computer screen or monitor. The monitor displays the high frequency data from the QRS complex in units of microvolts, juxtaposed with a display of conventional ECG data in units of millivolts or microvolts. The high frequency data are analyzed for their root mean square (RMS) voltage values and the discrete RMS values and related parameters are displayed in real time. The high frequency data from the QRS complex are analyzed with imbedded algorithms to determine the presence or absence of reduced amplitude zones, referred to herein as RAZs. RAZs are displayed as go, no-go signals on the computer monitor. The RMS and related values of the high frequency components are displayed as time varying signals, and the presence or absence of RAZs may be similarly displayed over time.

  3. Accurate Nanoscale Crystallography in Real-Space Using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dycus, J Houston; Harris, Joshua S; Sang, Xiahan; Fancher, Chris M; Findlay, Scott D; Oni, Adedapo A; Chan, Tsung-Ta E; Koch, Carl C; Jones, Jacob L; Allen, Leslie J; Irving, Douglas L; LeBeau, James M

    2015-08-01

    Here, we report reproducible and accurate measurement of crystallographic parameters using scanning transmission electron microscopy. This is made possible by removing drift and residual scan distortion. We demonstrate real-space lattice parameter measurements with <0.1% error for complex-layered chalcogenides Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and a Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 nanostructured alloy. Pairing the technique with atomic resolution spectroscopy, we connect local structure with chemistry and bonding. Combining these results with density functional theory, we show that the incorporation of Se into Bi2Te3 causes charge redistribution that anomalously increases the van der Waals gap between building blocks of the layered structure. The results show that atomic resolution imaging with electrons can accurately and robustly quantify crystallography at the nanoscale.

  4. Real time PV manufacturing diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Kochergin, Vladimir; Crawford, Michael A.

    2015-09-01

    The main obstacle Photovoltaic (PV) industry is facing at present is the higher cost of PV energy compared to that of fossil energy. While solar cell efficiencies continue to make incremental gains these improvements are so far insufficient to drive PV costs down to match that of fossil energy. Improved in-line diagnostics however, has the potential to significantly increase the productivity and reduce cost by improving the yield of the process. On this Phase I/Phase II SBIR project MicroXact developed and demonstrated at CIGS pilot manufacturing line a high-throughput in-line PV manufacturing diagnostic system, which was verified to provide fast and accurate data on the spatial uniformity of thickness, an composition of the thin films comprising the solar cell as the solar cell is processed reel-to-reel. In Phase II project MicroXact developed a stand-alone system prototype and demonstrated the following technical characteristics: 1) ability of real time defect/composition inconsistency detection over 60cm wide web at web speeds up to 3m/minute; 2) Better than 1mm spatial resolution on 60cm wide web; 3) an average better than 20nm spectral resolution resulting in more than sufficient sensitivity to composition imperfections (copper-rich and copper-poor regions were detected). The system was verified to be high vacuum compatible. Phase II results completely validated both technical and economic feasibility of the proposed concept. MicroXact’s solution is an enabling technique for in-line PV manufacturing diagnostics to increase the productivity of PV manufacturing lines and reduce the cost of solar energy, thus reducing the US dependency on foreign oil while simultaneously reducing emission of greenhouse gasses.

  5. Characterization of real-time computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, K. G.; Krishna, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    A real-time system consists of a computer controller and controlled processes. Despite the synergistic relationship between these two components, they have been traditionally designed and analyzed independently of and separately from each other; namely, computer controllers by computer scientists/engineers and controlled processes by control scientists. As a remedy for this problem, in this report real-time computers are characterized by performance measures based on computer controller response time that are: (1) congruent to the real-time applications, (2) able to offer an objective comparison of rival computer systems, and (3) experimentally measurable/determinable. These measures, unlike others, provide the real-time computer controller with a natural link to controlled processes. In order to demonstrate their utility and power, these measures are first determined for example controlled processes on the basis of control performance functionals. They are then used for two important real-time multiprocessor design applications - the number-power tradeoff and fault-masking and synchronization.

  6. Real-Time Gauge/Gravity Duality

    SciTech Connect

    Skenderis, Kostas; Rees, Balt C. van

    2008-08-22

    We present a general prescription for the holographic computation of real-time n-point functions in nontrivial states. In quantum field theory such real-time computations involve a choice of a time contour in the complex time plane. The holographic prescription amounts to 'filling in' this contour with bulk solutions: real segments of the contour are filled in with Lorentzian solutions while imaginary segments are filled in with Riemannian solutions and appropriate matching conditions are imposed at the corners of the contour. We illustrate the general discussion by computing the 2-point function of a scalar operator using this prescription and by showing that this leads to an unambiguous answer with the correct i{epsilon} insertions.

  7. Real-time DNA microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hassibi, Arjang; Vikalo, Haris; Riechmann, José Luis; Hassibi, Babak

    2009-01-01

    We present a quantification method for affinity-based DNA microarrays which is based on the real-time measurements of hybridization kinetics. This method, i.e. real-time DNA microarrays, enhances the detection dynamic range of conventional systems by being impervious to probe saturation in the capturing spots, washing artifacts, microarray spot-to-spot variations, and other signal amplitude-affecting non-idealities. We demonstrate in both theory and practice that the time-constant of target capturing in microarrays, similar to all affinity-based biosensors, is inversely proportional to the concentration of the target analyte, which we subsequently use as the fundamental parameter to estimate the concentration of the analytes. Furthermore, to empirically validate the capabilities of this method in practical applications, we present a FRET-based assay which enables the real-time detection in gene expression DNA microarrays. PMID:19723688

  8. Real-time DNA microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Hassibi, Arjang; Vikalo, Haris; Riechmann, José Luis; Hassibi, Babak

    2009-11-01

    We present a quantification method for affinity-based DNA microarrays which is based on the real-time measurements of hybridization kinetics. This method, i.e. real-time DNA microarrays, enhances the detection dynamic range of conventional systems by being impervious to probe saturation in the capturing spots, washing artifacts, microarray spot-to-spot variations, and other signal amplitude-affecting non-idealities. We demonstrate in both theory and practice that the time-constant of target capturing in microarrays, similar to all affinity-based biosensors, is inversely proportional to the concentration of the target analyte, which we subsequently use as the fundamental parameter to estimate the concentration of the analytes. Furthermore, to empirically validate the capabilities of this method in practical applications, we present a FRET-based assay which enables the real-time detection in gene expression DNA microarrays. PMID:19723688

  9. Quantitative Real-Time PCR: Recent Advances.

    PubMed

    Singh, Charanjeet; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is a technique for simultaneous amplification and product quantification of a target DNA as the process takes place in real time in a "closed-tube" system. Although this technique can provide an absolute quantification of the initial template copy number, quantification relative to a control sample or second sequence is typically adequate. The quantification process employs melting curve analysis and/or fluorescent detection systems and can provide amplification and genotyping in a relatively short time. Here we describe the properties and uses of various fluorescent detection systems used for quantification. PMID:26843055

  10. Imaging of living cells in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Koufal, Georgy E.; Perevedentseva, Elena V.; Vyshenskaia, Tatiana V.; Nikandrov, Serguei L.

    1996-12-01

    Parameters of intrinsic cell motility is one of the cell activity characteristics which can be measured in real-time. For evaluation of certain organelles velocity we propose to use high sensitivity of computer-aided phase microscope airyscan to local phase changes connected with refractive index. This method is based on periodical scanning of cell profile in direction perpendicular to organelles movement. Analysis of the obtained 2-dimensional time-coordinate matrix allows us to define organelle velocity in quasi-real time and areas of cell activity. The experiments with onion cells confirm the method applicability for cell activity investigation.

  11. Quantitative Real-Time PCR: Recent Advances.

    PubMed

    Singh, Charanjeet; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is a technique for simultaneous amplification and product quantification of a target DNA as the process takes place in real time in a "closed-tube" system. Although this technique can provide an absolute quantification of the initial template copy number, quantification relative to a control sample or second sequence is typically adequate. The quantification process employs melting curve analysis and/or fluorescent detection systems and can provide amplification and genotyping in a relatively short time. Here we describe the properties and uses of various fluorescent detection systems used for quantification.

  12. Visualization of Real-Time Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansifer, Ryan; Engrand, Peter

    1996-01-01

    In this project we explored various approaches to presenting real-time data from the numerous systems monitored on the space shuttle to computer users. We examined the approach that several projects at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) used to accomplish this. We undertook to build a prototype system to demonstrate that the Internet and the Java programming language could be used to present the real-time data conveniently. Several Java programs were developed that presented real-time data in different forms including one form that emulated the display screens of the PC GOAL system which is familiar to many at KSC. Also, we developed several communications programs to supply the data continuously. Furthermore, a framework was created using the World Wide Web (WWW) to organize the collection and presentation of the real-time data. We believe our demonstration project shows the great flexibility of the approach. We had no particular use of the data in mind, instead we wanted the most general and the least complex framework possible. People who wish to view data need only know how to use a WWW browser and the address (the URL). People wanting to build WWW documents containing real-time data need only know the values of a few parameters, they do not need to program in Java or any other language. These are stunning advantages over more monolithic systems.

  13. Real-time enhanced vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Glenn D.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Jobson, Daniel J.; Woodell, Glenn A.; Harrah, Steven D.

    2005-05-01

    Flying in poor visibility conditions, such as rain, snow, fog or haze, is inherently dangerous. However these conditions can occur at nearly any location, so inevitably pilots must successfully navigate through them. At NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), under support of the Aviation Safety and Security Program Office and the Systems Engineering Directorate, we are developing an Enhanced Vision System (EVS) that combines image enhancement and synthetic vision elements to assist pilots flying through adverse weather conditions. This system uses a combination of forward-looking infrared and visible sensors for data acquisition. A core function of the system is to enhance and fuse the sensor data in order to increase the information content and quality of the captured imagery. These operations must be performed in real-time for the pilot to use while flying. For image enhancement, we are using the LaRC patented Retinex algorithm since it performs exceptionally well for improving low-contrast range imagery typically seen during poor visibility poor visibility conditions. In general, real-time operation of the Retinex requires specialized hardware. To date, we have successfully implemented a single-sensor real-time version of the Retinex on several different Digital Signal Processor (DSP) platforms. In this paper we give an overview of the EVS and its performance requirements for real-time enhancement and fusion and we discuss our current real-time Retinex implementations on DSPs.

  14. Real-time Enhanced Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Glenn D.; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Jobson, Daniel J.; Woodell, Glenn A.; Harrah, Steven D.

    2005-01-01

    Flying in poor visibility conditions, such as rain, snow, fog or haze, is inherently dangerous. However these conditions can occur at nearly any location, so inevitably pilots must successfully navigate through them. At NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), under support of the Aviation Safety and Security Program Office and the Systems Engineering Directorate, we are developing an Enhanced Vision System (EVS) that combines image enhancement and synthetic vision elements to assist pilots flying through adverse weather conditions. This system uses a combination of forward-looking infrared and visible sensors for data acquisition. A core function of the system is to enhance and fuse the sensor data in order to increase the information content and quality of the captured imagery. These operations must be performed in real-time for the pilot to use while flying. For image enhancement, we are using the LaRC patented Retinex algorithm since it performs exceptionally well for improving low-contrast range imagery typically seen during poor visibility conditions. In general, real-time operation of the Retinex requires specialized hardware. To date, we have successfully implemented a single-sensor real-time version of the Retinex on several different Digital Signal Processor (DSP) platforms. In this paper we give an overview of the EVS and its performance requirements for real-time enhancement and fusion and we discuss our current real-time Retinex implementations on DSPs.

  15. Real-Time Parameter Estimation in the Frequency Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2000-01-01

    A method for real-time estimation of parameters in a linear dynamic state-space model was developed and studied. The application is aircraft dynamic model parameter estimation from measured data in flight. Equation error in the frequency domain was used with a recursive Fourier transform for the real-time data analysis. Linear and nonlinear simulation examples and flight test data from the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle were used to demonstrate that the technique produces accurate model parameter estimates with appropriate error bounds. Parameter estimates converged in less than one cycle of the dominant dynamic mode, using no a priori information, with control surface inputs measured in flight during ordinary piloted maneuvers. The real-time parameter estimation method has low computational requirements and could be implemented

  16. Continuous real-time water information: an important Kansas resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loving, Brian L.; Putnam, James E.; Turk, Donita M.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous real-time information on streams, lakes, and groundwater is an important Kansas resource that can safeguard lives and property, and ensure adequate water resources for a healthy State economy. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates approximately 230 water-monitoring stations at Kansas streams, lakes, and groundwater sites. Most of these stations are funded cooperatively in partnerships with local, tribal, State, or other Federal agencies. The USGS real-time water-monitoring network provides long-term, accurate, and objective information that meets the needs of many customers. Whether the customer is a water-management or water-quality agency, an emergency planner, a power or navigational official, a farmer, a canoeist, or a fisherman, all can benefit from the continuous real-time water information gathered by the USGS.

  17. Real-time structured light intraoral 3D measurement pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheorghe, Radu; Tchouprakov, Andrei; Sokolov, Roman

    2013-02-01

    Computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) is increasingly becoming a standard feature and service provided to patients in dentist offices and denture manufacturing laboratories. Although the quality of the tools and data has slowly improved in the last years, due to various surface measurement challenges, practical, accurate, invivo, real-time 3D high quality data acquisition and processing still needs improving. Advances in GPU computational power have allowed for achieving near real-time 3D intraoral in-vivo scanning of patient's teeth. We explore in this paper, from a real-time perspective, a hardware-software-GPU solution that addresses all the requirements mentioned before. Moreover we exemplify and quantify the hard and soft deadlines required by such a system and illustrate how they are supported in our implementation.

  18. Feedback as Real-Time Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a re-description of feedback and the significance of time in feedback constructions based on systems theory. It describes feedback as internal, real-time constructions in a learning system. From this perspective, feedback is neither immediate nor delayed, but occurs in the very moment it takes place. This article argues for a…

  19. Making Real-Time Data "Real" for General Interest Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotaling, L.

    2003-04-01

    Helping educators realize the benefits of integrating technology into curricula to effectively engage student learning and improve student achievement, particularly in science and mathematics, is the core mission of the Center for Improved Engineering and Science Education (CIESE). To achieve our mission, we focus on projects utilizing real-time data available from the Internet, and collaborative projects utilizing the Internet's potential to reach peers and experts around the world. As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE), the Center for Improved Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), is committed to delivering relevant ocean science education to diverse audiences, including K-12 teachers, students, coastal managers, families and tourists. The highest priority of the Mid-Atlantic COSEE is to involve scientists and educators in the translation of data and information from the coastal observatories into instructional materials and products usable by educators and the public. A combination of three regional observing systems, the New Jersey Shelf Observing System (NJSOS), Chesapeake Bay Observing System (CBOS), and the York River observing system will provide the scientific backbone for an integrated program of science and education that improves user access to, and understanding of, modern ocean science and how it affects our daily lives. At present, the Mid-Atlantic COSEE offers three projects that enable users to apply and validate scientific concepts to real world situations. (1) The Gulf Stream Voyage is an online multidisciplinary project that utilizes both real-time data and primary source materials to help guide students to discover the science and history of the Gulf Stream current. (2) C.O.O.L. Classroom is an online project that utilizes concepts and real-time data collected through the NJSOS. The C.O.O.L. Classroom is based on the concept of the Rutgers-IMCS Coastal Ocean Observation Laboratory, a real

  20. Really computing nonperturbative real time correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bödeker, Dietrich; McLerran, Larry; Smilga, Andrei

    1995-10-01

    It has been argued by Grigoriev and Rubakov that one can simulate real time processes involving baryon number nonconservation at high temperature using real time evolution of classical equations, and summing over initial conditions with a classical thermal weight. It is known that such a naive algorithm is plagued by ultraviolet divergences. In quantum theory the divergences are regularized, but the corresponding graphs involve the contributions from the hard momentum region and also the new scale ~gT comes into play. We propose a modified algorithm which involves solving the classical equations of motion for the effective hard thermal loop Hamiltonian with an ultraviolet cutoff μ>>gT and integrating over initial conditions with a proper thermal weight. Such an algorithm should provide a determination of the infrared behavior of the real time correlation function T determining the baryon violation rate. Hopefully, the results obtained in this modified algorithm will be cutoff independent.

  1. Continuous, real time microwave plasma element sensor

    DOEpatents

    Woskov, P.P.; Smatlak, D.L.; Cohn, D.R.; Wittle, J.K.; Titus, C.H.; Surma, J.E.

    1995-12-26

    Microwave-induced plasma is described for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury. 3 figs.

  2. Continuous, real time microwave plasma element sensor

    DOEpatents

    Woskov, Paul P.; Smatlak, Donna L.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Wittle, J. Kenneth; Titus, Charles H.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1995-01-01

    Microwave-induced plasma for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury.

  3. Durham adaptive optics real-time controller.

    PubMed

    Basden, Alastair; Geng, Deli; Myers, Richard; Younger, Eddy

    2010-11-10

    The Durham adaptive optics (AO) real-time controller was initially a proof of concept design for a generic AO control system. It has since been developed into a modern and powerful central-processing-unit-based real-time control system, capable of using hardware acceleration (including field programmable gate arrays and graphical processing units), based primarily around commercial off-the-shelf hardware. It is powerful enough to be used as the real-time controller for all currently planned 8 m class telescope AO systems. Here we give details of this controller and the concepts behind it, and report on performance, including latency and jitter, which is less than 10 μs for small AO systems.

  4. Real-Time Visualization of Tissue Ischemia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor); Chrien, Thomas D. (Inventor); Eastwood, Michael L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A real-time display of tissue ischemia which comprises three CCD video cameras, each with a narrow bandwidth filter at the correct wavelength is discussed. The cameras simultaneously view an area of tissue suspected of having ischemic areas through beamsplitters. The output from each camera is adjusted to give the correct signal intensity for combining with, the others into an image for display. If necessary a digital signal processor (DSP) can implement algorithms for image enhancement prior to display. Current DSP engines are fast enough to give real-time display. Measurement at three, wavelengths, combined into a real-time Red-Green-Blue (RGB) video display with a digital signal processing (DSP) board to implement image algorithms, provides direct visualization of ischemic areas.

  5. The real-time Neutron Monitor database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, K.-L.; Steigies, C.; Nmdb Team

    2009-04-01

    In January 2007 the Real time database for high-resolution neutron monitor measurements (NMDB) project, which is supported by the 7th framework program of the European Commission, commenced. One year after the project start we have several neutron monitor stations that are sending their data in real-time to a publicly available prototype database in a common format. We have developed applications that make use of the real-time cosmic ray measurements for example for space weather applications and dose calculations at airplane altitudes. We are also in the process of establishing a public outreach site and a training site with material for university students and researchers and engineers who want to get familiar with cosmic rays and neutron monitor measurements. An overview of the project status as well as instructions on how to use the available data will be given. Possible future developments will be briefly discussed.

  6. Real-time inspection by submarine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tascini, Guido; Zingaretti, Primo; Conte, Giuseppe

    1996-10-01

    A real-time application of computer vision concerning tracking and inspection of a submarine pipeline is described. The objective is to develop automatic procedures for supporting human operators in the real-time analysis of images acquired by means of cameras mounted on underwater remotely operated vehicles (ROV) Implementation of such procedures gives rise to a human-machine system for underwater pipeline inspection that can automatically detect and signal the presence of the pipe, of its structural or accessory elements, and of dangerous or alien objects in its neighborhood. The possibility of modifying the image acquisition rate in the simulations performed on video- recorded images is used to prove that the system performs all necessary processing with an acceptable robustness working in real-time up to a speed of about 2.5 kn, widely greater than that the actual ROVs and the security features allow.

  7. Software Package For Real-Time Graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, Jacqueline C.; Moore, Archie L.

    1991-01-01

    Software package for master graphics interactive console (MAGIC) at Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) of NASA Ames Research Center provides general-purpose graphical display system for real-time and post-real-time analysis of data. Written in C language and intended for use on workstation of interactive raster imaging system (IRIS) equipped with level-V Unix operating system. Enables flight researchers to create their own displays on basis of individual requirements. Applicable to monitoring of complicated processes in chemical industry.

  8. Real-Time, Interactive Sonic Boom Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Jr., Edward A. (Inventor); Plotkin, Kenneth J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention is an improved real-time, interactive sonic boom display for aircraft. By using physical properties obtained via various sensors and databases, the invention determines, in real-time, sonic boom impacts locations and intensities for aircraft traveling at supersonic speeds. The information is provided to a pilot via a display that lists a selectable set of maneuvers available to the pilot to mitigate sonic boom issues. Upon selection of a maneuver, the information as to the result of the maneuver is displayed and the pilot may proceed with making the maneuver, or provide new data to the system in order to calculate a different maneuver.

  9. Real-Time Occupancy Change Analyzer

    2005-03-30

    The Real-Time Occupancy Change Analyzer (ROCA) produces an occupancy grid map of an environment around the robot, scans the environment to generate a current obstacle map relative to a current robot position, and converts the current obstacle map to a current occupancy grid map. Changes in the occupancy grid can be reported in real time to support a number of tracking capabilities. The benefit of ROCA is that rather than only providing a vector tomore » the detected change, it provides the actual x,y position of the change.« less

  10. Axial Tomography from Digitized Real Time Radiography

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Zolnay, A. S.; McDonald, W. M.; Doupont, P. A.; McKinney, R. L.; Lee, M. M.

    1985-01-18

    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  11. Automated real-time software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Walker, Carrie K.; Turkovich, John J.

    1993-01-01

    A Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) system has been developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL) under the direction of the NASA Langley Research Center. The CSDL CASE tool provides an automated method of generating source code and hard copy documentation from functional application engineering specifications. The goal is to significantly reduce the cost of developing and maintaining real-time scientific and engineering software while increasing system reliability. This paper describes CSDL CASE and discusses demonstrations that used the tool to automatically generate real-time application code.

  12. Real-time evaporimeter/hygrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopp, Jerome; Smiglewski, Leonard T.

    1998-07-01

    Laboratory measurements of microscopic level changes in a water tank were shown to have good correlation with the evaporation rate predicted using Dalton's Law. Submicron level changes in the tank were measured in real-time using an interferometer interfaced to a PC. The methodology developed offers a way to build an instrument that can be used as a standard for an evaporimeter or a hygrometer. The real-time measurement capability provides a tool for determining refined dynamic correlations of evaporation with fast changes in meteorological variables such as wind and solar radiation.

  13. Machine vision for real time orbital operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinz, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Machine vision for automation and robotic operation of Space Station era systems has the potential for increasing the efficiency of orbital servicing, repair, assembly and docking tasks. A machine vision research project is described in which a TV camera is used for inputing visual data to a computer so that image processing may be achieved for real time control of these orbital operations. A technique has resulted from this research which reduces computer memory requirements and greatly increases typical computational speed such that it has the potential for development into a real time orbital machine vision system. This technique is called AI BOSS (Analysis of Images by Box Scan and Syntax).

  14. Influence of accurate and inaccurate 'split-time' feedback upon 10-mile time trial cycling performance.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mathew G; Lane, Andy M; Beedie, Chris J; Farooq, Abdulaziz

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the impact of accurate and inaccurate 'split-time' feedback upon a 10-mile time trial (TT) performance and to quantify power output into a practically meaningful unit of variation. Seven well-trained cyclists completed four randomised bouts of a 10-mile TT on a SRM™ cycle ergometer. TTs were performed with (1) accurate performance feedback, (2) without performance feedback, (3) and (4) false negative and false positive 'split-time' feedback showing performance 5% slower or 5% faster than actual performance. There were no significant differences in completion time, average power output, heart rate or blood lactate between the four feedback conditions. There were significantly lower (p < 0.001) average [Formula: see text] (ml min(-1)) and [Formula: see text] (l min(-1)) scores in the false positive (3,485 ± 596; 119 ± 33) and accurate (3,471 ± 513; 117 ± 22) feedback conditions compared to the false negative (3,753 ± 410; 127 ± 27) and blind (3,772 ± 378; 124 ± 21) feedback conditions. Cyclists spent a greater amount of time in a '20 watt zone' 10 W either side of average power in the negative feedback condition (fastest) than the accurate feedback (slowest) condition (39.3 vs. 32.2%, p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the 10-mile TT performance time between accurate and inaccurate feedback conditions, despite significantly lower average [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] scores in the false positive and accurate feedback conditions. Additionally, cycling with a small variation in power output (10 W either side of average power) produced the fastest TT. Further psycho-physiological research should examine the mechanism(s) why lower [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] scores are observed when cycling in a false positive or accurate feedback condition compared to a false negative or blind feedback condition.

  15. Utilizing real-time and near real-time data in the iNtegrated Space Weather Analysis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddox, M. M.; Mullinix, R. E.; Rastaetter, L.; Pulkkinen, A.; Zheng, Y.; Berrios, D.; Hesse, M.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Taktakishvili, A.; Chulaki, A.; Shim, J.; Bakshi, S. S.; Patel, K. D.; Jain, P.

    2010-12-01

    Access to near real-time and real-time space weather data is essential to accurately specifying and forecasting the space environment. The Space Weather Desk at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Space Weather Laboratory provides vital space weather forecasting services primarily to NASA robotic mission operators, as well as external space weather stakeholders including the Air Force Weather Agency. A key component in this activity is the iNtegrated Space Weather Analysis System which is a joint development project at NASA GSFC between the Space Weather Laboratory, Community Coordinated Modeling Center, Applied Engineering & Technology Directorate, and NASA HQ Office Of Chief Engineer. The iSWA system was developed to address technical challenges in acquiring and disseminating space weather environment information. A key design driver for the iSWA system was to generate and present vast amounts of space weather resources in an intuitive, user-configurable, and adaptable format - thus enabling users to respond to current and future space weather impacts as well as enabling post-impact analysis. Having access to near real-time and real-time data is essential to not only ensuring that relevant observational data is available for analysis - but also in ensuring that models can be driven with the requisite input parameters at proper and efficient temporal and spacial resolutions. The iSWA system currently manages over 250 unique near-real and real-time data feeds from various sources consisting of both observational and simulation data. A comprehensive suite of actionable space weather analysis tools and products are generated and provided utilizing a mixture of the ingested data - enabling new capabilities in quickly assessing past, present, and expected space weather effects. This paper will highlight current and future iSWA system capabilities and also discuss some of the challenges and lessons-learned in dealing with diverse real-time and near-real time space

  16. A hybrid deformable model for real-time surgical simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo; Gu, Lixu

    2012-07-01

    Modeling organ deformation in real remains a challenge in virtual minimally invasive (MIS) surgery simulation. In this paper, we propose a new hybrid deformable model to simulate deformable organs in the real-time surgical training system. Our hybrid model uses boundary element method (BEM) to compute global deformation based on a coarse surface mesh and uses a mass-spring model to simulate the dynamic behaviors of soft tissue interacting with surgical instruments. The simulation result is coupled with a high-resolution rendering mesh through a particle surface interpolation algorithm. Accurate visual and haptic feedbacks are provided in real time and temporal behaviors of biological soft tissues including viscosity and creeping are modeled as well. We prove our model to be suitable to work in complex virtual surgical environment by integrating it into a MIS training system. The hybrid model is evaluated with respect to efficiency, accuracy and robustness by a series of experiments. PMID:22483053

  17. Real-time data collection in Linux: a case study.

    PubMed

    Finney, S A

    2001-05-01

    Multiuser UNIX-like operating systems such as Linux are often considered unsuitable for real-time data collection because of the potential for indeterminate timing latencies resulting from preemptive scheduling. In this paper, Linux is shown to be fully adequate for precisely controlled programming with millisecond resolution or better. The Linux system calls that subserve such timing control are described and tested and then utilized in a MIDI-based program for tapping and music performance experiments. The timing of this program, including data input and output, is shown to be accurate at the millisecond level. This demonstrates that Linux, with proper programming, is suitable for real-time experiment software. In addition, the detailed description and test of both the operating system facilities and the application program itself may serve as a model for publicly documenting programming methods and software performance on other operating systems.

  18. OPAD-EDIFIS Real-Time Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsinis, Constantine

    1997-01-01

    The Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD) detects engine hardware degradation of flight vehicles through identification and quantification of elemental species found in the plume by analyzing the plume emission spectra in a real-time mode. Real-time performance of OPAD relies on extensive software which must report metal amounts in the plume faster than once every 0.5 sec. OPAD software previously written by NASA scientists performed most necessary functions at speeds which were far below what is needed for real-time operation. The research presented in this report improved the execution speed of the software by optimizing the code without changing the algorithms and converting it into a parallelized form which is executed in a shared-memory multiprocessor system. The resulting code was subjected to extensive timing analysis. The report also provides suggestions for further performance improvement by (1) identifying areas of algorithm optimization, (2) recommending commercially available multiprocessor architectures and operating systems to support real-time execution and (3) presenting an initial study of fault-tolerance requirements.

  19. Real Time Estimation Of Object Spectrocolorimettic Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Peter V.; Lukarsky, Christo D.; Christov, Victor V.; Grancharov, Parashkev A.; Arshinkova, Iren I.

    1989-03-01

    The results obtained in the development of a laboratory prototype of intelligent spectrometric system with real time digital signal processing are shown in this paper. The system is acombination of visible range spectrophotometer and focussing holographic grid with photodiode linear structure, i.e.the sensor, real time digital signal processing controller and display processor for gray level visualization, together with PC/XT controlLing computer. The twodimesional adaptive differential pulse code modulator with simultaneous correction of sensor dark current introduced into the real time controller allows the registration of measurments with resolution of 10 bit/el and real time data compression 2.5 times. During computation of colorimetric estimations or wideband photo-metric compression the possibilities for express analysis increase together with the enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio. The system control and the visualization of spectral and colorimetric features in the data flux is made with personal computer together with display processor with resolution 512x512x8 and interactive software. It may be used for ground-based and onboard complexes.

  20. Real-time PCR detection chemistry.

    PubMed

    Navarro, E; Serrano-Heras, G; Castaño, M J; Solera, J

    2015-01-15

    Real-time PCR is the method of choice in many laboratories for diagnostic and food applications. This technology merges the polymerase chain reaction chemistry with the use of fluorescent reporter molecules in order to monitor the production of amplification products during each cycle of the PCR reaction. Thus, the combination of excellent sensitivity and specificity, reproducible data, low contamination risk and reduced hand-on time, which make it a post-PCR analysis unnecessary, has made real-time PCR technology an appealing alternative to conventional PCR. The present paper attempts to provide a rigorous overview of fluorescent-based methods for nucleic acid analysis in real-time PCR described in the literature so far. Herein, different real-time PCR chemistries have been classified into two main groups; the first group comprises double-stranded DNA intercalating molecules, such as SYBR Green I and EvaGreen, whereas the second includes fluorophore-labeled oligonucleotides. The latter, in turn, has been divided into three subgroups according to the type of fluorescent molecules used in the PCR reaction: (i) primer-probes (Scorpions, Amplifluor, LUX, Cyclicons, Angler); (ii) probes; hydrolysis (TaqMan, MGB-TaqMan, Snake assay) and hybridization (Hybprobe or FRET, Molecular Beacons, HyBeacon, MGB-Pleiades, MGB-Eclipse, ResonSense, Yin-Yang or displacing); and (iii) analogues of nucleic acids (PNA, LNA, ZNA, non-natural bases: Plexor primer, Tiny-Molecular Beacon). In addition, structures, mechanisms of action, advantages and applications of such real-time PCR probes and analogues are depicted in this review.

  1. Evaluation of Open-Source Hard Real Time Software Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattei, Nicholas S.

    2004-01-01

    Reliable software is, at times, hard to find. No piece of software can be guaranteed to work in every situation that may arise during its use here at Glenn Research Center or in space. The job of the Software Assurance (SA) group in the Risk Management Office is to rigorously test the software in an effort to ensure it matches the contract specifications. In some cases the SA team also researches new alternatives for selected software packages. This testing and research is an integral part of the department of Safety and Mission Assurance. Real Time operation in reference to a computer system is a particular style of handing the timing and manner with which inputs and outputs are handled. A real time system executes these commands and appropriate processing within a defined timing constraint. Within this definition there are two other classifications of real time systems: hard and soft. A soft real time system is one in which if the particular timing constraints are not rigidly met there will be no critical results. On the other hand, a hard real time system is one in which if the timing constraints are not met the results could be catastrophic. An example of a soft real time system is a DVD decoder. If the particular piece of data from the input is not decoded and displayed to the screen at exactly the correct moment nothing critical will become of it, the user may not even notice it. However, a hard real time system is needed to control the timing of fuel injections or steering on the Space Shuttle; a delay of even a fraction of a second could be catastrophic in such a complex system. The current real time system employed by most NASA projects is Wind River's VxWorks operating system. This is a proprietary operating system that can be configured to work with many of NASA s needs and it provides very accurate and reliable hard real time performance. The down side is that since it is a proprietary operating system it is also costly to implement. The prospect of

  2. Real-Time Blackboards For Sensor Fusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Donald H.; Shaw, Scott W.; Reynolds, Steven; Himayat, Nageen

    1989-09-01

    Multi-sensor fusion, at the most basic level, can be cast into a concise, elegant model. Reality demands, however, that this model be modified and augmented. These modifications often result in software systems that are confusing in function and difficult to debug. This problem can be ameliorated by adopting an object-oriented, data-flow programming style. For real-time applications, this approach simplifies data communications and storage management. The concept of object-oriented, data-flow programming is conveniently embodied in the black-board style of software architecture. Blackboard systems allow diverse programs access to a central data base. When the blackboard is described as an object, it can be distributed over multiple processors for real-time applications. Choosing the appropriate parallel architecture is the subject of ongoing research. A prototype blackboard has been constructed to fuse optical image regions and Doppler radar events. The system maintains tracks of simulated targets in real time. The results of this simulation have been used to direct further research on real-time blackboard systems.

  3. Real-time cleaning performance feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Meltzer, M.

    1994-12-01

    Monitoring contamination levels on parts during cleaning operations will provide feedback that can be useful in reducing waste generation and air emissions caused by over- or under-cleaning. Such real-time process controls can help eliminate pollution in a wide variety of industries, including aerospace, electronics, and metal finishing.

  4. REAL TIME CONTROL OF URBAN DRAINAGE NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time control (RTC) is a custom-designed, computer-assisted management technology for a specific sewerage network to meet the operational objectives of its collection/conveyance system. RTC can operate in several modes, including a mode that is activated during a wet weather ...

  5. Real Time Grid Reliability Management 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joe; Eto, Joe; Lesieutre, Bernard; Lewis, Nancy Jo; Parashar, Manu

    2008-07-07

    The increased need to manage California?s electricity grid in real time is a result of the ongoing transition from a system operated by vertically-integrated utilities serving native loads to one operated by an independent system operator supporting competitive energy markets. During this transition period, the traditional approach to reliability management -- construction of new transmission lines -- has not been pursued due to unresolved issues related to the financing and recovery of transmission project costs. In the absence of investments in new transmission infrastructure, the best strategy for managing reliability is to equip system operators with better real-time information about actual operating margins so that they can better understand and manage the risk of operating closer to the edge. A companion strategy is to address known deficiencies in offline modeling tools that are needed to ground the use of improved real-time tools. This project: (1) developed and conducted first-ever demonstrations of two prototype real-time software tools for voltage security assessment and phasor monitoring; and (2) prepared a scoping study on improving load and generator response models. Additional funding through two separate subsequent work authorizations has already been provided to build upon the work initiated in this project.

  6. Real Time Radiation Monitoring Using Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing (Inventor); Wilkins, Richard T. (Inventor); Hanratty, James J. (Inventor); Lu, Yijiang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    System and method for monitoring receipt and estimating flux value, in real time, of incident radiation, using two or more nanostructures (NSs) and associated terminals to provide closed electrical paths and to measure one or more electrical property change values .DELTA.EPV, associated with irradiated NSs, during a sequence of irradiation time intervals. Effects of irradiation, without healing and with healing, of the NSs, are separately modeled for first order and second order healing. Change values.DELTA.EPV are related to flux, to cumulative dose received by NSs, and to radiation and healing effectivity parameters and/or.mu., associated with the NS material and to the flux. Flux and/or dose are estimated in real time, based on EPV change values, using measured .DELTA.EPV values. Threshold dose for specified changes of biological origin (usually undesired) can be estimated. Effects of time-dependent radiation flux are analyzed in pre-healing and healing regimes.

  7. Real time animation of space plasma phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, K. F.; Greenstadt, E. W.

    1987-01-01

    In pursuit of real time animation of computer simulated space plasma phenomena, the code was rewritten for the Massively Parallel Processor (MPP). The program creates a dynamic representation of the global bowshock which is based on actual spacecraft data and designed for three dimensional graphic output. This output consists of time slice sequences which make up the frames of the animation. With the MPP, 16384, 512 or 4 frames can be calculated simultaneously depending upon which characteristic is being computed. The run time was greatly reduced which promotes the rapid sequence of images and makes real time animation a foreseeable goal. The addition of more complex phenomenology in the constructed computer images is now possible and work proceeds to generate these images.

  8. Real-Time Wireless Data Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valencia, Emilio J.; Perotti, Jose; Lucena, Angel; Mata, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Current and future aerospace requirements demand the creation of a new breed of sensing devices, with emphasis on reduced weight, power consumption, and physical size. This new generation of sensors must possess a high degree of intelligence to provide critical data efficiently and in real-time. Intelligence will include self-calibration, self-health assessment, and pre-processing of raw data at the sensor level. Most of these features are already incorporated in the Wireless Sensors Network (SensorNet(TradeMark)), developed by the Instrumentation Group at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A system based on the SensorNet(TradeMark) architecture consists of data collection point(s) called Central Stations (CS) and intelligent sensors called Remote Stations (RS) where one or more CSs can be accommodated depending on the specific application. The CS's major function is to establish communications with the Remote Stations and to poll each RS for data and health information. The CS also collects, stores and distributes these data to the appropriate systems requiring the information. The system has the ability to perform point-to-point, multi-point and relay mode communications with an autonomous self-diagnosis of each communications link. Upon detection of a communication failure, the system automatically reconfigures to establish new communication paths. These communication paths are automatically and autonomously selected as the best paths by the system based on the existing operating environment. The data acquisition system currently under development at KSC consists of the SensorNet(TradeMark) wireless sensors as the remote stations and the central station called the Radio Frequency Health Node (RFHN). The RFF1N is the central station which remotely communicates with the SensorNet(TradeMark) sensors to control them and to receive data. The system's salient feature is the ability to provide deterministic sensor data with accurate time stamps for both time critical and non-time

  9. Object detection in real-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solder, Ulrich; Graefe, Volker

    1991-03-01

    An algorithm working on monocular gray-scale image sequences for object detection combined with a road tracker is presented. This algorithm appropriate for the real-time demands of an autonomous car driving with speeds over 40 km/h may be used for triggering obstacle avoidance maneuvers such as coming to a safe stop automatically in front of an obstacle or following another car. Moving and static objects have been detected in real-world experiments on various types of roads even under unfavorable weather conditions. . Morgenthaler and

  10. Real Time Pricing and the Real Live Firm

    SciTech Connect

    Moezzi, Mithra; Goldman, Charles; Sezgen, Osman; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Hopper, Nicole

    2004-05-26

    Energy economists have long argued the benefits of real time pricing (RTP) of electricity. Their basis for modeling customers response to short-term fluctuations in electricity prices are based on theories of rational firm behavior, where management strives to minimize operating costs and optimize profit, and labor, capital and energy are potential substitutes in the firm's production function. How well do private firms and public sector institutions operating conditions, knowledge structures, decision-making practices, and external relationships comport with these assumptions and how might this impact price response? We discuss these issues on the basis of interviews with 29 large (over 2 MW) industrial, commercial, and institutional customers in the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation service territory that have faced day-ahead electricity market prices since 1998. We look at stories interviewees told about why and how they respond to RTP, why some customers report that they can't, and why even if they can, they don't. Some firms respond as theorized, and we describe their load curtailment strategies. About half of our interviewees reported that they were unable to either shift or forego electricity consumption even when prices are high ($0.50/kWh). Reasons customers gave for why they weren't price-responsive include implicit value placed on reliability, pricing structures, lack of flexibility in adjusting production inputs, just-in-time practices, perceived barriers to onsite generation, and insufficient time. We draw these observations into a framework that could help refine economic theory of dynamic pricing by providing real-world descriptions of how firms behave and why.

  11. Real Time Correction of Aircraft Flight Fonfiguration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for monitoring and analyzing, in real time, variation with time of an aircraft flight parameter. A time-dependent recovery band, defined by first and second recovery band boundaries that are spaced apart at at least one time point, is constructed for a selected flight parameter and for a selected time recovery time interval length .DELTA.t(FP;rec). A flight parameter, having a value FP(t=t.sub.p) at a time t=t.sub.p, is likely to be able to recover to a reference flight parameter value FP(t';ref), lying in a band of reference flight parameter values FP(t';ref;CB), within a time interval given by t.sub.p.ltoreq.t'.ltoreq.t.sub.p.DELTA.t(FP;rec), if (or only if) the flight parameter value lies between the first and second recovery band boundary traces.

  12. Real time gamma-ray signature identifier

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark; Gosnell, Tom B.; Ham, Cheryl; Perkins, Dwight; Wong, James

    2012-05-15

    A real time gamma-ray signature/source identification method and system using principal components analysis (PCA) for transforming and substantially reducing one or more comprehensive spectral libraries of nuclear materials types and configurations into a corresponding concise representation/signature(s) representing and indexing each individual predetermined spectrum in principal component (PC) space, wherein an unknown gamma-ray signature may be compared against the representative signature to find a match or at least characterize the unknown signature from among all the entries in the library with a single regression or simple projection into the PC space, so as to substantially reduce processing time and computing resources and enable real-time characterization and/or identification.

  13. Real-Time Seismology in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, S.; Marreiros, C.; Carvalho, S.; Vales, D.; Lima, V.; Carrilho, F.

    2012-12-01

    Portugal is located next to the plate boundary between Eurasia (Iberia) and Africa (Nubia). The country has been repeatedly affected by some of the largest earthquakes, both onshore and offshore, in the historical European record, including the largest historical European earthquake, the great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 (~M8.5). The Portuguese territory has suffered directly the consequences of strong ground shaking (collapse of buildings, etc) and also some of the most destructive consequences of earthquakes (e.g. tsunamis, fires, etc). However, the rate of tectonic deformation in the Portuguese territory is low (the Eurasian-African plates converge at a rate of ~ 5 mm/yr), which results in long recurrence intervals between earthquakes. This low to moderate rate of seismic activity has two major negative effects: 1) it is difficult to study the regional seismo-tectonics with traditional passive methods; 2) the population is little aware of earthquake risk and unprepared to react in case of disaster. In this scenario, real-time seismology is key to monitoring earthquake crisis in real-time, providing early warnings about potentially destructive events, and assisting in the channeling of recovery efforts in case of disaster. In this paper we will present the real-time algorithms implemented at Instituto de Meteorologia (IM), the institution responsible for seismic monitoring in Portugal. In particular, we will focus on the following aspects: 1) Data collection and real-time transmission to the headquarters. Broadband seismological stations are owned and operated by five different institutions. The last years have witnessed an effort for integration, and presently most data arrives at IM lab in real-time. 2) Earthquake location and local magnitude determination. Data is automatically analyzed in order to obtain a first earthquake hypocenter and ML. While this process is mostly automatic, it still requires the revision by an operator, who is available 24h. 3

  14. "Fast" Is Not "Real-Time": Designing Effective Real-Time AI Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, Cindy A.; Cromarty, Andrew S.

