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Sample records for accurate relative positioning

  1. Accurate radio positions with the Tidbinbilla interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batty, M. J.; Gulkis, S.; Jauncey, D. L.; Rayner, P. T.

    1979-01-01

    The Tidbinbilla interferometer (Batty et al., 1977) is designed specifically to provide accurate radio position measurements of compact radio sources in the Southern Hemisphere with high sensitivity. The interferometer uses the 26-m and 64-m antennas of the Deep Space Network at Tidbinbilla, near Canberra. The two antennas are separated by 200 m on a north-south baseline. By utilizing the existing antennas and the low-noise traveling-wave masers at 2.29 GHz, it has been possible to produce a high-sensitivity instrument with a minimum of capital expenditure. The north-south baseline ensures that a good range of UV coverage is obtained, so that sources lying in the declination range between about -80 and +30 deg may be observed with nearly orthogonal projected baselines of no less than about 1000 lambda. The instrument also provides high-accuracy flux density measurements for compact radio sources.

  2. The Role of Sentence Position, Allomorph, and Morpheme Type on Accurate Use of s-Related Morphemes by Children Who Are Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehlinger, Keegan; Van Horne, Amanda Owen; Oleson, Jacob; McCreery, Ryan; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Production accuracy of s-related morphemes was examined in 3-year-olds with mild-to-severe hearing loss, focusing on perceptibility, articulation, and input frequency. Method: Morphemes with /s/, /z/, and /?z/ as allomorphs (plural, possessive, third-person singular -s, and auxiliary and copula "is") were analyzed from language…

  3. Accurate radio and optical positions for southern radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Bruce R.; Jauncey, David L.; White, Graeme L.; Nothnagel, Axel; Nicolson, George D.; Reynolds, John E.; Morabito, David D.; Bartel, Norbert

    1992-01-01

    Accurate radio positions with a precision of about 0.01 arcsec are reported for eight compact extragalactic radio sources south of -45-deg declination. The radio positions were determined using VLBI at 8.4 GHz on the 9589 km Tidbinbilla (Australia) to Hartebeesthoek (South Africa) baseline. The sources were selected from the Parkes Catalogue to be strong, flat-spectrum radio sources with bright optical QSO counterparts. Optical positions of the QSOs were also measured from the ESO B Sky Survey plates with respect to stars from the Perth 70 Catalogue, to an accuracy of about 0.19 arcsec rms. These radio and optical positions are as precise as any presently available in the far southern sky. A comparison of the radio and optical positions confirms the estimated optical position errors and shows that there is overall agreement at the 0.1-arcsec level between the radio and Perth 70 optical reference frames in the far south.

  4. Accurate absolute GPS positioning through satellite clock error estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S.-C.; Kwon, J. H.; Jekeli, C.

    2001-05-01

    An algorithm for very accurate absolute positioning through Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite clock estimation has been developed. Using International GPS Service (IGS) precise orbits and measurements, GPS clock errors were estimated at 30-s intervals. Compared to values determined by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the agreement was at the level of about 0.1 ns (3 cm). The clock error estimates were then applied to an absolute positioning algorithm in both static and kinematic modes. For the static case, an IGS station was selected and the coordinates were estimated every 30 s. The estimated absolute position coordinates and the known values had a mean difference of up to 18 cm with standard deviation less than 2 cm. For the kinematic case, data obtained every second from a GPS buoy were tested and the result from the absolute positioning was compared to a differential GPS (DGPS) solution. The mean differences between the coordinates estimated by the two methods are less than 40 cm and the standard deviations are less than 25 cm. It was verified that this poorer standard deviation on 1-s position results is due to the clock error interpolation from 30-s estimates with Selective Availability (SA). After SA was turned off, higher-rate clock error estimates (such as 1 s) could be obtained by a simple interpolation with negligible corruption. Therefore, the proposed absolute positioning technique can be used to within a few centimeters' precision at any rate by estimating 30-s satellite clock errors and interpolating them.

  5. Multimodal spatial calibration for accurately registering EEG sensor positions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhua; Chen, Jian; Chen, Shengyong; Xiao, Gang; Li, Xiaoli

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a fast and accurate calibration method to calibrate multiple multimodal sensors using a novel photogrammetry system for fast localization of EEG sensors. The EEG sensors are placed on human head and multimodal sensors are installed around the head to simultaneously obtain all EEG sensor positions. A multiple views' calibration process is implemented to obtain the transformations of multiple views. We first develop an efficient local repair algorithm to improve the depth map, and then a special calibration body is designed. Based on them, accurate and robust calibration results can be achieved. We evaluate the proposed method by corners of a chessboard calibration plate. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve good performance, which can be further applied to EEG source localization applications on human brain.

  6. Using GPS To Teach More Than Accurate Positions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marie C.; Guth, Peter L.

    2002-01-01

    Undergraduate science majors need practice in critical thinking, quantitative analysis, and judging whether their calculated answers are physically reasonable. Develops exercises using handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. Reinforces students' abilities to think quantitatively, make realistic "back of the envelope"…

  7. Accurate Position Sensing of Defocused Beams Using Simulated Beam Templates

    SciTech Connect

    Awwal, A; Candy, J; Haynam, C; Widmayer, C; Bliss, E; Burkhart, S

    2004-09-29

    In position detection using matched filtering one is faced with the challenge of determining the best position in the presence of distortions such as defocus and diffraction noise. This work evaluates the performance of simulated defocused images as the template against the real defocused beam. It was found that an amplitude modulated phase-only filter is better equipped to deal with real defocused images that suffer from diffraction noise effects resulting in a textured spot intensity pattern. It is shown that the there is a tradeoff of performance dependent upon the type and size of the defocused image. A novel automated system was developed that can automatically select the right template type and size. Results of this automation for real defocused images are presented.

  8. Accurate aircraft wind measurements using the global positioning system (GPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Dobosy, R.J.; Crawford, T.L., McMillen, R.T., Dumas, E.J.

    1996-11-01

    High accuracy measurements of the spatial distribution of wind speed are required in the study of turbulent exchange between the atmosphere and the earth. The use of a differential global positioning system (GPS) to determine the sensor velocity vector component of wind speed is discussed in this paper. The results of noise and rocking testing are summarized, and fluxes obtained from the GPS-based methods are compared to those measured from systems on towers and airplanes. The GPS-based methods provided usable measurements that compared well with tower and aircraft data at a significantly lower cost. 21 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. Improved nucleosome-positioning algorithm iNPS for accurate nucleosome positioning from sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weizhong; Liu, Yi; Zhu, Shanshan; Green, Christopher D; Wei, Gang; Han, Jing-Dong Jackie

    2014-09-18

    Accurate determination of genome-wide nucleosome positioning can provide important insights into global gene regulation. Here, we describe the development of an improved nucleosome-positioning algorithm-iNPS-which achieves significantly better performance than the widely used NPS package. By determining nucleosome boundaries more precisely and merging or separating shoulder peaks based on local MNase-seq signals, iNPS can unambiguously detect 60% more nucleosomes. The detected nucleosomes display better nucleosome 'widths' and neighbouring centre-centre distance distributions, giving rise to sharper patterns and better phasing of average nucleosome profiles and higher consistency between independent data subsets. In addition to its unique advantage in classifying nucleosomes by shape to reveal their different biological properties, iNPS also achieves higher significance and lower false positive rates than previously published methods. The application of iNPS to T-cell activation data demonstrates a greater ability to facilitate detection of nucleosome repositioning, uncovering additional biological features underlying the activation process.

  10. Accurate OH Maser Positions from the SPLASH Pilot Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Hai-Hua; Walsh, Andrew J.; Green, James A.; Breen, Shari L.; Dawson, J. R.; Ellingsen, Simon P.; Gómez, José F.; Jordan, Christopher H.; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Lowe, Vicki; Jones, Paul A.

    2016-12-01

    We report on high spatial resolution observations, using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), of ground-state OH masers. These observations were carried out toward 196 pointing centers previously identified in the Southern Parkes Large-Area Survey in Hydroxyl (SPLASH) pilot region, between Galactic longitudes of 334° and 344° and Galactic latitudes of ‑2° and +2°. Supplementing our data with data from the MAGMO (Mapping the Galactic Magnetic field through OH masers) survey, we find maser emission toward 175 of the 196 target fields. We conclude that about half of the 21 nondetections were due to intrinsic variability. Due to the superior sensitivity of the followup ATCA observations, and the ability to resolve nearby sources into separate sites, we have identified 215 OH maser sites toward the 175 fields with detections. Among these 215 OH maser sites, 111 are new detections. After comparing the positions of these 215 maser sites to the literature, we identify 122 (57%) sites associated with evolved stars (one of which is a planetary nebula), 64 (30%) with star formation, two sites with supernova remnants, and 27 (13%) of unknown origin. The infrared colors of evolved star sites with symmetric maser profiles tend to be redder than those of evolved star sites with asymmetric maser profiles, which may indicate that symmetric sources are generally at an earlier evolutionary stage.

  11. Accurately Detecting Students' Lies regarding Relational Aggression by Correctional Instructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickhauser, Oliver; Reinhard, Marc-Andre; Marksteiner, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of correctional instructions when detecting lies about relational aggression. Based on models from the field of social psychology, we predict that correctional instruction will lead to a less pronounced lie bias and to more accurate lie detection. Seventy-five teachers received videotapes of students' true denial…

  12. Relativity in the Global Positioning System.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Neil

    2003-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses accurate, stable atomic clocks in satellites and on the ground to provide world-wide position and time determination. These clocks have gravitational and motional frequency shifts which are so large that, without carefully accounting for numerous relativistic effects, the system would not work. This paper discusses the conceptual basis, founded on special and general relativity, for navigation using GPS. Relativistic principles and effects which must be considered include the constancy of the speed of light, the equivalence principle, the Sagnac effect, time dilation, gravitational frequency shifts, and relativity of synchronization. Experimental tests of relativity obtained with a GPS receiver aboard the TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite will be discussed. Recently frequency jumps arising from satellite orbit adjustments have been identified as relativistic effects. These will be explained and some interesting applications of GPS will be discussed.

  13. Accurate genome relative abundance estimation based on shotgun metagenomic reads.

    PubMed

    Xia, Li C; Cram, Jacob A; Chen, Ting; Fuhrman, Jed A; Sun, Fengzhu

    2011-01-01

    Accurate estimation of microbial community composition based on metagenomic sequencing data is fundamental for subsequent metagenomics analysis. Prevalent estimation methods are mainly based on directly summarizing alignment results or its variants; often result in biased and/or unstable estimates. We have developed a unified probabilistic framework (named GRAMMy) by explicitly modeling read assignment ambiguities, genome size biases and read distributions along the genomes. Maximum likelihood method is employed to compute Genome Relative Abundance of microbial communities using the Mixture Model theory (GRAMMy). GRAMMy has been demonstrated to give estimates that are accurate and robust across both simulated and real read benchmark datasets. We applied GRAMMy to a collection of 34 metagenomic read sets from four metagenomics projects and identified 99 frequent species (minimally 0.5% abundant in at least 50% of the data-sets) in the human gut samples. Our results show substantial improvements over previous studies, such as adjusting the over-estimated abundance for Bacteroides species for human gut samples, by providing a new reference-based strategy for metagenomic sample comparisons. GRAMMy can be used flexibly with many read assignment tools (mapping, alignment or composition-based) even with low-sensitivity mapping results from huge short-read datasets. It will be increasingly useful as an accurate and robust tool for abundance estimation with the growing size of read sets and the expanding database of reference genomes.

  14. Research on the rapid and accurate positioning and orientation approach for land missile-launching vehicle.

    PubMed

    Li, Kui; Wang, Lei; Lv, Yanhong; Gao, Pengyu; Song, Tianxiao

    2015-10-20

    Getting a land vehicle's accurate position, azimuth and attitude rapidly is significant for vehicle based weapons' combat effectiveness. In this paper, a new approach to acquire vehicle's accurate position and orientation is proposed. It uses biaxial optical detection platform (BODP) to aim at and lock in no less than three pre-set cooperative targets, whose accurate positions are measured beforehand. Then, it calculates the vehicle's accurate position, azimuth and attitudes by the rough position and orientation provided by vehicle based navigation systems and no less than three couples of azimuth and pitch angles measured by BODP. The proposed approach does not depend on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), thus it is autonomous and difficult to interfere. Meanwhile, it only needs a rough position and orientation as algorithm's iterative initial value, consequently, it does not have high performance requirement for Inertial Navigation System (INS), odometer and other vehicle based navigation systems, even in high precise applications. This paper described the system's working procedure, presented theoretical deviation of the algorithm, and then verified its effectiveness through simulation and vehicle experiments. The simulation and experimental results indicate that the proposed approach can achieve positioning and orientation accuracy of 0.2 m and 20″ respectively in less than 3 min.

  15. An integrated strategy for rapid and accurate determination of free and cell-bound microcystins and related peptides in natural blooms by liquid chromatography-electrospray-high resolution mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry using both positive and negative ionization modes.

    PubMed

    Flores, Cintia; Caixach, Josep

    2015-08-14

    An integrated high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) strategy has been developed for rapid and accurate determination of free and cell-bound microcystins (MCs) and related peptides in water blooms. The natural samples (water and algae) were filtered for independent analysis of aqueous and sestonic fractions. These fractions were analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and ESI-Orbitrap-HCD-MS. MALDI, ESI and the study of fragmentation sequences have been provided crucial structural information. The potential of combined positive and negative ionization modes, full scan and fragmentation acquisition modes (TOF/TOF and HCD) by HRMS and high resolution and accurate mass was investigated in order to allow unequivocal determination of MCs. Besides, a reliable quantitation has been possible by HRMS. This composition helped to decrease the probability of false positives and negatives, as alternative to commonly used LC-ESI-MS/MS methods. The analysis was non-target, therefore covered the possibility to analyze all MC analogs concurrently without any pre-selection of target MC. Furthermore, archived data was subjected to retrospective "post-targeted" analysis and a screening of other potential toxins and related peptides as anabaenopeptins in the samples was done. Finally, the MS protocol and identification tools suggested were applied to the analysis of characteristic water blooms from Spanish reservoirs.

  16. Accurate determination of screw position in treating fifth metatarsal base fractures to shorten radiation exposure time

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chen; Huang, Jia Zhang; Ma, Xin

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Anatomical markers can help to guide lag screw placement during surgery for internal fixation of fifth metatarsal base fractures. This study aimed to identify the optimal anatomical markers and thus reduce radiation exposure. METHODS A total of 50 patients in Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China, who underwent oblique foot radiography in the lateral position were randomly selected. The angles between the fifth metatarsal axis and cuboid articular surface were measured to determine the optimal lag screw placement relative to anatomical markers. RESULTS The line connecting the styloid process of the fifth metatarsal base with the second metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint intersected with the fifth metatarsal base fracture line at an angle of 86.85° ± 5.44°. The line connecting the fifth metatarsal base styloid with the third and fourth MTP joints intersected with the fracture line at angles of 93.28° ± 5.24° and 100.95° ± 5.00°, respectively. The proximal articular surface of the fifth metatarsal base intersected with the line connecting the styloid process of the fifth metatarsal base with the second, third and fourth MTP joints at angles of 24.02° ± 4.77°, 30.79° ± 4.53° and 38.08° ± 4.54°, respectively. CONCLUSION The fifth metatarsal base styloid and third MTP joint can be used as anatomical markers for lag screw placement in fractures involving the fifth tarsometatarsal joint. The connection line, which is normally perpendicular to the fracture line, provides sufficient mechanical stability to facilitate accurate screw placement. The use of these anatomical markers could help to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure for patients and medical staff. PMID:26767892

  17. Accurate recovery of articulator positions from acoustics: New conclusions based on human data

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, J.; Lofqvist, A.; Gracco, V.; Zlokarnik, I.; Rubin, P.; Saltzman, E.

    1996-09-01

    Vocal tract models are often used to study the problem of mapping from the acoustic transfer function to the vocal tract area function (inverse mapping). Unfortunately, results based on vocal tract models are strongly affected by the assumptions underlying the models. In this study, the mapping from acoustics (digitized speech samples) to articulation (measurements of the positions of receiver coils placed on the tongue, jaw, and lips) is examined using human data from a single speaker: Simultaneous acoustic and articulator measurements made for vowel-to-vowel transitions, /g/ closures, and transitions into and out of /g/ closures. Articulator positions were measured using an EMMA system to track coils placed on the lips, jaw, and tongue. Using these data, look-up tables were created that allow articulator positions to be estimated from acoustic signals. On a data set not used for making look-up tables, correlations between estimated and actual coil positions of around 94{percent} and root-mean-squared errors around 2 mm are common for coils on the tongue. An error source evaluation shows that estimating articulator positions from quantized acoustics gives root-mean-squared errors that are typically less than 1 mm greater than the errors that would be obtained from quantizing the articulator positions themselves. This study agrees with and extends previous studies of human data by showing that for the data studied, speech acoustics can be used to accurately recover articulator positions. {copyright} {ital 1996 Acoustical Society of America.}

  18. Accurate stereochemistry for two related 22,26-epiminocholestene derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Vega-Baez, José Luis; Sandoval-Ramírez, Jesús; Meza-Reyes, Socorro; Montiel-Smith, Sara; Gómez-Calvario, Victor; Bernès, Sylvain

    2008-04-01

    Regioselective opening of ring E of solasodine under various conditions afforded (25R)-22,26-epimino@@cholesta-5,22(N)-di@@ene-3β,16β-diyl diacetate (previously known as 3,16-diacetyl pseudosolasodine B), C{sub 31}H{sub 47}NO{sub 4}, or (22S,25R)-16β-hydr@@oxy-22,26-epimino@@cholesta-5-en-3β-yl acetate (a derivative of the naturally occurring alkaloid oblonginine), C{sub 29}H{sub 47}NO{sub 3}. In both cases, the reactions are carried out with retention of chirality at the C16, C20 and C25 stereogenic centers, which are found to be S, S and R, respectively. Although pseudosolasodine was synthesized 50 years ago, these accurate assignments clarify some controversial points about the actual stereochemistry for these alkaloids. This is of particular importance in the case of oblonginine, since this compound is currently under consideration for the treatment of aphasia arising from apoplexy; the present study defines a diastereoisomerically pure compound for pharmacological studies.

  19. A fast, accurate, and reliable reconstruction method of the lumbar spine vertebrae using positional MRI.

    PubMed

    Simons, Craig J; Cobb, Loren; Davidson, Bradley S

    2014-04-01

    In vivo measurement of lumbar spine configuration is useful for constructing quantitative biomechanical models. Positional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) accommodates a larger range of movement in most joints than conventional MRI and does not require a supine position. However, this is achieved at the expense of image resolution and contrast. As a result, quantitative research using positional MRI has required long reconstruction times and is sensitive to incorrectly identifying the vertebral boundary due to low contrast between bone and surrounding tissue in the images. We present a semi-automated method used to obtain digitized reconstructions of lumbar vertebrae in any posture of interest. This method combines a high-resolution reference scan with a low-resolution postural scan to provide a detailed and accurate representation of the vertebrae in the posture of interest. Compared to a criterion standard, translational reconstruction error ranged from 0.7 to 1.6 mm and rotational reconstruction error ranged from 0.3 to 2.6°. Intraclass correlation coefficients indicated high interrater reliability for measurements within the imaging plane (ICC 0.97-0.99). Computational efficiency indicates that this method may be used to compile data sets large enough to account for population variance, and potentially expand the use of positional MRI as a quantitative biomechanics research tool.

  20. A new sensor system for accurate and precise determination of sediment dynamics and position.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniatis, Georgios; Hoey, Trevor; Sventek, Joseph; Hodge, Rebecca

    2014-05-01

    Sediment transport processes control many significant geomorphological changes. Consequently, sediment transport dynamics are studied across a wide range of scales leading to application of a variety of conceptually different mathematical descriptions (models) and data acquisition techniques (sensing). For river sediment transport processes both Eulerian and Lagrangian formulations are used. Data are gathered using a very wide range of sensing techniques that are not always compatible with the conceptual formulation applied. We are concerned with small to medium sediment grain-scale motion in gravel-bed rivers, and other coarse-grained environments, and: a) are developing a customised environmental sensor capable of providing coherent data that reliably record the motion; and, b) provide a mathematical framework in which these data can be analysed and interpreted, this being compatible with current stochastic approaches to sediment transport theory. Here we present results from three different aspects of the above developmental process. Firstly, we present a requirement analysis for the sensor based on the state of the art of the existing technologies. We focus on the factors that enhance data coherence and representativeness, extending the common practice for optimization which is based exclusively on electronics/computing related criteria. This analysis leads to formalization of a method that permits accurate control on the physical properties of the sensor using contemporary rapid prototyping techniques [Maniatis et al. 2013]. Secondly the first results are presented from a series of entrainment experiments in a 5 x 0.8 m flume in which a prototype sensor was deployed to monitor entrainment dynamics under increasing flow conditions (0.037 m3.s-1). The sensor was enclosed in an idealized spherical case (111 mm diameter) and placed on a constructed bed of hemispheres of the same diameter. We measured 3-axial inertial acceleration (as a measure of flow stress

  1. Control circuitry using electronic emulation of a synchro signal for accurate control of position and rate of rotation for shafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The invention disclosed is a digital circuit which emulates a synchro signal in a synchro-resolver follower system for precise control of shaft position and rotation at very low rotational rates. The invention replaces the synchro and drive motor in a synchro-resolver follower system with a digital and analog synchro emulation circuit for generating the resolver control signal. The synchro emulation circuit includes amplitude modulation means to provide relatively high frequency resolver excitation signals for accurate resolver response even with very low shaft rotation rates.

  2. Control Circuitry Using Electronic Emulation of a Synchro Signal for Accurate Control of Position and Rate of Rotation for Shafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The invention herein disclosed is a digital circuit which emulates a synchro signal in a synchro-resolver follower system for precise control of shaft position and rotation at very low rotational rates. The subject invention replaces the synchro and drive motor in a synchroresolver follower system with a digital and analog synchro emulation circuit for generating the resolver control signal. The synchro emulation circuit includes amplitude modulation means to provide relatively high frequency resolver excitation signals for accurate resolver response even with very low shaft rotation rates.

  3. Patient-tailored plate for bone fixation and accurate 3D positioning in corrective osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Dobbe, J G G; Vroemen, J C; Strackee, S D; Streekstra, G J

    2013-02-01

    A bone fracture may lead to malunion of bone segments, which gives discomfort to the patient and may lead to chronic pain, reduced function and finally to early osteoarthritis. Corrective osteotomy is a treatment option to realign the bone segments. In this procedure, the surgeon tries to improve alignment by cutting the bone at, or near, the fracture location and fixates the bone segments in an improved position, using a plate and screws. Three-dimensional positioning is very complex and difficult to plan, perform and evaluate using standard 2D fluoroscopy imaging. This study introduces a new technique that uses preoperative 3D imaging to plan positioning and design a patient-tailored fixation plate that only fits in one way and realigns the bone segments as planned. The method is evaluated using artificial bones and renders realignment highly accurate and very reproducible (d(err) < 1.2 ± 0.8 mm and φ(err) < 1.8° ± 2.1°). Application of a patient-tailored plate is expected to be of great value for future corrective osteotomy surgeries.

  4. Measuring nonlinear oscillations using a very accurate and low-cost linear optical position transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donoso, Guillermo; Ladera, Celso L.

    2016-09-01

    An accurate linear optical displacement transducer of about 0.2 mm resolution over a range of ∼40 mm is presented. This device consists of a stack of thin cellulose acetate strips, each strip longitudinally slid ∼0.5 mm over the precedent one so that one end of the stack becomes a stepped wedge of constant step. A narrowed light beam from a white LED orthogonally incident crosses the wedge at a known point, the transmitted intensity being detected with a phototransistor whose emitter is connected to a diode. We present the interesting analytical proof that the voltage across the diode is linearly dependent upon the ordinate of the point where the light beam falls on the wedge, as well as the experimental validation of such a theoretical proof. Applications to nonlinear oscillations are then presented—including the interesting case of a body moving under dry friction, and the more advanced case of an oscillator in a quartic energy potential—whose time-varying positions were accurately measured with our transducer. Our sensing device can resolve the dynamics of an object attached to it with great accuracy and precision at a cost considerably less than that of a linear neutral density wedge. The technique used to assemble the wedge of acetate strips is described.

  5. Development of an accurate transmission line fault locator using the global positioning system satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Harry

    1994-01-01

    A highly accurate transmission line fault locator based on the traveling-wave principle was developed and successfully operated within B.C. Hydro. A transmission line fault produces a fast-risetime traveling wave at the fault point which propagates along the transmission line. This fault locator system consists of traveling wave detectors located at key substations which detect and time tag the leading edge of the fault-generated traveling wave as if passes through. A master station gathers the time-tagged information from the remote detectors and determines the location of the fault. Precise time is a key element to the success of this system. This fault locator system derives its timing from the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. System tests confirmed the accuracy of locating faults to within the design objective of +/-300 meters.

  6. A Haptic Feedback Scheme to Accurately Position a Virtual Wrist Prosthesis Using a Three-Node Tactor Array.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Andrew; Sup, Frank C

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel haptic feedback scheme, used for accurately positioning a 1DOF virtual wrist prosthesis through sensory substitution, is presented. The scheme employs a three-node tactor array and discretely and selectively modulates the stimulation frequency of each tactor to relay 11 discrete haptic stimuli to the user. Able-bodied participants were able to move the virtual wrist prosthesis via a surface electromyography based controller. The participants evaluated the feedback scheme without visual or audio feedback and relied solely on the haptic feedback alone to correctly position the hand. The scheme was evaluated through both normal (perpendicular) and shear (lateral) stimulations applied on the forearm. Normal stimulations were applied through a prototype device previously developed by the authors while shear stimulations were generated using an ubiquitous coin motor vibrotactor. Trials with no feedback served as a baseline to compare results within the study and to the literature. The results indicated that using normal and shear stimulations resulted in accurately positioning the virtual wrist, but were not significantly different. Using haptic feedback was substantially better than no feedback. The results found in this study are significant since the feedback scheme allows for using relatively few tactors to relay rich haptic information to the user and can be learned easily despite a relatively short amount of training. Additionally, the results are important for the haptic community since they contradict the common conception in the literature that normal stimulation is inferior to shear. From an ergonomic perspective normal stimulation has the potential to benefit upper limb amputees since it can operate at lower frequencies than shear-based vibrotactors while also generating less noise. Through further tuning of the novel haptic feedback scheme and normal stimulation device, a compact and comfortable sensory substitution device for upper

  7. High-accurate nonlocal timing and positioning using entangled photon pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia Gonzalez, Alejandra C.

    One of the most surprising consequences of quantum mechanics is the concept of entanglement. This concept has intrigued the scientific community since it was first proposed by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen in 1935 because of its connection to fundamental aspects regarding our conception of the universe. Nowadays, there are still open questions about the fundamental issues of quantum mechanics. Nevertheless, the unique characteristics of entanglement have been proposed for practical applications in the last years. Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion (SPDC) has been recognized as a convenient source of entangled photon pairs. SPDC is a nonlinear optical process in which a pump laser beam is shone into a nonlinear crystal and occasionally one pump photon is down-converted to a pair of lower frequency photons that are entangled. Two photons in an entangled state are characterized by a single two-photon effective wavefunction, or Biphoton. They cannot be considered as the simple juxtaposition of two individual systems. This is a consequence of the quantum correlations between the two photons and implies that a measurement in one of the subsystems affects the total state of the composite system and, therefore, affects the output of a measurement performed in the other photon. The purpose of this dissertation is to show the potential of entangled photon pairs for high-accurate timing and positioning measurements. The entangled nature of the two-photon states allows, in principle, precise space-time correlation measurements to the femtosecond level, providing the physical foundations for high-accurate nonlocal distant clock synchronization. In this dissertation, the proof-of-principle demonstration of a "one-way" distant clock synchronization protocol is presented. The novel method is based on the measurements of the second order correlation function of entangled photon pairs. An experimental study of the behavior of the Biphoton when it travels through a dispersive

  8. SU-E-J-134: An Augmented-Reality Optical Imaging System for Accurate Breast Positioning During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nazareth, D; Malhotra, H; French, S; Hoffmann, K; Merrow, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Breast radiotherapy, particularly electronic compensation, may involve large dose gradients and difficult patient positioning problems. We have developed a simple self-calibrating augmented-reality system, which assists in accurately and reproducibly positioning the patient, by displaying her live image from a single camera superimposed on the correct perspective projection of her 3D CT data. Our method requires only a standard digital camera capable of live-view mode, installed in the treatment suite at an approximately-known orientation and position (rotation R; translation T). Methods: A 10-sphere calibration jig was constructed and CT imaged to provide a 3D model. The (R,T) relating the camera to the CT coordinate system were determined by acquiring a photograph of the jig and optimizing an objective function, which compares the true image points to points calculated with a given candidate R and T geometry. Using this geometric information, 3D CT patient data, viewed from the camera's perspective, is plotted using a Matlab routine. This image data is superimposed onto the real-time patient image, acquired by the camera, and displayed using standard live-view software. This enables the therapists to view both the patient's current and desired positions, and guide the patient into assuming the correct position. The method was evaluated using an in-house developed bolus-like breast phantom, mounted on a supporting platform, which could be tilted at various angles to simulate treatment-like geometries. Results: Our system allowed breast phantom alignment, with an accuracy of about 0.5 cm and 1 ± 0.5 degree. Better resolution could be possible using a camera with higher-zoom capabilities. Conclusion: We have developed an augmented-reality system, which combines a perspective projection of a CT image with a patient's real-time optical image. This system has the potential to improve patient setup accuracy during breast radiotherapy, and could possibly be

  9. Relative Positioning of Ocean Bottom Benchmarks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    determination of the transponder array is discussed and recommendations are made for further improvement. The advantage of these methods is their...squares adjustment was used to analyze the data. Relative position determination of the transponder array is discussed and recommendations are made for...20 A. INTRODUCTION ..... ................. 20 B. THE VELOZITY OF SOUND IN IiE OCEAN ...... 20 C. HARdONIC MEAN SOUND VELOCITY ......... 22 D. ACOUSTIC

  10. Refueling machine with relative positioning capability

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, Roy Clifford; Jones, Cecil Roy

    1998-01-01

    A refueling machine having relative positioning capability for refueling a nuclear reactor. The refueling machine includes a pair of articulated arms mounted on a refueling bridge. Each arm supports a respective telescoping mast. Each telescoping mast is designed to flex laterally in response to application of a lateral thrust on the end of the mast. A pendant mounted on the end of the mast carries an air-actuated grapple, television cameras, ultrasonic transducers and waterjet thrusters. The ultrasonic transducers are used to detect the gross position of the grapple relative to the bail of a nuclear fuel assembly in the fuel core. The television cameras acquire an image of the bail which is compared to a pre-stored image in computer memory. The pendant can be rotated until the television image and the pre-stored image match within a predetermined tolerance. Similarly, the waterjet thrusters can be used to apply lateral thrust to the end of the flexible mast to place the grapple in a fine position relative to the bail as a function of the discrepancy between the television and pre-stored images.

  11. Refueling machine with relative positioning capability

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, R.C.; Jones, C.R.

    1998-12-15

    A refueling machine is disclosed having relative positioning capability for refueling a nuclear reactor. The refueling machine includes a pair of articulated arms mounted on a refueling bridge. Each arm supports a respective telescoping mast. Each telescoping mast is designed to flex laterally in response to application of a lateral thrust on the end of the mast. A pendant mounted on the end of the mast carries an air-actuated grapple, television cameras, ultrasonic transducers and waterjet thrusters. The ultrasonic transducers are used to detect the gross position of the grapple relative to the bail of a nuclear fuel assembly in the fuel core. The television cameras acquire an image of the bail which is compared to a pre-stored image in computer memory. The pendant can be rotated until the television image and the pre-stored image match within a predetermined tolerance. Similarly, the waterjet thrusters can be used to apply lateral thrust to the end of the flexible mast to place the grapple in a fine position relative to the bail as a function of the discrepancy between the television and pre-stored images. 11 figs.

  12. A machine learning approach to the accurate prediction of multi-leaf collimator positional errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Joel N. K.; Park, Jong Min; Park, So-Yeon; In Park, Jong; Choi, Yunseok; Ye, Sung-Joon

    2016-03-01

    Discrepancies between planned and delivered movements of multi-leaf collimators (MLCs) are an important source of errors in dose distributions during radiotherapy. In this work we used machine learning techniques to train models to predict these discrepancies, assessed the accuracy of the model predictions, and examined the impact these errors have on quality assurance (QA) procedures and dosimetry. Predictive leaf motion parameters for the models were calculated from the plan files, such as leaf position and velocity, whether the leaf was moving towards or away from the isocenter of the MLC, and many others. Differences in positions between synchronized DICOM-RT planning files and DynaLog files reported during QA delivery were used as a target response for training of the models. The final model is capable of predicting MLC positions during delivery to a high degree of accuracy. For moving MLC leaves, predicted positions were shown to be significantly closer to delivered positions than were planned positions. By incorporating predicted positions into dose calculations in the TPS, increases were shown in gamma passing rates against measured dose distributions recorded during QA delivery. For instance, head and neck plans with 1%/2 mm gamma criteria had an average increase in passing rate of 4.17% (SD  =  1.54%). This indicates that the inclusion of predictions during dose calculation leads to a more realistic representation of plan delivery. To assess impact on the patient, dose volumetric histograms (DVH) using delivered positions were calculated for comparison with planned and predicted DVHs. In all cases, predicted dose volumetric parameters were in closer agreement to the delivered parameters than were the planned parameters, particularly for organs at risk on the periphery of the treatment area. By incorporating the predicted positions into the TPS, the treatment planner is given a more realistic view of the dose distribution as it will truly be

  13. Use of optoelectronic tweezers in manufacturing—accurate solder bead positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuailong; Liu, Yongpeng; Juvert, Joan; Tian, Pengfei; Navarro, Jean-Claude; Cooper, Jonathan M.; Neale, Steven L.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we analyze the use of optoelectronic tweezers (OETs) to manipulate 45 μm diameter Sn62Pb36Ag2 solder beads with light-induced dielectrophoresis force and we demonstrate high positioning accuracy. It was found that the positional deviation of the solder beads increases with the increase of the trap size. To clarify the underlying mechanism, simulations based on the integration of the Maxwell stress tensor were used to study the force profiles of OET traps with different sizes. It was found that the solder beads felt a 0.1 nN static friction or stiction force due to electrical forces pulling them towards the surface and that this force is not dependent on the size of the trap. The stiction limits the positioning accuracy; however, we show that by choosing a trap that is just larger than the solder bead sub-micron positional accuracy can be achieved.

  14. Method for accurately positioning a device at a desired area of interest

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Gary D.; Houston, Jack E.; Gillen, Kenneth T.

    2000-01-01

    A method for positioning a first device utilizing a surface having a viewing translation stage, the surface being movable between a first position where the viewing stage is in operational alignment with a first device and a second position where the viewing stage is in operational alignment with a second device. The movable surface is placed in the first position and an image is produced with the first device of an identifiable characteristic of a calibration object on the viewing stage. The moveable surface is then placed in the second position and only the second device is moved until an image of the identifiable characteristic in the second device matches the image from the first device. The calibration object is then replaced on the stage of the surface with a test object, and the viewing translation stage is adjusted until the second device images the area of interest. The surface is then moved to the first position where the test object is scanned with the first device to image the area of interest. An alternative embodiment where the devices move is also disclosed.

  15. Accurate radio and optical positions for the radio star HD 36705 (AB Doradus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Graeme L.; Jauncey, David L.; Batty, Michael J.; Peters, W. L.; Gulkis, S.

    1988-01-01

    Arc-second position measurements of the active star HD 36705 (AB Dor) and of the variable radio source found nearby are presented. These measurements show that the radio source is clearly identified with HD 36705 and not with the nearby red-dwarf star Rst 137B.

  16. How accurate are X-rays to check NG tube positioning?

    PubMed

    Rollins, Hazel; Arnold-Jellis, Jacqui; Taylor, Andrew

    The position of a nasogastric tube is vitally important for patients' safety and wellbeing. X-rays are sometimes used to determine whether nasogastric tubes are correctly positioned, but how effective are they? To find out, we undertook an audit of data from the radiology information system, collating all reports that included the word "nasogastric" from 1 January 2010 until 15 May 2011. For each report the description of tube position was put in one of six categories from "fully compliant with NPSA [National Patient Safety Agency] requirements" to "image missing". In a second, smaller dataset (cases in which some anatomy was described), we investigated the position of the tube tip as classified using descriptions from radiology reports. None of the reports contained all of the information required to comply with NSPA's (2011) guidelines, but most nasogastric tubes (70%) were in the stomach. Twenty-one per cent were reported as being in the oesophagus; advice varied from advancing it further (if uncomplicated) to removing it (if coiled or looped). Four per cent of tubes were seen in the airways (lung or bronchus) with advice for immediate removal.

  17. Beam rider for an Articulated Robot Manipulator (ARM) accurate positioning of long flexible manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malachowski, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Laser beam positioning and beam rider modules were incorporated into the long hollow flexible segment of an articulated robot manipulator (ARM). Using a single laser beam, the system determined the position of the distal ARM endtip, with millimetric precision, in six degrees of freedom, at distances of up to 10 meters. Preliminary designs, using space rated technology for the critical systems, of a two segmented physical ARM, with a single and a dual degree of freedom articulation, were developed, prototyped, and tested. To control the positioning of the physical ARM, an indirect adaptive controller, which used the mismatch between the position of the laser beam under static and dynamic conditions, was devised. To predict the behavior of the system and test the concept, a computer simulation model was constructed. A hierarchical artificially intelligent real time ADA operating system program structure was created. The software was designed for implementation on a dedicated VME bus based Intel 80386 administered parallel processing multi-tasking computer system.

  18. Muscle spindle responses in man to changes in load during accurate position maintenance.

    PubMed

    Burke, D; Hagbarth, K E; Löfstedt, L

    1978-03-01

    1. Single unit and multi-unit recordings of muscle spindle activity were made from the peroneal nerves of human subjects. While the subjects attempted to maintain a constant ankle joint position, an external load on the receptor-bearing muscle was altered unexpectedly. 2. The spindle discharge produced by a sudden increase in load was of similar strength when the receptor-bearing muscle was relaxed as when it was contracting at the moment of the impact. A motor response at a latency consistent with a spinal reflex mechanism occurred only when the muscle was contracting. It is concluded that the potentiation of the reflex mechanism during contraction was not due primarily to a fusimotor action. 3. Sudden decrease in load produced a pause in spindle discharge followed by a pause in on-going e.m.g. activity at a latency consistent with spinal reflex mechanisms. 4. Slow changes in load produced parallel changes in e.m.g. and spindle discharge. It is suggested that the voluntary effort involved in maintaining joint position in the face of gradually changing loads results in corticospinal activity adjusted in strength to the opposing torque and operating on alpha and gamma motoneurones in parallel.

  19. Accurate positioning for head and neck cancer patients using 2D and 3D image guidance

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyejoo; Lovelock, Dale M.; Yorke, Ellen D.; Kriminiski, Sergey; Lee, Nancy; Amols, Howard I.

    2011-01-01

    Our goal is to determine an optimized image-guided setup by comparing setup errors determined by two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) image guidance for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients immobilized by customized thermoplastic masks. Nine patients received weekly imaging sessions, for a total of 54, throughout treatment. Patients were first set up by matching lasers to surface marks (initial) and then translationally corrected using manual registration of orthogonal kilovoltage (kV) radiographs with DRRs (2D-2D) on bony anatomy. A kV cone beam CT (kVCBCT) was acquired and manually registered to the simulation CT using only translations (3D-3D) on the same bony anatomy to determine further translational corrections. After treatment, a second set of kVCBCT was acquired to assess intrafractional motion. Averaged over all sessions, 2D-2D registration led to translational corrections from initial setup of 3.5 ± 2.2 (range 0–8) mm. The addition of 3D-3D registration resulted in only small incremental adjustment (0.8 ± 1.5 mm). We retrospectively calculated patient setup rotation errors using an automatic rigid-body algorithm with 6 degrees of freedom (DoF) on regions of interest (ROI) of in-field bony anatomy (mainly the C2 vertebral body). Small rotations were determined for most of the imaging sessions; however, occasionally rotations > 3° were observed. The calculated intrafractional motion with automatic registration was < 3.5 mm for eight patients, and < 2° for all patients. We conclude that daily manual 2D-2D registration on radiographs reduces positioning errors for mask-immobilized HNC patients in most cases, and is easily implemented. 3D-3D registration adds little improvement over 2D-2D registration without correcting rotational errors. We also conclude that thermoplastic masks are effective for patient immobilization. PMID:21330971

  20. “Stepping Up” Activity Poststroke: Ankle-Positioned Accelerometer Can Accurately Record Steps During Slow Walking

    PubMed Central

    Klassen, Tara D.; Simpson, Lisa A.; Lim, Shannon B.; Louie, Dennis R.; Parappilly, Beena; Sakakibara, Brodie M.; Zbogar, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Background As physical activity in people poststroke is low, devices that monitor and provide feedback of walking activity provide motivation to engage in exercise and may assist rehabilitation professionals in auditing walking activity. However, most feedback devices are not accurate at slow walking speeds. Objective This study assessed the accuracy of one accelerometer to measure walking steps of community-dwelling individuals poststroke. Design This was a cross-sectional study. Methods Two accelerometers were positioned on the nonparetic waist and ankle of participants (N=43), and walking steps from these devices were recorded at 7 speeds (0.3–0.9 m/s) and compared with video recordings (gold standard). Results When positioned at the waist, the accelerometer had more than 10% error at all speeds, except 0.8 and 0.9 m/s, and numerous participants recorded zero steps at 0.3 to 0.5 m/s. The device had 10% or less error when positioned at the ankle for all speeds between 0.4 and 0.9 m/s. Limitations Some participants were unable to complete the faster walking speeds due to their walking impairments and inability to maintain the requested walking speed. Conclusions Although not recommended by the manufacturer, positioning the accelerometer at the ankle (compared with the waist) may fill a long-standing need for a readily available device that provides accurate feedback for the altered and slow walking patterns that occur with stroke. PMID:26251478

  1. Physical activity intensity can be accurately monitored by smartphone global positioning system 'app'.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Brett Ashley; Bruce, Lyndell; Benson, Amanda Clare

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring physical activity is important to better individualise health and fitness benefits. This study assessed the concurrent validity of a smartphone global positioning system (GPS) 'app' and a sport-specific GPS device with a similar sampling rate, to measure physical activity components of speed and distance, compared to a higher sampling sport-specific GPS device. Thirty-eight (21 female, 17 male) participants, mean age of 24.68, s = 6.46 years, completed two 2.400 km trials around an all-weather athletics track wearing GPSports Pro™ (PRO), GPSports WiSpi™ (WISPI) and an iPhone™ with a Motion X GPS™ 'app' (MOTIONX). Statistical agreement, assessed using t-tests and Bland-Altman plots, indicated an (mean; 95% LOA) underestimation of 2% for average speed (0.126 km·h(-1); -0.389 to 0.642; p < .001), 1.7% for maximal speed (0.442 km·h(-1); -2.676 to 3.561; p = .018) and 1.9% for distance (0.045 km; -0.140 to 0.232; p < .001) by MOTIONX compared to that measured by PRO. In contrast, compared to PRO, WISPI overestimated average speed (0.232 km·h(-1); -0.376 to 0.088; p < .001) and distance (0.083 km; -0.129 to -0.038; p < .001) by 3.5% whilst underestimating maximal speed by 2.5% (0.474 km·h(-1); -1.152 to 2.099; p < .001). Despite the statistically significant difference, the MOTIONX measures intensity of physical activity, with a similar error as WISPI, to an acceptable level for population-based monitoring in unimpeded open-air environments. This presents a low-cost, minimal burden opportunity to remotely monitor physical activity participation to improve the prescription of exercise as medicine.

  2. Kashima RAy-Tracing Service (KARATS) for high accurate GNSS positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, R.; Hobiger, T.; Hasegawa, S.; Tsutsumi, M.; Koyama, Y.; Kondo, T.

    2010-12-01

    Radio signal delays associated with the neutral atmosphere are one of the major error sources of space geodesy such as GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO, VLBI, In-SAR measurements. We have developed a state-of-art tool to estimate the atmospheric path delays by ray-tracing through JMA meso-scale analysis (MANAL data) data. The tools, which we have named 'KAshima RAytracing Tools (KARAT)', are capable of calculating total slant delays and ray-bending angles considering real atmospheric phenomena. Numerical weather models such as MANAL data have undergone a significant improvement of accuracy and spatial resolution, which makes it feasible to utilize them for the correction of atmosphere excess path delays. In the previous studies for evaluating KARAT performance, the KARAT solutions are slightly better than the solutions using VMF1 and GMF with linear gradient model for horizontal and height positions. Based on these results we have started the web-based online service, 'KAshima RAytracing Service (KARATS)' for providing the atmospheric delay correction of RINEX files on Jan 27th, 2010. The KARATS receives user's RINEX data via a proper web site (http://vps.nict.go.jp/karats/index.html) and processes user's data files using KARAT for reducing atmospheric slant delays. The reduced RINEX files are archived in the specific directory for each user on the KARATS server. Once the processing is finished the information of data archive is sent privately via email to each user. If user want to process a large amount of data files, user can prepare own server which archives them. The KARATS can get these files from the user's server using GNU ¥emph{wget} and performs ray-traced corrections. We will present a brief status of the KARATS and summarize first experiences gained after this service went operational in December 2009. In addition, we will also demonstrate the newest KARAT performance based on the 5km MANAL data which has been operational from April 7th, 2009 and an outlook on

  3. Finding accurate frontiers: A knowledge-intensive approach to relational learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pazzani, Michael; Brunk, Clifford

    1994-01-01

    An approach to analytic learning is described that searches for accurate entailments of a Horn Clause domain theory. A hill-climbing search, guided by an information based evaluation function, is performed by applying a set of operators that derive frontiers from domain theories. The analytic learning system is one component of a multi-strategy relational learning system. We compare the accuracy of concepts learned with this analytic strategy to concepts learned with an analytic strategy that operationalizes the domain theory.

  4. DSS1/DSS2 astrometry for 1101 First Byurakan Survey blue stellar objects: Accurate positions and other results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2004-10-01

    Accurate measurements of the positions of 1101 First Byurakan Survey (FBS) blue stellar objects (the Second part of the FBS) have been carried out on the DSS1 and DSS2 (red and blue images). To establish the accuracy of the DSS1 and DSS2, measurements have been made for 153 AGN for which absolute VLBI coordinates have been published. The rms errors are: 0.45 arcsec for DSS1, 0.33 arcsec for DSS2 red, and 0.59 arcsec for DSS2 blue in each coordinate, the corresponding total positional errors being 0.64 arcsec, 0.46 arcsec, and 0.83 arcsec, respectively. The highest accuracy (0.42 arcsec) is obtained by weighted averaging of the DSS1 and DSS2 red positions. It is shown that by using all three DSS images accidental errors can be significantly reduced. The comparison of DSS2 and DSS1 images made it possible to reveal positional differences and proper motions for 78 objects (for 62 of these for the first time), including new high-probability candidate white dwarfs, and to find objects showing strong variability, i.e. high-probability candidate cataclysmic variables. Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/426/367

  5. Reconstruction of high resolution MLC leaf positions using a low resolution detector for accurate 3D dose reconstruction in IMRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, R.; Godart, J.; Wauben, D. J. L.; Langendijk, J. A.; van't Veld, A. A.; Korevaar, E. W.

    2016-12-01

    In pre-treatment dose verification, low resolution detector systems are unable to identify shifts of individual leafs of high resolution multi leaf collimator (MLC) systems from detected changes in the dose deposition. The goal of this study was to introduce an alternative approach (the shutter technique) combined with a previous described iterative reconstruction method to accurately reconstruct high resolution MLC leaf positions based on low resolution measurements. For the shutter technique, two additional radiotherapy treatment plans (RT-plans) were generated in addition to the original RT-plan; one with even MLC leafs closed for reconstructing uneven leaf positions and one with uneven MLC leafs closed for reconstructing even leaf positions. Reconstructed leaf positions were then implemented in the original RT-plan for 3D dose reconstruction. The shutter technique was evaluated for a 6 MV Elekta SLi linac with 5 mm MLC leafs (Agility™) in combination with the MatriXX Evolution detector with detector spacing of 7.62 mm. Dose reconstruction was performed with the COMPASS system (v2.0). The measurement setup allowed one row of ionization chambers to be affected by two adjacent leaf pairs. Measurements were obtained for various field sizes with MLC leaf position errors ranging from 1.0 mm to 10.0 mm. Furthermore, one clinical head and neck IMRT treatment beam with MLC introduced leaf position errors of 5.0 mm was evaluated to illustrate the impact of the shutter technique on 3D dose reconstruction. Without the shutter technique, MLC leaf position reconstruction showed reconstruction errors up to 6.0 mm. Introduction of the shutter technique allowed MLC leaf position reconstruction for the majority of leafs with sub-millimeter accuracy resulting in a reduction of dose reconstruction errors. The shutter technique in combination with the iterative reconstruction method allows high resolution MLC leaf position reconstruction using low resolution

  6. READSCAN: a fast and scalable pathogen discovery program with accurate genome relative abundance estimation

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Mamoon; Pain, Arnab

    2013-01-01

    Summary: READSCAN is a highly scalable parallel program to identify non-host sequences (of potential pathogen origin) and estimate their genome relative abundance in high-throughput sequence datasets. READSCAN accurately classified human and viral sequences on a 20.1 million reads simulated dataset in <27 min using a small Beowulf compute cluster with 16 nodes (Supplementary Material). Availability: http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/readscan Contact: arnab.pain@kaust.edu.sa or raeece.naeem@gmail.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23193222

  7. Positive phase space distributions and uncertainty relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruger, Jan

    1993-01-01

    In contrast to a widespread belief, Wigner's theorem allows the construction of true joint probabilities in phase space for distributions describing the object system as well as for distributions depending on the measurement apparatus. The fundamental role of Heisenberg's uncertainty relations in Schroedinger form (including correlations) is pointed out for these two possible interpretations of joint probability distributions. Hence, in order that a multivariate normal probability distribution in phase space may correspond to a Wigner distribution of a pure or a mixed state, it is necessary and sufficient that Heisenberg's uncertainty relation in Schroedinger form should be satisfied.

  8. Ordinal Position Research Related to Vocational Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandy, Gerald L.

    1974-01-01

    Birth order studies directly related to vocational interest were reviewed to discern support for certain theoretical susumptions: firstborns are more directing, controlling, and organizing than later borns and later borns are more sociable, empathic, and sympathetic than firstborns. The research was inconsistent, contradictory, and speculative.…

  9. 4D laser camera for accurate patient positioning, collision avoidance, image fusion and adaptive approaches during diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

    PubMed

    Brahme, Anders; Nyman, Peter; Skatt, Björn

    2008-05-01

    A four-dimensional (4D) laser camera (LC) has been developed for accurate patient imaging in diagnostic and therapeutic radiology. A complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera images the intersection of a scanned fan shaped laser beam with the surface of the patient and allows real time recording of movements in a three-dimensional (3D) or four-dimensional (4D) format (3D +time). The LC system was first designed as an accurate patient setup tool during diagnostic and therapeutic applications but was found to be of much wider applicability as a general 4D photon "tag" for the surface of the patient in different clinical procedures. It is presently used as a 3D or 4D optical benchmark or tag for accurate delineation of the patient surface as demonstrated for patient auto setup, breathing and heart motion detection. Furthermore, its future potential applications in gating, adaptive therapy, 3D or 4D image fusion between most imaging modalities and image processing are discussed. It is shown that the LC system has a geometrical resolution of about 0, 1 mm and that the rigid body repositioning accuracy is about 0, 5 mm below 20 mm displacements, 1 mm below 40 mm and better than 2 mm at 70 mm. This indicates a slight need for repeated repositioning when the initial error is larger than about 50 mm. The positioning accuracy with standard patient setup procedures for prostate cancer at Karolinska was found to be about 5-6 mm when independently measured using the LC system. The system was found valuable for positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) in vivo tumor and dose delivery imaging where it potentially may allow effective correction for breathing artifacts in 4D PET-CT and image fusion with lymph node atlases for accurate target volume definition in oncology. With a LC system in all imaging and radiation therapy rooms, auto setup during repeated diagnostic and therapeutic procedures may save around 5 min per session, increase accuracy and allow

  10. Accurate Measurements of Aerosol Hygroscopic Growth over a Wide Range in Relative Humidity.

    PubMed

    Rovelli, Grazia; Miles, Rachael E H; Reid, Jonathan P; Clegg, Simon L

    2016-06-30

    Using a comparative evaporation kinetics approach, we describe a new and accurate method for determining the equilibrium hygroscopic growth of aerosol droplets. The time-evolving size of an aqueous droplet, as it evaporates to a steady size and composition that is in equilibrium with the gas phase relative humidity, is used to determine the time-dependent mass flux of water, yielding information on the vapor pressure of water above the droplet surface at every instant in time. Accurate characterization of the gas phase relative humidity is provided from a control measurement of the evaporation profile of a droplet of know equilibrium properties, either a pure water droplet or a sodium chloride droplet. In combination, and by comparison with simulations that account for both the heat and mass transport governing the droplet evaporation kinetics, these measurements allow accurate retrieval of the equilibrium properties of the solution droplet (i.e., the variations with water activity in the mass fraction of solute, diameter growth factor, osmotic coefficient or number of water molecules per solute molecule). Hygroscopicity measurements can be made over a wide range in water activity (from >0.99 to, in principle, <0.05) on time scales of <10 s for droplets containing involatile or volatile solutes. The approach is benchmarked for binary and ternary inorganic solution aerosols with typical uncertainties in water activity of <±0.2% at water activities >0.9 and ∼±1% below 80% RH, and maximum uncertainties in diameter growth factor of ±0.7%. For all of the inorganic systems examined, the time-dependent data are consistent with large values of the mass accommodation (or evaporation) coefficient (>0.1).

  11. Computing Relative Joint Positions of Robot Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.

    1986-01-01

    Vector-algebra method developed for extracting Denavit-Hartenberg parameters for any assembled robot arm. Method for extracting relative joint geometry of robot arms useful to researchers who need data for existing robot arms for either validation of mathematical models or for studies involving actual control of these devices. Method, does not require robot arm to be disassembled, also useful in recalibration of misalined or bent robot arm and becomes useful industrial procedure. Merit of method is errors not propagated.

  12. LGBTQ relationally based positive psychology: An inclusive and systemic framework.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Daniela G; Bobele, Monte; Coppock, Jacqueline; Peña, Ezequiel

    2015-05-01

    Positive psychologists have contributed to our understandings of how positive emotions and flexible cognition enhance resiliency. However, positive psychologists' research has been slow to address the relational resources and interactions that help nonheterosexual families overcome adversity. Addressing overlooked lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ) and systemic factors in positive psychology, this article draws on family resilience literature and LGBTQ literature to theorize a systemic positive psychology framework for working with nonheterosexual families. We developed the LGBTQ relationally based positive psychology framework that integrates positive psychology's strengths-based perspective with the systemic orientation of Walsh's (1996) family resilience framework along with the cultural considerations proposed by LGBTQ family literature. We theorize that the LGBTQ relationally based positive psychology framework takes into consideration the sociopolitical adversities impacting nonheterosexual families and sensitizes positive psychologists, including those working in organized care settings, to the systemic interactions of same-sex loving relationships.

  13. Accurate relative location estimates for the North Korean nuclear tests using empirical slowness corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, S. J.; Pabian, F.; Näsholm, S. P.; Kværna, T.; Mykkeltveit, S.

    2017-01-01

    velocity gradients reduce the residuals, the relative location uncertainties and the sensitivity to the combination of stations used. The traveltime gradients appear to be overestimated for the regional phases, and teleseismic relative location estimates are likely to be more accurate despite an apparent lower precision. Calibrations for regional phases are essential given that smaller magnitude events are likely not to be recorded teleseismically. We discuss the implications for the absolute event locations. Placing the 2006 event under a local maximum of overburden at 41.293°N, 129.105°E would imply a location of 41.299°N, 129.075°E for the January 2016 event, providing almost optimal overburden for the later four events.

  14. Accurate Relative Location Estimates for the North Korean Nuclear Tests Using Empirical Slowness Corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, S. J.; Pabian, F.; Näsholm, S. P.; Kværna', T.; Mykkeltveit, S.

    2016-10-01

    modified velocity gradients reduce the residuals, the relative location uncertainties, and the sensitivity to the combination of stations used. The traveltime gradients appear to be overestimated for the regional phases, and teleseismic relative location estimates are likely to be more accurate despite an apparent lower precision. Calibrations for regional phases are essential given that smaller magnitude events are likely not to be recorded teleseismically. We discuss the implications for the absolute event locations. Placing the 2006 event under a local maximum of overburden at 41.293°N, 129.105°E would imply a location of 41.299°N, 129.075°E for the January 2016 event, providing almost optimal overburden for the later four events.

  15. An accurate position for the black hole candidate XTE J1752-223: re-interpretation of the VLBI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Jonker, P. G.; Ratti, E. M.; Torres, M. A. P.; Brocksopp, C.; Yang, J.; Morrell, N. I.

    2011-07-01

    Using high-precision astrometric optical observations from the Walter Baade Magellan Telescope in conjunction with high-resolution very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) radio imaging with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), we have located the core of the X-ray binary system XTE J1752-223. Compact radio emission from the core was detected following the state transition from the soft to the hard X-ray state. Its position to the south-east of all previously detected jet components mandated a re-analysis of the existing VLBI data. Our analysis suggests that the outburst comprised at least two ejection events prior to 2010 February 26. No radio-emitting components were detected to the south-east of the core at any epoch, suggesting that the receding jets were Doppler-deboosted below our sensitivity limit. From the ratio of the brightness of the detected components to the measured upper limits for the receding ejecta, we constrain the jet speed β > 0.66 and the inclination angle to the line of sight θ < 49°. Assuming that the initial ejection event occurred at the transition from the hard intermediate state to the soft intermediate state, an initial period of ballistic motion followed by a Sedov phase (i.e. self-similar adiabatic expansion) appears to fit the motion of the ejecta better than a uniform deceleration model. The accurate core location can provide a long time baseline for a future proper motion determination should the system show a second outburst, providing insights into the formation mechanism of the compact object.

  16. Fast and Accurate Prediction of Numerical Relativity Waveforms from Binary Black Hole Coalescences Using Surrogate Models.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Jonathan; Field, Scott E; Galley, Chad R; Szilágyi, Béla; Scheel, Mark A; Tiglio, Manuel; Hemberger, Daniel A

    2015-09-18

    Simulating a binary black hole coalescence by solving Einstein's equations is computationally expensive, requiring days to months of supercomputing time. Using reduced order modeling techniques, we construct an accurate surrogate model, which is evaluated in a millisecond to a second, for numerical relativity (NR) waveforms from nonspinning binary black hole coalescences with mass ratios in [1, 10] and durations corresponding to about 15 orbits before merger. We assess the model's uncertainty and show that our modeling strategy predicts NR waveforms not used for the surrogate's training with errors nearly as small as the numerical error of the NR code. Our model includes all spherical-harmonic _{-2}Y_{ℓm} waveform modes resolved by the NR code up to ℓ=8. We compare our surrogate model to effective one body waveforms from 50M_{⊙} to 300M_{⊙} for advanced LIGO detectors and find that the surrogate is always more faithful (by at least an order of magnitude in most cases).

  17. Huntingtin-interacting protein 1-related is required for accurate congression and segregation of chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun Joo

    2010-12-01

    Huntingtin-interacting protein 1-related (HIP1r) is known to function in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, which occurs continuously in non-dividing cells. This study reports a new function for HIP1r in mitosis. Green fluorescent protein-fused HIP1r localizes to the mitotic spindles. Depletion of HIP1r by RNA interference induces misalignment of chromosomes and prolonged mitosis, which is associated with decreased proliferation of HIP1r-deficeint cells. Chromosome misalignment leads to missegregation and ultimately production of multinucleated cells. Depletion of HIP1r causes persistent activation of the spindle checkpoint in misaligned chromosomes. These findings suggest that HIP1r plays an important role in regulating the attachment of spindle microtubules to chromosomes during mitosis, an event that is required for accurate congression and segregation of chromosomes. This finding may provide new insights that improve the understanding of various human diseases involving HIP1r as well as its fusion genes.

  18. Raoult’s law revisited: accurately predicting equilibrium relative humidity points for humidity control experiments

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    The humidity surrounding a sample is an important variable in scientific experiments. Biological samples in particular require not just a humid atmosphere but often a relative humidity (RH) that is in equilibrium with a stabilizing solution required to maintain the sample in the same state during measurements. The controlled dehydration of macromolecular crystals can lead to significant increases in crystal order, leading to higher diffraction quality. Devices that can accurately control the humidity surrounding crystals while monitoring diffraction have led to this technique being increasingly adopted, as the experiments become easier and more reproducible. Matching the RH to the mother liquor is the first step in allowing the stable mounting of a crystal. In previous work [Wheeler, Russi, Bowler & Bowler (2012). Acta Cryst. F68, 111–114], the equilibrium RHs were measured for a range of concentrations of the most commonly used precipitants in macromolecular crystallography and it was shown how these related to Raoult’s law for the equilibrium vapour pressure of water above a solution. However, a discrepancy between the measured values and those predicted by theory could not be explained. Here, a more precise humidity control device has been used to determine equilibrium RH points. The new results are in agreement with Raoult’s law. A simple argument in statistical mechanics is also presented, demonstrating that the equilibrium vapour pressure of a solvent is proportional to its mole fraction in an ideal solution: Raoult’s law. The same argument can be extended to the case where the solvent and solute molecules are of different sizes, as is the case with polymers. The results provide a framework for the correct maintenance of the RH surrounding a sample. PMID:28381983

  19. Raoult's law revisited: accurately predicting equilibrium relative humidity points for humidity control experiments.

    PubMed

    Bowler, Michael G; Bowler, David R; Bowler, Matthew W

    2017-04-01

    The humidity surrounding a sample is an important variable in scientific experiments. Biological samples in particular require not just a humid atmosphere but often a relative humidity (RH) that is in equilibrium with a stabilizing solution required to maintain the sample in the same state during measurements. The controlled dehydration of macromolecular crystals can lead to significant increases in crystal order, leading to higher diffraction quality. Devices that can accurately control the humidity surrounding crystals while monitoring diffraction have led to this technique being increasingly adopted, as the experiments become easier and more reproducible. Matching the RH to the mother liquor is the first step in allowing the stable mounting of a crystal. In previous work [Wheeler, Russi, Bowler & Bowler (2012). Acta Cryst. F68, 111-114], the equilibrium RHs were measured for a range of concentrations of the most commonly used precipitants in macromolecular crystallography and it was shown how these related to Raoult's law for the equilibrium vapour pressure of water above a solution. However, a discrepancy between the measured values and those predicted by theory could not be explained. Here, a more precise humidity control device has been used to determine equilibrium RH points. The new results are in agreement with Raoult's law. A simple argument in statistical mechanics is also presented, demonstrating that the equilibrium vapour pressure of a solvent is proportional to its mole fraction in an ideal solution: Raoult's law. The same argument can be extended to the case where the solvent and solute molecules are of different sizes, as is the case with polymers. The results provide a framework for the correct maintenance of the RH surrounding a sample.

  20. Assessment of preschoolers’ positive empathy: concurrent and longitudinal relations with positive emotion, social competence, and sympathy

    PubMed Central

    Sallquist, Julie; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Gaertner, Bridget M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a new measure of children’s dispositional positive empathy (i.e., reactions to others’ positive emotions) and its concurrent and longitudinal relations with positive emotion, social competence, and empathy/sympathy with negative emotions. At Time 1, 192 3.5-year-olds (88 girls) participated; at Time 2, 1 year later, 168 4.5-year-olds (79 girls) participated. Children’s positive empathy was reported by mothers and observed in the laboratory at Time 2. Additionally, mothers, fathers, and non-parental caregivers completed questionnaires at Time 1 and Time 2 regarding children’s positive emotion, empathy/sympathy, and social competence. Children’s positive emotion was observed at both assessments. There was evidence of reliability of the new reported measure of positive empathy. Additionally, there were numerous positive relations between positive empathy and social competence and between positive empathy and empathy/sympathy with negative emotions. This study provides unique insight into children’s positive empathy and relations to socio-emotional functioning. PMID:20011674

  1. Positive Community Relations: The Keystone to the CEMP

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, W.T.; Tappen, J.; Karr, L.

    2006-07-01

    The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP), currently conducted by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration, is designed to monitor airborne radiological releases to the offsite environment from activities on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and to disseminate information. A key aspect of this program is the involvement of residents from local communities around the NTS in the management and operation of the program. After the March, 1979 accident at Three Mile Island (TMI), the DOE initiated the Citizens' Radiation Monitoring Program (CRMP) in order to provide the local residents with accurate information on the radiation health risks, and to rebuild trust and credibility. As a result, citizens around TMI had more confidence in the data because it was collected by community residents. Because of the positive results of the CRMP, a similar program was instituted in the communities around the NTS, where the U.S. was conducting its Nuclear Weapons Testing Program. Although a well-established monitoring program was in place, it was argued that the implementation of a similar community monitoring program would create monitoring stations located in highly visible locations where residents would be aware of their presence, and have access to the radiological data and the station managers. As a result, in 1981, the Community Monitoring Program, a cooperative project of the DOE, DRI, and EPA, consisting of 15 monitoring stations located in California, Nevada, and Utah was initiated. In 1999, technical administration of the CEMP was transitioned from EPA to DRI and the stations were upgraded to include a full suite of meteorological instrumentation in addition to radiation monitoring sensors, state-of-the-art electronic data collectors, and communications hardware enabling updates several times daily to a publicly-accessible web page. The CEMP has

  2. Paths to Upper Level Positions in Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation for a career in the field of public relations (PR) is based on a set of unique core competencies typically found in liberal arts. Though PR professionals rarely gain business degrees, they acquire knowledge, skills, perspectives, and strategies well-suited to executive-level positions in business. Additionally, managerial positions in…

  3. Interviewing for Communications-Related Positions in the Corporate Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taugher, C. David

    Guidelines and suggestions for obtaining a professional position in the corporate community are presented. Although the focus is on communications-related positions, the suggestions are general enough to be useful to anyone seeking a corporate job. The paper begins by discussing basic philosophies and realities of the corporate community with an…

  4. 4. VENTILATION FAN SHOWING RELATIVE POSITION IN THE AIR TUNNEL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VENTILATION FAN SHOWING RELATIVE POSITION IN THE AIR TUNNEL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Ozark Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  5. Letter Position Information and Printed Word Perception: The Relative-Position Priming Constraint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grainger, Jonathan; Granier, Jean-Pierre; Farioli, Fernand; Van Assche, Eva; van Heuven, Walter J. B.

    2006-01-01

    Six experiments apply the masked priming paradigm to investigate how letter position information is computed during printed word perception. Primes formed by a subset of the target's letters facilitated target recognition as long as the relative position of letters was respected across prime and target (e.g., "arict" vs. "acirt" as primes for the…

  6. A Review of Wearable Technologies for Elderly Care that Can Accurately Track Indoor Position, Recognize Physical Activities and Monitor Vital Signs in Real Time

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhihua; Yang, Zhaochu; Dong, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Rapid growth of the aged population has caused an immense increase in the demand for healthcare services. Generally, the elderly are more prone to health problems compared to other age groups. With effective monitoring and alarm systems, the adverse effects of unpredictable events such as sudden illnesses, falls, and so on can be ameliorated to some extent. Recently, advances in wearable and sensor technologies have improved the prospects of these service systems for assisting elderly people. In this article, we review state-of-the-art wearable technologies that can be used for elderly care. These technologies are categorized into three types: indoor positioning, activity recognition and real time vital sign monitoring. Positioning is the process of accurate localization and is particularly important for elderly people so that they can be found in a timely manner. Activity recognition not only helps ensure that sudden events (e.g., falls) will raise alarms but also functions as a feasible way to guide people’s activities so that they avoid dangerous behaviors. Since most elderly people suffer from age-related problems, some vital signs that can be monitored comfortably and continuously via existing techniques are also summarized. Finally, we discussed a series of considerations and future trends with regard to the construction of “smart clothing” system. PMID:28208620

  7. A Review of Wearable Technologies for Elderly Care that Can Accurately Track Indoor Position, Recognize Physical Activities and Monitor Vital Signs in Real Time.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihua; Yang, Zhaochu; Dong, Tao

    2017-02-10

    Rapid growth of the aged population has caused an immense increase in the demand for healthcare services. Generally, the elderly are more prone to health problems compared to other age groups. With effective monitoring and alarm systems, the adverse effects of unpredictable events such as sudden illnesses, falls, and so on can be ameliorated to some extent. Recently, advances in wearable and sensor technologies have improved the prospects of these service systems for assisting elderly people. In this article, we review state-of-the-art wearable technologies that can be used for elderly care. These technologies are categorized into three types: indoor positioning, activity recognition and real time vital sign monitoring. Positioning is the process of accurate localization and is particularly important for elderly people so that they can be found in a timely manner. Activity recognition not only helps ensure that sudden events (e.g., falls) will raise alarms but also functions as a feasible way to guide people's activities so that they avoid dangerous behaviors. Since most elderly people suffer from age-related problems, some vital signs that can be monitored comfortably and continuously via existing techniques are also summarized. Finally, we discussed a series of considerations and future trends with regard to the construction of "smart clothing" system.

  8. Positive affect and psychosocial processes related to health.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, Andrew; O'Donnell, Katie; Marmot, Michael; Wardle, Jane

    2008-05-01

    Positive affect is associated with longevity and favourable physiological function. We tested the hypothesis that positive affect is related to health-protective psychosocial characteristics independently of negative affect and socio-economic status. Both positive and negative affect were measured by aggregating momentary samples collected repeatedly over 1 day, and health-related psychosocial factors were assessed by questionnaire in a sample of 716 men and women aged 58-72 years. Positive affect was associated with greater social connectedness, emotional and practical support, optimism and adaptive coping responses, and lower depression, independently of age, gender, household income, paid employment, smoking status, and negative affect. Negative affect was independently associated with negative relationships, greater exposure to chronic stress, depressed mood, pessimism, and avoidant coping. Positive affect may be beneficial for health outcomes in part because it is a component of a profile of protective psychosocial characteristics.

  9. Clarifying the Relation Between Extraversion and Positive Affect.

    PubMed

    Smillie, Luke D; DeYoung, Colin G; Hall, Phillip J

    2015-10-01

    This article clarifies two sources of ambiguity surrounding the relation between extraversion and positive affect. First, positive affect is defined differently across major models of the structure of affect. Second, no previous research has examined potentially diverging associations of lower-order aspects of extraversion (i.e., assertiveness and enthusiasm) with positive affect. Australian (Study 1: N = 437, 78% female, Mage  = 20.41) and American (Study 2: N = 262, 39% female, Mage  = 33.86) participants completed multiple measures of extraversion and positive affect. Correlations were employed to examine relations among these measures. In both studies, extraversion was most clearly associated with positive affect as conceptualized within a major factor model of affect-specifically, as positive activation (Watson & Tellegen, 1985)-rather than the valence-based conceptualization of positive affect provided by a circumplex model of affect (Russell, 1980). This was also the case for the assertiveness and enthusiasm aspects of extraversion. Our findings clarify the nature of the positive affective component of extraversion, which is best described in terms of both positive valence and high activation.

  10. Entropic uncertainty relations in multidimensional position and momentum spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Yichen

    2011-05-15

    Commutator-based entropic uncertainty relations in multidimensional position and momentum spaces are derived, twofold generalizing previous entropic uncertainty relations for one-mode states. They provide optimal lower bounds and imply the multidimensional variance-based uncertainty principle. The article concludes with an open conjecture.

  11. Location of long-period events below Kilauea Volcano using seismic amplitudes and accurate relative relocation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglia, J.; Got, J.-L.; Okubo, P.

    2003-01-01

    We present methods for improving the location of long-period (LP) events, deep and shallow, recorded below Kilauea Volcano by the permanent seismic network. LP events might be of particular interest to understanding eruptive processes as their source mechanism is assumed to directly involve fluid transport. However, it is usually difficult or impossible to locate their source using traditional arrival time methods because of emergent wave arrivals. At Kilauea, similar LP waveform signatures suggest the existence of LP multiplets. The waveform similarity suggests spatially close sources, while catalog solutions using arrival time estimates are widely scattered beneath Kilauea's summit caldera. In order to improve estimates of absolute LP location, we use the distribution of seismic amplitudes corrected for station site effects. The decay of the amplitude as a function of hypocentral distance is used for inferring LP location. In a second stage, we use the similarity of the events to calculate their relative positions. The analysis of the entire LP seismicity recorded between January 1997 and December 1999 suggests that a very large part of the LP event population, both deep and shallow, is generated by a small number of compact sources. Deep events are systematically composed of a weak high-frequency onset followed by a low-frequency wave train. Aligning the low-frequency wave trains does not lead to aligning the onsets indicating the two parts of the signal are dissociated. This observation favors an interpretation in terms of triggering and resonance of a magmatic conduit. Instead of defining fault planes, the precise relocation of similar LP events, based on the alignment of the high-energy low-frequency wave trains, defines limited size volumes. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Estimating Relative Positions of Outer-Space Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balian, Harry; Breckenridge, William; Brugarolas, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A computer program estimates the relative position and orientation of two structures from measurements, made by use of electronic cameras and laser range finders on one structure, of distances and angular positions of fiducial objects on the other structure. The program was written specifically for use in determining errors in the alignment of large structures deployed in outer space from a space shuttle. The program is based partly on equations for transformations among the various coordinate systems involved in the measurements and on equations that account for errors in the transformation operators. It computes a least-squares estimate of the relative position and orientation. Sequential least-squares estimates, acquired at a measurement rate of 4 Hz, are averaged by passing them through a fourth-order Butterworth filter. The program is executed in a computer aboard the space shuttle, and its position and orientation estimates are displayed to astronauts on a graphical user interface.

  13. On a more accurate half-discrete Hardy-Hilbert-type inequality related to the kernel of arc tangent function.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Yang, Bicheng

    2016-01-01

    By means of weight functions and Hermite-Hadamard's inequality, and introducing a discrete interval variable, a more accurate half-discrete Hardy-Hilbert-type inequality related to the kernel of arc tangent function and a best possible constant factor is given, which is an extension of a published result. The equivalent forms and the operator expressions are also considered.

  14. The Theory Behind the Age-Related Positivity Effect

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Andrew E.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    The “positivity effect” refers to an age-related trend that favors positive over negative stimuli in cognitive processing. Relative to their younger counterparts, older people attend to and remember more positive than negative information. Since the effect was initially identified and the conceptual basis articulated (Mather and Carstensen, 2005) scores of independent replications and related findings have appeared in the literature. Over the same period, a number of investigations have failed to observe age differences in the cognitive processing of emotional material. When findings are considered in theoretical context, a reliable pattern of evidence emerges that helps to refine conceptual tenets. In this article we articulate the operational definition and theoretical foundations of the positivity effect and review the empirical evidence based on studies of visual attention, memory, decision making, and neural activation. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions with emphasis on the conditions where a focus on positive information may benefit and/or impair cognitive performance in older people. PMID:23060825

  15. Novel base-pairing interactions at the tRNA wobble position crucial for accurate reading of the genetic code

    PubMed Central

    Rozov, Alexey; Demeshkina, Natalia; Khusainov, Iskander; Westhof, Eric; Yusupov, Marat; Yusupova, Gulnara

    2016-01-01

    Posttranscriptional modifications at the wobble position of transfer RNAs play a substantial role in deciphering the degenerate genetic code on the ribosome. The number and variety of modifications suggest different mechanisms of action during messenger RNA decoding, of which only a few were described so far. Here, on the basis of several 70S ribosome complex X-ray structures, we demonstrate how Escherichia coli tRNALysUUU with hypermodified 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine (mnm5s2U) at the wobble position discriminates between cognate codons AAA and AAG, and near-cognate stop codon UAA or isoleucine codon AUA, with which it forms pyrimidine–pyrimidine mismatches. We show that mnm5s2U forms an unusual pair with guanosine at the wobble position that expands general knowledge on the degeneracy of the genetic code and specifies a powerful role of tRNA modifications in translation. Our models consolidate the translational fidelity mechanism proposed previously where the steric complementarity and shape acceptance dominate the decoding mechanism. PMID:26791911

  16. The Age-related Positivity Effect and Tobacco Warning Labels

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Megan E.; Peters, Ellen; Ferketich, Amy K.; Klein, Elizabeth G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study tested whether age is a factor in viewing time for tobacco warning labels. The approach drew from previous work demonstrating an age-related positivity effect, whereby older adults show preferences toward positive and away from negative stimuli. Methods Participants were 295 daily smokers from Appalachian Ohio (age range: 21–68). All participants took part in an eye-tracking paradigm that captured the attention paid to elements of health warning labels in the context of magazine advertisements. Participants also reported on their past cessation attempts and their beliefs about the dangers of smoking. Results Consistent with theory on age-related positivity, older age predicted weaker beliefs about smoking risks, but only among those with no past-year quit attempts. In support of our primary hypothesis, older age was also related to a lower percentage of time spent viewing tobacco warning labels, both overall (text + image) and for the graphic image alone. These associations remained after controlling for cigarettes smoked per day. Conclusions Overall, findings suggest that age is an important consideration for the design of future graphic warning labels and other tobacco risk communications. For older adults, warning labels may need to be tailored to overcome the age-related positivity effect. PMID:27617273

  17. An Inexpensive, Stable, and Accurate Relative Humidity Measurement Method for Challenging Environments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Ma, Hong; Yang, Simon X

    2016-03-18

    In this research, an improved psychrometer is developed to solve practical issues arising in the relative humidity measurement of challenging drying environments for meat manufacturing in agricultural and agri-food industries. The design in this research focused on the structure of the improved psychrometer, signal conversion, and calculation methods. The experimental results showed the effect of varying psychrometer structure on relative humidity measurement accuracy. An industrial application to dry-cured meat products demonstrated the effective performance of the improved psychrometer being used as a relative humidity measurement sensor in meat-drying rooms. In a drying environment for meat manufacturing, the achieved measurement accuracy for relative humidity using the improved psychrometer was ±0.6%. The system test results showed that the improved psychrometer can provide reliable and long-term stable relative humidity measurements with high accuracy in the drying system of meat products.

  18. An Inexpensive, Stable, and Accurate Relative Humidity Measurement Method for Challenging Environments

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Ma, Hong; Yang, Simon X.

    2016-01-01

    In this research, an improved psychrometer is developed to solve practical issues arising in the relative humidity measurement of challenging drying environments for meat manufacturing in agricultural and agri-food industries. The design in this research focused on the structure of the improved psychrometer, signal conversion, and calculation methods. The experimental results showed the effect of varying psychrometer structure on relative humidity measurement accuracy. An industrial application to dry-cured meat products demonstrated the effective performance of the improved psychrometer being used as a relative humidity measurement sensor in meat-drying rooms. In a drying environment for meat manufacturing, the achieved measurement accuracy for relative humidity using the improved psychrometer was ±0.6%. The system test results showed that the improved psychrometer can provide reliable and long-term stable relative humidity measurements with high accuracy in the drying system of meat products. PMID:26999161

  19. Accurate stereochemistry for two related 22,26-epimino­cholestene derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Baez, José Luis; Sandoval-Ramírez, Jesús; Meza-Reyes, Socorro; Montiel-Smith, Sara; Gómez-Calvario, Victor; Bernès, Sylvain

    2008-01-01

    Regioselective opening of ring E of solasodine under various conditions afforded (25R)-22,26-epimino­cholesta-5,22(N)-di­ene-3β,16β-diyl diacetate (previously known as 3,16-diacetyl pseudosolasodine B), C31H47NO4, or (22S,25R)-16β-hydr­oxy-22,26-epimino­cholesta-5-en-3β-yl acetate (a derivative of the naturally occurring alkaloid oblonginine), C29H47NO3. In both cases, the reactions are carried out with retention of chirality at the C16, C20 and C25 stereogenic centers, which are found to be S, S and R, respectively. Although pseudosolasodine was synthesized 50 years ago, these accurate assignments clarify some controversial points about the actual stereochemistry for these alkaloids. This is of particular importance in the case of oblonginine, since this compound is currently under consideration for the treatment of aphasia arising from apoplexy; the present study defines a diastereoisomerically pure compound for pharmacological studies. PMID:18391392

  20. Accurate and high-performance 3D position measurement of fiducial marks by stereoscopic system for railway track inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, Alexey A.; Serikova, Mariya G.; Pantyushina, Ekaterina N.; Volkova, Daria A.

    2016-04-01

    Modern demands for railway track measurements require high accuracy (about 2-5 mm) of rails placement along the track to ensure smooth, safe and fast transportation. As a mean for railways geometry measurements we suggest a stereoscopic system which measures 3D position of fiducial marks arranged along the track by image processing algorithms. The system accuracy was verified during laboratory tests by comparison with precise laser tracker indications. The accuracy of +/-1.5 mm within a measurement volume 150×400×5000 mm was achieved during the tests. This confirmed that the stereoscopic system demonstrates good measurement accuracy and can be potentially used as fully automated mean for railway track inspection.

  1. Separating arterial and venous-related components of photoplethysmographic signals for accurate extraction of oxygen saturation and respiratory rate.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Rasoul; Nourani, Mehrdad

    2015-05-01

    We propose an algorithm for separating arterial and venous-related signals using second-order statistics of red and infrared signals in a blind source separation technique. The separated arterial signal is used to compute accurate arterial oxygen saturation. We have also introduced an algorithm for extracting the respiratory pattern from the extracted venous-related signal. In addition to real-time monitoring, respiratory rate is also extracted. Our experimental results from multiple subjects show that the proposed separation technique is extremely useful for extracting accurate arterial oxygen saturation and respiratory rate. Specifically, the breathing rate is extracted with average root mean square deviation of 1.89 and average mean difference of -0.69.

  2. Terahertz-based relative positioning of aircraft flying in formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, John Scott

    This thesis introduces a new method for estimating the relative positions of aircraft flying in formation using terahertz frequency (THz) signals. We look specifically at the military precision airdrop application, where THz signals have two advantages: (1) stealth due to preferential propagation in the horizontal direction at high altitudes and (2) robustness for operations in GPS-denied environments. This thesis presents two system concepts for implementation. The first, dubbed the straight-and-level (SAL) architecture, produces high precision position estimates during straight and level flight, but suffers from systematic biases when the receiving aircraft performs a maneuver. In support of this architecture, we published the first ever paper on THz relative positioning, and introduced a new filtering method inspired by the well-known GPS Hatch Filter. The second, dubbed the refined-for-maneuvers (RFM) architecture, produces position estimates that are less precise than the SAL architecture, but have no systematic bias when the aircraft maneuver. Simulations are used to predict the performance of the architectures.

  3. Short-term retention of relational memory in amnesia revisited: accurate performance depends on hippocampal integrity

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Lydia T. S.; Hannula, Deborah E.; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, it has been proposed that the hippocampus and adjacent medial temporal lobe cortical structures are selectively critical for long-term declarative memory, which entails memory for inter-item and item-context relationships. Whether the hippocampus might also contribute to short-term retention of relational memory representations has remained controversial. In two experiments, we revisit this question by testing memory for relationships among items embedded in scenes using a standard working memory trial structure in which a sample stimulus is followed by a brief delay and the corresponding test stimulus. In each experimental block, eight trials using different exemplars of the same scene were presented. The exemplars contained the same items but with different spatial relationships among them. By repeating the pictures across trials, any potential contributions of item or scene memory to performance were minimized, and relational memory could be assessed more directly than has been done previously. When test displays were presented, participants indicated whether any of the item-location relationships had changed. Then, regardless of their responses (and whether any item did change its location), participants indicated on a forced-choice test, which item might have moved, guessing if necessary. Amnesic patients were impaired on the change detection test, and were frequently unable to specify the change after having reported correctly that a change had taken place. Comparison participants, by contrast, frequently identified the change even when they failed to report the mismatch, an outcome that speaks to the sensitivity of the change specification measure. These results confirm past reports of hippocampal contributions to short-term retention of relational memory representations, and suggest that the role of the hippocampus in memory has more to do with relational memory requirements than the length of a retention interval. PMID:24478681

  4. Short-term retention of relational memory in amnesia revisited: accurate performance depends on hippocampal integrity.

    PubMed

    Yee, Lydia T S; Hannula, Deborah E; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, it has been proposed that the hippocampus and adjacent medial temporal lobe cortical structures are selectively critical for long-term declarative memory, which entails memory for inter-item and item-context relationships. Whether the hippocampus might also contribute to short-term retention of relational memory representations has remained controversial. In two experiments, we revisit this question by testing memory for relationships among items embedded in scenes using a standard working memory trial structure in which a sample stimulus is followed by a brief delay and the corresponding test stimulus. In each experimental block, eight trials using different exemplars of the same scene were presented. The exemplars contained the same items but with different spatial relationships among them. By repeating the pictures across trials, any potential contributions of item or scene memory to performance were minimized, and relational memory could be assessed more directly than has been done previously. When test displays were presented, participants indicated whether any of the item-location relationships had changed. Then, regardless of their responses (and whether any item did change its location), participants indicated on a forced-choice test, which item might have moved, guessing if necessary. Amnesic patients were impaired on the change detection test, and were frequently unable to specify the change after having reported correctly that a change had taken place. Comparison participants, by contrast, frequently identified the change even when they failed to report the mismatch, an outcome that speaks to the sensitivity of the change specification measure. These results confirm past reports of hippocampal contributions to short-term retention of relational memory representations, and suggest that the role of the hippocampus in memory has more to do with relational memory requirements than the length of a retention interval.

  5. Plasma injection events at synchronous orbit related to positive Dst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldy, R. L.; Moore, T. E.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1982-01-01

    AST 6 spacecraft synchronous orbit measurements are compared with space and ground data in a study of plasma effects related to SI and SC magnetic perturbations. It is found that synchronous orbit plasma injections related to the sudden phenomena are similar to those associated with substorms, although the former occur at all local times. The synchronous orbit plasma injections are interpreted as the co-location of particle boundaries on an inward propagating front and the compression magnetic pulse associated with SI and SC events is seen as responsible for the co-location of the boundaries and their inward propagation. The positive Dst magnetic pulse plays a role similar to that of the magnetic tail reconfiguration pulse associated with substorms, and evidence is shown that positive Dst enhances magnetospheric convection independently of interplanetary magnetic field direction

  6. Development of accurate waveform models for eccentric compact binaries with numerical relativity simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, Eliu; Agarwal, Bhanu; Chua, Alvin; George, Daniel; Haas, Roland; Hinder, Ian; Kumar, Prayush; Moore, Christopher; Pfeiffer, Harald

    2017-01-01

    We recently constructed an inspiral-merger-ringdown (IMR) waveform model to describe the dynamical evolution of compact binaries on eccentric orbits, and used this model to constrain the eccentricity with which the gravitational wave transients currently detected by LIGO could be effectively recovered with banks of quasi-circular templates. We now present the second generation of this model, which is calibrated using a large catalog of eccentric numerical relativity simulations. We discuss the new features of this model, and show that its enhance accuracy makes it a powerful tool to detect eccentric signals with LIGO.

  7. Immune Infertility Should Be Positively Diagnosed Using an Accurate Method by Monitoring the Level of Anti-ACTL7a Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jun; Yao, Rongyan; Luo, Yanyun; Yang, Dantong; Cao, Yang; Qiu, Yi; Song, Wei; Miao, Shiying; Gu, Yiqun; Wang, Linfang

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is currently a major public health problem. Anti-sperm antibodies (ASAs) markedly reduce sperm quality, which can subsequently lead to male and/or female infertility. The accurate detection of ASAs derived from specific spermatozoa is, therefore, clinically useful. We have focused on the spermatozoa-specific expression protein ACTL7a for many years and have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the concentration of anti-ACTL7a antibodies in fertile sera (n = 267) and infertile sera (n = 193). Infertile sera were collected from the positive sera of tray agglutination tests (TAT), which is a routine ASA screening methodology. We found that the concentration of anti-ACTL7a antibodies was significantly higher in the infertile sera (than in the fertile sera, P < 0.0001) and much higher in the TAT ≥ 16 infertile sera. The ELISA was much better for male sera detection (AUC = 0.9899). If we set the standard at a strongly positive value (calculated by ROC curve), the positive predictive value of the antibody detection reached 100 percent, with a false positive rate of zero. The developed ELISA method for anti-ACTL7a antibody detection is therefore sensitive, accurate, and easy to perform, making it an excellent potential tool for future clinical use. PMID:26957350

  8. Efficient Approximation of Head-Related Transfer Functions in Subbands for Accurate Sound Localization

    PubMed Central

    Marelli, Damián; Baumgartner, Robert; Majdak, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) describe the acoustic filtering of incoming sounds by the human morphology and are essential for listeners to localize sound sources in virtual auditory displays. Since rendering complex virtual scenes is computationally demanding, we propose four algorithms for efficiently representing HRTFs in subbands, i.e., as an analysis filterbank (FB) followed by a transfer matrix and a synthesis FB. All four algorithms use sparse approximation procedures to minimize the computational complexity while maintaining perceptually relevant HRTF properties. The first two algorithms separately optimize the complexity of the transfer matrix associated to each HRTF for fixed FBs. The other two algorithms jointly optimize the FBs and transfer matrices for complete HRTF sets by two variants. The first variant aims at minimizing the complexity of the transfer matrices, while the second one does it for the FBs. Numerical experiments investigate the latency-complexity trade-off and show that the proposed methods offer significant computational savings when compared with other available approaches. Psychoacoustic localization experiments were modeled and conducted to find a reasonable approximation tolerance so that no significant localization performance degradation was introduced by the subband representation. PMID:26681930

  9. Global positioning system pseudolite-based relative navigation.

    SciTech Connect

    Monda, Eric W.