    1985-04-01

    Realistic practical problem domains (such as robotics, process control, and certain kinds of signal processing) stand to benefit greatly from the application of artificial intelligence techniques. These problem domains are of special interest because they are typified by complex dynamic environments in which the ability to select and initiate a proper response to environmental events in real time is a strict prerequisite to effective environmental interaction. Artificial intelligence systems developed to date have been sheltered from this real-time requirement, however, largely by virtue of their use of simplified problem domains or problem representations. The plethora of colloquial and (in general) mutually inconsistent interpretations of the term "real-time" employed by workers in each of these domains further exacerbates the difficul-ties in effectively applying state-of-the-art problem solving tech-niques to time-critical problems. Indeed, the intellectual waters are by now sufficiently muddied that the pursuit of a rigorous treatment of intelligent real-time performance mandates the redevelopment of proper problem perspective on what "real-time" means, starting from first principles. We present a simple but nonetheless formal definition of real-time performance. We then undertake an analysis of both conventional techniques and AI technology with respect to their ability to meet substantive real-time performance criteria. This analysis provides a basis for specification of problem-independent design requirements for systems that would claim real-time performance. Finally, we discuss the application of these design principles to a pragmatic problem in real-time signal understanding.

  15. Real-Time Optical Monitoring of GRBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, René; Křížek, Miroslav

    2006-05-01

    Even the fastest alert robotic follow-up telescope is unable to cover the times just after (within first 10 seconds) and before GRB triggers. This time domain is accessible by optical monitors only. We report on analyses of GRB positions on images taken by optical photographic monitors (now operated remotely) within the European meteor network EN. This system is able to provide real-time and pre-burst optical data for GRBs with limiting magnitudes up to 12 in the best cases. The image database is searchable by special software for coincidences with GRBs and the particular images are then scanned and evaluated by computer.

  16. Real-time imaging of quantum entanglement.

    PubMed

    Fickler, Robert; Krenn, Mario; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Ramelow, Sven; Zeilinger, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Entanglement is widely regarded as one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and quantum information science. Although, photonic entanglement is routinely studied in many experiments nowadays, its signature has been out of the grasp for real-time imaging. Here we show that modern technology, namely triggered intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) cameras are fast and sensitive enough to image in real-time the effect of the measurement of one photon on its entangled partner. To quantitatively verify the non-classicality of the measurements we determine the detected photon number and error margin from the registered intensity image within a certain region. Additionally, the use of the ICCD camera allows us to demonstrate the high flexibility of the setup in creating any desired spatial-mode entanglement, which suggests as well that visual imaging in quantum optics not only provides a better intuitive understanding of entanglement but will improve applications of quantum science.

  17. Real time radiography of Titan 4 booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachapell, M.; Turner, D.; Dolan, K.; Perkins, D.; Costerus, B.

    1993-04-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory successfully completed a real-time radiography of the Titan 4 booster motor in February 1993. The success of this project depended on the quick response to Air Force criteria and securing a multi-disciplinary team addressing the numerous technical challenges. The team's challenges included the following: large area imager design and fabrication problems; vibrating mitigation obstacles; sound mitigation dilemmas; high levels of fail safe confidence; and operating a fragile, transportable x-ray linear accelerator. The data was viewed in real-time and stored utilizing standard video hardware. The data from the test is presently being analyzed. The multi-disciplinary team was presented with many serious technical challenges that needed to be addressed expeditiously. The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the technical issues and how they were executed.

  18. Visualizations for Real-time Pricing Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Marinovici, Maria C.; Hammerstrom, Janelle L.; Widergren, Steven E.; Dayley, Greg K.

    2014-10-13

    In this paper, the visualization tools created for monitoring the operations of a real-time pricing demonstration system that runs at a distribution feeder level are presented. The information these tools provide gives insights into demand behavior from automated price responsive devices, distribution feeder characteristics, impact of weather on system’s development, and other significant dynamics. Given the large number of devices that bid into a feeder-level real-time electricity market, new techniques are explored to summarize the present state of the system and contrast that with previous trends as well as future projections. To better understand the system behavior and correctly inform decision-making procedures, effective visualization of the data is imperative.

  19. AMON: Transition to real-time operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowen, D. F.; Keivani, A.; Tešić, G.

    2016-04-01

    The Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON) will link the world's leading high-energy neutrino, cosmic-ray, gamma-ray and gravitational wave observatories by performing real-time coincidence searches for multimessenger sources from observatories' subthreshold data streams. The resulting coincidences will be distributed to interested parties in the form of electronic alerts for real-time follow-up observation. We will present the science case, design elements, current and projected partner observatories, status of the AMON project, and an initial AMON-enabled analysis. The prototype of the AMON server has been online since August 2014 and processing archival data. Currently, we are deploying new high-uptime servers and will be ready to start issuing alerts as early as winter 2015/16.

  20. System Equivalent for Real Time Digital Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xi

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a method of making system equivalents for the Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS), which should enhance its capability of simulating large power systems. The proposed equivalent combines a Frequency Dependent Network Equivalent (FDNE) for the high frequency electromagnetic transients and a Transient Stability Analysis (TSA) type simulation block for the electromechanical transients. The frequency dependent characteristic for FDNE is obtained by curve-fitting frequency domain admittance characteristics using the Vector Fitting method. An approach for approximating the frequency dependent characteristic of large power networks from readily available typical power-flow data is also introduced. A new scheme of incorporating TSA solution in RTDS is proposed. This report shows how the TSA algorithm can be adapted to a real time platform. The validity of this method is confirmed with examples, including the study of a multi in-feed HVDC system based network.

  1. Lattice simulations of real-time quantum fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berges, J.; Borsányi, Sz.; Sexty, D.; Stamatescu, I.-O.

    2007-02-01

    We investigate lattice simulations of scalar and non-Abelian gauge fields in Minkowski space-time. For SU(2) gauge-theory expectation values of link variables in 3+1 dimensions are constructed by a stochastic process in an additional (5th) “Langevin-time.” A sufficiently small Langevin step size and the use of a tilted real-time contour leads to converging results in general. All fixed point solutions are shown to fulfil the infinite hierarchy of Dyson-Schwinger identities, however, they are not unique without further constraints. For the non-Abelian gauge theory the thermal equilibrium fixed point is only approached at intermediate Langevin-times. It becomes more stable if the complex time path is deformed towards Euclidean space-time. We analyze this behavior further using the real-time evolution of a quantum anharmonic oscillator, which is alternatively solved by diagonalizing its Hamiltonian. Without further optimization stochastic quantization can give accurate descriptions if the real-time extent of the lattice is small on the scale of the inverse temperature.

  2. CRTF Real-Time Aperture Flux system

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.B.

    1980-01-01

    The Real-Time Aperture Flux system (TRAF) is a test measurement system designed to determine the input power/unit area (flux density) during solar experiments conducted at the Central Receiver Test Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The RTAF is capable of using both thermal sensors and photon sensors to determine the flux densities in the RTAF measuring plane. These data are manipulated in various ways to derive input power and flux density distribution to solar experiments.

  3. Thermal imaging with real time picture presentation.

    PubMed

    Borg, S B

    1968-09-01

    The accomplishment of thermal imaging with real-time picture presentation represents a significant advance in nondestructive testing. Described here is the AGA Thermovision, capable of producing such imaging. Operating principles, basic features, and recording techniques are reviewed, and a survey is made of the range of applications. Examples include electrical power distribution elements, a turbine blade, and a missile model in a wind tunnel.

  4. Real-Time Clinical Monitoring of Biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Michelle L.; Boutelle, Martyn G.

    2013-06-01

    Continuous monitoring of clinical biomarkers offers the exciting possibility of new therapies that use biomarker levels to guide treatment in real time. This review explores recent progress toward this goal. We initially consider measurements in body fluids by a range of analytical methods. We then discuss direct tissue measurements performed by implanted sensors; sampling techniques, including microdialysis and ultrafiltration; and noninvasive methods. A future directions section considers analytical methods at the cusp of clinical use.

  5. Real-Time X-Ray Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulthuis, Ronald V.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray imaging instrument adapted to continuous scanning. Modern version of fluoroscope enables rapid x-ray inspection of parts. Developed for detection of buckling in insulated ducts. Uses radiation from radioactive gadolinium or thallium source. Instrument weighs only 6 1/2 lb. Quickly scanned by hand along duct surface, providing real-time image. Based on Lixiscope, developed at Goddard Space Flight Center.

  6. Software Analyzes Complex Systems in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Expert system software programs, also known as knowledge-based systems, are computer programs that emulate the knowledge and analytical skills of one or more human experts, related to a specific subject. SHINE (Spacecraft Health Inference Engine) is one such program, a software inference engine (expert system) designed by NASA for the purpose of monitoring, analyzing, and diagnosing both real-time and non-real-time systems. It was developed to meet many of the Agency s demanding and rigorous artificial intelligence goals for current and future needs. NASA developed the sophisticated and reusable software based on the experience and requirements of its Jet Propulsion Laboratory s (JPL) Artificial Intelligence Research Group in developing expert systems for space flight operations specifically, the diagnosis of spacecraft health. It was designed to be efficient enough to operate in demanding real time and in limited hardware environments, and to be utilized by non-expert systems applications written in conventional programming languages. The technology is currently used in several ongoing NASA applications, including the Mars Exploration Rovers and the Spacecraft Health Automatic Reasoning Pilot (SHARP) program for the diagnosis of telecommunication anomalies during the Neptune Voyager Encounter. It is also finding applications outside of the Space Agency.

  7. Real-time monitoring system for microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapuppo, F.; Cantelli, G.; Fortuna, L.; Arena, P.; Bucolo, M.

    2007-05-01

    A new non-invasive real-time system for the monitoring and control of microfluidodynamic phenomena is proposed. The general purpose design of such system is suitable for in vitro and in vivo experimental setup and therefore for microfluidic application in the biomedical field such as lab-on-chip and for research studies in the field of microcirculation. The system consists of an ad hoc optical setup for image magnification providing images suitable for image acquisition and processing. The optic system was designed and developed using discrete opto-mechanic components mounted on a breadboard in order to provide an optic path accessible at any point where the information needs to be acquired. The optic sensing, acquisition, and processing were performed using an integrated vision system based on the Cellular Nonlinear Networks (CNNs) analogic technology called Focal Plane Processor (FPP, Eye-RIS, Anafocus) and inserted in the optic path. Ad hoc algorithms were implemented for the real-time analysis and extraction of fluido-dynamic parameters in micro-channels. They were tested on images recorded during in vivo microcirculation experiments on hamsters and then they were applied on images optically acquired and processed in real-time during in vitro experiments on a continuous microfluidic device (serpentine mixer, ThinXXS) with a two-phase fluid.

  8. Turning movement estimation in real time

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.T.

    1997-08-01

    Fast processors offer exciting opportunities for real-time traffic monitoring. Conventional transportation planning models that assume stable and predictable travel patterns do not lend themselves to on-line traffic forecasting. This paper describes how a new traffic flow inference model has the potential to determine comprehensive flow information in real time. Its philosophical basis is borrowed from the field of operational research, where it has been used for optimizing water and electricity flows. This paper shows how road traffic turning movement flows can be estimated from link detected flows at small recurrent intervals, in real time. The paper details the formulation of the problem, outlines the structure of the data set that provides the detector data for the model input and observed turning flows for the model evaluation. The theoretical principles that define the model are described briefly. Turning movement flow estimates, at 5-min intervals, from two independent surveys are presented and analyzed. The results show an overall mean coefficient of determination (r{sup 2}) of 79--82% between observed and modeled turning movement flows.

  9. Real-time optical image processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1988-01-01

    Nonlinear real-time optical processing on spatial pulse frequency modulation has been pursued through the analysis, design, and fabrication of pulse frequency modulated halftone screens and the modification of micro-channel spatial light modulators (MSLMs). Micro-channel spatial light modulators are modified via the Fabry-Perot method to achieve the high gamma operation required for non-linear operation. Real-time nonlinear processing was performed using the halftone screen and MSLM. The experiments showed the effectiveness of the thresholding and also showed the needs of higher SBP for image processing. The Hughes LCLV has been characterized and found to yield high gamma (about 1.7) when operated in low frequency and low bias mode. Cascading of two LCLVs should also provide enough gamma for nonlinear processing. In this case, the SBP of the LCLV is sufficient but the uniformity of the LCLV needs improvement. These include image correlation, computer generation of holograms, pseudo-color image encoding for image enhancement, and associative-retrieval in neural processing. The discovery of the only known optical method for dynamic range compression of an input image in real-time by using GaAs photorefractive crystals is reported. Finally, a new architecture for non-linear multiple sensory, neural processing has been suggested.

  10. Demonstration of decimeter-level real-time positioning of an airborne platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armatys, M.; Muellerschoen, R.; Bar-Sever, Y.; Meyer, R.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate the ability of the NASA Global Differential GPS System to support 10 to 20 cm accurate real-time airplane positioning, anywhere in the world, independent of local navigational aids or infrastructure.

  11. Real-Time Attitude Independent Three Axis Magnetometer Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crassidis, John L.; Lai, Kok-Lam; Harman, Richard R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper new real-time approaches for three-axis magnetometer sensor calibration are derived. These approaches rely on a conversion of the magnetometer-body and geomagnetic-reference vectors into an attitude independent observation by using scalar checking. The goal of the full calibration problem involves the determination of the magnetometer bias vector, scale factors and non-orthogonality corrections. Although the actual solution to this full calibration problem involves the minimization of a quartic loss function, the problem can be converted into a quadratic loss function by a centering approximation. This leads to a simple batch linear least squares solution. In this paper we develop alternative real-time algorithms based on both the extended Kalman filter and Unscented filter. With these real-time algorithms, a full magnetometer calibration can now be performed on-orbit during typical spacecraft mission-mode operations. Simulation results indicate that both algorithms provide accurate integer resolution in real time, but the Unscented filter is more robust to large initial condition errors than the extended Kalman filter. The algorithms are also tested using actual data from the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE).

  12. [Development of real-time CT fluoroscopy].

    PubMed

    Katada, K; Anno, H; Takeshita, G; Ogura, Y; Koga, S; Ida, Y; Nonomura, K; Kanno, T; Ohashi, A; Sata, S

    1994-10-25

    A new CT system that permits real-time monitoring of CT images was developed. Phantom and volunteer studies revealed that the images were displayed at a rate of six per second with a delay time of 0.83 second with clinically sufficient resolution (256 x 256) using the newly developed fast image processor and partial-reconstruction algorithm. The clinical trial of stereotactic aspiration of intracerebral hematoma was successful. The initial trial with CT fluoroscopy revealed potential usefulness of the system in biopsy and other CT-guided interventions. PMID:9261196

  13. Optical, real-time monitoring of the glomerular filtration rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabito, Carlos A.; Chen, Yang; Schomacker, Kevin T.; Modell, Mark D.

    2005-10-01

    An easy and accurate assessment of the renal function is a critical requirement for detecting the initial functional decline of the kidney induced by acute or chronic renal disease. A method for measuring the glomerular filtration rate is developed with the accuracy of clearance techniques and the convenience of plasma creatinine. The renal function is measured in rats as the rate of clearance determined from time-resolved transcutaneous fluorescence measurements of a new fluorescent glomerular filtration agent. The agent has a large dose-safety coefficient and the same space distribution and clearance characteristics as iothalamate. This new approach is a convenient and accurate way to perform real-time measurements of the glomerular filtration rate to detect early kidney disease before the renal function becomes severely and irreversibly compromised.

  14. Cloud-based Electronic Health Records for Real-time, Region-specific Influenza Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Santillana, M.; Nguyen, A. T.; Louie, T.; Zink, A.; Gray, J.; Sung, I.; Brownstein, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate real-time monitoring systems of influenza outbreaks help public health officials make informed decisions that may help save lives. We show that information extracted from cloud-based electronic health records databases, in combination with machine learning techniques and historical epidemiological information, have the potential to accurately and reliably provide near real-time regional estimates of flu outbreaks in the United States. PMID:27165494

  15. MARTI: man-machine animation real-time interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Christian M.; Dlay, Satnam S.

    1997-05-01

    The research introduces MARTI (man-machine animation real-time interface) for the realization of natural human-machine interfacing. The system uses simple vocal sound-tracks of human speakers to provide lip synchronization of computer graphical facial models. We present novel research in a number of engineering disciplines, which include speech recognition, facial modeling, and computer animation. This interdisciplinary research utilizes the latest, hybrid connectionist/hidden Markov model, speech recognition system to provide very accurate phone recognition and timing for speaker independent continuous speech, and expands on knowledge from the animation industry in the development of accurate facial models and automated animation. The research has many real-world applications which include the provision of a highly accurate and 'natural' man-machine interface to assist user interactions with computer systems and communication with one other using human idiosyncrasies; a complete special effects and animation toolbox providing automatic lip synchronization without the normal constraints of head-sets, joysticks, and skilled animators; compression of video data to well below standard telecommunication channel bandwidth for video communications and multi-media systems; assisting speech training and aids for the handicapped; and facilitating player interaction for 'video gaming' and 'virtual worlds.' MARTI has introduced a new level of realism to man-machine interfacing and special effect animation which has been previously unseen.

  16. Real-time lens distortion correction: speed, accuracy and efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bax, Michael R.; Shahidi, Ramin

    2014-11-01

    Optical lens systems suffer from nonlinear geometrical distortion. Optical imaging applications such as image-enhanced endoscopy and image-based bronchoscope tracking require correction of this distortion for accurate localization, tracking, registration, and measurement of image features. Real-time capability is desirable for interactive systems and live video. The use of a texture-mapping graphics accelerator, which is standard hardware on current motherboard chipsets and add-in video graphics cards, to perform distortion correction is proposed. Mesh generation for image tessellation, an error analysis, and performance results are presented. It is shown that distortion correction using commodity graphics hardware is substantially faster than using the main processor and can be performed at video frame rates (faster than 30 frames per second), and that the polar-based method of mesh generation proposed here is more accurate than a conventional grid-based approach. Using graphics hardware to perform distortion correction is not only fast and accurate but also efficient as it frees the main processor for other tasks, which is an important issue in some real-time applications.

  17. A channel dynamics model for real-time flood forecasting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoos, A.B.; Koussis, A.D.; Beale, G.O.

    1989-01-01

    A new channel dynamics scheme ASPIRE (alternative system predictor in real time), designed specifically for real-time river flow forecasting, is introduced to reduce uncertainty in the forecast. ASPIRE is a storage routing model that limits the influence of catchment model forecast errors to the downstream station closest to the catchment. Comparisons with the Muskingum routing scheme in field tests suggest that the ASPIRE scheme can provide more accurate forecasts, probably because discharge observations are used to a maximum advantage and routing reaches (and model errors in each reach) are uncoupled. Using ASPIRE in conjunction with the Kalman filter did not improve forecast accuracy relative to a deterministic updating procedure. Theoretical analysis suggests that this is due to a large process noise to measurement noise ratio. -Authors

  18. Noninvasive and Real-Time Plasmon Waveguide Resonance Thermometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengfei; Liu, Le; He, Yonghong; Zhou, Yanfei; Ji, Yanhong; Ma, Hui

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the noninvasive and real-time plasmon waveguide resonance (PWR) thermometry is reported theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. Owing to the enhanced evanescent field and thermal shield effect of its dielectric layer, a PWR thermometer permits accurate temperature sensing and has a wide dynamic range. A temperature measurement sensitivity of 9.4 × 10−3 °C is achieved and the thermo optic coefficient nonlinearity is measured in the experiment. The measurement of water cooling processes distributed in one dimension reveals that a PWR thermometer allows real-time temperature sensing and has potential to be applied for thermal gradient analysis. Apart from this, the PWR thermometer has the advantages of low cost and simple structure, since our transduction scheme can be constructed with conventional optical components and commercial coating techniques. PMID:25871718

  19. Acting to gain information: Real-time reasoning meets real-time perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenschein, Stan

    1994-01-01

    Recent advances in intelligent reactive systems suggest new approaches to the problem of deriving task-relevant information from perceptual systems in real time. The author will describe work in progress aimed at coupling intelligent control mechanisms to real-time perception systems, with special emphasis on frame rate visual measurement systems. A model for integrated reasoning and perception will be discussed, and recent progress in applying these ideas to problems of sensor utilization for efficient recognition and tracking will be described.

  20. Improvements in Accurate GPS Positioning Using Time Series Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Yuichiro; Tanaka, Toshiyuki

    Although the Global Positioning System (GPS) is used widely in car navigation systems, cell phones, surveying, and other areas, several issues still exist. We focus on the continuous data received in public use of GPS, and propose a new positioning algorithm that uses time series analysis. By fitting an autoregressive model to the time series model of the pseudorange, we propose an appropriate state-space model. We apply the Kalman filter to the state-space model and use the pseudorange estimated by the filter in our positioning calculations. The results of the authors' positioning experiment show that the accuracy of the proposed method is much better than that of the standard method. In addition, as we can obtain valid values estimated by time series analysis using the state-space model, the proposed state-space model can be applied to several other fields.

  1. Time-accurate Navier-Stokes calculations with multigrid acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melson, N. D.; Sanetrik, Mark D.; Atkins, Harold L.

    1993-01-01

    An efficient method for calculating unsteady flows is presented, with emphasis on a modified version of the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. Fourier stability analysis is used to illustrate the effect of treating the source term implicitly instead of explicity, as well as to illustrate other algorithmic choices. A 2D circular cylinder (with a Reynolds number of 1200 and a Mach number of 0.3) is calculated. The present scheme requires only about 10 percent of the computer time required by global minimum time stepping.

  2. Real time visualization of quantum walk

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, Akihide; Hamada, Shinji; Sekino, Hideo

    2014-02-20

    Time evolution of quantum particles like electrons is described by time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE). The TDSE is regarded as the diffusion equation of electrons with imaginary diffusion coefficients. And the TDSE is solved by quantum walk (QW) which is regarded as a quantum version of a classical random walk. The diffusion equation is solved in discretized space/time as in the case of classical random walk with additional unitary transformation of internal degree of freedom typical for quantum particles. We call the QW for solution of the TDSE a Schrödinger walk (SW). For observation of one quantum particle evolution under a given potential in atto-second scale, we attempt a successive computation and visualization of the SW. Using Pure Data programming, we observe the correct behavior of a probability distribution under the given potential in real time for observers of atto-second scale.

  3. A fast, time-accurate unsteady full potential scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, V.; Ide, H.; Gorski, J.; Osher, S.

    1985-01-01

    The unsteady form of the full potential equation is solved in conservation form by an implicit method based on approximate factorization. At each time level, internal Newton iterations are performed to achieve time accuracy and computational efficiency. A local time linearization procedure is introduced to provide a good initial guess for the Newton iteration. A novel flux-biasing technique is applied to generate proper forms of the artificial viscosity to treat hyperbolic regions with shocks and sonic lines present. The wake is properly modeled by accounting not only for jumps in phi, but also for jumps in higher derivatives of phi, obtained by imposing the density to be continuous across the wake. The far field is modeled using the Riemann invariants to simulate nonreflecting boundary conditions. The resulting unsteady method performs well which, even at low reduced frequency levels of 0.1 or less, requires fewer than 100 time steps per cycle at transonic Mach numbers. The code is fully vectorized for the CRAY-XMP and the VPS-32 computers.

  4. Simple tunnel diode circuit for accurate zero crossing timing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metz, A. J.

    1969-01-01

    Tunnel diode circuit, capable of timing the zero crossing point of bipolar pulses, provides effective design for a fast crossing detector. It combines a nonlinear load line with the diode to detect the zero crossing of a wide range of input waveshapes.

  5. Exploring Earthquakes in Real-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, T. K.; Kafka, A. L.; Coleman, B.; Taber, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquakes capture the attention of students and inspire them to explore the Earth. Adding the ability to view and explore recordings of significant and newsworthy earthquakes in real-time makes the subject even more compelling. To address this opportunity, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), in collaboration with Moravian College, developed ';jAmaSeis', a cross-platform application that enables students to access real-time earthquake waveform data. Students can watch as the seismic waves are recorded on their computer, and can be among the first to analyze the data from an earthquake. jAmaSeis facilitates student centered investigations of seismological concepts using either a low-cost educational seismograph or streamed data from other educational seismographs or from any seismic station that sends data to the IRIS Data Management System. After an earthquake, students can analyze the seismograms to determine characteristics of earthquakes such as time of occurrence, distance from the epicenter to the station, magnitude, and location. The software has been designed to provide graphical clues to guide students in the analysis and assist in their interpretations. Since jAmaSeis can simultaneously record up to three stations from anywhere on the planet, there are numerous opportunities for student driven investigations. For example, students can explore differences in the seismograms from different distances from an earthquake and compare waveforms from different azimuthal directions. Students can simultaneously monitor seismicity at a tectonic plate boundary and in the middle of the plate regardless of their school location. This can help students discover for themselves the ideas underlying seismic wave propagation, regional earthquake hazards, magnitude-frequency relationships, and the details of plate tectonics. The real-time nature of the data keeps the investigations dynamic, and offers students countless opportunities to explore.

  6. Real-time structured light depth extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Kurtis; Ackerman, Jeremy D.

    2000-03-01

    Gathering depth data using structured light has been a procedure for many different environments and uses. Many of these system are utilized instead of laser line scanning because of their quickness. However, to utilize depth extraction for some applications, in our case laparoscopic surgery, the depth extraction must be in real time. We have developed an apparatus that speeds up the raw image display and grabbing in structured light depth extraction from 30 frames per second to 60 and 180 frames per second. This results in an updated depth and texture map of about 15 times per second versus about 3. This increased update rate allows for real time depth extraction for use in augmented medical/surgical applications. Our miniature, fist-sized projector utilizes an internal ferro-reflective LCD display that is illuminated with cold light from a flex light pipe. The miniature projector, attachable to a laparoscope, displays inverted pairs of structured light into the body where these images are then viewed by a high-speed camera set slightly off axis from the projector that grabs images synchronously. The images from the camera are ported to a graphics-processing card where six frames are worked on simultaneously to extract depth and create mapped textures from these images. This information is then sent to the host computer with 3D coordinate information of the projector/camera and the associated textures. The surgeon is then able to view body images in real time from different locations without physically moving the laparoscope imager/projector, thereby, reducing the trauma of moving laparoscopes in the patient.

  7. Real-Time Flight Envelope Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerho, Michael; Bragg, Michael B.; Ansell, Phillip J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to show that real-time aircraft control-surface hinge-moment information could be used to provide a robust and reliable prediction of vehicle performance and control authority degradation. For a given airfoil section with a control surface -- be it a wing with an aileron, rudder, or elevator -- the control-surface hinge moment is sensitive to the aerodynamic characteristics of the section. As a result, changes in the aerodynamics of the section due to angle-of-attack or environmental effects such as icing, heavy rain, surface contaminants, bird strikes, or battle damage will affect the control surface hinge moment. These changes include both the magnitude of the hinge moment and its sign in a time-averaged sense, and the variation of the hinge moment with time. The current program attempts to take the real-time hinge moment information from the aircraft control surfaces and develop a system to predict aircraft envelope boundaries across a range of conditions, alerting the flight crew to reductions in aircraft controllability and flight boundaries.

  8. Real-time design with peer tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goforth, Andre; Howes, Norman R.; Wood, Jonathan D.; Barnes, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    We introduce a real-time design methodology for large scale, distributed, parallel architecture, real-time systems (LDPARTS), as an alternative to those methods using rate or dead-line monotonic analysis. In our method the fundamental units of prioritization, work items, are domain specific objects with timing requirements (deadlines) found in user's specification. A work item consists of a collection of tasks of equal priority. Current scheduling theories are applied with artifact deadlines introduced by the designer whereas our method schedules work items to meet user's specification deadlines (sometimes called end-to-end deadlines). Our method supports these scheduling properties. Work item scheduling is based on domain specific importance instead of task level urgency and still meets as many user specification deadlines as can be met by scheduling tasks with respect to urgency. Second, the minimum (closest) on-line deadline that can be guaranteed for a work item of highest importance, scheduled at run time, is approximately the inverse of the throughput, measured in work items per second. Third, throughput is not degraded during overload and instead of resorting to task shedding during overload, the designer can specify which work items to shed. We prove these properties in a mathematical model.

  9. Dead time, pileup, and accurate gamma-ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, R.M.; Fleming, R.F.

    1995-12-31

    The accuracy of gamma-ray spectrometric measurements is ultimately limited by the precision of Poisson counting statistics. With careful attention to detail, all other sources of error in the ratio of activities of two sources of a radionuclide in small samples can be made insignificant, even when the statistical limit is well below one percent. An important source of error comes from the finite time required by the counting electronics to detect and process pulses. Dead-time losses (mostly in the analog-digital converter) are usually compensated very well by the pulse-height analyzer, but pileup losses (mostly in the amplifier) may not be. Errors of 10% or more may easily result. Several methods are available for detecting and correcting rate-related losses. These methods are sufficiently reliable and well understood that a decaying source can be measured with acceptably small errors even at count rates as high as tens of thousands per second.

  10. Advanced clinical monitoring: considerations for real-time hemodynamic diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Goldman, J M; Cordova, M J

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to ease staffing burdens and potentially improve patient outcome in an intensive care unit (ICU) environment, we are developing a real-time system to accurately and efficiently diagnose cardiopulmonary emergencies. The system is being designed to utilize all relevant routinely-monitored physiological data in order to automatically diagnose potentially fatal events. The initial stage of this project involved formulating the overall system design and appropriate methods for real-time data acquisition, data storage, data trending, waveform analysis, and implementing diagnostic rules. Initially, we defined a conceptual analysis of the minimum physiologic data set, and the monitoring time-frames (trends) which would be required to diagnose cardiopulmonary emergencies. Following that analysis, we used a fuzzy logic diagnostic engine to analyze physiological data during a simulated arrhythmic cardiac arrest (ACA) in order to assess the validity of our diagnostic methodology. We used rate, trend, and morphologic data extracted from the following signals: expired CO2 time-concentration curve (capnogram), electrocardiogram, and arterial blood pressure. The system performed well: The fuzzy logic engine effectively diagnosed the likelihood of ACA from the subtle hemodynamic trends which preceded the complete arrest. As the clinical picture worsened, the fuzzy logic-based system accurately indicated the change in patient condition. Termination of the simulated arrest was rapidly detected by the diagnostic engine. In view of the effectiveness of this fuzzy logic implementation, we plan to develop additional fuzzy logic modules to diagnose other cardiopulmonary emergencies.

  11. Accurate Monotonicity - Preserving Schemes With Runge-Kutta Time Stepping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suresh, A.; Huynh, H. T.

    1997-01-01

    A new class of high-order monotonicity-preserving schemes for the numerical solution of conservation laws is presented. The interface value in these schemes is obtained by limiting a higher-order polynominal reconstruction. The limiting is designed to preserve accuracy near extrema and to work well with Runge-Kutta time stepping. Computational efficiency is enhanced by a simple test that determines whether the limiting procedure is needed. For linear advection in one dimension, these schemes are shown as well as the Euler equations also confirm their high accuracy, good shock resolution, and computational efficiency.

  12. Improved Real-Time Monitoring Using Multiple Expert Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuttke, Ursula M.; Angelino, Robert; Quan, Alan G.; Veregge, John; Childs, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    Monitor/Analyzer of Real-Time Voyager Engineering Link (MARVEL) computer program implements combination of techniques of both conventional automation and artificial intelligence to improve monitoring of complicated engineering system. Designed to support ground-based operations of Voyager spacecraft, also adapted to other systems. Enables more-accurate monitoring and analysis of telemetry, enhances productivity of monitoring personnel, reduces required number of such personnel by performing routine monitoring tasks, and helps ensure consistency in face of turnover of personnel. Programmed in C language and includes commercial expert-system software shell also written in C.

  13. Detection of earth-approaching asteroids in near real time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabinowitz, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Computer software, called the Moving Object Detection Program (MODP), is described which detects earth-approaching asteroids in near real time. The software runs on a workstation linked to the output of the drift-scanning CCD camera of the Spacewatch Telescope. MOPD recognizes trailed images, detects motion, and accurately determines angular positions and rates of motion for moving objects in the scan images. The results are obtained a few seconds after the image signals are shifted out of the CCD. During 2 months of trial observations with this system, 304 asteroids were detected down to a limiting apparent magnitude for untrailed images of V = 20.5.

  14. Quantification and threshold detection in real-time hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driver, Richard D.

    2009-05-01

    The technical challenges of applying hyperspectral imaging techniques to on-line real-time food monitoring is discussed. System optimization must be applied to the design of the hyperspectral imaging spectrograph, the choice and operation of the imaging detector, the design of the illumination system and finally the development of software algorithms to correctly quantify the hyperspectral images. The signal to noise limitation of hyperspectral detection is discussed with particular emphasis on the detection of moving objects at high measurement bandwidths. An example is given of the development of a simple but accurate algorithm for the detection and discrimination of rust particles on leaves.

  15. Prototype COBRA near-real-time processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earp, Samuel L.; Marshall, J. W.; Anthony, E. R.

    1996-05-01

    The U.S. Marine Corps COBRA countermine surveillance program has developed, as a risk- reduction alternative, a near real-time processor for the output of the COBRA multispectral camera. This processor has been tested using approximately 13.5 hours of video data from the COBRA DT-0 developmental test, representing approximately 243,000 frames of multispectral data. The results have been very encouraging--the system is robust and the minefield detection performance has met the goals of the COBRA program. The MITRE COBRA prototype processor is built from commercial-off-the-shelf VME bus technology. Video capture is provided by a Transtech TDM 435 capture/display VME card. Control is performed on a GMSV64 Super Sparc card that resides in two VME slots. The compute engine consists of two Pentek 4270 Quad TMS320C40 digital signal processing boards. There are two additional 6U VME boards to provide fast SCSI IO. The system is capable of capturing, digitizing and processing the COBRA data stream at between one-eighth and one-half real-time, depending on processing options. The nominal compute power of the system is 2.2 GOPS, 450 MFLOPS. The system is easily upgradeable due to the open architecture--one proposed upgrade will be to increase the number of available TMS320C40 processors to sixteen, providing real-time performance without compromising the current investment in software and hardware. The software for the system is primarily written in C, with hand-optimized assembler code for portions of the compute kernel. The algorithm that is implemented is based on the MITRE minefield detection algorithm detailed at AeroSense '95. The system development required a registration algorithm--this was the only algorithm development that was performed, the rest of the algorithms coming from previous MITRE effort on the COBRA program. Lessons learned from the development and upgrade/test plans will be presented.

  16. Real-time automatic registration in optical surgical navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qinyong; Yang, Rongqian; Cai, Ken; Si, Xuan; Chen, Xiuwen; Wu, Xiaoming

    2016-05-01

    An image-guided surgical navigation system requires the improvement of the patient-to-image registration time to enhance the convenience of the registration procedure. A critical step in achieving this aim is performing a fully automatic patient-to-image registration. This study reports on a design of custom fiducial markers and the performance of a real-time automatic patient-to-image registration method using these markers on the basis of an optical tracking system for rigid anatomy. The custom fiducial markers are designed to be automatically localized in both patient and image spaces. An automatic localization method is performed by registering a point cloud sampled from the three dimensional (3D) pedestal model surface of a fiducial marker to each pedestal of fiducial markers searched in image space. A head phantom is constructed to estimate the performance of the real-time automatic registration method under four fiducial configurations. The head phantom experimental results demonstrate that the real-time automatic registration method is more convenient, rapid, and accurate than the manual method. The time required for each registration is approximately 0.1 s. The automatic localization method precisely localizes the fiducial markers in image space. The averaged target registration error for the four configurations is approximately 0.7 mm. The automatic registration performance is independent of the positions relative to the tracking system and the movement of the patient during the operation.

  17. Near real-time traffic routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Chaowei (Inventor); Cao, Ying (Inventor); Xie, Jibo (Inventor); Zhou, Bin (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A near real-time physical transportation network routing system comprising: a traffic simulation computing grid and a dynamic traffic routing service computing grid. The traffic simulator produces traffic network travel time predictions for a physical transportation network using a traffic simulation model and common input data. The physical transportation network is divided into a multiple sections. Each section has a primary zone and a buffer zone. The traffic simulation computing grid includes multiple of traffic simulation computing nodes. The common input data includes static network characteristics, an origin-destination data table, dynamic traffic information data and historical traffic data. The dynamic traffic routing service computing grid includes multiple dynamic traffic routing computing nodes and generates traffic route(s) using the traffic network travel time predictions.

  18. A Flexible Real-Time Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    WICKSTROM,GREGORY L.

    2000-08-17

    Assuring hard real-time characteristics of I/O associated with embedded software is often a difficult task. Input-Output related statements are often intermixed with the computational code, resulting in I/O timing that is dependent on the execution path and computational load. One way to mitigate this problem is through the use of interrupts. However, the non-determinism that is introduced by interrupt driven I/O may be so difficult to analyze that it is prohibited in some high consequence systems. This paper describes a balanced hardware/software solution to obtain consistent interrupt-free I/O timing, and results in software that is much more amenable to analysis.

  19. Intraoperative, real-time, functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Gering, D T; Weber, D M

    1998-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) methods have been demonstrated to noninvasively identify motor-sensory, visual, and other areas of eloquent cortex for guiding surgical intervention. Typically, fMRI data are acquired preoperatively during a conventional surgical planning MRI examination. Unlike direct cortical stimulation at the time of surgery, however, preoperative fMRI methods do not account for the potential movement of tissues (relative to the time of functional imaging) that may occur in the surgical suite as a direct result of the intervention. Recently, an MRI device has been demonstrated for use in the surgical suite that has the potential to reduce the extent of cortical exposure required for the intervention. However, the invasive requirements of cortical mapping may supersede the invasive requirements of the surgical intervention itself. Consequently, we demonstrate here a modification to the intraoperative MRI device that facilitates a noninvasive, real-time, functional MR examination in the surgical suite.

  20. Real-time applications of neural nets

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J.E.

    1989-05-01

    Producing, accelerating and colliding very high power, low emittance beams for long periods is a formidable problem in real-time control. As energy has grown exponentially in time so has the complexity of the machines and their control systems. Similar growth rates have occurred in many areas, e.g., improved integrated circuits have been paid for with comparable increases in complexity. However, in this case, reliability, capability and cost have improved due to reduced size, high production and increased integration which allow various kinds of feedback. In contrast, most large complex systems (LCS) are perceived to lack such possibilities because only one copy is made. Neural nets, as a metaphor for LCS, suggest ways to circumvent such limitations. It is argued that they are logically equivalent to multi-loop feedback/forward control of faulty systems. While complimentary to AI, they mesh nicely with characteristics desired for real-time systems. Such issues are considered, examples given and possibilities discussed. 21 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Real Time Simulation of Power Grid Disruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Supriya; Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D; Fernandez, Steven J; Groer, Christopher S; Nutaro, James J; Olama, Mohammed M; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Spafford, Kyle L; Vacaliuc, Bogdan

    2012-11-01

    DOE-OE and DOE-SC workshops (Reference 1-3) identified the key power grid problem that requires insight addressable by the next generation of exascale computing is coupling of real-time data streams (1-2 TB per hour) as the streams are ingested to dynamic models. These models would then identify predicted disruptions in time (2-4 seconds) to trigger the smart grid s self healing functions. This project attempted to establish the feasibility of this approach and defined the scientific issues, and demonstrated example solutions to important smart grid simulation problems. These objectives were accomplished by 1) using the existing frequency recorders on the national grid to establish a representative and scalable real-time data stream; 2) invoking ORNL signature identification algorithms; 3) modeling dynamically a representative region of the Eastern interconnect using an institutional cluster, measuring the scalability and computational benchmarks for a national capability; and 4) constructing a prototype simulation for the system s concept of smart grid deployment. The delivered ORNL enduring capability included: 1) data processing and simulation metrics to design a national capability justifying exascale applications; 2) Software and intellectual property built around the example solutions; 3) demonstrated dynamic models to design few second self-healing.

  2. Real-time failure control (SAFD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panossian, Hagop V.; Kemp, Victoria R.; Eckerling, Sherry J.

    1990-01-01

    The Real Time Failure Control program involves development of a failure detection algorithm, referred as System for Failure and Anomaly Detection (SAFD), for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). This failure detection approach is signal-based and it entails monitoring SSME measurement signals based on predetermined and computed mean values and standard deviations. Twenty four engine measurements are included in the algorithm and provisions are made to add more parameters if needed. Six major sections of research are presented: (1) SAFD algorithm development; (2) SAFD simulations; (3) Digital Transient Model failure simulation; (4) closed-loop simulation; (5) SAFD current limitations; and (6) enhancements planned for.

  3. Open Source Real Time Operating Systems Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Straumann, Till

    2001-12-11

    Modern control systems applications are often built on top of a real time operating system (RTOS) which provides the necessary hardware abstraction as well as scheduling, networking and other services. Several open source RTOS solutions are publicly available, which is very attractive, both from an economic (no licensing fees) as well as from a technical (control over the source code) point of view. This contribution gives an overview of the RTLinux and RTEMS systems (architecture, development environment, API etc.). Both systems feature most popular CPUs, several APIs (including Posix), networking, portability and optional commercial support. Some performance figures are presented, focusing on interrupt latency and context switching delay.

  4. Systems Analyze Water Quality in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    A water analyzer developed under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Kennedy Space Center now monitors treatment processes at water and wastewater facilities around the world. Originally designed to provide real-time detection of nutrient levels in hydroponic solutions for growing plants in space, the ChemScan analyzer, produced by ASA Analytics Inc., of Waukesha, Wisconsin, utilizes spectrometry and chemometric algorithms to automatically analyze multiple parameters in the water treatment process with little need for maintenance, calibration, or operator intervention. The company has experienced a compound annual growth rate of 40 percent over its 15-year history as a direct result of the technology's success.