    2004-03-01

    Though the Global Positioning System has revolutionized navigation in the modern age, it is limited in its capability for some applications because an unobstructed line of sight to a minimum of four satellites is required. One way of augmenting the system in small areas is by employing pseudolites to broadcast additional signals that can be used to improve the user's position solution. At the Navigation Systems Testing Laboratory (NSTL) at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, research has been underway on the use of pseudolites to perform precision relative navigation. Based on the findings of previous research done at the NSTL, the method used to process the pseudolite measurements is an extended Kalman filter of the double differenced carrier phase measurements. By employing simulations of the system, as well as processing previously collected data in a real time manner, sub-meter tracking of a moving receiver with carrier phase measurements in the extended Kalman filter appears to be possible.

  10. Accurate relations between pore size and the pressure of capillary condensation and the evaporation of nitrogen in cylindrical pores.

    PubMed

    Morishige, Kunimitsu; Tateishi, Masayoshi

    2006-04-25

    To examine the theoretical and semiempirical relations between pore size and the pressure of capillary condensation or evaporation proposed so far, we constructed an accurate relation between the pore radius and the capillary condensation and evaporation pressure of nitrogen at 77 K for the cylindrical pores of the ordered mesoporous MCM-41 and SBA-15 silicas. Here, the pore size was determined from a comparison between the experimental and calculated X-ray diffraction patterns due to X-ray structural modeling recently developed. Among the many theoretical relations that differ from each other in the degree of theoretical improvements, a macroscopic thermodynamic approach based on Broekhoff-de Boer equations was found to be in fair agreement with the experimental relation obtained in the present study.

  11. Relative position and pose measurement approach of specific operation site of space non-cooperative target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Zhou, Ying; Li, Ronghua; Huang, Jianming

    2015-12-01

    In order to achieve the rendezvous and capture of the space non-cooperative target, the relative position and pose measurement of non-cooperative target must be resolved. Since the marker is not installed into the non-cooperative target and there is no inter satellite link to transfer the information, so it is very difficult to measure the relative position and pose measurement of non-cooperative target. The solar array connecting frame of non-cooperative targets have their characters and are easy to capture, so the position and pose measurement of specific operation site of non-cooperative target based on stereo vision has been studied in this paper. The method composed of image acquiring, image filtering, edge detection, feature extraction and relative pose measurement. Finally, the relative position and attitude parameters of the solar wing connection were obtained and provided to the control system. The results of simulation and ground verification show that the algorithm is accurate and effective, and can satisfy the technical requirements of the on orbit operation. The measurement approach can be used for engineering implementation.

  12. A dual-plane co-RASOR technique for accurate and rapid tracking and position verification of an Ir-192 source for single fraction HDR brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leeuw, Hendrik; Moerland, Marinus A.; van Vulpen, Marco; Seevinck, Peter R.; Bakker, Chris J. G.

    2013-11-01

    Effective high-dose-rate (HDR) treatment requires accurate and independent treatment verification to ensure that the treatment proceeds as prescribed, in particular if a high dose is given, as in single fraction therapy. Contrary to CT imaging and fluoroscopy, MR imaging provides high soft tissue contrast. Conventional MR techniques, however, do not offer the temporal resolution in combination with the 3D spatial resolution required for accurate brachytherapy source localization. We have developed an MR imaging method (center-out RAdial Sampling with Off-Resonance (co-RASOR)) that generates high positive contrast in the geometrical center of field perturbing objects, such as HDR brachytherapy sources. co-RASOR generates high positive contrast in the geometric center of an Ir-192 source by applying a frequency offset to center-out encoded data. To obtain high spatial accuracy in 3D with adequate temporal resolution, two orthogonal center-out encoded 2D images are applied instead of a full 3D acquisition. Its accuracy in 3D is demonstrated by 3D MRI and CT. The 2D images show high positive contrast in the geometric center of non-radioactive Ir-192 sources, with signal intensities up to 160% of the average signal intensity in the surrounding medium. The accuracy with which the center of the Ir-192 source is located by the dual-plane MRI acquisition corresponds closely to the accuracy obtained by 3D MRI and CT imaging. The positive contrast is shown to be obtained in homogeneous and in heterogeneous tissue. The dual-plane MRI technique allows the brachytherapy source to be tracked in 3D with millimeter accuracy with a temporal resolution of approximately 4 s.

  13. Functional significance of the emotion-related late positive potential

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stephen B. R. E.; van Steenbergen, Henk; Band, Guido P. H.; de Rover, Mischa; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2012-01-01

    The late positive potential (LPP) is an event-related potential (ERP) component over visual cortical areas that is modulated by the emotional intensity of a stimulus. However, the functional significance of this neural modulation remains elusive. We conducted two experiments in which we studied the relation between LPP amplitude, subsequent perceptual sensitivity to a non-emotional stimulus (Experiment 1) and visual cortical excitability, as reflected by P1/N1 components evoked by this stimulus (Experiment 2). During the LPP modulation elicited by unpleasant stimuli, perceptual sensitivity was not affected. In contrast, we found some evidence for a decreased N1 amplitude during the LPP modulation, a decreased P1 amplitude on trials with a relatively large LPP, and consistent negative (but non-significant) across-subject correlations between the magnitudes of the LPP modulation and corresponding changes in d-prime or P1/N1 amplitude. The results provide preliminary evidence that the LPP reflects a global inhibition of activity in visual cortex, resulting in the selective survival of activity associated with the processing of the emotional stimulus. PMID:22375117

  14. Linear and Nonlinear Relative Navigation Strategies for Small Satellite Formation Flying Based on Relative Position Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Zheng, You

    Based on linear and nonlinear mathematical model of spacecraft formation flying and technology of relative position measurement of small satellites, the linear and nonlinear relative navigation strategies are developed in this paper. The dynamical characteristics of multi spacecraft formation flying have been researched in many references, including the authors' several International Astronautical Congress papers with numbers of IAF-98-A.2.06, IAA-99-IAA.11.1.09, IAA-01-IAA.11.4.08. Under conditions of short distance and short time, the linear model can describe relative orbit motion; otherwise, nonlinear model must be adopted. Furthermore the means of measurement and their error will influence relative navigation. Thus three kinds of relative navigation strategy are progressed. With consideration of difficulty in relative velocity measurement of small satellites, the three relative navigation strategies are proposed and only depend on sequential data of relative position through measuring the relative distance and relative orientation. The first kind of relative navigation strategy is based on linear model. The second relative navigation strategy is based on nonlinear model, with inclusion of the second order item. In fact the measurement error can not be avoided especially for small satellites, it is mainly considered in the third relative navigation strategy. This research is theoretical yet and a series of formulas of relative navigation are presented in this paper. Also the authors analyzed the three strategies qualitatively and quantitatively. According to results of simulation, the ranges of application are indicated and suggested in allusion to the three strategies of relative navigation. On the view of authors, the relative navigation strategies for small satellite formation flying based on relative position measurement are significant for engineering of small satellite formation flying.

  15. CBCT Assessment of Mental Foramen Position Relative to Anatomical Landmarks

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhi, Mahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. This study was carried out on an Iranian population aiming to investigate mental foramen position relative to inferior border of mandible and skeletal midline and its gender and age differences on CBCT projections. Materials and Methods. A number of 180 CBCT images of patients were analyzed in different planes (tangential, cross-sectional, and axial). The distances from the superior border of mental foramen to the inferior border of mandible and from the anterior border of mental foramen to the midline were calculated. Results. The mean distance from mental foramen to the inferior border of mandible in the right side was 13.26 mm (SD ± 2.34) and in the left side was 13.37 mm (SD ± 2.19). There was a statistically significant difference between genders in terms of the distance between mental foramen and inferior border of mandible (P value = 0.000). The mean distances from mental foramen to midline were 25.86 mm (SD ± 0.27) and 25.53 mm (SD ± 0.31) in the right and left sides, respectively. Conclusions. The vertical and horizontal positions of mental foramen can be determined from stable anatomical landmarks such as mandibular inferior border and skeletal midline in both dentulous and edentulous patients. The distance from the superior border of mental foramen to the inferior border of mandible exhibited sexual dimorphism. PMID:27999594

  16. Patients undergoing subacute rehabilitation have accurate expectations of their health-related quality of life at discharge

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Expectations held by patients and health professionals may affect treatment choices and participation (by both patients and health professionals) in therapeutic interventions in contemporary patient-centered healthcare environments. If patients in rehabilitation settings overestimate their discharge health-related quality of life, they may become despondent as their progress falls short of their expectations. On the other hand, underestimating their discharge health-related quality of life may lead to a lack of motivation to participate in therapies if they do not perceive likely benefit. There is a scarcity of empirical evidence evaluating whether patients’ expectations of future health states are accurate. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy with which older patients admitted for subacute in-hospital rehabilitation can anticipate their discharge health-related quality of life. Methods A prospective longitudinal cohort investigation of agreement between patients’ anticipated discharge health-related quality of life (as reported on the EQ-5D instrument at admission to a rehabilitation unit) and their actual self-reported health-related quality of life at the time of discharge from this unit was undertaken. The mini-mental state examination was used as an indicator of patients’ cognitive ability. Results Overall, 232(85%) patients had all assessment data completed and were included in analysis. Kappa scores ranged from 0.42-0.68 across the five EQ-5D domains and two patient cognition groups. The percentage of exact correct matches within each domain ranged from 69% to 85% across domains and cognition groups. Overall 40% of participants in each cognition group correctly anticipated all of their self-reported discharge EQ-5D domain responses. Conclusions Patients admitted for subacute in-hospital rehabilitation were able to anticipate their discharge health-related quality of life on the EQ-5D instrument with a moderate level of

  17. Survey on Ranging Sensors and Cooperative Techniques for Relative Positioning of Vehicles.

    PubMed

    de Ponte Müller, Fabian

    2017-01-31

    Future driver assistance systems will rely on accurate, reliable and continuous knowledge on the position of other road participants, including pedestrians, bicycles and other vehicles. The usual approach to tackle this requirement is to use on-board ranging sensors inside the vehicle. Radar, laser scanners or vision-based systems are able to detect objects in their line-of-sight. In contrast to these non-cooperative ranging sensors, cooperative approaches follow a strategy in which other road participants actively support the estimation of the relative position. The limitations of on-board ranging sensors regarding their detection range and angle of view and the facility of blockage can be approached by using a cooperative approach based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication. The fusion of both, cooperative and non-cooperative strategies, seems to offer the largest benefits regarding accuracy, availability and robustness. This survey offers the reader a comprehensive review on different techniques for vehicle relative positioning. The reader will learn the important performance indicators when it comes to relative positioning of vehicles, the different technologies that are both commercially available and currently under research, their expected performance and their intrinsic limitations. Moreover, the latest research in the area of vision-based systems for vehicle detection, as well as the latest work on GNSS-based vehicle localization and vehicular communication for relative positioning of vehicles, are reviewed. The survey also includes the research work on the fusion of cooperative and non-cooperative approaches to increase the reliability and the availability.

  18. Survey on Ranging Sensors and Cooperative Techniques for Relative Positioning of Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    de Ponte Müller, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    Future driver assistance systems will rely on accurate, reliable and continuous knowledge on the position of other road participants, including pedestrians, bicycles and other vehicles. The usual approach to tackle this requirement is to use on-board ranging sensors inside the vehicle. Radar, laser scanners or vision-based systems are able to detect objects in their line-of-sight. In contrast to these non-cooperative ranging sensors, cooperative approaches follow a strategy in which other road participants actively support the estimation of the relative position. The limitations of on-board ranging sensors regarding their detection range and angle of view and the facility of blockage can be approached by using a cooperative approach based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication. The fusion of both, cooperative and non-cooperative strategies, seems to offer the largest benefits regarding accuracy, availability and robustness. This survey offers the reader a comprehensive review on different techniques for vehicle relative positioning. The reader will learn the important performance indicators when it comes to relative positioning of vehicles, the different technologies that are both commercially available and currently under research, their expected performance and their intrinsic limitations. Moreover, the latest research in the area of vision-based systems for vehicle detection, as well as the latest work on GNSS-based vehicle localization and vehicular communication for relative positioning of vehicles, are reviewed. The survey also includes the research work on the fusion of cooperative and non-cooperative approaches to increase the reliability and the availability. PMID:28146129

  19. Evaluation of accurate mass and relative isotopic abundance measurements in the LTQ-orbitrap mass spectrometer for further metabolomics database building.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Heilier, Jean-François; Madalinski, Geoffrey; Genin, Eric; Ezan, Eric; Tabet, Jean-Claude; Junot, Christophe

    2010-07-01

    Recently, high-resolution mass spectrometry has been largely employed for compound identification, thanks to accurate mass measurements. As additional information, relative isotope abundance (RIA) is often needed to reduce the number of candidates prior to tandem MS(n). Here, we report on the evaluation of the LTQ-Orbitrap, in terms of accurate mass and RIA measurements for building further metabolomics spectral databases. Accurate mass measurements were achieved in the ppm range, using external calibration within 24 h, and remained at <5 ppm over a one-week period. The experimental relative abundances of (M+1) isotopic ions were evaluated in different data sets. First of all, 137 solutions of commercial compounds were analyzed by flow injection analysis in both the positive and negative ion modes. It was found that the ion abundance was the main factor impacting the accuracy of RIA measurements. It was possible to define some intensity thresholds above which errors were systematically <20% of their theoretical values. The same type of results were obtained with analyses from two biological media. Otherwise, no significant effect of ion transmission between the LTQ ion trap and the Orbitrap analyzer on RIA measurement errors was found, whereas the reliability of RIA measurements was dramatically improved by reducing the mass detection window. It was also observed that the signal integration method had a significant impact on RIA measurement errors, with the most-reliable results being obtained with peak height integrations. Finally, automatic integrations using the data preprocessing software XCMS and MZmine gave results similar to those obtained by manual integration, suggesting that it is relevant to use the RIA information in automatic elemental composition determination software from metabolomic peak tables.

  20. A High Resolution/Accurate Mass (HRAM) Data-Dependent MS3 Neutral Loss Screening, Classification, and Relative Quantitation Methodology for Carbonyl Compounds in Saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dator, Romel; Carrà, Andrea; Maertens, Laura; Guidolin, Valeria; Villalta, Peter W.; Balbo, Silvia

    2016-10-01

    Reactive carbonyl compounds (RCCs) are ubiquitous in the environment and are generated endogenously as a result of various physiological and pathological processes. These compounds can react with biological molecules inducing deleterious processes believed to be at the basis of their toxic effects. Several of these compounds are implicated in neurotoxic processes, aging disorders, and cancer. Therefore, a method characterizing exposures to these chemicals will provide insights into how they may influence overall health and contribute to disease pathogenesis. Here, we have developed a high resolution accurate mass (HRAM) screening strategy allowing simultaneous identification and relative quantitation of DNPH-derivatized carbonyls in human biological fluids. The screening strategy involves the diagnostic neutral loss of hydroxyl radical triggering MS3 fragmentation, which is only observed in positive ionization mode of DNPH-derivatized carbonyls. Unique fragmentation pathways were used to develop a classification scheme for characterizing known and unanticipated/unknown carbonyl compounds present in saliva. Furthermore, a relative quantitation strategy was implemented to assess variations in the levels of carbonyl compounds before and after exposure using deuterated d 3 -DNPH. This relative quantitation method was tested on human samples before and after exposure to specific amounts of alcohol. The nano-electrospray ionization (nano-ESI) in positive mode afforded excellent sensitivity with detection limits on-column in the high-attomole levels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a method using HRAM neutral loss screening of carbonyl compounds. In addition, the method allows simultaneous characterization and relative quantitation of DNPH-derivatized compounds using nano-ESI in positive mode.

  1. Predictable Technique to Register Retruded Contact Position (RCP) Using a Disposable Jaw Relation Recording Device.

    PubMed

    Daher, Tony; Lobel, William A; Massad, Joseph; Ahuja, Swati; Danilov, Zarko Jack

    2015-05-01

    The dental literature presents various definitions and techniques to describe and register centric relation (CR) or centric occlusion (CO). Briefly reviewing the literature in relation to CR, this article proposes the use of the term retruded contact position (RCP), clinically defined as retruded, unstrained, repeatable position and where the mandibular movements start when a Gothic arch tracing is used. With this clinical definition, a technique can be easily selected that meets all the requirements of such position. The article discusses the use of a jaw recorder that is an intraorally graphic recording device that results in a tracing of mandibular movements in one plane, with the apex of the tracing indicating the retruded, unstrained, and repeatable relationship. The intersection of the arcs produced by the right and left working movement form the apex of the Gothic arch tracing. Several clinical situations using the jaw recorder are described. Clinicians can now quickly and accurately record RCP, balance complete, partial, or implant dentures, and orthopedically reposition the mandible. The technique achieves highly reliable and reproducible results.

  2. Gaze and hand position effects on finger-movement-related human brain activation.

    PubMed

    Bédard, Patrick; Sanes, Jerome N

    2009-02-01

    Humans commonly use their hands to move and to interact with their environment by processing visual and proprioceptive information to determine the location of a goal-object and the initial hand position. It remains elusive, however, how the human brain fully uses this sensory information to generate accurate movements. In monkeys, it appears that frontal and parietal areas use and combine gaze and hand signals to generate movements, whereas in humans, prior work has separately assessed how the brain uses these two signals. Here we investigated whether and how the human brain integrates gaze orientation and hand position during simple visually triggered finger tapping. We hypothesized that parietal, frontal, and subcortical regions involved in movement production would also exhibit modulation of movement-related activation as a function of gaze and hand positions. We used functional MRI to measure brain activation while healthy young adults performed a visually cued finger movement and fixed gaze at each of three locations and held the arm in two different configurations. We found several areas that exhibited activation related to a mixture of these hand and gaze positions; these included the sensory-motor cortex, supramarginal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, superior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate, and left cerebellum. We also found regions within the left insula, left cuneus, left midcingulate gyrus, left putamen, and right tempo-occipital junction with activation driven only by gaze orientation. Finally, clusters with hand position effects were found in the cerebellum bilaterally. Our results indicate that these areas integrate at least two signals to perform visual-motor actions and that these could be used to subserve sensory-motor transformations.

  3. Accurate calibration and control of relative humidity close to 100% by X-raying a DOPC multilayer

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Yicong; Ghosh, Sajal K.; Bera, Sambhunath; ...

    2015-01-01

    Here in this study, we have designed a compact sample chamber that can achieve accurate and continuous control of the relative humidity (RH) in the vicinity of 100%. A 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) multilayer can be used as a humidity sensor by measuring its inter-layer repeat distance (d-spacing) via X-ray diffraction. We convert from DOPC d-spacing to RH according to a theory given in the literature and previously measured data of DOPC multilamellar vesicles in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solutions. This curve can be used for calibration of RH close to 100%, a regime where conventional sensors do not have sufficient accuracy. We demonstratemore » that this control method can provide RH accuracies of 0.1 to 0.01%, which is a factor of 10–100 improvement compared to existing methods of humidity control. Our method provides fine tuning capability of RH continuously for a single sample, whereas the PVP solution method requires new samples to be made for each PVP concentration. The use of this cell also potentially removes the need for an X-ray or neutron beam to pass through bulk water if one wishes to work close to biologically relevant conditions of nearly 100% RH.« less

  4. Accurate calibration and control of relative humidity close to 100% by X-raying a DOPC multilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Yicong; Ghosh, Sajal K.; Bera, Sambhunath; Jiang, Zhang; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Lurio, Laurence B.; Sinha, Sunil K.

    2015-01-01

    Here in this study, we have designed a compact sample chamber that can achieve accurate and continuous control of the relative humidity (RH) in the vicinity of 100%. A 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) multilayer can be used as a humidity sensor by measuring its inter-layer repeat distance (d-spacing) via X-ray diffraction. We convert from DOPC d-spacing to RH according to a theory given in the literature and previously measured data of DOPC multilamellar vesicles in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solutions. This curve can be used for calibration of RH close to 100%, a regime where conventional sensors do not have sufficient accuracy. We demonstrate that this control method can provide RH accuracies of 0.1 to 0.01%, which is a factor of 10–100 improvement compared to existing methods of humidity control. Our method provides fine tuning capability of RH continuously for a single sample, whereas the PVP solution method requires new samples to be made for each PVP concentration. The use of this cell also potentially removes the need for an X-ray or neutron beam to pass through bulk water if one wishes to work close to biologically relevant conditions of nearly 100% RH.

  5. The value of positive psychology for health psychology: progress and pitfalls in examining the relation of positive phenomena to health.

    PubMed

    Aspinwall, Lisa G; Tedeschi, Richard G

    2010-02-01

    The growth of the "positive psychology" movement reflects increased scientific and lay interest in the relation of positive phenomena to mental and physical health and the corresponding potential for interventions that promote positive feelings, thoughts, and experiences to improve health and well-being. In this article, we (1) consider research on optimism, sense of coherence, and posttraumatic growth that predates the contemporary emphasis on positive psychology, but has clear and increasingly well-supported connections to health psychology, (2) examine several potential mechanisms through which such positive phenomena may influence the etiology, progression, and management of illness, (3) identify four pervasive but misleading assumptions about positive phenomena that may limit both scientific research and practical application, and (4) caution against serious pitfalls of popular views of positive thinking, such as its promotion as a cure for cancer and other diseases. We conclude with recommendations for the balanced scientific investigation and application of positive phenomena.

  6. Relation of Positive and Negative Parenting to Children's Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; Cole, David A.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Jacquez, Farrah; LaGrange, Beth; Bruce, Alanna E.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the combined and cumulative effects of supportive-positive and harsh-negative parenting behaviors on children's depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of 515 male and female elementary and middle school students (ages 7 to 11) and their parents provided reports of the children's depressive symptoms. Parents provided self-reports…

  7. A Case Study on Positive and Relational Discipline Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuoffer, Marcelle D.

    2011-01-01

    Many classrooms experience minor disruptions that tend to diminish teaching opportunities for educators. Teachers often impose punitive discipline approaches and consequences in response to classroom disruptions. Using punitive discipline approaches and consequences do not teach students how to change negative behaviors to positive behaviors. The…

  8. Positioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conone, Ruth M.

    The key to positioning is the creation of a clear benefit image in the consumer's mind. One positioning strategy is creating in the prospect's mind a position that takes into consideration the company's or agency's strengths and weaknesses as well as those of its competitors. Another strategy is to gain entry into a position ladder owned by…

  9. Recurrence rate of basal cell carcinoma with positive histopathological margins and related risk factors*

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Fernanda; Santamaría, Jesus Rodriguez; Garbers, Luiz Eduardo Fabricio de Melo

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND The best way to approach surgically removed basal cell carcinoma with positive histopathological margins is a controversial issue. Some authors believe that the more appropriate treatment is an immediate reoperation while others prefer a periodic follow up. The rates of recurrence are variable in literature, between 10% and 67%. OBJECTIVE To define the recurrence rate of basal cell carcinoma with positive margins after surgery. Secondarily, identify morphological aspects that can suggest a more frequent tumoral recurrence. METHODS This was a retrospective and observational study made by analysis of medical records of 487 patients between January 2003 and December 2009 in Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná (HC-UFPR). From 402 basal cell carcinomas surgically treated, 41 fulfilled inclusion criteria and were evaluated for five years or more. Recurrence rate of these tumors was analyzed in all patients and clinical characteristics such as sex, age, tumor size, tumor site, ulceration, and histological type were evaluated in order to find if they were related to more common tumoral recurrence. RESULTS The rate of positive margins after surgery was 12.18%. There were five cases of tumoral recurrence in the observation group and three cases in the re-excision group. Tumor size, site, histological type, ulceration and type of positive margin did not differ statistically between groups. It was not possible to consider if these factors were important in recurrence rates. STUDY LIMITATIONS Ideally, a prospective study with a larger sample would be more accurate. CONCLUSION The treatment of choice in basal cell carcinoma with positive margins must be individualized to reduce recurrence rates. PMID:28225958

  10. Rapid Bayesian point source inversion using pattern recognition --- bridging the gap between regional scaling relations and accurate physical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, A. P.; Kaeufl, P.; De Wit, R. W. L.; Trampert, J.

    2014-12-01

    Obtaining knowledge about source parameters in (near) real-time during or shortly after an earthquake is essential for mitigating damage and directing resources in the aftermath of the event. Therefore, a variety of real-time source-inversion algorithms have been developed over recent decades. This has been driven by the ever-growing availability of dense seismograph networks in many seismogenic areas of the world and the significant advances in real-time telemetry. By definition, these algorithms rely on short time-windows of sparse, local and regional observations, resulting in source estimates that are highly sensitive to observational errors, noise and missing data. In order to obtain estimates more rapidly, many algorithms are either entirely based on empirical scaling relations or make simplifying assumptions about the Earth's structure, which can in turn lead to biased results. It is therefore essential that realistic uncertainty bounds are estimated along with the parameters. A natural means of propagating probabilistic information on source parameters through the entire processing chain from first observations to potential end users and decision makers is provided by the Bayesian formalism.We present a novel method based on pattern recognition allowing us to incorporate highly accurate physical modelling into an uncertainty-aware real-time inversion algorithm. The algorithm is based on a pre-computed Green's functions database, containing a large set of source-receiver paths in a highly heterogeneous crustal model. Unlike similar methods, which often employ a grid search, we use a supervised learning algorithm to relate synthetic waveforms to point source parameters. This training procedure has to be performed only once and leads to a representation of the posterior probability density function p(m|d) --- the distribution of source parameters m given observations d --- which can be evaluated quickly for new data.Owing to the flexibility of the pattern

  11. An accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation with heavily gas-dominated ALFALFA galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papastergis, E.; Adams, E. A. K.; van der Hulst, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    We use a sample of 97 galaxies selected from the Arecibo legacy fast ALFA (ALFALFA) 21 cm survey to make an accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR). These galaxies are specifically selected to be heavily gas-dominated (Mgas/M∗ ≳ 2.7) and to be oriented edge-on. The former property ensures that the error on the galactic baryonic mass is small, despite the large systematic uncertainty involved in galactic stellar mass estimates. The latter property means that rotational velocities can be derived directly from the width of the 21 cm emission line, without any need for inclination corrections. We measure a slope for the linewidth-based BTFR of α = 3.75 ± 0.11, a value that is somewhat steeper than (but in broad agreement with) previous literature results. The relation is remarkably tight, with almost all galaxies being located within a perpendicular distance of ± 0.1 dex from the best fit line. The low observational error budget for our sample enables us to establish that, despite its tightness, the measured linewidth-based BTFR has some small (i.e., non-zero) intrinsic scatter. We furthermore find a systematic difference in the BTFR of galaxies with "double-horned" 21 cm line profiles - suggestive of flat outer galactic rotation curves - and those with "peaked" profiles - suggestive of rising rotation curves. When we restrict our sample of galaxies to objects in the former category, we measure a slightly steeper slope of α = 4.13 ± 0.15. Overall, the high-accuracy measurement of the BTFR presented in this article is intended as a reliable observational benchmark against which to test theoretical expectations. Here we consider a representative set of semi-analytic models and hydrodynamic simulations in the lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) context, as well as modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). In the near future, interferometric follow-up observations of several sample members will enable us to further refine the BTFR measurement, and

  12. Performance of a Micro-Strip Gas Chamber for event wise, high rate thermal neutron detection with accurate 2D position determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mindur, B.; Alimov, S.; Fiutowski, T.; Schulz, C.; Wilpert, T.

    2014-12-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) position sensitive detector for neutron scattering applications based on low-pressure gas amplification and micro-strip technology was built and tested with an innovative readout electronics and data acquisition system. This detector contains a thin solid neutron converter and was developed for time- and thus wavelength-resolved neutron detection in single-event counting mode, which improves the image contrast in comparison with integrating detectors. The prototype detector of a Micro-Strip Gas Chamber (MSGC) was built with a solid natGd/CsI thermal neutron converter for spatial resolutions of about 100 μm and counting rates up to 107 neutrons/s. For attaining very high spatial resolutions and counting rates via micro-strip readout with centre-of-gravity evaluation of the signal amplitude distributions, a fast, channel-wise, self-triggering ASIC was developed. The front-end chips (MSGCROCs), which are very first signal processing components, are read out into powerful ADC-FPGA boards for on-line data processing and thereafter via Gigabit Ethernet link into the data receiving PC. The workstation PC is controlled by a modular, high performance dedicated software suite. Such a fast and accurate system is crucial for efficient radiography/tomography, diffraction or imaging applications based on high flux thermal neutron beam. In this paper a brief description of the detector concept with its operation principles, readout electronics requirements and design together with the signals processing stages performed in hardware and software are presented. In more detail the neutron test beam conditions and measurement results are reported. The focus of this paper is on the system integration, two dimensional spatial resolution, the time resolution of the readout system and the imaging capabilities of the overall setup. The detection efficiency of the detector prototype is estimated as well.

  13. Superintegrable systems with a position dependent mass: Kepler-related and oscillator-related systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rañada, Manuel F.

    2016-06-01

    The superintegrability of two-dimensional Hamiltonians with a position dependent mass (pdm) is studied (the kinetic term contains a factor m that depends of the radial coordinate). First, the properties of Killing vectors are studied and the associated Noether momenta are obtained. Then the existence of several families of superintegrable Hamiltonians is proved and the quadratic integrals of motion are explicitly obtained. These families include, as particular cases, some systems previously obtained making use of different approaches. We also relate the superintegrability of some of these pdm systems with the existence of complex functions endowed with interesting Poisson bracket properties. Finally the relation of these pdm Hamiltonians with the Euclidean Kepler problem and with the Euclidean harmonic oscillator is analyzed.

  14. Uncertainty relations for positive-operator-valued measures

    SciTech Connect

    Massar, Serge

    2007-10-15

    How much unavoidable randomness is generated by a positive-operator-valued measure (POVM)? We address this question using two complementary approaches. First, we study the variance of a real variable associated with the POVM outcomes. In this context we introduce an uncertainty operator which measures how much additional noise is introduced by carrying out a POVM rather than a von Neumann measurement. We illustrate this first approach by studying the variances of joint estimates of {sigma}{sub x} and {sigma}{sub z} for spin-1/2 particles. We show that for unbiased measurements the sum of these variances is lower bounded by 1. In our second approach we study the entropy of the POVM outcomes. In particular, we try to establish lower bounds on the entropy of the POVM outcomes. We illustrate this second approach by examples.

  15. Promoting Positive Youth Development: Relational Data Analysis (RDA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtines, William M.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.; Arango, Lisa Lewis; Kortsch, Gabrielle; Albrecht, Richard; Garcia, Arlene; Ritchie, Rachel; Eichas, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the origins and use of relational data analysis (RDA). RDA is a multidimensional, multiphasic framework for unifying data analytic strategies across dimensions (quantitative/qualitative, causal/structural, observation/interpretation, etc.) and phases of analyses (conceptual, theoretical, and research analyses).…

  16. Detecting measurement-induced relative-position localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knott, P. A.; Sindt, J.; Dunningham, J. A.

    2013-05-01

    The theory of decoherence explains how classicality emerges from an underlying quantum reality. An additional interpretation to this has been proposed in which scattering events induce the localization of relative observables (Rau et al 2003 Science 301 1081). An interesting consequence of this process is that it involves the build-up of certain robust entanglements between the observables being localized. To date the weakness of this interpretation has been the lack of a clear experimental signature that allows it to be tested. Here we provide a simple experimentally accessible scheme that enables just that. We also discuss a Bayesian technique that could, in principle, allow experiments to confirm the localization to any desired degree of accuracy and we present precision requirements that are achievable with current experiments. Finally, we extend the scheme from its initial one dimensional proof of principle to the more real world scenario of three dimensional localization.

  17. Medical device-related hospital-acquired pressure ulcers: development of an evidence-based position statement.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Joyce; Beeson, Terrie; Kitterman, Jessica; Lancaster, Shelley; Shelly, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs) are a problem in the acute care setting causing pain, loss of function, infection, extended hospital stay, and increased costs. In spite of best practice strategies, occurrences of pressure ulcers continue. Many of these HAPUs are related to a medical device. Correct assessment and reporting of device-related HAPUs were identified as an important issue in our organization. Following the Iowa Model for Evidence-Based Practice to Promote Quality Care, a task force was created, a thorough review of current evidence and clinical practice recommendations was performed, and a definition for medical device-related HAPU and an evidence-based position statement were developed. Content of the statement was reviewed by experts and appropriate revisions were made. This position statement provides guidance and structure to accurately identify and report device-related HAPU across our 18 healthcare facilities. Through the intentional focus on pressure ulcer prevention and evidence-based practice in our organization and the use of this position statement, identification and reporting of device-related HAPUs have improved with a decrease in overall HAPU rates of 33% from 2011 and 2012. This article describes the development and implementation of this device-related HAPU position statement within our organization.

  18. An accurate method for evaluating the kernel of the integral equation relating lift to downwash in unsteady potential flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmarais, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    The method is capable of generating approximations of arbitrary accuracy. It is based on approximating the algebraic part of the nonelementary integrals in the kernel by exponential functions and then integrating termwise. The exponent spacing in the approximation is a geometric sequence. The coefficients and exponent multiplier of the exponential approximation are computed by least squares so the method is completely automated. Exponential approximates generated in this manner are two orders of magnitude more accurate than the exponential approximation that is currently most often used for this purpose. The method can be used to generate approximations to attain any desired trade-off between accuracy and computing cost.

  19. You Seem Certain but You Were Wrong Before: Developmental Change in Preschoolers’ Relative Trust in Accurate versus Confident Speakers

    PubMed Central

    Brosseau-Liard, Patricia; Cassels, Tracy; Birch, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The present study tested how preschoolers weigh two important cues to a person’s credibility, namely prior accuracy and confidence, when deciding what to learn and believe. Four- and 5-year-olds (N = 96) preferred to believe information provided by a confident rather than hesitant individual; however, when confidence conflicted with accuracy, preschoolers increasingly favored information from the previously accurate but hesitant individual as they aged. These findings reveal an important developmental progression in how children use others’ confidence and prior accuracy to shape what they learn and provide a window into children’s developing social cognition, scepticism, and critical thinking. PMID:25254553

  20. Negative and Positive Peer Influence: Relations to Positive and Negative Behaviors for African American, European American, and Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Bean, Roy A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of negative and positive peer influence (i.e., indirect peer association and direct peer pressure) as they related to adolescent behavior. Regression analyses were conducted using a sample of African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents (N=1659, M age=16.06,…

  1. The Relations of Parental Warmth and Positive Expressiveness to Children's Empathy-Related Responding and Social Functioning: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Losoya, Sandra H.; Fabes, Richard A.; Reiser, Mark; Guthrie, Ivanna K.; Murphy, Bridget C.; Cumberland, Amanda J.; Shepard, Stephanie A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the concurrent and cross-time relations of parents' warmth and positive expressivity to elementary school children's situational facial and self-reported empathic responding, social competence, and externalizing problems. Found that parents' positive expressivity mediated the relation between parental warmth and children's empathy, and…

  2. Negative and positive peer influence: Relations to positive and negative behaviors for African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Bean, Roy A

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of negative and positive peer influence (i.e., indirect peer association and direct peer pressure) as they related to adolescent behavior. Regression analyses were conducted using a sample of African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents (N=1659, M age=16.06, SD=1.10). The study found differences and similarities in relation to respondents' ethnicity vis-à-vis indirect peer association and adolescent behavior. Although few ethnic-based differences occurred as a function of indirect negative peer association, indirect positive peer association was not as consistently or as strongly related to behaviors for minority youth as it was for European American youth.

  3. Precision Relative Positioning for Automated Aerial Refueling from a Stereo Imaging System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    PRECISION RELATIVE POSITIONING FOR AUTOMATED AERIAL REFUELING FROM A STEREO IMAGING SYSTEM THESIS Kyle P. Werner, 2Lt, USAF AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-048...Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-048 PRECISION RELATIVE POSITIONING FOR AUTOMATED AERIAL...RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-048 PRECISION RELATIVE POSITIONING FOR AUTOMATED AERIAL REFUELING FROM A STEREO IMAGING SYSTEM THESIS

  4. BIOACCESSIBILITY TESTS ACCURATELY ESTIMATE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contaminated soils. Relative bioavailabilities were expressed by comparison with blood Pb concentrations in quail fed a Pb acetate reference diet. Diets containing soil from five Pb-contaminated Superfund sites had relative bioavailabilities from 33%-63%, with a mean of about 50%. Treatment of two of the soils with P significantly reduced the bioavailability of Pb. The bioaccessibility of the Pb in the test soils was then measured in six in vitro tests and regressed on bioavailability. They were: the “Relative Bioavailability Leaching Procedure” (RBALP) at pH 1.5, the same test conducted at pH 2.5, the “Ohio State University In vitro Gastrointestinal” method (OSU IVG), the “Urban Soil Bioaccessible Lead Test”, the modified “Physiologically Based Extraction Test” and the “Waterfowl Physiologically Based Extraction Test.” All regressions had positive slopes. Based on criteria of slope and coefficient of determination, the RBALP pH 2.5 and OSU IVG tests performed very well. Speciation by X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that, on average, most of the Pb in the sampled soils was sorbed to minerals (30%), bound to organic matter 24%, or present as Pb sulfate 18%. Ad

  5. Relative contributions of spatial weighting, explicit knowledge and proprioception to hand localisation during positional ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Bellan, Valeria; Gilpin, Helen R; Stanton, Tasha R; Dagsdóttir, Lilja K; Gallace, Alberto; Lorimer Moseley, G

    2017-02-01

    When vision and proprioception are rendered incongruent during a hand localisation task, vision is initially weighted more than proprioception in determining location, and proprioception gains more weighting over time. However, it is not known whether, under these incongruency conditions, particular areas of space are also weighted more heavily than others, nor whether explicit knowledge of the sensory incongruence (i.e. disconfirming the perceived location of the hand) modulates the effect. Here, we hypothesised that both non-informative inputs coming from one side of space and explicit knowledge of sensory incongruence would modulate perceived location of the limb. Specifically, we expected spatial weighting to shift hand localisation towards the weighted area of space, and we expected greater weighting of proprioceptive input once perceived location was demonstrated to be inaccurate. We manipulated spatial weighting using an established auditory cueing paradigm (Experiment 1, n = 18) and sensory incongruence using the 'disappearing hand trick' (Experiment 2, n = 9). Our first hypothesis was not supported-spatial weighting did not modulate hand localisation. Our second hypothesis was only partially supported-disconfirmation of hand position did lead to more accurate localisations, even if participants were still unaware of their hand position. This raised the possibility that rather than disconfirmation, a simple movement of the hand in view could update the sensory-motor system, by immediately increasing the weighting of proprioceptive input relative to visual input. This third hypothesis was then confirmed (Experiment 3, n = 9). These results suggest that hand localisation is robust in the face of differential weighting of space, but open to modulation in a modality-specific manner, when one sense (vision) is rendered inaccurate.

  6. Accurate Die Design for Automotive Panel Stamping Considering the Compensation Related with Die Deflection and Blank Thinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Xu, Dongkai; Xia, Guodong; Li, Xifeng; Chen, Jieshi; Zhang, Jian; Yan, Wei; Li, Yue

    2011-08-01

    In order to improve assembly accuracy, automotive body panels have to be fabricated with higher dimensional and surface quality requirements, therefore the die faces should be designed more accurately to consider more relevant factors. In the presented study, we proposed algorithms to realize the following functions: through forming process simulation, the thinning distribution on the deformed blank was extracted as first kind of compensation; through die structural CAE analysis which automatically mapped the boundary contact forces onto the die surfaces from process simulation results, the die deflection was calculated as second kind of compensation. These two quantitative contributions were added together to compensate the die face. The proposed methodologies were programmed and integrated with LS-Dyna and HyperWorks, and also integrated with Autoform and CATIA linear CAE functionalities separately. In addition, a software toolkit to calculate the contacting ratio was also developed to evaluate the effectiveness of die face compensation. The second toolkit developed was verified by an automotive structural part forming die design, through die compensation and geometric optimization, the predicted contact ratio between the die face and formed blank was improved a lot, and the first toolkit was testified by a fender drawing die design. It shows that the die face compensation can be realized and integrated seamlessly between CAD model, process simulation model and die structural CAE model with the help of data I/O tools developed by the authors.

  7. Positive and Negative Alcohol-Related Consequences: Associations with Past Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Christine M.; Maggs, Jennifer L.; Neighbors, Clayton; Patrick, Megan E.

    2011-01-01

    While recent attention suggests that positive and negative alcohol-related expectancies are important determinants of alcohol use, less is known about what types of consequences young people report actually experiencing when drinking alcohol. The present study (N = 742, 54% women) examined positive (Fun/Social, Relaxation/Coping, Positive Image)…

  8. A novel fibrosis index comprising a non-cholesterol sterol accurately predicts HCV-related liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Ydreborg, Magdalena; Lisovskaja, Vera; Lagging, Martin; Brehm Christensen, Peer; Langeland, Nina; Buhl, Mads Rauning; Pedersen, Court; Mørch, Kristine; Wejstål, Rune; Norkrans, Gunnar; Lindh, Magnus; Färkkilä, Martti; Westin, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of liver cirrhosis is essential in the management of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Liver biopsy is invasive and thus entails a risk of complications as well as a potential risk of sampling error. Therefore, non-invasive diagnostic tools are preferential. The aim of the present study was to create a model for accurate prediction of liver cirrhosis based on patient characteristics and biomarkers of liver fibrosis, including a panel of non-cholesterol sterols reflecting cholesterol synthesis and absorption and secretion. We evaluated variables with potential predictive significance for liver fibrosis in 278 patients originally included in a multicenter phase III treatment trial for chronic HCV infection. A stepwise multivariate logistic model selection was performed with liver cirrhosis, defined as Ishak fibrosis stage 5-6, as the outcome variable. A new index, referred to as Nordic Liver Index (NoLI) in the paper, was based on the model: Log-odds (predicting cirrhosis) = -12.17+ (age × 0.11) + (BMI (kg/m(2)) × 0.23) + (D7-lathosterol (μg/100 mg cholesterol)×(-0.013)) + (Platelet count (x10(9)/L) × (-0.018)) + (Prothrombin-INR × 3.69). The area under the ROC curve (AUROC) for prediction of cirrhosis was 0.91 (95% CI 0.86-0.96). The index was validated in a separate cohort of 83 patients and the AUROC for this cohort was similar (0.90; 95% CI: 0.82-0.98). In conclusion, the new index may complement other methods in diagnosing cirrhosis in patients with chronic HCV infection.

  9. Substance-related coping, HIV-related factors, and mental health among an HIV-positive sexual minority community sample.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Robert J; Colbourn, Scholar L; Gemberling, Tess M; Graham, James; Stroud, Caroline H

    2015-01-01

    HIV-positive status poses a unique set of social stressors, especially among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons. Among these difficulties are the internalization of HIV-related stigma and poor mental health. Unfortunately, substance use as a coping mechanism is also common, dependent on other demographic factors, among HIV-positive and LGB samples. The present study integrates these bodies of literature by examining main and interactive effects of HIV-related experiences (i.e., disclosure of HIV-positive status, fear of disclosure, HIV-related victimization, and internalized HIV-related stigma) and substance-related coping with discrimination as they impact mental health (i.e., stress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and suicide and self-injury proneness). Participants were 216 HIV-positive LGB community members from an urban community medical clinic. Prominent results included: (1) robust negative effects of internalized HIV-related stigma on all mental health indicators when controlling for other HIV-related experiences and (2) a significant interaction in which substance-related coping significantly increases suicide proneness, only for those who have disclosed HIV-positive status to family or friends. Results are discussed with respect to theoretical perspectives of internalized stigma, implications for clinical work with LGB persons of HIV-positive status, and future research.