  5. Real-time teleteaching in medical physics.

    PubMed

    Woo, M; Ng, Kh

    2008-01-01

    Medical physics is a relatively small professional community, usually with a scarcity of expertise that could greatly benefit students entering the field. However, the reach of the profession can span great geographical distances, making the training of students a difficult task. In addition to the requirement of training new students, the evolving field of medical physics, with its many emerging advanced techniques and technologies, could benefit greatly from ongoing continuing education as well as consultation with experts.Many continuing education courses and workshops are constantly being offered, including many web-based study courses and virtual libraries. However, one mode of education and communication that has not been widely used is the real-time interactive process. Video-based conferencing systems do exist, but these usually require a substantial amount of effort and cost to set up.The authors have been working on promoting the ever-expanding capability of the Internet to facilitate the education of medical physics to students entering the field. A pilot project has been carried out for six years and reported previously. The project is a collaboration between the Department of Medical Physics at the Toronto Odette Cancer Centre in Canada and the Department of Biomedical Imaging at the University of Malaya in Malaysia. Since 2001, medical physics graduate students at the University of Malaya have been taught by lecturers from Toronto every year, using the Internet as the main tool of communication.The pilot study explored the different methods that can be used to provide real-time interactive remote education, and delivered traditional classroom lectures as well as hands-on workshops.Another similar project was started in 2007 to offer real-time teaching to a class of medical physics students at Wuhan University in Hubei, China. There are new challenges as well as new opportunities associated with this project. By building an inventory of tools and

  6. General purpose computers in real time

    SciTech Connect

    Biel, J.R.

    1989-09-18

    I see three main trends in the use of general purpose computers in real time. The first is more processing power. The second is the use of higher speed interconnects between computers (allowing more data to be delivered to the processors). The third is the use of larger programs running in the computers. Although there is still work that needs to be done, I believe that all indications are that the online need for general purpose computers should be available for the SCC and LHC machines. 2 figs.

  7. Real-Time Reed-Solomon Decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, Gary K.; Cameron, Kelly B.; Owsley, Patrick A.

    1994-01-01

    Generic Reed-Solomon decoder fast enough to correct errors in real time in practical applications designed to be implemented in fewer and smaller very-large-scale integrated, VLSI, circuit chips. Configured to operate in pipelined manner. One outstanding aspect of decoder design is that Euclid multiplier and divider modules contain Galoisfield multipliers configured as combinational-logic cells. Operates at speeds greater than older multipliers. Cellular configuration highly regular and requires little interconnection area, making it ideal for implementation in extraordinarily dense VLSI circuitry. Flight electronics single chip version of this technology implemented and available.

  8. Near real time data processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousessian, Ardvas; Vuu, Christina

    2008-08-01

    Raytheon recently developed and implemented a Near Real Time (NRT) data processing subsystem for Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS3) instrument on NASA Aura spacecraft. The NRT can be viewed as a customized Science Information Processing System (SIPS) where the measurements and information provided by the instrument are expeditiously processed, packaged, and delivered. The purpose of the MLS NRT is to process Level 0 data up through Level 2, and distribute standard data products to the customer within 3-5 hours of the first set of data arrival.

  9. Real time analysis of voiced sounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, J. P. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A power spectrum analysis of the harmonic content of a voiced sound signal is conducted in real time by phase-lock-loop tracking of the fundamental frequency, (f sub 0) of the signal and successive harmonics (h sub 1 through h sub n) of the fundamental frequency. The analysis also includes measuring the quadrature power and phase of each frequency tracked, differentiating the power measurements of the harmonics in adjacent pairs, and analyzing successive differentials to determine peak power points in the power spectrum for display or use in analysis of voiced sound, such as for voice recognition.

  10. Stochastic PArallel Rarefied-gas Time-accurate Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Gallis, Steve Plimpton

    2014-01-24

    The SPARTA package is software for simulating low-density fluids via the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, which is a particle-based method for tracking particle trajectories and collisions as a model of a multi-species gas. The main component of SPARTA is a simulation code which allows the user to specify a simulation domain, populate it with particles, embed triangulated surfaces as boundary conditions for the flow, overlay a grid for finding pairs of collision partners, and evolve the system in time via explicit timestepping. The package also includes various pre- and post-processing tools, useful for setting up simulations and analyzing the results. The simulation code runs either in serial on a single processor or desktop machine, or can be run in parallel using the MPI message-passing library, to enable faster performance on large problems.

  11. Stochastic PArallel Rarefied-gas Time-accurate Analyzer

    2014-01-24

    The SPARTA package is software for simulating low-density fluids via the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, which is a particle-based method for tracking particle trajectories and collisions as a model of a multi-species gas. The main component of SPARTA is a simulation code which allows the user to specify a simulation domain, populate it with particles, embed triangulated surfaces as boundary conditions for the flow, overlay a grid for finding pairs of collision partners,more » and evolve the system in time via explicit timestepping. The package also includes various pre- and post-processing tools, useful for setting up simulations and analyzing the results. The simulation code runs either in serial on a single processor or desktop machine, or can be run in parallel using the MPI message-passing library, to enable faster performance on large problems.« less

  12. Real-time fractal signal processing in the time domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, András; Mukli, Péter; Nagy, Zoltán; Kocsis, László; Hermán, Péter; Eke, András

    2013-01-01

    Fractal analysis has proven useful for the quantitative characterization of complex time series by scale-free statistical measures in various applications. The analysis has commonly been done offline with the signal being resident in memory in full length, and the processing carried out in several distinct passes. However, in many relevant applications, such as monitoring or forecasting, algorithms are needed to capture changes in the fractal measure real-time. Here we introduce real-time variants of the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and the closely related Signal Summation Conversion (SSC) methods, which are suitable to estimate the fractal exponent in one pass. Compared to offline algorithms, the precision is the same, the memory requirement is significantly lower, and the execution time depends on the same factors but with different rates. Our tests show that dynamic changes in the fractal parameter can be efficiently detected. We demonstrate the applicability of our real-time methods on signals of cerebral hemodynamics acquired during open-heart surgery.

  13. Real-time Tsunami Inundation Prediction Using High Performance Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Y.; Imamura, F.; Sugawara, D.

    2014-12-01

    earthquake occurs took about 2 minutes, which would be sufficient for a practical tsunami inundation predictions. In the presentation, the computational performance of our faster-than-real-time tsunami inundation model will be shown, and preferable tsunami wave source analysis for an accurate inundation prediction will also be discussed.

  14. A time-accurate algorithm for chemical non-equilibrium viscous flows at all speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuen, J.-S.; Chen, K.-H.; Choi, Y.

    1992-01-01

    A time-accurate, coupled solution procedure is described for the chemical nonequilibrium Navier-Stokes equations over a wide range of Mach numbers. This method employs the strong conservation form of the governing equations, but uses primitive variables as unknowns. Real gas properties and equilibrium chemistry are considered. Numerical tests include steady convergent-divergent nozzle flows with air dissociation/recombination chemistry, dump combustor flows with n-pentane-air chemistry, nonreacting flow in a model double annular combustor, and nonreacting unsteady driven cavity flows. Numerical results for both the steady and unsteady flows demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the present algorithm for Mach numbers ranging from the incompressible limit to supersonic speeds.

  15. Terrestrial Real-Time Volcano Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, M.

    2013-12-01

    As volcano monitoring involves more and different sensors from seismic to GPS receivers, from video and thermal cameras to multi-parameter probes measuring temperature, ph values and humidity in the ground and the air, it becomes important to design real-time networks that integrate and leverage the multitude of available parameters. In order to do so some simple principles need to be observed: a) a common time base for all measurements, b) a packetized general data communication protocol for acquisition and distribution, c) an open and well documented interface to the data permitting standard and emerging innovative processing, and d) an intuitive visualization platform for scientists and civil defense personnel. Although mentioned as simple principles, the list above does not necessarily lead to obvious solutions or integrated systems, which is, however, required to take advantage of the available data. Only once the different data streams are put into context to each other in terms of time and location can a broader view be obtained and additional information extracted. The presentation is a summary of currently available technologies and how they can achieve the goal of an integrated real-time volcano monitoring system. A common time base are standard for seismic and GPS networks. In different projects we extended this to video feeds and time-lapse photography. Other probes have been integrated with vault interface enclosures (VIE) as used in the Transportable Array (TA) of the USArray. The VIE can accommodate the sensors employed in volcano monitoring. The TA has shown that Antelope is a versatile and robust middleware. It provides the required packetized general communication protocol that is independent from the actual physical communication link leaving the network design to adopt appropriate and possible hybrid solutions. This applies for the data acquisition and the data/information dissemination providing both a much needed collaboration platform, as

  16. It's About Time: How Accurate Can Geochronology Become?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, M.; Baldwin, S.; Caffee, M. W.; Gehrels, G. E.; Schoene, B.; Shuster, D. L.; Singer, B. S.

    2015-12-01

    As isotope ratio precisions have improved to as low as ±1 ppm, geochronologic precision has remained essentially unchanged. This largely reflects the nature of radioactivity whereby the parent decays into a different chemical species thus putting as much emphasis on the determining inter-element ratios as isotopic. Even the best current accuracy grows into errors of >0.6 m.y. during the Paleozoic - a span of time equal to ¼ of the Pleistocene. If we are to understand the nature of Paleozoic species variation and climate change at anything like the Cenozoic, we need a 10x improvement in accuracy. The good news is that there is no physical impediment to realizing this. There are enough Pb* atoms in the outer few μm's of a Paleozoic zircon grown moments before eruption to permit ±0.01% accuracy in the U-Pb system. What we need are the resources to synthesize the spikes, enhance ionization yields, exploit microscale sampling, and improve knowledge of λ correspondingly. Despite advances in geochronology over the past 40 years (multicollection, multi-isotope spikes, in situ dating), our ability to translate a daughter atom into a detected ion has remained at the level of 1% or so. This means that a ~102 increase in signal can be achieved before we approach a physical limit. Perhaps the most promising approach is use of broad spectrum lasers that can ionize all neutrals. Radical new approaches to providing mass separation of such signals are emerging, including trapped ion cyclotron resonance and multi-turn, sputtered neutral TOF spectrometers capable of mass resolutions in excess of 105. These innovations hold great promise in geochronology but are largely being developed for cosmochemistry. This may make sense at first glance as cosmochemists are classically atom-limited (IDPs, stardust) but can be a misperception as the outer few μm's of a zircon may represent no more mass than a stardust mote. To reach the fundamental limits of geochronologic signals we need to

  17. Residential Real-time Price Response Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chassin, David P.; Fuller, Jason C.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2011-10-10

    The electric industry is gaining experience with innovative price responsive demand pilots and limited roll-outs to customers. One of these pilots is investigating real-time pricing signals to engage end-use systems and local distributed generation and storage in a distributed optimization process. Attractive aspects about the approach include strong scalability characteristics, simplified interfaces between automation devices, and the adaptability to integrate a wide variety of devices and systems. Experience in this nascent field is revealing a rich array of for engineering decisions and the application of complexity theory. To test the decisions, computer simulations are used to reveal insights about design, demand elasticity, and the limits of response (including consumer fatigue). Agent-based approaches lend themselves well in the simulation to modeling the participation and interaction of each piece of equipment on a distribution feeder. This paper discusses rate design and simulation experiences at the distribution feeder level where consumers and their HVAC systems and water heaters on a feeder receive real-time pricing signals.

  18. Real-time adaptive video image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garside, John R.; Harrison, Chris G.

    1999-07-01

    As part of a continuing collaboration between the University of Manchester and British Aerospace, a signal processing array has been constructed to demonstrate that it is feasible to compensate a video signal for the degradation caused by atmospheric haze in real-time. Previously reported work has shown good agreement between a simple physical model of light scattering by atmospheric haze and the observed loss of contrast. This model predicts a characteristic relationship between contrast loss in the image and the range from the camera to the scene. For an airborne camera, the slant-range to a point on the ground may be estimated from the airplane's pose, as reported by the inertial navigation system, and the contrast may be obtained from the camera's output. Fusing data from these two streams provides a means of estimating model parameters such as the visibility and the overall illumination of the scene. This knowledge allows the same model to be applied in reverse, thus restoring the contrast lost to atmospheric haze. An efficient approximation of range is vital for a real-time implementation of the method. Preliminary results show that an adaptive approach to fitting the model's parameters, exploiting the temporal correlation between video frames, leads to a robust implementation with a significantly accelerated throughput.

  19. Neutron monitor database in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Valery; Kudela, Karel; Starodubtsev, Sergei; Turpanov, Alexey; Usoskin, Ilya; Yanke, Victor

    2003-09-01

    A first distributed Real Time Cosmic Ray Database using measurements of several neutron monitors is presented. The aim of the project is to develop a unified database with data from different neutron monitors collected together, in unified format and to provide a user with several commonly used data access methods. The database contains original cosmic ray as well as all housekeeping and technical data necessary for scientific data analysis. Currently the database includes Lomnicky Stit, Moscow, Oulu, Tixie Bay, Yakutsk stations and it is opened for other neutron monitors. The main database server is located in IKFIA SB RAS (Yakutsk) but there will be several mirrors of the database. The datbase and all its mirrors are updated on the nearly real-time (1 hour) basis. The data access software includes WWW-interface, Perl scipts and C library, which may be linked to a user program. Most of frequently used functions are implemented to make it operable to users without SQL language knowledge. A draft of the data representation standard is suggested, based on common practice of neutron monitor community. The database engine is freely distributed open-sourced PostgreSQL server coupled with a set of replication tools developed at Bioengineering division of the IRCCS E. Medea, Italy.

  20. Near-real-time Jason-1 Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigor, E. M.; Bingham, A.; Case, K.

    2002-12-01

    The Jason-1 satellite mission provides sea surface height measurements in near-real-time (NRT). These operational data can be used for a variety of scientific and commercial applications, including marine meteorology, ship routing, and climate prediction. The Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC), NASA's primary data center for archiving and distributing oceanographic data, is supporting the JASON-1 mission by capturing NRT data from Jason Ground System (JGS) and distributing the data to operational users. In addition, PO.DAAC will be processing the data to create value-added NRT browse images, which will be made available, along with their associated binary data, through the Near-Real-Time Image Distribution Server (NEREIDS). Two NRT data products will be processed by JGS and captured by PO.DAAC: Operational Sensor Data Records (OSDRs) and Interim Geophysical Data Records (IGDRs). OSDRs have a latency of three hours from data collection and an orbit accuracy of 30 cm; IGDRs are available seventy-two hours after collection and have an accuracy of 2.5 cm. After capturing these data, PO.DAAC will automatically create significant wave height, wind speed, and water vapor content browse images from the OSDR data. Additional parameters will be provided from the IGDR data product, such as the sea surface height anomaly, among others. In this poster, we describe the functionality of NEREIDS and demonstrate the usefulness of operational altimetric data for scientific applications.

  1. 3D MR imaging in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttman, Michael A.; McVeigh, Elliot R.

    2001-05-01

    A system has been developed to produce live 3D volume renderings from an MR scanner. Whereas real-time 2D MR imaging has been demonstrated by several groups, 3D volumes are currently rendered off-line to gain greater understanding of anatomical structures. For example, surgical planning is sometimes performed by viewing 2D images or 3D renderings from previously acquired image data. A disadvantage of this approach is misregistration which could occur if the anatomy changes due to normal muscle contractions or surgical manipulation. The ability to produce volume renderings in real-time and present them in the magnet room could eliminate this problem, and enable or benefit other types of interventional procedures. The system uses the data stream generated by a fast 2D multi- slice pulse sequence to update a volume rendering immediately after a new slice is available. We demonstrate some basic types of user interaction with the rendering during imaging at a rate of up to 20 frames per second.

  2. Kinetic Measurement and Real Time Visualization of Somatic Reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Quintanilla, Rene H; Asprer, Joanna; Sylakowski, Kyle; Lakshmipathy, Uma

    2016-07-30

    Somatic reprogramming has enabled the conversion of adult cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from diverse genetic backgrounds and disease phenotypes. Recent advances have identified more efficient and safe methods for introduction of reprogramming factors. However, there are few tools to monitor and track the progression of reprogramming. Current methods for monitoring reprogramming rely on the qualitative inspection of morphology or staining with stem cell-specific dyes and antibodies. Tools to dissect the progression of iPSC generation can help better understand the process under different conditions from diverse cell sources. This study presents key approaches for kinetic measurement of reprogramming progression using flow cytometry as well as real-time monitoring via imaging. To measure the kinetics of reprogramming, flow analysis was performed at discrete time points using antibodies against positive and negative pluripotent stem cell markers. The combination of real-time visualization and flow analysis enables the quantitative study of reprogramming at different stages and provides a more accurate comparison of different systems and methods. Real-time, image-based analysis was used for the continuous monitoring of fibroblasts as they are reprogrammed in a feeder-free medium system. The kinetics of colony formation was measured based on confluence in the phase contrast or fluorescence channels after staining with live alkaline phosphatase dye or antibodies against SSEA4 or TRA-1-60. The results indicated that measurement of confluence provides semi-quantitative metrics to monitor the progression of reprogramming.

  3. Real-time volume-based ambient occlusion.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Georgios; Menexi, Maria Lida; Papadopoulos, Charilaos

    2010-01-01

    Real-time rendering can benefit from global illumination methods to make the 3D environments look more convincing and lifelike. On the other hand, the conventional global illumination algorithms for the estimation of the diffuse surface interreflection make heavy usage of intra- and interobject visibility calculations, so they are time-consuming, and using them in real-time graphics applications can be prohibitive for complex scenes. Modern illumination approximations, such as ambient occlusion variants, use precalculated or frame-dependent data to reduce the problem to a local shading one. This paper presents a fast real-time method for visibility sampling using volumetric data in order to produce accurate inter- and intraobject ambient occlusion. The proposed volume sampling technique disassociates surface representation data from the visibility calculations, and therefore, makes the method suitable for both primitive-order or screen-order rendering, such as deferred rendering. The sampling mechanism can be used in any application that performs visibility queries or ray marching.

  4. Kinetic Measurement and Real Time Visualization of Somatic Reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Quintanilla, Rene H; Asprer, Joanna; Sylakowski, Kyle; Lakshmipathy, Uma

    2016-01-01

    Somatic reprogramming has enabled the conversion of adult cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from diverse genetic backgrounds and disease phenotypes. Recent advances have identified more efficient and safe methods for introduction of reprogramming factors. However, there are few tools to monitor and track the progression of reprogramming. Current methods for monitoring reprogramming rely on the qualitative inspection of morphology or staining with stem cell-specific dyes and antibodies. Tools to dissect the progression of iPSC generation can help better understand the process under different conditions from diverse cell sources. This study presents key approaches for kinetic measurement of reprogramming progression using flow cytometry as well as real-time monitoring via imaging. To measure the kinetics of reprogramming, flow analysis was performed at discrete time points using antibodies against positive and negative pluripotent stem cell markers. The combination of real-time visualization and flow analysis enables the quantitative study of reprogramming at different stages and provides a more accurate comparison of different systems and methods. Real-time, image-based analysis was used for the continuous monitoring of fibroblasts as they are reprogrammed in a feeder-free medium system. The kinetics of colony formation was measured based on confluence in the phase contrast or fluorescence channels after staining with live alkaline phosphatase dye or antibodies against SSEA4 or TRA-1-60. The results indicated that measurement of confluence provides semi-quantitative metrics to monitor the progression of reprogramming. PMID:27500543

  5. The goldstone real-time connected element interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, C., Jr.; Rogstad, D.; Fort, D.; White, L.; Iijima, B.

    1992-01-01

    Connected element interferometry (CEI) is a technique of observing a celestial radio source at two spatially separated antennas and then interfering the received signals to extract the relative phase of the signal at the two antennas. The high precision of the resulting phase delay data type can provide an accurate determination of the angular position of the radio source relative to the baseline vector between the two stations. This article describes a recently developed connected element interferometer on a 21-km baseline between two antennas at the Deep Space Network's Goldstone, California, tracking complex. Fiber-optic links are used to transmit the data to a common site for processing. The system incorporates a real-time correlator to process these data in real time. The architecture of the system is described, and observational data are presented to characterize the potential performance of such a system. The real-time processing capability offers potential advantages in terms of increased reliability and improved delivery of navigational data for time-critical operations. Angular accuracies of 50-100 nrad are achievable on this baseline.

  6. Exploding Nitromethane in Silico, in Real Time.

    PubMed

    Fileti, Eudes Eterno; Chaban, Vitaly V; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2014-10-01

    Nitromethane (NM) is widely applied in chemical technology as a solvent for extraction, cleaning, and chemical synthesis. NM was considered safe for a long time, until a railroad tanker car exploded in 1958. We investigate the detonation kinetics and explosion reaction mechanisms in a variety of systems consisting of NM, molecular oxygen, and water vapor. Reactive molecular dynamics allows us to simulate reactions in time-domain, as they occur in real life. High polarity of the NM molecule is shown to play a key role, driving the first exothermic step of the reaction. Rapid temperature and pressure growth stimulate the subsequent reaction steps. Oxygen is important for faster oxidation, whereas its optimal concentration is in agreement with the proposed reaction mechanism. Addition of water (50 mol %) inhibits detonation; however, water does not prevent detonation entirely. The reported results provide important insights for improving applications of NM and preserving the safety of industrial processes. PMID:26278455

  7. Wi-Fi real time location systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doll, Benjamin A.

    This thesis objective was to determine the viability of utilizing an untrained Wi-Fi. real time location system as a GPS alternative for indoor environments. Background. research showed that GPS is rarely able to penetrate buildings to provide reliable. location data. The benefit of having location information in a facility and how they might. be used for disaster or emergency relief personnel and their resources motivated this. research. A building was selected with a well-deployed Wi-Fi infrastructure and its. untrained location feature was used to determine the distance between the specified. test points and the system identified location. It was found that the average distance. from the test point throughout the facility was 14.3 feet 80% of the time. This fell within. the defined viable range and supported that an untrained Wi-Fi RTLS system could be a. viable solution for GPS's lack of availability indoors.

  8. PCs stir reliability, real-time concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Strothman, J.

    1994-11-01

    While pre-Christmas price wars regularly boost personal computer sales this time of year, price cuts alone won`t cause process control systems designers to open their wallets and buy PCs. User studies and user feedback to process control equipment suppliers show several other issues continue to rank higher than price including: (1) Hardware and software reliability; (2) easy-to-use user interfaces; (3) ability to do multitasking; (4) need for real-time updates. These and several other non-price issues - including open versus proprietary systems, slower scan rates from PCs compared to programmable controllers, and assurances that the PC will work in an industrial environment - scored high in a study authored earlier this year by Jesse Yoder, owner of Idea Network, Clinton, NJ. The report, titled {open_quotes}The World Market for Process Control Equipment,{close_quotes} was written for FIND/SVP, a New York City market research firm.

  9. Identifying financial crises in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Fonseca, Eder Lucio; Ferreira, Fernando F.; Muruganandam, Paulsamy; Cerdeira, Hilda A.

    2013-03-01

    Following the thermodynamic formulation of a multifractal measure that was shown to enable the detection of large fluctuations at an early stage, here we propose a new index which permits us to distinguish events like financial crises in real time. We calculate the partition function from which we can obtain thermodynamic quantities analogous to the free energy and specific heat. The index is defined as the normalized energy variation and it can be used to study the behavior of stochastic time series, such as financial market daily data. Famous financial market crashes-Black Thursday (1929), Black Monday (1987) and the subprime crisis (2008)-are identified with clear and robust results. The method is also applied to the market fluctuations of 2011. From these results it appears as if the apparent crisis of 2011 is of a different nature to the other three. We also show that the analysis has forecasting capabilities.

  10. Real-time forecasts of dengue epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamana, T. K.; Shaman, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease prevalent in the tropics and subtropics, with an estimated 2.5 billion people at risk of transmission. In many areas with endemic dengue, disease transmission is seasonal but prone to high inter-annual variability with occasional severe epidemics. Predicting and preparing for periods of higher than average transmission is a significant public health challenge. Here we present a model of dengue transmission and a framework for optimizing model simulations with real-time observational data of dengue cases and environmental variables in order to generate ensemble-based forecasts of the timing and severity of disease outbreaks. The model-inference system is validated using synthetic data and dengue outbreak records. Retrospective forecasts are generated for a number of locations and the accuracy of these forecasts is quantified.

  11. Towards real time speckle controlled retinal photocoagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliedtner, Katharina; Seifert, Eric; Stockmann, Leoni; Effe, Lisa; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2016-03-01

    Photocoagulation is a laser treatment widely used for the therapy of several retinal diseases. Intra- and inter-individual variations of the ocular transmission, light scattering and the retinal absorption makes it impossible to achieve a uniform effective exposure and hence a uniform damage throughout the therapy. A real-time monitoring and control of the induced damage is highly requested. Here, an approach to realize a real time optical feedback using dynamic speckle analysis is presented. A 532 nm continuous wave Nd:YAG laser is used for coagulation. During coagulation, speckle dynamics are monitored by a coherent object illumination using a 633nm HeNe laser and analyzed by a CMOS camera with a frame rate up to 1 kHz. It is obvious that a control system needs to determine whether the desired damage is achieved to shut down the system in a fraction of the exposure time. Here we use a fast and simple adaption of the generalized difference algorithm to analyze the speckle movements. This algorithm runs on a FPGA and is able to calculate a feedback value which is correlated to the thermal and coagulation induced tissue motion and thus the achieved damage. For different spot sizes (50-200 μm) and different exposure times (50-500 ms) the algorithm shows the ability to discriminate between different categories of retinal pigment epithelial damage ex-vivo in enucleated porcine eyes. Furthermore in-vivo experiments in rabbits show the ability of the system to determine tissue changes in living tissue during coagulation.

  12. Investigations on Real-time GPS for Earthquake Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grapenthin, R.; Aranha, M. A.; Melgar, D.; Allen, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Geodetic Alarm System (G-larmS) is a software system developed in a collaboration between the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL) and New Mexico Tech (NMT) primarily for real-time Earthquake Early Warning (EEW). It currently uses high rate (1Hz), low latency (< ~5 seconds), accurate positioning (cm level) time series data from a regional GPS network and P-wave event triggers from existing EEW algorithms, e.g. ElarmS, to compute static offsets upon S-wave arrival. G-larmS performs a least squares inversion on these offsets to determine slip on a finite fault, which we use to estimate moment magnitude. These computations are repeated every second for the duration of the event. G-larmS has been in continuous operation at the BSL for over a year using event triggers from the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) ShakeAlert system and real-time position time series from a fully triangulated network consisting of BARD, PBO and USGS stations across northern California. Pairs of stations are processed as baselines using trackRT (MIT software package). G-larmS produced good results in real-time during the South Napa (M 6.0, August 2014) earthquake as well as on several replayed and simulated test cases. We evaluate the performance of G-larmS for EEW by analysing the results using a set of well defined test cases to investigate the following: (1) using multiple fault regimes and concurrent processing with the ultimate goal of achieving model generation (slip and magnitude computations) within each 1 second GPS epoch on very large magnitude earthquakes (up to M 9.0), (2) the use of Precise Point Positioning (PPP) real-time data streams of various operators, accuracies, latencies and formats along with baseline data streams, (3) collaboratively expanding EEW coverage along the U.S. West Coast on a regional network basis for Northern California, Southern California and Cascadia.

  13. Real-time visualization of joint cavitation.

    PubMed

    Kawchuk, Gregory N; Fryer, Jerome; Jaremko, Jacob L; Zeng, Hongbo; Rowe, Lindsay; Thompson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Cracking sounds emitted from human synovial joints have been attributed historically to the sudden collapse of a cavitation bubble formed as articular surfaces are separated. Unfortunately, bubble collapse as the source of joint cracking is inconsistent with many physical phenomena that define the joint cracking phenomenon. Here we present direct evidence from real-time magnetic resonance imaging that the mechanism of joint cracking is related to cavity formation rather than bubble collapse. In this study, ten metacarpophalangeal joints were studied by inserting the finger of interest into a flexible tube tightened around a length of cable used to provide long-axis traction. Before and after traction, static 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired. During traction, rapid cine magnetic resonance images were obtained from the joint midline at a rate of 3.2 frames per second until the cracking event occurred. As traction forces increased, real-time cine magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated rapid cavity inception at the time of joint separation and sound production after which the resulting cavity remained visible. Our results offer direct experimental evidence that joint cracking is associated with cavity inception rather than collapse of a pre-existing bubble. These observations are consistent with tribonucleation, a known process where opposing surfaces resist separation until a critical point where they then separate rapidly creating sustained gas cavities. Observed previously in vitro, this is the first in-vivo macroscopic demonstration of tribonucleation and as such, provides a new theoretical framework to investigate health outcomes associated with joint cracking.

  14. Real-Time Visualization of Joint Cavitation

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Cracking sounds emitted from human synovial joints have been attributed historically to the sudden collapse of a cavitation bubble formed as articular surfaces are separated. Unfortunately, bubble collapse as the source of joint cracking is inconsistent with many physical phenomena that define the joint cracking phenomenon. Here we present direct evidence from real-time magnetic resonance imaging that the mechanism of joint cracking is related to cavity formation rather than bubble collapse. In this study, ten metacarpophalangeal joints were studied by inserting the finger of interest into a flexible tube tightened around a length of cable used to provide long-axis traction. Before and after traction, static 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired. During traction, rapid cine magnetic resonance images were obtained from the joint midline at a rate of 3.2 frames per second until the cracking event occurred. As traction forces increased, real-time cine magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated rapid cavity inception at the time of joint separation and sound production after which the resulting cavity remained visible. Our results offer direct experimental evidence that joint cracking is associated with cavity inception rather than collapse of a pre-existing bubble. These observations are consistent with tribonucleation, a known process where opposing surfaces resist separation until a critical point where they then separate rapidly creating sustained gas cavities. Observed previously in vitro, this is the first in-vivo macroscopic demonstration of tribonucleation and as such, provides a new theoretical framework to investigate health outcomes associated with joint cracking. PMID:25875374

  15. [Real time 3D echocardiography in congenital heart disease].

    PubMed

    Acar, P; Dulac, Y; Taktak, A; Villacèque, M

    2004-05-01

    The introduction of the 3D mode in echocardiography has led to its use in everyday clinical practice. One hundred and fifty real time 3D echocardiographic examinations were performed in 20 foetus, 110 children and 20 adults with various congenital heart lesions (shunts, valvular lesions, aortic diseases). The 4x matricial probe enables the instantaneous acquisition of transthoracic volumes. Four modes of 3D imaging were used: real time, total volume, colour Doppler and biplane. Quantitative measurements were performed at an outlying station. The feasibility of the method in the foetus, the child and the adult was respectively 90%, 99% and 85%. Real time 3D echocardiography did not affect the diagnoses made by standard echocardiography. The 3D imaging gave a more accurate description of atrial septal defects and congenital valvular lesions. Biplane imaging was decisive in the quantitative approach to aortic dilatation of Marfan's syndrome and in segmental analysis of the foetal heart. 3D colour Doppler imaging has been disappointing but the possibilities of volumic quantification of blood flow are very promising. The present limitations of the method are the inadequate resolution in the small child and the absence of quantitative measurement on the echograph. The facility of utilisation of the matricial probe should lead to routine usage of 3D echocardiography as with 2D and the Doppler modes. Its value should be decisive in many congenital cardiac lesions requiring surgery or interventional catheterisation. PMID:15214550

  16. Real-time mosaicing of fetoscopic videos using SIFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daga, Pankaj; Chadebecq, François; Shakir, Dzhoshkun I.; Herrera, Luis Carlos G.; Tella, Marcel; Dwyer, George; David, Anna L.; Deprest, Jan; Stoyanov, Danail; Vercauteren, Tom; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2016-03-01

    Fetoscopic laser photo-coagulation of the placental vascular anastomoses remains the most effective therapy for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) in monochorionic twin pregnancies. However, to ensure the success of the intervention, complete photo-coagulation of all anastomoses is needed. This is made difficult by the limited field of view of the fetoscopic video guidance, which hinders the surgeon's ability to locate all the anastomoses. A potential solution to this problem is to expand the field of view of the placental surface by creating a mosaic from overlapping fetoscopic images. This mosaic can then be used for anastomoses localization and spatial orientation during surgery. However, this requires accurate and fast algorithms that can operate within the real-time constraints of fetal surgery. In this work, we present an image mosaicing framework that leverages the parallelism of modern GPUs and can process clinical fetoscopic images in real-time. Initial qualitative results on ex-vivo placental images indicate that the proposed framework can generate clinically useful mosaics from fetoscopic videos in real-time.

  17. Real time 3D and heterogeneous data fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Little, C.Q.; Small, D.E.

    1998-03-01

    This project visualizes characterization data in a 3D setting, in real time. Real time in this sense means collecting the data and presenting it before it delays the user, and processing faster than the acquisition systems so no bottlenecks occur. The goals have been to build a volumetric viewer to display 3D data, demonstrate projecting other data, such as images, onto the 3D data, and display both the 3D and projected images as fast as the data became available. The authors have examined several ways to display 3D surface data. The most effective was generating polygonal surface meshes. They have created surface maps form a continuous stream of 3D range data, fused image data onto the geometry, and displayed the data with a standard 3D rendering package. In parallel with this, they have developed a method to project real-time images onto the surface created. A key component is mapping the data on the correct surfaces, which requires a-priori positional information along with accurate calibration of the camera and lens system.

  18. Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D.

    2013-12-01

    The 1999 Assessment of U.S. Marine Transportation System report to Congress noted that the greatest safety concern voiced by the maritime community was the availability of timely, accurate, and reliable navigation information, including real time environment data. Real time oceanographic and meteorological data, along with other navigation tools, gives the mariner a good situational understanding of their often challenging operational environment, to make the best safety of life and property decisions. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Physical Oceanographic Real Time System (PORTS) was developed in response to accidents like the Sunshine Skyway Bridge collision in Tampa, FL in 1980, where the lack of accurate, reliable and timely environmental conditions directly contributed to an accident that resulted in a high loss of life and property. Since that time, PORTS has expanded to over 20 locations around the country, and its capabilities have been continually expanded and improved as well. PORTS primary mission is to prevent maritime accidents. Preventing an accident from occurring is the most cost effective approach and the best way to avoid damage to the environment. When accidents do occur, PORTS data is used to improve the effectiveness of response efforts by providing input for trajectory models and real time conditions for response efforts. However, benefits derived from PORTS go well beyond navigation safety. Another large benefit to the local maritime community is potential efficiencies in optimizing use of the existing water column. PORTS provides information that can be used to make economic decisions to add or offload cargo to a vessel and/or to maintain or adjust transit schedules based upon availability of water depth, strength/timing of tidal currents, and other conditions. PORTS data also helps improve and validate local National Weather Service marine weather forecasts. There are many benefits beyond the local maritime

  19. Physics in the Real Universe: Time and Space-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, George F. R.

    The block universe idea, representing space-time as a fixed whole, suggests the flow of time is an illusion: the entire Universe just is, with no special meaning attached to the present time. This paper points out that this view, in essence represented by usual space-time diagrams, is based on time-reversible microphysical laws, which fail to capture essential features of the time-irreversible macro-physical behaviour and the development of emergent complex systems, including life, which exist in the real Universe. When these are taken into account, the unchanging block Universe view of space-time is best replaced by an evolving block Universe which extends as time evolves, with the potential of the future continually becoming the certainty of the past; space-time itself evolves, as do the entities within it. However this time evolution is not related to any preferred surfaces in space-time; rather it is associated with the evolution of proper time along families of world lines.

  20. Real-time, face recognition technology

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, S.

    1995-11-01

    The Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory recently developed the real-time, face recognition technology KEN. KEN uses novel imaging devices such as silicon retinas developed at Caltech or off-the-shelf CCD cameras to acquire images of a face and to compare them to a database of known faces in a robust fashion. The KEN-Online project makes that recognition technology accessible through the World Wide Web (WWW), an internet service that has recently seen explosive growth. A WWW client can submit face images, add them to the database of known faces and submit other pictures that the system tries to recognize. KEN-Online serves to evaluate the recognition technology and grow a large face database. KEN-Online includes the use of public domain tools such as mSQL for its name-database and perl scripts to assist the uploading of images.

  1. Real time software tools and methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christofferson, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    Real time systems are characterized by high speed processing and throughput as well as asynchronous event processing requirements. These requirements give rise to particular implementations of parallel or pipeline multitasking structures, of intertask or interprocess communications mechanisms, and finally of message (buffer) routing or switching mechanisms. These mechanisms or structures, along with the data structue, describe the essential character of the system. These common structural elements and mechanisms are identified, their implementation in the form of routines, tasks or macros - in other words, tools are formalized. The tools developed support or make available the following: reentrant task creation, generalized message routing techniques, generalized task structures/task families, standardized intertask communications mechanisms, and pipeline and parallel processing architectures in a multitasking environment. Tools development raise some interesting prospects in the areas of software instrumentation and software portability. These issues are discussed following the description of the tools themselves.

  2. Real time speech formant analyzer and display

    DOEpatents

    Holland, G.E.; Struve, W.S.; Homer, J.F.

    1987-02-03

    A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user. 19 figs.

  3. Real time speech formant analyzer and display

    DOEpatents

    Holland, George E.; Struve, Walter S.; Homer, John F.

    1987-01-01

    A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user.

  4. Filming protein fibrillogenesis in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bella, Angelo; Shaw, Michael; Ray, Santanu; Ryadnov, Maxim G.

    2014-12-01

    Protein fibrillogenesis is a universal tool of nano-to-micro scale construction supporting different forms of biological function. Its exploitable potential in nanoscience and technology is substantial, but the direct observation of homogeneous fibre growth able to underpin a kinetic-based rationale for building customized nanostructures in situ is lacking. Here we introduce a kinetic model of de novo protein fibrillogenesis which we imaged at the nanoscale and in real time, filmed. The model helped to reveal that, in contrast to heterogeneous amyloid assemblies, homogeneous protein recruitment is principally characterized by uniform rates of cooperative growth at both ends of growing fibers, bi-directional growth, with lateral growth arrested at a post-seeding stage. The model provides a foundation for in situ engineering of sequence-prescribed fibrous architectures.

  5. Real-time slicing of data space

    SciTech Connect

    Crawfis, R.A.

    1996-07-01

    Real-time rendering of iso-contour surfaces is problematic for large complex data sets. In this paper, an algorithm is presented that allows very rapid representation of an interval set surrounding a iso-contour surface. The algorithm draws upon three main ideas. A fast indexing scheme is used to select only those data points near the contour surface. Hardware assisted splatting is then employed on these data points to produce a volume rendering of the interval set. Finally, by shifting a small window through the indexing scheme or data space, animated volumes are produced showing the changing contour values. In addition to allowing fast selection and rendering of the data, the indexing scheme allows a much compressed representation of the data by eliminating ``noise`` data points.

  6. REAL TIME DATA FOR REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES [11505

    SciTech Connect

    BROCK CT

    2011-01-13

    Health physicists from the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company collaborated with Berkeley Nucleonics Corporation to modify the SAM 940 isotope identifier instrument to be used for nuclear waste remediation. These modifications coupled with existing capabilities of the SAM 940 have proven to be invaluable during remediation activities, reducing disposal costs by allowing swift remediation of targeted areas that have been identified as having isotopes of concern (IOC), and eliminating multiple visits to sites by declaring an excavation site clear of IOCs before demobilizing from the site. These advantages are enabled by accumulating spectral data for specific isotopes that is nearly 100 percent free of false positives, which are filtered out in 'real time.'

  7. Real-time snapshot hyperspectral imaging endoscope.

    PubMed

    Kester, Robert T; Bedard, Noah; Gao, Liang; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S

    2011-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has tremendous potential to detect important molecular biomarkers of early cancer based on their unique spectral signatures. Several drawbacks have limited its use for in vivo screening applications: most notably the poor temporal and spatial resolution, high expense, and low optical throughput of existing hyperspectral imagers. We present the development of a new real-time hyperspectral endoscope (called the image mapping spectroscopy endoscope) based on an image mapping technique capable of addressing these challenges. The parallel high throughput nature of this technique enables the device to operate at frame rates of 5.2 frames per second while collecting a (x, y, λ) datacube of 350 × 350 × 48. We have successfully imaged tissue in vivo, resolving a vasculature pattern of the lower lip while simultaneously detecting oxy-hemoglobin. PMID:21639573

  8. Cerebral Autoregulation Real-Time Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Tsalach, Adi; Ratner, Eliahu; Lokshin, Stas; Silman, Zmira; Breskin, Ilan; Budin, Nahum; Kamar, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral autoregulation is a mechanism which maintains constant cerebral blood flow (CBF) despite changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP). Assessing whether this mechanism is intact or impaired and determining its boundaries is important in many clinical settings, where primary or secondary injuries to the brain may occur. Herein we describe the development of a new ultrasound tagged near infra red light monitor which tracks CBF trends, in parallel, it continuously measures blood pressure and correlates them to produce a real time autoregulation index. Its performance is validated in both in-vitro experiment and a pre-clinical case study. Results suggest that using such a tool, autoregulation boundaries as well as its impairment or functioning can be identified and assessed. It may therefore assist in individualized MAP management to ensure adequate organ perfusion and reduce the risk of postoperative complications, and might play an important role in patient care. PMID:27571474

  9. Near Real-Time Solar Image Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, G.; Denker, C.; Wang, H.

    2001-05-01

    We use a Linux Beowulf cluster to build a system for near real-time solar image reconstruction with the goal to obtain diffraction limited solar images at a cadence of one minute. This gives us immediate access to high-level data products and enables direct visualization of dynamic processes on the Sun. Space weather warnings and flare forecasting will benefit from this project. The image processing algorithms are based on the speckle masking method combined with frame selection. The parallel programs use explicit message passing via Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM). The preliminary results are very promising. Now, we can construct a 256 by 256 pixel image out of 50 short-exposure images within one minute on a Beowulf cluster with four 500~MHz CPUs. In addition, we want to explore the possibility of applying parallel computing on Beowulf clusters to other complex data reduction and analysis problems that we encounter, e.g., in multi-dimensional spectro-polarimetry.

  10. Near real-time stereo vision system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Charles H. (Inventor); Matthies, Larry H. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The apparatus for a near real-time stereo vision system for use with a robotic vehicle is described. The system is comprised of two cameras mounted on three-axis rotation platforms, image-processing boards, a CPU, and specialized stereo vision algorithms. Bandpass-filtered image pyramids are computed, stereo matching is performed by least-squares correlation, and confidence ranges are estimated by means of Bayes' theorem. In particular, Laplacian image pyramids are built and disparity maps are produced from the 60 x 64 level of the pyramids at rates of up to 2 seconds per image pair. The first autonomous cross-country robotic traverses (of up to 100 meters) have been achieved using the stereo vision system of the present invention with all computing done onboard the vehicle. The overall approach disclosed herein provides a unifying paradigm for practical domain-independent stereo ranging.

  11. Near real-time stereo vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthies, Larry H.; Anderson, Charles H.

    1991-12-01

    The apparatus for a near real-time stereo vision system for use with a robotic vehicle is described. The system is comprised of two cameras mounted on three-axis rotation platforms, image-processing boards, a CPU, and specialized stereo vision algorithms. Bandpass-filtered image pyramids are computed, stereo matching is performed by least-squares correlation, and confidence ranges are estimated by means of Bayes' theorem. In particular, Laplacian image pyramids are built and disparity maps are produced from the 60 x 64 level of the pyramids at rates of up to 2 seconds per image pair. The first autonomous cross-country robotic traverses (of up to 100 meters) have been achieved using the stereo vision system of the present invention with all computing done onboard the vehicle. The overall approach disclosed herein provides a unifying paradigm for practical domain-independent stereo ranging.

  12. Real-time value-driven diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dambrosio, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Diagnosis is often thought of as an isolated task in theoretical reasoning (reasoning with the goal of updating our beliefs about the world). We present a decision-theoretic interpretation of diagnosis as a task in practical reasoning (reasoning with the goal of acting in the world), and sketch components of our approach to this task. These components include an abstract problem description, a decision-theoretic model of the basic task, a set of inference methods suitable for evaluating the decision representation in real-time, and a control architecture to provide the needed continuing coordination between the agent and its environment. A principal contribution of this work is the representation and inference methods we have developed, which extend previously available probabilistic inference methods and narrow, somewhat, the gap between probabilistic and logical models of diagnosis.

  13. Toward Real Time Uavs' Image Mosaicking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrdad, S.; Satari, M.; Safdary, M.; Moallem, P.

    2016-06-01

    Anyone knows that sudden catastrophes can instantly do great damage. Fast and accurate acquisition of catastrophe information is an essential task for minimize life and property damage. Compared with other ways of catastrophe data acquisition, UAV based platforms can optimize time, cost and accuracy of the data acquisition, as a result UAVs' data has become the first choice in such condition. In this paper, a novel and fast strategy is proposed for registering and mosaicking of UAVs' image data. Firstly, imprecise image positions are used to find adjoining frames. Then matching process is done by a novel matching method. With keeping Sift in mind, this fast matching method is introduced, which uses images exposure time geometry, SIFT point detector and rBRIEF descriptor vector in order to match points efficiency, and by efficiency we mean not only time efficiency but also elimination of mismatch points. This method uses each image sequence imprecise attitude in order to use Epipolar geometry to both restricting search space of matching and eliminating mismatch points. In consideration of reaching to images imprecise attitude and positions we calibrated the UAV's sensors. After matching process, RANSAC is used to eliminate mismatched tie points. In order to obtain final mosaic, image histograms are equalized and a weighted average method is used to image composition in overlapping areas. The total RMSE over all matching points is 1.72 m.

  14. A tool for modeling concurrent real-time computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, D. D.; Huang, Shie-Rei; Bhatt, Rahul; Sridharan, N. S.

    1990-01-01

    Real-time computation is a significant area of research in general, and in AI in particular. The complexity of practical real-time problems demands use of knowledge-based problem solving techniques while satisfying real-time performance constraints. Since the demands of a complex real-time problem cannot be predicted (owing to the dynamic nature of the environment) powerful dynamic resource control techniques are needed to monitor and control the performance. A real-time computation model for a real-time tool, an implementation of the QP-Net simulator on a Symbolics machine, and an implementation on a Butterfly multiprocessor machine are briefly described.

  15. Public Science with Real-Time Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenardic, A.

    2013-12-01

    One of the best ways for professional scientists to engage in public outreach is to get outside of the university and/or lab walls and go out into the public. That is, go to public spaces to do some science experiments with the public - this includes students of all ages that constitute that public. Technological advance in portable measurement gear now allow one to do real, or near real, time experiments in outdoor, public spaces. We have been running a meta-experiment of this sort, aimed at the public display of science, for about a year now in Houston TX at the Lee and Joe Jamail Skatepark. The project goes under the title of Sk8Lab Houston and has introduced students of all ages to the power of scientific experimentation. We bring a portable science pack with us to the park. The pack has a range of wireless measurement gear that allow experiments to be done on the spot. Some of the experiments are designed by us but many are designed on by whoever suggests them to us that day. Over time the Sk8Lab scientists have built up a level of "trust" with the people who frequent the park (no one feels like we are gonna grade them at the park and they know that the learning is not on some regimented clock). This has broken down some learning walls and allowed for a more informal mode of exploration and a more genuine mode of experimentation (as compared to what often happens in class labs when students feel like they are just being forced to reproduce some known result). We will describe some of the test case experiments we have run and also discuss some of the trials, tribulations, and happy successes (many unplanned) along the way.

  16. A real-time pulsed photon dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David; Olsher, Richard H.; Eisen, Yosef; Rodriguez, Joseph F.

    1996-02-01

    Radiation sources producing short pulses of photon radiation are now widespread. Such sources include electron and proton linear accelerators, betatrons, synchrotrons, and field-emission impulse generators. It is often desirable to measure leakage and skyshine radiation from such sources in real time, on a single-pulse basis as low as 8.7 nGy (1 μR) per pulse. This paper describes the design and performance of a prototype, real-time, pulsed photon dosimeter (PPD) capable of single-pulse dose measurements over the range from 3.5 nGy to 3.5 μGy (0.4 to 400 μR). The PPD may also be operated in a multiple-pulse mode that integrates the dose from a train of radiation pulses over a 3-s period. A pulse repetition rate of up to 300 Hz is accommodated. The design is eminently suitable for packaging as a lightweight, portable, survey meter. The PPD uses a CdWO 4 scintillator optically coupled to a photodiode to generate a charge at the diode output. A pulse amplifier converts the charge to a voltage pulse. A digitizer circuit generates a burst of logic pulses whose number is proportional to the peak value of the voltage pulse. The digitizer output is recorded by a pulse counter and suitably displayed. A prototype PPD was built for testing and evaluation purposes. The performance of the PPD was evaluated with a variety of pulsed photon sources. The dynamic range, energy response, and response to multiple pulses were characterized. The experimental data confirm the viability of the PPD for pulsed photon dosimetry.

  17. Real Time Earthquake Information System in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, K.; Kato, T.

    2003-12-01

    An early earthquake notification system in Japan had been developed by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) as a governmental organization responsible for issuing earthquake information and tsunami forecasts. The system was primarily developed for prompt provision of a tsunami forecast to the public with locating an earthquake and estimating its magnitude as quickly as possible. Years after, a system for a prompt provision of seismic intensity information as indices of degrees of disasters caused by strong ground motion was also developed so that concerned governmental organizations can decide whether it was necessary for them to launch emergency response or not. At present, JMA issues the following kinds of information successively when a large earthquake occurs. 1) Prompt report of occurrence of a large earthquake and major seismic intensities caused by the earthquake in about two minutes after the earthquake occurrence. 2) Tsunami forecast in around three minutes. 3) Information on expected arrival times and maximum heights of tsunami waves in around five minutes. 4) Information on a hypocenter and a magnitude of the earthquake, the seismic intensity at each observation station, the times of high tides in addition to the expected tsunami arrival times in 5-7 minutes. To issue information above, JMA has established; - An advanced nationwide seismic network with about 180 stations for seismic wave observation and about 3,400 stations for instrumental seismic intensity observation including about 2,800 seismic intensity stations maintained by local governments, - Data telemetry networks via landlines and partly via a satellite communication link, - Real-time data processing techniques, for example, the automatic calculation of earthquake location and magnitude, the database driven method for quantitative tsunami estimation, and - Dissemination networks, via computer-to-computer communications and facsimile through dedicated telephone lines. JMA operationally

  18. Real-time scheduling of software tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, L.T.

    1995-12-01

    When designing real-time systems, it is often desirable to schedule execution of software tasks based on the occurrence of events. The events may be clock ticks, interrupts from a hardware device, or software signals from other software tasks. If the nature of the events, is well understood, this scheduling is normally a static part of the system design. If the nature of the events is not completely understood, or is expected to change over time, it may be necessary to provide a mechanism for adjusting the scheduling of the software tasks. RHIC front-end computers (FECs) provide such a mechanism. The goals in designing this mechanism were to be as independent as possible of the underlying operating system, to allow for future expansion of the mechanism to handle new types of events, and to allow easy configuration. Some considerations which steered the design were programming paradigm (object oriented vs. procedural), programming language, and whether events are merely interesting moments in time, or whether they intrinsically have data associated with them. The design also needed to address performance and robustness tradeoffs involving shared task contexts, task priorities, and use of interrupt service routine (ISR) contexts vs. task contexts. This paper will explore these considerations and tradeoffs.

  19. Approaching near real-time biosensing: microfluidic microsphere based biosensor for real-time analyte detection.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Noa; Sabhachandani, Pooja; Golberg, Alexander; Konry, Tania

    2015-04-15

    In this study we describe a simple lab-on-a-chip (LOC) biosensor approach utilizing well mixed microfluidic device and a microsphere-based assay capable of performing near real-time diagnostics of clinically relevant analytes such cytokines and antibodies. We were able to overcome the adsorption kinetics reaction rate-limiting mechanism, which is diffusion-controlled in standard immunoassays, by introducing the microsphere-based assay into well-mixed yet simple microfluidic device with turbulent flow profiles in the reaction regions. The integrated microsphere-based LOC device performs dynamic detection of the analyte in minimal amount of biological specimen by continuously sampling micro-liter volumes of sample per minute to detect dynamic changes in target analyte concentration. Furthermore we developed a mathematical model for the well-mixed reaction to describe the near real time detection mechanism observed in the developed LOC method. To demonstrate the specificity and sensitivity of the developed real time monitoring LOC approach, we applied the device for clinically relevant analytes: Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α cytokine and its clinically used inhibitor, anti-TNF-α antibody. Based on the reported results herein, the developed LOC device provides continuous sensitive and specific near real-time monitoring method for analytes such as cytokines and antibodies, reduces reagent volumes by nearly three orders of magnitude as well as eliminates the washing steps required by standard immunoassays.

  20. Estimation method of point spread function based on Kalman filter for accurately evaluating real optical properties of photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Lou, Shuqin; Wang, Xin

    2014-03-20

    The evaluation accuracy of real optical properties of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) is determined by the accurate extraction of air hole edges from microscope images of cross sections of practical PCFs. A novel estimation method of point spread function (PSF) based on Kalman filter is presented to rebuild the micrograph image of the PCF cross-section and thus evaluate real optical properties for practical PCFs. Through tests on both artificially degraded images and microscope images of cross sections of practical PCFs, we prove that the proposed method can achieve more accurate PSF estimation and lower PSF variance than the traditional Bayesian estimation method, and thus also reduce the defocus effect. With this method, we rebuild the microscope images of two kinds of commercial PCFs produced by Crystal Fiber and analyze the real optical properties of these PCFs. Numerical results are in accord with the product parameters.

  1. Clinical experience with real-time ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimiak, William J.; Wolfman, Neil T.; Covitz, Wesley

    1995-05-01

    After testing the extended multimedia interface (EMMI) product which is an asynchronous transmission mode (ATM) user to network interface (UNI) of AT&T at the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology conference in Winston-Salem, the Department of Radiology together with AT&T are implementing a tele-ultrasound system to combine real- time ultrasound with the static imaging features of more traditional digital ultrasound systems. Our current ultrasound system archives digital images to an optical disk system. Static images are sent using our digital radiology systems. This could be transferring images from one digital imaging and communications (DICOM)-compliant machine to another, or the current image transfer methodologies. The prototype of a live ultrasound system using the EMMI demonstrated the feasibility of doing live ultrasound. We now are developing the scenarios using a mix of the two methodologies. Utilizing EMMI technology, radiologists at the BGSM review at a workstation both static images and real-time scanning done by a technologist on patients at a remote site in order to render on-line primary diagnosis. Our goal is to test the feasibility of operating an ultrasound laboratory at a remote site utilizing a trained technologist without the necessity of having a full-time radiologist at that site. Initial plans are for a radiologist to review an initial set of static images on a patient taken by the technologist. If further scanning is required, the EMMI is used to transmit real-time imaging and audio using the audio input of a standard microphone system and the National Television Standards Committee (NTSC) output of the ultrasound equipment from the remote site to the radiologist in the department review station. The EMMI digitally encodes this data and places it in an ATM format. This ATM data stream goes to the GCNS2000 and then to the other EMMI where the ATM data stream is decoded into the live studies and voice communication which are then

  2. Early warning by near-real time disturbance monitoring (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbesselt, J.; Zeileis, A.; Herold, M.

    2013-12-01

    Near real-time monitoring of ecosystem disturbances is critical for rapidly assessing and addressing impacts on carbon dynamics, biodiversity, and socio-ecological processes. Satellite remote sensing enables cost-effective and accurate monitoring at frequent time steps over large areas. Yet, generic methods to detect disturbances within newly captured satellite images are lacking. We propose a multi-purpose time-series-based disturbance detection approach that identifies and models stable historical variation to enable change detection within newly acquired data. Satellite image time series of vegetation greenness provide a global record of terrestrial vegetation productivity over the past decades. Here, we assess and demonstrate the method by applying it to (1) real-world satellite greenness image time series between February 2000 and July 2011 covering Somalia to detect drought-related vegetation disturbances (2) landsat image time series to detect forest disturbances. First, results illustrate that disturbances are successfully detected in near real-time while being robust to seasonality and noise. Second, major drought-related disturbance corresponding with most drought-stressed regions in Somalia are detected from mid-2010 onwards. Third, the method can be applied to landsat image time series having a lower temporal data density. Furthermore the method can analyze in-situ or satellite data time series of biophysical indicators from local to global scale since it is fast, does not depend on thresholds and does not require time series gap filling. While the data and methods used are appropriate for proof-of-concept development of global scale disturbance monitoring, specific applications (e.g., drought or deforestation monitoring) mandates integration within an operational monitoring framework. Furthermore, the real-time monitoring method is implemented in open-source environment and is freely available in the BFAST package for R software. Information

  3. The multispectral advanced volumetric real-time imaging compositor for real-time distributed scene generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Joseph W.; Ballard, Gary H.; Bunfield, Dennis H.; Peddycoart, Thomas E.; Trimble, Darian E.

    2011-06-01

    AMRDEC has developed the Multi-spectral Advanced Volumetric Real-time Imaging Compositor (MAVRIC) prototype for distributed real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) scene generation. MAVRIC is a dynamic object-based energy conserved scene compositor that can seamlessly convolve distributed scene elements into temporally aligned physicsbased scenes for enhancing existing AMRDEC scene generation codes. The volumetric compositing process accepts input independent of depth order. This real-time compositor framework is built around AMRDEC's ContinuumCore API which provides the common messaging interface leveraging the Neutral Messaging Language (NML) for local, shared memory, reflective memory, network, and remote direct memory access (RDMA) communications and the Joint Signature Image Generator (JSIG) that provides energy conserved scene component interface at each render node. This structure allows for a highly scalable real-time environment capable of rendering individual objects at high fidelity while being considerate of real-time hardware-in-the-loop concerns, such as latency. As such, this system can be scaled to handle highly complex detailed scenes such as urban environments. This architecture provides the basis for common scene generation as it provides disparate scene elements to be calculated by various phenomenology codes and integrated seamlessly into a unified composited environment. This advanced capability is the gateway to higher fidelity scene generation such as ray-tracing. The high speed interconnects using PCI Express and InfiniBand were examined to support distributed scene generation whereby the scene graph, associated phenomenology, and the scene elements can be dynamically distributed across multiple high performance computing assets to maximize system performance.

  4. Real-Time Principal-Component Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Vu; Duong, Tuan

    2005-01-01

    A recently written computer program implements dominant-element-based gradient descent and dynamic initial learning rate (DOGEDYN), which was described in Method of Real-Time Principal-Component Analysis (NPO-40034) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 1 (January 2005), page 59. To recapitulate: DOGEDYN is a method of sequential principal-component analysis (PCA) suitable for such applications as data compression and extraction of features from sets of data. In DOGEDYN, input data are represented as a sequence of vectors acquired at sampling times. The learning algorithm in DOGEDYN involves sequential extraction of principal vectors by means of a gradient descent in which only the dominant element is used at each iteration. Each iteration includes updating of elements of a weight matrix by amounts proportional to a dynamic initial learning rate chosen to increase the rate of convergence by compensating for the energy lost through the previous extraction of principal components. In comparison with a prior method of gradient-descent-based sequential PCA, DOGEDYN involves less computation and offers a greater rate of learning convergence. The sequential DOGEDYN computations require less memory than would parallel computations for the same purpose. The DOGEDYN software can be executed on a personal computer.

  5. Extrasolar Giant Impacts in Real Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, George; Meng, Huan; Su, Kate

    2013-10-01

    Spitzer observations in the previous cycles have revealed 3.6 and 4.5 um variability and periodicity in extreme debris disks on timescales of weeks or even shorter. Such disks typically have warm temperatures and strong crystalline silicate emission, indicative of very fine dust particles in the terrestrial planet zone and below the blowout sizes of the stars. Many of the disks are around solar-like stars in the age range of 30 - 100+ Myr, the expected time for the final buildup of terrestrial planets through massive collisions. These young extrasolar systems are probably going through this phase with series of violent collisions, or possible analogs of the Moon-forming impact, providing rare opportunities to investigate terrestrial planet formation and collision in real time, and put our own Solar System in context. Here we propose to continue the monitoring of three such systems with daily sampling cadence. The observations will provide insight into the physical and dynamical processes of the planet-forming disks.

  6. Real-time optoacoustic monitoring of stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneipp, Moritz; Turner, Jake; Hambauer, Sebastian; Krieg, Sandro M.; Lehmberg, Jens; Lindauer, Ute; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Characterizing disease progression and identifying possible therapeutic interventions in stroke is greatly aided by the use of longitudinal function imaging studies. In this study, we investigate the applicability of real-time multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) as a tool for non-invasive monitoring of the progression of stroke in the whole brain. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method was used to induce stroke. Mice were imaged under isoflurane anesthesia preoperatively and at several time points during and after the 60-minute occlusion. The animals were sacrificed after 24 hours and their excised brains frozen at -80°C for sectioning. The cryosection were stained using H&E staining to identify the ischemic lesion. Major vessels are readily identifiable in the whole mouse head in the in vivo optoacoustic scans. During ischemia, a reduction in cerebral blood volume is detectable in the cortex. Post ischemia, spectral unmixing of the optoacoustic signals shows an asymmetry of the deoxygenated hemoglobin in the hemisphere affected by MCAO. This hypoxic area was mainly located around the boundary of the ischemic lesion and was therefore identified as the ischemic penumbra. Non-invasive functional MSOT imaging is able to visualize the hypoxic penumbra in brains affected by stroke. Stopping the spread of the infarct area and revitalizing the penumbra is central in stroke research, this new imaging technique may therefore prove to be a valuable tool in the monitoring and developing new treatments.

  7. Real-time information management environment (RIME)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCleene, Brian T.; Griffin, Sean; Matchett, Garry; Niejadlik, Richard

    2000-08-01

    Whereas data mining and exploitation improve the quality and quantity of information available to the user, there remains a mission requirement to assist the end-user in managing the access to this information and ensuring that the appropriate information is delivered to the right user in time to make decisions and take action. This paper discusses TASC's federated architecture to next- generation information management, contrasts the approach against emerging technologies, and quantifies the performance gains. This architecture and implementation, known as Real-time Information Management Environment (RIME), is based on two key concepts: information utility and content-based channelization. The introduction of utility allows users to express the importance and delivery requirements of their information needs in the context of their mission. Rather than competing for resources on a first-come/first-served basis, the infrastructure employs these utility functions to dynamically react to unanticipated loading by optimizing the delivered information utility. Furthermore, commander's resource policies shape these functions to ensure that resources are allocated according to military doctrine. Using information about the desired content, channelization identifies opportunities to aggregate users onto shared channels reducing redundant transmissions. Hence, channelization increases the information throughput of the system and balances sender/receiver processing load.

  8. Ames Lab 101: Real-Time 3D Imaging

    ScienceCinema

    Zhang, Song

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory scientist Song Zhang explains his real-time 3-D imaging technology. The technique can be used to create high-resolution, real-time, precise, 3-D images for use in healthcare, security, and entertainment applications.

  9. Ames Lab 101: Real-Time 3D Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Song

    2010-01-01

    Ames Laboratory scientist Song Zhang explains his real-time 3-D imaging technology. The technique can be used to create high-resolution, real-time, precise, 3-D images for use in healthcare, security, and entertainment applications.

  10. Real-time forecasting following a damaging earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, Warner; Lombardi, Anna Maria

    2009-11-01

    We describe the results of a prospective, real-time earthquake forecast experiment made during a seismic emergency. A Mw 6.3 earthquake struck the city of L'Aquila, Italy on April 6, 2009, causing hundreds of deaths and vast damage. Immediately following this event, we began producing daily earthquake forecasts for the region, and we provided these forecasts to Civil Protection - the agency responsible for managing the emergency. The forecasts are based on a stochastic model that combines the Gutenberg-Richter distribution of earthquake magnitudes and power-law decay in space and time of triggered earthquakes. The results from the first month following the L'Aquila earthquake exhibit a good fit between forecasts and observations, indicating that accurate earthquake forecasting is now a realistic goal. Our experience with this experiment demonstrates an urgent need for a connection between probabilistic forecasts and decision-making in order to establish - before crises - quantitative and transparent protocols for decision support.

  11. VLBI-Art: VLBI analysis in real-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbon, M.; Nilsson, T.; Tierno Ros, C.; Heinkelmann, R.; Schuh, H.

    2013-08-01

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is one of the primary space geodetic techniques providing the full set of Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP) and it is unique for observing long term Universal Time (UT1). Accurate and continuous EOP obtained in near real-time are essential for satellite-based navigation and positioning, enable the precise tracking of interplanetary spacecraft and thus are the aim of the VGOS (VLBI2010 Global Observing System). With this next generation VLBI system and network, the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) increased its efforts to reduce the time span between the collection of VLBI observations and the availability of the final results. Project VLBI-Art contributes to these objectives by considerably accelerating the VLBI analysis procedure by implementing an elaborate Kalman filter, which represents a perfect tool for analyzing VLBI data in quasi real-time. The Kalman filter will be embedded in the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) as a completely automated tool, i.e. with no need of human interaction.

  12. CRANS - CONFIGURABLE REAL-TIME ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluney, K.

    1994-01-01

    In a real-time environment, the results of changes or failures in a complex, interconnected system need evaluation quickly. Tabulations showing the effects of changes and/or failures of a given item in the system are generally only useful for a single input, and only with regard to that item. Subsequent changes become harder to evaluate as combinations of failures produce a cascade effect. When confronted by multiple indicated failures in the system, it becomes necessary to determine a single cause. In this case, failure tables are not very helpful. CRANS, the Configurable Real-time ANalysis System, can interpret a logic tree, constructed by the user, describing a complex system and determine the effects of changes and failures in it. Items in the tree are related to each other by Boolean operators. The user is then able to change the state of these items (ON/OFF FAILED/UNFAILED). The program then evaluates the logic tree based on these changes and determines any resultant changes to other items in the tree. CRANS can also search for a common cause for multiple item failures, and allow the user to explore the logic tree from within the program. A "help" mode and a reference check provide the user with a means of exploring an item's underlying logic from within the program. A commonality check determines single point failures for an item or group of items. Output is in the form of a user-defined matrix or matrices of colored boxes, each box representing an item or set of items from the logic tree. Input is via mouse selection of the matrix boxes, using the mouse buttons to toggle the state of the item. CRANS is written in C-language and requires the MIT X Window System, Version 11 Revision 4 or Revision 5. It requires 78K of RAM for execution and a three button mouse. It has been successfully implemented on Sun4 workstations running SunOS, HP9000 workstations running HP-UX, and DECstations running ULTRIX. No executable is provided on the distribution medium; however

  13. A New Centimeter-Level Real-Time Global Navigation and Positioning Capability with GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Sever, Yoaz

    2001-01-01

    NASA/JPL has developed a new, precise, global, GPS-based capability for real-time terrestrial and space platform navigation. It has been demonstrated on Earth's surface and is 10 times more accurate than other real-time GPS-based systems. The new system poses certain advantages for Earth science remote sensing, including: the onboard generation of science data products in real-time, sensor control and reduction of data transmission bandwidth, improved environmental forecasting, autonomous and intelligent platform control, operations cost savings, and technology transfer and commercial partnership opportunities. The system's measurement capabilities and applications, demonstrated orbit accuracies, and precision LEO and spacecraft positioning and timing are highlighted.

  14. Real-time threat detection using magnetometer arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prouty, Mark D.; Tchernychev, Mikhail

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we present a discussion of using an array of atomic magnetometers to locate the presence of ferrous materials, such as concealed weapons, in real time. Ferrous materials create magnetic field anomalies. In order to determine the location of such objects, readings from many positions must be analyzed. This field inversion is typically done in post processing, once readings over a survey area or region of interest have been gathered. With the recent development of small and low power sensors, the dozen or so sensors required to provide information for magnetic field inversion may be deployed. We have built such an array and present here the results of using a realtime inversion algorithm. The inversion algorithm accurately determines target properties at a rate of 10 times per second as objects move past the array. Accuracies are as good as those obtained with target inversion methods used in analyzing data for unexploded ordnance detection. While those methods are typically applied in post processing, we show here those methods work even better when applied in real-time. We further present some analyses of the predicted performance of arrays in various geometries to address issues in security, such as crowd or perimeter monitoring. Target inversion methods may be accurately simulated, allowing for the development and testing of algorithms in an efficient manner. Additional processing may be done using the time history of the inversion results to remove false alarms and enhance detection. The key step is to start with an inversion method, utilizing the mathematical properties of magnetic fields and the known geometry of the measurements.

  15. Near real-time skin deformation mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacenjar, Steve; Chen, Suzie; Jafri, Madiha; Wall, Brian; Pedersen, Richard; Bezozo, Richard

    2013-02-01

    A novel in vivo approach is described that provides large area mapping of the mechanical properties of the skin in human patients. Such information is important in the understanding of skin health, cosmetic surgery[1], aging, and impacts of sun exposure. Currently, several methods have been developed to estimate the local biomechanical properties of the skin, including the use of a physical biopsy of local areas of the skin (in vitro methods) [2, 3, and 4], and also the use of non-invasive methods (in vivo) [5, 6, and 7]. All such methods examine localized areas of the skin. Our approach examines the local elastic properties via the generation of field displacement maps of the skin created using time-sequence imaging [9] with 2D digital imaging correlation (DIC) [10]. In this approach, large areas of the skin are reviewed rapidly, and skin displacement maps are generated showing the contour maps of skin deformation. These maps are then used to precisely register skin images for purposes of diagnostic comparison. This paper reports on our mapping and registration approach, and demonstrates its ability to accurately measure the skin deformation through a described nulling interpolation process. The result of local translational DIC alignment is compared using this interpolation process. The effectiveness of the approach is reported in terms of residual RMS, image entropy measures, and differential segmented regional errors.

  16. Gctf: Real-time CTF determination and correction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the contrast transfer function (CTF) is critical for a near-atomic resolution cryo electron microscopy (cryoEM) reconstruction. Here, a GPU-accelerated computer program, Gctf, for accurate and robust, real-time CTF determination is presented. The main target of Gctf is to maximize the cross-correlation of a simulated CTF with the logarithmic amplitude spectra (LAS) of observed micrographs after background subtraction. Novel approaches in Gctf improve both speed and accuracy. In addition to GPU acceleration (e.g. 10–50×), a fast ‘1-dimensional search plus 2-dimensional refinement (1S2R)’ procedure further speeds up Gctf. Based on the global CTF determination, the local defocus for each particle and for single frames of movies is accurately refined, which improves CTF parameters of all particles for subsequent image processing. Novel diagnosis method using equiphase averaging (EPA) and self-consistency verification procedures have also been implemented in the program for practical use, especially for aims of near-atomic reconstruction. Gctf is an independent program and the outputs can be easily imported into other cryoEM software such as Relion (Scheres, 2012) and Frealign (Grigorieff, 2007). The results from several representative datasets are shown and discussed in this paper. PMID:26592709

  17. Real-time support for high performance aircraft operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal, Jacques J.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of real-time processing schemes using artificial neural networks (ANNs) is investigated. A rationale for digital neural nets is presented and a general processor architecture for control applications is illustrated. Research results on ANN structures for real-time applications are given. Research results on ANN algorithms for real-time control are also shown.

  18. Neurosurgical procedures under near-real-time MR guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haiying; Truwit, Charles L.

    2000-10-01

    A robust near real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based guidance scheme has been developed, validated and used for in vivo neurosurgical applications. The key concept of the method is to use tomographical imagine techniques, such as MRI, to facilitate the alignment process of a trajectory guidance device for biopsy needle. Since the trajectory corresponding to the biopsy needle pivoted at an entry point on patient skull has two orientational degrees of freedom, the alignment of the needle can be tracked using a 2-dimensional (2D) imaging plane that is placed perpendicular to the desired trajectory. Using a near real-time visual feedbacak in 2D during the adjustment of the alignment guide, the required trajectory alignment can be translated into a simple targeting task on computer monitor. This MR based guidance technique has practically allowed neurosurgeons to accomplish the required alignment of a surgical device to an aribitrary target accurately in a straight forward procedure on conventional MR scanner. The actual MR-guided biopsy using the new methodology has shown that is has the required targeting accuracy for neurosurgery even in the presence of brain shift. The use of the method in 20 MR-guided brain lesion biopsy procedures can significantly reduce the surgery time, in fact the time required for the needle trajectory alignment is less than 1 min. Furthermore, the post- alignment trajectory can be validated using near real-time MRI scans in two orthogonal views before the needle insertion. In conclusion, this scheme provides a unique alternative of trajectory guidance and monitoring methodology that can take full advantages of the capabilities of modern imaging techniques such as MRI.

  19. Cosmic Atlas: A Real-Time Universe Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K. C.; Jenkins, N. E.

    2004-05-01

    Cosmic Atlas is a software program produced at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science to generate real-time digital content for the Museum's Gates Planetarium. Created by in-house staff, Cosmic Atlas is designed to be scientifically accurate, flexible, easily updated to stay current with new discoveries, and portable to multiple platforms. It is currently developed using desktop computers running a Linux OS, and is also installed on a multi-graphics pipe SGI visualization computer running the IRIX OS in the Gates Planetarium. The software can be used in real-time presentations via traditional ``star talks'' and classes, but can also be used to devise flightpaths, perform timeline-based editing, play back flightpaths in real-time, and save out image renders for creating video files to be shown on additional playback systems. The first version of the program is meant to replicate the functionality of a traditional optical-mechanical star ball, and hence creates a replica of the night time sky, with constellations, deep sky objects, and didactic information and grids. The Solar System is a realistic, three-dimensional, navigable simulation, updated with the latest moon and minor planet discoveries, and with motions over time determined by a customized orrery. Additional modules can show traditional astronomical imagery, including an application for loading in FITS files to create three-color composites. A three-dimensional model of the Milky Way is in development, populated with HIPPARCOS stars for the local galactic neighborhood, and with molecular clouds constructed from large-scale CO survey data; more distant regions are filled with statistically generated stellar and interstellar medium distributions.

  20. Toward real-time regional earthquake simulation of Taiwan earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Liu, Q.; Tromp, J.; Komatitsch, D.; Liang, W.; Huang, B.

    2013-12-01

    We developed a Real-time Online earthquake Simulation system (ROS) to simulate regional earthquakes in Taiwan. The ROS uses a centroid moment tensor solution of seismic events from a Real-time Moment Tensor monitoring system (RMT), which provides all the point source parameters including the event origin time, hypocentral location, moment magnitude and focal mechanism within 2 minutes after the occurrence of an earthquake. Then, all of the source parameters are automatically forwarded to the ROS to perform an earthquake simulation, which is based on a spectral-element method (SEM). We have improved SEM mesh quality by introducing a thin high-resolution mesh layer near the surface to accommodate steep and rapidly varying topography. The mesh for the shallow sedimentary basin is adjusted to reflect its complex geometry and sharp lateral velocity contrasts. The grid resolution at the surface is about 545 m, which is sufficient to resolve topography and tomography data for simulations accurate up to 1.0 Hz. The ROS is also an infrastructural service, making online earthquake simulation feasible. Users can conduct their own earthquake simulation by providing a set of source parameters through the ROS webpage. For visualization, a ShakeMovie and ShakeMap are produced during the simulation. The time needed for one event is roughly 3 minutes for a 70 sec ground motion simulation. The ROS is operated online at the Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica (http://ros.earth.sinica.edu.tw/). Our long-term goal for the ROS system is to contribute to public earth science outreach and to realize seismic ground motion prediction in real-time.

  1. Assimilation of GIRO Data into a Real-Time IRI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galkin, I. A.; Reinisch, B. W.; Huang, X.; Bilitza, D.

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly accurate and detailed global 3-D specification of the Earth's space plasma environment is required to further understand its intricate organization and behavior. For a long time space physics and aeronomy research has been data starved due to the great variety of natural time scales involved in the plasma phenomenology. We have started developing a new approach to the global ionospheric specification called Real-Time Assimilative Mapping (RTAM). The IRI-RTAM will use data from the Global Ionospheric Radio Observatory (GIRO) to smoothly transform International Reference Ionosphere's (IRI's) background empirical maps of the ionospheric characteristics to match the observations. Such empirical assimilative modeling will provide a high-resolution, global picture of the ionospheric response to various short-term events observed during periods of storm activity or the impact of gravity waves coupling the ionosphere to the lower atmosphere, including timelines of the vertical restructuring of the plasma distribution. It will also contribute to the challenging task of providing a rapid insight into the temporal and spatial space weather development using the real-time GIRO data streams. The new assimilation technique "updates" the IRI electron density distribution while preserving the overall integrity of IRI s typical ionospheric feature representations. The technique adjusts the coefficients of the spherical/diurnal expansions used by the CCIR and URSI-88 model to obtain the global sub-peak electron density distribution. The set of global corrected coefficients can be generated as frequently as every 15 min and easily disseminated using a single real-time RTAM server operated by GIRO.

  2. D Model Visualization Enhancements in Real-Time Game Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlo, A.; Sánchez Belenguer, C.; Vendrell Vidal, E.; Fantini, F.; Aliperta, A.

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes two procedures used to disseminate tangible cultural heritage through real-time 3D simulations providing accurate-scientific representations. The main idea is to create simple geometries (with low-poly count) and apply two different texture maps to them: a normal map and a displacement map. There are two ways to achieve models that fit with normal or displacement maps: with the former (normal maps), the number of polygons in the reality-based model may be dramatically reduced by decimation algorithms and then normals may be calculated by rendering them to texture solutions (baking). With the latter, a LOD model is needed; its topology has to be quad-dominant for it to be converted to a good quality subdivision surface (with consistent tangency and curvature all over). The subdivision surface is constructed using methodologies for the construction of assets borrowed from character animation: these techniques have been recently implemented in many entertainment applications known as "retopology". The normal map is used as usual, in order to shade the surface of the model in a realistic way. The displacement map is used to finish, in real-time, the flat faces of the object, by adding the geometric detail missing in the low-poly models. The accuracy of the resulting geometry is progressively refined based on the distance from the viewing point, so the result is like a continuous level of detail, the only difference being that there is no need to create different 3D models for one and the same object. All geometric detail is calculated in real-time according to the displacement map. This approach can be used in Unity, a real-time 3D engine originally designed for developing computer games. It provides a powerful rendering engine, fully integrated with a complete set of intuitive tools and rapid workflows that allow users to easily create interactive 3D contents. With the release of Unity 4.0, new rendering features have been added, including Direct

  3. Real-time reconfigurable subthreshold CMOS perceptron.

    PubMed

    Aunet, S; Oelmann, B; Norseng, P A; Berg, Y

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, a new, real-time reconfigurable perceptron circuit element is presented. A six-transistor version used as a threshold gate, having a fan-in of three, producing adequate outputs for threshold of T =1, 2 and 3 is demonstrated by chip measurements. Subthreshold operation for supply voltages in the range of 100-350 mV is shown. The circuit performs competitively with a standard static complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) implementation when maximum speed and energy delay product are taken into account, when used in a ring oscillator. Functionality per transistor is, to our knowledge, the highest reported for a variety of comparable circuits not based on floating gate techniques. Statistical simulations predict probabilities for making working circuits under mismatch and process variations. The simulations, in 120-nm CMOS, also support discussions regarding lower limits to supply voltage and redundancy. A brief discussion on how the circuit may be exploited as a basic building block for future defect tolerant mixed signal circuits, as well as neural networks, exploiting redundancy, is included.

  4. Real-Time 3D Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Butler Hine, former director of the Intelligent Mechanism Group (IMG) at Ames Research Center, and five others partnered to start Fourth Planet, Inc., a visualization company that specializes in the intuitive visual representation of dynamic, real-time data over the Internet and Intranet. Over a five-year period, the then NASA researchers performed ten robotic field missions in harsh climes to mimic the end- to-end operations of automated vehicles trekking across another world under control from Earth. The core software technology for these missions was the Virtual Environment Vehicle Interface (VEVI). Fourth Planet has released VEVI4, the fourth generation of the VEVI software, and NetVision. VEVI4 is a cutting-edge computer graphics simulation and remote control applications tool. The NetVision package allows large companies to view and analyze in virtual 3D space such things as the health or performance of their computer network or locate a trouble spot on an electric power grid. Other products are forthcoming. Fourth Planet is currently part of the NASA/Ames Technology Commercialization Center, a business incubator for start-up companies.

  5. Correction of deformed images in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Jeught, Sam; Buytaert, Jan A. N.; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2011-09-01

    Optical lens systems generally contain non-linear distortion artifacts that impose important limitations on the direct interpretation of the images. Image processing can be used to correct for these artifacts, but due to the calculation-intensive nature of the required distortion correction process, this is usually performed offline. This is not an option in image-based applications that operate interactively, however, where the real-time display of distortion corrected images can be vital. To this end, we propose a new technique to correct for arbitrary geometric lens distortion that uses the parallel processing power of a commercial graphics processing unit (GPU). By offloading the distortion correction process to the GPU, we can relieve the central processing unit (CPU) of doing this computationally very demanding task. We successfully implemented the full distortion correction algorithm on the GPU, thereby achieving a display rate of over 30 frames/sec for fully processed images of size 1024 × 768 pixels without the need for any additional digital image processing hardware.

  6. Real time radiation measurements in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, I.; Mackay, G.

    Radiation composed of energetic electrons, protons, photons, and galactic cosmic rays will be experienced by all space missions and may have effects on radiation sensitive electronic components and biological specimens. Radiation issues of interest to microgravity and biological experiments are discussed and the design of a new direct reading electronic radiation monitoring system is described. The proposed system consists of a radiation sensitive metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) specially designed to respond to ionizing radiation. On exposure to radiation, a permanent charge is stored in the MOSFET's insulating oxide, altering the device's electrical characteristics in a manner directly proportional to the dose exposed. A simple circuit reads the MOSFET's cumulative dose, making it possible to obtain real-time measurements and store the data or transfer the data to an earth station. Tests have shown that the MOSFET dosimeter shows a linear response up to at least 30,000 centiGray at a resolution of 0.1 centiGray. The MOSFET dosimetry system will be installed on the European Space Agency's ARTEP satellite scheduled for launch in November 1991.

  7. Optimizing near real time accountability for reprocessing.

    SciTech Connect

    Cipiti, Benjamin B.

    2010-06-01

    Near Real Time Accountability (NRTA) of actinides at high precision in reprocessing plants has been a long sought-after goal in the safeguards community. Achieving this goal is hampered by the difficulty of making precision measurements in the reprocessing environment, equipment cost, and impact to plant operations. Thus the design of future reprocessing plants requires an optimization of different approaches. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model, developed at Sandia National Laboratories, was used to evaluate a number of NRTA strategies in a UREX+ reprocessing plant. Strategies examined include the incorporation of additional actinide measurements of internal plant vessels, more use of process monitoring data, and the option of periodic draining of inventory to key tanks. Preliminary results show that the addition of measurement technologies can increase the overall measurement uncertainty due to additional error propagation, so care must be taken when designing an advanced system. Initial results also show that relying on a combination of different NRTA techniques will likely be the best option. The model provides a platform for integrating all the data. The modeling results for the different NRTA options under various material loss conditions will be presented.

  8. High sensitivity real-time NVR monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, William D. (Inventor); Chuan, Raymond L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A real time non-volatile residue (NVR) monitor, which utilizes surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators to detect molecular contamination in a given environment. The SAW resonators operate at a resonant frequency of approximately 200 MHz-2,000 MHz which enables the NVR monitor to detect molecular contamination on the order of 10.sup.-11 g-cm.sup.-2 to 10.sup.-13 g-cm.sup.2. The NVR monitor utilizes active temperature control of (SAW) resonators to achieve a stable resonant frequency. The temperature control system of the NVR monitor is able to directly heat and cool the SAW resonators utilizing a thermoelectric element to maintain the resonators at a present temperature independent of the environmental conditions. In order to enable the direct heating and cooling of the SAW resonators, the SAW resonators are operatively mounted to a heat sink. In one embodiment, the heat sink is located in between the SAW resonators and an electronic circuit board which contains at least a portion of the SAW control electronics. The electrical leads of the SAW resonators are connected through the heat sink to the circuit board via an electronic path which prevents inaccurate frequency measurement.

  9. Real-time video watermarking technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Han H.; Chae, Jong J.; Choi, Jong U.

    2002-04-01

    Most previous video watermarking algorithms cannot be supported by real-time processing. Our algorithm proposed the specific embedding method in the spatial domain directly rather than the frequency domain. Also the algorithm supports the robustness from the video attacking skills. In the paper, for example, watermark is inserted immediately into the output frame of Digital Video (DV) camcorder. We select the Y component from the DV signal, and then the watermark information is inserted in all of the Y frames. The watermarked video frames put in the video MPEG encoder. We consider embedding information to the high quality video streams, such as a DVD, HDTV. Our experimental results show the high quality of the video even if compressed. Therefore, the robustness from compression is tested by MPEG-2 of 6Mbits/sec of 720x480 frame size and the invisibility is proved by measurement of PSNR. The results also show the robustness from several video editing methods, such as a cut-and-splice and cut-insert-splice, and video conversions, letterboxing, pan & span, and wide screen of media.

  10. Recommendations for Real-Time Speech MRI

    PubMed Central

    Lingala, Sajan Goud; Sutton, Brad P.; Miquel, Marc E.; Nayak, Krishna S.