  10. The Relative Position Priming Effect Depends on Whether Letters Are Vowels or Consonants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The relative position priming effect is a type of subset priming in which target word recognition is facilitated as a consequence of priming the word with some of its letters, maintaining their relative position (e.g., "csn" as a prime for "casino"). Five experiments were conducted to test whether vowel-only and consonant-only…

  11. Apoptosis-, proliferation, immune function-, and drug resistance- related genes in ER positive, HER2 positive and triple negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kolacinska, A; Chalubinska, J; Zawlik, I; Szymanska, B; Borowska-Garganisz, E; Nowik, M; Fendler, W; Kubiak, R; Pawlowska, Z; Morawiec, Z; Szemraj, J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine an association between gene expression assessed using a 23-gene microarray and receptor status of breast cancer samples categorized as ER positive, HER2 positive and triple negative subtypes. The ER positive cohort was subsequently divided into Luminal A, Luminal B HER2 negative and Luminal B HER2 positive subtypes. Core- needle biopsies were collected from 78 female patients with inoperable locally advanced breast cancer or resectable tumors suitable for downstaging, before any treatment. Expressions of 23 genes were determined by means of TagMan Low Density Arrays. Analysis of variance was used to select genes with discriminatory potential between receptor subtypes. We introduced a correction for false discovery rates (presented as q values) due to testing multiple hypothesis. Pairwise post-hoc comparisons of receptor subtypes were performed using Tukey 's HSD test. Five genes out of a 23-gene microarray differed significantly in relation to breast cancer receptor-based subtypes. Among these five genes, we identified: BCL2 (p=0.0002, q=0.0009), MKI67 (p=0.0037, q=0.0064), IGF1R (p=0.0040, q=0.0064), FOXC1 (p=0.0113, q=0.0135) and IRF1 (p=0.0435, q=0.0416) as ones showing ER positive, HER2 positive and triple negative -subtype specific expression profiles. When incorporating Luminal A, Luminal B HER2 negative, Luminal B HER2 positive subtypes into analysis, four genes: BCL2 (p=0.0006, q=0.0034), MKI67 (p=0.0078, q=0.0198), FOXC1 (p=0.0102, q=0.0198) and IGF1R (p=0.0174, q=0.0254) were selected. Elevated levels of IGF1R and BCL2 were significantly linked with Luminal A subtype. Triple negative breast cancer subtype was associated with higher expression of IRF1, FOXC1 and MKI67. In HER2 positive cohort lower expression of all five analyzed genes was noted.

  12. An Accurate and Fault-Tolerant Target Positioning System for Buildings Using Laser Rangefinders and Low-Cost MEMS-Based MARG Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lin; Guan, Dongxue; Landry, René Jr.; Cheng, Jianhua; Sydorenko, Kostyantyn

    2015-01-01

    Target positioning systems based on MEMS gyros and laser rangefinders (LRs) have extensive prospects due to their advantages of low cost, small size and easy realization. The target positioning accuracy is mainly determined by the LR’s attitude derived by the gyros. However, the attitude error is large due to the inherent noises from isolated MEMS gyros. In this paper, both accelerometer/magnetometer and LR attitude aiding systems are introduced to aid MEMS gyros. A no-reset Federated Kalman Filter (FKF) is employed, which consists of two local Kalman Filters (KF) and a Master Filter (MF). The local KFs are designed by using the Direction Cosine Matrix (DCM)-based dynamic equations and the measurements from the two aiding systems. The KFs can estimate the attitude simultaneously to limit the attitude errors resulting from the gyros. Then, the MF fuses the redundant attitude estimates to yield globally optimal estimates. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the FKF-based system can improve the target positioning accuracy effectively and allow for good fault-tolerant capability. PMID:26512672

  13. Dorsal Premotor Neurons Encode the Relative Position of the Hand, Eye, and Goal during Reach Planning

    PubMed Central

    Pesaran, Bijan; Nelson, Matthew J.; Andersen, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary When reaching to grasp an object, we often move our arm and orient our gaze together. How are these movements coordinated? To investigate this question, we studied neuronal activity in the dorsal premotor area (PMd) and the medial intraparietal area (area MIP) of two monkeys while systematically varying the starting position of the hand and eye during reaching. PMd neurons encoded the relative position of the target, hand, and eye. MIP neurons encoded target location with respect to the eye only. These results indicate that whereas MIP encodes target locations in an eye-centered reference frame, PMd uses a relative position code that specifies the differences in locations between all three variables. Such a relative position code may play an important role in coordinating hand and eye movements by computing their relative position. PMID:16815337

  14. Positive teacher and peer relations combine to predict primary school students' academic skill development.

    PubMed

    Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Pakarinen, Eija; Poskiparta, Elisa; Ahonen, Timo; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-04-01

    This study examined cross-lagged associations between positive teacher and peer relations and academic skill development. Reading and math skills were tested among 625 students in kindergarten and Grade 4. Teacher reports of positive affect toward each student and classmate reports of peer acceptance were gathered in Grades 1-3. The results showed, first, that positive teacher affect toward the student and peer acceptance were reciprocally associated: Positive teacher affect predicted higher peer acceptance, and higher peer acceptance predicted a higher level of positive teacher affect. Second, the effect of positive teacher affect on academic skill development was partly mediated via peer acceptance, while the effect of early academic skills on peer acceptance was partly mediated via positive teacher affect. The results suggest that a warm and supportive teacher can increase a student's peer acceptance, which, in turn, is positively associated with learning outcomes.

  15. Child Temperamental Flexibility Moderates the Relation between Positive Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitz, Jill A.; Drabick, Deborah A.G.; Reynolds, Maureen D.; Clark, Duncan B.; Olino, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Temperamental flexibility and lower positive parenting are associated with internalizing and externalizing problems; however, youth varying in flexibility may be differentially affected by positive parenting in the prediction of symptoms. We examined whether children's flexibility moderated prospective relations between maternal and paternal positive parenting and youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms during adolescence. Participants (N =775, 71% male) and their caregivers completed measures when youth were 10-12 and 12-14 years old. Father positive parenting interacted with child flexibility to predict father-reported internalizing and externalizing problems. Consistent with the diathesis-stress model, children lower in flexibility experienced greater symptoms than children higher in flexibility in lower positive parenting contexts. Among children lower in flexibility, lower paternal positive parenting was associated with greater internalizing and externalizing symptoms compared to higher paternal positive parenting. However, among youth higher in flexibility, symptom levels were similar regardless of whether youth experienced lower or higher paternal positive parenting. PMID:26834305

  16. Learning to write without writing: writing accurate descriptions of interactions after learning graph-printed description relations.

    PubMed

    Spear, Jack; Fields, Lanny

    2015-12-01

    Interpreting and describing complex information shown in graphs are essential skills to be mastered by students in many disciplines; both are skills that are difficult to learn. Thus, interventions that produce these outcomes are of great value. Previous research showed that conditional discrimination training that established stimulus control by some elements of graphs and their printed descriptions produced some improvement in the accuracy of students' written descriptions of graphs. In the present experiment, students wrote nearly perfect descriptions of the information conveyed in interaction-based graphs after the establishment of conditional relations between graphs and their printed descriptions. This outcome was achieved with the use of special conditional discrimination training procedures that required participants to attend to many of the key elements of the graphs and the phrases in the printed descriptions that corresponded to the elements in the graphs. Thus, students learned to write full descriptions of the information represented by complex graphs by an automated training procedure that did not involve the direct training of writing.

  17. Accurate quantitation of Ki67-positive proliferating hepatocytes in rabbit liver by a multicolor immunohistochemical (IHC) approach analyzed with automated tissue and cell segmentation software.

    PubMed

    van der Loos, Chris M; de Boer, Onno J; Mackaaij, Claire; Hoekstra, Lisette T; van Gulik, Thomas M; Verheij, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Determination of hepatocyte proliferation activity is hampered by the presence of Ki67-positive non-parenchymal cells. We validated a multicolor immunohistochemical (IHC) approach using multispectral tissue and cell segmentation software. Portal vein branches to the cranial liver lobes of 10 rabbits were embolized, leading to atrophy of the cranial lobes and hyperplasia of the caudal lobes. Slides from cranial and caudal lobes (n=20) were double-stained (CK8+18 and Ki67) and triple-stained (CK8+18, Ki67, and CD31). The Ki67 proliferation index was calculated using automated tissue and cell segmentation software and compared with manual counting by two independent observers. A substantial variation was seen in the number of Ki67-positive hepatocytes in the different specimens in both double and triple staining (range, 0-50). Correlation coefficients between manual counting and the digital analysis were 0.76 for observer 1 (p<0.001) and 0.78 for observer 2 (p<0.001) with double staining and R(2) = 0.91 for observer 1 and R(2) = 0.89 for observer 2, p<0.001 with triple staining. In conclusion, in rabbit, the hepatocellular proliferation index can be reliably determined using automated tissue and cell segmentation software in combination with IHC multiple staining. Our findings may be useful in clinical practice when Ki67 proliferation index yields prognostic significance.

  18. Accurate mean-field modeling of the Barkhausen noise power in ferromagnetic materials, using a positive-feedback theory of ferromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. G.

    2015-07-01

    A mean-field positive-feedback (PFB) theory of ferromagnetism is used to explain the origin of Barkhausen noise (BN) and to show why it is most pronounced in the irreversible regions of the hysteresis loop. By incorporating the ABBM-Sablik model of BN into the PFB theory, we obtain analytical solutions that simultaneously describe both the major hysteresis loop and, by calculating separate expressions for the differential susceptibility in the irreversible and reversible regions, the BN power response at all points of the loop. The PFB theory depends on summing components of the applied field, in particular, the non-monotonic field-magnetization relationship characterizing hysteresis, associated with physical processes occurring in the material. The resulting physical model is then validated by detailed comparisons with measured single-peak BN data in three different steels. It also agrees with the well-known influence of a demagnetizing field on the position and shape of these peaks. The results could form the basis of a physics-based method for modeling and understanding the significance of the observed single-peak (and in multi-constituent materials, multi-peak) BN envelope responses seen in contemporary applications of BN, such as quality control in manufacturing, non-destructive testing, and monitoring the microstructural state of ferromagnetic materials.

  19. Physical Demands of Top-Class Soccer Friendly Matches in Relation to a Playing Position Using Global Positioning System Technology.

    PubMed

    Mallo, Javier; Mena, Esteban; Nevado, Fabio; Paredes, Víctor

    2015-09-29

    The aim of this study was to examine the physical demands imposed on professional soccer players during 11-a-side friendly matches in relation to their playing position, using global positioning system (GPS) technology. One hundred and eleven match performances of a Spanish "La Liga" team during the 2010-11 and 2011-12 pre-seasons were selected for analysis. The activities of the players were monitored using GPS technology with a sampling frequency of 1 Hz. Total distance covered, distance in different speed categories, accelerations, and heart rate responses were analyzed in relation to five different playing positions: central defenders (n=23), full-backs (n=20), central midfielders (n=22), wide midfielders (n=26), and forwards (n=20). Distance covered during a match averaged 10.8 km, with wide and central midfielders covering the greatest total distance. Specifically, wide midfielders covered the greatest distances by very high-intensity running (>19.8 km·h-1) and central midfielders by jogging and running (7.2-19.7 km·h-1). On the other hand, central defenders covered the least total distance and at high intensity, although carried out more (p<0.05-0.01) accelerations than forwards, wide midfielders, and fullbacks. The work rate profile of the players obtained with the GPS was very similar to that obtained with semi-automatic image technologies. However, when comparing results from this study with data available in the literature, important differences were detected in the amount of distance covered by sprinting, which suggests that caution should be taken when comparing data obtained with the GPS with other motion analysis systems, especially regarding high-intensity activities.

  20. Physical Demands of Top-Class Soccer Friendly Matches in Relation to a Playing Position Using Global Positioning System Technology

    PubMed Central

    Mallo, Javier; Mena, Esteban; Nevado, Fabio; Paredes, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the physical demands imposed on professional soccer players during 11-a-side friendly matches in relation to their playing position, using global positioning system (GPS) technology. One hundred and eleven match performances of a Spanish “La Liga” team during the 2010–11 and 2011–12 pre-seasons were selected for analysis. The activities of the players were monitored using GPS technology with a sampling frequency of 1 Hz. Total distance covered, distance in different speed categories, accelerations, and heart rate responses were analyzed in relation to five different playing positions: central defenders (n=23), full-backs (n=20), central midfielders (n=22), wide midfielders (n=26), and forwards (n=20). Distance covered during a match averaged 10.8 km, with wide and central midfielders covering the greatest total distance. Specifically, wide midfielders covered the greatest distances by very high-intensity running (>19.8 km·h-1) and central midfielders by jogging and running (7.2–19.7 km·h-1). On the other hand, central defenders covered the least total distance and at high intensity, although carried out more (p<0.05–0.01) accelerations than forwards, wide midfielders, and fullbacks. The work rate profile of the players obtained with the GPS was very similar to that obtained with semi-automatic image technologies. However, when comparing results from this study with data available in the literature, important differences were detected in the amount of distance covered by sprinting, which suggests that caution should be taken when comparing data obtained with the GPS with other motion analysis systems, especially regarding high-intensity activities. PMID:26557202

  1. The relations of parental warmth and positive expressiveness to children's empathy-related responding and social functioning: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Losoya, Sandra H; Fabes, Richard A; Reiser, Mark; Guthrie, Ivanna K; Murphy, Bridget C; Cumberland, Amanda J; Shepard, Stephanie A

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the concurrent and cross-time relations of parental observed warmth and positive expressivity to children's situational facial and self-reported empathic responding, social competence, and externalizing problems in a sample of 180 elementary school children. Data was collected when the children were in second to fifth grades (age: M = 112.8 months), and again 2 years later. Cross-sectional and longitudinal structural equation models supported the hypothesis that parents' (mostly mothers') positive expressivity mediated the relation between parental warmth and children's empathy, and children's empathy mediated the relation between parental positive expressivity and children's social functioning. These relations persisted after controlling for prior levels of parenting and child characteristics. Moreover, concurrent and cross-time consistencies were found on measures of parenting, children's situational empathic responding, and social functioning.

  2. Positive Teacher and Peer Relations Combine to Predict Primary School Students' Academic Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Pakarinen, Eija; Poskiparta, Elisa; Ahonen, Timo; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This study examined cross-lagged associations between positive teacher and peer relations and academic skill development. Reading and math skills were tested among 625 students in kindergarten and Grade 4. Teacher reports of positive affect toward each student and classmate reports of peer acceptance were gathered in Grades 1-3. The results…

  3. Relative importance and utility of positive worker states: a review and empirical examination.

    PubMed

    Steele, John P; Rupayana, Disha D; Mills, Maura J; Smith, Michael R; Wefald, Andrew; Downey, Ronald G

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to identity the unique contribution, relative importance, and utility of positive worker states. Using Luthans et al.'s (2007) five positive organizational behavior criteria, a variety of positive worker states were reviewed and then empirically tested to establish if they met these criteria. Data were collected from 724 restaurant employees. Positive worker states included: job involvement, perceived organizational support, engagement, and vigor. Criteria were self-reported performance, customer service, turnover intention, satisfaction, and quality of life. Our review indicated consistency between predictor adequacy of meeting the criteria and their empirical relationship with key outcomes. This research found the positive worker states to be independent constructs that had differential effects depending on the focused outcome. Regression and relative weights analyses showed involvement was a weak predictor of outcomes, while perceived organizational support was the most consistent predictor. Vigor was most useful when predicting job performance. Quality of life was poorly explained.

  4. Mediofrontal event-related potentials in response to positive, negative and unsigned prediction errors.

    PubMed

    Sambrook, Thomas D; Goslin, Jeremy

    2014-08-01

    Reinforcement learning models make use of reward prediction errors (RPEs), the difference between an expected and obtained reward. There is evidence that the brain computes RPEs, but an outstanding question is whether positive RPEs ("better than expected") and negative RPEs ("worse than expected") are represented in a single integrated system. An electrophysiological component, feedback related negativity, has been claimed to encode an RPE but its relative sensitivity to the utility of positive and negative RPEs remains unclear. This study explored the question by varying the utility of positive and negative RPEs in a design that controlled for other closely related properties of feedback and could distinguish utility from salience. It revealed a mediofrontal sensitivity to utility, for positive RPEs at 275-310ms and for negative RPEs at 310-390ms. These effects were preceded and succeeded by a response consistent with an unsigned prediction error, or "salience" coding.

  5. Age-related deficit in a bimanual joint position matching task is amplitude dependent

    PubMed Central

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P.; Swinnen, Stephan P.

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive load associated with joint position sense increases with age but does not necessarily result in impaired performance in a joint position matching task. It is still unclear which factors interact with age to predict matching performance. To test whether movement amplitude and direction are part of such predictors, young and older adults performed a bimanual wrist joint position matching task. Results revealed an age-related deficit when the target limb was positioned far from (25°) the neutral position, but not when close to (15°, 5°) the neutral joint position, irrespective of the direction. These results suggest that the difficulty associated with the comparison of two musculoskeletal states increases towards extreme joint amplitude and that older adults are more vulnerable to this increased difficulty. PMID:26347649

  6. Does a Positive Bias Relate to Social Behavior in Children with ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnea, Kate; Hoza, Betsy; Tomb, Meghan; Kaiser, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether positively biased self-perceptions relate to social behaviors in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as compared to control children. The social behaviors of children with ADHD (n = 87) were examined relative to control children (CTL; n = 38) during a laboratory-based dyadic social interaction…

  7. Exact expressions and accurate approximations for the dependences of radius and index of refraction of solutions of inorganic solutes on relative humidity

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, E.R.; Schwartz, S.

    2010-03-15

    Light scattering by aerosols plays an important role in Earth’s radiative balance, and quantification of this phenomenon is important in understanding and accounting for anthropogenic influences on Earth’s climate. Light scattering by an aerosol particle is determined by its radius and index of refraction, and for aerosol particles that are hygroscopic, both of these quantities vary with relative humidity RH. Here exact expressions are derived for the dependences of the radius ratio (relative to the volume-equivalent dry radius) and index of refraction on RH for aqueous solutions of single solutes. Both of these quantities depend on the apparent molal volume of the solute in solution and on the practical osmotic coefficient of the solution, which in turn depend on concentration and thus implicitly on RH. Simple but accurate approximations are also presented for the RH dependences of both radius ratio and index of refraction for several atmospherically important inorganic solutes over the entire range of RH values for which these substances can exist as solution drops. For all substances considered, the radius ratio is accurate to within a few percent, and the index of refraction to within ~0.02, over this range of RH. Such parameterizations will be useful in radiation transfer models and climate models.

  8. Modeling the Behavior of an Underwater Acoustic Relative Positioning System Based on Complementary Set of Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Aparicio, Joaquín; Jiménez, Ana; Álvarez, Fernando J.; Ureña, Jesús; De Marziani, Carlos; Diego, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The great variability usually found in underwater media makes modeling a challenging task, but helpful for better understanding or predicting the performance of future deployed systems. In this work, an underwater acoustic propagation model is presented. This model obtains the multipath structure by means of the ray tracing technique. Using this model, the behavior of a relative positioning system is presented. One of the main advantages of relative positioning systems is that only the distances between all the buoys are needed to obtain their positions. In order to obtain the distances, the propagation times of acoustic signals coded by Complementary Set of Sequences (CSS) are used. In this case, the arrival instants are obtained by means of correlation processes. The distances are then used to obtain the position of the buoys by means of the Multidimensional Scaling Technique (MDS). As an early example of an application using this relative positioning system, a tracking of the position of the buoys at different times is performed. With this tracking, the surface current of a particular region could be studied. The performance of the system is evaluated in terms of the distance from the real position to the estimated one. PMID:22247661

  9. The Effects of Cadaver Orientation on the Relative Position of the Abdominal Organs

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Meghan K.; Hardy, Warren N.; Beillas, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Biplane x-ray was used to image two cadavers in upright and inverted postures, and the three-dimensional variation in the relative abdominal organ position was quantified. The abdominal organs of each surrogate were instrumented with radiopaque markers using a minimally invasive approach. Imaging was performed with a known stomach volume, with residual air removed from the abdominal cavity, and with ventilation and perfusion. Marker positions were determined in two planar x-ray perspectives using target tracking software and projected into calibrated three-dimensional coordinates. Intuitive changes in organ position were observed with the effect of gravity in the upright orientation; in the superior-inferior direction, the separation between the most cranial and caudal diaphragm and liver markers was 95 mm to 169 mm. When inverted, the abdominal organs shifted cranially and fell within 66 to 81 mm in the superior-inferior direction. The relative change in position of the diaphragm markers, determined as the vector magnitude from the upright to the inverted position, was 99 to 121 mm. These data were scaled and compared to positional MRI data from nine human subjects in seated postures and the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) model geometry. The overall shapes and relative positions of the inverted cadaver organs compared better to the human subjects and model geometry. These results give rise to several issues for consideration when interpreting cadaver test results and comparing them to finite element simulations and their associated injury prediction abilities. PMID:24406959

  10. Fast and accurate determination of the relative binding affinities of small compounds to HIV-1 protease using non-equilibrium work.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Son Tung; Hung, Huynh Minh; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2016-12-05

    The fast pulling ligand (FPL) out of binding cavity using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations was demonstrated to be a rapid, accurate and low CPU demand method for the determination of the relative binding affinities of a large number of HIV-1 protease (PR) inhibitors. In this approach, the ligand is pulled out of the binding cavity of the protein using external harmonic forces, and the work of pulling force corresponds to the relative binding affinity of HIV-1 PR inhibitor. The correlation coefficient between the pulling work and the experimental binding free energy of R=-0.95 shows that FPL results are in good agreement with experiment. It is thus easier to rank the binding affinities of HIV-1 PR inhibitors, that have similar binding affinities because the mean error bar of pulling work amounts to δW=7%. The nature of binding is discovered using the FPL approach. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Relational aggression, positive urgency and negative urgency: predicting alcohol use and consequences among college students.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Elizabeth M; Napper, Lucy E; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2014-09-01

    Research on relational aggression (indirect and social means of inflicting harm) has previously focused on adolescent populations. The current study extends this research by exploring both the frequency of perpetrating and being the target of relational aggression as it relates to alcohol use outcomes in a college population. Further, this study examines whether positive urgency (e.g., acting impulsively in response to positive emotions) and negative urgency (e.g., acting impulsively in response to negative emotions) moderate the relationship between relational aggression and alcohol outcomes. In this study, 245 college students (65.7% female) completed an online survey. Results indicated greater frequency of perpetrating relational aggression, higher levels of positive urgency, or higher levels of negative urgency was associated with more negative consequences. Further, negative urgency moderated the relationship between frequency of perpetrating aggression and consequences such that aggression was more strongly associated with consequences for those high in urgency. Counter to the adolescent literature, the frequency of being the target of aggression was not associated with more alcohol use. These findings suggest that perpetrators of relational aggression may be at particular risk for negative alcohol-related consequences when they act impulsively in response to negative, but not positive, emotions. These students may benefit from interventions exploring alternative ways to cope with negative emotions.

  12. Supine position related obstructive sleep apnea in adults: pathogenesis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Joosten, Simon A; O'Driscoll, Denise M; Berger, Philip J; Hamilton, Garun S

    2014-02-01

    The most striking feature of obstructive respiratory events is that they are at their most severe and frequent in the supine sleeping position: indeed, more than half of all obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients can be classified as supine related OSA. Existing evidence points to supine related OSA being attributable to unfavorable airway geometry, reduced lung volume, and an inability of airway dilator muscles to adequately compensate as the airway collapses. The role of arousal threshold and ventilatory control instability in the supine position has however yet to be defined. Crucially, few physiological studies have examined patients in the lateral and supine positions, so there is little information to elucidate how breathing stability is affected by sleep posture. The mechanisms of supine related OSA can be overcome by the use of continuous positive airway pressure. There are conflicting data on the utility of oral appliances, while the effectiveness of weight loss and nasal expiratory resistance remains unclear. Avoidance of the supine posture is efficacious, but long term compliance data and well powered randomized controlled trials are lacking. The treatment of supine related OSA remains largely ignored in major clinical guidelines. Supine OSA is the dominant phenotype of the OSA syndrome. This review explains why the supine position so favors upper airway collapse and presents the available data on the management of patients with supine related OSA.

  13. Positive bias in self-appraisals from friend's perspective: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Li, Shifeng; Xu, Kepeng; Xu, Qiongying; Xia, Ruixue; Ren, Deyun; Zhou, Aibao

    2016-06-15

    The present study investigated how positive bias in self-appraisals is differentially modulated when taking a friend's versus a stranger's perspective. Reaction time and event-related potentials were recorded while the participants performed a self-descriptiveness task with positive and negative trait adjectives from one's own perspective, a friend's perspective, or a stranger's perspective. The results showed that faster reaction times and reduced N400 amplitudes were induced by positive relative to negative words both in the self-perspective and friend-perspective conditions, but not in the stranger-perspective condition. This suggests that the perceived closeness between oneself and the other may modulate the neural basis of positive bias in self-appraisals during perspective taking.

  14. Age and breeding success related to nest position in a White stork Ciconia ciconia colony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergara, Pablo; Aguirre, José I.

    2006-11-01

    Coloniality is a breeding system that may produce benefits in terms of breeding success, although these advantages could vary according to factors such as colony size or nest position. We studied breeder's age in relation to nest position (peripheral or central) within the colony. In addition, we studied the relationship between breeding success and nest position, controlling for breeder's age, a highly correlated factor, in a White Stork Ciconia ciconia colony over a 7-year period. Our results show that central nests are mainly occupied by adult birds and had lower failure rates. However, controlling for breeder's age, nest position per se did not explain breeding success. The scarce predation and the lack of human disturbance in the study colony could explain the absence of differences in breeding success between different nest positions within the colony.

  15. Estimating the relative position of risperidone primary binding site in Sera Albumins. Modeling from spectrofluorimetric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortez, Celia Martins; Fragoso, Viviane Muniz S.; Silva, Dilson

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we used a mathematical model to study the interaction of risperidone with human and bovine serum albumins estimating the relative position of the primary binding site, based on the fluorescence quenching theory. Results have shown that the model was able to demonstrate that primary binding site for risperidone in HSA and BSA is very close to the position where is tryptophan 134 of BSA, possibly in domain 1B.

  16. Income and Well-Being: Relative Income and Absolute Income Weaken Negative Emotion, but Only Relative Income Improves Positive Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zonghuo; Chen, Li

    2016-01-01

    Whether relative income or absolute income could affect subjective well-being has been a bone of contention for years. Life satisfaction and the relative frequency of positive and negative emotions are parts of subjective well-being. According to the prospect theory, hedonic adaptation helps to explain why positive emotion is often so hard to be maintained, and negative emotion wouldn’t be easy to be eliminated. So we expect the relationship between income and positive emotion is different from that between income and negative emotion. Given that regional reference is the main comparison mechanism, effects of regional average income on regional average subjective well-being should be potentially zero if only relative income matters. Using multilevel analysis, we tested the hypotheses with a dataset of 30,144 individuals from 162 counties in China. The results suggested that household income at the individual level is associated with life satisfaction, happiness and negative emotions. On the contrary, at a county level, household income is only associated with negative emotion. In other words, happiness and life satisfaction was only associated with relative income, but negative emotion was associated with relative income and absolute income. Without social comparison, income doesn’t improve happiness, but it could weaken negative emotion. Therefore, it is possible for economic growth to weaken negative emotion without improving happiness. These findings also contribute to the current debate about the “Esterling paradox.” PMID:28066312

  17. Income and Well-Being: Relative Income and Absolute Income Weaken Negative Emotion, but Only Relative Income Improves Positive Emotion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zonghuo; Chen, Li

    2016-01-01

    Whether relative income or absolute income could affect subjective well-being has been a bone of contention for years. Life satisfaction and the relative frequency of positive and negative emotions are parts of subjective well-being. According to the prospect theory, hedonic adaptation helps to explain why positive emotion is often so hard to be maintained, and negative emotion wouldn't be easy to be eliminated. So we expect the relationship between income and positive emotion is different from that between income and negative emotion. Given that regional reference is the main comparison mechanism, effects of regional average income on regional average subjective well-being should be potentially zero if only relative income matters. Using multilevel analysis, we tested the hypotheses with a dataset of 30,144 individuals from 162 counties in China. The results suggested that household income at the individual level is associated with life satisfaction, happiness and negative emotions. On the contrary, at a county level, household income is only associated with negative emotion. In other words, happiness and life satisfaction was only associated with relative income, but negative emotion was associated with relative income and absolute income. Without social comparison, income doesn't improve happiness, but it could weaken negative emotion. Therefore, it is possible for economic growth to weaken negative emotion without improving happiness. These findings also contribute to the current debate about the "Esterling paradox."

  18. Assessment of mangrove response to projected relative sea-level rise and recent historical reconstruction of shoreline position.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Eric; Ellison, Joanna; Coleman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    We predict the decadal change in position of three American Samoa mangroves from analysis of a time series of remotely sensed imagery, a geographic information system, tide gauge data, and projections for change in sea-level relative to the mangrove surface. Accurate predictions of changes to coastal ecosystem boundaries, including in response to projected relative sea-level rise, enable advanced planning to minimize and offset anticipated losses and minimize social disruption and cost of reducing threats to coastal development and human safety. The observed mean landward migration of three mangroves' seaward margins over four decades was 25, 64, and 72 mma(-1), 12 to 37 times the observed relative sea-level rise rate. Two of the sites had clear trends in reductions in mangrove area, where there was a highly significant correlation between the change in position of the seaward mangrove margin and change in relative sea-level. Here it can be inferred that the force of sea-level rise relative to the mangrove surface is causing landward migration. Shoreline movement was variable at a third site and not significantly correlated with changing sea-level, where it is likely that forces other than change in relative sea-level are predominant. Currently, 16.5%, 23.4%, and 68.0% of the three mangroves' landward margins are obstructed by coastal development from natural landward migration. The three mangroves could experience as high as a 50.0% reduction in area by the year 2100. A 12% reduction in mangrove area by the year 2100 is possible in the Pacific islands region.

  19. Approach Motivation as Incentive Salience: Perceptual Sources of Evidence in Relation to Positive Word Primes

    PubMed Central

    Ode, Scott; Winters, Patricia L.; Robinson, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments (total N = 391) examined predictions derived from a biologically-based incentive salience theory of approach motivation. In all experiments, judgments indicative of enhanced perceptual salience were exaggerated in the context of positive, relative to neutral or negative, stimuli. In Experiments 1 and 2, positive words were judged to be of a larger size (Experiment 1) and led individuals to judge subsequently presented neutral objects as larger in size (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, similar effects were observed in a mock subliminal presentation paradigm. In Experiment 4, positive word primes were perceived to have been presented for a longer duration of time, again relative to both neutral and negative word primes. Results are discussed in relation to theories of approach motivation, affective priming, and the motivation-perception interface. PMID:21875189

  20. Approach motivation as incentive salience: perceptual sources of evidence in relation to positive word primes.

    PubMed

    Ode, Scott; Winters, Patricia L; Robinson, Michael D

    2012-02-01

    Four experiments (total N = 391) examined predictions derived from a biologically based incentive salience theory of approach motivation. In all experiments, judgments indicative of enhanced perceptual salience were exaggerated in the context of positive, relative to neutral or negative, stimuli. In Experiments 1 and 2, positive words were judged to be of a larger size (Experiment 1) and led individuals to judge subsequently presented neutral objects as larger in size (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, similar effects were observed in a mock subliminal presentation paradigm. In Experiment 4, positive word primes were perceived to have been presented for a longer duration of time, again relative to both neutral and negative word primes. Results are discussed in relation to theories of approach motivation, affective priming, and the motivation-perception interface.

  1. Relative positioning-based system with tau control for collision avoidance in swarming application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahiki, M. R.; Talib, N. N. A.; Azrad, S.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a relative positioning system by fusing infrared and ultrasonic range sensors data is employed to provide a more reliable relative distance data between quadcopters to achieve close proximity formation flight. This is due to lack of accuracy of positioning data from GPS due to its error of two to five meters. A leader-follower formation control strategy is used to control the distance between the quadcopters by applying data from the relative positioning system. An experiment to test the capability of the proposed strategy was done in the test platform environment equipped with Optitrack motion capture camera. Tau control was implemented as a braking system for the follower to avoid aggressive maneuvers that will make the quadcopters having high pitch along the formation control, which will affect the range detection of sensors. It has been proven from the results that close proximity formation flight is able to be achieved.

  2. Effect of head and jaw position on respiratory-related motion of the genioglossus.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mingshu; Brown, Elizabeth C; Hatt, Alice; Cheng, Shaokoon; Bilston, Lynne E

    2016-04-01

    Head and jaw position influence upper airway patency and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the main upper airway dilator muscle, the genioglossus. However, it is not known whether changes in genioglossus EMG activity translate into altered muscle movement during respiration. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of head and jaw position on dilatory motion of the genioglossus in healthy adult men during quiet breathing by measuring the displacement of the posterior tongue in six positions--neutral, head extension, head rotation, head flexion, mouth opening, and mandibular advancement. Respiratory-related motion of the genioglossus was imaged with spatial modulation of magnetization (SPAMM) in 12 awake male participants. Tissue displacement was quantified with harmonic phase (HARP) analysis. The genioglossus moved anteriorly beginning immediately before or during inspiration, and there was greater movement in the oropharynx than in the velopharynx in all positions. Anterior displacements of the oropharyngeal tongue varied between neutral head position (0.81 ± 0.41 mm), head flexion (0.62 ± 0.45 mm), extension (0.39 ± 0.19 mm), axial rotation (0.39 ± 0.2 mm), mouth open (1.24 ± 0.72 mm), and mandibular advancement (1.08 ± 0.65 mm). Anteroposterior displacement increased in the mouth-open position and decreased in the rotated position relative to cross-sectional area (CSA) (P = 0.002 and 0.02, respectively), but CSA did not independently predict anteroposterior movement overall (P = 0.057). The findings of this study suggest that head position influences airway dilation during inspiration and may contribute to variation in airway patency in different head positions.

  3. How social position of origin relates to intelligence and level of education when adjusting for attained social position.

    PubMed

    Sorjonen, Kimmo; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Lundin, Andreas; Melin, Bo

    2011-06-01

    Intelligence and its relationship to achievement is a classical question within psychology. In accordance with earlier British studies, the present study, based on conscription data and follow-ups for Swedish men born 1949-51 (N = 36,156), found that when adjusting for attained social position, people with a high social position of origin tend to have higher intelligence and level of education than people with a lower social position of origin. These results could be seen to contradict the claim that more merit, at least when operationalized as intelligence or education, is required from people with a low social position of origin in order to attain a certain social level.

  4. Positive affect and health-related neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and inflammatory processes.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, Andrew; Wardle, Jane; Marmot, Michael

    2005-05-03

    Negative affective states such as depression are associated with premature mortality and increased risk of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and disability. It has been suggested that positive affective states are protective, but the pathways through which such effects might be mediated are poorly understood. Here we show that positive affect in middle-aged men and women is associated with reduced neuroendocrine, inflammatory, and cardiovascular activity. Positive affect was assessed by aggregating momentary experience samples of happiness over a working day and was inversely related to cortisol output over the day, independently of age, gender, socioeconomic position, body mass, and smoking. Similar patterns were observed on a leisure day. Happiness was also inversely related to heart rate assessed by using ambulatory monitoring methods over the day. Participants underwent mental stress testing in the laboratory, where plasma fibrinogen stress responses were smaller in happier individuals. These effects were independent of psychological distress, supporting the notion that positive well-being is directly related to health-relevant biological processes.

  5. Quality of social experience explains the relation between extraversion and positive affect.

    PubMed

    Smillie, Luke D; Wilt, Joshua; Kabbani, Rachel; Garratt, Claire; Revelle, William

    2015-06-01

    The personality trait extraversion is associated with higher positive affect, and individuals who behave in an extraverted way experience increased positive affect. Across 2 studies, we examine whether the positive affectivity of extraverts can be explained in terms of qualitative aspects of social experience resulting from extraverted (i.e., bold, assertive) behavior. In our first study (N = 225, 58% female), we found that social well-being, a broad measure of quality of social life (Keyes, 1998) was a significant mediator of the relation between trait extraversion and trait positive affect. This effect was specific to 1 aspect of social well-being-social contribution, one's sense of making an impact on one's social world. In our second study (N = 81, 75% female), we found that a momentary assessment of social well-being mediated the effect of experimentally manipulated extraverted behavior (in the context of 2 brief discussion tasks) on state positive affect. Furthermore, perceived contribution to the discussion tasks accounted for up to 70% of the effect of enacted extraversion on positive affect. This is the first identified mediator of the effect of enacted extraversion on positive affect. Implications and suggestions for extensions of this research are discussed.

  6. Relative position finite-time coordinated tracking control of spacecraft formation without velocity measurements.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinglei; Zhang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates finite-time relative position coordinated tracking problem by output feedback for spacecraft formation flying without velocity measurement. By employing homogeneous system theory, a finite-time relative position coordinated tracking controller by state feedback is firstly developed, where the desired time-varying trajectory given in advance can be tracked by the formation. Then, to address the problem of lack of velocity measurements, a finite-time output feedback controller is proposed by involving a novel filter to recover unknown velocity information in a finite time. Rigorous proof shows that the proposed control law ensures global stability and guarantees the position of spacecraft formation to track a time-varying reference in finite time. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed controller.

  7. Positive Relational Management for Healthy Organizations: Psychometric Properties of a New Scale for Prevention for Workers

    PubMed Central

    Di Fabio, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    This contribution aims at evaluating the psychometric properties of the Positive Relational Management Scale (PRMS) in a sample of 251 Italian workers. The dimensionality, reliability, and concurrent validity of the scale were investigated. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a correlated three-dimensional version of the scale, comprising Respect, Caring, and Connectedness. Latent correlations among the dimensions were moderate-to-strong (0.44–0.57), but suggestive of the multidimensionality of the scores. In addition, good internal consistency was confirmed. The concurrent validity is good as the Pearson’s correlations between PRMS and measure for social support, life satisfaction, life meaningfulness, and flourishing range from 0.39 to 0.52. The results indicate that the PRMS is a valid instrument for measuring positive relational management at work in the Italian context within a positive preventive perspective. PMID:27790163

  8. Greater Emotional Gain from Giving in Older Adults: Age-Related Positivity Bias in Charitable Giving

    PubMed Central

    Bjälkebring, Pär; Västfjäll, Daniel; Dickert, Stephan; Slovic, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Older adults have been shown to avoid negative and prefer positive information to a higher extent than younger adults. This positivity bias influences their information processing as well as decision-making. We investigate age-related positivity bias in charitable giving in two studies. In Study 1 we examine motivational factors in monetary donations, while Study 2 focuses on the emotional effect of actual monetary donations. In Study 1, participants (n = 353, age range 20–74 years) were asked to rate their affect toward a person in need and then state how much money they would be willing to donate to help this person. In Study 2, participants (n = 108, age range 19–89) were asked to rate their affect toward a donation made a few days prior. Regression analysis was used to investigate whether or not the positivity bias influences the relationship between affect and donations. In Study 1, we found that older adults felt more sympathy and compassion and were less motivated by negative affect when compared to younger adults, who were motivated by both negative and positive affect. In Study 2, we found that the level of positive emotional reactions from monetary donations was higher in older participants compared to younger participants. We find support for an age-related positivity bias in charitable giving. This is true for motivation to make a future donation, as well as affective thinking about a previous donation. We conclude that older adults draw more positive affect from both the planning and outcome of monetary donations and hence benefit more from engaging in monetary charity than their younger counterparts. PMID:27378966

  9. Negative Cognitive Errors and Positive Illusions: Moderators of Relations between Divorce Events and Children's Psychological Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Elizabeth; Wolchik, Sharlene

    Building on prior literature on adults' and children's appraisals of stressors, this study investigated relations among negative and positive appraisal biases, negative divorce events, and children's post-divorce adjustment. Subjects were 79 custodial nonremarried mothers and their children ages 9 to 13 who had experienced parental divorce within…

  10. Toddlers' Temperament Profiles: Stability and Relations to Negative and Positive Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Akker, Alithe L.; Dekovic, Maja; Prinzie, Peter; Asscher, Jessica J.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the type and stability of temperament profiles in toddlers, and relations of profile probability to negative and positive parenting trajectories. Mothers (N = 96) rated their child's (41 girls and 54 boys) Sociability, Anger Proneness, and Activity Level four times during 1 year. The assessment of parenting included both…

  11. BDS/GPS relative positioning for long baseline with undifferenced observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min; Cai, Hongzhou; Pan, Zongpeng

    2015-01-01

    Before and after the official beginning of Beidou navigation satellite system (BDS) regional service on December 27, 2012, many applications based on BDS such as real-time kinematic (RTK) and precise point positioning (PPP) with real data have been considered in the literatures. However, lack of precise satellite antenna correction and relatively low quality of BDS orbit and clock product is an obstacle for PPP and relative positioning over long baseline using BDS observations. In this paper, the Double Station Observation Processing (DSOP) method that directly uses undifferenced data is applied to relative positioning. By estimating the satellite clock offsets on-the-fly, the satellite dependent unmodelled error can be compensated. Moreover, the direct use of undifferenced observation makes the method easy to implement and flexible to adapt observations of multiple systems. Experiment results demonstrate that relative positioning based on BDS observations can be achieved at centimeter accuracy level which is better than conventional PPP results with limited computation burden increase. These results also indicate the promising potential of BDS to develop real-time service.

  12. "Ways of Knowing" in Doctoral Examination: How Examiners Position Themselves in Relation to the Doctoral Candidate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovat, Terence

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses ways in which examiners position themselves in relation to doctoral students' knowledge. The epistemological thesis of Habermas is utilized and its well-established connections with the world of formal learning re-stated. Against this conceptual framework, the examiner reports are appraised with a view to identifying the ways…

  13. Evaluating Programs Aimed at Promoting Positive Youth Development: A Relational Development Systems-Based View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M.; Lerner, Jacqueline V.; Urban, Jennifer Brown; Zaff, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Whether discussing the process involved in positive youth development (PYD), articulating an approach (or philosophy) of youth programs associated with PYD, or enacting a program aimed at promoting PYD, ideas derived from relational developmental systems (RDS) metatheory are pertinent. Accordingly, we discuss the RDS metamodel and explain the…

  14. Predictors and Health-Related Outcomes of Positive Body Image in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential…

  15. Positive Side Effects of a Job-Related Training Program for Older Adults in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Minhong; Choi, Jae-Sung

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate empirically positive side effects of a job-related training program on older adults' self-esteem, depression, and social networks. A total of 70 older adults participated in the study after completing the Older Paraprofessional Training Program developed and provided by the Continuing Education…

  16. The positive predictive value of guaiac faecal occult blood test in relation to the number of positive squares in two consecutive rounds of colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Sylvain; Philip, Julie; Campillo, Boris; Piette, Christine; Durand, Gerard; Riou, Françoise; Bretagne, Jean François

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to define the positive predictive values of a positive guaiac faecal occult blood test according to the number of positive squares, in two consecutive rounds of colorectal cancer mass screening in a French region. A total of 4172 colonoscopies were analyzed. Sex, age, number of positive squares, and colonoscopic and histopathologic findings were studied. In the results obtained, 76.6% of positive tests were positive with one or two squares. The number of positive squares was not related to sex, age and rank of participation. The positive predictive value for cancers and adenomas increased significantly with age, sex (male) and number of positive squares from 6.6% (one to two squares) to 27.6% (five to six squares) and from 15.2% to 22.2%, respectively. Cancer was diagnosed 211 times (54.1%) and advanced neoplasia was diagnosed 696 times (65.3%) following positive tests with one to two squares. The TNM stage of cancer increased significantly with the number of positive squares: 85.8% of stages 0-1-2 for one to two positive squares and 66.3% for five to six positive squares (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed an increased risk of cancer and advanced neoplasia for male patients and aged persons. The number of positive squares significantly increased the risk of cancer (odds ratio=4.6 for five to six positive squares) and the risk of advanced neoplasia (odds ratio=2.9). Age, sex and number of positive squares were independent predictive factors of positive guaiac faecal occult blood test. The proportion of TNM stages 3-4 was significantly higher in those with five to six positive squares. Performing a complete colonoscopy in every individual having a positive test, especially aged men with a high number of positive squares, should be a priority in any screening programme.