    2016-01-01

    Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (RT-MRI) is being increasingly used for speech and vocal production research studies. Several imaging protocols have emerged based on advances in RT-MRI acquisition, reconstruction, and audio-processing methods. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art, discusses technical considerations, and provides specific guidance for new groups entering this field. We provide recommendations for performing RT-MRI of the upper airway. This is a consensus statement stemming from the ISMRM-endorsed Speech MRI summit held in Los Angeles, February 2014. A major unmet need identified at the summit was the need for consensus on protocols that can be easily adapted by researchers equipped with conventional MRI systems. To this end, we provide a discussion of tradeoffs in RT-MRI in terms of acquisition requirements, a priori assumptions, artifacts, computational load, and performance for different speech tasks. We provide four recommended protocols and identify appropriate acquisition and reconstruction tools. We list pointers to open-source software that facilitate implementation. We conclude by discussing current open challenges in the methodological aspects of RT-MRI of speech. PMID:26174802

  11. Real time visual servoing using controlled illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, J. P.; Motyl, G.; Gallice, J.

    1994-02-01

    A real-time visual servoing approach is applied to robotics tasks consisting of the positioning of the end effector with respect to a priori known polyhedral objects. The vision apparatus is consituted by a compact CCD camera rigidly coupled with two laser stripes mounted on the wrist of a robot manipulator. The objective is to servo the robot and effector at a constant position and orientation with respect to a known object in three- dimensional space in the field of view of the sensory system. The approach is expressed in terms of sensor-based control applied to visual servoing. In the case of camera-light stripe coupling, the elementary visual signals used for visual servoing are the points of discontinuity in the light stripes. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated in a factory automation task consisting of the positioning of the end-effector tool over a vehicle battery. Both simulation and experimentation results are presented, proving the robustness and stability of the algorithm.

  12. Toward Real Time Neural Net Flight Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, C. C.; Mah, R. W.; Ross, J.; Lu, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center has an ongoing program in neural network control technology targeted toward real time flight demonstrations using a modified F-15 which permits direct inner loop control of actuators, rapid switching between alternative control designs, and substitutable processors. An important part of this program is the ACTIVE flight project which is examining the feasibility of using neural networks in the design, control, and system identification of new aircraft prototypes. This paper discusses two research applications initiated with this objective in mind: utilization of neural networks for wind tunnel aircraft model identification and rapid learning algorithms for on line reconfiguration and control. The first application involves the identification of aerodynamic flight characteristics from analysis of wind tunnel test data. This identification is important in the early stages of aircraft design because complete specification of control architecture's may not be possible even though concept models at varying scales are available for aerodynamic wind tunnel testing. Testing of this type is often a long and expensive process involving measurement of aircraft lift, drag, and moment of inertia at varying angles of attack and control surface configurations. This information in turn can be used in the design of the flight control systems by applying the derived lookup tables to generate piece wise linearized controllers. Thus, reduced costs in tunnel test times and the rapid transfer of wind tunnel insights into prototype controllers becomes an important factor in more efficient generation and testing of new flight systems. NASA Ames Research Center is successfully applying modular neural networks as one way of anticipating small scale aircraft model performances prior to testing, thus reducing the number of in tunnel test hours and potentially, the number of intermediate scaled models required for estimation of surface flow effects.

  13. System for real-time generation of georeferenced terrain models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Howard J.; Hanson, Allen R.; Riseman, Edward M.; Stolle, Frank; Zhu, Zhigang; Hayward, Christopher D.; Slaymaker, Dana

    2001-02-01

    A growing number of law enforcement applications, especially in the areas of border security, drug enforcement and anti- terrorism require high-resolution wide area surveillance from unmanned air vehicles. At the University of Massachusetts we are developing an aerial reconnaissance system capable of generating high resolution, geographically registered terrain models (in the form of a seamless mosaic) in real-time from a single down-looking digital video camera. The efficiency of the processing algorithms, as well as the simplicity of the hardware, will provide the user with the ability to produce and roam through stereoscopic geo-referenced mosaic images in real-time, and to automatically generate highly accurate 3D terrain models offline in a fraction of the time currently required by softcopy conventional photogrammetry systems. The system is organized around a set of integrated sensor and software components. The instrumentation package is comprised of several inexpensive commercial-off-the-shelf components, including a digital video camera, a differential GPS, and a 3-axis heading and reference system. At the heart of the system is a set of software tools for image registration, mosaic generation, geo-location and aircraft state vector recovery. Each process is designed to efficiently handle the data collected by the instrument package. Particular attention is given to minimizing geospatial errors at each stage, as well as modeling propagation of errors through the system. Preliminary results for an urban and forested scene are discussed in detail.

  14. Apparatus Characterizes Transient Voltages in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    is received, a volatile memory is filled with data for a total time of 200 ms. After the data are transferred to nonvolatile memory, the recorder rearms itself within 400 ms to enable recording of subsequent transients. Unfortunately, the recorded data must be retrieved through a serial communication link. Depending on the amount of data recorded, the memory can be filled before retrieval is completed. Although large amounts of data are recorded and retrieved, only a small part of the information (the selected parameters) is usually required. The present transient-voltage recorder provides the required information, without incurring the overhead associated with the recording, storage, and retrieval of complete transient-waveform data. In operation, this apparatus processes transient voltage waveforms in real time to extract and record the selected parameters. An analog-to-digital converter that operates at a speed of as much as 100 mega-samples per second is used to sample a transient waveform. A real-time comparator and peak detector are implemented by use of fast field-programmable gate arrays.

  15. VLBI real-time analysis by Kalman Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbon, M.; Nilsson, T.; Soja, B.; Heinkelmann, R.; Raposo-Pulido, V.; Schuh, H.

    2013-12-01

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is one of the primary space geodetic techniques providing the full set of Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP) and is unique for observing long term Universal Time (UT1) and precession/nutation. Accurate and continuous EOP obtained in near real-time are essential for satellite based navigation and positioning and for enabling the precise tracking of interplanetary spacecrafts. To meet this necessity the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) increased its efforts to reduce the time span between the VLBI observations and the availability of the final results. Currently the timeliness is about two weeks, but the goal is to reduce it to less than one day with the future VGOS (VLBI2010 Global Observing System) network. The FWF project VLBI-ART contributes to this new generation VLBI system by considerably accelerating the VLBI analysis procedure through the implementation of an elaborate Kalman filter. This true real-time Kalman filter will be embedded in the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) as a completely automated tool with no need of human interaction. This filter also allows the prediction and combination of EOP from various space geodetic techniques by implementing stochastic models to statistically account for unpredictable changes in EOP. Additionally, atmospheric angular momenta calculated from numerical weather prediction models are introduced to support the short-term EOP prediction. To optimize the performance of the new software various investigations with real as well as simulated data are foreseen. The results are compared to the ones obtained by conventional VLBI parameter estimation methods (e.g. least squares method) and to corresponding parameter series from other techniques, such as from the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS).

  16. Toward real-time regional earthquake simulation II: Real-time Online earthquake Simulation (ROS) of Taiwan earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shiann-Jong; Liu, Qinya; Tromp, Jeroen; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Liang, Wen-Tzong; Huang, Bor-Shouh

    2014-06-01

    We developed a Real-time Online earthquake Simulation system (ROS) to simulate regional earthquakes in Taiwan. The ROS uses a centroid moment tensor solution of seismic events from a Real-time Moment Tensor monitoring system (RMT), which provides all the point source parameters including the event origin time, hypocentral location, moment magnitude and focal mechanism within 2 min after the occurrence of an earthquake. Then, all of the source parameters are automatically forwarded to the ROS to perform an earthquake simulation, which is based on a spectral-element method (SEM). A new island-wide, high resolution SEM mesh model is developed for the whole Taiwan in this study. We have improved SEM mesh quality by introducing a thin high-resolution mesh layer near the surface to accommodate steep and rapidly varying topography. The mesh for the shallow sedimentary basin is adjusted to reflect its complex geometry and sharp lateral velocity contrasts. The grid resolution at the surface is about 545 m, which is sufficient to resolve topography and tomography data for simulations accurate up to 1.0 Hz. The ROS is also an infrastructural service, making online earthquake simulation feasible. Users can conduct their own earthquake simulation by providing a set of source parameters through the ROS webpage. For visualization, a ShakeMovie and ShakeMap are produced during the simulation. The time needed for one event is roughly 3 min for a 70 s ground motion simulation. The ROS is operated online at the Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica (http://ros.earth.sinica.edu.tw/). Our long-term goal for the ROS system is to contribute to public earth science outreach and to realize seismic ground motion prediction in real-time.

  17. A modular real-time vision system for humanoid robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifan, Alina L.; Neves, António J. R.; Lau, Nuno; Cunha, Bernardo

    2012-01-01

    Robotic vision is nowadays one of the most challenging branches of robotics. In the case of a humanoid robot, a robust vision system has to provide an accurate representation of the surrounding world and to cope with all the constraints imposed by the hardware architecture and the locomotion of the robot. Usually humanoid robots have low computational capabilities that limit the complexity of the developed algorithms. Moreover, their vision system should perform in real time, therefore a compromise between complexity and processing times has to be found. This paper presents a reliable implementation of a modular vision system for a humanoid robot to be used in color-coded environments. From image acquisition, to camera calibration and object detection, the system that we propose integrates all the functionalities needed for a humanoid robot to accurately perform given tasks in color-coded environments. The main contributions of this paper are the implementation details that allow the use of the vision system in real-time, even with low processing capabilities, the innovative self-calibration algorithm for the most important parameters of the camera and its modularity that allows its use with different robotic platforms. Experimental results have been obtained with a NAO robot produced by Aldebaran, which is currently the robotic platform used in the RoboCup Standard Platform League, as well as with a humanoid build using the Bioloid Expert Kit from Robotis. As practical examples, our vision system can be efficiently used in real time for the detection of the objects of interest for a soccer playing robot (ball, field lines and goals) as well as for navigating through a maze with the help of color-coded clues. In the worst case scenario, all the objects of interest in a soccer game, using a NAO robot, with a single core 500Mhz processor, are detected in less than 30ms. Our vision system also includes an algorithm for self-calibration of the camera parameters as well

  18. Real-Time Feature Tracking Using Homography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clouse, Daniel S.; Cheng, Yang; Ansar, Adnan I.; Trotz, David C.; Padgett, Curtis W.

    2010-01-01

    This software finds feature point correspondences in sequences of images. It is designed for feature matching in aerial imagery. Feature matching is a fundamental step in a number of important image processing operations: calibrating the cameras in a camera array, stabilizing images in aerial movies, geo-registration of images, and generating high-fidelity surface maps from aerial movies. The method uses a Shi-Tomasi corner detector and normalized cross-correlation. This process is likely to result in the production of some mismatches. The feature set is cleaned up using the assumption that there is a large planar patch visible in both images. At high altitude, this assumption is often reasonable. A mathematical transformation, called an homography, is developed that allows us to predict the position in image 2 of any point on the plane in image 1. Any feature pair that is inconsistent with the homography is thrown out. The output of the process is a set of feature pairs, and the homography. The algorithms in this innovation are well known, but the new implementation improves the process in several ways. It runs in real-time at 2 Hz on 64-megapixel imagery. The new Shi-Tomasi corner detector tries to produce the requested number of features by automatically adjusting the minimum distance between found features. The homography-finding code now uses an implementation of the RANSAC algorithm that adjusts the number of iterations automatically to achieve a pre-set probability of missing a set of inliers. The new interface allows the caller to pass in a set of predetermined points in one of the images. This allows the ability to track the same set of points through multiple frames.

  19. Practical Real-Time Imaging Stereo Matcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, H. K.

    1984-10-01

    A binocular-stereo-matching algorithm for making rapid visual range measurements in noisy images is described. This technique is developed for application to problems in robotics where noise tolerance, reliability, and speed are predominant issues. A high speed pipelined convolver for preprocessing images and an unstructured light technique for improving signal quality are introduced to help enhance performance to meet the demands of this task domain. These optimizations, however, are not sufficient. A closer examination of the problems encountered suggests that broader interpretations of both the objective of binocular stereo and of the zero-crossing theory of Marr and Poggio [Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 204, 301 (1979)] are required. In this paper, we restrict ourselves to the problem of making a single primitive surface measurement for example, to determine whether or not a specified volume of space is occupied, to measure the range to a surface at an indicated image location, or to determine the elevation gradient at that position. In this framework we make a subtle but important shift from the explicit use of zero-crossing contours (in bandpass-filtered images) as the elements matched between left and right images, to the use of the signs between zero crossings. With this change, we obtain a simpler algorithm with a reduced sensitivity to noise and a more predictable behavior. The practical real-time imaging stereo matcher (PRISM) system incorporates this algorithm with the unstructured light technique and a high speed digital convolver. It has been used successfully by others as a sensor in a path-planning system and a bin-picking system.

  20. Satellite clock corrections estimation to accomplish real time ppp: experiments for brazilian real time network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Haroldo; Monico, João; Aquino, Marcio; Melo, Weyller

    2014-05-01

    The real time PPP method requires the availability of real time precise orbits and satellites clocks corrections. Currently, it is possible to apply the solutions of clocks and orbits available by BKG within the context of IGS Pilot project or by using the operational predicted IGU ephemeris. The accuracy of the satellite position available in the IGU is enough for several applications requiring good quality. However, the satellites clocks corrections do not provide enough accuracy (3 ns ~ 0.9 m) to accomplish real time PPP with the same level of accuracy. Therefore, for real time PPP application it is necessary to further research and develop appropriated methodologies for estimating the satellite clock corrections in real time with better accuracy. Currently, it is possible to apply the real time solutions of clocks and orbits available by Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG) within the context of IGS Pilot project. The BKG corrections are disseminated by a new proposed format of the RTCM 3.x and can be applied in the broadcasted orbits and clocks. Some investigations have been proposed for the estimation of the satellite clock corrections using GNSS code and phase observable at the double difference level between satellites and epochs (MERVAT, DOUSA, 2007). Another possibility consists of applying a Kalman Filter in the PPP network mode (HAUSCHILD, 2010) and it is also possible the integration of both methods, using network PPP and observables at double difference level in specific time intervals (ZHANG; LI; GUO, 2010). For this work the methodology adopted consists in the estimation of the satellite clock corrections based on the data adjustment in the PPP mode, but for a network of GNSS stations. The clock solution can be solved by using two types of observables: code smoothed by carrier phase or undifferenced code together with carrier phase. In the former, we estimate receiver clock error; satellite clock correction and troposphere, considering

  1. Real-time data standards for the planetarium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B.

    2008-06-01

    The American Museum of Natural History and the Hayden Planetarium have built the most accurate, comprehensive, 3-D atlas of the cosmos called the Digital Universe (DU). The DU enables one to journey from the mountains on Earth to the farthest quasars. The DU enjoys many distribution channels, including pre-rendered space-shows and news bulletins, live planetarium programmes, and a free version available on the internet. Recently, we have partnered with three planetarium vendors to bring the DU to planetariums around the world. These partnerships necessitatethe adoption or creation of standards for three-dimensional data and associated metadata. Many standards exist in the current Virtual Observatory framework and additional standards are being proposed as part of the VAMP programme. We intend to identify additional standards necessary for 3-D, real-time rendering tools for fulldome and flat-screen environments.

  2. Real Time Flood Alert System (RTFAS) for Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopez-Trujillo, Dianne

    2010-01-01

    The Real Time Flood Alert System is a web-based computer program, developed as a data integration tool, and designed to increase the ability of emergency managers to rapidly and accurately predict flooding conditions of streams in Puerto Rico. The system includes software and a relational database to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall, water levels in streams and reservoirs, and associated storms to determine hazardous and potential flood conditions. The computer program was developed as part of a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey Caribbean Water Science Center and the Puerto Rico Emergency Management Agency, and integrates information collected and processed by these two agencies and the National Weather Service.

  3. Cloud-ECG for real time ECG monitoring and analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Henian; Asif, Irfan; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2013-06-01

    Recent advances in mobile technology and cloud computing have inspired numerous designs of cloud-based health care services and devices. Within the cloud system, medical data can be collected and transmitted automatically to medical professionals from anywhere and feedback can be returned to patients through the network. In this article, we developed a cloud-based system for clients with mobile devices or web browsers. Specially, we aim to address the issues regarding the usefulness of the ECG data collected from patients themselves. Algorithms for ECG enhancement, ECG quality evaluation and ECG parameters extraction were implemented in the system. The system was demonstrated by a use case, in which ECG data was uploaded to the web server from a mobile phone at a certain frequency and analysis was performed in real time using the server. The system has been proven to be functional, accurate and efficient. PMID:23261079

  4. Stochastic Particle Real Time Analyzer (SPARTA) Validation and Verification Suite

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michael A.; Koehler, Timothy P.; Plimpton, Steven J.

    2014-10-01

    This report presents the test cases used to verify, validate and demonstrate the features and capabilities of the first release of the 3D Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code SPARTA (Stochastic Real Time Particle Analyzer). The test cases included in this report exercise the most critical capabilities of the code like the accurate representation of physical phenomena (molecular advection and collisions, energy conservation, etc.) and implementation of numerical methods (grid adaptation, load balancing, etc.). Several test cases of simple flow examples are shown to demonstrate that the code can reproduce phenomena predicted by analytical solutions and theory. A number of additional test cases are presented to illustrate the ability of SPARTA to model flow around complicated shapes. In these cases, the results are compared to other well-established codes or theoretical predictions. This compilation of test cases is not exhaustive, and it is anticipated that more cases will be added in the future.

  5. Automated real time peg and tool detection for the FLS trainer box.

    PubMed

    Nemani, Arun; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a method that effectively tracks trocar tool and peg positions in real time to allow real time assessment of the peg transfer task of the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS). By utilizing custom code along with OpenCV libraries, tool and peg positions can be accurately tracked without altering the original setup conditions of the FLS trainer box. This is achieved via a series of image filtration sequences, thresholding functions, and Haar training methods.

  6. Automated real time peg and tool detection for the FLS trainer box.

    PubMed

    Nemani, Arun; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a method that effectively tracks trocar tool and peg positions in real time to allow real time assessment of the peg transfer task of the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS). By utilizing custom code along with OpenCV libraries, tool and peg positions can be accurately tracked without altering the original setup conditions of the FLS trainer box. This is achieved via a series of image filtration sequences, thresholding functions, and Haar training methods. PMID:22357006

  7. Real-time dosimetry in radiotherapy using tailored optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, A. K. M. Mizanur; Zubair, H. T.; Begum, Mahfuza; Abdul-Rashid, H. A.; Yusoff, Z.; Omar, Nasr Y. M.; Ung, N. M.; Mat-Sharif, K. A.; Bradley, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    Real-time dosimetry plays an important role for accurate patient-dose measurement during radiotherapy. A tiny piece of laboratory fabricated Ge-doped optical fiber has been investigated as a radioluminescence (RL) sensor for real-time dosimetry over the dose range from 1 Gy to 8 Gy under 6 MV photon beam by LINAC. Fiber-coupled software-based RL prototype system was used to assess essential dosimetric characteristics including dose response linearity, dose rate dependency, sensitivity, repeatability and output dependence on field sizes. The consistency level of RL photon counts versus dose rate was also compared with that of standard Al2O3:C chips. Sensitivity of Ge-doped fiber were found to be sufficiently sensitive for practical use and also provided linear dose responses for various dose rates from 100 cGy/min to 600 cGy/min using both 6 MV photon and 6 MeV electron beams. SEM-EDX analysis was performed to identify Ge-dopant concentration level within the optical fiber RL material. Accumulated doses were also estimated using simple integral technique and the error was found to be around less than 1% under dissimilar dose rates or repeat measurements. The evaluation of the Ge-doped optical fiber based RL dosimeter system indicates its potential in medical dosimetry.

  8. OSL Based Anthropomorphic Phantom and Real-Time Organ Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Hintenlang, Ph.D

    2009-02-10

    The overall objective of this project was the development of a dosimetry system that provides the direct measurement of organ does in real-time with a sensitivity that makes it an effective tool for applications in a wide variety of health physics applications. The system included the development of a real-time readout system for fiber optic coupled (FOC) dosimeters that is integrated with a state-of-art anthropomorphic phantom to provide instantaneous measures of organ doses throughout the phantom. The small size of the FOC detectors and optical fibers allow the sensitive volume of the detector to be located at organ centroids (or multiple locations distributed through the organ) within a tissue equivalent, anthropomorphic phantom without perturbing the tissue equivalent features of the phantom. The developed phantom/dosimetry system can be used in any environment where personnel may be exposed to gamma or x-ray radiations to provide the most accurate determinations of organ and effective doses possible to date.

  9. Real-time forecasts of tomorrow's earthquakes in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerstenberger, M.C.; Wiemer, S.; Jones, L.M.; Reasenberg, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Despite a lack of reliable deterministic earthquake precursors, seismologists have significant predictive information about earthquake activity from an increasingly accurate understanding of the clustering properties of earthquakes. In the past 15 years, time-dependent earthquake probabilities based on a generic short-term clustering model have been made publicly available in near-real time during major earthquake sequences. These forecasts describe the probability and number of events that are, on average, likely to occur following a mainshock of a given magnitude, but are not tailored to the particular sequence at hand and contain no information about the likely locations of the aftershocks. Our model builds upon the basic principles of this generic forecast model in two ways: it recasts the forecast in terms of the probability of strong ground shaking, and it combines an existing time-independent earthquake occurrence model based on fault data and historical earthquakes with increasingly complex models describing the local time-dependent earthquake clustering. The result is a time-dependent map showing the probability of strong shaking anywhere in California within the next 24 hours. The seismic hazard modelling approach we describe provides a better understanding of time-dependent earthquake hazard, and increases its usefulness for the public, emergency planners and the media.

  10. Real time UAV autonomy through offline calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sunghun

    . Once one or several targets are detected, UAVs near the target are manipulated to approach to the target. If the number of detected targets is more than one, UAVs are evenly grouped to track targets. After a specific period of time, UAVs hand off and continue their original tasks. Thirdly, Emergency algorithm is generated to avoid losses of UAVs when UAVs have system failures. If one UAV is out of fuel or control during the mission, the Emergency algorithm brings the malfunctioning UAV to the point of departure and let the rest UAVs to continue an aerial reconnaissance. An UAV which finishes its task the earliest will continue to search a region which the failed UAV is supposed to search. In addition, Emergency algorithm prevents UAVs colliding into each other by using emergency altitude. Overall, the framework developed here facilitates the solution of several mission planning problems. The robustness built into our discretization of space and time permits feedback corrections on real-time to vehicle trajectories. The library of off-line solutions proposed and developed here minimizes computational overhead during operations.

  11. Instrumentation development for real time brainwave monitoring.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Lawrence Frederick; Clough, Benjamin W.

    2005-12-01

    The human brain functions through a chemically-induced biological process which operates in a manner similar to electrical systems. The signal resulting from this biochemical process can actually be monitored and read using tools and having patterns similar to those found in electrical and electronics engineering. The primary signature of this electrical activity is the ''brain wave'', which looks remarkably similar to the output of many electrical systems. Likewise, the device currently used in medical arenas to read brain electrical activity is the electroencephalogram (EEG) which is synonymous with a multi-channel oscilloscope reading. Brain wave readings and recordings for medical purposes are traditionally taken in clinical settings such as hospitals, laboratories or diagnostic clinics. The signal is captured via externally applied scalp electrodes using semi-viscous gel to reduce impedance. The signal will be in the 10 to 100 microvolt range. In other instances, where surgeons are attempting to isolate particular types of minute brain signals, the electrodes may actually be temporarily implanted in the brain during a preliminary procedure. The current configurations of equipment required for EEGs involve large recording instruments, many electrodes, wires, and large amounts of hard disk space devoted to storing large files of brain wave data which are then eventually analyzed for patterns of concern. Advances in sensors, signal processing, data storage and microelectronics over the last decade would seem to have paved the way for the realization of devices capable of ''real time'' external monitoring, and possible assessment, of brain activity. A myriad of applications for such a capability are likewise presenting themselves, including the ability to assess brain functioning, level of functioning and malfunctioning. Our plan is to develop the sensors, signal processing, and portable instrumentation package which could capture, analyze, and communicate

  12. Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biafore, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). Within this project, we propose a novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance. The system is based on the integration of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit will include a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station which also uses a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system will also incorporate middleware and high level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information, and that will offer top level functionalities as management of users, mobile tags and environment data and alarms, database storage and management and a web-based graphical user interface. Effort will be spent to ensure that the software is modular and re-usable across as many architectural levels as possible. Finally, an expert system will continuously analyze the information from the radiation sensor and correlate it with historical data from the tag location in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The system will be useful for many different scenarios, including such lost radioactive sources and radioactive contamination. It will be possible to deploy in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment. The sensing units will be highly portable thanks to their low size and low energy consumption. The complete system will be scalable in terms of complexity and cost and will offer very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system will allow for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a

  13. Real-time Forensic Disaster Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, F.; Daniell, J.; Khazai, B.; Mühr, B.; Kunz-Plapp, T.; Markus, M.; Vervaeck, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM, www.cedim.de) - an interdisciplinary research center founded by the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - has embarked on a new style of disaster research known as Forensic Disaster Analysis. The notion has been coined by the Integrated Research on Disaster Risk initiative (IRDR, www.irdrinternational.org) launched by ICSU in 2010. It has been defined as an approach to studying natural disasters that aims at uncovering the root causes of disasters through in-depth investigations that go beyond the reconnaissance reports and case studies typically conducted after disasters. In adopting this comprehensive understanding of disasters CEDIM adds a real-time component to the assessment and evaluation process. By comprehensive we mean that most if not all relevant aspects of disasters are considered and jointly analysed. This includes the impact (human, economy, and infrastructure), comparisons with recent historic events, social vulnerability, reconstruction and long-term impacts on livelihood issues. The forensic disaster analysis research mode is thus best characterized as "event-based research" through systematic investigation of critical issues arising after a disaster across various inter-related areas. The forensic approach requires (a) availability of global data bases regarding previous earthquake losses, socio-economic parameters, building stock information, etc.; (b) leveraging platforms such as the EERI clearing house, relief-web, and the many sources of local and international sources where information is organized; and (c) rapid access to critical information (e.g., crowd sourcing techniques) to improve our understanding of the complex dynamics of disasters. The main scientific questions being addressed are: What are critical factors that control loss of life, of infrastructure, and for economy? What are the critical interactions

  14. Real-Time Global Nonlinear Aerodynamic Modeling for Learn-To-Fly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2016-01-01

    Flight testing and modeling techniques were developed to accurately identify global nonlinear aerodynamic models for aircraft in real time. The techniques were developed and demonstrated during flight testing of a remotely-piloted subscale propeller-driven fixed-wing aircraft using flight test maneuvers designed to simulate a Learn-To-Fly scenario. Prediction testing was used to evaluate the quality of the global models identified in real time. The real-time global nonlinear aerodynamic modeling algorithm will be integrated and further tested with learning adaptive control and guidance for NASA Learn-To-Fly concept flight demonstrations.

  15. Real-time flood extent maps based on social media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilander, Dirk; van Loenen, Arnejan; Roskam, Ruud; Wagemaker, Jurjen

    2015-04-01

    During a flood event it is often difficult to get accurate information about the flood extent and the people affected. This information is very important for disaster risk reduction management and crisis relief organizations. In the post flood phase, information about the flood extent is needed for damage estimation and calibrating hydrodynamic models. Currently, flood extent maps are derived from a few sources such as satellite images, areal images and post-flooding flood marks. However, getting accurate real-time or maximum flood extent maps remains difficult. With the rise of social media, we now have a new source of information with large numbers of observations. In the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, the intensity of unique flood related tweets during a flood event, peaked at 8 tweets per second during floods in early 2014. A fair amount of these tweets also contains observations of water depth and location. Our hypothesis is that based on the large numbers of tweets it is possible to generate real-time flood extent maps. In this study we use tweets from the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, to generate these flood extent maps. The data-mining procedure looks for tweets with a mention of 'banjir', the Bahasa Indonesia word for flood. It then removes modified and retweeted messages in order to keep unique tweets only. Since tweets are not always sent directly from the location of observation, the geotag in the tweets is unreliable. We therefore extract location information using mentions of names of neighborhoods and points of interest. Finally, where encountered, a mention of a length measure is extracted as water depth. These tweets containing a location reference and a water level are considered to be flood observations. The strength of this method is that it can easily be extended to other regions and languages. Based on the intensity of tweets in Jakarta during a flood event we can provide a rough estimate of the flood extent. To provide more accurate flood extend

  16. PERTS: A Prototyping Environment for Real-Time Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay; Liu, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    PERTS is a prototyping environment for real-time systems. It is being built incrementally and will contain basic building blocks of operating systems for time-critical applications, tools, and performance models for the analysis, evaluation and measurement of real-time systems and a simulation/emulation environment. It is designed to support the use and evaluation of new design approaches, experimentations with alternative system building blocks, and the analysis and performance profiling of prototype real-time systems.

  17. Real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification is more convenient than real-time PCR for quantification of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Petra; Wolters, Liselotte; Schoone, Gerard; Schallig, Henk; Sillekens, Peter; Hermsen, Rob; Sauerwein, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Determination of the number of malaria parasites by routine or even expert microscopy is not always sufficiently sensitive for detailed quantitative studies on the population dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum, such as intervention or vaccine trials. To circumvent this problem, two more sensitive assays, real-time quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (QT-NASBA) and real-time quantitative PCR (QT-PCR) were compared for quantification of P. falciparum parasites. QT-NASBA was adapted to molecular beacon real-time detection technology, which enables a reduction of the time of analysis and of contamination risk while retaining the specificity and sensitivity of the original assay. Both QT-NASBA and QT-PCR have a sensitivity of 20 parasites/ml of blood, but QT-PCR requires a complicated DNA extraction procedure and the use of 500 microl of venous blood to achieve this sensitivity, compared to 50 microl of finger prick blood for real-time QT-NASBA. Both techniques show a significant correlation to microscopic parasite counts, and the quantification results of the two real-time assays are significantly correlated for in vitro as well as in vivo samples. However, in comparison to real-time QT-PCR, the results of real-time QT-NASBA can be obtained 12 h earlier, with relatively easy RNA extraction and use of finger prick blood samples. The prospective development of multiplex QT-NASBA for detection of various P. falciparum developmental stages increases the value of QT-NASBA for malaria studies. Therefore, for studies requiring sensitive and accurate detection of P. falciparum parasites in large numbers of samples, the use of real-time QT-NASBA is preferred over that of real-time QT-PCR.

  18. Cell-bionics: tools for real-time sensor processing.

    PubMed

    Toumazou, Chris; Cass, Tony

    2007-08-29

    The accurate monitoring of the physiological status of cells, tissues and whole organisms demands a new generation of devices capable of providing accurate data in real time with minimal perturbation of the system being measured. To deliver on the promise of cell-bionics advances over the past decade in miniaturization, analogue signal processing, low-power electronics, materials science and protein engineering need to be brought together. In this paper we summarize recent advances in our research that is moving us in this direction. Two areas in particular are highlighted: the exploitation of the physical properties inherent in semiconductor devices to perform very low power on chip signal processing and the use of gene technology to tailor proteins for sensor applications. In the context of engineered tissues, cell-bionics could offer the ability to monitor the precise physiological state of the construct, both during 'manufacture' and post-implantation. Monitoring during manufacture, particularly by embedded devices, would offer quality assurance of the materials components and the fabrication process. Post-implantation monitoring would reveal changes in the underlying physiology as a result of the tissue construct adapting to its new environment.

  19. Real-time, Three-dimensional Aquifer Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, A.; Jones, J. W.; Mongrain, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    Commonly-employed subsurface investigation techniques such as drilling and soil sampling, aquifer testing, tracer testing, groundwater sampling and analytical test work yield valuable subsurface information, yet they provide little direct information about the migration pathways followed by contaminants. Meaningful site assessment and remediation work require an accurate assessment of these migration pathways. Since these pathways generally represent a small proportion of the subsurface, accurate characterization data are key to the design of effective remediation programs on a contaminated site. Methods capable of interrogating volumetric properties of the subsurface are necessary to define migration pathways followed by contaminants, develop an accurate conceptualization of the subsurface, and to support a better understanding of contaminant conditions. Of course, to be of practical use at ‘typical’ sites, the methods must be cost-effective and work in existing conventionally-completed monitoring wells. This paper presents the results of real-time geophysical measurements in the context of a tracer test that used de-ionized water and a fluorescent tracer. The purpose of these field activities was to conduct detailed characterization of the aquifer properties to support the design of a groundwater remediation program. The geophysical approach provided real-time, 3 D measurement and images of the evolving changes in the electric conductivity (resistivity) and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) in the aquifer. The de-ionized water provided strong electrochemical changes and allowed both parameters to be rapidly and cost-effectively measured in-situ. Our approach provided continuous monitoring of these diagnostic parameters using readily-deployed down-hole electrode arrays to generate detailed profiles in multiple wells and cross-hole resistivity images of groundwater conditions, prior to, during and after the tracer injection. The geophysical data clearly

  20. Easy and hard testbeds for real-time search algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, S.; Simmons, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    Although researchers have studied which factors influence the behavior of traditional search algorithms, currently not much is known about how domain properties influence the performance of real-time search algorithms. In this paper we demonstrate, both theoretically and experimentally, that Eulerian state spaces (a super set of undirected state spaces) are very easy for some existing real-time search algorithms to solve: even real-time search algorithms that can be intractable, in general, are efficient for Eulerian state spaces. Because traditional real-time search testbeds (such as the eight puzzle and gridworlds) are Eulerian, they cannot be used to distinguish between efficient and inefficient real-time search algorithms. It follows that one has to use non-Eulerian domains to demonstrate the general superiority of a given algorithm. To this end, we present two classes of hard-to-search state spaces and demonstrate the performance of various real-time search algorithms on them.

  1. Real Time Flux Control in PM Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Otaduy, P.J.

    2005-09-27

    Significant research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) is being conducted to develop ways to increase (1) torque, (2) speed range, and (3) efficiency of traction electric motors for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) within existing current and voltage bounds. Current is limited by the inverter semiconductor devices' capability and voltage is limited by the stator wire insulation's ability to withstand the maximum back-electromotive force (emf), which occurs at the upper end of the speed range. One research track has been to explore ways to control the path and magnitude of magnetic flux while the motor is operating. The phrase, real time flux control (RTFC), refers to this mode of operation in which system parameters are changed while the motor is operating to improve its performance and speed range. RTFC has potential to meet an increased torque demand by introducing additional flux through the main air gap from an external source. It can augment the speed range by diverting flux away from the main air gap to reduce back-emf at high speeds. Conventional RTFC technology is known as vector control [1]. Vector control decomposes the stator current into two components; one that produces torque and a second that opposes (weakens) the magnetic field generated by the rotor, thereby requiring more overall stator current and reducing the efficiency. Efficiency can be improved by selecting a RTFC method that reduces the back-emf without increasing the average current. This favors methods that use pulse currents or very low currents to achieve field weakening. Foremost in ORNL's effort to develop flux control is the work of J. S. Hsu. Early research [2,3] introduced direct control of air-gap flux in permanent magnet (PM) machines and demonstrated it with a flux-controlled generator. The configuration eliminates the problem of demagnetization because it diverts all the flux from the magnets instead of

  2. Real-time and postprocessing holographic effects in dichromated pullulan.

    PubMed

    Savić, Svetlana; Pantelić, Dejan; Jakovijević, Dragica

    2002-08-01

    Experimental results concerning both real-time and postprocessing (after-development) behavior of a novel photosensitive material, dichromate-sensitized pullulan (DCP), are investigated. The exposure mechanism and possibilities for controlling holographic grating properties are discussed. We have shown that it is possible to maximize the diffraction efficiency of interference gratings after development by controlling diffraction efficiency in real time. Stronger real-time effects of DCP compared with those of dichromated gelatin are achieved. PMID:12153075

  3. Real-Time MENTAT programming language and architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimshaw, Andrew S.; Silberman, Ami; Liu, Jane W. S.

    1989-01-01

    Real-time MENTAT, a programming environment designed to simplify the task of programming real-time applications in distributed and parallel environments, is described. It is based on the same data-driven computation model and object-oriented programming paradigm as MENTAT. It provides an easy-to-use mechanism to exploit parallelism, language constructs for the expression and enforcement of timing constraints, and run-time support for scheduling and exciting real-time programs. The real-time MENTAT programming language is an extended C++. The extensions are added to facilitate automatic detection of data flow and generation of data flow graphs, to express the timing constraints of individual granules of computation, and to provide scheduling directives for the runtime system. A high-level view of the real-time MENTAT system architecture and programming language constructs is provided.

  4. Methods for real-time speech processing on Unix

    SciTech Connect

    Romberger, A.

    1982-01-01

    The author discusses computer programming done at the University of California, Berkeley, in support of research work in the area of speech analysis and synthesis. The purpose of this programming is to set up a system for doing real-time speech sampling using the Unix operating system. Two alternative approaches to real time work on Unix are discussed. The first approach is to do the real-time input/output on a secondary (satellite) machine that is not running Unix. The second approach is to do the real-time input/output on the main machine with the aid of special hardware.

  5. Real time simulation using position sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studor, George F. (Inventor); Womack, Robert W. (Inventor); Hilferty, Michael F. (Inventor); Isbell, William B. (Inventor); Taylor, Jason A. (Inventor); Bacon, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An interactive exercise system including exercise equipment having a resistance system, a speed sensor, a controller that varies the resistance setting of the exercise equipment, and a playback device for playing pre-recorded video and audio. The controller, operating in conjunction with speed information from the speed sensor and terrain information from media table files, dynamically varies the resistance setting of the exercise equipment in order to simulate varying degrees of difficulty while the playback device concurrently plays back the video and audio to create the simulation that the user is exercising in a natural setting such as a real-world exercise course.

  6. Real-time calibration of temperature estimates during radiofrequency ablation.

    PubMed

    Varghese, T; Daniels, M J

    2004-07-01

    Radiofrequency ablation is an interstitial focal ablative therapy that can be used in a percutaneous fashion and permits in situ destruction of hepatic tumors. Recurrence rates after rf therapy are as high as 34-55%, due to difficulties in accurately identifying the zone of necrosis (thermal lesion) because of the low intrinsic acoustic contrast between normal and ablated liver tissue. Our goal is to provide real-time ultrasonic tracking of temperature changes over the large range of temperatures traditionally used (40-100 degrees C) in rfablation procedures using an external ultrasound transducer. Temperature estimates are obtained using a cross-correlation algorithm applied to rf ultrasound echo signal data acquired at discrete intervals during heating. Apparent tissue displacement estimates obtained at these discrete time-intervals are accumulated to obtain a cumulative displacement map, whose gradient provides after appropriate scaling provides a temperature map at the specified elapsed ablation duration. Temperature maps are used to display the initial temperature rise and to continuously update a thermal map of the treated region. In this paper, we develop calibration curves that relate the echo shift due to the change in the speed of sound and thermal expansion to the corresponding temperature increase on in-vitro tissue specimens. These calibration curves can then be utilized for the real time calibration and analysis of temperature estimates obtained from the rf echo signals during ablation. Temperature maps obtained using the calibration curve compare favorably to temperature estimates observed using the invasive thermosensor readings on the ablation electrode and previous results that utilized a linear calibration factor.

  7. RighTime: A real time clock correcting program for MS-DOS-based computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, G. Thomas

    1993-01-01

    A computer program is described which effectively eliminates the misgivings of the DOS system clock in PC/AT-class computers. RighTime is a small, sophisticated memory-resident program that automatically corrects both the DOS system clock and the hardware 'CMOS' real time clock (RTC) in real time. RighTime learns what corrections are required without operator interaction beyond the occasional accurate time set. Both warm (power on) and cool (power off) errors are corrected, usually yielding better than one part per million accuracy in the typical desktop computer with no additional hardware, and RighTime increases the system clock resolution from approximately 0.0549 second to 0.01 second. Program tools are also available which allow visualization of RighTime's actions, verification of its performance, display of its history log, and which provide data for graphing of the system clock behavior. The program has found application in a wide variety of industries, including astronomy, satellite tracking, communications, broadcasting, transportation, public utilities, manufacturing, medicine, and the military.

  8. Real-time Avatar Animation from a Single Image

    PubMed Central

    Saragih, Jason M.; Lucey, Simon; Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    2014-01-01

    A real time facial puppetry system is presented. Compared with existing systems, the proposed method requires no special hardware, runs in real time (23 frames-per-second), and requires only a single image of the avatar and user. The user’s facial expression is captured through a real-time 3D non-rigid tracking system. Expression transfer is achieved by combining a generic expression model with synthetically generated examples that better capture person specific characteristics. Performance of the system is evaluated on avatars of real people as well as masks and cartoon characters. PMID:24598812

  9. Liquid propellant rocket engine combustion simulation with a time-accurate CFD method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y. S.; Shang, H. M.; Liaw, Paul; Hutt, J.

    1993-01-01

    Time-accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) algorithms are among the basic requirements as an engineering or research tool for realistic simulations of transient combustion phenomena, such as combustion instability, transient start-up, etc., inside the rocket engine combustion chamber. A time-accurate pressure based method is employed in the FDNS code for combustion model development. This is in connection with other program development activities such as spray combustion model development and efficient finite-rate chemistry solution method implementation. In the present study, a second-order time-accurate time-marching scheme is employed. For better spatial resolutions near discontinuities (e.g., shocks, contact discontinuities), a 3rd-order accurate TVD scheme for modeling the convection terms is implemented in the FDNS code. Necessary modification to the predictor/multi-corrector solution algorithm in order to maintain time-accurate wave propagation is also investigated. Benchmark 1-D and multidimensional test cases, which include the classical shock tube wave propagation problems, resonant pipe test case, unsteady flow development of a blast tube test case, and H2/O2 rocket engine chamber combustion start-up transient simulation, etc., are investigated to validate and demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the present numerical scheme and solution algorithm.

  10. A Three-Dimensional Parallel Time-Accurate Turbopump Simulation Procedure Using Overset Grid System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin; Chan, William; Kwak, Dochan

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the current effort is to provide a computational framework for design and analysis of the entire fuel supply system of a liquid rocket engine, including high-fidelity unsteady turbopump flow analysis. This capability is needed to support the design of pump sub-systems for advanced space transportation vehicles that are likely to involve liquid propulsion systems. To date, computational tools for design/analysis of turbopump flows are based on relatively lower fidelity methods. An unsteady, three-dimensional viscous flow analysis tool involving stationary and rotational components for the entire turbopump assembly has not been available for real-world engineering applications. The present effort provides developers with information such as transient flow phenomena at start up, and nonuniform inflows, and will eventually impact on system vibration and structures. In the proposed paper, the progress toward the capability of complete simulation of the turbo-pump for a liquid rocket engine is reported. The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbo-pump is used as a test case for evaluation of the hybrid MPI/Open-MP and MLP versions of the INS3D code. CAD to solution auto-scripting capability is being developed for turbopump applications. The relative motion of the grid systems for the rotor-stator interaction was obtained using overset grid techniques. Unsteady computations for the SSME turbo-pump, which contains 114 zones with 34.5 million grid points, are carried out on Origin 3000 systems at NASA Ames Research Center. Results from these time-accurate simulations with moving boundary capability are presented along with the performance of parallel versions of the code.