  17. Path duplication using GPS carrier based relative position for automated ground vehicle convoys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travis, William E., III

    A GPS based automated convoy strategy to duplicate the path of a lead vehicle is presented in this dissertation. Laser scanners and cameras are not used; all information available comes from GPS or inertial systems. An algorithm is detailed that uses GPS carrier phase measurements to determine relative position between two moving ground vehicles. Error analysis shows the accuracy is centimeter level. It is shown that the time to the first solution fix is dependent upon initial relative position accuracy, and that near instantaneous fixes can be realized if that accuracy is less than 20 centimeters. The relative positioning algorithm is then augmented with inertial measurement units to dead reckon through brief outages. Performance analysis of automotive and tactical grade units shows the twenty centimeter threshold can be maintained for only a few seconds with the automotive grade unit and for 14 seconds with the tactical unit. Next, techniques to determine odometry information in vector form are discussed. Three methods are outlined: dead reckoning of inertial sensors, time differencing GPS carrier measurements to determine change in platform position, and aiding the time differenced carrier measurements with inertial measurements. Partial integration of a tactical grade inertial measurement unit provided the lowest error drift for the scenarios investigated, but the time differenced carrier phase approach provided the most cost feasible approach with similar accuracy. Finally, the relative position and odometry algorithms are used to generate a reference by which an automated following vehicle can replicate a lead vehicle's path of travel. The first method presented uses only the relative position information to determine a relative angle to the leader. Using the relative angle as a heading reference for a steering control causes the follower to drive at the lead vehicle, thereby creating a towing effect on the follower when both vehicles are in motion. Effective

  18. Positive coping styles and perigenual ACC volume: two related mechanisms for conferring resilience?

    PubMed

    Holz, Nathalie E; Boecker, Regina; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Baumeister, Sarah; Plichta, Michael M; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-05-01

    Stress exposure has been linked to increased rates of depression and anxiety in adults, particularly in females, and has been associated with maladaptive changes in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is an important brain structure involved in internalizing disorders. Coping styles are important mediators of the stress reaction by establishing homeostasis, and may thus confer resilience to stress-related psychopathology. Anatomical scans were acquired in 181 healthy participants at age 25 years. Positive coping styles were determined using a self-report questionnaire (German Stress Coping Questionnaire, SVF78) at age 22 years. Adult anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed at ages 22, 23 and 25 years with the Young Adult Self-Report. Information on previous internalizing diagnoses was obtained by diagnostic interview (2-19 years). Positive coping styles were associated with increased ACC volume. ACC volume and positive coping styles predicted anxiety and depression in a sex-dependent manner with increased positive coping and ACC volume being related to lower levels of psychopathology in females, but not in males. These results remained significant when controlled for previous internalizing diagnoses. These findings indicate that positive coping styles and ACC volume are two linked mechanisms, which may serve as protective factors against internalizing disorders.

  19. Evidence for Attentional Gradient in the Serial Position Memory Curve from Event-related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Azizian, Allen; Polich, John

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of primacy versus recency effects in free recall is suggested to reflect either two distinct memory systems, or the operation of a single system that is modulated by allocation of attention and less vulnerable to interference. Behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERPs) measures were used to investigate the encoding substrates of the serial position curve and subsequent recall in young adults. Participants were instructed to remember lists of words consisting of 12 common nouns each presented once every 1.5 sec, with a recall signal following the last word to indicate that all remembered items should be written on paper. This procedure was repeated for 20 different word lists. Both performance and late ERP amplitudes reflected classic recall serial position effects. Greater recall and larger late positive component amplitudes were obtained for the primacy and recency items, with less recall and smaller amplitudes for the middle words. The late positive component was larger for recalled compared to unrecalled primacy items, but it did not differ between memory performance outcomes for the recency items. The close relationship between the enhanced amplitude and primacy retrieval supports the view that this positive component reflects one of a process series related to attentional gradient and encoding of events for storage in memory. Recency effects appear to index operations determined by the anticipation of the last stimulus presentation, which occurred for both recalled and unrecalled memory items. Theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:17892393

  20. Age-related changes in the joint position sense of the human hand.

    PubMed

    Kalisch, Tobias; Kattenstroth, Jan-Christoph; Kowalewski, Rebecca; Tegenthoff, Martin; Dinse, Hubert R

    2012-01-01

    Age-related changes in lower limb joint position sense and their contributions to postural stability are well documented. In contrast, only a few studies have investigated the effect of age on proprioceptive hand function. Here, we introduce a novel test for measuring joint position sense in the fingers of the human hand. In a concurrent matching task, subjects had to detect volume differences between polystyrene balls grasped with their dominant (seven test stimuli: 126-505 cm(3)) and their nondominant hand (three reference stimuli: 210, 294, and 505 cm(3)). A total of 21 comparisons were performed to assess the number of errors, the weight of errors (ie, the volume difference between test and reference stimuli), and the direction of errors (ie, over- or underestimation of test stimulus). The test was applied to 45 healthy subjects aged 21 to 79 years. Our results revealed that all variables changed significantly with age, with the number of errors showing the strongest increase. We also assessed tactile acuity (two-point discrimination thresholds) and sensorimotor performance (pegboard performance) in a subset of subjects, but these scores did not correlate with joint position sense performance, indicating that the test reveals specific information about joint position sense that is not captured with pure sensory or motor tests. The average test-retest reliability assessed on 3 consecutive days was 0.8 (Cronbach's alpha). Our results demonstrate that this novel test reveals age-related decline in joint position sense acuity that is independent from sensorimotor performance.

  1. Fast Kalman Filtering for Relative Spacecraft Position and Attitude Estimation for the Raven ISS Hosted Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galante, Joseph M.; Van Eepoel, John; D' Souza, Chris; Patrick, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The Raven ISS Hosted Payload will feature several pose measurement sensors on a pan/tilt gimbal which will be used to autonomously track resupply vehicles as they approach and depart the International Space Station. This paper discusses the derivation of a Relative Navigation Filter (RNF) to fuse measurements from the different pose measurement sensors to produce relative position and attitude estimates. The RNF relies on relative translation and orientation kinematics and careful pose sensor modeling to eliminate dependence on orbital position information and associated orbital dynamics models. The filter state is augmented with sensor biases to provide a mechanism for the filter to estimate and mitigate the offset between the measurements from different pose sensors.

  2. Fast Kalman Filtering for Relative Spacecraft Position and Attitude Estimation for the Raven ISS Hosted Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galante, Joseph M.; Van Eepoel, John; D'Souza, Chris; Patrick, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The Raven ISS Hosted Payload will feature several pose measurement sensors on a pan/tilt gimbal which will be used to autonomously track resupply vehicles as they approach and depart the International Space Station. This paper discusses the derivation of a Relative Navigation Filter (RNF) to fuse measurements from the different pose measurement sensors to produce relative position and attitude estimates. The RNF relies on relative translation and orientation kinematics and careful pose sensor modeling to eliminate dependence on orbital position information and associated orbital dynamics models. The filter state is augmented with sensor biases to provide a mechanism for the filter to estimate and mitigate the offset between the measurements from different pose sensors

  3. Binding at birth: the newborn brain detects identity relations and sequential position in speech.

    PubMed

    Gervain, Judit; Berent, Iris; Werker, Janet F

    2012-03-01

    Breaking the linguistic code requires the extraction of at least two types of information from the speech signal: the relations between linguistic units and their sequential position. Furthermore, these different types of information need to be integrated into a coherent representation of language structure. The brain networks responsible for these abilities are well known in adults, but not in young infants. Our results show that the neural architecture underlying these abilities is operational at birth. In three optical imaging studies, we found that the newborn brain detects identity relations, as evidenced by enhanced activation in the bilateral superior temporal and left inferior frontal regions. More importantly, the newborn brain can also determine whether such identity relations hold for the initial or final positions of speech sequences, as indicated by increased activity in the inferior frontal regions, possibly Broca's area. This implies that the neural foundations of language acquisition are in place from birth.

  4. The influence of relational formative discourse on students' positional identities in a middle school science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauth-Nare, Amy

    Formative assessment is the process of eliciting students' understanding during instruction in order to make sensitive instructional decisions and provide feedback to enhance students' learning. Research indicates that when used properly, formative assessment can lead to significant learning gains and enhance students' self-efficacy. Drawing on previous research and a framework of relational pedagogy, I studied the positional identities claimed, assigned and negotiated by a middle school science teacher and her students during formative assessment interactions. Critical discourse analysis was used to analyze classroom interactions, teacher debriefings and student interviews. Findings from this study indicated that the teacher normatively positioned herself as authority during formative assessment interactions, yet students were not completely powerless. Through assertions of content knowledge and re-directions of topical focus, students positioned themselves actively and had the capacity to influence the direction and focus of formative assessment. Outside of classroom instruction, the teacher simultaneously positioned herself as both hindered by institutional structures yet actively subverted those structures in both covert and overt ways in the service of meaningful science learning. As indicated from interviews and SPAQ questionnaire responses, many students in this classroom positioned themselves positively in relation to science, the teacher and her methods of assessment, while some felt marginalized. This research has implications for the ways in which formative assessment is used to support teaching and learning in science classrooms. Findings from this study indicate that formative assessment is not simply an instrumental act carried out by teachers, but rather is a relational process that necessarily involves students. As a result, formative assessment should balance authoritative and dialogic discourse as a means for supporting and engaging students as

  5. Measuring implicit attitudes: A positive framing bias flaw in the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP).

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Brian; Watson, Derrick G; Brown, Gordon D A

    2016-02-01

    How can implicit attitudes best be measured? The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP), unlike the Implicit Association Test (IAT), claims to measure absolute, not just relative, implicit attitudes. In the IRAP, participants make congruent (Fat Person-Active: false; Fat Person-Unhealthy: true) or incongruent (Fat Person-Active: true; Fat Person-Unhealthy: false) responses in different blocks of trials. IRAP experiments have reported positive or neutral implicit attitudes (e.g., neutral attitudes toward fat people) in cases in which negative attitudes are normally found on explicit or other implicit measures. It was hypothesized that these results might reflect a positive framing bias (PFB) that occurs when participants complete the IRAP. Implicit attitudes toward categories with varying prior associations (nonwords, social systems, flowers and insects, thin and fat people) were measured. Three conditions (standard, positive framing, and negative framing) were used to measure whether framing influenced estimates of implicit attitudes. It was found that IRAP scores were influenced by how the task was framed to the participants, that the framing effect was modulated by the strength of prior stimulus associations, and that a default PFB led to an overestimation of positive implicit attitudes when measured by the IRAP. Overall, the findings question the validity of the IRAP as a tool for the measurement of absolute implicit attitudes. A new tool (Simple Implicit Procedure:SIP) for measuring absolute, not just relative, implicit attitudes is proposed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Does Positivity Mediate the Relation of Extraversion and Neuroticism with Subjective Happiness?

    PubMed Central

    Lauriola, Marco; Iani, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Recent theories suggest an important role of neuroticism, extraversion, attitudes, and global positive orientations as predictors of subjective happiness. We examined whether positivity mediates the hypothesized relations in a community sample of 504 adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years old (females = 50%). A model with significant paths from neuroticism to subjective happiness, from extraversion and neuroticism to positivity, and from positivity to subjective happiness fitted the data (Satorra–Bentler scaled chi-square (38) = 105.91; Comparative Fit Index = .96; Non-Normed Fit Index = .95; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = .060; 90% confidence interval = .046, .073). The percentage of subjective happiness variance accounted for by personality traits was only about 48%, whereas adding positivity as a mediating factor increased the explained amount of subjective happiness to 78%. The mediation model was invariant by age and gender. The results show that the effect of extraversion on happiness was fully mediated by positivity, whereas the effect of neuroticism was only partially mediated. Implications for happiness studies are also discussed. PMID:25781887

  7. Does positivity mediate the relation of extraversion and neuroticism with subjective happiness?

    PubMed

    Lauriola, Marco; Iani, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Recent theories suggest an important role of neuroticism, extraversion, attitudes, and global positive orientations as predictors of subjective happiness. We examined whether positivity mediates the hypothesized relations in a community sample of 504 adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years old (females = 50%). A model with significant paths from neuroticism to subjective happiness, from extraversion and neuroticism to positivity, and from positivity to subjective happiness fitted the data (Satorra-Bentler scaled chi-square (38) = 105.91; Comparative Fit Index = .96; Non-Normed Fit Index = .95; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = .060; 90% confidence interval = .046, .073). The percentage of subjective happiness variance accounted for by personality traits was only about 48%, whereas adding positivity as a mediating factor increased the explained amount of subjective happiness to 78%. The mediation model was invariant by age and gender. The results show that the effect of extraversion on happiness was fully mediated by positivity, whereas the effect of neuroticism was only partially mediated. Implications for happiness studies are also discussed.

  8. Effect of egg weight and position relative to incubator fan on broiler hatchability and chick quality.

    PubMed

    Elibol, O; Brake, J

    2008-09-01

    Two experiments, which included 3 incubators, were carried out to investigate the effects of egg weight and position relative to incubator (setter) fan on embryonic mortality, second quality chicks, and fertile hatchability of broiler eggs. Three egg weight groups termed small (approximately 62.4 g), average (approximately 65.4 g), and large (approximately 68.9 g) were set in either the incubator trolley most distant from the fan (FAR) or in the incubator trolley nearest the fan (NEAR) as would be the case during single-stage operation in this type of incubator. Fertile hatchability decreased in the large egg weight group due to increased percentage late embryonic mortality in experiment 1, and both percentage early and late embryonic mortality in experiment 2. Percentage late embryonic mortality and second quality chicks increased and percentage fertile hatchability decreased for eggs in the FAR position in experiment 1 only. A significant interaction of incubator position x egg weight group for late embryonic mortality, second quality chicks, and fertile hatchability was found in experiment 1, but only late embryonic mortality was so affected in experiment 2. Experiment 2 was conducted so that eggshell temperatures could be measured. Large eggs in the FAR position at transfer time (E 18) exhibited significantly higher eggshell temperatures than did the other groups probably because air velocity or air distribution was modified in the FAR position of the incubator and large eggs were most negatively influenced in the trolley in this position.

  9. Accurate and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method for geometrical and structural photoisomers of bilirubin IX alpha using the relative molar absorptivity values.

    PubMed

    Itoh, S; Isobe, K; Onishi, S

    1999-07-02

    It has been reported that considerable differences exist between the relative molar absorptivity values of the geometrical and structural photoisomers of bilirubin. We have devised an accurate HPLC method for photoisomer quantification based on the following principle: the sum of both the integrated peak areas corrected by each factor for each photoisomer, and the integrated peak area of unchanged (ZZ)-bilirubin [(ZZ)-B] after an anaerobic photoirradiation, should be constant and equal to the integrated peak area of initial (ZZ)-bilirubin [(ZZ)-Bi] before photoirradiation. On this basis, the following equation can be used to determine each factor. [equation: see text] alpha, beta, gamma and delta represent the factors used to correct the integrated peak areas of individual bilirubin photoisomers, and they are arranged in the order of the formula. It was demonstrated that the relative 455 nm molar absorptivity values for (ZZ)-bilirubin and all its geometrical and structural photoisomers, i.e., (ZZ)-bilirubin, (ZE)-bilirubin (EZ)-bilirubin, (EZ)-cyclobilirubin (= lumirubin) and (EE)-cyclobilirubin in the HPLC eluent, are, respectively, 1.0, 0.81 (= alpha), 0.54 (= beta), 0.47 (= gamma) and 0.39 (= delta).

  10. Relative Age, Maturation and Physical Biases on Position Allocation in Elite-Youth Soccer.

    PubMed

    Towlson, Chris; Cobley, Stephen; Midgley, Adrian Wayne; Garrett, Andrew; Parkin, Guy; Lovell, Ric

    2017-03-01

    This study assessed the contribution of relative age, anthropometry, maturation, and physical fitness characteristics on soccer playing position (goalkeeper [GK], central-defender [CD], lateral-defender [LD], central-midfield [CM], lateral-midfielder [LM], and forward [FWD]) for 465 elite-youth players (U13-U18's). U13-14 CD were relatively older than LD and CM (likely small effects). CD and GK were generally taller and heavier (likely small to very-likely moderate effects) than other players at each developmental stage and were advanced maturers at U13-14 (very-likely small to likely moderate effects). GK had inferior agility (very-likely small to likely moderate effects), endurance (very-likely small to likely moderate effects), and sprint capacities (likely small-moderate effects) vs. outfield positions at U13-14, but deficits in anaerobic phenotypes were diminished in U15-16 and U17-18. Position specific fitness characteristics were distinguished at U15-16 (likely small) and U17-18 (likely moderate), where LM were faster than their central counterparts. In summary, relative age, maturation and anthropometric characteristics appear to bias the allocation of players into key defensive roles from an early development stage, whereas position-specific physical attributes do not become apparent until the latter stages of talent development in outfield players. Given the inter-individual trajectories of physical development according to biological maturation, playing position allocation might be considered 'plastic' by selectors, until complete-maturity is achieved.

  11. Tracing evolutionary relicts of positive selection on eight malaria-related immune genes in mammals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bing-Hong; Liao, Pei-Chun

    2015-07-01

    Plasmodium-induced malaria widely infects primates and other mammals. Multiple past studies have revealed that positive selection could be the main evolutionary force triggering the genetic diversity of anti-malaria resistance-associated genes in human or primates. However, researchers focused most of their attention on the infra-generic and intra-specific genome evolution rather than analyzing the complete evolutionary history of mammals. Here we extend previous research by testing the evolutionary link of natural selection on eight candidate genes associated with malaria resistance in mammals. Three of the eight genes were detected to be affected by recombination, including TNF-α, iNOS and DARC. Positive selection was detected in the rest five immunogenes multiple times in different ancestral lineages of extant species throughout the mammalian evolution. Signals of positive selection were exposed in four malaria-related immunogenes in primates: CCL2, IL-10, HO1 and CD36. However, selection signals of G6PD have only been detected in non-primate eutherians. Significantly higher evolutionary rates and more radical amino acid replacement were also detected in primate CD36, suggesting its functional divergence from other eutherians. Prevalent positive selection throughout the evolutionary trajectory of mammalian malaria-related genes supports the arms race evolutionary hypothesis of host genetic response of mammalian immunogenes to infectious pathogens.

  12. The Effects of Varying Contextual Demands on Age-related Positive Gaze Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Soo Rim; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite many studies on the age-related positivity effect and its role in visual attention, discrepancies remain regarding whether one’s full attention is required for age-related differences to emerge. The present study took a new approach to this question by varying the contextual demands of emotion processing. This was done by adding perceptual distractions, such as visual and auditory noise, that could disrupt attentional control. Younger and older participants viewed pairs of happy–neutral and fearful–neutral faces while their eye movements were recorded. Facial stimuli were shown either without noise, embedded in a background of visual noise (low, medium, or high), or with simultaneous auditory babble. Older adults showed positive gaze preferences, looking toward happy faces and away from fearful faces; however, their gaze preferences tended to be influenced by the level of visual noise. Specifically, the tendency to look away from fearful faces was not present in conditions with low and medium levels of visual noise, but was present where there were high levels of visual noise. It is important to note, however, that in the high-visual-noise condition, external cues were present to facilitate the processing of emotional information. In addition, older adults’ positive gaze preferences disappeared or were reduced when they first viewed emotional faces within a distracting context. The current results indicate that positive gaze preferences may be less likely to occur in distracting contexts that disrupt control of visual attention. PMID:26030774

  13. Post-radiotherapy prostate biopsies reveal heightened apex positivity relative to other prostate regions sampled

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kris T.; Stoyanova, Radka; Walker, Gail; Sandler, Kiri; Studenski, Matthew T.; Dogan, Nesrin; Al-Saleem, Tahseen; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Horwitz, Eric M.; Pollack, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Prostate biopsy positivity after radiotherapy (RT) is a significant determinant of eventual biochemical failure. We mapped pre- and post-treatment tumor locations to determine if residual disease is location-dependent. Materials and methods There were 303 patients treated on a randomized hypofractionation trial. Of these, 125 underwent prostate biopsy 2-years post-RT. Biopsy cores were mapped to a sextant template, and 86 patients with both pre-/post-treatment systematic sextant biopsies were analyzed. Results The pretreatment distribution of positive biopsy cores was not significantly related to prostate region (base, mid, apex; p = 0.723). Whereas all regions post-RT had reduced positive biopsies, the base was reduced to the greatest degree and the apex the least (p = 0.045). In 38 patients who had a positive post-treatment biopsy, there was change in the rate of apical positivity before and after treatment (76 vs. 71%; p = 0.774), while significant reductions were seen in the mid and base. Conclusion In our experience, persistence of prostate tumor cells after RT increases going from the base to apex. MRI was used in planning and image guidance was performed daily during treatment, so geographic miss of the apex is unlikely. Nonetheless, the pattern observed suggests that attention to apex dosimetry is a priority. PMID:25963053

  14. Position-momentum uncertainty relations based on moments of arbitrary order

    SciTech Connect

    Zozor, Steeve; Portesi, Mariela; Sanchez-Moreno, Pablo; Dehesa, Jesus S.

    2011-05-15

    The position-momentum uncertainty-like inequality based on moments of arbitrary order for d-dimensional quantum systems, which is a generalization of the celebrated Heisenberg formulation of the uncertainty principle, is improved here by use of the Renyi-entropy-based uncertainty relation. The accuracy of the resulting lower bound is physico-computationally analyzed for the two main prototypes in d-dimensional physics: the hydrogenic and oscillator-like systems.

  15. Position-Momentum Uncertainty Relation for an Open Macroscopic Quantum System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeij, Hamid Reza; Shafiee, Afshin

    2016-12-01

    The macroscopic quantum systems are considered as a bridge between quantum and classical systems. In this study, we explore the validity of the original Heisenberg position-momentum uncertainty relation for a macroscopic harmonic oscillator interacting with environmental micro-particles. Our results show that, in the quasi-classical situation, the original uncertainty relation does not hold, when the number of particles in the environment is small. Nonetheless, increasing the environmental degrees of freedom removes the violation bounds in the regions of our investigation.

  16. Smoking-related warning messages formulated as questions positively influence short-term smoking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Müller, Barbara Cn; Ritter, Simone M; Glock, Sabine; Dijksterhuis, Ap; Engels, Rutger Cme; van Baaren, Rick B

    2016-01-01

    Research demonstrated that by reformulating smoking warnings into questions, defensive responses in smokers are reduced and smoking-related risk perception increases. We explored whether these positive outcomes can be generalised to actual behaviour. Participants saw either a movie presenting subheadings with smoking-related questions or statements. Afterwards, the time was measured until participants lit their first cigarette. Smokers who were presented with questions about the harms of smoking waited longer before lighting up a cigarette than smokers who were presented with statements. Presenting questions instead of the statements seems to be an effective means to prolonging smokers' abstinence.

  17. Geometric approach to extend Landau-Pollak uncertainty relations for positive operator-valued measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosyk, G. M.; Zozor, S.; Portesi, M.; Osán, T. M.; Lamberti, P. W.

    2014-11-01

    We provide a twofold extension of Landau-Pollak uncertainty relations for mixed quantum states and for positive operator-valued measures, by recourse to geometric considerations. The generalization is based on metrics between pure states, having the form of a function of the square of the inner product between the states. The triangle inequality satisfied by such metrics plays a crucial role in our derivation. The usual Landau-Pollak inequality is thus a particular case (derived from Wootters metric) of the family of inequalities obtained, and, moreover, we show that it is the most restrictive relation within the family.

  18. Position-momentum uncertainty relations in the presence of quantum memory

    SciTech Connect

    Furrer, Fabian; Berta, Mario; Tomamichel, Marco; Scholz, Volkher B.; Christandl, Matthias

    2014-12-15

    A prominent formulation of the uncertainty principle identifies the fundamental quantum feature that no particle may be prepared with certain outcomes for both position and momentum measurements. Often the statistical uncertainties are thereby measured in terms of entropies providing a clear operational interpretation in information theory and cryptography. Recently, entropic uncertainty relations have been used to show that the uncertainty can be reduced in the presence of entanglement and to prove security of quantum cryptographic tasks. However, much of this recent progress has been focused on observables with only a finite number of outcomes not including Heisenberg’s original setting of position and momentum observables. Here, we show entropic uncertainty relations for general observables with discrete but infinite or continuous spectrum that take into account the power of an entangled observer. As an illustration, we evaluate the uncertainty relations for position and momentum measurements, which is operationally significant in that it implies security of a quantum key distribution scheme based on homodyne detection of squeezed Gaussian states.

  19. Differential relations of depression and social anxiety symptoms to the facets of extraversion/positive emotionality.

    PubMed

    Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Watson, David; Markon, Kristian E

    2009-05-01

    Previous research has shown that both depression and social anxiety--2 facets of internalizing psychopathology--are characterized by low levels of extraversion/positive emotionality (E/PE). However, little is known about the relations of the facets of E/PE with the symptoms of depression and social anxiety. This study utilized multiple measures of each facet of E/PE, as well as depression and social anxiety symptoms. Self-report data were collected from large samples of college students and psychiatric outpatients. Separate factor analyses in each sample revealed a 4-factor structure of E/PE consisting of Sociability, Positive Emotionality, Ascendance, and Fun-Seeking. Structural equation modeling revealed that, after controlling for the higher order internalizing factor and the overlap among the E/PE facets, social anxiety was broadly related to all 4 facets of E/PE, whereas depression was strongly related to only low positive emotionality. Implications for hierarchical models of personality and psychopathology, assessment and treatment, and etiological models are discussed.

  20. Relations of Negative and Positive Work Experiences to Employee Alcohol Use: Testing the Intervening Role of Negative and Positive Work Rumination

    PubMed Central

    Frone, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    This study tested a model linking work experiences to employee alcohol use. The model extended past research in three ways. First, it incorporated both negative and positive work experiences. Second, it incorporated a previously unexplored cognitive intervening process involving negative and positive work rumination. Third, it incorporated several important dimensions of alcohol use (heavy use, workday use, and after work use). Data were collected from a national probability sample of 2,831 U.S. workers. Structural equation modeling revealed that the conceptual model provided an excellent fit to the data. Negative work experiences were positively related to negative work rumination, which was positively related to heavy alcohol use, workday alcohol use, and after work alcohol use. Positive work experiences were positively related to positive work rumination, which was negatively related to heavy alcohol use and after work alcohol use, but was unrelated to workday alcohol use. The study also provided initial support for the psychometric properties and construct validity of the Negative and Positive Work Rumination Scale (NAPWRS). PMID:25528689

  1. Control of adolescents' arbitrary matching-to-sample by positive and negative stimulus relations.

    PubMed Central

    Stromer, R; Osborne, J G

    1982-01-01

    In Experiment 1, four developmentally delayed adolescents were taught an A-B matching-to-sample task with nonidentical stimuli: given Sample A1, select Comparison B1; given A2, select B2. During nonreinforced test trials, appropriate matching occurred when B stimuli appeared as samples and A stimuli as comparisons, i.e., the sample and comparison functions were symmetrical (B-A matching). During A-B or B-A matching test trials in which familiar samples and correct comparisons were presented along with novel comparisons, the subjects selected the correct comparisons. In tests with familiar samples and both incorrect and novel comparisons, subjects selected the novel comparisons, demonstrating control by both positive ("matching") and negative ("nonmatching") stimulus relations in A-B and B-A arrays. In Experiment 2, 12 developmentally delayed subjects were taught a two-stage arbitrary-matching task (e.g., A-B, C-B matching). Test sessions showed sample-comparison symmetry (e.g., B-A, B-C matching) and derived sample-comparison relations (e.g., A-C, C-A matching) for 11 subjects. These subjects also demonstrated control by positive and negative stimulus relations in the derived relations. PMID:6178786

  2. Standing balance and trunk position sense in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)-related peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Allon; Russell, James William; Alexander, Neil Burton

    2008-07-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and pre-diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) affect a large segment of the population. Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is a common complication of T2DM, leading to sensory and motor deficits. While T2DM-related PN often results in balance- and mobility-related dysfunction which manifests as gait instability and falls, little is known about balance capabilities in patients who have evidence of PN related to IGT (IGT-PN). We evaluated patients with IGT-PN on commonly-used clinical balance and mobility tests as well as a new test of trunk position sense and balance impairment, trunk repositioning errors (TREs). Eight participants aged 50-72 years with IGT-PN, and eight age- and gender-matched controls underwent balance, mobility and trunk repositioning accuracy tests at a university neurology clinic and mobility research laboratory. Compared to controls, IGT-PN participants had as much as twice the magnitude of TREs and stood approximately half as long on the single leg balance test. People with IGT-PN exhibit deficits in standing balance and trunk position sense. Furthermore, there was a significant association between performance on commonly-used clinical balance and mobility tests, and electrophysiological and clinical measures of neuropathy in IGT-PN participants. Because IGT-related neuropathy represents the earliest stage of diabetic neuropathy, deficits in IGT-PN participants highlight the importance of early screening in the dysglycemic process for neuropathy and associated balance deficits.

  3. The obtaining relative position of lunar centre masses and centre of the figure in selenocentric catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefedjev, Yu. A.; Valeev, S. G.; Rizvanov, N. G.; Mikeev, R. R.; Varaksina, N. Yu.

    2010-05-01

    The relative position of lunar center masses relative to center of the figure in Kazan and Kiev selenocentric catalogues was customized. The expansions by spherical harmonics N=5 degree and order of the lunar function h(λ, β) with using the package ASNI USTU were executed. Module of the expansion of the local area to surfaces to full sphere was used. The parameters of cosmic missions are given for comparison (SAI; Bills, Ferrari). The normalized coefficients from expansions for eight sources hypsometric information are obtained: - Clementine (N=40), - Kazan (N=5), - Kiev (N=5), - SAI (N=10; Chuikova (1975)), - Bills, Ferrari, - Каguуа (Selena, Japan mission), - ULCN (The Uuified Lunaz Control Network 2005). The displacements of the lunar centre figure relative to lunar centre of the masses were defined from equations (Chuikova (1975)). The results of the obtaining relative position of the lunar centre masses and centre of the figure in Kazan selenocentric catalogue give good agreement with modern cosmic mission data.

  4. Predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential predictors, and a range of health outcomes, at 2 time points separated by 1 year. Longitudinal change regression models showed that perceived body acceptance by others (positively), self-objectification and social comparison (negatively), and body appreciation (positively) prospectively predicted intuitive eating 1 year later, consistent with the acceptance model of intuitive eating. Perceived body acceptance by others was the only proposed predictor to prospectively predict an increase in body appreciation over time. Time 1 body appreciation prospectively predicted a decrease in dieting, alcohol, and cigarette use, and an increase in physical activity 1 year later. In particular, girls with low body appreciation were more likely than girls with high body appreciation to take up alcohol and cigarette use between time points. The results highlight body appreciation as an important target for interventions designed to prevent or delay the uptake of alcohol and cigarette consumption among girls. More broadly, they suggest that a positive body image can confer considerable benefit for adolescent girls.

  5. Position-Dependent Ventricular Tachycardia Related to Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Paulino; Schurmann, Paul; Smith, Melanie; Valderrábano, Miguel; Lin, C. Huie

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 51-year-old male who developed frequent nonsustained episodes of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia after being diagnosed with bioprosthetic aortic valve endocarditis and treated with intravenous antibiotics. A peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) had been placed without complication less than 24 hours prior to the episodes. Ventricular tachycardia (VT) occurred during the night, while sleeping, when he assumed a right lateral decubitus position with abduction of the right arm and placement of the forearm under his head. VT occurred repeatedly when such position was assumed again upon request, and it would terminate immediately when sitting upright. The PICC was repositioned in the superior vena cava without further VT. He was discharged home the same day and underwent successful aortic valve replacement 2 months later. Position-dependent VT related to PICC requires careful history taking and PICC repositioning to make the diagnosis. X-ray in different patient positions during PICC placement can be considered to evaluate for ventricular migration. PMID:27826374

  6. False-positive cancer screens and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Patricia M; Gross, Cynthia R; Krueger, Richard A; Engelhard, Deborah A; Cordes, Jill E; Church, Timothy R

    2004-01-01

    By design, screening tests are imperfect-unresponsive to some cancers (false negatives) while occasionally raising suspicion of cancer where none exists (false positives). This pilot study describes patients' responses to having a false-positive screening test for cancer, and identifies screening effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The pilot findings suggest issues important for incorporation in future evaluations of the impact of screening for prostate, lung, colon, or ovarian (PLCO) cancers. Seven focus groups were conducted to identify the nature and meaning of all phases of PLCO screening. Minnesota participants in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial who had completed screening, with at least 1 false-positive screen, participated (N = 47). Participants' reactions to abnormal screens and diagnostic work-ups were primarily emotional (eg, anxiety and distress), not physical, and ultimately positive for the majority. Health distress and fear of cancer and death were the major negative aspects of HRQoL identified. These concepts are not typically included in generic HRQoL questionnaires like the SF-36, but are highly relevant to PLCO screening. Clinicians were regarded as underestimating the discomfort of follow-up diagnostic testing. However, relief and assurance appeared to eventually outweigh the negative emotions for most participants. Implications for oncology nurses include the need to consider the emotional consequences of screening in association with screen reliability and validity.

  7. Club position relative to the golfer's swing plane meaningfully affects swing dynamics.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Sasho J

    2012-06-01

    Previous research indicates that the motion of the golf club is not planar and that the plane traced out by the club is different than that of the golfer's hands. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the position of the club, relative to the golfer's swing plane, influences the motion of the club by using a four-segment (torso, upper arm, forearm, and club), three-dimensional forward dynamics model. A genetic algorithm optimized the coordination of the model's four muscular torque generators to produce the best golf swings possible under six different conditions. The series of simulations were designed to demonstrate the effect of positioning the club above, and below, the golfer's swing plane as well as the effect of changing the steepness of the golfer's swing plane. The simulation results suggest that positioning the club below the golfer's swing plane, early in the downswing, will facilitate the squaring of the clubface for impact, while positioning the club above the plane will have the opposite effect. It was also demonstrated that changing the steepness of the golfer's swing plane by 10 degrees can have little effect on the delivery of the clubhead to the ball.

  8. Innovative optical power detection array system for relative positioning of inner-formation flying system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Zhendong; Wang, Zhaokui; Zhang, Yulin

    2016-09-01

    The Inner-formation flying system (IFFS) is conceived to feature a spherical proof mass falling freely within a large cavity for space gravity detection, of which first application focuses on the Earth's gravity field recovery. For the IFFS, it is the relative position of the proof mass to its surrounding cavity that is feedback into thrusters for tracking control, even as part of data to detect gravity. Since the demonstration and verification of demanding technologies using small satellite platforms is a very sensible choice prior to detection mission, an optical power detection array system (OPDAS) is proposed to measure the relative position with advantages of low cost and high adaptability. Besides that, its large dynamic range can reduce the requirement for satellite platform and releasing mechanism, which is also an attracting trait for small satellite application. The concept of the OPDAS is firstly presented, followed by the algorithm to position the proof mass. Then the radiation pressure caused by the measuring beam is modeled, and its disturbance on the proof mass is simulated. The experimental system to test the performance of a prototype of the OPDAS is established, and the preliminary results show that a precision of less than 0.4 mm across a dynamic range of several centimeters can be reached by the prototype of the OPDAS.

  9. Brain activation related to combinations of gaze position, visual input, and goal-directed hand movements.

    PubMed

    Bédard, Patrick; Wu, Min; Sanes, Jerome N

    2011-06-01

    Humans reach to and acquire objects by transforming visual targets into action commands. How the brain integrates goals specified in a visual framework to signals into a suitable framework for an action plan requires clarification whether visual input, per se, interacts with gaze position to formulate action plans. To further evaluate brain control of visual-motor integration, we assessed brain activation, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Humans performed goal-directed movements toward visible or remembered targets while fixating gaze left or right from center. We dissociated movement planning from performance using a delayed-response task and manipulated target visibility by its availability throughout the delay or blanking it 500 ms after onset. We found strong effects of gaze orientation on brain activation during planning and interactive effects of target visibility and gaze orientation on movement-related activation during performance in parietal and premotor cortices (PM), cerebellum, and basal ganglia, with more activation for rightward gaze at a visible target and no gaze modulation for movements directed toward remembered targets. These results demonstrate effects of gaze position on PM and movement-related processes and provide new information how visual signals interact with gaze position in transforming visual inputs into motor goals.

  10. Psychosocial stress enhances non-drug-related positive memory retrieval in male abstinent heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Yan; Shi, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Lu, Lin

    2010-11-12

    Stress exposure in addicted individuals is known to provoke drug craving, presumably through a memory-like process, but less is known about the effects of stress on non-drug-related affective memory retrieval per se in such individuals, which is likely to provide important insights into therapy for relapse. In present study, we explored the effect of stress on retrieval of neutral and emotionally valenced (positive and negative) words in abstinent heroin addicts. In present study, 28 male inpatient abstinent heroin addicts and 20 sex-, age-, education- and economic status-matched healthy control participants were assessed for 24h delayed recall of valenced and neutral word lists on two occasions 4 weeks apart-once in a nonstress control condition, once after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test in a counterbalanced design. In addition, attention, working memory, blood pressure, heart rate and salivary cortisol were assessed. We found acute stress at the time of word list recall enhanced retrieval of positively valenced words, but no effect on negative and neutral word retrieval in abstinent heroin addicts was observed. No changes were detected for attention and working memory. The stressor induced a significant increase in salivary free cortisol, blood pressure and heart rate. Stress can enhance non-drug-related positive memory in abstinent heroin addicts. Our findings will provide richer information in understanding dysregulation of their emotional memory processing under stress and hopefully provide insight into designing improved treatments for drug addiction.

  11. ULTOR(Registered TradeMark) Passive Pose and Position Engine For Spacecraft Relative Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannah, S. Joel

    2008-01-01

    The ULTOR(Registered TradeMark) Passive Pose and Position Engine (P3E) technology, developed by Advanced Optical Systems, Inc (AOS), uses real-time image correlation to provide relative position and pose data for spacecraft guidance, navigation, and control. Potential data sources include a wide variety of sensors, including visible and infrared cameras. ULTOR(Registered TradeMark) P3E has been demonstrated on a number of host processing platforms. NASA is integrating ULTOR(Registerd TradeMark) P3E into its Relative Navigation System (RNS), which is being developed for the upcoming Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission 4 (SM4). During SM4 ULTOR(Registered TradeMark) P3E will perform realtime pose and position measurements during both the approach and departure phases of the mission. This paper describes the RNS implementation of ULTOR(Registered TradeMark) P3E, and presents results from NASA's hardware-in-the-loop simulation testing against the HST mockup.

  12. Strategies for eye positioning after laser-related loss of central vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertera, J. H.

    1997-05-01

    Loss of foveal vision from exposure to laser light or retinal disease can seriously impair visual functions like reading and visual search. Central scotomas produce large losses in visually guided performance because central vision has the best visual resolution, compared to more peripheral retina, and is also important in the normal reflexive patten of eye movement. Relatively small central field scotomas can produce significant impairments in visual search if tasks require a high degree of foveal vision such as seeing fine detail or discriminating similar contours or letters. Subjects faced with the task of adapting to the loss of ventral vision sometimes position their eyes in ways which are either asymmetrical, not optimum, or seem to generate abnormal eye movements, even after extensive practice. Discussion includes oculomotor drift, error fixations, hyper-eccentric fixations and remedial eye positioning strategies.

  13. Gunshot wound trajectory analysis using forensic animation to establish relative positions of shooter and victim.

    PubMed

    Galligan, Aisling A; Fries, Craig; Melinek, Judy

    2017-02-01

    Forensic pathologists who autopsy the victims of gun violence are often called upon to answer questions in both criminal and civil proceedings about the relative position of the shooter and the victim. In this case report of an officer-involved shooting incident, the statement of the police officer appeared to be in direct contradiction to the statements of other eyewitnesses, the evidence at the scene, and the final resting position of the decedent's body. Trajectory analysis of two gunshot wound pathways (only one of which was instantaneously incapacitating) was performed to assess the veracity of the officer's statement and forensic animation was used to create a court exhibit. A discussion of the current peer-reviewed literature is included.

  14. Accuracy of relative positioning by interferometry with GPS Double-blind test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Counselman, C. C., III; Gourevitch, S. A.; Herring, T. A.; King, B. W.; Shapiro, I. I.; Cappallo, R. J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Whitney, A. R.; Greenspan, R. L.; Snyder, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    MITES (Miniature Interferometer Terminals for Earth Surveying) observations conducted on December 17 and 29, 1980, are analyzed. It is noted that the time span of the observations used on each day was 78 minutes, during which five satellites were always above 20 deg elevation. The observations are analyzed to determine the intersite position vectors by means of the algorithm described by Couselman and Gourevitch (1981). The average of the MITES results from the two days is presented. The rms differences between the two determinations of the components of the three vectors, which were about 65, 92, and 124 m long, were 8 mm for the north, 3 mm for the east, and 6 mm for the vertical. It is concluded that, at least for short distances, relative positioning by interferometry with GPS can be done reliably with subcentimeter accuracy.

  15. Accuracy of velocities from repeated GPS surveys: relative positioning is concerned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duman, Huseyin; Ugur Sanli, D.

    2016-04-01

    Over more than a decade, researchers have been interested in studying the accuracy of GPS positioning solutions. Recently, reporting the accuracy of GPS velocities has been added to this. Researchers studying landslide motion, tectonic motion, uplift, sea level rise, and subsidence still report results from GPS experiments in which repeated GPS measurements from short sessions are used. This motivated some other researchers to study the accuracy of GPS deformation rates/velocities from various repeated GPS surveys. In one of the efforts, the velocity accuracy was derived from repeated GPS static surveys using short observation sessions and Precise Point Positioning mode of GPS software. Velocities from short GPS sessions were compared with the velocities from 24 h sessions. The accuracy of velocities was obtained using statistical hypothesis testing and quantifying the accuracy of least squares estimation models. The results reveal that 45-60 % of the horizontal and none of the vertical solutions comply with the results from 24 h solutions. We argue that this case in which the data was evaluated using PPP should also apply to the case in which the data belonging to long GPS base lengths is processed using fundamental relative point positioning. To test this idea we chose the two IGS stations ANKR and NICO and derive their velocities from the reference stations held fixed in the stable EURASIAN plate. The University of Bern's GNSS software BERNESE was used to produce relative positioning solutions, and the results are compared with those of GIPSY/OASIS II PPP results. First impressions indicate that it is worth designing a global experiment and test these ideas in detail.

  16. Effect of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) on the Precision of GPS Relative Positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idris, A. N.; Sathyamoorthy, D.; Suldi, A. M.; Hamid, J. R. A.

    2014-02-01

    The successful of GPS observations are dependent on several factors between satellite vehicles and GPS receivers, where low GPS power levels have led to the threat of radio frequency interference (RFI) on the GPS signals. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of RFI on the precision of positions of single and dual frequency receivers through relative positioning technique by taking into consideration the radius of GPS receiver from interference source, length of baseline and response of rejection. Several tests were conducted in real environment by simulating the interference signal towards GPS receivers in the nominated GPS L1 and L2 bands. Calculations were made to indentify the distance and interference signal power between interference source and GPS receiver in order to investigate the level of effect. To be able to study this effect on the precision of GPS positions, the 3D residual positions and geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) have been used. The findings of this study have demonstrated that a sufficient time for the GPS receiver to respond in particular interference signal power level and the radius from the interference source were made as compared to previous work. It was also indicated that the residual positions and GDOPs were affected proportionally when nearly to interference source but not similar for both days due to GPS coverage and other probable errors. Therefore, a good investigation on RFI towards GPS signals should be conducted in secured environment which can control the various GPS error parameters in order to obtain a reliable result on this effect.

  17. Nonstructural Proteins Are Preferential Positive Selection Targets in Zika Virus and Related Flaviviruses

    PubMed Central

    Sironi, Manuela; Forni, Diego; Clerici, Mario; Cagliani, Rachele

    2016-01-01

    The Flavivirus genus comprises several human pathogens such as dengue virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and Zika virus (ZIKV). Although ZIKV usually causes mild symptoms, growing evidence is linking it to congenital birth defects and to increased risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome. ZIKV encodes a polyprotein that is processed to produce three structural and seven nonstructural (NS) proteins. We investigated the evolution of the viral polyprotein in ZIKV and in related flaviviruses (DENV, Spondweni virus, and Kedougou virus). After accounting for saturation issues, alignment uncertainties, and recombination, we found evidence of episodic positive selection on the branch that separates DENV from the other flaviviruses. NS1 emerged as the major selection target, and selected sites were located in immune epitopes or in functionally important protein regions. Three of these sites are located in an NS1 region that interacts with structural proteins and is essential for virion biogenesis. Analysis of the more recent evolutionary history of ZIKV lineages indicated that positive selection acted on NS5 and NS4B, this latter representing the preferential target. All selected sites were located in the N-terminal portion of NS4B, which inhibits interferon response. One of the positively selected sites (26M/I/T/V) in ZIKV also represents a selection target in sylvatic DENV2 isolates, and a nearby residue evolves adaptively in JEV. Two additional positively selected sites are within a protein region that interacts with host (e.g. STING) and viral (i.e. NS1, NS4A) proteins. Notably, mutations in the NS4B region of other flaviviruses modulate neurovirulence and/or neuroinvasiveness. These results suggest that the positively selected sites we identified modulate viral replication and contribute to immune evasion. These sites should be prioritized in future experimental studies. However, analyses herein detected no selective events associated to the spread of the Asian

  18. Past Realities Versus Hypothetical Futures: Bridging Accurate Perceptions and Individual Expectations Gaps in Relation to Future Space Exploration at Entertainment Attractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charania, A.; Bradford, J.; Shkirenko, A.