  11. A Three Dimensional Parallel Time Accurate Turbopump Simulation Procedure Using Overset Grid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin; Chan, William; Kwak, Dochan

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the current effort is to provide a computational framework for design and analysis of the entire fuel supply system of a liquid rocket engine, including high-fidelity unsteady turbopump flow analysis. This capability is needed to support the design of pump sub-systems for advanced space transportation vehicles that are likely to involve liquid propulsion systems. To date, computational tools for design/analysis of turbopump flows are based on relatively lower fidelity methods. An unsteady, three-dimensional viscous flow analysis tool involving stationary and rotational components for the entire turbopump assembly has not been available for real-world engineering applications. The present effort provides developers with information such as transient flow phenomena at start up, and non-uniform inflows, and will eventually impact on system vibration and structures. In the proposed paper, the progress toward the capability of complete simulation of the turbo-pump for a liquid rocket engine is reported. The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbo-pump is used as a test case for evaluation of the hybrid MPI/Open-MP and MLP versions of the INS3D code. CAD to solution auto-scripting capability is being developed for turbopump applications. The relative motion of the grid systems for the rotor-stator interaction was obtained using overset grid techniques. Unsteady computations for the SSME turbo-pump, which contains 114 zones with 34.5 million grid points, are carried out on Origin 3000 systems at NASA Ames Research Center. Results from these time-accurate simulations with moving boundary capability will be presented along with the performance of parallel versions of the code.

  12. Real-Time Dynamic Modeling - Data Information Requirements and Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Smith, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    Practical aspects of identifying dynamic models for aircraft in real time were studied. Topics include formulation of an equation-error method in the frequency domain to estimate non-dimensional stability and control derivatives in real time, data information content for accurate modeling results, and data information management techniques such as data forgetting, incorporating prior information, and optimized excitation. Real-time dynamic modeling was applied to simulation data and flight test data from a modified F-15B fighter aircraft, and to operational flight data from a subscale jet transport aircraft. Estimated parameter standard errors and comparisons with results from a batch output-error method in the time domain were used to demonstrate the accuracy of the identified real-time models.

  13. Real-Time Dynamic Modeling - Data Information Requirements and Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Smith, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Practical aspects of identifying dynamic models for aircraft in real time were studied. Topics include formulation of an equation-error method in the frequency domain to estimate non-dimensional stability and control derivatives in real time, data information content for accurate modeling results, and data information management techniques such as data forgetting, incorporating prior information, and optimized excitation. Real-time dynamic modeling was applied to simulation data and flight test data from a modified F-15B fighter aircraft, and to operational flight data from a subscale jet transport aircraft. Estimated parameter standard errors, prediction cases, and comparisons with results from a batch output-error method in the time domain were used to demonstrate the accuracy of the identified real-time models.

  14. Real Time Volcanic Cloud Products and Predictions for Aviation Alerts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Habib, Shahid; da Silva, Arlindo; Hughes, Eric; Yang, Kai; Brentzel, Kelvin; Seftor, Colin; Li, Jason Y.; Schneider, David; Guffanti, Marianne; Hoffman, Robert L.; Myers, Tim; Tamminen, Johanna; Hassinen, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions can inject significant amounts of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and volcanic ash into the atmosphere, posing a substantial risk to aviation safety. Ingesting near-real time and Direct Readout satellite volcanic cloud data is vital for improving reliability of volcanic ash forecasts and mitigating the effects of volcanic eruptions on aviation and the economy. NASA volcanic products from the Ozone Monitoring Insrument (OMI) aboard the Aura satellite have been incorporated into Decision Support Systems of many operational agencies. With the Aura mission approaching its 10th anniversary, there is an urgent need to replace OMI data with those from the next generation operational NASA/NOAA Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP) satellite. The data provided from these instruments are being incorporated into forecasting models to provide quantitative ash forecasts for air traffic management. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the volcanic near-real time and Direct Readout data products from the new Ozone Monitoring and Profiling Suite (OMPS) ultraviolet sensor onboard SNPP for monitoring and forecasting volcanic clouds. The transition of NASA data production to our operational partners is outlined. Satellite observations are used to constrain volcanic cloud simulations and improve estimates of eruption parameters, resulting in more accurate forecasts. This is demonstrated for the 2012 eruption of Copahue. Volcanic eruptions are modeled using the Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) and the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol and Radiation Transport (GOCART) model. A hindcast of the disruptive eruption from Iceland's Eyjafjallajokull is used to estimate aviation re-routing costs using Metron Aviation's ATM Tools.

  15. Real Time Land-Surface Hydrologic Modeling Over Continental US

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houser, Paul R.

    1998-01-01

    The land surface component of the hydrological cycle is fundamental to the overall functioning of the atmospheric and climate processes. Spatially and temporally variable rainfall and available energy, combined with land surface heterogeneity cause complex variations in all processes related to surface hydrology. The characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of water and energy cycles are critical to improve our understanding of land surface-atmosphere interaction and the impact of land surface processes on climate extremes. Because the accurate knowledge of these processes and their variability is important for climate predictions, most Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) centers have incorporated land surface schemes in their models. However, errors in the NWP forcing accumulate in the surface and energy stores, leading to incorrect surface water and energy partitioning and related processes. This has motivated the NWP to impose ad hoc corrections to the land surface states to prevent this drift. A proposed methodology is to develop Land Data Assimilation schemes (LDAS), which are uncoupled models forced with observations, and not affected by NWP forcing biases. The proposed research is being implemented as a real time operation using an existing Surface Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (SVATS) model at a 40 km degree resolution across the United States to evaluate these critical science questions. The model will be forced with real time output from numerical prediction models, satellite data, and radar precipitation measurements. Model parameters will be derived from the existing GIS vegetation and soil coverages. The model results will be aggregated to various scales to assess water and energy balances and these will be validated with various in-situ observations.

  16. Irregular Morphing for Real-Time Rendering of Large Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalem, Sid'Ali; Kourgli, Assia

    2016-06-01

    The following paper proposes an alternative approach to the real-time adaptive triangulation problem. A new region-based multi-resolution approach for terrain rendering is described which improves on-the-fly the distribution of the density of triangles inside the tile after selecting appropriate Level-Of-Detail by an adaptive sampling. This proposed approach organizes the heightmap into a QuadTree of tiles that are processed independently. This technique combines the benefits of both Triangular Irregular Network approach and region-based multi-resolution approach by improving the distribution of the density of triangles inside the tile. Our technique morphs the initial regular grid of the tile to deformed grid in order to minimize approximation error. The proposed technique strives to combine large tile size and real-time processing while guaranteeing an upper bound on the screen space error. Thus, this approach adapts terrain rendering process to local surface characteristics and enables on-the-fly handling of large amount of terrain data. Morphing is based-on the multi-resolution wavelet analysis. The use of the D2WT multi-resolution analysis of the terrain height-map speeds up processing and permits to satisfy an interactive terrain rendering. Tests and experiments demonstrate that Haar B-Spline wavelet, well known for its properties of localization and its compact support, is suitable for fast and accurate redistribution. Such technique could be exploited in client-server architecture for supporting interactive high-quality remote visualization of very large terrain.

  17. Real-time synthetic vision cockpit display for general aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Andrew J.; Smith, W. Garth; Rybacki, Richard M.

    1999-07-01

    Low cost, high performance graphics solutions based on PC hardware platforms are now capable of rendering synthetic vision of a pilot's out-the-window view during all phases of flight. When coupled to a GPS navigation payload the virtual image can be fully correlated to the physical world. In particular, differential GPS services such as the Wide Area Augmentation System WAAS will provide all aviation users with highly accurate 3D navigation. As well, short baseline GPS attitude systems are becoming a viable and inexpensive solution. A glass cockpit display rendering geographically specific imagery draped terrain in real-time can be coupled with high accuracy (7m 95% positioning, sub degree pointing), high integrity (99.99999% position error bound) differential GPS navigation/attitude solutions to provide both situational awareness and 3D guidance to (auto) pilots throughout en route, terminal area, and precision approach phases of flight. This paper describes the technical issues addressed when coupling GPS and glass cockpit displays including the navigation/display interface, real-time 60 Hz rendering of terrain with multiple levels of detail under demand paging, and construction of verified terrain databases draped with geographically specific satellite imagery. Further, on-board recordings of the navigation solution and the cockpit display provide a replay facility for post-flight simulation based on live landings as well as synchronized multiple display channels with different views from the same flight. PC-based solutions which integrate GPS navigation and attitude determination with 3D visualization provide the aviation community, and general aviation in particular, with low cost high performance guidance and situational awareness in all phases of flight.

  18. Real-time object tracking for moving target auto-focus in digital camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Haike; Niinami, Norikatsu; Liu, Tong

    2015-02-01

    Focusing at a moving object accurately is difficult and important to take photo of the target successfully in a digital camera. Because the object often moves randomly and changes its shape frequently, position and distance of the target should be estimated at real-time so as to focus at the objet precisely. We propose a new method of real-time object tracking to do auto-focus for moving target in digital camera. Video stream in the camera is used for the moving target tracking. Particle filter is used to deal with problem of the target object's random movement and shape change. Color and edge features are used as measurement of the object's states. Parallel processing algorithm is developed to realize real-time particle filter object tracking easily in hardware environment of the digital camera. Movement prediction algorithm is also proposed to remove focus error caused by difference between tracking result and target object's real position when the photo is taken. Simulation and experiment results in digital camera demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed method. We embedded real-time object tracking algorithm in the digital camera. Position and distance of the moving target is obtained accurately by object tracking from the video stream. SIMD processor is applied to enforce parallel real-time processing. Processing time less than 60ms for each frame is obtained in the digital camera with its CPU of only 162MHz.

  19. Estimating correlation for a real-time measure of connectivity.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, Akhil; Panday, Ashish; Joshi, Bharat; Ravindran, Arun; Zaveri, Hitten P

    2012-01-01

    There has recently been considerable interest in connectivity analysis of fMRI and scalp and intracranial EEG time-series. The computational requirements of the pair-wise correlation (PWC), the core time-series measure used to estimate connectivity, presents a challenge to the real-time estimation of the PWC between all pairs of multiple time-series. We describe a parallel algorithm for computing PWC in real-time for streaming data from multiple channels. The algorithm was implemented on the Intel Xeon™ and IBM Cell Broadband Engine™ platforms. We evaluated time to estimate correlation for signals recorded with different acquisition parameters as a comparison to real-time constraints. We demonstrate that the execution time of these efficient implementations meet real-time constraints in most instances.

  20. Real-Time and Post-Processed Orbit Determination and Positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Sever, Yoaz E. (Inventor); Bertiger, William I. (Inventor); Dorsey, Angela R. (Inventor); Harvey, Nathaniel E. (Inventor); Lu, Wenwen (Inventor); Miller, Kevin J. (Inventor); Miller, Mark A. (Inventor); Romans, Larry J. (Inventor); Sibthorpe, Anthony J. (Inventor); Weiss, Jan P. (Inventor); Garcia Fernandez, Miquel (Inventor); Gross, Jason (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Novel methods and systems for the accurate and efficient processing of real-time and latent global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) data are described. Such methods and systems can perform orbit determination of GNSS satellites, orbit determination of satellites carrying GNSS receivers, positioning of GNSS receivers, and environmental monitoring with GNSS data.

  1. Real-Time and Post-Processed Orbit Determination and Positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Sever, Yoaz E. (Inventor); Bertiger, William I. (Inventor); Dorsey, Angela R. (Inventor); Harvey, Nathaniel E. (Inventor); Lu, Wenwen (Inventor); Miller, Kevin J. (Inventor); Miller, Mark A. (Inventor); Romans, Larry J. (Inventor); Sibthorpe, Anthony J. (Inventor); Weiss, Jan P. (Inventor); Garcia Fernandez, Miquel (Inventor); Gross, Jason (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Novel methods and systems for the accurate and efficient processing of real-time and latent global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) data are described. Such methods and systems can perform orbit determination of GNSS satellites, orbit determination of satellites carrying GNSS receivers, positioning of GNSS receivers, and environmental monitoring with GNSS data.

  2. Modelling of HVDC converters for real-time transient simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo, Salvador

    This thesis presents developments in the computer modelling of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) converters and other FACTS devices for EMTP-type simulators. The high number and frequency of switching operations in power electronic converters cause numerical difficulties that require additional computational effort. The additional computational burden requires the development of techniques that can accelerate the simulation speeds of conventional electromagnetic transient modelling and may allow real-time simulations. The main results are two models that effectively reduce the computational time required to obtain the solution of an electrical network containing HVDC converters. Both approaches have in common the principle of subdividing an electrical circuit containing a 6n-valve converter into at least n subsystems. For each 6-valve subsystem, the 64 matrix combinations are precalculated and prestored in computer memory. The interaction between subsystems to obtain the network solution is particular to each approach. With this criterion, the number of precalculated combinations for a 24-valve HVDC substation is reduced from more than 16 million to only 256. Both models present a considerable reduction in the computational time required to simulate circuits containing HVDC converters. The most efficient model has been successfully implemented in the real time power systems simulator under development by the power research group at the University of British Columbia. The exact calculation of the network solution at switching events is another important aspect required to accurately simulate power electronic converters in power systems. The thesis proposes the zero crossing detection algorithm, which eliminates the erroneous delays present in traditional EMTP simulators. The proposed algorithm resynchronizes the solution to the original simulation time increment. To solve the problem originated by the forced commutation of Gate Turn Off Thyristors, an exploratory

  3. 76 FR 42536 - Real-Time System Management Information Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... System Management Information Program on November 8, 2010, at 75 FR 68418. The final rule document also... Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 511 RIN 2125-AF19 Real-Time System Management Information... available and share traffic and travel conditions information via real-time information programs as...

  4. REAL-TIME ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING: APPLICATIONS FOR HOMELAND SECURITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time monitoring technology developed as part of the EMPACT program has a variety of potential applications. These tools can measure a variety of potential contaminants in the air, water, in buildings, or in the soil. Real-time monitoring technology allows these detection sys...

  5. "Real-Time" Case Studies in Organizational Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Shawn D.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an activity that integrates theory and application by examining the multiple communication events affecting a single organization in "real time" over the course of an academic term. The "real-time" case study (RTCS) avails students of the opportunity to examine organizational communication events as they are occurring in…

  6. Real-time hyperspectral imaging for food safety applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multispectral imaging systems with selected bands can commonly be used for real-time applications of food processing. Recent research has demonstrated several image processing methods including binning, noise removal filter, and appropriate morphological analysis in real-time mode can remove most fa...

  7. Real time flood forecasting in the Upper Danube basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nester, Thomas; Komma, Jürgen; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution, we report on experiences with developing the flood forecasting model for the Upper Danube basin and its operational use since 2006. The model system consists of a hydrological model for the catchments and a hydrodynamic model for the Danube and uses meteorological forecasts for the next 48 hours. The parameters of the hydrological model were estimated based on the Dominant Processes Concept. Runoff data are assimilated in real time to update modelled soil moisture. An analysis of the performance of the hydrological model indicates 88% of the snow cover in the basin to be modelled correctly on more than 80% of the days. Runoff forecasting errors decrease with catchment area and increase with forecast lead time. The forecast ensemble spread is shown to be a meaningful indicator of the forecast uncertainty. We also show forecasts from the 2013 flood in the Upper Danube basin. There was a tendency for the precipitation forecasts to underestimate event precipitation and for the runoff model to overestimate runoff generation which resulted in, overall, rather accurate runoff forecasts.

  8. Real-Time Measurement of Vehicle Exhaust Gas Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.E.; Hylton, J.O.; Joy, R.D.; McKnight, T.E.

    1999-06-28

    A flow measurement system was developed to measure, in real-time, the exhaust gas flow from vehicies. This new system was based on the vortex shedding principle using ultrasonic detectors for sensing the shed vortices. The flow meter was designed to measure flow over a range of 1 to 366 Ips with an inaccuracy of ~1o/0 of reading. Additionally, the meter was engineered to cause minimal pressure drop (less than 125mm of water), to function in a high temperature environment (up to 650oC) with thermal transients of 15 oC/s, and to have a response time of 0.1 seconds for a 10% to 90!40 step change. The flow meter was also configured to measure hi-directional flow. Several flow meter prototypes were fabricated, tested, and calibrated in air, simulated exhaust gas, and actual exhaust gas. Testing included gas temperatures to 600oC, step response experiments, and flow rates from O to 360 lps in air and exhaust gas. Two prototypes have been tested extensively at NIST and two additional meters have been installed in exhaust gas flow lines for over one year. This new flow meter design has shown to be accurate, durabIe, fast responding, and to have a wide rangeabi~ity.

  9. Time-accurate unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic calculations for wings using Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru P.

    1988-01-01

    A time-accurate approach to simultaneously solve the Euler flow equations and modal structural equations of motion is presented for computing aeroelastic responses of wings. The Euler flow eauations are solved by a time-accurate finite difference scheme with dynamic grids. The coupled aeroelastic equations of motion are solved using the linear acceleration method. The aeroelastic configuration adaptive dynamic grids are time accurately generated using the aeroelastically deformed shape of the wing. The unsteady flow calculations are validated wih experiment, both for a semi-infinite wing and a wall-mounted cantilever rectangular wings. Aeroelastic responses are computed for a rectangular wing using the modal data generated by the finite-element method. The robustness of the present approach in computing unsteady flows and aeroelastic responses that are beyond the capability of earlier approaches using the potential equations are demonstrated.

  10. Information display and interaction in real-time environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bocast, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    The available information bandwidth as a funcion of system's complexity and time constraints in a real time control environment were examined. Modern interactive graphics techniques provide very high bandwidth data displays. In real time control environments, effective information interaction rates are a function not only of machine data technologies but of human information processing capabilities and the four dimensional resolution of available interaction techniques. The available information bandwidth as a function of system's complexity and time constraints in a real time control environment were examined.

  11. Real-time SAR processing for search and rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, Arthur W.; Rogers, George W.; Rais, Houra

    1998-09-01

    The most important parameter in Search and Rescue is the time it takes to locate the downed aircraft and rescue the survivors. The resulting requirement for wide-area coverage, fine resolution, and day-night all-weather operation dictates the use of a SAR sensor. The time urgency dictates a real-time or near real-time SAR processor. This paper presents alternative real-time architectures and gives the results of feasibility studies of the enabling technologies, including new work by the authors in the area of SAR data compression.

  12. A real-time simulator of a turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Delaat, John C.; Merrill, Walter C.

    1989-01-01

    A real-time digital simulator of a Pratt and Whitney F100 engine has been developed for real-time code verification and for actuator diagnosis during full-scale engine testing. This self-contained unit can operate in an open-loop stand-alone mode or as part of closed-loop control system. It can also be used for control system design and development. Tests conducted in conjunction with the NASA Advanced Detection, Isolation, and Accommodation program show that the simulator is a valuable tool for real-time code verification and as a real-time actuator simulator for actuator fault diagnosis. Although currently a small perturbation model, advances in microprocessor hardware should allow the simulator to evolve into a real-time, full-envelope, full engine simulation.

  13. Hardware for a real-time multiprocessor simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blech, R. A.; Arpasi, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    The hardware for a real time multiprocessor simulator (RTMPS) developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center is described. The RTMPS is a multiple microprocessor system used to investigate the application of parallel processing concepts to real time simulation. It is designed to provide flexible data exchange paths between processors by using off the shelf microcomputer boards and minimal customized interfacing. A dedicated operator interface allows easy setup of the simulator and quick interpreting of simulation data. Simulations for the RTMPS are coded in a NASA designed real time multiprocessor language (RTMPL). This language is high level and geared to the multiprocessor environment. A real time multiprocessor operating system (RTMPOS) has also been developed that provides a user friendly operator interface. The RTMPS and supporting software are currently operational and are being evaluated at Lewis. The results of this evaluation will be used to specify the design of an optimized parallel processing system for real time simulation of dynamic systems.

  14. Recent advances to obtain real - Time displacements for engineering applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent developments and approaches (using GPS technology and real-time double-integration) to obtain displacements and, in turn, drift ratios, in real-time or near real-time to meet the needs of the engineering and user community in seismic monitoring and assessing the functionality and damage condition of structures. Drift ratios computed in near real-time allow technical assessment of the damage condition of a building. Relevant parameters, such as the type of connections and story structural characteristics (including geometry) are used in computing drifts corresponding to several pre-selected threshold stages of damage. Thus, drift ratios determined from real-time monitoring can be compared to pre-computed threshold drift ratios. The approaches described herein can be used for performance evaluation of structures and can be considered as building health-monitoring applications.

  15. Real-time retrieval of precipitable water vapor from GPS and BeiDou observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cuixian; Li, Xingxing; Nilsson, Tobias; Ning, Tong; Heinkelmann, Robert; Ge, Maorong; Glaser, Susanne; Schuh, Harald

    2015-09-01

    The rapid development of the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) brings a promising prospect for the real-time retrieval of zenith tropospheric delays (ZTD) and precipitable water vapor (PWV), which is of great benefit for supporting the time-critical meteorological applications such as nowcasting or severe weather event monitoring. In this study, we develop a real-time ZTD/PWV processing method based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and BDS observations. The performance of ZTD and PWV derived from BDS observations using real-time precise point positioning (PPP) technique is carefully investigated. The contribution of combining BDS and GPS for ZTD/PWV retrieving is evaluated as well. GPS and BDS observations of a half-year period for 40 globally distributed stations from the International GNSS Service Multi-GNSS Experiment and BeiDou Experiment Tracking Network are processed. The results show that the real-time BDS-only ZTD series agree well with the GPS-only ZTD series in general: the RMS values are about 11-16 mm (about 2-3 mm in PWV). Furthermore, the real-time ZTD derived from GPS-only, BDS-only, and GPS/BDS combined solutions are compared with those derived from the Very Long Baseline Interferometry. The comparisons show that the BDS can contribute to real-time meteorological applications, slightly less accurately than GPS. More accurate and reliable water vapor estimates, about 1.3-1.8 mm in PWV, can be obtained if the BDS observations are combined with the GPS observations in the real-time PPP data processing. The PWV comparisons with radiosondes further confirm the performance of BDS-derived real-time PWV and the benefit of adding BDS to standard GPS processing.

  16. Reviewing real-time performance of nuclear reactor safety systems

    SciTech Connect

    Preckshot, G.G.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining real-time performance of computer-based safety systems used in nuclear power plants. Three areas of guidance are covered in this report. The first area covers how to determine if, when, and what prototypes should be required of developers to make a convincing demonstration that specific problems have been solved or that performance goals have been met. The second area has recommendations for timing analyses that will prove that the real-time system will meet its safety-imposed deadlines. The third area has description of means for assessing expected or actual real-time performance before, during, and after development is completed. To ensure that the delivered real-time software product meets performance goals, the paper recommends certain types of code-execution and communications scheduling. Technical background is provided in the appendix on methods of timing analysis, scheduling real-time computations, prototyping, real-time software development approaches, modeling and measurement, and real-time operating systems.

  17. Overview of real-time computer systems technical analysis of the Modcomp implementation of a proprietary system MAX IV'' and real-time UNIX system REAL/IX''

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, J.

    1990-10-01

    There many applications throughout industry and government requiring real-time computing. Any application that monitors and/or controls a process would fit into this category. Some examples are: Nuclear power plants, Steel mills, Space program, etc. General Atomics uses eight real-time computer systems for control and high speed data acquisition required to run the nuclear fusion experiments. Real-Time computing can be defined as the ability to respond to asynchronous external events in a predictable (preferably fast) time frame. Real-Time computer systems are similar to other computers in many ways and may by used for general computing requirements such as Time-Sharing. However special hardware, operating systems and software had to be developed to meet the requirement for real-time computing. Traditionally, real-time computing has been a realm of proprietary operating systems with real-time applications written in FORTRAN and assembly language. In the past, these systems adequately served the needs of the real-time world. Many of these systems that were developed 15 years ago are still being used today. However the real-time world is now changing, demanding new systems to be developed. This paper gives a description of general real-time computer systems and how they differ from other systems. However, the main purpose of this paper is to give a detailed technical description of the hardware and operating systems of an existing proprietary system and a real-time UNIX system. The two real-time computer systems described in detail are Modcomp Classic III/95 with the MAX IV operating system and Modcomp TRI-D 9750 with the REAL/IX.2 operating system.

  18. Real-time monitoring and diagnosis of scintillation dosimeters using an ultraviolet light emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Y.; Lambert, J.; McKenzie, D. R.; Suchowerska, N.

    2008-05-01

    Plastic scintillator fibre optic dosimeters (FODs) have advantages for both brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy applications. Convenient real-time monitoring and diagnosis of such dosimeters are desirable because of changes in the optical circuit that may arise in use. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a real-time method using ultraviolet light emitting diodes (LED) to stimulate the scintillator and to diagnose failures of FODs. Key aspects of the LED FOD dosimetry design are investigated, enabling the design of a stable and accurate real-time monitoring dosimetry system. We demonstrate experimentally that the real-time monitoring FOD system is convenient to be used to monitor FOD dosimeters and to diagnose their failures resulted from different mechanisms.

  19. Design and optimization of molecular beacon real-time polymerase chain reaction assays.

    PubMed

    Vet, Jacqueline A M; Marras, Salvatore A E

    2005-01-01

    During the last few years, several innovative technologies have become available for performing sensitive and accurate genetic analyses. These techniques use fluorescent detection strategies in combination with nucleic acid amplification protocols. Most commonly used is the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To achieve the maximum potential of a real-time PCR assay, several parameters must be evaluated and optimized independently. This chapter describes the different steps necessary for establishing a molecular beacon real-time PCR assay: (1) target design, (2) primer design, (3) optimization of the amplification reaction conditions using SYBR Green, (4) molecular beacon design, and (5) molecular beacon synthesis and characterization. The last section provides an example of a multiplex quantitative real-time PCR.

  20. Sonar fetal cephalometry: comparison of bistable with gray scale and real-time techniques.

    PubMed

    Santos-Ramos, R; Duenhoelter, J H; Reisch, J S

    1980-03-15

    The fetal biparietal diameter was measured simultaneously with B-scan bistable and gray scale techniques and subsequently with real-time ultrasonography. Measurements were made from outer table to outer table with the bistable technique, which has been proven to be accurate and reliable. With the gray scale and real-time modalities, distances were measured between several landmarks from the same image. Off all measurements taken from gray scale and realtime images, those between the centers of each band outlining the fetal skull showed the best correlation and the closest values to measurements using the standard bistable technique. Discrepancies exceeded 2 mm in only 5% with the gray scale and in 2% with the real-time technique. Using the measurement between outer and inner aspects of the cephalic band, the percentages of discrepancies exceeding 2 mm were 7% with gray scale and 6% with real time.

  1. Accurate GPS Time-Linked data Acquisition System (ATLAS II) user's manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Perry L.; Zayas, Jose R.; Ortiz-Moyet, Juan

    2004-02-01

    The Accurate Time-Linked data Acquisition System (ATLAS II) is a small, lightweight, time-synchronized, robust data acquisition system that is capable of acquiring simultaneous long-term time-series data from both a wind turbine rotor and ground-based instrumentation. This document is a user's manual for the ATLAS II hardware and software. It describes the hardware and software components of ATLAS II, and explains how to install and execute the software.

  2. Real-Time Geospatial Data Viewer (RETIGO)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a web-based method that allows the users to upload their air monitoring data and explore the data on graphical interface. The method is optimized for mobile monitoring data sets, showing the data on a map, on a time series, and referenced to a hypothesized line and/or poi...

  3. Expert systems for real-time monitoring and fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, S. J.; Caglayan, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for building real-time onboard expert systems were investigated, and the use of expert systems technology was demonstrated in improving the performance of current real-time onboard monitoring and fault diagnosis applications. The potential applications of the proposed research include an expert system environment allowing the integration of expert systems into conventional time-critical application solutions, a grammar for describing the discrete event behavior of monitoring and fault diagnosis systems, and their applications to new real-time hardware fault diagnosis and monitoring systems for aircraft.

  4. Load Balancing Using Time Series Analysis for Soft Real Time Systems with Statistically Periodic Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailperin, Max

    1993-01-01

    This thesis provides design and analysis of techniques for global load balancing on ensemble architectures running soft-real-time object-oriented applications with statistically periodic loads. It focuses on estimating the instantaneous average load over all the processing elements. The major contribution is the use of explicit stochastic process models for both the loading and the averaging itself. These models are exploited via statistical time-series analysis and Bayesian inference to provide improved average load estimates, and thus to facilitate global load balancing. This thesis explains the distributed algorithms used and provides some optimality results. It also describes the algorithms' implementation and gives performance results from simulation. These results show that our techniques allow more accurate estimation of the global system load ing, resulting in fewer object migration than local methods. Our method is shown to provide superior performance, relative not only to static load-balancing schemes but also to many adaptive methods.

  5. Real-time adaptive aircraft scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolitz, Stephan E.; Terrab, Mostafa

    1990-01-01

    One of the most important functions of any air traffic management system is the assignment of ground-holding times to flights, i.e., the determination of whether and by how much the take-off of a particular aircraft headed for a congested part of the air traffic control (ATC) system should be postponed in order to reduce the likelihood and extent of airborne delays. An analysis is presented for the fundamental case in which flights from many destinations must be scheduled for arrival at a single congested airport; the formulation is also useful in scheduling the landing of airborne flights within the extended terminal area. A set of approaches is described for addressing a deterministic and a probabilistic version of this problem. For the deterministic case, where airport capacities are known and fixed, several models were developed with associated low-order polynomial-time algorithms. For general delay cost functions, these algorithms find an optimal solution. Under a particular natural assumption regarding the delay cost function, an extremely fast (O(n ln n)) algorithm was developed. For the probabilistic case, using an estimated probability distribution of airport capacities, a model was developed with an associated low-order polynomial-time heuristic algorithm with useful properties.

  6. Robust and accurate anomaly detection in ECG artifacts using time series motif discovery.

    PubMed

    Sivaraks, Haemwaan; Ratanamahatana, Chotirat Ann

    2015-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) anomaly detection is an important technique for detecting dissimilar heartbeats which helps identify abnormal ECGs before the diagnosis process. Currently available ECG anomaly detection methods, ranging from academic research to commercial ECG machines, still suffer from a high false alarm rate because these methods are not able to differentiate ECG artifacts from real ECG signal, especially, in ECG artifacts that are similar to ECG signals in terms of shape and/or frequency. The problem leads to high vigilance for physicians and misinterpretation risk for nonspecialists. Therefore, this work proposes a novel anomaly detection technique that is highly robust and accurate in the presence of ECG artifacts which can effectively reduce the false alarm rate. Expert knowledge from cardiologists and motif discovery technique is utilized in our design. In addition, every step of the algorithm conforms to the interpretation of cardiologists. Our method can be utilized to both single-lead ECGs and multilead ECGs. Our experiment results on real ECG datasets are interpreted and evaluated by cardiologists. Our proposed algorithm can mostly achieve 100% of accuracy on detection (AoD), sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value with 0% false alarm rate. The results demonstrate that our proposed method is highly accurate and robust to artifacts, compared with competitive anomaly detection methods.

  7. Faster and cleaner real-time pure shift NMR experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauhart, Johannes; Glanzer, Simon; Sakhaii, Peyman; Bermel, Wolfgang; Zangger, Klaus

    2015-10-01

    Real-time pure shift experiments provide highly resolved proton NMR spectra which do not require any special processing. Although being more sensitive than their pseudo 2D counterparts, their signal intensities per unit time are still far below regular NMR spectra. In addition, scalar coupling evolution during the individual data chunks produces decoupling sidebands. Here we show that faster and cleaner real-time pure shift spectra can be obtained through the implementation of two parameter alterations. Variation of the FID chunk lengths between individual transients significantly suppresses decoupling sidebands for any kind of real-time pure shift spectra and thus allows for example the analysis of minor components in compound mixtures. Shifting the excitation frequency between individual scans of real-time slice-selective pure shift spectra increases their sensitivity obtainable in unit time by allowing faster repetitions of acquisitions.

  8. Real Time Telemetry Data Capture and Storage

    1997-05-14

    This program is used to capture telemetry data from remote instrumentation systems. The data can be captured at the rate of 1M bit per second. The data can come in one of several formats, NRZ, RZ, and Bi-Phase. The DECOM software takes the serial data stream and locks on to a unique code word. By tracking the code word the software can strip out the information. Thus the program can display the incoming data realmore » time while saving the data to disk.« less

  9. A time-accurate implicit method for chemical non-equilibrium flows at all speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuen, Jian-Shun

    1992-01-01

    A new time accurate coupled solution procedure for solving the chemical non-equilibrium Navier-Stokes equations over a wide range of Mach numbers is described. The scheme is shown to be very efficient and robust for flows with velocities ranging from M less than or equal to 10(exp -10) to supersonic speeds.

  10. Direct measurement meter indicates real-time energy flow

    SciTech Connect

    Heyden, W.H.V. )

    1991-05-01

    The increased activity in transporting gas and the use of natural gas from widely varying sources has created a need to simplify measurement of energy transfers in natural gas operations. The natural gas industry requires an energy measurement device that is simple, cost effective and accurate. Such a device must be a direct measurement meter, easy to install, and one which will measure energy transfers in natural gas regardless of volume, composition, heating value, supercompressibility, inert fractions and temperature. These and other factors that are required for what presently is and remains, a calculation of energy in natural gas. The need then, is for a flow device which will measure and indicate direct, real-time energy flow and perform at pipe line conditions. A flow meter has been under development for seven years and has been in field testing for three years at 4 different sites under a Gas Research Institute (GRI) sponsored program. The field test objective is to measure and verify the meter's technical properties under actual field service conditions. In each field test site, the meter is continuously compared to existing gas flow measurement devices. Eact test site has different meter configurations which allow a broad scope of comparison and testing experience.

  11. Real-Time Quantitative PCR for Human Herpesvirus 6 DNA

    PubMed Central

    Locatelli, Giuseppe; Santoro, Fabio; Veglia, Fabrizio; Gobbi, Alberto; Lusso, Paolo; Malnati, Mauro S.

    2000-01-01

    The diagnosis of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infection represents a complex issue because the most widely used diagnostic tools, such as immunoglobulin G antibody titer determination and qualitative DNA PCR with blood cells, are unable to distinguish between latent (clinically silent) and active (often clinically relevant) infection. We have developed a new, highly sensitive, quantitative PCR assay for the accurate measurement of HHV-6 DNA in tissue-derived cell suspensions and body fluids. The test uses a 5′ nuclease, fluorogenic assay combined with real-time detection of PCR amplification products with the ABI PRISM 7700 sequence detector system. The sensitivity of this method is equal to the sensitivity of a nested PCR protocol (lower detection limit, 1 viral genome equivalent/test) for both the A and the B HHV-6 subgroups and shows a wider dynamic range of detection (from 1 to 106 viral genome equivalents/test) and a higher degree of accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility compared to those of a standard quantitative-competitive PCR assay developed with the same reference DNA molecule. The novel technique is versatile, showing the same sensitivity and dynamic range with viral DNA extracted from different fluids (i.e., culture medium or plasma) or from tissue-derived cell suspensions. Furthermore, by virtue of its high-throughput format, this method is well suited for large epidemiological surveys. PMID:11060066

  12. Black Hole Formation in Real Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissanke, Samaya

    2015-08-01

    Gravity plays a fundamental role in the formation, evolution and fate of stars. However, it remains unclear how massive stars, almost always in pairs, end their lives as extreme gravity objects (neutron stars and black holes) and what their eventual fate is. The physics driving these events in strong-field gravity are complex, rich but still remain elusive. Theoretical work in general relativity has long predicted that the formation of black holes through neutron star mergers emit vast amounts of gravitational radiation, through gravitational waves (GWs), and conventional electromagnetic (EM) radiation. Observing GWs and EM radiation from these elusive short-lived mergers remains one of the holy grails of modern astronomy and is only now possible with a suite of new time-domain telescopes and experiments. I will first review the most recent advances in this blossoming field of EM+GW astronomy, which combines three active disciplines: time-domain astronomy, computational astrophysics and general relativity. I will discuss the promises of this new convergence by illustrating the wealth of astrophysical information that a combined EM+GW measurement would immediately bring. I will then outline the main challenges that lie ahead for this new field in pinpointing the sky location of neutron star mergers using GW detectors and optical and radio wide-field synoptic surveys.

  13. Feasibility study of real-time planning for stereotactic radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Qinghui; Song Yulin; Chan, Maria; Burman, Chandra; Yamada, Yoshiya

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: 3D rotational setup errors in radiotherapy are often ignored by most clinics due to inability to correct or simulate them accurately and efficiently. There are two types of rotation-related problems in a clinical setting. One is to assess the affected dose distribution in real-time if correction is not applied and the other one is to correct the rotational setup errors prior to the initiation of the treatment. Here, the authors present the analytical solutions to both problems. Methods: (1) To assess the real-time dose distribution, eight stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) cases were used as examples. For each plan, two new sets of beams with different table, gantry, and collimator angles were given in analytical forms as a function of patient rotational errors. The new beams simulate the rotational effects of the patient during the treatment setup. By using one arbitrary set of beams, SRS plans were recomputed with a series of different combinations of patient rotational errors, ranging from (-5 Degree-Sign , -5 Degree-Sign , -5 Degree-Sign ) to (5 Degree-Sign , 5 Degree-Sign , 5 Degree-Sign ) (roll, pitch, and yaw) with an increment of 1 Degree-Sign and compared with those without rotational errors. For each set of rotational errors, its corresponding equivalent beams were computed using the analytical solutions and then used for dose calculation. (2) To correct for the rotational errors, two new sets of table, gantry, and collimator angles were derived analytically to validate the previously published derivation. However, in the derivation, a novel methodology was developed and two sets of table, gantry, and collimator angles were obtained in analytical forms. The solutions provide an alternative approach to rotational error correction by rotating the couch, gantry, and collimator rather than the patient. Results: For demonstration purpose, the above-derived new beams were implemented in a treatment planning system (TPS) to study the rotational effects on

  14. Vector processing enhancements for real-time image analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Shoaf, S.; APS Engineering Support Division

    2008-01-01

    A real-time image analysis system was developed for beam imaging diagnostics. An Apple Power Mac G5 with an Active Silicon LFG frame grabber was used to capture video images that were processed and analyzed. Software routines were created to utilize vector-processing hardware to reduce the time to process images as compared to conventional methods. These improvements allow for more advanced image processing diagnostics to be performed in real time.

  15. Real time telemetry and data compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The generation of telemetry and data compression by the flight program was verified. The adequacy of flight program telemetry control and timing is proven by the analysis of simulation laboratory runs of past programs through the use of telemetry. The telemetry data are correctly issued using specific tags called process input/output (P10) tags. Verification is accomplished by ensuring that a specific P10 tag and mode register setting identifies the correct parameter and that the data are properly scaled for subsequent ground station reduction. It was checked that the LVDC telemetry correctly adheres to the general requirements specified by the EDD. Data compression specifications are verified using compressed data from nominal flight simulations and from a series of perturbations designed to test data table overflows, data dump rates, and compression of data for occurrence events.

  16. Real-time cosmography with redshift derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, C. J. A. P.; Martinelli, M.; Calabrese, E.; Ramos, M. P. L. P.

    2016-08-01

    The drift in the redshift of objects passively following the cosmological expansion has long been recognized as a key model-independent probe of cosmology. Here, we study the cosmological relevance of measurements of time or redshift derivatives of this drift, arguing that the combination of first and second redshift derivatives is a powerful test of the Λ CDM cosmological model. In particular, the latter can be obtained numerically from a set of measurements of the drift at different redshifts. We show that, in the low-redshift limit, a measurement of the derivative of the drift can provide a constraint on the jerk parameter, which is j =1 for flat Λ CDM , while generically j ≠1 for other models. We emphasize that such a measurement is well within the reach of the ELT-HIRES and SKA Phase 2 array surveys.

  17. Real-time airborne particle analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T.A.

    2012-10-16

    An aerosol particle analyzer includes a laser ablation chamber, a gas-filled conduit, and a mass spectrometer. The laser ablation chamber can be operated at a low pressure, which can be from 0.1 mTorr to 30 mTorr. The ablated ions are transferred into a gas-filled conduit. The gas-filled conduit reduces the electrical charge and the speed of ablated ions as they collide and mix with buffer gases in the gas-filled conduit. Preferably, the gas filled-conduit includes an electromagnetic multipole structure that collimates the nascent ions into a beam, which is guided into the mass spectrometer. Because the gas-filled conduit allows storage of vast quantities of the ions from the ablated particles, the ions from a single ablated particle can be analyzed multiple times and by a variety of techniques to supply statistically meaningful analysis of composition and isotope ratios.

  18. Noninvasive real-time imaging of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Laxman, Bharathi; Hall, Daniel E; Bhojani, Mahaveer Swaroop; Hamstra, Daniel A; Chenevert, Thomas L; Ross, Brian D; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz

    2002-12-24

    Strict coordination of proliferation and programmed cell death (apoptosis) is essential for normal physiology. An imbalance in these two opposing processes results in various diseases including AIDS, neurodegenerative disorders, myelodysplastic syndromes, ischemiareperfusion injury, cancer, autoimmune disease, among others. Objective and quantitative noninvasive imaging of apoptosis would be a significant advance for rapid and dynamic screening as well as validation of experimental therapeutic agents. Here, we report the development of a recombinant luciferase reporter molecule that when expressed in mammalian cells has attenuated levels of reporter activity. In cells undergoing apoptosis, a caspase-3-specific cleavage of the recombinant product occurs, resulting in the restoration of luciferase activity that can be detected in living animals with bioluminescence imaging. The ability to image apoptosis noninvasively and dynamically over time provides an opportunity for high-throughput screening of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic compounds and for target validation in vivo in both cell lines and transgenic animals. PMID:12475931

  19. Real time control for NASA robotic gripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salter, Carole A.; Baras, John S.

    1989-01-01

    Control laws (in some optimal sense) are being developed for the gripper/nut runner end effector. Control laws for the gripper and nut runner portions of the end effector may be developed independently since these two systems are decoupled. A hybrid force/position controller will be used for both the gripper and nut runner. The development of the gripper controller is explained. Sensory data available to the controller is obtained from an array of strain gages as well as a linear potentiometer. Applying well known optimal control theoretic principles, the control which minimizes the transition time between positions is obtained. In addition, a robust force control scheme is developed to contend with the strain gage drift caused by extreme temperature variations encountered in space.

  20. Real time control for NASA robotic gripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salter, Carole A.; Baras, John S.