    2002-01-01

    Past Realities Versus Hypothetical Futures: Bridging Accurate Perceptions and Individual Expectation Gaps in Relation to It has been more than forty years since the dawn of the space age and the notion of human space flight has settled comfortably into the human psyche. Yet there is disconnect between the cinematic representations of space exploration and long-term program plans of national space agencies. For entertainment attractions, too often these cinematic representations cloud public perceptions of the art of the possible in space exploration. The forecasts of personal hover mobiles, ubiquitous robots, and luxury cruises to the moon that were to be available to society at the end of the last century have turned out to be grossly exaggerated. This results in continued frustration and subsequent ambivalence of the public towards space. Eventually, these misperceptions have a direct relationship to the level of support shown by legislative bodies towards public outlays for space exploration. The value proposition to society of space has changed, from one of transformational change (Apollo) to transactional apathy (the current Space Shuttle). The past realities of the space program and the potential futures enabled by the current generation of space scientists and engineers will not be equivalent. Yet there is an opportunity to showcase the best of the upcoming future without defrauding the public's imagination. At the start of this century, new visions of the future are being prepared by various entertainment entities (e.g. for movies, them park attractions). This examination consists of a review of previous paradigms of translating space visions to the public. Given the background of the authors in conceptual space engineering, recommendations are made as to more scientifically credible attractions while maintaining the entertainment proposition. Different scenarios are presented as to potential futures and impact of these on entertainment attractions

  19. Toward Relatively General and Accurate Quantum Chemical Predictions of Solid-State (17)O NMR Chemical Shifts in Various Biologically Relevant Oxygen-Containing Compounds.

    PubMed

    Rorick, Amber; Michael, Matthew A; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Yong

    2015-09-03

    Oxygen is an important element in most biologically significant molecules, and experimental solid-state (17)O NMR studies have provided numerous useful structural probes to study these systems. However, computational predictions of solid-state (17)O NMR chemical shift tensor properties are still challenging in many cases, and in particular, each of the prior computational works is basically limited to one type of oxygen-containing system. This work provides the first systematic study of the effects of geometry refinement, method, and basis sets for metal and nonmetal elements in both geometry optimization and NMR property calculations of some biologically relevant oxygen-containing compounds with a good variety of XO bonding groups (X = H, C, N, P, and metal). The experimental range studied is of 1455 ppm, a major part of the reported (17)O NMR chemical shifts in organic and organometallic compounds. A number of computational factors toward relatively general and accurate predictions of (17)O NMR chemical shifts were studied to provide helpful and detailed suggestions for future work. For the studied kinds of oxygen-containing compounds, the best computational approach results in a theory-versus-experiment correlation coefficient (R(2)) value of 0.9880 and a mean absolute deviation of 13 ppm (1.9% of the experimental range) for isotropic NMR shifts and an R(2) value of 0.9926 for all shift-tensor properties. These results shall facilitate future computational studies of (17)O NMR chemical shifts in many biologically relevant systems, and the high accuracy may also help the refinement and determination of active-site structures of some oxygen-containing substrate-bound proteins.

  20. Childhood abuse is related to working memory impairment for positive emotion in female university students.

    PubMed

    Cromheeke, Sofie; Herpoel, Laure-Anne; Mueller, Sven C

    2014-02-01

    Childhood abuse is an important risk factor for depression, anxiety disorders, and substance use later in life. One possible mechanism underlying this association could be deficits in cognitive processing of emotional information. This study tested the impact of distracting emotional information on working memory performance in 21 young women with a history of sexual and physical abuse during childhood/adolescence (mean age = 20.0), and compared their performance to 17 individuals reporting nonabuse-related childhood stress (mean age = 19.6) and a control group of 17 women without a history of childhood stress (mean age = 20.0). During the most difficult distractor condition, working memory accuracy for positive versus neutral incidental emotional stimuli was reduced in women reporting a history of abuse relative to both control groups (with and without nonabuse-related childhood stress). The current results reveal aberrant responses to positive stimuli and are consistent with the notion of persistent influence of childhood abuse on processes critical for emotional well-being and emotion control.

  1. Desulfotomaculum spp. and related gram-positive sulfate-reducing bacteria in deep subsurface environments

    PubMed Central

    Aüllo, Thomas; Ranchou-Peyruse, Anthony; Ollivier, Bernard; Magot, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Gram-positive spore-forming sulfate reducers and particularly members of the genus Desulfotomaculum are commonly found in the subsurface biosphere by culture based and molecular approaches. Due to their metabolic versatility and their ability to persist as endospores. Desulfotomaculum spp. are well-adapted for colonizing environments through a slow sedimentation process. Because of their ability to grow autotrophically (H2/CO2) and produce sulfide or acetate, these microorganisms may play key roles in deep lithoautotrophic microbial communities. Available data about Desulfotomaculum spp. and related species from studies carried out from deep freshwater lakes, marine sediments, oligotrophic and organic rich deep geological settings are discussed in this review. PMID:24348471

  2. Monitoring motion and measuring relative position of the Chang'E-3 rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qinghui; Zheng, Xin; Huang, Yong; Li, Peijia; He, Qingbao; Wu, Yajun; Guo, Li; Tang, Mingle

    2014-11-01

    Same-beam very long baseline interferometry observations were performed between the rover and the lander of Chang'E-3 and differential phase delay data were obtained with the minimum random error of about 0.03 ps. These data were used to monitor the rover motions, as small as several centimeters, including movement, turning, and attitude adjustment. The relative position between the rover and the lander was precisely measured with an accuracy of 1 m, which is an improvement of 10 times compared with that of the Apollo project.

  3. Device for determining relative angular position between a spacecraft and a radiation emitting celestial body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farthing, W. H.; Frisbie, H. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Signals indicative of the relative angular position between a spin stabilized spacecraft, probe, or sounding rocket and a radiation emitting celestial body are derived with a detector including four electrodes for deriving indications of the centroid of the radiation image on the detector. During each spin of the satellite each electrode derives a signal having a first non-zero level while the detector is not illuminated by the radiation, and a sound non-zero level while it is illuminated by the radiation.

  4. Automatic detection of MLC relative position errors for VMAT using the EPID-based picket fence test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christophides, Damianos; Davies, Alex; Fleckney, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Multi-leaf collimators (MLCs) ensure the accurate delivery of treatments requiring complex beam fluences like intensity modulated radiotherapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy. The purpose of this work is to automate the detection of MLC relative position errors  ⩾0.5 mm using electronic portal imaging device-based picket fence tests and compare the results to the qualitative assessment currently in use. Picket fence tests with and without intentional MLC errors were measured weekly on three Varian linacs. The picket fence images analysed covered a time period ranging between 14-20 months depending on the linac. An algorithm was developed that calculated the MLC error for each leaf-pair present in the picket fence images. The baseline error distributions of each linac were characterised for an initial period of 6 months and compared with the intentional MLC errors using statistical metrics. The distributions of median and one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test p-value exhibited no overlap between baseline and intentional errors and were used retrospectively to automatically detect MLC errors in routine clinical practice. Agreement was found between the MLC errors detected by the automatic method and the fault reports during clinical use, as well as interventions for MLC repair and calibration. In conclusion the method presented provides for full automation of MLC quality assurance, based on individual linac performance characteristics. The use of the automatic method has been shown to provide early warning for MLC errors that resulted in clinical downtime.

  5. Automatic detection of MLC relative position errors for VMAT using the EPID-based picket fence test.

    PubMed

    Christophides, Damianos; Davies, Alex; Fleckney, Mark

    2016-12-07

    Multi-leaf collimators (MLCs) ensure the accurate delivery of treatments requiring complex beam fluences like intensity modulated radiotherapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy. The purpose of this work is to automate the detection of MLC relative position errors  ⩾0.5 mm using electronic portal imaging device-based picket fence tests and compare the results to the qualitative assessment currently in use. Picket fence tests with and without intentional MLC errors were measured weekly on three Varian linacs. The picket fence images analysed covered a time period ranging between 14-20 months depending on the linac. An algorithm was developed that calculated the MLC error for each leaf-pair present in the picket fence images. The baseline error distributions of each linac were characterised for an initial period of 6 months and compared with the intentional MLC errors using statistical metrics. The distributions of median and one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test p-value exhibited no overlap between baseline and intentional errors and were used retrospectively to automatically detect MLC errors in routine clinical practice. Agreement was found between the MLC errors detected by the automatic method and the fault reports during clinical use, as well as interventions for MLC repair and calibration. In conclusion the method presented provides for full automation of MLC quality assurance, based on individual linac performance characteristics. The use of the automatic method has been shown to provide early warning for MLC errors that resulted in clinical downtime.

  6. Bilateral position-related ulnar neuropathy at elbow in pediatric population and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Balikova, Mariana; Neklanova, Marta; Sulla, Igor; Hönig, Martin; Halek, Jan; Mihal, Vladimir; Balik, Vladimir

    2017-03-01

    Perioperative ulnar neuropathies attributed to inappropriate arm positioning and padding during surgical procedures are commonly found in adults. However, their extremely rare incidence in the pediatric population may cause absent awareness of the risk of nerve injury in anesthetized pediatric patients. Furthermore, young patients respond to conservative treatment of neuropathy less favorably than adults and their response also depends on the pathomechanism of the ulnar nerve injury. A surgeon's or anesthetist's failure to recognize all of these specifics in children may result in substantial morbidity of young patients leading to lawsuits. Fortunately, with an adequate knowledge of surgical anatomy and types of procedures and positions in which the ulnar nerve is particularly vulnerable, and familiarity with measures to minimize the potential for neuropathy, this serious complication can be prevented. The aims of this review are to highlight personal experience and current knowledge of the rare position-related ulnar neuropathy, both from a clinical and anatomical-pathophysiological perspective, and to raise awareness about this rare but serious complication in the pediatric population.

  7. Relative motions of the Australian, Pacific and Antarctic plates estimated by the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Kristine M.; Freymueller, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements spanning approximately 3 years have been used to determine velocities for 7 sites on the Australian, Pacific and Antarctic plates. The site velocities agree with both plate model predictions and other space geodetic techniques. We find no evidence for internal deformation of the interior of the Australian plate. Wellington, New Zealand, located in the Australian-Pacific plate boundary zone, moves 20 +/- 5 mm/yr west-southwest relative to the Australian plate. Its velocity lies midway between the predicted velocities of the two plates. Relative Euler vectors for the Australia-Antarctica and Pacific-Antarctica plates agree within one standard deviation with the NUVEL-1A predictions.

  8. Inter-system biases estimation in multi-GNSS relative positioning with GPS and Galileo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deprez, Cecile; Warnant, Rene

    2016-04-01

    The recent increase in the number of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) opens new perspectives in the field of high precision positioning. Particularly, the European Galileo program has experienced major progress in 2015 with the launch of 6 satellites belonging to the new Full Operational Capability (FOC) generation. Associated with the ongoing GPS modernization, many more frequencies and satellites are now available. Therefore, multi-GNSS relative positioning based on GPS and Galileo overlapping frequencies should entail better accuracy and reliability in position estimations. However, the differences between satellite systems induce inter-system biases (ISBs) inside the multi-GNSS equations of observation. Once these biases estimated and removed from the model, a solution involving a unique pivot satellite for the two considered constellations can be obtained. Such an approach implies that the addition of even one single Galileo satellite to the GPS-only model will strengthen it. The combined use of L1 and L5 from GPS with E1 and E5a from Galileo in zero baseline double differences (ZB DD) based on a unique pivot satellite is employed to resolve ISBs. This model removes all the satellite- and receiver-dependant error sources by differentiating and the zero baseline configuration allows atmospheric and multipath effects elimination. An analysis of the long-term stability of ISBs is conducted on various pairs of receivers over large time spans. The possible influence of temperature variations inside the receivers over ISB values is also investigated. Our study is based on the 5 multi-GNSS receivers (2 Septentrio PolaRx4, 1 Septentrio PolaRxS and 2 Trimble NetR9) installed on the roof of our building in Liege. The estimated ISBs are then used as corrections in the multi-GNSS observation model and the resulting accuracy of multi-GNSS positioning is compared to GPS and Galileo standalone solutions.

  9. BDS relative static positioning over long baseline improved by GEO multipath mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min; Chai, Hongzhou; Liu, Jun; Zeng, Anmin

    2016-02-01

    Due to the satellite and constellation deployment design, the variation pattern of multipath effect in BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) code observation is different from GPS. The amplitude of systematic multipath variation (SMV) exists in multipath combination series may exceed 0.5 m for some geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellites, which is larger than the normal noise level of GPS code observation. After characterization of the variation pattern of BDS multipath series for BDS GEO satellites, we propose to improve the performance of relative positioning over long baseline by mitigating the SMV effect of GEO satellite. The proposed method uses the SMV extracted from multipath (MP) combination series with adaptive wavelet transform as correction for current day observation in post-processing use or as following day correction in real-time use. In addition, the Double Station Observation Processing (DSOP) method that directly uses undifferenced observation is applied for relative static positioning. Experiment results show improvement in convergence speed for both BDS only and BDS/GPS combined solution.

  10. The relative position priming effect depends on whether letters are vowels or consonants.

    PubMed

    Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel

    2011-09-01

    The relative position priming effect is a type of subset priming in which target word recognition is facilitated as a consequence of priming the word with some of its letters, maintaining their relative position (e.g., csn as a prime for casino). Five experiments were conducted to test whether vowel-only and consonant-only subset primes contribute equally to this effect. Experiment 1 revealed that this subset priming effect emerged when primes were composed exclusively of consonants, compared with vowel-only primes (csn-casino vs. aia-animal). Experiment 2 tested the impact of letter frequency in this asymmetry. Subset priming effects were obtained for both high- and low-frequency consonants but not for vowels, which rules out a letter frequency explanation. Experiment 3 tested the role of phonology and its contribution to the priming effects observed, by decreasing the prime duration. The results showed virtually the same effects as in the previous experiments. Finally, Experiments 4 and 5 explored the influence of repeated letters in the primes on the magnitude of the priming effects obtained for consonant and vowel subset primes (iuo-dibujo and aea-madera vs. mgn-imagen and rtr-frutero). Again, the results confirmed the priming asymmetry. We propose that a functional distinction between consonants and vowels, mainly based on the lexical constraints imposed by each of these types of letters, might provide an explanation for the whole set of results.

  11. Human Height Is Positively Related to Interpersonal Dominance in Dyadic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Stulp, Gert; Buunk, Abraham P.; Verhulst, Simon; Pollet, Thomas V.

    2015-01-01

    Across cultures, taller stature is linked to increased social status, but the potential reasons why this should be are unclear. One potential explanation is that taller individuals are more likely to win a dyadic confrontation with a competitor (i.e., they are more dominant), which leads to higher social rank. Although some previous studies have shown that perceptions of status or dominance are related to height, and are therefore consistent with such an explanation, there is surprisingly little research testing whether height actually has any influence on the behavioural outcomes in real-life social interactions. Here, we present three naturalistic observational studies demonstrating that height predicts interpersonal dominance during brief dyadic interactions. Study 1 investigated the likelihood of giving way in a narrow passage (N = 92); Study 2 investigated giving way in a busy shopping street, plus the likelihood of colliding with another individual (N = 1,108); and Study 3 investigated the likelihood of maintaining a linear path while walking, and potentially entering another individual’s personal space (N = 1,056). We conclude that human height is positively related to interpersonal dominance, and may well contribute to the widely observed positive association between height and social status. PMID:25719490

  12. Analysis of wear of polyethylene hip joint cup related to its positioning in patient's body.

    PubMed

    Rońda, Jacek; Wojnarowski, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    Polyethylene parts of endoprosthesis are the weakest parts of each medical implant. They can be worn out within several years. During this period, a patient can enjoy good physical efficiency until the wear of polyethylene part limits his/her mobility. Then the reoperation is necessary and positioning of all parts of endoprosthesis has an effect on future patient's mobility and durability of implant. Elements of endoprosthesis during exploitation are heavily loaded both by normal and tangential forces and moments. In this paper, the dependence of wear of polyethylene cup on its positioning in pelvis is the major problem. Wear of the cup is determined by two measures: the depth and volume of a material rubbed off from the contact surface. The sensitivity of the depth of rubbing off is evaluated relative to two angles of anteversion and abduction, and radii of the cup. Numerical results are obtained by using Abaqus FE system with data related to patient's activity identified on the basis of medical reports.

  13. [Position of health at international relations. Part II. Organizational dimensions of health].

    PubMed

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of some concepts and definitions related with "set up of health", used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of organizational dimensions of health at worldwide agenda. The following organizational dimensions of health were discussed: (a) health for all, (b) health promotion, intersectoral and multisectoral actions, health in all policies, (c) health development, health as an element of human development, (d) investment for health, (e) health diplomacy and (f) mainstreaming of health. The analysis was based on World Health Assembly and UN General Assembly resolutions as well as supranational reports and statements available through conventional channels, not grey literature. It is apparent that some of notions are not in common use in Poland, some seems to be unknown. It was argued that some general and discreet thoughts and statements concerning organizational aspects of health were expressed in the preamble of WHO Constitution. Nevertheless they are not comparable with later propositions and proceedings. The first modern concepts and notions related as process were developed at late seventies. They originated from efforts to realize a vision of health for all and formulate national policies, strategies and plans of action for attaining this goal. The turning point was in 1981, when WHA adopted Global Strategy for Heath for All by the Year 2000. Since then one can observe considerable progress and new concepts came into existence, more and more precise and better reflecting the sense of health actions. The evolution of organizational dimensions of health was described in the context of brand positioning. It was assumed that first step of positioning was concentrated on structural dimensions of health. That served to awareness raise, attitudes change and motivation to action. That made a foundation to the next step--positioning based on process approach to health. Among others the

  14. Multisubject Decomposition of Event-related Positivities in Cognitive Control: Tackling Age-related Changes in Reactive Control.

    PubMed

    Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Barceló, Francisco

    2016-08-13

    Age-related neurocognitive effects have been observed at different levels ranging from reduced amplitudes of even-related potentials and brain oscillations, to topography changes of brain activity. However, their association remains incompletely understood. We investigated time-frequency and time-course effects in functional networks underlying the P300 and their involvement in reactive control. Electroencephalographic (EEG) data of three different age groups (30 young: 18-26 years, 30 mid-aged: 49-58 years, 30 elderly: 65-75 years) was measured while they performed a cued colour/thickness switching task. Neural data was analysed concerning the targets. To consider restart, mixing, and switching processes, the targets´ position after a cue (first or third target) as well as their context in the single-task (distractor cue) or the mixed-task block (switch- or repeat cue) was analysed. P300 EEG data was decomposed by means of group-independent component and time-frequency analyses focusing on theta and beta oscillations. RTs generally slowed down with age (main effect group), and effects were specifically strong in targets after a switching cue (larger Cohens d). Peaking at around 300 ms, we detected five functionally independent networks reflecting the multicomponent process underlying task-switching. These networks differed in terms of their topography (parietal and frontal), their involvement in task processes (switch-specific, mixing-, restart-, and single-task processes) and in terms of frequency effects. All were affected by age, as indicated by amplitude changes of the target-P300 and power reductions most consistently shown in beta oscillations. Most extensive age-related changes were observed in one parietal network sensitive to mixing and restart processes. Changes included a topography shift, P300 and beta amplitudes, and were ongoing in the elderly group.

  15. Enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) related with recurrent benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).

    PubMed

    Manzari, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    The vestibular aqueduct is a bony canal related to the bony labyrinth of the inner ear and represents the non-sensory components of the endolymph-filled, closed, membranous labyrinth. The association of congenital sensorineural hearing loss with a large or enlarged vestibular aqueduct is well known as the large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS). The enlarged VA (EVA) comprises abnormalities not only in the structure of the inner ear, but also in the physiology of the auditory and vestibular systems. The clinical picture of this clinical entity is variable [Yetiser S, Kertment M, Ozkaptan Y. Vestibular disturbance in patients with Large Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome (LVAS). Acta Otolaryngol (StochK) 1999;119: 641-646]. Signs and symptoms of the auditory impairment are more commonly described in the literature: hearing loss ranges from mild to profound, arising from fluctuating to stepwise progressive or sudden. Vestibular disturbances, ranging from mild imbalance to episodic vertigo, are rarely described in the literature. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a labyrinthine disorder with a typical behavior: intense crises of rotational vertigo induced by postural changes of the head, with short duration and usually good responsiveness to rehabilitative maneuvers. These maneuvers are effective in about 80% of patients with BPPV. BPPV often recurs. About 1/3 of patients have a recurrence in the first year after treatment, and by five years, about half of all patients have a recurrence. Vestibular aqueduct has been demonstrated by conventional tomography and computed tomography (CT), however, CT scans cannot show the membranous labyrinth itself. On MR images it is not the vestibular aqueduct that is visualized but its contents, the endolymphatic duct and sac, and can show the abnormalities of the fluid spaces related to the membranous labyrinth. It is proposed that recurrent benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is related with volumetric abnormalities

  16. Differences in glenohumeral translations calculated with three methods: Comparison of relative positions and contact point.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, Keisuke; Kenmoku, Tomonori; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Sugaya, Hiroyuki; Banks, Scott A

    2016-06-14

    Several published articles have reported 3-dimensional glenohumeral kinematics using model-image registration techniques. However, different methods to compute the translations were used in these articles. The purpose of this study was to compare glenohumeral translations calculated with three different methods. Fifteen healthy males with a mean age of 31 years (range, 27-36 years old) were enrolled in this study. Fluoroscopic images during scapular plane elevation were recorded at 30 frames per second for the right shoulder in each subject, and CT-derived models of the humerus and the scapula were matched with the silhouette of the bones in the fluoroscopic images using model-image registration techniques. Glenohumeral translations were computed with three methods: relative position of the origins of the humeral and scapular models, contact points of the two models, and relative positions based upon the calculated glenohumeral center of rotation (CoR). In the supero-inferior direction, translations calculated with the three methods were roughly parallel, with the maximum difference of 1.6mm (P<0.001). In the antero-posterior direction, translations with the origins and CoR were parallel; however, translations computed with the origins and contact point describe arcs that differ by almost 2mm at low humeral elevation angles and converge at higher degrees of humeral elevation (P<0.001). Glenohumeral translations calculated using three methods showed statistically significant differences that may be important when comparing detailed results of different studies. However, these relatively small differences are likely subclinical, so that all three methods can reasonably be used for description of glenohumeral translations.

  17. Horizontal Body Position Reduces Cortical Pain-Related Processing: Evidence from Late ERPs

    PubMed Central

    Fardo, Francesca; Spironelli, Chiara; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of short-term horizontal body position on pain-related somatosensory processing, by measuring subjective and cortical responses to electrical pain stimulation. Twenty-eight healthy women were randomly assigned to either the experimental horizontal group (Bed Rest, BR) or to the sitting control group (Sitting Control, SC). After 90 minutes in either horizontal or sitting position, the individual pain thresholds were assessed and EEG/self-evaluations recorded during the administration of 180 stimuli delivered to the left forearm. Electrical pain stimuli, calibrated to subjects’ individual pain thresholds, consisted of two different intensity levels: no pain (40% below pain threshold) and pain (40% above pain threshold). Compared with control, BR condition significantly inhibited subjective sensitivity to painless stimuli, whereas electrophysiological results pointed to a reduced slow cortical wave (interval: 300-600 ms) at all stimulus intensities, and smaller amplitude in BR’s right vs. left prefrontal sites. sLORETA analysis revealed that cortical responses were associated with a decreased activation of superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex (BA 6/24). Interestingly, BR group only showed significant negative correlations between self-evaluation of painful intensities and frontal cortical negativity, revealing increasingly differentiated responses in bed rest: indeed those BR participants who reported lower pain ratings, displayed reduced negativity within anterior regions. Taken together, results indicate that short-term horizontal position is able to inhibit a fronto-parietal pain network, particularly at the level of central prefrontal regions typically involved in cognitive, affective and motor aspects of pain processing. PMID:24278467

  18. Extended space expectation values of position related operators for hydrogen-like quantum system evolutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kalay, Berfin; Demiralp, Metin

    2014-10-06

    The expectation value definitions over an extended space from the considered Hilbert space of the system under consideration is given in another paper of the second author in this symposium. There, in that paper, the conceptuality rather than specification is emphasized on. This work uses that conceptuality to investigate the time evolutions of the position related operators' expectation values not in its standard meaning but rather in a new version of the definition over not the original Hilbert space but in the space obtained by extensions via introducing the images of the given initial wave packet under the positive integer powers of the system Hamiltonian. These images may not be residing in the same space of the initial wave packet when certain singularities appear in the structure of the system Hamiltonian. This may break down the existence of the integrals in the definitions of the expectation values. The cure is the use of basis functions in the abovementioned extended space and the sandwiching of the target operator whose expectation value is under questioning by an appropriately chosen operator guaranteeing the existence of the relevant integrals. Work specifically focuses on the hydrogen-like quantum systems whose Hamiltonians contain a polar singularity at the origin.

  19. Relative age effects in Swiss junior soccer and their relationship with playing position.

    PubMed

    Romann, Michael; Fuchslocher, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Relative age effects (RAEs) refer to age differences between children in the same selection year. The present study investigated the prevalence of RAEs and their link to playing positions in Swiss junior soccer. Swiss male junior soccer players (n=50,581) representing 11% of the age-matched population - members of extra-curricular soccer teams - were evaluated to determine the influence of RAEs on Swiss junior soccer. Subgroups were the national talent development programme (n=2880), and U-15 to U-21 national teams (n=630). While no RAEs were found for the self-selected extra-curricular soccer teams or for the U-20 teams (P>0.05), significant RAEs were found for talent development and the national U-15 to U-19 and U-21 teams (P<0.01). Additionally, defenders born early in the year were significantly overrepresented compared with goalkeepers, midfielders and strikers (P<0.05). In Switzerland, RAEs apparently have substantial influence on the talent identification process for U-15 to U-18 teams, significantly influencing the selection of players in talent development teams already at an early age, but do not influence self-selected participation in extra-curricular soccer. Additionally, the RAE bias may be a predictor of playing positions in national teams. To minimise RAEs in Swiss soccer, systematic education for all coaches regarding RAEs should be established, in addition to a slotting system with rotating calendar cut-off dates.

  20. Physiological profile in relation to playing position of elite college Gaelic footballers

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, M; Hall, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the physiological profile, and its relation to playing position, of elite college Gaelic footballers. Method: The subjects were 28 elite Gaelic footballers (12 backs, 12 forwards, and four midfielders; mean (SD) age 21 (1.67) years), who won a major intervarsity tournament (Sigerson Cup) three times in succession. Results: There was general similarity among the members of the team, probably the result of a typical, common training programme. The team means for stature (1.81 (0.05) m), body mass index (81.6 (6.5)) and percentage body fat (14.5 (3.1)%), power output by Wingate test (absolute power 912 (152) W or 10.72 (1.6) W/kg) and sit and reach test (22.3 (5.5) cm) displayed no significant differences when analysed according to playing position. However, midfielders did have significantly larger body mass than backs (p<0.05) and greater maximal oxygen consumption (p<0.01) and greater vertical jumping ability than backs and forwards (vertical jump power output, p<0.01; vertical jump, p<0.01). Midfielders also had greater absolute handgrip strength (p<0.01). Conclusion: The differences exhibited by midfielders despite identical training suggests that they stem from physiological adaptation to competition rather than training. PMID:15849287

  1. An urban food store intervention positively affects food-related psychosocial variables and food behaviors.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Song, Hee-Jung; Suratkar, Sonali; Kumar, Mohan B; Henry, Elizabeth G; Sharma, Sangita; Mattingly, Megan; Anliker, Jean A

    2010-06-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are more prevalent in low-income urban areas, which commonly have limited access to healthy foods. The authors implemented an intervention trial in nine food stores, including two supermarkets and seven corner stores, in a low-income, predominantly African American area of Baltimore City, with a comparison group of eight stores in another low-income area of the city. The intervention (Baltimore Healthy Stores; BHS) included an environmental component to increase stocks of more nutritious foods and provided point-of-purchase promotions including signage for healthy choices and interactive nutrition education sessions. Using pre- and postassessments, the authors evaluated the impact of the program on 84 respondents sampled from the intervention and comparison areas. Exposure to intervention materials was modest in the intervention area, and overall healthy food purchasing scores, food knowledge, and self-efficacy did not show significant improvements associated with intervention status. However, based on adjusted multivariate regression results, the BHS program had a positive impact on healthfulness of food preparation methods and showed a trend toward improved intentions to make healthy food choices. Respondents in the intervention areas were significantly more likely to report purchasing promoted foods because of the presence of a BHS shelf label. This is the first food store intervention trial in low-income urban communities to show positive impacts at the consumer level.

  2. Effect of relative nanohole position on colour purity of ultrathin plasmonic subtractive colour filters.

    PubMed

    Sun, L B; Hu, X L; Zeng, Beibei; Wang, L S; Yang, S M; Tai, R Z; Fecht, H J; Zhang, D X; Jiang, J Z

    2015-07-31

    Plasmonic subtractive color filters through patterning periodic nanostructures on ultrathin Ag films deposited on a glass substrate, exhibiting good durability, simple fabrication, and flexible color tunability, have attracted considerable attention due to their tremendous potential applications. While previous studies have mainly focused on their extraordinary physical mechanisms, color purity, which is another key parameter for high quality imaging applications, has been much less investigated. In this work, we demonstrate that the relative position of nanoholes patterned on ultrathin Ag films can largely affect the color purity of plasmonic subtractive color filters. The calculated results agree reasonably well with the experimental data, revealing that the purity of subtractive colors can be improved by changing the nanohole arrays from square lattice to triangular lattice without reducing transmission at visible frequencies. In addition, underlying mechanisms are clarified by systematically analyzing the dominant valley in transmission spectra.

  3. [Position of health at international relations. Part I. Structural dimensions of health].

    PubMed

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    In the article, the health is perceived as complex, multidimensional concept and not as absence of disease. This is consistent with public health perspective, where public health is regarded as public as well as political activity. It aims to solve health and social problems, depends on analysis of phenomena, needs the negotiations and relies on making decision on feasible directions of changes--what, why, how, where, when and by whom should be done. Public health policy developed as a result of international relations, and UN family fora especially, is regarded as significant for creating of health position. The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of selected concepts and definitions related to structural dimensions of health, used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of health structure notions at worldwide agenda. The UN main bodies, programmes and funds working on the health field are mentioned and voting rules in UN General Assembly and World Health Assembly are reminded. The following structural dimensions were considered: (a) well-being, (b) human rights, (c) everyday resource, health potential, (4) equity. All were explored in WHO Constitution, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and numerous WHA and UN GA resolutions, decisions as well as other documents. Some remarkable differences in English and Polish language versions and meanings were pointed out. It was argued that present perception of structural dimension of health is strongly derived from the preamble of the WHO Constitution adopted and signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States. It is an evidence of the strength of this document and wisdom of its authors. The greater progress is associated. with concepts and notion of organizational dimensions of health perceived as action and processes leading to health. Long-term efforts to strengthen

  4. Long-term outcome and health-related quality of life in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Escamez, Jose A; Gamiz, Maria J; Fernandez-Perez, Antonio; Gomez-Fiñana, Manuel

    2005-06-01

    A prospective cohort study was designed to evaluate the long-term outcome and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (PC-BPPV) treated by the particle repositioning maneuver (PRM) in the outpatient clinic of a general community hospital. Fifty individuals with PC-BPPV were included, and 45 (90%) completed the study. The diagnosis was based on the history of short episodes of vertigo and a positional nystagmus during the Dix-Hallpike test (DHT). All patients were treated by a single PRM, and relapses were evaluated by DHT at 30, 180 and 360 days post-treatment; a new PRM was performed if the DHT was positive. The main outcome measures were: percentage of patients with a negative DHT after treatment, scores obtained on the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory Short Form (DHI-S) before and 30, 180 and 360 days post-treatment. The DHT was found negative in 80% (40/50) of individuals at 30 days. Ten, seven and five patients presented a positive DHT at 30, 180 and 360 days, respectively. Persistent BPPV was observed in 5% (2/50) of patients at 360 days, despite repeated PRM. Relapses (DH+ after successful PRM) were observed in 7.5% (3/50) at 180 days and 360 days. Both questionnaires showed a reliability Cronbach's alpha >0.7. The average standardized score for each SF-36 scale was compared with the reference population normative data, showing differences with norms for all scales except for vitality. After PRM, patients improved their scores with both instruments, indicating a restoration of HRQoL at 30 days. Physical dimension scores of the SF-36 improved from day 30 to 360. DHI-S scores were statistically better after PRM (P < 0.001). Our results show that the effectiveness of PRM is 88% after 1 year of follow-up. Patients with BPPV experienced a decrease in HRQoL, which was restored after PRM. Although relapses were observed in 7.5% of

  5. A priori fully populated covariance matrices in least-squares adjustment—case study: GPS relative positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kermarrec, Gaël; Schön, Steffen

    2016-12-01

    In this contribution, using the example of the Mátern covariance matrices, we study systematically the effect of apriori fully populated variance covariance matrices (VCM) in the Gauss-Markov model, by varying both the smoothness and the correlation length of the covariance function. Based on simulations where we consider a GPS relative positioning scenario with double differences, the true VCM is exactly known. Thus, an accurate study of parameters deviations with respect to the correlation structure is possible. By means of the mean-square error difference of the estimates obtained with the correct and the assumed VCM, the loss of efficiency when the correlation structure is missspecified is considered. The bias of the variance of unit weight is moreover analysed. By acting independently on the correlation length, the smoothness, the batch length, the noise level, or the design matrix, simulations allow to draw conclusions on the influence of these different factors on the least-squares results. Thanks to an adapted version of the Kermarrec-Schön model, fully populated VCM for GPS phase observations are computed where different correlation factors are resumed in a global covariance model with an elevation dependent weighting. Based on the data of the EPN network, two studies for different baseline lengths validate the conclusions of the simulations on the influence of the Mátern covariance parameters. A precise insight into the impact of apriori correlation structures when the VCM is entirely unknown highlights that both the correlation length and the smoothness defined in the Mátern model are important to get a lower loss of efficiency as well as a better estimation of the variance of unit weight. Consecutively, correlations, if present, should not be neglected for accurate test statistics. Therefore, a proposal is made to determine a mean value of the correlation structure based on a rough estimation of the Mátern parameters via maximum likelihood

  6. Positive association between ethanol consumption and anxiety-related behaviors in two selected rat lines.

    PubMed

    Izídio, Geison Souza; Ramos, André

    2007-11-01

    The Floripa H and L rat lines were selectively bred, respectively, for high and low scores of locomotion in the central aversive area of an open field (OF), which is a putative index of experimental anxiety. In the present study, we used these lines to examine the relationship between anxiety-related behaviors and ethanol intake through the use of three animal tests used to investigate anxiety (OF, elevated plus maze, and black/white box) and one oral ethanol consumption procedure. Males and females of the Floripa L line were more anxious-like than their counterparts in the three behavioral tests. No line differences in the tests of taste control solutions (saccharin and quinine) and forced ethanol (10%) were found. However, Floripa L female rats consumed more ethanol than their Floripa H counterparts at concentrations of 6 and 10% in a two-bottle choice protocol. Moreover, Floripa L females showed a higher ratio of ethanol to total fluids consumed, regardless of the concentration offered, than all other subgroups (males of both lines and Floripa H females). Males showed no line differences for ethanol consumption. Taken together, the results of this study confirm that there are important sex differences in both anxiety-related behaviors and ethanol consumption. Accordingly, these data suggest a positive genetic relationship between anxiety-related behaviors and ethanol intake, at concentrations of 6 and 10%, in females but not in males. This supports the use of both sexes in animal experiments involving anxiety- and ethanol-related behaviors. Finally, the results and the existing literature indicate that selectively bred laboratory animals constitute a useful tool in the search for genes influencing both anxiety and ethanol consummatory behavior.

  7. Paleomagnetism of Angara-Vitim batholith: relative position of Siberia and Europe in Permian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedyukin, I.; Shatsillo, A.

    2012-12-01

    In the Late Paleozoic paleomagnetic data of the Siberian platform is a white spot on the general background of the received data. These paleomagnetic data are needed to develop APWP of the Siberian platform, paleogeography and assessment of its place in the global paleoreconstructions for the Late Paleozoic. In particular, to determine the relative motions of Siberia and the Europe during the amalgamation of the supercontinent Pangea. The purpose of this paper is to obtain reliable data for the Late Paleozoic of the Siberian platform. The main object of the present study is the Late Paleozoic Angara-Vitim batholith (AVB). Age AVB is well defined (U-Pb 294 +/- 6 Ma). The study area is located in the northern part of the Baikal-Patom folded region, namely Patom passive margin. Where is superimposed tectonic processes absent. During the detailed thermo-cleaning revealed the presence of high-temperature characteristic components of magnetization. This component is present in the samples as the most stable. The main mineral - a carrier of magnetization is magnetite, hematite content with a subordinate, and maghemite (magnetic iron oxide modification of γ-Fe2O3, the transition from magnetite to hematite). The presence of hematite and maghemite in granites associated with increased activity of the volatile oxygen in the formation of these rocks. The direction of the remanent magnetization vector shows high stability in the entire range of demagnetization (from 120 C to 640 C) and is characterized by northern declinations and steep negative inclinations. In favor of a primary thermoremanent nature magnetization AVB granitoids may indicate two things: 1) the difference between the calculated directions from known areas of Mesozoic-Cenozoic directions Siberia, 2) positive "test firing" (regional remagnetization of older rocks Patom passive margin). The parameters of the pole: Plat=36.9, Plong=124.4, A95=6.4. The obtained data say that in the early Permian time, the Siberian

  8. Positive reinforcing effects of RFamide-related peptide-1 in the rat central nucleus of amygdala.

    PubMed

    Lénárd, László; Kovács, Anita; Ollmann, Tamás; Péczely, László; Zagoracz, Olga; Gálosi, Rita; László, Kristóf

    2014-12-15

    The amygdaloid body (AMY) plays an important role in memory, learning and reward-related processes. RFamide-related peptide-1 (RFRP-1) immunoreactive fibers and NPFF1 receptors were identified in the AMY, and previously we verified that neuropeptide RFRP-1 infused into the central nucleus of AMY (CeA) caused food intake decrease. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible rewarding or aversive effects of RFRP-1 in the CeA. In conditioned place preference, test male Wistar rats were microinjected bilaterally with 50 or 100ng RFRP-1 in volume of 0.4μl. In other groups of animals, 20ng NPFF receptor antagonist RF9 was applied or the antagonist was used 15min before 50ng RFRP-1 treatment. Fifty nanograms of RFRP-1 had positive reinforcing properties, while 100ng RFRP-1 had no effect. Prior treatment with NPFF receptor antagonist RF9 could block the rewarding effects of RFRP-1, while the antagonist applied alone did not influence the behavior of rats in place preference paradigm. Our results show that RFRP-1 and NPFF-1 receptors play important roles in the amygdaloid rewarding-reinforcing mechanisms.

  9. Where the Narcissistic Mind Wanders: Increased Self-Related Thoughts Are More Positive and Future Oriented.

    PubMed

    Kanske, Philipp; Sharifi, Marjan; Smallwood, Jonathan; Dziobek, Isabel; Singer, Tania

    2016-09-12

    Narcissism is characterized by a preoccupation with fantasies of unlimited success, power, beauty, and similar values, which has been discussed as intra-individual regulation of a grandiose, but vulnerable self-concept. To explore where the narcissistic mind wanders, we used an experience-sampling approach in a sample with large variability in pathological narcissism inventory scores. Multilevel modeling revealed (1) more mind-wandering in participants with higher levels of narcissism and (2) a difference in the content of these thoughts (more self- and other-related, past and future oriented, negative content). Critically, (3) in high levels of narcissism, the self-related thoughts were associated with more positive valence and were also more future oriented. The results demonstrate the validity of the assumed grandiose, self-absorbed view of oneself in narcissism, which includes self-indulgent fantasies of future success. We also found additional evidence for negative, past-oriented thoughts in narcissism, a dysfunctional pattern reminiscent of rumination, possibly linked to increased psychopathological vulnerability in narcissism.

  10. Accurate crystal-structure refinement of Ca{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}Ge{sub 4}O{sub 14} at 295 and 100 K and analysis of the disorder in the atomic positions

    SciTech Connect

    Dudka, A. P.; Mill', B. V.

    2013-07-15

    The accurate X-ray diffraction study of a Ca{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}Ge{sub 4}O{sub 14} crystal (sp. gr. P321, Z = 1) has been performed using repeated X-ray diffraction data sets collected on a diffractometer equipped with a CCD area detector at 295 and 100 K. The asymmetric disorder in the atomic positions in Ca{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}Ge{sub 4}O{sub 14} is described in two alternative ways: with the use of anharmonic atomic displacements (at 295 K R/wR = 0.68/0.60%, 3754 reflections; at 100 K R/wR = 0.90/0.70%, 3632 reflections) and using a split model (SM) (at 295 K R/wR = 0.74/0.67%; at 100 K R/wR = 0.95/0.74%). An analysis of the probability density function that defines the probability of finding an atom at a particular point in space shows that, at 295 K, five of the seven independent atoms in the unit cell are asymmetrically disordered in the vicinity of their sites, whereas only three atoms are disordered at 100 K. At both temperatures the largest disorder is observed at the 3f site on a twofold axis, which is a prerequisite for the formation of helicoidal chains of atoms along the c axis of the crystal and can serve as a structural basis for multiferroic properties of this family of crystals with magnetic ions.

  11. A positive affect intervention for people experiencing health-related stress: development and non-randomized pilot test.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie; Hult, Jen R; Duncan, Larissa G; Cohn, Michael A; Maurer, Stephanie; Bussolari, Cori; Acree, Michael

    2012-07-01

    In this article we present background, theoretical rationale, and pilot data on the development of an intervention designed to increase positive affect in people living with serious health-related stress. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that a multiple-component positive affect intervention is feasible and acceptable for people newly diagnosed with HIV. Retention in the intervention and adherence to home practice were high. Participants reported significant increases in positive affect and significant decreases in negative affect. This positive affect intervention can serve as a template for programs to be developed to help people experiencing health-related and other types of life stress.

  12. From Decent Work to Decent Lives: Positive Self and Relational Management (PS&RM) in the Twenty-First Century.

    PubMed

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to empirically test the theoretical model, Positive Self and Relational Management (PS&RM), for a sample of 184 Italian university students. The PS&RM model specifies the development of individuals' strengths, potentials, and talents across the lifespan and with regard to the dialect of self in relationship. PS&RM is defined theoretically by three constructs: Positive Lifelong Life Management, Positive Lifelong Self-Management, Positive Lifelong Relational Management. The three constructs are operationalized as follows: Positive Lifelong Life Management is measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), the Meaningful Life Measure (MLM), and the Authenticity Scale (AS); Positive Lifelong Self-Management is measured by the Intrapreneurial Self-Capital Scale (ISC), the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS), and the Life Project Reflexivity Scale (LPRS); and Positive Lifelong Relational Management is measured by the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue), the Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and the Positive Relational Management Scale (PRMS). Confirmatory factor analysis of the PS&RM model was completed using structural equation modeling. The theoretical PS&RM model was empirically tested as defined by the three hypothesized constructs. Empirical support for this model offers a framework for further research and the design of preventive interventions to promote decent work and decent lives in the twenty-first century.

  13. From Decent Work to Decent Lives: Positive Self and Relational Management (PS&RM) in the Twenty-First Century

    PubMed Central

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to empirically test the theoretical model, Positive Self and Relational Management (PS&RM), for a sample of 184 Italian university students. The PS&RM model specifies the development of individuals' strengths, potentials, and talents across the lifespan and with regard to the dialect of self in relationship. PS&RM is defined theoretically by three constructs: Positive Lifelong Life Management, Positive Lifelong Self-Management, Positive Lifelong Relational Management. The three constructs are operationalized as follows: Positive Lifelong Life Management is measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), the Meaningful Life Measure (MLM), and the Authenticity Scale (AS); Positive Lifelong Self-Management is measured by the Intrapreneurial Self-Capital Scale (ISC), the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS), and the Life Project Reflexivity Scale (LPRS); and Positive Lifelong Relational Management is measured by the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue), the Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and the Positive Relational Management Scale (PRMS). Confirmatory factor analysis of the PS&RM model was completed using structural equation modeling. The theoretical PS&RM model was empirically tested as defined by the three hypothesized constructs. Empirical support for this model offers a framework for further research and the design of preventive interventions to promote decent work and decent lives in the twenty-first century. PMID:27047406

  14. Does cue context matter? Examining the specificity of cue-related activation of positive and negative alcohol expectancies.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2013-12-01

    Consistent with the Encoding Specificity principle, positive alcohol expectancies may be activated by cues in drinking contexts because they are more closely associated with these cues in memory than are negative expectancies. However, there is little research examining the specificity of cue-induced alcohol expectancy activation. This study investigated the relative activation of positive and negative expectancies in response to positive and negative cue contexts. We also examined whether these effects were stronger for heavier and more problematic drinkers. College student drinkers were randomly assigned to listen to vignettes describing either positive or negative drinking scenarios (cue exposure). Participants also completed an implicit measure of alcohol expectancy activation (modified Stroop task) both before and after the cue exposure, as well as self-report measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. We found that alcohol-related problems moderated the effects of cue condition on expectancy activation, such that specific activation of positive relative to negative expectancies in response to positive cues was observed only for drinkers with higher levels of alcohol problems. No differences in activation of positive versus negative expectancies were observed for more problematic drinkers in the negative cue condition or for less problematic drinkers in either cue condition. The results are partially consistent with the Encoding Specificity principle, showing that positive contextual cues can selectively activate positive alcohol expectancies for more problematic drinkers. Findings may have implications for interventions that target automatic expectancy processes, suggesting potential utility in targeting specific expectancies in specific contexts.

  15. On the relative contributions of positive reinforcement and escape extinction in the treatment of food refusal.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Cathleen C; Patel, Meeta R; Gulotta, Charles S; Sevin, Bari M; Layer, Stacy A

    2003-01-01

    We compared the effects of positive reinforcement alone, escape extinction alone, and positive reinforcement with escape extinction in the treatment of the food and fluid refusal of 4 children who had been diagnosed with a pediatric feeding disorder. Consumption did not increase when positive reinforcement was implemented alone. By contrast, consumption increased for all participants when escape extinction was implemented, independent of the presence or absence of positive reinforcement. However, the addition of positive reinforcement to escape extinction was associated with beneficial effects (e.g., greater decreases in negative vocalizations and inappropriate behavior) for some participants.

  16. Socioeconomic Position and Low Birth Weight among Mothers Exposed to Traffic-Related Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Habermann, Mateus; Gouveia, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Background Atmospheric pollution is a major public health concern. It can affect placental function and restricts fetal growth. However, scientific knowledge remains too limited to make inferences regarding causal associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and adverse effects on pregnancy. This study evaluated the association between low birth weight (LBW) and maternal exposure during pregnancy to traffic related air pollutants (TRAP) in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods and findings Analysis included 5,772 cases of term-LBW (<2,500 g) and 5,814 controls matched by sex and month of birth selected from the birth registration system. Mothers’ addresses were geocoded to estimate exposure according to 3 indicators: distance from home to heavy traffic roads, distance-weighted traffic density (DWTD) and levels of particulate matter ≤10 µg/m3 estimated through land use regression (LUR-PM10). Final models were evaluated using multiple logistic regression adjusting for birth, maternal and pregnancy characteristics. We found decreased odds in the risk of LBW associated with DWTD and LUR-PM10 in the highest quartiles of exposure with a significant linear trend of decrease in risk. The analysis with distance from heavy traffic roads was less consistent. It was also observed that mothers with higher education and neighborhood-level income were potentially more exposed to TRAP. Conclusions This study found an unexpected decreased risk of LBW associated with traffic related air pollution. Mothers with advantaged socioeconomic position (SEP) although residing in areas of higher vehicular traffic might not in fact be more expose to air pollution. It can also be that the protection against LBW arising from a better SEP is stronger than the effect of exposure to air pollution, and this exposure may not be sufficient to increase the risk of LBW for these mothers. PMID:25426640

  17. Sleep Apnea Related Risk of Motor Vehicle Accidents is Reduced by Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: Swedish Traffic Accident Registry Data

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Mahssa; Hedner, Jan; Häbel, Henrike; Nerman, Olle; Grote, Ludger

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). The rate of MVAs in patients suspected of having OSA was determined and the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was investigated. Design: MVA rate in patients referred for OSA was compared to the rate in the general population using data from the Swedish Traffic Accident Registry (STRADA), stratified for age and calendar year. The risk factors for MVAs, using demographic and polygraphy data, and MVA rate before and after CPAP were evaluated in the patient group. Setting: Clinical sleep laboratory and population based control (n = 635,786). Patients: There were 1,478 patients, male sex 70.4%, mean age 53.6 (12.8) y. Interventions: CPAP. Measurements and Results: The number of accidents (n = 74) among patients was compared with the expected number (n = 30) from a control population (STRADA). An increased MVA risk ratio of 2.45 was found among patients compared with controls (P < 0.001). Estimated excess accident risk was most prominent in the elderly patients (65–80 y, seven versus two MVAs). In patients, driving distance (km/y), EDS (Epworth Sleepiness score ≥ 16), short habitual sleep time (≤ 5 h/night), and use of hypnotics were associated with increased MVA risk (odds ratios 1.2, 2.1, 2.7 and 2.1, all P ≤ 0.03). CPAP use ≥ 4 h/night was associated with a reduction of MVA incidence (7.6 to 2.5 accidents/1,000 drivers/y). Conclusions: The motor vehicle accident risk in this large cohort of unselected patients with obstructive sleep apnea suggests a need for accurate tools to identify individuals at risk. Sleep apnea severity (e.g., apnea-hypopnea index) failed to identify patients at risk. Citation: Karimi M, Hedner J, Häbel H, Nerman O, Grote L. Sleep apnea related risk of motor vehicle accidents is reduced by continuous positive airway pressure: Swedish traffic accident registry data. SLEEP 2015;38(3):341–349. PMID

  18. Positive and negative stimuli in relation to tennis players' reaction time.

    PubMed

    Mead, T P; Drowatzky, J N; Hardin-Crosby, L

    2000-02-01

    Research has indicated that negative and positive thoughts may affect sport performance. The purpose of this analogue study was to assess whether negative and positive stimuli influenced tennis performance similar to positive and negative thought. The reaction time (RT) of 40 competitive tennis players was measured during a timed response to a tennis ball rotating in a topspin, sidespin, or backspin direction on the computer screen. Immediately prior to the ball presentation, a phrase (accessory stimulus) was presented visually or aurally. The accessory stimulus provided either positive (e.g., 'nice shot') or negative information (e.g., 'bad shot') followed by the subject's name. Analysis showed a main effect only for the type of spin. The slowest RT occurred when responding to a tennis ball rotating in a backspin direction. A significant interaction was found for the sensory modality (audition vs vision) and polarity (positive vs negative) of the accessory stimulus. RT to negative stimuli was slowest when the accessory stimulus was presented aurally. The quickest RT to positive stimuli occurred when the accessory stimulus was presented aurally. These results indicated that negative and positive stimuli, when presented aurally, affected performance as positive and negative thoughts measured in other studies. Not measured was whether negative and positive stimuli actually produce the negative and positive thoughts, respectively, that have been reported to affect performance.

  19. Running Pace Decrease during a Marathon Is Positively Related to Blood Markers of Muscle Damage

    PubMed Central

    Del Coso, Juan; Fernández, David; Abián-Vicen, Javier; Salinero, Juan José; González-Millán, Cristina; Areces, Francisco; Ruiz, Diana; Gallo, César; Calleja-González, Julio; Pérez-González, Benito

    2013-01-01

    Background Completing a marathon is one of the most challenging sports activities, yet the source of running fatigue during this event is not completely understood. The aim of this investigation was to determine the cause(s) of running fatigue during a marathon in warm weather. Methodology/Principal Findings We recruited 40 amateur runners (34 men and 6 women) for the study. Before the race, body core temperature, body mass, leg muscle power output during a countermovement jump, and blood samples were obtained. During the marathon (27 °C; 27% relative humidity) running fatigue was measured as the pace reduction from the first 5-km to the end of the race. Within 3 min after the marathon, the same pre-exercise variables were obtained. Results Marathoners reduced their running pace from 3.5 ± 0.4 m/s after 5-km to 2.9 ± 0.6 m/s at the end of the race (P<0.05), although the running fatigue experienced by the marathoners was uneven. Marathoners with greater running fatigue (> 15% pace reduction) had elevated post-race myoglobin (1318 ± 1411 v 623 ± 391 µg L−1; P<0.05), lactate dehydrogenase (687 ± 151 v 583 ± 117 U L−1; P<0.05), and creatine kinase (564 ± 469 v 363 ± 158 U L−1; P = 0.07) in comparison with marathoners that preserved their running pace reasonably well throughout the race. However, they did not differ in their body mass change (−3.1 ± 1.0 v −3.0 ± 1.0%; P = 0.60) or post-race body temperature (38.7 ± 0.7 v 38.9 ± 0.9 °C; P = 0.35). Conclusions/Significance Running pace decline during a marathon was positively related with muscle breakdown blood markers. To elucidate if muscle damage during a marathon is related to mechanistic or metabolic factors requires further investigation. PMID:23460881

  20. How Does Attention Relate to the Ability-Specific and Position-Specific Components of Reasoning Measured by APM?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Xuezhu; Goldhammer, Frank; Moosbrugger, Helfried; Schweizer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the nature of the ability-specific and position-specific components of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) by relating them to a number of types of attention. The ability-specific component represents the constant part of cognitive performance whereas the position-specific component reflects the…

  1. Mental Health Pathways from Interpersonal Violence to Health-Related Outcomes in HIV-Positive Sexual Minority Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantalone, David W.; Hessler, Danielle M.; Simoni, Jane M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We examined mental health pathways between interpersonal violence (IPV) and health-related outcomes in HIV-positive sexual minority men engaged with medical care. Method: HIV-positive gay and bisexual men (N = 178) were recruited for this cross-sectional study from 2 public HIV primary care clinics that treated outpatients in an urban…

  2. Foucauldian Critique of Positive Education and Related Self-Technologies: Some Problems and New Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reveley, James

    2015-01-01

    By focusing on positive education, this article draws out the educational implications of Binkley's Foucauldian critique of neoliberal subjects being pressured to learn how to manage their emotions. From the latter author's perspective, positive education self-technologies such as school-based mindfulness training can be construed as functioning…

  3. Explaining the extraversion/positive affect relation: sociability cannot account for extraverts' greater happiness.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Richard E; Le, Kimdy; Dyrenforth, Portia S

    2008-06-01

    The association between Extraversion and positive affect is one of the most robust findings in the study of personality and emotion. Temperament models posit that the association is direct; instrumental models posit that the association is mediated by additional processes. Two experience sampling studies were conducted to test instrumental mechanisms that might underlie the effect. According to a mediation model, extraverts' greater social activity can account for their increased positive affect when compared to introverts. According to a person-by-situation interaction model, extraverts react more positively to social situations than do introverts, and this interaction can account for the association. Only weak support for the instrumental models was found; consistent with temperament models, a moderate direct association remained even after controlling for these effects.

  4. Positive and negative expressions of shyness in toddlers: are they related to anxiety in the same way?

    PubMed

    Colonnesi, Cristina; Napoleone, Elisa; Bögels, Susan M

    2014-04-01

    Shyness has generally been investigated as a negative and unpleasant emotional state, strongly related to social anxiety and loneliness. However, recent evidence has suggested that shyness may have a positive and socially adaptive form. We examined whether the positive expression of shyness differs from the negative expression of shyness during toddlerhood, and whether a negative relation to anxiety exists. Participants were 30-month-old children (N=102; 56 girls) who were asked to mimic animal sounds with a novel person (performance) and then to watch their performance (self-watching). Their expression of pleasure (positive reactions) and distress (negative reactions), as well as their positive and negative expressions of shyness, were coded. Children's temperamental level of shyness, sociability, and anxiety were measured with parent-reported questionnaires. Toddlers produced more positive and negative displays of shyness in the performance task than in the self-watching task. Children's positive expression of shyness was associated with lower parent-reported anxiety and higher sociability. Negative reactions, but not negative shyness, were related to children's higher anxiety levels and lower sociability. Multiple linear regression analyses confirmed a negative predictive role of the positive expression of shyness on anxiety. These results suggest that the positive expression of shyness can regulate early anxiety symptoms and already serves a social function in interpersonal interactions in early childhood.

  5. Identification of the most significant electrode positions in electromyographic evaluation of swallowing-related movements in humans.

    PubMed

    Zaretsky, E; Pluschinski, P; Sader, R; Birkholz, P; Neuschaefer-Rube, C; Hey, Christiane

    2017-02-01

    Surface electromyography (sEMG) is a well-established procedure for recording swallowing-related muscle activities. Because the use of a large number of sEMG channels is time consuming and technically sophisticated, the aim of this study was to identify the most significant electrode positions associated with oropharyngeal swallowing activities. Healthy subjects (N = 16) were tested with a total of 42 channels placed in M. masseter, M. orbicularis oris, submental and paralaryngeal regions. Each test subject swallowed 10 ml of water five times. After having identified 16 optimal electrode positions, that is, positions with the strongest signals quantified by the highest integral values, differences to 26 other ones were determined by a Mann-Whitney U test. Kruskal-Wallis H test was utilized for the analysis of differences between single subjects, subject subgroups, and single electrode positions. Factors associated with sEMG signals were examined in a linear regression. Sixteen electrode positions were chosen by a simple ranking of integral values. These positions delivered significantly higher signals than the other 26 positions. Differences between single electrode positions and between test subjects were also significant. Sixteen most significant positions were identified which represent swallowing-related muscle potentials in healthy subjects.

  6. Frequency of head-impact-related outcomes by position in NCAA division I collegiate football players.

    PubMed

    Baugh, Christine M; Kiernan, Patrick T; Kroshus, Emily; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Montenigro, Philip H; McKee, Ann C; Stern, Robert A

    2015-03-01

    Concussions and subconcussive impacts sustained in American football have been associated with short- and long-term neurological impairment, but differences in head impact outcomes across playing positions are not well understood. The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine has identified playing position as a key risk factor for concussion in football and one for which additional research is needed. This study examined variation in head impact outcomes across primary football playing positions in a group of 730 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Series athletes, using a self-report questionnaire. Although there were no significant differences between position groups in the number of diagnosed concussions during the 2012 football season, there were significant differences between groups in undiagnosed concussions (p=0.008) and "dings" (p<0.001); offensive linemen reported significantly higher numbers than most other positions. Significant differences were found between position groups in the frequencies of several postimpact symptoms, including dizziness (p<0.001), headache (p<0.001), and seeing stars (p<0.001) during the 2012 football season, with offensive linemen reporting significantly more symptoms compared to most other groups. There were also positional differences in frequency of returning to play while symptomatic (p<0.001) and frequency of participating in full-contact practice (p<0.001). Offensive linemen reported having returned to play while experiencing symptoms more frequently and participating in more full-contact practices than other groups. These findings suggest that offensive linemen, a position group that experiences frequent, but low-magnitude, head impacts, develop more postimpact symptoms than other playing positions, but do not report these symptoms as a concussion.

  7. Heart Rate Variability Before and After Cycle Exercise in Relation to Different Body Positions

    PubMed Central

    Barak, Otto F.; Jakovljevic, Djordje G.; Popadic Gacesa, Jelena Z.; Ovcin, Zoran B.; Brodie, David A.; Grujic, Nikola G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of three different body positions on HRV measures following short-term submaximal exercise. Thirty young healthy males performed submaximal cycling for five minutes on three different occasions. Measures of HRV were obtained from 5-min R to R wave intervals before the exercise (baseline) and during the last five minutes of a 15 min recovery (post-exercise) in three different body positions (seated, supine, supine with elevated legs). Measures of the mean RR normal-to-normal intervals (RRNN), the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) and the low-frequency (LF) and the high-frequency (HF) spectral power were analyzed. Post-exercise RRNN, RMSSD were significantly higher in the two supine positions (p < 0. 01) compared with seated body position. Post-exercise ln LF was significantly lower in the supine position with elevated legs than in the seated body position (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found among the three different body positions for post-exercise ln HF (p > 0.05). Post-exercise time domain measures of HRV (RRNN, SDNN, RMSSD) were significantly lower compared with baseline values (p < 0.01) regardless body position. Post-exercise ln LF and ln HF in all three positions remained significantly reduced during recovery compared to baseline values (p < 0.01). The present study suggests that 15 minutes following short-term submaximal exercise most of the time and frequency domain HRV measures have not returned to pre-exercise values. Modifications in autonomic cardiac regulation induced by body posture present at rest remained after exercise, but the post-exercise differences among the three positions did not resemble the ones established at rest. Key points Whether different body positions may enhance post-exercise recovery of autonomic regulation remains unclear. The absence of restoration of HRV measures after 15 minutes of

  8. Emergent Conditional Relations in a Go/No-Go Procedure: Figure-Ground and Stimulus-Position Compound Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debert, Paula; Huziwara, Edson M.; Faggiani, Robson Brino; de Mathis, Maria Eugenia Simoes; McIlvane, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Past research has demonstrated emergent conditional relations using a go/no-go procedure with pairs of figures displayed side-by-side on a computer screen. The present study sought to extend applications of this procedure. In Experiment 1, we evaluated whether emergent conditional relations could be demonstrated when two-component stimuli were…

  9. Event-Related Potentials: Search for Positive and Negative Child-Related Schemata in Individuals at Low and High Risk for Child Physical Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joel S.; Rabenhorst, Mandy M.; McCanne, Thomas R.; Crouch, Julie L.; Skowronski, John J.; Fleming, Matthew T.; Hiraoka, Regina; Risser, Heather J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present investigation used event-related potentials (ERPs, N400 and N300) to determine the extent to which individuals at low and high risk for child physical abuse (CPA) have pre-existing positive and negative child-related schemata that can be automatically activated by ambiguous child stimuli. Methods: ERP data were obtained from…

  10. The Ultrasonographic Determination of the Position of the Mental Foramen and its Relation to the Mandibular Premolar Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Motara, Feroza; Moolla, Muhammed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The position of the mental foramen has been well researched in cadaver specimens, radiographically as well as intraoperatively. To our knowledge, this landmark study is the first to make use of ultrasonography in a study population to determine the position of the mental foramen in relation to the mandibular premolar teeth. Ultrasonography has great potential to further revolutionize the practice of medicine and dento-maxillofacial surgery. Aim To make use of ultrasound to determine the position of the mental foramen and its relation to the mandibular premolar teeth. Materials and Methods One hundred Black and Caucasian subjects were enrolled. A high frequency (8MHz) transducer (PLF.805ST) of a diagnostic ultrasound system (model SSA-510A) was applied above the inferior border of the mandible, just lateral to the mentum. With the marker of the transducer pointing cranially, the position of the mental foramen in relation to the closest mandibular premolar tooth was determined. The position was compared across race, sex and age groups. Results All mental foramina (100%) were visualised. Overall the most frequent position of the mental foramen was in line with the long axis of the second premolar on the right (44%) and between the first and second premolars on the left (44%). There were no statistical differences (p >0.05) between race groups, sex and age groups with regard to the position of the mental foramen in relation to the mandibular premolars. However, in Blacks, the most frequent position of the mental foramen was in line with the long axis of the second premolar and in Caucasians the most common position was between the first and second premolars. The most frequent position of the mental foramen in females was in line with the long axis of the second premolar on the right and between the first and second premolars on the left. In males, the most frequent position of the mental foramen was in line with the long axis of the second premolar

  11. Obesity-Related Behaviors among Poor Adolescents and Young Adults: Is Social Position Associated with Risk Behaviors?

    PubMed Central

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C.; Goodman, Elizabeth; Guendelman, Sylvia; Adler, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Different measures of social position capture unique dimensions of relative rank among youth. Youth-specific measures of social position may be important in identifying the most at-risk for obesity. Lower social status youth are more likely to be at-risk for obesity-related behaviors compared to those with a higher rank. This cross-sectional study examines multiple dimensions of social position in relation to obesity-related behaviors in an adolescent and young adult population. In addition to using conventional measures of social position, including parental education and household expenditures, we explore the usefulness of three youth-specific measures of social position – community and society subjective social status and school dropout status. Data are taken from a 2004 house-to-house survey of urban households within the bottom 20th percentile of income distribution within seven states in Mexico. A total of 5,321 Mexican adolescents, aged 12–22 years, provided information on obesity-related behaviors (e.g., diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior) and indicators of subjective and objective social position. A parent in each household provided information on socioeconomic status of the parent and household. Ordinal logistic regressions are used to estimate the associations of parental, household and adolescent indicators of social position and obesity-related risk behaviors. Those adolescents with the highest odds of adopting obesity risk behaviors were the ones who perceived themselves as lower in social status in reference to their peer community and those who had dropped out of school. We found no significant associations between parental education or household expenditures and obesity-related risk behaviors. Immediate social factors in adolescents’ lives may have a strong influence on their health-related behaviors. This study provides evidence for the usefulness of two particular measures, both of which are youth

  12. Prone Position-Related Meralgia Paresthetica after Lumbar Spinal Surgery : A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Jun

    2008-01-01

    Lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathy occurring during spinal surgery is frequently related to iliac bone graft harvesting, but meralgia paresthetica (MP) can result from the patient being in the prone position. Prone position-related MP is not an uncommon complication after posterior spine surgery but there are only few reports in the literature on this subject. It is usually overlooked because of its mild symptoms and self-limiting course, or patients and physicians may misunderstand the persistence of lower extremity symptoms in the early postoperative period to be a reflection of poor surgical outcome. The authors report a case of prone position-related MP after posterior lumbar interbody fusion at the L3-4 and reviewed the literature with discussion on the incidence, pathogenesis, and possible risk factors related to this entity. PMID:19137086

  13. Description and Predictors of Positive and Negative Alcohol-Related Consequences in the First Year of College

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Nancy P.; Clerkin, Elise M.; Wood, Mark; Monti, Peter M.; O’Leary Tevyaw, Tracy; Corriveau, Donald; Fingeret, Allan; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to establish the frequency of positive and negative alcohol-related consequences during the first year of college and to evaluate gender, race/ethnicity, time of year, alcohol use, and intoxication as predictors of consequences using frequent assessments. Method: Participants (N = 1,053; 57.5% female) completed biweekly assessments of alcohol use and positive and negative alcohol-related consequences throughout the year. Results: The majority of drinkers reported both positive and negative consequences. Having a good time and feeling less stressed were the most commonly reported positive consequences. Blackouts and getting physically sick were the most commonly endorsed negative consequences. At the weekly level, number of drinking days, drinks per drinking day, and estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC, reflecting intoxication) were significantly related to all consequences after controlling for demographics and time of year. Negative consequences had stronger associations with number of drinks and eBAC than positive consequences did. With each additional drink consumed on a drinking day, the incidence of negative consequences more than doubled (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 2.34, 95% CI [2.19, 2.50]), whereas the incidence of positive consequences increased by about half (IRR = 1.51, 95% CI [1.47, 1.56]). The consequence with the largest gender difference was regretted sex, with women reporting it more often. Few racial/ethnic differences were found in report of negative consequences. Greater positive and negative consequences were endorsed at the beginning of both academic semesters. Conclusions: As number of drinks and eBAC increase, the relative odds of a negative consequence are higher than that of a positive consequence. Alcohol interventions could promote greater awareness of the likelihood of specific consequences and could highlight that positive consequences are associated with lower levels of drinking. PMID

  14. Influence of the Hinge Axis Transfer Modality on the Three-Dimensional Condylar Shift Between the Centric Relation and the Maximum Intercuspation Positions

    PubMed Central

    Galeković, Nikolina Holen; Fugošić, Vesna; Braut, Vedrana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to determine whether the hinge axis registration and the transfer modality (facebow transfer vs. average mounting) from the subject to the articulator affect the three-dimensional condylar shift between the centric relation (CR) and the maximum intercuspation (MI) position. Material and Methods The study was comprised of 32 fully dentate subjects (16 male and 16 female). Only the asymptomatic participants with normal occlusal relations (Angle class I) aged 20 - 33 (mean age 22.6 ± 4.7) met the inclusion criteria. Three-dimensional condylar shift (anteroposterior, superoinferior and mediolateral shift) between the centric relation position (CR) and the maximum intercuspation (MI) position was analyzed by means of Mandibular Position Indicator (SAM Prazisionstechnik GmbH, Muenchen, Germany). Results The average three-dimensional condylar shift was 0.13 ± 0.12 mm for facebow transfer and 0.22 ± 0.23 mm for average mounting. There were no statistically significant differences noted between genders. The results of the Mann-Whitney test showed statistically significant differences for anteroposterior and superoinferior condylar shift (P < 0.001). However, the difference in the mediolateral shift was not statistically significant. Conclusions In order to find discrepancies within the three-dimensional condylar shift, facebow transfer proved to be more accurate than the average mounting in the semi-adjustable articulator. However, the average value of three-dimensional shifts of the condyle did not differ from normal values and they did not have clinical significance. Thus, both ways of transfer modalities (facebow transfer and average mounting) in asymptomatic subjects with normal occlusion can be considered reliable. PMID:27688384

  15. Positive evolution of the glycoprotein (GP) gene is related to transmission of the Ebola virus.

    PubMed

    Jing, Y X; Wang, L N; Wu, X M; Song, C X

    2016-03-28

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a fatal disease caused by the negative-strand RNA of the Ebola virus. A high-intensity outbreak of this fever was reported in West Africa last year; however, there is currently no definitive treatment strategy available for this disease. In this study, we analyzed the molecular evolutionary history and attempted to determine the positive selection sites in the Ebola genes using multiple-genomic sequences of the various Ebola virus subtypes, in order to gain greater clarity into the evolution of the virus and its various subtypes. Only the glycoprotein (GP) gene was positively selected among the 8 Ebola genes, with the other genes remaining in the purification stage. The positive selection sites in the GP gene were identified by a random-site model; these sites were found to be located in the mucin-like region, which is associated with transmembrane protein binding. Additionally, different branches of the phylogenetic tree displayed different positive sites, which in turn was responsible for differences in the cell adhesion ability of the virus. In conclusion, the pattern of positive sites in the GP gene is associated with the epidemiology and prevalence of Ebola in different areas.

  16. Dynamic Infrared Thermography Study of Blood Flow Relative to Lower Limp Position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stathopoulos, I.; Skouroliakou, K.; Michail, C.; Valais, I.

    2015-09-01

    Thermography is an established method for studying skin temperature distribution. Temperature distribution on body surface is influenced by a variety of physiological mechanisms and has been proven a reliable indicator of various physiological disorders. Blood flow is an important factor that influences body heat diffusion and skin temperature. In an attempt to validate and further elucidate thermal models characterizing the human skin, dynamic thermography of the lower limp in horizontal and vertical position was performed, using a FLIR T460 thermographic camera. Temporal variation of temperature was recorded on five distinct points of the limp. Specific points were initially cooled by the means of an ice cube and measurements of the skin temperature were obtained every 30 seconds as the skin temperature was locally reduced and afterwards restored at its initial value. The return to thermal balance followed roughly the same pattern for all points of measurement, although the heating rate was faster when the foot was in horizontal position. Thermal balance was achieved faster at the spots that were positioned on a vein passage. Our results confirm the influence of blood flow on the thermal regulation of the skin. Spots located over veins exhibit different thermal behaviour due to thermal convection through blood flow. Changing the position of the foot from vertical to horizontal, effectively affects blood perfusion as in the vertical position blood circulation is opposed by gravity.

  17. Prevalence of avian haemosporidian parasites is positively related to the abundance of host species at multiple sites within a region.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Vincenzo A; Medeiros, Matthew C I; Collins, Michael D; Sari, Eloisa H R; Coffey, Elyse D; Dickerson, Rebecca C; Lugarini, Camile; Stratford, Jeffrey A; Henry, Donata R; Merrill, Loren; Matthews, Alix E; Hanson, Alison A; Roberts, Jackson R; Joyce, Michael; Kunkel, Melanie R; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2017-01-01

    Parasite prevalence is thought to be positively related to host population density owing to enhanced contagion. However, the relationship between prevalence and local abundance of multiple host species is underexplored. We surveyed birds and their haemosporidian parasites (genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) at multiple sites across eastern North America to test whether the prevalence of these parasites in a host species at a particular site is related to that host's local abundance. Prevalence was positively related to host abundance within most sites, although the effect was stronger and more consistent for Plasmodium than for Haemoproteus. In contrast, prevalence was not related to variation in the abundance of most individual host species among sites across the region. These results suggest that parasite prevalence partly reflects the relative abundances of host species in local assemblages. However, three nonnative host species had low prevalence despite being relatively abundant at one site, as predicted by the enemy release hypothesis.

  18. 78 FR 31847 - Designation of National Security Positions in the Competitive Service, and Related Matters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ..., and Related Matters AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management; Office of the Director of National... related matters. This proposed rule is one of a number of initiatives OPM and ODNI have undertaken...

  19. Perceptions of Contextual Features Related to Implementation and Sustainability of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Kent; Predy, Larissa K.; Upreti, Gita; Hume, Amanda E.; Turri, Mary G.; Mathews, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived importance of specific contextual variables for initial implementation and sustainability of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS). A large, national sample of 257 school team members completed the "School-Wide Universal Behavior Sustainability Index: School Teams", a…

  20. Changes in vertical tooth position and face height related to long term anterior repositioning splint therapy.

    PubMed

    Brown, D T; Gaudet, E L; Phillips, C

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluates whether extended full-time wear of a partial coverage mandibular anterior repositioning splint (MORA) causes intrusion of posterior teeth and determines the effect on jaw position. Sixty-four patients from two private orthodontic practices were studied using cephalometric radiographs to measure vertical change in position of the anterior and posterior teeth and the mandible. The splint wear time ranged from a minimum of one half year to a maximum of 4.8 years, with a mean of 1.33 years. No significant change was recorded in the distance from the mandibular molar to the mandibular plane. On average, the maxillary incisor and maxillary molar extruded about 1 mm, while the mandibular molar was unchanged and the mandibular incisor intruded about 0.6 mm. Posterior face height increased an average of 1.6 mm, and anterior face height increased an average of 2.7 mms. In 20% of the patients, intrusion of the mandibular molars of 1 mm or more occurred. In 41%, extrusion of the maxillary incisors of 1 mm or more was noted. Intrusion of the upper molars or extrusion of the lower incisors occurred in only 5% of the patients. The data indicates that only a very small proportion of patients having long term splint therapy using the MORA have clinically significant molar intrusion. Change in mandibular position was expressed in a vertical increase in posterior and anterior face height. Only very small changes occurred in antero-posterior position.

  1. Before the Threshold: Destruction, Reparation and Creativity in Relation to the Depressive Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Judith

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the author revisits the classic idea formulated by Hanna Segal that creativity takes place from a depressive position impulse to repair previous destruction wrought on internal parental objects. The author proposes that in the light of psychoanalytic work with deprived and borderline children, there may need to be a rider to this…

  2. The Effect of Varying Biting Position on Relative Jaw Muscle EMG activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    goal is to protect the temporomandibular joint tissues and therefore minimizes joint force. The second hypothesis is that the system maximizes...modalities for some temporomandibular disorders . Several models have been proposed, but very little experimental work has been accomplished to...tenderness seen in temporomandibular disorder patients. Correlation of wear facet patterns and specific mandibular positions during bruxing with

  3. More than Talk: Relations between Emotion Understanding and Positive Behaviour in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Rosie; Hughes, Claire

    2005-01-01

    Background. Associations between positive behaviour, emotion understanding and verbal ability have been reported in studies of preschoolers (Cassidy, Werner, Rourke, Zubernis, & Balaraman, 2003), but have yet to be investigated in younger children. Methods. In this study the performance of 36 toddlers (17 boys and 19 girls; mean age = 29…

  4. Peritonsillar abscess and cellulitis and their relation to a positive antigen detection test for streptococcal infection.

    PubMed

    Risberg, Stefan; Engfeldt, Peter; Hugosson, Svante

    2010-10-01

    The microbiological cause of peritonsillar abscess and the role of group A β-haemolytic Streptococcus (GAS) are unclear. We performed a retrospective study at the ear, nose and throat clinic (ENT) of Orebro University Hospital, Sweden, and included 376 events of peritonsillitis between 2002 and 2004. We determined if the patients had visited a primary healthcare centre (PHCC) within 30 days prior to inclusion. The results of the rapid antigen detection test for GAS (Strep A) taken at the PHCC were compared with the occurrence of peritonsillar abscess (PTA) and peritonsillar cellulitis (PTC). A Strep A test was performed in 61% (229/376) of the events studied. Strep A was positive in 22% of PTA events and in 35% of PTC events (p = 0.036). Of 48,000 Strep A tests taken in primary healthcare, mainly for sore throat, 22% were positive. We examined the relationship between age, the incidence of PTA, and positive Strep A tests. We also determined if there was a monthly correlation between number of positive Strep A tests and number of PTA events. We found no significant correlations. In conclusion, our findings indicate that GAS does not play a major role in the development of PTA/PTC.

  5. Linguistic Stress, Within-Word Position, and Grammatical Class in Relation to Early Childhood Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natke, Ulrich; Sandrieser, Patricia; van Ark, Melanie; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Kalveram, Karl Theodor

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the link that has been established between stuttering and linguistic stress in adolescents and adults (the so-called stress effect) can also be observed in childhood stuttering. To account for confounding variables, both within-word position and grammatical class were measured, because…

  6. Relating Specific Emotions to Intrinsic Motivation: On the Moderating Role of Positive and Negative Emotion Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Vandercammen, Leen; Hofmans, Joeri; Theuns, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that studies on self-determination theory have traditionally disregarded the explicit role of emotions in the motivation eliciting process, research attention for the affective antecedents of motivation is growing. We add to this emerging research field by testing the moderating role of emotion differentiation –individual differences in the extent to which people can differentiate between specific emotions– on the relationship between twelve specific emotions and intrinsic motivation. To this end, we conducted a daily diary study (N = 72) and an experience sampling study (N = 34). Results showed that the relationship between enthusiasm, cheerfulness, optimism, contentedness, gloominess, miserableness, uneasiness (in both studies 1 and 2), calmness, relaxation, tenseness, depression, worry (only in Study 1) on one hand and intrinsic motivation on the other hand was moderated by positive emotion differentiation for the positive emotions and by negative emotion differentiation for the negative emotions. Altogether, these findings suggest that for people who are unable to distinguish between different specific positive emotions the relationship between those specific positive emotions and intrinsic motivation is stronger, whereas the relationship between specific negative emotions and intrinsic motivation is weaker for people who are able to distinguish between the different specific negative emotions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:25517984

  7. Relating specific emotions to intrinsic motivation: on the moderating role of positive and negative emotion differentiation.

    PubMed

    Vandercammen, Leen; Hofmans, Joeri; Theuns, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that studies on self-determination theory have traditionally disregarded the explicit role of emotions in the motivation eliciting process, research attention for the affective antecedents of motivation is growing. We add to this emerging research field by testing the moderating role of emotion differentiation -individual differences in the extent to which people can differentiate between specific emotions- on the relationship between twelve specific emotions and intrinsic motivation. To this end, we conducted a daily diary study (N = 72) and an experience sampling study (N = 34). Results showed that the relationship between enthusiasm, cheerfulness, optimism, contentedness, gloominess, miserableness, uneasiness (in both studies 1 and 2), calmness, relaxation, tenseness, depression, worry (only in Study 1) on one hand and intrinsic motivation on the other hand was moderated by positive emotion differentiation for the positive emotions and by negative emotion differentiation for the negative emotions. Altogether, these findings suggest that for people who are unable to distinguish between different specific positive emotions the relationship between those specific positive emotions and intrinsic motivation is stronger, whereas the relationship between specific negative emotions and intrinsic motivation is weaker for people who are able to distinguish between the different specific negative emotions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  8. Multisite Phosphorylation of NuMA-Related LIN-5 Controls Mitotic Spindle Positioning in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Portegijs, Vincent; van Mourik, Tim; Akhmanova, Anna; Heck, Albert J. R.; van den Heuvel, Sander

    2016-01-01

    During cell division, the mitotic spindle segregates replicated chromosomes to opposite poles of the cell, while the position of the spindle determines the plane of cleavage. Spindle positioning and chromosome segregation depend on pulling forces on microtubules extending from the centrosomes to the cell cortex. Critical in pulling force generation is the cortical anchoring of cytoplasmic dynein by a conserved ternary complex of Gα, GPR-1/2, and LIN-5 proteins in C. elegans (Gα–LGN–NuMA in mammals). Previously, we showed that the polarity kinase PKC-3 phosphorylates LIN-5 to control spindle positioning in early C. elegans embryos. Here, we investigate whether additional LIN-5 phosphorylations regulate cortical pulling forces, making use of targeted alteration of in vivo phosphorylated residues by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genetic engineering. Four distinct in vivo phosphorylated LIN-5 residues were found to have critical functions in spindle positioning. Two of these residues form part of a 30 amino acid binding site for GPR-1, which we identified by reverse two-hybrid screening. We provide evidence for a dual-kinase mechanism, involving GSK3 phosphorylation of S659 followed by phosphorylation of S662 by casein kinase 1. These LIN-5 phosphorylations promote LIN-5–GPR-1/2 interaction and contribute to cortical pulling forces. The other two critical residues, T168 and T181, form part of a cyclin-dependent kinase consensus site and are phosphorylated by CDK1-cyclin B in vitro. We applied a novel strategy to characterize early embryonic defects in lethal T168,T181 knockin substitution mutants, and provide evidence for sequential LIN-5 N-terminal phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in dynein recruitment. Our data support that phosphorylation of multiple LIN-5 domains by different kinases contributes to a mechanism for spatiotemporal control of spindle positioning and chromosome segregation. PMID:27711157

  9. Age-related changes of J-chain-positive cells in chickens.

    PubMed

    Moriya, O; Ichikawa, Y

    1991-01-01

    Localizations of J-chain-positive cells (JPC) were examined in chicken lymphatic tissues before and after hatching. The cells containing J chain were first detected in medullary areas of the bursa of FABRICIUS during the embryonic stage. These positive cells were partly detected in the developing small lymphatic follicles: perhaps on newly differentiating precursor B-cells. In addition to these lymphatic follicles, connective tissue of bursal fold were also detected as J-chain positive. Although similar localizations of JPC were again observed in hatched chickens, positive areas of follicular medulla were strongly stained for fluorescence with corresponding antisera than that of embryonic ones. These data may reflect differences in the physiology of lymphocytes in respect to functional development. JPC localizations were next compared between the B-cell subpopulations, mu-(microPC) and alpha-chain-positive cells (alpha PC). The J-chains detectable in the IgM molecules were also found in follicular medulla. However, these follicles were almost found to be negative for J-chains detectable in the alpha PC before hatching. Any strong stainings for J-chain in the alpha PC were, moreover, not be observed in bursa after hatching. The microPC localizations in hatched chickens were roughly equal with the pattern of JPC localization. These analyses revealed the presence of the cells having the chains of both mu and J. The results together with other recent studies further shown that bursal J-chain can be partly detected in newly differentiated lymphatic follicles lacking IgM-producing and suggest the possible presence of B-cell-differentiation sequence of Ig-J+----IgM+J+----IgA+J+.

  10. Mothers' attachment styles and their children's self-reported security, as related to maternal socialization of children's positive affect regulation.

    PubMed

    Gentzler, Amy L; Ramsey, Meagan A; Black, Katelyn R

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how mothers' attachment was related to their responses to their own and their children's positive events and positive affect (PA). Ninety-seven mothers reported on their attachment and their responses to their own and their 7-12-year-old children's positive events and emotions. Children reported on their mothers' responses to the children's positive events and their attachment security with their mothers. The results indicated that more avoidant mothers reported less intense PA in response to their own and their children's positive events. More avoidant mothers also were less likely to encourage their children to savor positive events (through expressing PA, reflecting on PA or themselves, giving rewards, and affectionate responses). Mothers higher on anxiety reported greater likelihood of dampening (e.g., minimizing the event's importance) their own positive events and reported being more likely to feel discomfort and to reprimand their children for expressing PA. Children's security was predicted by mothers' lower likelihood of encouraging children's dampening and of reprimanding children for PA displays. This study advances the literature on how mothers' attachment is related to the ways in which they regulate their own and their children's PA, which may have implications for children's attachment and developing PA regulation.

  11. Positive Affect Stimulation and Sustainment (PASS) Module for Depressed Mood: A preliminary investigation of treatment-related effects.

    PubMed

    McMakin, Dana L; Siegle, Greg J; Shirk, Stephen R

    2011-06-01

    Positive affective functioning (PAF) is critical to the development, course and treatment of depressive symptoms. Targeting key features of PAF during treatment may provide a new angle through which to improve affective functioning and reduce symptoms. The current study was a treatment development trial for the Positive Affect Stimulation and Sustainment (PASS) Module. PASS is conceptualized as a means of capitalizing on positive events (e.g. planned through behavioral activation) by enhancing and sustaining positive affective states through savoring, and establishing positive attributions and expectancies. Participants were 27 female college students with dysphoric symptoms. There was a moderate effect of PASS on depressive symptoms. There was also a significant within session increase in positive affect from pre to post session among the PASS group, relative to active control; and a significant decrease in positive affect from pre (baseline) to post (follow-up) treatment among the control group, relative to PASS. Results provide preliminary evidence for the efficacy of the treatment module among young adults with depressed mood, and lay the foundation for future research.

  12. Is the strength and the desirability of alcohol-related expectancies positively related? A test with an adult Swedish sample.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, R

    1991-08-01

    Workers at the Swedish Telephone Company participated in the present study to explore the alcohol-related expectancies for a general sample of Swedish citizens and relate these expectancies to various background factors and whether the expected effects of alcohol also were desired effects. A slightly modified version of the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ) was used and data were analyzed in terms of six general factors. Results indicated that men expected more sexual enhancement than women and that high consumers expected more strong effects for all six factors than the low consumers. Men further rated both sexual enhancement, physical and social pleasure, and social assertiveness as more desirable effects than did women, and the high consumers rated all six effects as more desirable than the low consumers. Results are discussed in terms of expectancies as causes of drinking.

  13. High positive predictive value of Gram stain on catheter-drawn blood samples for the diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infection in intensive care neonates.

    PubMed

    Deleers, M; Dodémont, M; Van Overmeire, B; Hennequin, Y; Vermeylen, D; Roisin, S; Denis, O

    2016-04-01

    Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) remain a leading cause of healthcare-associated infections in preterm infants. Rapid and accurate methods for the diagnosis of CRBSIs are needed in order to implement timely and appropriate treatment. A retrospective study was conducted during a 7-year period (2005-2012) in the neonatal intensive care unit of the University Hospital Erasme to assess the value of Gram stain on catheter-drawn blood samples (CDBS) to predict CRBSIs. Both peripheral samples and CDBS were obtained from neonates with clinically suspected CRBSI. Gram stain, automated culture and quantitative cultures on blood agar plates were performed for each sample. The paired quantitative blood culture was used as the standard to define CRBSI. Out of 397 episodes of suspected CRBSIs, 35 were confirmed by a positive ratio of quantitative culture (>5) or a colony count of CDBS culture >100 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL. All but two of the 30 patients who had a CDBS with a positive Gram stain were confirmed as having a CRBSI. Seven patients who had a CDBS with a negative Gram stain were diagnosed as CRBSI. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Gram stain on CDBS were 80, 99.4, 93.3 and 98.1 %, respectively. Gram staining on CDBS is a viable method for rapidly (<1 h) detecting CRBSI without catheter withdrawal.

  14. Pharmacologic management of bone-related complications and bone metastases in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yardley, Denise A

    2016-01-01

    There is a high risk for bone loss and skeletal-related events, including bone metastases, in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Both the disease itself and its therapeutic treatments can negatively impact bone, resulting in decreases in bone mineral density and increases in bone loss. These negative effects on the bone can significantly impact morbidity and mortality. Effective management and minimization of bone-related complications in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer remain essential. This review discusses the current understanding of molecular and biological mechanisms involved in bone turnover and metastases, increased risk for bone-related complications from breast cancer and breast cancer therapy, and current and emerging treatment strategies for managing bone metastases and bone turnover in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. PMID:27217795

  15. Genetic testing in Tunisian families with heritable retinoblastoma using a low cost approach permits accurate risk prediction in relatives and reveals incomplete penetrance in adults.