    1990-01-01

    The ability to easily manipulate objects in a zero gravity environment will pay a key role in future space activities. Emphasis will be placed on robotic manipulation. This will serve to increase astronaut safety and utility in addition to several other benefits. The aim is to develop control laws for the zero gravity robotic end effectors. A hybrid force/position controller will be used. Sensory data available to the controller are obtained from an array of strain gauges and a linear potentiometer. Applying well known optimal control theoretical principles, the control which minimizes the transition time between positions is obtained. A robust force control scheme is developed which allows the desired holding force to be achieved smoothly without oscillation. In addition, an algorithm is found to determine contact force and contact location.

  1. Real-time dynamic simulation of the Cassini spacecraft using DARTS. Part 2: Parallel/vectorized real-time implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, A.; Roberts, J. A.; Jain, A.; Man, G. K.

    1993-01-01

    Part 1 of this paper presented the requirements for the real-time simulation of Cassini spacecraft along with some discussion of the DARTS algorithm. Here, in Part 2 we discuss the development and implementation of parallel/vectorized DARTS algorithm and architecture for real-time simulation. Development of the fast algorithms and architecture for real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulation of spacecraft dynamics is motivated by the fact that it represents a hard real-time problem, in the sense that the correctness of the simulation depends on both the numerical accuracy and the exact timing of the computation. For a given model fidelity, the computation should be computed within a predefined time period. Further reduction in computation time allows increasing the fidelity of the model (i.e., inclusion of more flexible modes) and the integration routine.

  2. Method for Real-Time Model Based Structural Anomaly Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy A. (Inventor); Urnes, James M., Sr. (Inventor); Reichenbach, Eric Y. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system and methods for real-time model based vehicle structural anomaly detection are disclosed. A real-time measurement corresponding to a location on a vehicle structure during an operation of the vehicle is received, and the real-time measurement is compared to expected operation data for the location to provide a modeling error signal. A statistical significance of the modeling error signal to provide an error significance is calculated, and a persistence of the error significance is determined. A structural anomaly is indicated, if the persistence exceeds a persistence threshold value.

  3. Real Time Target Tracking in a Phantom Using Ultrasonic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, X.; Corner, G.; Huang, Z.

    In this paper we present a real-time ultrasound image guidance method suitable for tracking the motion of tumors. A 2D ultrasound based motion tracking system was evaluated. A robot was used to control the focused ultrasound and position it at the target that has been segmented from a real-time ultrasound video. Tracking accuracy and precision were investigated using a lesion mimicking phantom. Experiments have been conducted and results show sufficient efficiency of the image guidance algorithm. This work could be developed as the foundation for combining the real time ultrasound imaging tracking and MRI thermometry monitoring non-invasive surgery.

  4. Real-time logo detection and tracking in video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, M.; Kehtarnavaz, N.; Rahman, M.; Carlsohn, M.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a real-time implementation of a logo detection and tracking algorithm in video. The motivation of this work stems from applications on smart phones that require the detection of logos in real-time. For example, one application involves detecting company logos so that customers can easily get special offers in real-time. This algorithm uses a hybrid approach by initially running the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm on the first frame in order to obtain the logo location and then by using an online calibration of color within the SIFT detected area in order to detect and track the logo in subsequent frames in a time efficient manner. The results obtained indicate that this hybrid approach allows robust logo detection and tracking to be achieved in real-time.

  5. Accurate time propagation method for the coupled Maxwell and Kohn-Sham equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yonghui; He, Shenglai; Russakoff, Arthur; Varga, Kálmán

    2016-08-01

    An accurate method for time propagation of the coupled Maxwell and time-dependent Kohn-Sham (TDKS) equation is presented. The new approach uses a simultaneous fourth-order Runge-Kutta-based propagation of the vector potential and the Kohn-Sham orbitals. The approach is compared to the conventional fourth-order Taylor propagation and predictor-corrector methods. The calculations show several computational and numerical advantages, including higher computational performance, greater stability, better accuracy, and faster convergence.

  6. Accurate time propagation method for the coupled Maxwell and Kohn-Sham equations.

    PubMed

    Li, Yonghui; He, Shenglai; Russakoff, Arthur; Varga, Kálmán

    2016-08-01

    An accurate method for time propagation of the coupled Maxwell and time-dependent Kohn-Sham (TDKS) equation is presented. The new approach uses a simultaneous fourth-order Runge-Kutta-based propagation of the vector potential and the Kohn-Sham orbitals. The approach is compared to the conventional fourth-order Taylor propagation and predictor-corrector methods. The calculations show several computational and numerical advantages, including higher computational performance, greater stability, better accuracy, and faster convergence. PMID:27627419

  7. Real time viability detection of bacterial spores

    DOEpatents

    Vanderberg, Laura A.; Herdendorf, Timothy J.; Obiso, Richard J.

    2003-07-29

    This invention relates to a process for detecting the presence of viable bacterial spores in a sample and to a spore detection system, the process including placing a sample in a germination medium for a period of time sufficient for commitment of any present viable bacterial spores to occur, mixing the sample with a solution of a lanthanide capable of forming a fluorescent complex with dipicolinic acid, and, measuring the sample for the presence of dipicolinic acid, and the system including a germination chamber having inlets from a sample chamber, a germinant chamber and a bleach chamber, the germination chamber further including an outlet through a filtering means, the outlet connected to a detection chamber, the detection chamber having an inlet from a fluorescence promoting metal chamber and the detection chamber including a spectral excitation source and a means of measuring emission spectra from a sample, the detection chamber further connected to a waste chamber. A germination reaction mixture useful for promoting commitment of any viable bacterial spores in a sample including a combination of L-alanine, L-asparagine and D-glucose is also described.

  8. Building flexible real-time systems using the Flex language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Kevin B.; Lin, Kwei-Jay

    1991-01-01

    The design and implementation of a real-time programming language called Flex, which is a derivative of C++, are presented. It is shown how different types of timing requirements might be expressed and enforced in Flex, how they might be fulfilled in a flexible way using different program models, and how the programming environment can help in making binding and scheduling decisions. The timing constraint primitives in Flex are easy to use yet powerful enough to define both independent and relative timing constraints. Program models like imprecise computation and performance polymorphism can carry out flexible real-time programs. In addition, programmers can use a performance measurement tool that produces statistically correct timing models to predict the expected execution time of a program and to help make binding decisions. A real-time programming environment is also presented.

  9. The First Real-Time Tsunami Animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; McCreery, C.; Weinstein, S.; Ward, B.

    2014-12-01

    For the first time a U.S. tsunami warning center created and issued a tsunami forecast model animation while the tsunami was still crossing an ocean. Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) scientists had predicted they would have this ability (Becker et al., 2012) with their RIFT forecast model (Wang et al., 2009) by using rapidly-determined W-phase centroid-moment tensor earthquake focal mechanisms as tsunami sources in the RIFT model (Wang et al., 2012). PTWC then acquired its own YouTube channel in 2013 for its outreach efforts that showed animations of historic tsunamis (Becker et al., 2013), but could also be a platform for sharing future tsunami animations. The 8.2 Mw earthquake of 1 April 2014 prompted PTWC to issue official warnings for a dangerous tsunami in Chile, Peru and Ecuador. PTWC ended these warnings five hours later, then issued its new tsunami marine hazard product (i.e., no coastal evacuations) for the State of Hawaii. With the international warning canceled but with a domestic hazard still present PTWC generated a forecast model animation and uploaded it to its YouTube channel six hours before the arrival of the first waves in Hawaii. PTWC also gave copies of this animation to television reporters who in turn passed it on to their national broadcast networks. PTWC then created a version for NOAA's Science on a Sphere system so it could be shown on these exhibits as the tsunami was still crossing the Pacific Ocean. While it is difficult to determine how many people saw this animation since local, national, and international news networks showed it in their broadcasts, PTWC's YouTube channel provides some statistics. As of 1 August 2014 this animation has garnered more than 650,000 views. Previous animations, typically released during significant anniversaries, rarely get more than 10,000 views, and even then only when external websites share them. Clearly there is a high demand for a tsunami graphic that shows both the speed and the severity of a

  10. Cluster Computing for Embedded/Real-Time Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, D.; Kepner, J.

    1999-01-01

    Embedded and real-time systems, like other computing systems, seek to maximize computing power for a given price, and thus can significantly benefit from the advancing capabilities of cluster computing.

  11. Intelligent data management for real-time spacecraft monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuttke, Ursula M.; Gasser, Les; Abramson, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    Real-time AI systems have begun to address the challenge of restructuring problem solving to meet real-time constraints by making key trade-offs that pursue less than optimal strategies with minimal impact on system goals. Several approaches for adapting to dynamic changes in system operating conditions are known. However, simultaneously adapting system decision criteria in a principled way has been difficult. Towards this end, a general technique for dynamically making such trade-offs using a combination of decision theory and domain knowledge has been developed. Multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT), a decision theoretic approach for making one-time decisions is discussed and dynamic trade-off evaluation is described as a knowledge-based extension of MAUT that is suitable for highly dynamic real-time environments, and provides an example of dynamic trade-off evaluation applied to a specific data management trade-off in a real-world spacecraft monitoring application.

  12. Decision graphs: a tool for developing real-time software

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of decision graphs in the preparation of, in particular, real-time software is briefly described. The usefulness of decision graphs in software design, testing, and maintenance is pointed out. 2 figures. (RWR)

  13. Distributed real-time model-based diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, A. C.; Chung, S. H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to onboard anomaly diagnosis that combines the simplicity and real-time guarantee of a rule-based diagnosis system with the specification ease and coverage guarantees of a model-based diagnosis system.

  14. Application of real time PCR for diagnosis of Swine Dysentery.

    PubMed

    Akase, Satoru; Uchitani, Yumi; Sohmura, Yoshiko; Tatsuta, Keikichi; Sadamasu, Kenji; Adachi, Yoshikazu

    2009-03-01

    Evaluation of a genetic diagnostic technique using real time PCR of Swine Dysentery (SD) was performed using nox primers. Culture, ordinary PCR and real time PCR were compared in this experiment. Sixty-seven specimens from pigs with clinical signs of SD brought to a slaughterhouse in Shibaura, Tokyo, were used. B. hyodysenteriae was isolated from 49 of the pigs, was detected by ordinary PCR in 49 of the pigs and was detected by real time PCR in 54 of the pigs. Furthermore, we were able to determine the numbers of B. hyodysenteriae cells in all positive specimens by real time PCR. The rapid diagnostic technique established in this experiment was useful for detection of B. hyodysenteriae because it was more effective than ordinary PCR and culture.

  15. Hard-real-time resource management for autonomous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes tickets, a computational mechanism for hard-real-time autonomous resource management. Autonomous spacecraftcontrol can be considered abstractly as a computational process whose outputs are spacecraft commands.

  16. Real-time earthquake monitoring: Early warning and rapid response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A panel was established to investigate the subject of real-time earthquake monitoring (RTEM) and suggest recommendations on the feasibility of using a real-time earthquake warning system to mitigate earthquake damage in regions of the United States. The findings of the investigation and the related recommendations are described in this report. A brief review of existing real-time seismic systems is presented with particular emphasis given to the current California seismic networks. Specific applications of a real-time monitoring system are discussed along with issues related to system deployment and technical feasibility. In addition, several non-technical considerations are addressed including cost-benefit analysis, public perceptions, safety, and liability.

  17. Real-time two-dimensional temperature imaging using ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dalong; Ebbini, Emad S

    2009-01-01

    We present a system for real-time 2D imaging of temperature change in tissue media using pulse-echo ultrasound. The frontend of the system is a SonixRP ultrasound scanner with a research interface giving us the capability of controlling the beam sequence and accessing radio frequency (RF) data in real-time. The beamformed RF data is streamlined to the backend of the system, where the data is processed using a two-dimensional temperature estimation algorithm running in the graphics processing unit (GPU). The estimated temperature is displayed in real-time providing feedback that can be used for real-time control of the heating source. Currently we have verified our system with elastography tissue mimicking phantom and in vitro porcine heart tissue, excellent repeatability and sensitivity were demonstrated.

  18. Real-time interactive speech technology at Threshold Technology, Incorporated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herscher, Marvin B.

    1977-01-01

    Basic real-time isolated-word recognition techniques are reviewed. Industrial applications of voice technology are described in chronological order of their development. Future research efforts are also discussed.

  19. The Effects of Real-Time Interactive Multimedia Teleradiology System

    PubMed Central

    Al-Safadi, Lilac

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the design of a real-time interactive multimedia teleradiology system and assesses how the system is used by referring physicians in point-of-care situations and supports or hinders aspects of physician-radiologist interaction. We developed a real-time multimedia teleradiology management system that automates the transfer of images and radiologists' reports and surveyed physicians to triangulate the findings and to verify the realism and results of the experiment. The web-based survey was delivered to 150 physicians from a range of specialties. The survey was completed by 72% of physicians. Data showed a correlation between rich interactivity, satisfaction, and effectiveness. The results of our experiments suggest that real-time multimedia teleradiology systems are valued by referring physicians and may have the potential for enhancing their practice and improving patient care and highlight the critical role of multimedia technologies to provide real-time multimode interactivity in current medical care. PMID:27294118

  20. Real-time video codec using reversible wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Gen Dow; Chiang, David J.; Huang, Yi-En; Cheng, Allen

    2003-04-01

    This paper describes the hardware implementation of a real-time video codec using reversible Wavelets. The TechSoft (TS) real-time video system employs the Wavelet differencing for the inter-frame compression based on the independent Embedded Block Coding with Optimized Truncation (EBCOT) of the embedded bit stream. This high performance scalable image compression using EBCOT has been selected as part of the ISO new image compression standard, JPEG2000. The TS real-time video system can process up to 30 frames per second (fps) of the DVD format. In addition, audio signals are also processed by the same design for the cost reduction. Reversible Wavelets are used not only for the cost reduction, but also for the lossless applications. Design and implementation issues of the TS real-time video system are discussed.

  1. Real-time data compression of broadcast video signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalkauser, Mary Jo W. (Inventor); Whyte, Wayne A., Jr. (Inventor); Barnes, Scott P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A non-adaptive predictor, a nonuniform quantizer, and a multi-level Huffman coder are incorporated into a differential pulse code modulation system for coding and decoding broadcast video signals in real time.

  2. Real-time data compression of broadcast video signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalkhauser, Mary J. (Inventor); Whyte, Wayne A., Jr. (Inventor); Barnes, Scott P. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A non-adaptive predictor, a nonuniform quantizer, and a multi-level Huffman coder are incorporated into a differential pulse code modulation system for coding and decoding broadcast video signals in real time.

  3. Challenges of AVHRR Vegetation Data for Real Time Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing data has long been used to monitor global ecosystems for floods and droughts and AVHRR data, as one of the first product, has many users interested in receiving the data within hours of acquisition. With the introduction of a new series of sensors in 2000 (the AVHRR/3 series), the quality of the NDVI datasets available for real time environmental monitoring has declined. This paper provides evidence of problems of cloud contamination, calibration and noise in the real time data which are not present in the historical AVHRR NDVIg dataset. These differences introduce significant uncertainty in the use of the real time data, degrading their utility for detecting climate variations in near real time.

  4. A time accurate finite volume high resolution scheme for three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Hsu, Andrew T.

    1989-01-01

    A time accurate, three-dimensional, finite volume, high resolution scheme for solving the compressible full Navier-Stokes equations is presented. The present derivation is based on the upwind split formulas, specifically with the application of Roe's (1981) flux difference splitting. A high-order accurate (up to the third order) upwind interpolation formula for the inviscid terms is derived to account for nonuniform meshes. For the viscous terms, discretizations consistent with the finite volume concept are described. A variant of second-order time accurate method is proposed that utilizes identical procedures in both the predictor and corrector steps. Avoiding the definition of midpoint gives a consistent and easy procedure, in the framework of finite volume discretization, for treating viscous transport terms in the curvilinear coordinates. For the boundary cells, a new treatment is introduced that not only avoids the use of 'ghost cells' and the associated problems, but also satisfies the tangency conditions exactly and allows easy definition of viscous transport terms at the first interface next to the boundary cells. Numerical tests of steady and unsteady high speed flows show that the present scheme gives accurate solutions.

  5. High speed, real-time, camera bandwidth converter

    DOEpatents

    Bower, Dan E; Bloom, David A; Curry, James R

    2014-10-21

    Image data from a CMOS sensor with 10 bit resolution is reformatted in real time to allow the data to stream through communications equipment that is designed to transport data with 8 bit resolution. The incoming image data has 10 bit resolution. The communication equipment can transport image data with 8 bit resolution. Image data with 10 bit resolution is transmitted in real-time, without a frame delay, through the communication equipment by reformatting the image data.

  6. Real-time transesophageal echocardiography facilitates antegrade balloon aortic valvuloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kazato; Yano, Kentaro; Tanaka, Chiharu; Nakashoji, Tomohiro; Tonomura, Daisuke; Takehara, Kosuke; Kino, Naoto; Yoshida, Masataka; Kurotobi, Toshiya; Tsuchida, Takao; Fukumoto, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    We report two cases of severe aortic stenosis (AS) where antegrade balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) was performed under real-time transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) guidance. Real-time TEE can provide useful information for evaluating the aortic valve response to valvuloplasty during the procedure. It was led with the intentional wire-bias technique in order to compress the severely calcified leaflet, and consequently allowed the balloon to reach the largest possible size and achieve full expansion of the aortic annulus. PMID:27054107

  7. Real time simulator with Ti floating point digital signal processor

    SciTech Connect

    Razazian, K.; Bobis, J.P.; Dieckman, S.L.; Raptis, A.C.

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of a Real Time Simulator using Texas Instruments TMS320C30 digital signal processor. This system operates with two banks of memory which provide the input data to digital signal processor chip. This feature enables the TMS320C30 to be utilized in variety of applications for which external connections to acquire input data is not needed. In addition, some practical applications of this Real Time Simulator are discussed.

  8. Hybrid interconnection structures for real-time parallel processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. H.; Samson, John R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The use of hybrid interconnection structures that combine link connections and bus connections for real-time parallel processing is discussed. Idealistic parallel computation models for two real-time computing applications are described with attention given to a tightly coupled network model for object tracking and a network model for image processing. Consideration is given to the following different interconnection structures: the crossbar, the hypercube, the circular linked array, and the bus array.

  9. Real-time flight test data distribution and display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesel, Michael C.; Hammons, Kevin R.

    1988-01-01

    Enhancements to the real-time processing and display systems of the NASA Western Aeronautical Test Range are described. Display processing has been moved out of the telemetry and radar acquisition processing systems super-minicomputers into user/client interactive graphic workstations. Real-time data is provided to the workstations by way of Ethernet. Future enhancement plans include use of fiber optic cable to replace the Ethernet.

  10. Real-Time Optical Correlator Based On GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tsuen-Hsi; Cheng, Li-Jen

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus performs correlation between input image and reference image in real time by means of degenerate four-wave mixing in photorefractive crystal, which serves as real-time holographic medium. Gallium arsenide chosen to be photorefractive material in this application because at frame rate and level of illumination used in experiments, offers adequate diffraction efficiency. Frame rates as high as 1,000 s to negative 1st power achievable.

  11. Real-time seismic data from the coastal ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frye, D.; ten Brink, U.; Paul, W.; Peal, K.; Von Der Heydt, K.

    2003-01-01

    A moored-buoy system for collecting real-time seismic data from the coastal ocean has been developed and will be deployed for its initial field trial in the fall of 2003. The key component in this moored system is an ultra-stretchy mooring hose that provides compliance for waves and currents and protects the electrical conductors connecting an Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) to a surface buoy from the effects of bending and stretching. This hose is able to stretch to more than twice its unstretched length of 30 m without putting excessive strain on the electrical conductors embedded in its wall. In the initial trials of this system, the OBS will be deployed on the bottom in 40 m of water and connected to the mooring hose through a cable on the seafloor. It will transmit continuous data at a rate of about 5,000 bps to a radio link in the surface buoy. A repeater modem located at the Gay Head lighthouse on Martha's Vineyard about 18 km from the mooring site will receive the transmissions and forward the data to our laboratory at WHOI, about 46 km distant. A GPS receiver on the surface buoy will be configured to send accurate and synchronized time to the OBS on the seafloor, which will make it possible to include data from these undersea systems in the existing seismic data network without the need for any preprocessing. Power to operate the RF link and the OBS will be supplied by solar panels and rechargeable batteries on the surface buoy.

  12. Development of a cyber-physical experimental platform for real-time dynamic model updating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Dyke, Shirley

    2013-05-01

    Model updating procedures are traditionally performed off-line. With the significant recent advances in embedded systems and the related real-time computing capabilities, online or real-time, model updating can be performed to inform decision making and controller actions. The applications for real-time model updating are mainly in the areas of (i) condition diagnosis and prognosis of engineering systems; and (ii) control systems that benefit from accurate modeling of the system plant. Herein, the development of a cyber-physical real-time model updating experimental platform, including real-time computing environment, model updating algorithm, hardware architecture and testbed, is described. Results from two challenging experimental implementations are presented to illustrate the performance of this cyber-physical platform in achieving the goal of updating nonlinear systems in real-time. The experiments consider typical nonlinear engineering systems that exhibit hysteresis. Among the available algorithms capable of identification of such complex nonlinearities, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is selected for these experiments as an effective method to update nonlinear dynamic system models under realistic conditions. The implementation of the platform is discussed for successful completion of these experiments, including required timing constraints and overall evaluation of the system.

  13. Real-time image processing for non-contact monitoring of dynamic displacements using smartphone technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Jae-Hong; Gelo, Nikolas J.; Jo, Hongki

    2016-04-01

    The newly developed smartphone application, named RINO, in this study allows measuring absolute dynamic displacements and processing them in real time using state-of-the-art smartphone technologies, such as high-performance graphics processing unit (GPU), in addition to already powerful CPU and memories, embedded high-speed/ resolution camera, and open-source computer vision libraries. A carefully designed color-patterned target and user-adjustable crop filter enable accurate and fast image processing, allowing up to 240fps for complete displacement calculation and real-time display. The performances of the developed smartphone application are experimentally validated, showing comparable accuracy with those of conventional laser displacement sensor.

  14. Quantitative detection of Aspergillus spp. by real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanan; Perlin, David S

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and quantitative detection of Aspergillus from clinical samples may facilitate an early diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). As nucleic acid-based detection is a viable option, we demonstrate that Aspergillus burdens can be rapidly and accurately detected by a novel real-time nucleic acid assay other than qPCR by using the combination of nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) and the molecular beacon (MB) technology. Here, we detail a real-time NASBA assay to determine quantitative Aspergillus burdens in lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids of rats with experimental IPA.

  15. Real-time airborne hyperspectral imaging of land mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanco, Tyler; Achal, Steve; McFee, John E.; Anger, Cliff; Young, Jane

    2007-04-01

    DRDC Suffeld and Itres Research have jointly investigated the use of visible and infrared hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for surface and buried land mine detection since 1989. These studies have demonstrated reliable passive HSI detection of surface-laid mines, based on their reflectance spectra, from airborne and ground-based platforms. Commercial HSI instruments collect and store image data at aircraft speeds, but the data are analysed off- line. This is useful for humanitarian demining, but unacceptable for military countermine operations. We have developed a hardware and software system with algorithms that can process the raw hyperspectral data in real time to detect mines. The custom algorithms perform radiometric correction of the raw data, then classify pixels of the corrected data, referencing a spectral signature library. The classification results are stored and displayed in real time, that is, within a few frame times of the data acquisition. Such real-time mine detection was demonstrated for the first time from a slowly moving land vehicle in March 2000. This paper describes an improved system which can achieve real-time detection of mines from an airborne platform, with its commensurately higher data rates. The system is presently compatible with the Itres family of visible/near infrared, short wave infrared and thermal infrared pushbroom hyperspectral imagers and its broadband thermal infrared pushbroom imager. Experiments to detect mines from an airborne platform in real time were conducted at DRDC Suffield in November 2006. Surface-laid land mines were detected in real time from a slowly moving helicopter with generally good detection rates and low false alarm rates. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that land mines have been detected from an airborne platform in real time using hyperspectral imaging.

  16. Time Accurate Unsteady Pressure Loads Simulated for the Space Launch System at a Wind Tunnel Condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Kleb, Bil; Streett, Craig L; Glass, Christopher E.; Schuster, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Using the Fully Unstructured Three-Dimensional (FUN3D) computational fluid dynamics code, an unsteady, time-accurate flow field about a Space Launch System configuration was simulated at a transonic wind tunnel condition (Mach = 0.9). Delayed detached eddy simulation combined with Reynolds Averaged Naiver-Stokes and a Spallart-Almaras turbulence model were employed for the simulation. Second order accurate time evolution scheme was used to simulate the flow field, with a minimum of 0.2 seconds of simulated time to as much as 1.4 seconds. Data was collected at 480 pressure taps at locations, 139 of which matched a 3% wind tunnel model, tested in the Transonic Dynamic Tunnel (TDT) facility at NASA Langley Research Center. Comparisons between computation and experiment showed agreement within 5% in terms of location for peak RMS levels, and 20% for frequency and magnitude of power spectral densities. Grid resolution and time step sensitivity studies were performed to identify methods for improved accuracy comparisons to wind tunnel data. With limited computational resources, accurate trends for reduced vibratory loads on the vehicle were observed. Exploratory methods such as determining minimized computed errors based on CFL number and sub-iterations, as well as evaluating frequency content of the unsteady pressures and evaluation of oscillatory shock structures were used in this study to enhance computational efficiency and solution accuracy. These techniques enabled development of a set of best practices, for the evaluation of future flight vehicle designs in terms of vibratory loads.

  17. The utility of accurate mass and LC elution time information in the analysis of complex proteomes

    SciTech Connect

    Norbeck, Angela D.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Daly, Don S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2005-08-01

    Theoretical tryptic digests of all predicted proteins from the genomes of three organisms of varying complexity were evaluated for specificity and possible utility of combined peptide accurate mass and predicted LC normalized elution time (NET) information. The uniqueness of each peptide was evaluated using its combined mass (+/- 5 ppm and 1 ppm) and NET value (no constraint, +/- 0.05 and 0.01 on a 0-1 NET scale). The set of peptides both underestimates actual biological complexity due to the lack of specific modifications, and overestimates the expected complexity since many proteins will not be present in the sample or observable on the mass spectrometer because of dynamic range limitations. Once a peptide is identified from an LCMS/MS experiment, its mass and elution time is representative of a unique fingerprint for that peptide. The uniqueness of that fingerprint in comparison to that for the other peptides present is indicative of the ability to confidently identify that peptide based on accurate mass and NET measurements. These measurements can be made using HPLC coupled with high resolution MS in a high-throughput manner. Results show that for organisms with comparatively small proteomes, such as Deinococcus radiodurans, modest mass and elution time accuracies are generally adequate for peptide identifications. For more complex proteomes, increasingly accurate easurements are required. However, the majority of proteins should be uniquely identifiable by using LC-MS with mass accuracies within +/- 1 ppm and elution time easurements within +/- 0.01 NET.

  18. Accurate time-of-flight measurement of particle based on ECL-TTL Timer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Deping; Liu, Jianguo; Huang, Shuhua; Gui, Huaqiao; Cheng, Yin; Wang, Jie; Lu, Yihuai

    2014-11-01

    Because of its aerodynamic diameter of the aerosol particles are stranded in different parts of different human respiratory system, thus affecting human health. Therefore, how to continue to effectively monitor the aerosol particles become increasingly concerned about. Use flight time of aerosol particle beam spectroscopy of atmospheric aerosol particle size distribution is the typical method for monitoring atmospheric aerosol particle size and particle concentration measurement , and it is the key point to accurate measurement of aerosol particle size spectra that measurement of aerosol particle flight time. In order to achieve accurate measurements of aerosol particles in time-of-flight, this paper design an ECL-TTL high-speed timer with ECL counter and TTL counter. The high-speed timer includes a clock generation, high-speed timer and the control module. Clock Generation Module using a crystal plus multiplier design ideas, take advantage of the stability of the crystal to provide a stable 500MHz clock signal is high counter. High count module design using ECL and TTL counter mix design, timing accuracy while effectively maintaining , expanding the timing range, and simplifies circuit design . High-speed counter control module controls high-speed counter start, stop and reset timely based on aerosol particles time-of-flight, is a key part of the high-speed counting. The high-speed counting resolution of 4ns, the full scale of 4096ns, has been successfully applied Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, to meet the precise measurement of aerosol particles time-of-flight.

  19. Time-Accurate, Unstructured-Mesh Navier-Stokes Computations with the Space-Time CESE Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2006-01-01

    Application of the newly emerged space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) method to compressible Navier-Stokes equations is studied. In contrast to Euler equations solvers, several issues such as boundary conditions, numerical dissipation, and grid stiffness warrant systematic investigations and validations. Non-reflecting boundary conditions applied at the truncated boundary are also investigated from the stand point of acoustic wave propagation. Validations of the numerical solutions are performed by comparing with exact solutions for steady-state as well as time-accurate viscous flow problems. The test cases cover a broad speed regime for problems ranging from acoustic wave propagation to 3D hypersonic configurations. Model problems pertinent to hypersonic configurations demonstrate the effectiveness of the CESE method in treating flows with shocks, unsteady waves, and separations. Good agreement with exact solutions suggests that the space-time CESE method provides a viable alternative for time-accurate Navier-Stokes calculations of a broad range of problems.

  20. Real-time simulation of large-scale floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q.; Qin, Y.; Li, G. D.; Liu, Z.; Cheng, D. J.; Zhao, Y. H.

    2016-08-01

    According to the complex real-time water situation, the real-time simulation of large-scale floods is very important for flood prevention practice. Model robustness and running efficiency are two critical factors in successful real-time flood simulation. This paper proposed a robust, two-dimensional, shallow water model based on the unstructured Godunov- type finite volume method. A robust wet/dry front method is used to enhance the numerical stability. An adaptive method is proposed to improve the running efficiency. The proposed model is used for large-scale flood simulation on real topography. Results compared to those of MIKE21 show the strong performance of the proposed model.

  1. Explaining How to Play Real-Time Strategy Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metoyer, Ronald; Stumpf, Simone; Neumann, Christoph; Dodge, Jonathan; Cao, Jill; Schnabel, Aaron

    Real-time strategy games share many aspects with real situations in domains such as battle planning, air traffic control, and emergency response team management which makes them appealing test-beds for Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning. End user annotations could help to provide supplemental information for learning algorithms, especially when training data is sparse. This paper presents a formative study to uncover how experienced users explain game play in real-time strategy games. We report the results of our analysis of explanations and discuss their characteristics that could support the design of systems for use by experienced real-time strategy game users in specifying or annotating strategy-oriented behavior.

  2. Real-Time Data Use for Operational Space Weather Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, S.; Nobis, T. E.

    2010-12-01

    The Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RVBX) and the Space Environment Division of the Space and Missile Systems Center (AFSPC SYAG/WMLE) have combined efforts to design, develop, test, implement, and validate numerical and graphical products for Air Force Space Command’s (AFSPC) Space Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS). These products were developed to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense weapons, navigation, communications, and surveillance systems in real/near-real time. This real-time attribute is the primary factor in allowing for actual operational product output, but it’s also responsible for a variety of detrimental effects that need to be considered, researched, mitigated, or otherwise eliminated in future/upgrade product applications. This presentation will provide brief overviews of the SEEFS products, along with information and recommendations concerned with their near/real-time data acquisition and use, to include: input data requirements, inputs/outputs ownership, observation cadence, transmission/receipt links and cadence, data latency, quality control, error propagation and associated confidence level applications, and ensemble model run potentials. Validation issues related to real-time data will also be addressed, along with recommendations for new real-time data archiving that should prove operationally beneficial.

  3. A time-accurate high-resolution TVD scheme for solving the Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun Dae; Liu, Nan-Suey

    1992-01-01

    A total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme has been developed and incorporated into an existing time-accurate high-resolution Navier-Stokes code. The accuracy and the robustness of the resulting solution procedure have been assessed by performing many calculations in four different areas: shock tube flows, regular shock reflection, supersonic boundary layer, and shock boundary layer interactions. These numerical results compare well with corresponding exact solutions or experimental data.

  4. A time-accurate high-resolution TVD scheme for solving the Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun D.; Liu, Nan-Suey

    1993-01-01

    A total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme has been developed and incorporated into an existing time-accurate high-resolution Navier-Stokes code. The accuracy and the robustness of the resulting solution procedure have been assessed by performing many calculations in four different areas: shock tube flows, regular shock reflection, supersonic boundary layer, and shock boundary layer interactions. These numerical results compare well with corresponding exact solutions or experimental data.

  5. Real-time application of the Rat Grimace Scale as a welfare refinement in laboratory rats

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Vivian; Zhang, Emily; Pang, Daniel SJ

    2016-01-01

    Rodent grimace scales have been recently validated for pain assessment, allowing evaluation of facial expressions associated with pain. The standard scoring method is retrospective, limiting its application beyond pain research. This study aimed to assess if real-time application of the Rat Grimace Scale (RGS) could reliably and accurately assess pain in rats when compared to the standard method. Thirty-two male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were block randomized into three treatment groups: buprenorphine (0.03 mg/kg, subcutaneously), multimodal analgesia (buprenorphine [0.03 mg/kg] and meloxicam [2 mg/kg], subcutaneously), or saline, followed by intra-plantar carrageenan. Real-time observations (interval and point) were compared to the standard RGS method using concurrent video-recordings. Real-time interval observations reflected the results from the standard RGS method by successfully discriminating between analgesia and saline treatments. Real-time point observations showed poor discrimination between treatments. Real-time observations showed minimal bias (<0.1) and acceptable limits of agreement. These results indicate that applying the RGS in real-time through an interval scoring method is feasible and effective, allowing refinement of laboratory rat welfare through rapid identification of pain and early intervention. PMID:27530823

  6. Real-time application of the Rat Grimace Scale as a welfare refinement in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Leung, Vivian; Zhang, Emily; Pang, Daniel Sj

    2016-01-01

    Rodent grimace scales have been recently validated for pain assessment, allowing evaluation of facial expressions associated with pain. The standard scoring method is retrospective, limiting its application beyond pain research. This study aimed to assess if real-time application of the Rat Grimace Scale (RGS) could reliably and accurately assess pain in rats when compared to the standard method. Thirty-two male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were block randomized into three treatment groups: buprenorphine (0.03 mg/kg, subcutaneously), multimodal analgesia (buprenorphine [0.03 mg/kg] and meloxicam [2 mg/kg], subcutaneously), or saline, followed by intra-plantar carrageenan. Real-time observations (interval and point) were compared to the standard RGS method using concurrent video-recordings. Real-time interval observations reflected the results from the standard RGS method by successfully discriminating between analgesia and saline treatments. Real-time point observations showed poor discrimination between treatments. Real-time observations showed minimal bias (<0.1) and acceptable limits of agreement. These results indicate that applying the RGS in real-time through an interval scoring method is feasible and effective, allowing refinement of laboratory rat welfare through rapid identification of pain and early intervention. PMID:27530823

  7. Geomagnetic Observatory Data for Real-Time Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, J. J.; Finn, C. A.; Rigler, E. J.; Kelbert, A.; Bedrosian, P.

    2015-12-01

    The global network of magnetic observatories represents a unique collective asset for the scientific community. Historically, magnetic observatories have supported global magnetic-field mapping projects and fundamental research of the Earth's interior and surrounding space environment. More recently, real-time data streams from magnetic observatories have become an important contributor to multi-sensor, operational monitoring of evolving space weather conditions, especially during magnetic storms. In this context, the U.S. Geological Survey (1) provides real-time observatory data to allied space weather monitoring projects, including those of NOAA, the U.S. Air Force, NASA, several international agencies, and private industry, (2) collaborates with Schlumberger to provide real-time geomagnetic data needed for directional drilling for oil and gas in Alaska, (3) develops products for real-time evaluation of hazards for the electric-power grid industry that are associated with the storm-time induction of geoelectric fields in the Earth's conducting lithosphere. In order to implement strategic priorities established by the USGS Natural Hazards Mission Area and the National Science and Technology Council, and with a focus on developing new real-time products, the USGS is (1) leveraging data management protocols already developed by the USGS Earthquake Program, (2) developing algorithms for mapping geomagnetic activity, a collaboration with NASA and NOAA, (3) supporting magnetotelluric surveys and developing Earth conductivity models, a collaboration with Oregon State University and the NSF's EarthScope Program, (4) studying the use of geomagnetic activity maps and Earth conductivity models for real-time estimation of geoelectric fields, (5) initiating geoelectric monitoring at several observatories, (6) validating real-time estimation algorithms against historical geomagnetic and geoelectric data. The success of these long-term projects is subject to funding constraints

  8. Real-time hierarchically distributed processing network interaction simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.; Wu, C.

    1987-01-01

    The Telerobot Testbed is a hierarchically distributed processing system which is linked together through a standard, commercial Ethernet. Standard Ethernet systems are primarily designed to manage non-real-time information transfer. Therefore, collisions on the net (i.e., two or more sources attempting to send data at the same time) are managed by randomly rescheduling one of the sources to retransmit at a later time interval. Although acceptable for transmitting noncritical data such as mail, this particular feature is unacceptable for real-time hierarchical command and control systems such as the Telerobot. Data transfer and scheduling simulations, such as token ring, offer solutions to collision management, but do not appropriately characterize real-time data transfer/interactions for robotic systems. Therefore, models like these do not provide a viable simulation environment for understanding real-time network loading. A real-time network loading model is being developed which allows processor-to-processor interactions to be simulated, collisions (and respective probabilities) to be logged, collision-prone areas to be identified, and network control variable adjustments to be reentered as a means of examining and reducing collision-prone regimes that occur in the process of simulating a complete task sequence.

  9. Designing a fuzzy scheduler for hard real-time systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, John; Lee, Jonathan; Pfluger, Nathan; Natarajan, Swami

    1992-01-01

    In hard real-time systems, tasks have to be performed not only correctly, but also in a timely fashion. If timing constraints are not met, there might be severe consequences. Task scheduling is the most important problem in designing a hard real-time system, because the scheduling algorithm ensures that tasks meet their deadlines. However, the inherent nature of uncertainty in dynamic hard real-time systems increases the problems inherent in scheduling. In an effort to alleviate these problems, we have developed a fuzzy scheduler to facilitate searching for a feasible schedule. A set of fuzzy rules are proposed to guide the search. The situation we are trying to address is the performance of the system when no feasible solution can be found, and therefore, certain tasks will not be executed. We wish to limit the number of important tasks that are not scheduled.

  10. REAL TIME FLAME MONITORING OF GASIFIER BURNER AND INJECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    James Servaites; Serguei Zelepouga; David Rue

    2003-10-01

    This report is submitted to the United States Department of Energy in partial fulfillment of the contractual requirements for Phase I of the project titled, ''Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier Burner and Injectors'', under co-operative agreement number DE-FS26-02NT41585. The project is composed of three one-year budget periods. The work in each year is divided into separate Tasks to facilitate project management, orderly completion of all project objectives, budget control, and critical path application of personnel and equipment. This Topical Report presents results of the Task 1 and 2 work. The 2 D optical sensor was developed to monitor selected UV and visible wavelengths to collect accurate flame characterization information regarding mixing, flame shape, and flame rich/lean characteristic. Flame richness, for example, was determined using OH and CH intensity peaks in the 300 to 500 nanometer range of the UV and visible spectrum. The laboratory burner was operated over a wide range of air to fuel ratio conditions from fuel rich to fuel lean. The sooty oxygen enriched air flames were established to test the sensor ability to characterize flame structures with substantial presence of hot solid particles emitting strong ''black body radiation''. The knowledge gained in these experiments will be very important when the sensor is used for gasifier flame analyses. It is expected that the sensor when installed on the Global Energy gasifier will be exposed to complex radiation patterns. The measured energy will be a combination of spectra emitted by the combusting gases, hot solid particulates, and hot walls of the gasifier chamber. The ability to separate flame emissions from the ''black body emissions'' will allow the sensor to accurately determine flame location relative to the gasifier walls and the injectors, as well as to analyze the flame's structure and condition. Ultimately, this information should enable the gasification processes to be monitored and

  11. Real-time NASBA detection of SARS-associated coronavirus and comparison with real-time reverse transcription-PCR.

    PubMed

    Keightley, Maria Cristina; Sillekens, Peter; Schippers, Wim; Rinaldo, Charles; George, Kirsten St

    2005-12-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) exhibits a high mortality rate and the potential for rapid epidemic spread. Additionally, it has a poorly defined clinical presentation, and no known treatment or prevention methods. Collectively, these factors underscore the need for early diagnosis. Molecular tests have been developed to detect SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) RNA using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with varying levels of sensitivity. However, RNA amplification methods have been demonstrated to be more sensitive for the detection of some RNA viruses. We therefore developed a real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) test for SARS-CoV. A number of primer/beacon sets were designed to target different regions of the SARS-CoV genome, and were tested for sensitivity and specificity. The performance of the assays was compared with RT-PCR assays. A multi-target real-time NASBA application was developed for detection of SARS-CoV polymerase (Pol) and nucleocapsid (N) genes. The N targets were found to be consistently more sensitive than the Pol targets, and the real-time NASBA assay demonstrates equivalent sensitivity when compared to testing by real-time RT-PCR. A multi-target real-time NASBA assay has been successfully developed for the sensitive detection of SARS-CoV.

  12. Data assimialation for real-time prediction and reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shprits, Y.; Kellerman, A. C.; Podladchikova, T.; Kondrashov, D. A.; Ghil, M.

    2015-12-01

    We discuss the how data assimilation can be used for the analysis of individual satellite anomalies, development of long-term evolution reconstruction that can be used for the specification models, and use of data assimilation to improve the now-casting and focusing of the radiation belts. We also discuss advanced data assimilation methods such as parameter estimation and smoothing.The 3D data assimilative VERB allows us to blend together data from GOES, RBSP A and RBSP B. Real-time prediction framework operating on our web site based on GOES, RBSP A, B and ACE data and 3D VERB is presented and discussed. In this paper we present a number of application of the data assimilation with the VERB 3D code. 1) Model with data assimilation allows to propagate data to different pitch angles, energies, and L-shells and blends them together with the physics based VERB code in an optimal way. We illustrate how we use this capability for the analysis of the previous events and for obtaining a global and statistical view of the system. 2) The model predictions strongly depend on initial conditions that are set up for the model. Therefore the model is as good as the initial conditions that it uses. To produce the best possible initial condition data from different sources ( GOES, RBSP A, B, our empirical model predictions based on ACE) are all blended together in an optimal way by means of data assimilation as described above. The resulting initial condition does not have gaps. That allows us to make a more accurate predictions.

  13. Movement Retraining using Real-time Feedback of Performance

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Michael Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Any modification of movement - especially movement patterns that have been honed over a number of years - requires re-organization of the neuromuscular patterns responsible for governing the movement performance. This motor learning can be enhanced through a number of methods that are utilized in research and clinical settings alike. In general, verbal feedback of performance in real-time or knowledge of results following movement is commonly used clinically as a preliminary means of instilling motor learning. Depending on patient preference and learning style, visual feedback (e.g. through use of a mirror or different types of video) or proprioceptive guidance utilizing therapist touch, are used to supplement verbal instructions from the therapist. Indeed, a combination of these forms of feedback is commonplace in the clinical setting to facilitate motor learning and optimize outcomes. Laboratory-based, quantitative motion analysis has been a mainstay in research settings to provide accurate and objective analysis of a variety of movements in healthy and injured populations. While the actual mechanisms of capturing the movements may differ, all current motion analysis systems rely on the ability to track the movement of body segments and joints and to use established equations of motion to quantify key movement patterns. Due to limitations in acquisition and processing speed, analysis and description of the movements has traditionally occurred offline after completion of a given testing session. This paper will highlight a new supplement to standard motion analysis techniques that relies on the near instantaneous assessment and quantification of movement patterns and the display of specific movement characteristics to the patient during a movement analysis session. As a result, this novel technique can provide a new method of feedback delivery that has advantages over currently used feedback methods. PMID:23353633

  14. Real-time simulation of thermal shadows with EMIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Andreas; Oberhofer, Stefan; Schätz, Peter; Nischwitz, Alfred; Obermeier, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Modern missile systems use infrared imaging for tracking or target detection algorithms. The development and validation processes of these missile systems need high fidelity simulations capable of stimulating the sensors in real-time with infrared image sequences from a synthetic 3D environment. The Extensible Multispectral Image Generation Toolset (EMIT) is a modular software library developed at MBDA Germany for the generation of physics-based infrared images in real-time. EMIT is able to render radiance images in full 32-bit floating point precision using state of the art computer graphics cards and advanced shader programs. An important functionality of an infrared image generation toolset is the simulation of thermal shadows as these may cause matching errors in tracking algorithms. However, for real-time simulations, such as hardware in the loop simulations (HWIL) of infrared seekers, thermal shadows are often neglected or precomputed as they require a thermal balance calculation in four-dimensions (3D geometry in one-dimensional time up to several hours in the past). In this paper we will show the novel real-time thermal simulation of EMIT. Our thermal simulation is capable of simulating thermal effects in real-time environments, such as thermal shadows resulting from the occlusion of direct and indirect irradiance. We conclude our paper with the practical use of EMIT in a missile HWIL simulation.

  15. Lightweight distributed computing for intraoperative real-time image guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwelack, Stefan; Katic, Darko; Wagner, Simon; Spengler, Patrick; Bodenstedt, Sebastian; Röhl, Sebastian; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Speidel, Stefanie

    2012-02-01

    In order to provide real-time intraoperative guidance, computer assisted surgery (CAS) systems often rely on computationally expensive algorithms. The real-time constraint is especially challenging if several components such as intraoperative image processing, soft tissue registration or context aware visualization are combined in a single system. In this paper, we present a lightweight approach to distribute the workload over several workstations based on the OpenIGTLink protocol. We use XML-based message passing for remote procedure calls and native types for transferring data such as images, meshes or point coordinates. Two different, but typical scenarios are considered in order to evaluate the performance of the new system. First, we analyze a real-time soft tissue registration algorithm based on a finite element (FE) model. Here, we use the proposed approach to distribute the computational workload between a primary workstation that handles sensor data processing and visualization and a dedicated workstation that runs the real-time FE algorithm. We show that the additional overhead that is introduced by the technique is small compared to the total execution time. Furthermore, the approach is used to speed up a context aware augmented reality based navigation system for dental implant surgery. In this scenario, the additional delay for running the computationally expensive reasoning server on a separate workstation is less than a millisecond. The results show that the presented approach is a promising strategy to speed up real-time CAS systems.

  16. Real-Time Tropospheric Delay Estimation using IGS Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stürze, Andrea; Liu, Sha; Söhne, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    The Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG) routinely provides zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) parameter for the assimilation in numerical weather models since more than 10 years. Up to now the results flowing into the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) or E-GVAP (EUMETNET EIG GNSS water vapour programme) analysis are based on batch processing of GPS+GLONASS observations in differential network mode. For the recently started COST Action ES1206 about "Advanced Global Navigation Satellite Systems tropospheric products for monitoring severe weather events and climate" (GNSS4SWEC), however, rapid updates in the analysis of the atmospheric state for nowcasting applications require changing the processing strategy towards real-time. In the RTCM SC104 (Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services, Special Committee 104) a format combining the advantages of Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) is under development. The so-called State Space Representation approach is defining corrections, which will be transferred in real-time to the user e.g. via NTRIP (Network Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol). Meanwhile messages for precise orbits, satellite clocks and code biases compatible to the basic PPP mode using IGS products are defined. Consequently, the IGS Real-Time Service (RTS) was launched in 2013 in order to extend the well-known precise orbit and clock products by a real-time component. Further messages e.g. with respect to ionosphere or phase biases are foreseen. Depending on the level of refinement, so different accuracies up to the RTK level shall be reachable. In co-operation of BKG and the Technical University of Darmstadt the real-time software GEMon (GREF EUREF Monitoring) is under development. GEMon is able to process GPS and GLONASS observation and RTS product data streams in PPP mode. Furthermore, several state-of-the-art troposphere models, for example based on numerical weather prediction data, are implemented. Hence, it

  17. Distributed RTEMS Prototyping for Hard Real-Time Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossard, F.; Jouanneau, S.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a software prototyping to accommodate RTEMS to any embedded multiprocessor architecture. It outlines the development effort to move this free kernel to a distributed system. The concern of such an approach is to uncouple application software from underlying hardware including network. A real test platform consists of two ERC32 boards linked through an Ethernet network. RTEMS validation is achieved thanks to functional tests and a hard real-time application.

  18. A real-time VLC to UART protocol conversion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jian-zhi; Yao, Meng; Cheng, Xiao-hui; Deng, Zhuo-hong

    2016-07-01

    A real-time visible light communication (VLC) to universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART) conversion system is made up of a transmitter with a light emitting diode (LED) and a receiver with a photodiode (PD), by which a VLC system is connected to traditional communication modes, and the data are transferred by wireless visible light. UART packets are converted to light packets by the modulation of a 10 kHz on-off-keying (OOK) light signal, and the data losses in the transportation are avoided by the protection of a data buffer mechanism. The experimental results reveal that the real-time VLC to UART conversion system can provide a real-time VLC transmission way for two UART devices in not less than 10 m at a baud rate not less than 19 200 Bd with stable ambient lighting at the same time.

  19. A framework for building real-time expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom is an example of complex systems that require both traditional and artificial intelligence (AI) real-time methodologies. It was mandated that Ada should be used for all new software development projects. The station also requires distributed processing. Catastrophic failures on the station can cause the transmission system to malfunction for a long period of time, during which ground-based expert systems cannot provide any assistance to the crisis situation on the station. This is even more critical for other NASA projects that would have longer transmission delays (e.g., the lunar base, Mars missions, etc.). To address these issues, a distributed agent architecture (DAA) is proposed that can support a variety of paradigms based on both traditional real-time computing and AI. The proposed testbed for DAA is an autonomous power expert (APEX) which is a real-time monitoring and diagnosis expert system for the electrical power distribution system of the space station.

  20. Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System with Synchronized Phasor Measurements

    2005-01-01

    The Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System is designed to monitor the dynamics within the power grid and assess the system behavior during normal and disturbance conditions. The RTDMS application was built on the Grid-3P technology platform and takes real-time information collected by Synchronized Phasor Measurement Units (PMU5) or other collection devices and transmitted to a central Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC) for monitoring grid dynamics. The data is sampled 30 times per second and is time-synchronized. Thismore » data is processed to create graphical and geographical displays to provide visualization for frequency/frequency response, voltage magnitudes and angles, voltage angle differences across critical paths as well as real and reactive power-flows on a sub-second and second basis. Software allows for monitoring, tracking, historical data archiving and electric system troubleshooting for reliability management.« less

  1. Online gaming for learning optimal team strategies in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudas, Gregory; Lewis, F. L.; Vamvoudakis, K. G.

    2010-04-01

    This paper first presents an overall view for dynamical decision-making in teams, both cooperative and competitive. Strategies for team decision problems, including optimal control, zero-sum 2-player games (H-infinity control) and so on are normally solved for off-line by solving associated matrix equations such as the Riccati equation. However, using that approach, players cannot change their objectives online in real time without calling for a completely new off-line solution for the new strategies. Therefore, in this paper we give a method for learning optimal team strategies online in real time as team dynamical play unfolds. In the linear quadratic regulator case, for instance, the method learns the Riccati equation solution online without ever solving the Riccati equation. This allows for truly dynamical team decisions where objective functions can change in real time and the system dynamics can be time-varying.

  2. FRET-based real-time DNA microarrays.

    PubMed

    Hassibi, Arjang; Vikalo, Haris; Riechmann, José Luis; Hassibi, Babak

    2012-01-01

    We present a quantification method for affinity-based DNA microarrays which is based on the real-time measurements of hybridization kinetics. This method, i.e., real-time DNA microarrays, enhances the detection dynamic range of conventional systems by being impervious to probe saturation, washing artifacts, microarray spot-to-spot variations, and other intensity-affecting impediments. We demonstrate in both theory and practice that the time-constant of target capturing is inversely proportional to the concentration of the target analyte, which we take advantage of as the fundamental parameter to estimate the concentration of the analytes. Furthermore, to experimentally validate the capabilities of this method in practical applications, we present a FRET-based assay which enables the real-time detection in gene expression DNA microarrays. PMID:22130990

  3. Coordinated scheduling for dynamic real-time systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natarajan, Swaminathan; Zhao, Wei

    1994-01-01

    In this project, we addressed issues in coordinated scheduling for dynamic real-time systems. In particular, we concentrated on design and implementation of a new distributed real-time system called R-Shell. The design objective of R-Shell is to provide computing support for space programs that have large, complex, fault-tolerant distributed real-time applications. In R-shell, the approach is based on the concept of scheduling agents, which reside in the application run-time environment, and are customized to provide just those resource management functions which are needed by the specific application. With this approach, we avoid the need for a sophisticated OS which provides a variety of generalized functionality, while still not burdening application programmers with heavy responsibility for resource management. In this report, we discuss the R-Shell approach, summarize the achievement of the project, and describe a preliminary prototype of R-Shell system.

  4. Time Will Show: Real Time Predictions during Interpersonal Action Perception

    PubMed Central

    Manera, Valeria; Schouten, Ben; Verfaillie, Karl; Becchio, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Predictive processes are crucial not only for interpreting the actions of individual agents, but also to predict how, in the context of a social interaction between two agents, the actions of one agent relate to the actions of a second agent. In the present study we investigated whether, in the context of a communicative interaction between two agents, observers can use the actions of one agent to predict when the action of a second agent will take place. Participants observed point-light displays of two agents (A and B) performing separate actions. In the communicative condition, the action performed by agent B responded to a communicative gesture performed by agent A. In the individual condition, agent A's communicative action was substituted with a non-communicative action. For each condition, we manipulated the temporal coupling of the actions of the two agents, by varying the onset of agent A's action. Using a simultaneous masking detection task, we demonstrated that the timing manipulation had a critical effect on the communicative condition, with the visual discrimination of agent B increasing linearly while approaching the original interaction timing. No effect of the timing manipulation was found for the individual condition. Our finding complements and extends previous evidence for interpersonal predictive coding, suggesting that the communicative gestures of one agent can serve not only to predict what the second agent will do, but also when his/her action will take place. PMID:23349992

  5. A statistical method for assessing peptide identification confidence in accurate mass and time tag proteomics.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jeffrey R; Adkins, Joshua N; Slysz, Gordon W; Monroe, Matthew E; Purvine, Samuel O; Karpievitch, Yuliya V; Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D; Dabney, Alan R

    2011-08-15

    Current algorithms for quantifying peptide identification confidence in the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag approach assume that the AMT tags themselves have been correctly identified. However, there is uncertainty in the identification of AMT tags, because this is based on matching LC-MS/MS fragmentation spectra to peptide sequences. In this paper, we incorporate confidence measures for the AMT tag identifications into the calculation of probabilities for correct matches to an AMT tag database, resulting in a more accurate overall measure of identification confidence for the AMT tag approach. The method is referenced as Statistical Tools for AMT Tag Confidence (STAC). STAC additionally provides a uniqueness probability (UP) to help distinguish between multiple matches to an AMT tag and a method to calculate an overall false discovery rate (FDR). STAC is freely available for download, as both a command line and a Windows graphical application.

  6. Application of the accurate mass and time tag approach in studies of the human blood lipidome

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Jie; Sorensen, Christina M.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Jiang, Hongliang; Orton, Daniel J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2008-08-15

    We report a preliminary demonstration of the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag approach for lipidomics. Initial data-dependent LC-MS/MS analyses of human plasma, erythrocyte, and lymphocyte lipids were performed in order to identify lipid molecular species in conjunction with complementary accurate mass and isotopic distribution information. Identified lipids were used to populate initial lipid AMT tag databases containing 250 and 45 entries for those species detected in positive and negative electrospray ionization (ESI) modes, respectively. The positive ESI database was then utilized to identify human plasma, erythrocyte, and lymphocyte lipids in high-throughput quantitative LC-MS analyses based on the AMT tag approach. We were able to define the lipid profiles of human plasma, erythrocytes, and lymphocytes based on qualitative and quantitative differences in lipid abundance. In addition, we also report on the optimization of a reversed-phase LC method for the separation of lipids in these sample types.

  7. Real-time space system control with expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leinweber, David; Hawkinson, Lowell; Perry, John

    1988-01-01

    Many aspects of space system operations involve continuous control of real time processes. These processes include electrical power system monitoring, prelaunch and ongoing propulsion system health and maintenance, environmental and life support systems, space suit checkout, onboard manufacturing, and vehicle servicing including satellites, shuttles, orbital maneuvering vehicles, orbital transfer vehicles and remote teleoperators. Traditionally, monitoring of these critical real time processes has been done by trained human experts monitoring telemetry data. However, the long duration of future space missions and the high cost of crew time in space creates a powerful economic incentive for the development of highly autonomous knowledge based expert control procedures for these space systems.

  8. Study on Amortization Time and Rationality in Real Estate Investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yancang; Zhou, Shujing; Suo, Juanjuan

    Amortization time and rationality has been discussed a lot in real estate investment research. As the price of real estate is driven by Geometric Brown Motion (GBM), whether the mortgagors should amortize in advance has become a key issue in amortization time research. This paper presents a new method to solve the problem by using the optimal stopping time theory and option pricing theory models. We discuss the option value in amortizing decision based on this model. A simulation method is used to test this method.

  9. Real time mass flow computer for Arc Jet Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal, J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments at the Arc Jet Tunnel at Ames Research Center have typical run times of 5-10 sec during which the test model is subjected to an environment simulating reentry into Jupiter. Previous real-time determination of mass flow required off-line manual computations from taped or strip chart data. The present paper describes a computer which provides personnel with real-time computations of mass flow. Using an 8-bit microprocessor and standard TTL interface circuitry, the unit interrogates temperature and pressure instruments with other parameters to compute mass flow.

  10. Real-time programmable acoustooptic synthetic aperture radar processor.

    PubMed

    Haney, M; Psaltis, D

    1988-05-01

    The acoustooptic time-and-space integrating approach to real-time synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing is reviewed, and novel hybrid optical/electronic techniques, which generalize the basic architecture, are described. The generalized architecture is programmable and has the ability to compensate continuously for range migration changes in the parameters of the radar/target geometry and anomalous platform motion. The new architecture is applicable to the spotlight mode of SAR, particularly for applications in which real-time onboard processing is required.

  11. Modeling fast electron dynamics with real-time time-dependent density functional theory: application to small molecules and chromophores

    SciTech Connect

    Lopata, Kenneth A.; Govind, Niranjan

    2011-05-10

    The response of matter to external fields forms the basis for a vast wealth of fundamental physical processes ranging from light harvesting to nanoscale electron transport. Accurately modeling ultrafast electron dynamics in excited systems thus o_ers unparalleled insight, but requires an inherently non-linear time-resolved approach. To this end, an e_cient and massively parallel real-time real-space time-dependent density functional theory (RT-TDDFT) implementation in NWChem is presented. The implementation is first validated against linearresponse TDDFT and experimental results for a series of molecules subjected to small electric field perturbations. Second, non-linear excitation of green fluorescent protein is studied, which shows a blue-shift in the spectrum with increasing perturbation, as well as a saturation in absorption. Next, the charge dynamics of optically excited zinc porphyrin is presented in real-time and real-space, with relevance to charge injection in photovoltaic devices. Finally, intermolecular excitation in an adenine-thymine base pair is studied using the BNL range separated functional [Baer, R.; Neuhauser, D. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2005, 94, 043002], demonstrating the utility of a real-time approach in capturing charge transfer processes.

  12. The improved broadband Real-Time Seismic Network in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neagoe, C.; Ionescu, C.

    2009-04-01

    Starting with 2002 the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) has developed its real-time digital seismic network. This network consists of 96 seismic stations of which 48 broad band and short period stations and two seismic arrays are transmitted in real-time. The real time seismic stations are equipped with Quanterra Q330 and K2 digitizers, broadband seismometers (STS2, CMG40T, CMG 3ESP, CMG3T) and strong motions sensors Kinemetrics episensors (+/- 2g). SeedLink and AntelopeTM (installed on MARMOT) program packages are used for real-time (RT) data acquisition and exchange. The communication from digital seismic stations to the National Data Center in Bucharest is assured by 5 providers (GPRS, VPN, satellite communication, radio lease line and internet), which will assure the back-up communications lines. The processing centre runs BRTT's AntelopeTM 4.10 data acquisition and processing software on 2 workstations for real-time processing and post processing. The Antelope Real-Time System is also providing automatic event detection, arrival picking, event location and magnitude calculation. It provides graphical display and reporting within near-real-time after a local or regional event occurred. Also at the data center was implemented a system to collect macroseismic information using the internet on which macro seismic intensity maps are generated. In the near future at the data center will be install Seiscomp 3 data acquisition processing software on a workstation. The software will run in parallel with Antelope software as a back-up. The present network will be expanded in the near future. In the first half of 2009 NIEP will install 8 additional broad band stations in Romanian territory, which also will be transmitted to the data center in real time. The Romanian Seismic Network is permanently exchanging real -time waveform data with IRIS, ORFEUS and different European countries through internet. In Romania, magnitude and location of an earthquake are now

  13. Real-time multispectral imaging application for poultry safety inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bosoon; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.; Snead, Matthew P.

    2006-02-01

    The ARS imaging research group in Athens, Georgia has developed a real-time multispectral imaging system for fecal and ingesta contaminant detection on broiler carcasses for poultry industry. The industrial scale system includes a common aperture camera with three visible wavelength optical trim filters. This paper demonstrates calibration of common aperture multispectral imaging hardware and real-time image processing software. The software design, especially the Unified Modeling Language (UML) design approach was used to develop real-time image processing software for on-line application. The UML models including class, object, activity, sequence, and collaboration diagram were presented. Both hardware and software for a real-time fecal and ingesta contaminant detection were tested at the pilot-scale poultry processing line. The test results of industrial sacle real-time system showed that the multispectral imaging technique performed well for detecting fecal contaminants with a commercial processing speed (currently 140 birds per minute). The accuracy for the detection of fecal and ingesta contaminates was approximately 96%.

  14. Real-time operating systems at higher control

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    Although virtually all development of real-time operating systems focuses on the lowest of the three traditional control levels, sheet economics demands higher level real-time OSs. Meeting this demand requires a major change in the mindset of the people who have been focusing on the lowest level of control. {open_quotes}These people are trying to deal with an elephant`s tail, but they don`t realize that there is an elephant attached to it.{close_quotes} For more than three decades, the historical real-time mindset, concepts and techniques have been driven by a particular pair of contexts. First is the application context, which can be characterized as {open_quotes}small, simple, centralized, static subsystems for low-level, sampled data, monitoring and first-order control.{close_quotes} Second is the hardware context, characterized by a scarcity of hardware resources due to size, weight, power and cost considerations. Both of these contexts are changing dramatically in ways that {open_quotes}have a significant impact on the concepts and techniques of real-time computing.{close_quotes} Hardware now offers much higher performance and the real-time domain is expanding upward in the application control hierarchy.

  15. A Practical Approach to Implementing Real-Time Semantics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luettgen, Gerald; Bhat, Girish; Cleaveland, Rance

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates implementations of process algebras which are suitable for modeling concurrent real-time systems. It suggests an approach for efficiently implementing real-time semantics using dynamic priorities. For this purpose a proces algebra with dynamic priority is defined, whose semantics corresponds one-to-one to traditional real-time semantics. The advantage of the dynamic-priority approach is that it drastically reduces the state-space sizes of the systems in question while preserving all properties of their functional and real-time behavior. The utility of the technique is demonstrated by a case study which deals with the formal modeling and verification of the SCSI-2 bus-protocol. The case study is carried out in the Concurrency Workbench of North Carolina, an automated verification tool in which the process algebra with dynamic priority is implemented. It turns out that the state space of the bus-protocol model is about an order of magnitude smaller than the one resulting from real-time semantics. The accuracy of the model is proved by applying model checking for verifying several mandatory properties of the bus protocol.

  16. A multiprocessing architecture for real-time monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, James L.; Kao, Simon M.; Read, Jackson Y.; Weitzenkamp, Scott M.; Laffey, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    A multitasking architecture for performing real-time monitoring and analysis using knowledge-based problem solving techniques is described. To handle asynchronous inputs and perform in real time, the system consists of three or more distributed processes which run concurrently and communicate via a message passing scheme. The Data Management Process acquires, compresses, and routes the incoming sensor data to other processes. The Inference Process consists of a high performance inference engine that performs a real-time analysis on the state and health of the physical system. The I/O Process receives sensor data from the Data Management Process and status messages and recommendations from the Inference Process, updates its graphical displays in real time, and acts as the interface to the console operator. The distributed architecture has been interfaced to an actual spacecraft (NASA's Hubble Space Telescope) and is able to process the incoming telemetry in real-time (i.e., several hundred data changes per second). The system is being used in two locations for different purposes: (1) in Sunnyville, California at the Space Telescope Test Control Center it is used in the preflight testing of the vehicle; and (2) in Greenbelt, Maryland at NASA/Goddard it is being used on an experimental basis in flight operations for health and safety monitoring.

  17. High performance real-time flight simulation at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleveland, Jeff I., II

    1994-01-01

    In order to meet the stringent time-critical requirements for real-time man-in-the-loop flight simulation, computer processing operations must be deterministic and be completed in as short a time as possible. This includes simulation mathematical model computational and data input/output to the simulators. In 1986, in response to increased demands for flight simulation performance, personnel at NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC), working with the contractor, developed extensions to a standard input/output system to provide for high bandwidth, low latency data acquisition and distribution. The Computer Automated Measurement and Control technology (IEEE standard 595) was extended to meet the performance requirements for real-time simulation. This technology extension increased the effective bandwidth by a factor of ten and increased the performance of modules necessary for simulator communications. This technology is being used by more than 80 leading technological developers in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Included among the commercial applications of this technology are nuclear process control, power grid analysis, process monitoring, real-time simulation, and radar data acquisition. Personnel at LaRC have completed the development of the use of supercomputers for simulation mathematical model computational to support real-time flight simulation. This includes the development of a real-time operating system and the development of specialized software and hardware for the CAMAC simulator network. This work, coupled with the use of an open systems software architecture, has advanced the state of the art in real time flight simulation. The data acquisition technology innovation and experience with recent developments in this technology are described.

  18. PRIMAS: a real-time 3D motion-analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabel, Jan C.; van Veenendaal, Hans L. J.; Furnee, E. Hans

    1994-03-01

    The paper describes a CCD TV-camera-based system for real-time multicamera 2D detection of retro-reflective targets and software for accurate and fast 3D reconstruction. Applications of this system can be found in the fields of sports, biomechanics, rehabilitation research, and various other areas of science and industry. The new feature of real-time 3D opens an even broader perspective of application areas; animations in virtual reality are an interesting example. After presenting an overview of the hardware and the camera calibration method, the paper focuses on the real-time algorithms used for matching of the images and subsequent 3D reconstruction of marker positions. When using a calibrated setup of two cameras, it is now possible to track at least ten markers at 100 Hz. Limitations in the performance are determined by the visibility of the markers, which could be improved by adding a third camera.

  19. Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation of Ares I Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobbe, Patrick; Matras, Alex; Walker, David; Wilson, Heath; Fulton, Chris; Alday, Nathan; Betts, Kevin; Hughes, Ryan; Turbe, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Ares Real-Time Environment for Modeling, Integration, and Simulation (ARTEMIS) has been developed for use by the Ares I launch vehicle System Integration Laboratory at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The primary purpose of the Ares System Integration Laboratory is to test the vehicle avionics hardware and software in a hardware - in-the-loop environment to certify that the integrated system is prepared for flight. ARTEMIS has been designed to be the real-time simulation backbone to stimulate all required Ares components for verification testing. ARTE_VIIS provides high -fidelity dynamics, actuator, and sensor models to simulate an accurate flight trajectory in order to ensure realistic test conditions. ARTEMIS has been designed to take advantage of the advances in underlying computational power now available to support hardware-in-the-loop testing to achieve real-time simulation with unprecedented model fidelity. A modular realtime design relying on a fully distributed computing architecture has been implemented.

  20. Real-time pair-feeding of animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, H. A.; Connolly, J. P.; Hitchman, M. J.; Humbert, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Automatic pair-feeding system was developed which immediately dispenses same amount of food to control animal as has been consumed by experimental animal that has free access to food. System consists of: master feeding system; slave feeding station; and control mechanism. Technique performs real time pair-feeding without attendant time lag.

  1. DETECTION OF FECAL ENTEROCOCCI USING A REAL TIME PCR METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In spite of their importance in public health, the detection of fecal enterococci is performed via culturing methods that are time consuming and that are subject to inaccuracies that relate to their culturable status. In order to address these problems, a real time PCR (TaqMan) ...

  2. Real-Time Onboard Global Nonlinear Aerodynamic Modeling from Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Jay M.; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2014-01-01

    Flight test and modeling techniques were developed to accurately identify global nonlinear aerodynamic models onboard an aircraft. The techniques were developed and demonstrated during piloted flight testing of an Aermacchi MB-326M Impala jet aircraft. Advanced piloting techniques and nonlinear modeling techniques based on fuzzy logic and multivariate orthogonal function methods were implemented with efficient onboard calculations and flight operations to achieve real-time maneuver monitoring and analysis, and near-real-time global nonlinear aerodynamic modeling and prediction validation testing in flight. Results demonstrated that global nonlinear aerodynamic models for a large portion of the flight envelope were identified rapidly and accurately using piloted flight test maneuvers during a single flight, with the final identified and validated models available before the aircraft landed.

  3. MS-BWME: A Wireless Real-Time Monitoring System for Brine Well Mining Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xinqing; Zhu, Tianyu; Qi, Lin; Moga, Liliana Mihaela; Zhang, Xiaoshuan

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a wireless real-time monitoring system (MS-BWME) to monitor the running state of pumps equipment in brine well mining and prevent potential failures that may produce unexpected interruptions with severe consequences. MS-BWME consists of two units: the ZigBee Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) unit and the real-time remote monitoring unit. MS-BWME was implemented and tested in sampled brine wells mining in Qinghai Province and four kinds of indicators were selected to evaluate the performance of the MS-BWME, i.e., sensor calibration, the system's real-time data reception, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and sensor node lifetime. The results show that MS-BWME can accurately judge the running state of the pump equipment by acquiring and transmitting the real-time voltage and electric current data of the equipment from the spot and provide real-time decision support aid to help workers overhaul the equipment in a timely manner and resolve failures that might produce unexpected production down-time. The MS-BWME can also be extended to a wide range of equipment monitoring applications. PMID:25340455

  4. Toward real-time performance benchmarks for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, Russell M.; Duchesneau, Louis; Volz, Richard A.; Mudge, Trevor N.; Schultze, Timothy

    1986-01-01

    The issue of real-time performance measurements for the Ada programming language through the use of benchmarks is addressed. First, the Ada notion of time is examined and a set of basic measurement techniques are developed. Then a set of Ada language features believed to be important for real-time performance are presented and specific measurement methods discussed. In addition, other important time related features which are not explicitly part of the language but are part of the run-time related features which are not explicitly part of the language but are part of the run-time system are also identified and measurement techniques developed. The measurement techniques are applied to the language and run-time system features and the results are presented.

  5. Toward Real Time Data Analysis for Smart Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Jian; Gorton, Ian; Sharma, Poorva

    2012-11-10

    This paper describes the architecture and design of a novel system for supporting large-scale real-time data analysis for future power grid systems. The widespread deployment of renewable generation, smart grid controls, energy storage, plug-in hybrids, and new conducting materials will require fundamental changes in the operational concepts and principal components of the grid. As a result, the whole system becomes highly dynamic and requires constant adjusting based on real time data. Even though millions of sensors such as phase measurement units (PMU) and smart meters are being widely deployed, a data layer that can analyze this amount of data in real time is needed. Unlike the data fabric in other cloud services, the data layer for smart grids has some unique design requirements. First, this layer must provide real time guarantees. Second, this layer must be scalable to allow a large number of applications to access the data from millions of sensors in real time. Third, reliability is critical and this layer must be able to continue to provide service in face of failures. Fourth, this layer must be secure. We address these challenges though a scalable system architecture that integrates the I/O and data processing capability in a devise set of devices. Data process operations can be placed anywhere from sensors, data storage devices, to control centers. We further employ compression to improve performance. We design a lightweight compression customized for power grid data. Our system can reduce end-to-end response time by reduce I/O overhead through compression and overlap compression operations with I/O. The initial prototype of our system was demonstrated with several use cases from PNNL’s FPGI and show that our system can provide real time guarantees to a diverse set of applications.

  6. Real-time PCR TaqMan assay for rapid screening of bloodstream infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sepsis is one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity. The rapid detection of pathogens in blood of septic patients is essential for adequate antimicrobial therapy and better prognosis. This study aimed to accelerate the detection and discrimination of Gram-positive (GP) and Gram-negative (GN) bacteria and Candida species in blood culture samples by molecular methods. Methods The Real-GP®, -GN®, and -CAN® real-time PCR kit (M&D, Wonju, Republic of Korea) assays use the TaqMan probes for detecting pan-GP, pan-GN, and pan-Candida species, respectively. The diagnostic performances of the real-time PCR kits were evaluated with 115 clinical isolates, 256 positive and 200 negative blood culture bottle samples, and the data were compared to results obtained from conventional blood culture. Results Eighty-seven reference strains and 115 clinical isolates were correctly identified with specific probes corresponding to GP-bacteria, GN-bacteria and Candida, respectively. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the real-time PCR kit with blood culture samples were 99.6% and 89.5%, respectively. Conclusions The Real-GP®, -GN®, and -CAN® real-time PCR kits could be useful tools for the rapid and accurate screening of bloodstream infections (BSIs). PMID:24393579

  7. Accurate quantification of two key time points used in the determination of hydroxyl polyaluminum species by ferron timed spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Yong, Xiaojing; Zhao, Dongyan; Shi, Qiuyi

    2015-01-01

    The content of mononuclear Al (Ala%) changed with its determination time (ta) under different dosages of Ferron (7-iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid, [Ferron]), and the change of Ala% with [Ferron] at different ta was systematically investigated for the first time. Thus, the most appropriate ta was found with the optimal [Ferron]. Also, the judgment of the platform (flat or level portion) of the complete reaction on the absorption-time curve determined in the hydroxyl polyaluminum solution by Ferron timed spectrophotometry (Ferron assay) was first digitized. The time point (tb) of complete reaction between the medium polyaluminum (Alb) and Ferron reagent depended on the reaction extent, and time could not be used only to judge. Thus, the tb was accurately determined and reduced to half of original, which improved the experiment efficiency significantly. The Ferron assay was completely optimized.

  8. Geomagnetic referencing--the real-time compass for directional drillers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, Andrew; Finn, Carol A.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Worthington, E. William; Lawson, Fraser; Maus, Stefan; Okewunmi, Shola; Poedjono, Benny

    2013-01-01

    To pinpoint the location and direction of a wellborne, directional driller rely on measurements from accelerometers, magnetometer and gyroscopes. In the past, high-accuracy guidance methods required a halt in drilling to obtain directional measurements. Advances in geomagnetic referencing now allow companies to use real-time data acquired during drilling to accurately potion horizontal wells, decrease well spacing and drill multiple wells from limited surface locations.

  9. Distributed simulation using a real-time shared memory network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Mattern, Duane L.; Wong, Edmond; Musgrave, Jeffrey L.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Control Technology Branch of the NASA Lewis Research Center performs research in the area of advanced digital controls for aeronautic and space propulsion systems. This work requires the real-time implementation of both control software and complex dynamical models of the propulsion system. We are implementing these systems in a distributed, multi-vendor computer environment. Therefore, a need exists for real-time communication and synchronization between the distributed multi-vendor computers. A shared memory network is a potential solution which offers several advantages over other real-time communication approaches. A candidate shared memory network was tested for basic performance. The shared memory network was then used to implement a distributed simulation of a ramjet engine. The accuracy and execution time of the distributed simulation was measured and compared to the performance of the non-partitioned simulation. The ease of partitioning the simulation, the minimal time required to develop for communication between the processors and the resulting execution time all indicate that the shared memory network is a real-time communication technique worthy of serious consideration.

  10. Real-time infrared target processor for advanced land fire control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lithopoulos, Erik; Sevigny, Leandre; Laurent, John

    1994-10-01

    The infrared target processor (IRTP) is a real-time processor capable of automatic and operator-aided detection, lock-on and tracking of multiple targets in infrared imagery. The IRTP has been developed under a feeder project to the advanced land fire control system (ALFCS) program, a project to develop accurate fire on the move capability for Canadian tanks. The IRTP is built around the datacube pipelined architecture using commercially available image processing and general purpose components. Presently, the IRTP is capable of real-time detection and tracking of up to five targets at video rates (30 frames/sec), and its operation is controlled via a single monitor that contains graphical control panels and a real- time video display. To augment the operation of the target detection/tracking and the gun fire control operations of the ALFCS a position orientation system (POS) can be used to provide accurate vertical reference measurements of the turret. The POS is built around an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and specialized real-time software implemented on a general purpose CPU card. Although the IRTP is currently being developed for ALFCS applications, the testbed architecture and algorithms are flexible and the system has been used to test and develop algorithms for general target processing applications.

  11. Real-time depth map manipulation for 3D visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ideses, Ianir; Fishbain, Barak; Yaroslavsky, Leonid

    2009-02-01

    One of the key aspects of 3D visualization is computation of depth maps. Depth maps enables synthesis of 3D video from 2D video and use of multi-view displays. Depth maps can be acquired in several ways. One method is to measure the real 3D properties of the scene objects. Other methods rely on using two cameras and computing the correspondence for each pixel. Once a depth map is acquired for every frame, it can be used to construct its artificial stereo pair. There are many known methods for computing the optical flow between adjacent video frames. The drawback of these methods is that they require extensive computation power and are not very well suited to high quality real-time 3D rendering. One efficient method for computing depth maps is extraction of motion vector information from standard video encoders. In this paper we present methods to improve the 3D visualization quality acquired from compression CODECS by spatial/temporal and logical operations and manipulations. We show how an efficient real time implementation of spatial-temporal local order statistics such as median and local adaptive filtering in 3D-DCT domain can substantially improve the quality of depth maps and consequently 3D video while retaining real-time rendering. Real-time performance is achived by utilizing multi-core technology using standard parallelization algorithms and libraries (OpenMP, IPP).

  12. Real-time Experiment Interface for Biological Control Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Risa J.; Bettencourt, Jonathan; White, John A.; Christini, David J.; Butera, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Real-time Experiment Interface (RTXI) is a fast and versatile real-time biological experimentation system based on Real-Time Linux. RTXI is open source and free, can be used with an extensive range of experimentation hardware, and can be run on Linux or Windows computers (when using the Live CD). RTXI is currently used extensively for two experiment types: dynamic patch clamp and closed-loop stimulation pattern control in neural and cardiac single cell electrophysiology. RTXI includes standard plug-ins for implementing commonly used electrophysiology protocols with synchronized stimulation, event detection, and online analysis. These and other user-contributed plug-ins can be found on the website (http://www.rtxi.org). PMID:21096883

  13. Rainfall-based real-time flood forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoni, Juan Carlos; Tucci, Carlos Eduardo; Clarke, Robin Thomas

    1992-02-01

    The use of conceptual rainfall-runoff models in real-time flood forecasting still presents problems, some of which relate to the updating of the mathematical model and to uncertainties associated with future rainfall. Both topics are approached in this study, in which a conceptual rainfall-runoff model (IPH-II) for real-time flood forecasting and a simplified stochastic model to determine the value of including quantitative rainfall forecasts were used. The methods were tested using data from a small watershed (the River Ray at Grendon Underwood, UK), for which 17 years of records were available. The results show that a simple method used to forecast rain falling during the next few hours, may help to improve real-time discharge estimates.

  14. Real time capable infrared thermography for ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieglin, B.; Faitsch, M.; Herrmann, A.; Brucker, B.; Eich, T.; Kammerloher, L.; Martinov, S.

    2015-11-01

    Infrared (IR) thermography is widely used in fusion research to study power exhaust and incident heat load onto the plasma facing components. Due to the short pulse duration of today's fusion experiments, IR systems have mostly been designed for off-line data analysis. For future long pulse devices (e.g., Wendelstein 7-X, ITER), a real time evaluation of the target temperature and heat flux is mandatory. This paper shows the development of a real time capable IR system for ASDEX Upgrade. A compact IR camera has been designed incorporating the necessary magnetic and electric shielding for the detector, cooler assembly. The camera communication is based on the Camera Link industry standard. The data acquisition hardware is based on National Instruments hardware, consisting of a PXIe chassis inside and a fibre optical connected industry computer outside the torus hall. Image processing and data evaluation are performed using real time LabVIEW.

  15. Real time capable infrared thermography for ASDEX Upgrade.

    PubMed

    Sieglin, B; Faitsch, M; Herrmann, A; Brucker, B; Eich, T; Kammerloher, L; Martinov, S

    2015-11-01

    Infrared (IR) thermography is widely used in fusion research to study power exhaust and incident heat load onto the plasma facing components. Due to the short pulse duration of today's fusion experiments, IR systems have mostly been designed for off-line data analysis. For future long pulse devices (e.g., Wendelstein 7-X, ITER), a real time evaluation of the target temperature and heat flux is mandatory. This paper shows the development of a real time capable IR system for ASDEX Upgrade. A compact IR camera has been designed incorporating the necessary magnetic and electric shielding for the detector, cooler assembly. The camera communication is based on the Camera Link industry standard. The data acquisition hardware is based on National Instruments hardware, consisting of a PXIe chassis inside and a fibre optical connected industry computer outside the torus hall. Image processing and data evaluation are performed using real time LabVIEW.

  16. Real-time measurement of mental workload: A feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Arthur; Humphrey, Darryl; Sirevaag, Erik; Mecklinger, Axel

    1990-01-01

    The primary goal of the study was to explore the utility of event-related brain potentials (ERP) as real-time measures of workload. To this end, subjects performed two different tasks both separately and together. One task required that subjects monitor a bank of constantly changing gauges and detect critical deviations. Difficulty was varied by changing the predictability of the gauges. The second task was mental arithmetic. Difficulty was varied by requiring subjects to perform operations on either two or three columns of numbers. Two conditions that could easily be distinguished on the basis of performance measures were selected for the real-time evaluation of ERPs. A bootstrapping approach was adopted in which one thousand samples of n trials (n = 1, 3, 5 ...65) were classified using several measures of P300 and Slow Wave amplitude. Classification accuracies of 85 percent were achieved with 25 trials. Results are discussed in terms of potential enhancements for real-time recording.

  17. Real-time inverse scattering for optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralston, Tyler S.; Marks, Daniel L.; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2007-02-01

    We have developed and implemented a system which can acquire, process, and display the inverse scattering solution for optical coherence tomography (OCT) in real-time at frame rates of 2.25 fps for 512 X 1024 images. Frames which previously required 60 s, now take under 500 ms, an improvement in processing speed by a factor of over 120 times. An efficient routine was designed which requires two interpolations of the columns, one one-dimensional real-to-complex fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the columns, and two two-dimensional FFTs. The limits to speed are now reliant on the parallelizability of the processing hardware. Our system provides quantitatively meaningful structural information from previously indistinguishable scattering intensities and provides proof of feasibility for future real-time systems.

  18. Integrated real-time fracture-diagnostics instrumentation system

    SciTech Connect

    Engi, D

    1983-01-01

    The use of an integrated, real-time fracture-diagnostics instrumentation system for the control of the fracturing treatment during massive hydraulic fracturing is proposed. The proposed system consists of four subsystems: an internal-fracture-pressure measurement system, a fluid-flow measurement system, a borehole seismic system, and a surface-electric-potential measurement system. This use of borehole seismic and surface-electric-potential measurements, which are essentially away-from-the-wellbore measurements, in conjunction with the use of the more commonly used types of measurements, i.e., at-the-wellbore pressure and fluid-flow measurements, is a distinctive feature of the composite real-time diagnostics system. Currently, the real-time capabilities of the individual subsystems are being developed, and the problems associated with their integration into a complete, computer-linked instrumentation system are being addressed. 2 figures.

  19. Software engineering aspects of real-time programming concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoitsch, Erwin

    1986-08-01

    Real-time programming is a discipline of great importance not only in process control, but also in fields like communication, office automation, interactive databases, interactive graphics and operating systems development. General concepts of concurrent programming and constructs for process-synchronization are discussed in detail. Tasking and synchronization concepts, methods of process communication, interrupt and timeout handling in systems based on semaphores, signals, conditional critical regions or on real-time languages like Concurrent PASCAL, MODULA, CHILL and ADA are explained and compared with each other. The second part deals with structuring and modularization of technical processes to build reliable and maintainable real time systems. Software-quality and software engineering aspects are considered throughout the paper.

  20. Towards real-time medical diagnostics using hyperspectral imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjorgan, Asgeir; Randeberg, Lise L.

    2015-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging provides non-contact, high resolution spectral images which has a substantial diagnostic potential. This can be used for e.g. diagnosis and early detection of arthritis in finger joints. Processing speed is currently a limitation for clinical use of the technique. A real-time system for analysis and visualization using GPU processing and threaded CPU processing is presented. Images showing blood oxygenation, blood volume fraction and vessel enhanced images are among the data calculated in real-time. This study shows the potential of real-time processing in this context. A combination of the processing modules will be used in detection of arthritic finger joints from hyperspectral reflectance and transmittance data.