    PubMed

    Ayari Jeridi, Hajer; Bouguila, Hédi; Ansperger-Rescher, Birgit; Baroudi, Olfa; Mdimegh, Imen; Omran, Ines; Charradi, Khaoula; Bouzayene, Hssan; Benammar-Elgaaïed, Amel; Lohmann, Dietmar R

    2014-07-01

    Heritable retinoblastoma is caused by oncogenic mutations in the RB1 tumor suppressor gene. Identification of these mutations in patients is important for genetic counseling and clinical management of relatives at risk. In order to lower analytical efforts, we designed a stepwise mutation detection strategy that was adapted to the spectrum of oncogenic RB1 gene mutations. We applied this strategy on 20 unrelated patients with familial and/or de novo bilateral retinoblastoma from Tunisia. In 19 (95%) patients, we detected oncogenic mutations including base substitutions, small length mutations, and large deletions. Further analyses on the origin of the mutations showed mutational mosaicism in one unilaterally affected father of a bilateral proband and incomplete penetrance in two mothers. In a large family with several retinoblastoma patients, the mutation identified in the index patient was also detected in several non-penetrant relatives. RNA analyses showed that this mutation results in an in-frame loss of exon 9. In summary, our strategy can serve as a model for RB1 mutation identification with high analytical sensitivity. Our results point out that genetic testing is needed to reveal or exclude incomplete penetrance specifically in parents of patients with sporadic disease.

  16. Relative Efficiency of Field and Online Strategies in the Recruitment of HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Vial, Andrea C; Starks, Tyrel J; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-04-01

    Efforts to reach HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) and link them to care must be expanded; however, finding and recruiting them remains a challenge. We compared the efficiency of three recruitment sources in reaching self-identified HIV-positive MSM with various characteristics. Relative to recruitment online and at clubs and bars, AIDS Service Organizations (ASOs) were significantly more efficient in reaching HIV-positive MSM in general. This was also true for those with specific characteristics of interest such as substance/stimulant use, and HIV-positive MSM who were racial/ethnic minorities. Both ASOs and online recruitment were more efficient than clubs and bars in reaching HIV-positive MSM not taking HIV medication. This was also the case for White HIV-positive MSM in general, and White HIV-positive MSM who used substances and stimulants. Online recruitment was also more efficient than clubs and bars in reaching HIV-positive MSM who were young across the board.

  17. Relation between flexibility and positively selected HIV-1 protease mutants against inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Braz, Antônio S K; Tufanetto, Patrícia; Perahia, David; Scott, Luis P B

    2012-12-01

    The antiretroviral chemotherapy helps to reduce the mortality of HIVs infected patients. However, RNA dependant virus replication has a high mutation rate. Human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 protease plays an essential role in viral replication cycle. This protein is an important target for therapy with viral protein inhibitors. There are few works using normal mode analysis to investigate this problem from the structural changes viewpoint. The investigation of protein flexibility may be important for the study of processes associated with conformational changes and state transitions. The normal mode analysis allowed us to investigate structural changes in the protease (such as flexibility) in a straightforward way and try to associate these changes with the increase of fitness for each positively selected HIV-1 mutant protease of patients treated with several protease inhibitors (saquinavir, indinavir, ritonavir, nelfinavir, lopinavir, fosamprenavir, atazanavir, darunavir, and tripanavir) in combination or separately. These positively selected mutations introduce significant flexibility in important regions such as the active site cavity and flaps. These mutations were also able to cause changes in accessible solvent area. This study showed that the majority of HIV-1 protease mutants can be grouped into two main classes of protein flexibility behavior. We presented a new approach to study structural changes caused by positively selected mutations in a pathogen protein, for instance the HIV-1 protease and their relationship with their resistance mechanism against known inhibitors. The method can be applied to any pharmaceutically relevant pathogen proteins and could be very useful to understand the effects of positively selected mutations in the context of structural changes.

  18. Dental Health Status of HIV-Positive Patients and Related Variables in Southeast Iran

    PubMed Central

    Saravani, Shirin; Nosrat Zehi, Tahereh; Kadeh, Hamideh; Mir, Sarvar

    2016-01-01

    Background Different factors can be responsible for the increased prevalence of dental caries and missing teeth in HIV-positive patients. Objectives This study evaluates dental health status and its relationship with social, behavioral, and medical factors in HIV-positive patients under the coverage of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences in Southeast Iran. Patients and Methods In a cross-sectional study, the dental health status of 119 HIV-positive patients was assessed in accordance with WHO indices and included decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT). A questionnaire on different social, behavioral, and medical variables was filled out for every case and the relationship and correlation of the variables to dental health status were investigated using One-way ANOVA, the Kruskal Wallis test, the t-test, the Mann-Whitney test, Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient, and Pearson correlation. Results The mean value of DMFT index was 11.87 ± 8.08, where the mean values of decayed and missing teeth were 8.42 ± 5.44 and 3.43 ± 4.07, respectively. DMFT index, decayed, and missing teeth correlated only with age (P < 0.0001, P = 0.009, P < 0.0001) and duration of HIV involvement (P = 0.004, P = 0.031, P = 0.007). Conclusions The dental health status of HIV-positive patients in this region was almost inappropriate. Most social, behavioral, and medical factors had no influence on dental health; only a correlation between dental health, age, and duration of HIV involvement was observed. PMID:27622173

  19. Recreational drug use and related social factors among HIV-positive men in Japan.

    PubMed

    Togari, Taisuke; Inoue, Yoji; Takaku, Yosuke; Abe, Sakurako; Hosokawa, Rikuya; Itagaki, Takashi; Yoshizawa, Shigeyuki; Oki, Sachiko; Katakura, Naoko; Yamauchi, Asae; Wakabayashi, Chihiro; Yajima, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to determine the relationship between recreational drug use in HIV-positive males in the past year and socio-economic factors and/or social support networks in Japan. A national online survey in a cross-sectional study was conducted by HIV Futures Japan project from July 2013 to February 2014. Of the 1095 HIV-positive individuals who responded, 913 responses were determined to be valid; responses from the 875 males were analysed. A total of 282 participants used addictive drugs (32.2%) in past year. New psychoactive substances were used by 121 participants (13.8%), methamphetamine or amphetamine by 47 (5.4%), air dusters/sprays/gas by 31 (3.5%), 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (5MeO-DIPT) by 16 (1.8%) and cannabis (1.0%) by 9. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with the use of alkyl nitrites, addictive drugs, air dusters and thinners, which are low illegality, as dependent variables. We found that the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for use among participants with full-time and temp/contracted/part-time employees compared to management/administration professions were 2.59 (0.99-6.77) and 2.61 (0.91-7.51). Also, a correlation was observed between alkyl nitrites and new psychoactive substances and usage rates in people engaged in few HIV-positive networks. It is necessary to develop targeted policies for drug use prevention and user support among HIV-positive men and to support and provide care for drug users who are isolated or have a narrow HIV/AIDS support network.

  20. Negative and Positive Testing Effects in Terms of Item-Specific and Relational Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Though retrieving information typically results in improved memory on a subsequent test (the testing effect), Peterson and Mulligan (2013) outlined the conditions under which retrieval practice results in poorer recall relative to restudy, a phenomenon dubbed the "negative testing effect." The item-specific-relational account proposes…

  1. The Role of Trust and Interaction in Global Positioning System Related Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Chris W.; Shea, Christine; Holloway, C. Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses a network of satellites to calculate the position of a receiver over time. This technology has revolutionized a wide range of safety-critical industries and leisure applications. These systems provide diverse benefits; supplementing the users existing navigation skills and reducing the uncertainty that often characterizes many route planning tasks. GPS applications can also help to reduce workload by automating tasks that would otherwise require finite cognitive and perceptual resources. However, the operation of these systems has been identified as a contributory factor in a range of recent accidents. Users often come to rely on GPS applications and, therefore, fail to notice when they develop faults or when errors occur in the other systems that use the data from these systems. Further accidents can stem from the over confidence that arises when users assume automated warnings will be issued when they stray from an intended route. Unless greater attention is paid to the role of trust and interaction in GPS applications then there is a danger that we will see an increasing number of these failures as positioning technologies become integral in the functioning of increasing numbers of applications.

  2. Religiosity/spirituality and substance use in adolescence as related to positive development: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Kub, Joan; Solari-Twadell, P Ann

    2013-01-01

    Positive youth development interventions are strategies to address adolescent health risk behaviors and are recommended in Healthy People 2020. Although the incorporation of spirituality into these programs has been recommended, much of the empirical literature actually addresses religiosity rather than spirituality. The purpose of our review of 36 studies published between 2007 and 2013 was to (1) examine the relationship of religiosity and/or spirituality to substance use and abuse in adolescence, (2) discuss the measurement and meaning of the concept of spirituality in contrast to religiosity in adolescence, and (3) discuss the implications of these empirical studies for the concept of positive youth development. Findings from this literature review supported earlier findings of an inverse relationship between religiosity and substance use, a lack of or inconsistent definition of spirituality and religiosity as well as limited measures to address these constructs. Recommendations from this review include dedicated work by interdisciplinary teams to address consistency in definitions and creation of consistent tools that include consideration of the stages of development included in the adolescent years. From a research and clinical perspective, an interprofessional approach to clarify the concepts of spirituality and spiritual development would not only benefit research but could inform the substance abuse prevention field. This work is essential to insure that evidence-based strategies, which include religiosity and spirituality, are developed with the goal of protecting youth and supporting positive development of adolescents.

  3. Characteristics of the BDS Carrier Phase Multipath and Its Mitigation Methods in Relative Positioning.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wujiao; Shi, Qiang; Cai, Changsheng

    2017-04-07

    The carrier phase multipath effect is one of the most significant error sources in the precise positioning of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS). We analyzed the characteristics of BDS multipath, and found the multipath errors of geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellite signals are systematic, whereas those of inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) or medium earth orbit (MEO) satellites are both systematic and random. The modified multipath mitigation methods, including sidereal filtering algorithm and multipath hemispherical map (MHM) model, were used to improve BDS dynamic deformation monitoring. The results indicate that the sidereal filtering methods can reduce the root mean square (RMS) of positioning errors in the east, north and vertical coordinate directions by 15%, 37%, 25% and 18%, 51%, 27% in the coordinate and observation domains, respectively. By contrast, the MHM method can reduce the RMS by 22%, 52% and 27% on average. In addition, the BDS multipath errors in static baseline solutions are a few centimeters in multipath-rich environments, which is different from that of Global Positioning System (GPS) multipath. Therefore, we add a parameter representing the GEO multipath error in observation equation to the adjustment model to improve the precision of BDS static baseline solutions. And the results show that the modified model can achieve an average precision improvement of 82%, 54% and 68% in the east, north and up coordinate directions, respectively.

  4. [Socioeconomic position and duration of disability benefit due to work-related musculoskeletal disorders].

    PubMed

    Souza, Norma Suely Souto; Santana, Vilma Sousa

    2012-02-01

    This study estimated the effect of socioeconomic position on the duration of disability benefits due to musculoskeletal disorders affecting the neck and/or upper limbs. A cohort study including 563 insured workers from the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, registered in the General Social Security System and who received temporary disability benefits due to musculoskeletal disorders affecting the neck and/or upper limbs, was performed in 2008 using data from the National Social Security Institute. The results show that among union member workers with high psychosocial demands at work, those with low socioeconomic status are almost twice as likely to receive benefit for a shorter period of time compared to those with a higher socioeconomic position (RR = 1.89; 95%CI: 1.25-2.87). These results reveal an inequitable situation or unnecessary use of insurance for workers with a higher socioeconomic position. Future research aimed at elucidating the differences in the use of benefits are needed so that social insurance system managers may take the appropriate steps to resolve this issue.

  5. Multiplexed highly-accurate DNA sequencing of closely-related HIV-1 variants using continuous long reads from single molecule, real-time sequencing.

    PubMed

    Dilernia, Dario A; Chien, Jung-Ting; Monaco, Daniela C; Brown, Michael P S; Ende, Zachary; Deymier, Martin J; Yue, Ling; Paxinos, Ellen E; Allen, Susan; Tirado-Ramos, Alfredo; Hunter, Eric

    2015-11-16

    Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing (Pacific Biosciences, Menlo Park, CA, USA) provides the longest continuous DNA sequencing reads currently available. However, the relatively high error rate in the raw read data requires novel analysis methods to deconvolute sequences derived from complex samples. Here, we present a workflow of novel computer algorithms able to reconstruct viral variant genomes present in mixtures with an accuracy of >QV50. This approach relies exclusively on Continuous Long Reads (CLR), which are the raw reads generated during SMRT Sequencing. We successfully implement this workflow for simultaneous sequencing of mixtures containing up to forty different >9 kb HIV-1 full genomes. This was achieved using a single SMRT Cell for each mixture and desktop computing power. This novel approach opens the possibility of solving complex sequencing tasks that currently lack a solution.

  6. Positive affect and pain: mediators of the within-day relation linking sleep quality to activity interference in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Dhwani J; Davis, Mary C; Yeung, Ellen W; Tennen, Howard A

    2015-03-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain condition often resulting in functional impairments. Nonrestorative sleep is a prominent symptom of FM that is related to disability, but the day-to-day mechanisms relating the prior night's sleep quality to next-day reports of disability have not been examined. This study examined the within-day relations among early-morning reports of sleep quality last night, late-morning reports of pain and positive and negative affect, and end-of-day reports of activity interference. Specifically, we tested whether pain, positive affect, and negative affect mediated the association between sleep quality and subsequent activity interference. Data were drawn from electronic diary reports collected from 220 patients with FM for 21 consecutive days. The direct and mediated effects at the within-person level were estimated with multilevel structural equation modeling. Results showed that pain and positive affect mediated the relation between sleep quality and activity interference. Early-morning reports of poor sleep quality last night predicted elevated levels of pain and lower levels of positive affect at late-morning, which, in turn, predicted elevated end-of-day activity interference. Of note, positive affect was a stronger mediator than pain and negative affect was not a significant mediator. In summary, the findings identify 2 parallel mechanisms, pain and positive affect, through which the prior night's sleep quality predicts disability the next day in patients with FM. Furthermore, results highlight the potential utility of boosting positive affect after a poor night's sleep as one means of preserving daily function in FM.

  7. Position-Related Differences in Selected Morphological Body Characteristics of Top-Level Female Handball Players.

    PubMed

    Bon, Marta; Pori, Primoz; Sibila, Marko

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to establish the main morphological characteristics of Slovenian junior and senior female national handball team players. Morphological characteristics of various player subgroups (goalkeepers, wings, back players and pivots) were also determined so as to establish whether they had distinct profiles. The subjects were 87 handball players who were members of the Slovenian junior and senior female national teams in the period from 2003 to 2009. A standardised anthropometric protocol was used to assess the subjects' morphological characteristics. The measurements included 23 different anthropometric measures. First, basic statistical characteristics of anthropometric measures were obtained for all subjects together and then for each group separately. Somatotypes were determined using Heath-Carter's method. Endomorphic, mesomorphic and ectomorphic components were calculated by computer on the basis of formulas. In order to determine differences in the body composition and anthropometric data of the subjects playing in different positions, a one-way analysis of variance was employed. The results show that, on average, the wings differed the most from the other player groups in terms of their morphological body characteristics. The wings differed most prominently from the other player groups in terms of their morphological body parameters as they were significantly smaller and had a statistically significantly lower body mass than the other groups. In terms of transversal measures of the skeleton and the circumferences, the wings significantly differed mainly from the pivots and goalkeepers and less from the backs. The goalkeepers were the tallest, with high values of body mass and low values of transversal measures compared to P. Their skin folds were the most pronounced among all the groups on average and their share of subcutaneous fat in total body mass was the highest. Consequently, their endomorphic component of the somatotype was pronounced

  8. A reduction in positive self-judgment bias is uniquely related to the anhedonic symptoms of depression.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Barnaby D; Stefanovitch, Iolanta; Buchan, Kate; Lawrence, Andrew D; Dalgleish, Tim

    2009-05-01

    Identifying patterns of biased cognitive processing specific to depression has proved difficult. The tripartite model of mood disorders [Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 316-336] suggests that a clearer processing 'blueprint' may emerge if depression is viewed dimensionally rather than categorically and by focusing on variations in the degree of positive, rather than negative, processing bias. To investigate this possibility, the present study examined the extent to which a reduced positive self-judgment bias previously found in depressed individuals relates to depression-specific anhedonic symptoms. Sixty participants with varying levels of anxiety and depression symptoms evaluated their own performance on a working memory task in the absence of external feedback. Overall, participants showed a positive self-judgment bias, overestimating the number of trials they had performed correctly relative to objective criteria. Consistent with the tripartite framework, the extent of this positive self-judgment bias was significantly and uniquely related to depression-specific symptoms, with the positive bias reducing as anhedonia severity increased across three different symptom measures.

  9. Behavioral and self-reported sensitivity to reward are linked to stress-related differences in positive affect.

    PubMed

    Corral-Frías, Nadia S; Nadel, Lynn; Fellous, Jean-Marc; Jacobs, W Jake

    2016-04-01

    Despite the high prevalence of stress exposure healthy adaptation or resilience is a common response. Theoretical work and recent empirical evidence suggest that a robust reward system, in part, supports healthy adaptation by preserving positive emotions even under exceptionally stressful circumstances. We tested this prediction by examining empirical relations among behavioral and self-reported measures of sensitivity to reward, trait resilience, and measures of affect in the context of experimentally induced stress. Using a quasi-experimental design we obtained measures of sensitivity to reward (self-report and behavioral), as well as affective and physiological responses to experimental psychosocial stress in a sample of 140 healthy college-age participants. We used regression-based moderation and mediational models to assess associations among sensitivity to reward, affect in the context of stress, and trait resilience and found that an interaction between exposure to experimental stress and self-reported sensitivity to reward predicted positive affect following experimental procedure. Participants with high sensitivity to reward reported higher positive affect following stress. Moreover, positive affect during or after stress mediated the relation between sensitivity to reward and trait resilience. Consistent with the prediction that a robust reward system serves as a protective factor against stress-related negative outcomes, our results found predictive associations among sensitivity to reward, positive affect, and resilience.

  10. Sagittal jaw position in relation to body posture in adult humans – a rasterstereographic study

    PubMed Central

    Lippold, Carsten; Danesh, Gholamreza; Schilgen, Markus; Drerup, Burkhard; Hackenberg, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Background The correlations between the sagittal jaw position and the cranio – cervical inclination are described in literature. Only few studies focus on the sagittal jaw position and the body posture using valid and objective orthopaedic examination methods. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that patients with malocclusions reveal significant differences in body posture compared to those without (upper thoracic inclination, kyphotic angle, lordotic angle and lower lumbar inclination). Methods Eighty-four healthy adult patients (with a mean age = 25.6 years and ranging from 16.1 to 55.8 years) were examined with informed consent. The orthodontic examination horizontal overjet (distance between upper and lower incisors) was determined by using an orthodontic digital sliding calliper. The subjects were subdivided in respect of the overjet with the following results: 18 revealed a normal overjet (Class I), 38 had an increased overjet (Class II) and 28 had an reversed overjet (Class III). Rasterstereography was used to carry out a three – dimensional back shape analysis. This method is based on photogrammetry. A three-dimensional shape was produced by analysing the distortion of parallel horizontal white light lines projected on the patient's back, followed by mathematical modelling. On the basis of the sagittal profile the upper thoracic inclination, the thoracic angle, the lordotic angle and the pelvic inclination were determined with a reported accuracy of 2.8° and the correlations to the sagittal jaw position were calculated by means of ANOVA, Scheffé and Kruskal-Wallis procedures. Results Between the different overjet groups, no statistically significant differences or correlations regarding the analysed back shape parameters could be obtained. However, comparing males and females there were statistically significant differences in view of the parameters 'lordotic angle' and 'pelvic inclination'. Conclusion No correlations between overjet and

  11. Stream primary producers relate positively to watershed natural gas measures in north-central Arkansas streams.

    PubMed

    Austin, Bradley J; Hardgrave, Natalia; Inlander, Ethan; Gallipeau, Cory; Entrekin, Sally; Evans-White, Michelle A

    2015-10-01

    Construction of unconventional natural gas (UNG) infrastructure (e.g., well pads, pipelines) is an increasingly common anthropogenic stressor that increases potential sediment erosion. Increased sediment inputs into nearby streams may decrease autotrophic processes through burial and scour, or sediment bound nutrients could have a positive effect through alleviating potential nutrient limitations. Ten streams with varying catchment UNG well densities (0-3.6 wells/km(2)) were sampled during winter and spring of 2010 and 2011 to examine relationships between landscape scale disturbances associated with UNG activity and stream periphyton [chlorophyll a (Chl a)] and gross primary production (GPP). Local scale variables including light availability and water column physicochemical variables were measured for each study site. Correlation analyses examined the relationships of autotrophic processes and local scale variables with the landscape scale variables percent pasture land use and UNG metrics (well density and well pad inverse flow path length). Both GPP and Chl a were primarily positively associated with the UNG activity metrics during most sample periods; however, neither landscape variables nor response variables correlated well with local scale factors. These positive correlations do not confirm causation, but they do suggest that it is possible that UNG development can alleviate one or more limiting factors on autotrophic production within these streams. A secondary manipulative study was used to examine the link between nutrient limitation and algal growth across a gradient of streams impacted by natural gas activity. Nitrogen limitation was common among minimally impacted stream reaches and was alleviated in streams with high UNG activity. These data provide evidence that UNG may stimulate the primary production of Fayetteville shale streams via alleviation of N-limitation. Restricting UNG activities from the riparian zone along with better enforcement of

  12. [A pseudo-outbreak of pharyngeal gonorrhoea related to a false-positive PCR-result].

    PubMed

    Verzijl, A; Berretty, P J M; Erceg, A; Krekels, G A M; Van den Brule, A J C; Boel, C H E

    2007-03-24

    Nucleic acid amplification tests, including the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), are sensitive and specific tests that are often used for diagnosing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). A pseudo-outbreak of pharyngeal gonorrhoea in a group of prostitutes turned out to have been caused by false-positive test results due to commensal oropharyngeal Neisseria species. Specific molecular tests may yield erroneous results. When the results of an STD study have major consequences at a legal or social level, it is advisable, in consultation with a medical microbiologist, to take a sample for culture or to carry out a second molecular test aimed at a different part of the bacterial genome.

  13. The temporal dynamics of ambivalence: changes in positive and negative affect in relation to consumption of an "emotionally charged" food.

    PubMed

    Hormes, Julia M; Rozin, Paul

    2011-08-01

    Ambivalence is thought to impact consumption of food, alcohol and drugs, possibly via influences on craving, with cravers often being simultaneously drawn toward and repelled from ingestion. So far, little is known about the temporal dynamics of ambivalence, especially as it varies in relationship to consumption. Participants (n=482, 56.8% female) completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule prior to, immediately and 30 min after the opportunity to eat a bar of chocolate. Affective ambivalence was calculated based on the relative strengths of and discrepancy between ratings of positive and negative affect. Ambivalence peaked prior to a decision about consumption and subsequently decreased, whether or not the decision was in favor of or against consuming. Decreasing ambivalence was driven by a drop in positive affect over time; positivity decreased more rapidly in those who consumed chocolate. Findings represent a first step in characterizing the dynamics of ambivalence in interactions with a target stimulus.

  14. Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.

  15. Accurate monotone cubic interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Hung T.

    1991-01-01

    Monotone piecewise cubic interpolants are simple and effective. They are generally third-order accurate, except near strict local extrema where accuracy degenerates to second-order due to the monotonicity constraint. Algorithms for piecewise cubic interpolants, which preserve monotonicity as well as uniform third and fourth-order accuracy are presented. The gain of accuracy is obtained by relaxing the monotonicity constraint in a geometric framework in which the median function plays a crucial role.

  16. Lesser snow goose helminths show recurring and positive parasite infection-diversity relations.

    PubMed

    Dargent, Felipe; Morrill, André; Alisauskas, Ray T; McLaughlin, J Daniel; Shutler, Dave; Forbes, Mark R

    2017-04-01

    The patterns and mechanisms by which biological diversity is associated with parasite infection risk are important to study because of their potential implications for wildlife population's conservation and management. Almost all research in this area has focused on host species diversity and has neglected parasite diversity, despite evidence that parasites are important drivers of community structure and ecosystem processes. Here, we assessed whether presence or abundance of each of nine helminth species parasitizing lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens) was associated with indices of parasite diversity (i.e. species richness and Shannon's Diversity Index). We found repeated instances of focal parasite presence and abundance having significant positive co-variation with diversity measures of other parasites. These results occurred both within individual samples and for combinations of all samples. Whereas host condition and parasite facilitation could be drivers of the patterns we observed, other host- or parasite-level effects, such as age or sex class of host or taxon of parasite, were discounted as explanatory variables. Our findings of recurring and positive associations between focal parasite abundance and diversity underscore the importance of moving beyond pairwise species interactions and contexts, and of including the oft-neglected parasite species diversity in infection-diversity studies.

  17. Testing the relative contribution of positive and negative interactions in rocky intertidal communities

    SciTech Connect

    Bertness, M.D.; Leonard, G.H.; Levine, J.M.; Schmidt, P.R.; Ingraham, A.O.

    1999-12-01

    In contrast to many other biotic forces, such as competition and predation, the role played by habitat modification by plants and sessile animals in natural communities has not been given the experimental attention it deserves. To test the hypothesis that habitat modification by seaweed canopies can have direct positive effects on rocky intertidal communities, the authors quantified habitat amelioration by Ascophyllum nodosum canopies and its consequences on understory organisms in the Gulf of Maine, USA. At the upper and lower elevational borders of the algal canopy, the authors examined the recruitment, growth, and survivorship of common benthic organisms in canopy removal, and shaded canopy removal plots intended to mimic canopy habitat modifications. The algal canopy greatly reduced potential physical stresses, particularly at high tidal heights. Maximum daily rock temperatures were 5--10 C lower and evaporative water loss was in order of magnitude less under the canopy than in canopy removal plots. The response of understory organisms to canopy removal, however, was species specific and somewhat idiosyncratic. Nonetheless, in general, at the high intertidal border of the canopy the recruitment, growth, and survival of understory organisms were enhanced by the canopy, whereas at the low intertidal border canopy effects were negative or neutral. nearly half of the interactions the authors studied were positive in the high zone.

  18. The phylogenetic position of Aphrissa (Lepidoptera: Pieridae: Coliadinae) within its relatives the ancient American Catopsilias.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Ramos, Leidys; Hernández-Mejía, Claudia; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge

    2016-08-08

    The American Catopsilias are pierids, commonly known as sulphurs. These butterflies were grouped based on morphology and secondary sexual characters of the male, but this grouping was not taxonomically established. In Catopsilia were included genera such as Anteos, Aphrissa, Rhabdodryas, and Phoebis. Aphrissa is a genus taxonomically stable, but its phylogenetic position within Coliadinae is not clear. In this research, we used morphological data to establish the phylogenetic position of the genus Aphrissa and its phylogenetic relationships within the ancient American Catopsilias. We included four outgroups: Colias, Zerene, Eurema and Kricogonia. A maximum parsimony analysis was employed under equal and implied weights. We used 32 morphological characters, 18 were coded as binary and 14 as multistate. A well-resolved cladogram was obtained. The American Catopsilias are not a monophyletic group. The analyses support the following relationships, clade A: Eurema + (Anteos + (Colias + Zerene) and clade B: Prestonia + (Aphrissa + (Rhabdodryas + Phoebis)). Kricogonia remained as the sister taxon of the whole group. Characters that support clade A include the morphology of male genitalia, while the clade B is supported by female genitalia and morphology of the chorion.

  19. Novel, Precise, Accurate Ion-Pairing Method to Determine the Related Substances of the Fondaparinux Sodium Drug Substance: Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Amol A.; Madhavan, P.; Deshpande, Girish R.; Chandel, Ravi Kumar; Yarbagi, Kaviraj M.; Joshi, Alok R.; Moses Babu, J.; Murali Krishna, R.; Rao, I. M.

    2016-01-01

    Fondaparinux sodium is a synthetic low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). This medication is an anticoagulant or a blood thinner, prescribed for the treatment of pulmonary embolism and prevention and treatment of deep vein thrombosis. Its determination in the presence of related impurities was studied and validated by a novel ion-pair HPLC method. The separation of the drug and its degradation products was achieved with the polymer-based PLRPs column (250 mm × 4.6 mm; 5 μm) in gradient elution mode. The mixture of 100 mM n-hexylamine and 100 mM acetic acid in water was used as buffer solution. Mobile phase A and mobile phase B were prepared by mixing the buffer and acetonitrile in the ratio of 90:10 (v/v) and 20:80 (v/v), respectively. Mobile phases were delivered in isocratic mode (2% B for 0–5 min) followed by gradient mode (2–85% B in 5–60 min). An Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (ELSD) was connected to the LC system to detect the responses of chromatographic separation. Further, the drug was subjected to stress studies for acidic, basic, oxidative, photolytic, and thermal degradations as per ICH guidelines and the drug was found to be labile in acid, base hydrolysis, and oxidation, while stable in neutral, thermal, and photolytic degradation conditions. The method provided linear responses over the concentration range of the LOQ to 0.30% for each impurity with respect to the analyte concentration of 12.5 mg/mL, and regression analysis showed a correlation coefficient value (r2) of more than 0.99 for all the impurities. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 1.4 µg/mL and 4.1 µg/mL, respectively, for fondaparinux. The developed ion-pair method was validated as per ICH guidelines with respect to accuracy, selectivity, precision, linearity, and robustness. PMID:27110496

  20. An examination of network position and childhood relational aggression: integrating resource control and social exchange theories.

    PubMed

    Neal, Jennifer Watling; Cappella, Elise

    2012-01-01

    Applying resource control theory and social exchange theory, we examined the social network conditions under which elementary age children were likely to engage in relational aggression. Data on classroom peer networks and peer-nominated behaviors were collected on 671 second- through fourth-grade children in 34 urban, low-income classrooms. Nested regression models with robust cluster standard errors demonstrated that the association between children's number of relationships and their levels of relational aggression was moderated by the number of relationships that their affiliates had. Children with more peer relationships (i.e., higher network centrality) exhibited higher levels of relational aggression, but only when these relationships were with peers who had fewer connections themselves (i.e., poorly connected peers). This finding remained significant even when controlling for common predictors of relational aggression including gender, overt aggression, prosocial behavior, victimization, social preference, and perceived popularity. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for advancing the literature on childhood relational aggression and their practical applications for identifying children at risk for these behaviors.

  1. Effect of Items Direction (Positive or Negative) on the Factorial Construction and Criterion Related Validity in Likert Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naji Qasem, Mamun Ali; Ahmad Gul, Showkeen Bilal

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to know the effect of items direction (positive or negative) on the factorial construction and criterion related validity in Likert scale. The descriptive survey research method was used for the study and the sample consisted of 510 undergraduate students selected by used random sampling technique. A scale developed by…

  2. Observed Ecological Assets in Families, Schools, and Neighborhoods: Conceptualization, Measurement, and Relations with Positive and Negative Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theokas, Christina; Lerner, Richard M.

    2006-01-01

    The relations among observed ecological assets in youth's families, schools, and neighborhoods with positive and negative developmental outcomes were assessed with a sample of 646 fifth-grade youth. The majority of participants were Latino (37.5%) or European American (35.5%) and lived in 2-parent families. Ecological asset indicators were…

  3. A Teacher Attitude Inventory: Identifying Teacher Positions in Relation to Educational Issues and Decisions. Research and Development Memorandum No. 118.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmore, Joanne Rand

    This memorandum reports on the preliminary research using a 24-item inventory designed to measure teacher's positions in relation to education issues and teaching decisions. The instrument, whose development is reported, is intended to identify representatives of two dichotomous styles of teaching: traditional, teacher-centered teaching and…

  4. Resilience in a Community Sample of Children of Alcoholics: Its Prevalence and Relation to Internalizing Symptomatology and Positive Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carle, Adam C.; Chassin, Laurie

    2004-01-01

    Data from an ongoing longitudinal study examined resilience (competent performance under adverse conditions) in a community sample of children of alcoholics (COAs n=216) and matched controls (n=201). The study examined the prevalence of competence and whether the relation of competence to internalizing and positive affect differed for COAs and…

  5. Age-related EBV positive clonal B-cell Lymphoid proliferation (EBV+-DLBCL)

    PubMed Central

    Doukas-Alexiou, Marina; Stoufi, Eleana; Kittas, Christos; Pangalis, Gerasimos; Laskaris, George

    2017-01-01

    The Ebstein Barr virus(EBV), herpes virus 5 has been associated with lymphoproliferative disordrers. Age-related EBV+ B-LPD is defined as an EBV+ clonal B-cell lymphoid proliferation or EBV+-DLBCL developing in patients over the age of 40 years in the absence of any known immunodeficiency and without an underlying T-cell lymphoma1. We present a case of EBV+ clonal B-cell lymphoid proliferation. Key words:Oral mucosa ulcer, EBV+-DLBCL, age related. PMID:28149483

  6. [Effects of centrifugation-related artificial gravity on the human organism. Positive and negative effects].

    PubMed

    Vil'-Vil'iams, I F; Kotovskaia, A R

    2003-01-01

    Data of investigations of the artificial gravity issues in centrifuge experiments in Russian, USA and Japan over the past 40 years were analyzed. Periodic +Gz centrifugation was used to prevent or eliminate body deconditioning after 3- to 56-d simulated microgravity, and to increase the body functional reserve (orthostatic stability) in ordinary life. Positive effects included prevention of a decline of gravitational stability and reduction or averting the negative effects of simulated microgravity on various physiological systems. Better results can be achieved by combining artificial g-loads with the well-proven methods of combating deconditioning, i.e. physical training on bicycle ergometer and induced hydration. Human tolerance of g-loads on a short-arm centrifuge with a high (100%) gravitational gradient was found no worse than on a mid-arm centrifuge with a lower (20%) gravitational gradient. Negative effects of +Gz on a short-arm centrifuge were revealed and counteracting measures were determined.

  7. Fathers' Depression Related to Positive and Negative Parenting Behaviors With 1-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew M.; Freed, Gary L.; Clark, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between depression in fathers of 1-year-old children and specific positive and negative parenting behaviors discussed by pediatric providers at well-child visits. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional secondary analysis by using interview data from 1746 fathers of 1-year-old children in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Positive parenting behaviors included fathers' reports of playing games, singing songs, and reading stories to their children ≥3 days in a typical week. Negative parenting behavior included fathers' reports of spanking their 1-year-old children in the previous month. Depression was assessed by using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form. Weighted bivariate and multivariate analyses of parenting behaviors were performed while controlling for demographics and paternal substance abuse. RESULTS: Overall, 7% of fathers had depression. In bivariate analyses, depressed fathers were more likely than nondepressed fathers to report spanking their 1-year-old children in the previous month (41% compared with 13%; P < .01). In multivariate analyses, depressed fathers were less likely to report reading to their children ≥3 days in a typical week (adjusted odds ratio: 0.38 [95% confidence interval: 0.15–0.98]) and much more likely to report spanking (adjusted odds ratio: 3.92 [95% confidence interval: 1.23–12.5]). Seventy-seven percent of depressed fathers reported talking to their children's doctor in the previous year. CONCLUSIONS: Paternal depression is associated with parenting behaviors relevant to well-child visits. Pediatric providers should consider screening fathers for depression, discussing specific parenting behaviors (eg, reading to children and appropriate discipline), and referring for treatment if appropriate. PMID:21402627

  8. Exploring Item Order in Anxiety-Related Constructs: Practical Impacts of Serial Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carleton, R. Nicholas; Thibodeau, Michel A.; Osborne, Jason W.; Asmundson, Gordon J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to test for item order effects by measuring four distinct constructs that contribute substantively to anxiety-related psychopathology (i.e., anxiety sensitivity, fear of negative evaluation, injury/illness sensitivity, and intolerance of uncertainty). Participants (n = 999; 71% women) were randomly assigned to…

  9. An Urban Food Store Intervention Positively Affects Food-Related Psychosocial Variables and Food Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Song, Hee-Jung; Suratkar, Sonali; Kumar, Mohan B.; Henry, Elizabeth G.; Sharma, Sangita; Mattingly, Megan; Anliker, Jean A.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are more prevalent in low-income urban areas, which commonly have limited access to healthy foods. The authors implemented an intervention trial in nine food stores, including two supermarkets and seven corner stores, in a low-income, predominantly African American area of Baltimore City, with a…

  10. Negative and Positive Partial Mobility: A Study of the Relative Changes in Human Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengupta, Atanu; Ghosh, Abhijit

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we have considered the issues concerning dynamic changes in HDI and its various components from a relative standpoint. The analysis of HDI mobility should entail directional movement introduced by Fields (in Distribution and development: a new look at the developing world. MIT Press, Cambridge, 2001). However, Fields' analysis was…

  11. Cortisol Reactivity is Positively Related to Executive Function in Preschool Children Attending Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Clancy; Granger, Douglas; Razza, Rachel Peters

    2005-01-01

    This study examined relations among cortisol reactivity and measures of cognitive function and social behavior in 4- to 5-year-old children (N=169) attending Head Start. Saliva samples for the assay of cortisol were collected at the beginning, middle, and end of an approximately 45-min testing session. Moderate increase in cortisol followed by…

  12. Assessing the impact of relative social position and absolute community resources on depression and obesity among smokers.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Adrian; Leykin, Yan; Adler, Nancy; Muñoz, Ricardo F

    2012-09-01

    We tested two competing hypotheses-relative social position and community resources-in regards to their effect on two co-occurring health problems (depression, and obesity) in a sample of smokers participating in an online smoking cessation intervention. Income and education data at the zip code level from the 2000 Census was linked with individual level data. Logistic regression models were used for each co-occurring problem to determine how each SES variable (individually and interactively) was associated with the presence of co-occurring health problems. We found that lower individual education was related to poorer health for all outcomes (Depression: OR = 1.25; Obesity: OR = 1.24; Both: OR = 1.46), lower community education was only related to obesity (OR = 1.20). Lower individual income was related to higher rates of depressive symptoms (OR = 1.64) and both health problems (OR = 1.55); a significant interaction of individual and community income (Wald = 6.13, p < .05) revealed that high income individuals were less likely to be depressed if they lived in lower-income communities and became more likely to be so as community income increased. Relative social position was confirmed for depression, whereas community resources were prominent only for obesity. Higher individual education most consistently predicted positive health outcomes, making it a potentially powerful target to reduce health disparities.

  13. Relation between trophic position and mercury accumulation among fishes from the Tongue River Reservoir, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, G.R.; Lenhart, T.E.; Gregory, R.W.

    1980-06-01

    Concentrations of total mercury were determined in muscle tissue from northern pike (Esox lucius), sauger (Stizostedion canadense), walleye (S. vitreum), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), and white crappie (P. annularis) collected from the Tongue River Reservoir, Montana, prior to extensive surface coal-mine development in the region. Mercury concentrations in fish flesh increased with fish size and age; larger individuals of all five species exceeded the US Food and Drug Administration's mercury concentration guideline of 0.5 ..mu..g/g. The rate of mercury accumulation was faster in the piscivorous species (northern pike, saugers, and walleyes) than in the planktivores (black crappies and white crappies). Differences in mercury uptake rates among the various species appeared to be directly related to the quantity of mercury eaten; results are discussed in relation to published models of mercury accumulation by fishes.

  14. The phage-related chromosomal islands of Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Novick, Richard P; Christie, Gail E; Penadés, Jose R

    2010-08-01

    The phage-related chromosomal islands (PRCIs) were first identified in Staphylococcus aureus as highly mobile, superantigen-encoding genetic elements known as the S. aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPIs). These elements are characterized by a specific set of phage-related functions that enable them to use the phage reproduction cycle for their own transduction and inhibit phage reproduction in the process. SaPIs produce many phage-like infectious particles; their streptococcal counterparts have a role in gene regulation but may not be infectious. These elements therefore represent phage satellites or parasites, not defective phages. In this Review, we discuss the shared genetic content of PRCIs, their life cycle and their ability to be transferred across large phylogenetic distances.

  15. Highly accurate articulated coordinate measuring machine

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Jokiel, Jr., Bernhard; Ensz, Mark T.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-12-30

    Disclosed is a highly accurate articulated coordinate measuring machine, comprising a revolute joint, comprising a circular encoder wheel, having an axis of rotation; a plurality of marks disposed around at least a portion of the circumference of the encoder wheel; bearing means for supporting the encoder wheel, while permitting free rotation of the encoder wheel about the wheel's axis of rotation; and a sensor, rigidly attached to the bearing means, for detecting the motion of at least some of the marks as the encoder wheel rotates; a probe arm, having a proximal end rigidly attached to the encoder wheel, and having a distal end with a probe tip attached thereto; and coordinate processing means, operatively connected to the sensor, for converting the output of the sensor into a set of cylindrical coordinates representing the position of the probe tip relative to a reference cylindrical coordinate system.

  16. Variation in the position, relation and vasculature of left suprarenal gland: a case report.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, N C; Uzmansel, D; Kara, A; Oztürk, H

    2010-12-01

    A malposition of the left suprarenal gland with varied relations and vasculature was observed in a 50-year-old male cadaver during the routine dissection of the abdominal region. The gland was partly situated over the hilum of the left kidney. Its posterior surface was related to the left crus of the diaphragm and to the hilum of the left kidney extending some distance above on the medial margin of the kidney. Its anterior surface was totally covered by the body of the pancreas and the splenic artery and vein. There were only two suprarenal arteries. A left lateral branch of the aorta divided into three branches of which the middle and inferior branches entered the gland as seperate suprarenal arteries. There were the two suprarenal veins of the gland which were draining into the left renal vein. Such a malposition with varied relations and vasculature is of utmost importance from the surgical point of view because it can affect the orientation of the surgeon in laparoscopic adrenalectomy.

  17. GNSS related periodic signals in coordinate time-series from Precise Point Positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraha, K. E.; Teferle, F. N.; Hunegnaw, A.; Dach, R.

    2017-03-01

    In Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) coordinate time-series unrecognized errors and unmodelled (periodic) effects may bias nonlinear motions induced by geophysical signals. Hence, understanding and mitigating these errors is vital to reducing biases and on revealing subtle geophysical signals. To assess the nature of periodic signals in coordinate time-series Precise Point Positioning (PPP) solutions for the period 2008-2015 are generated. The solutions consider Global Positioning System (GPS), GLObalnaya NAvigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) or combined GPS+GLONASS (GNSS) observations. We assess the periodic signals of station coordinates computed using the combined International GNSS Service (IGS) and four of its Analysis Centers (ACs) products. Furthermore, we make use of different filtering methods to investigate the sources of the periodic signals. A faint fortnightly signal in our PPP solution based on Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) products and the existence of an 8 d period for those ACs generating combined GPS+GLONASS products are the main features in the GPS-only solutions. The existence of the 8 d period in the GPS-only solution indicates that GPS orbits computed in a combined GNSS solution contain GLONASS-specific signals. The GLONASS-only solution shows highly elevated powers at the third draconitic harmonic (˜120 d period), at the 8 d period and its harmonics (4 d, 2.67 d) besides the well-known annual, semi-annual and other draconitic harmonics. We show that the GLONASS constellation gaps before December 2011 contribute to the power at some of the frequencies. However, the well-known fortnightly signal in GPS-only solutions is not discernible in the GLONASS-only solution. The combined GNSS solution contains periodic signals from both systems, with most of the powers being reduced when compared to the single-GNSS solutions. A 52 per cent reduction for the horizontal components and a 36 per cent reduction for the vertical component

  18. Accessing 3D Location of Standing Pelvis: Relative Position of Sacral Plateau and Acetabular Cavities versus Pelvis.

    PubMed

    Berthonnaud, E; Hilmi, R; Dimnet, J

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to access to pelvis position and morphology in standing posture and to determine the relative locations of their articular surfaces. This is obtained from coupling biplanar radiography and bone modeling. The technique involves different successive steps. Punctual landmarks are first reconstructed, in space, from their projected images, identified on two orthogonal standing X-rays. Geometric models, of global pelvis and articular surfaces, are determined from punctual landmarks. The global pelvis is represented as a triangle of summits: the two femoral head centers and the sacral plateau center. The two acetabular cavities are modeled as hemispheres. The anterior sacral plateau edge is represented by an hemi-ellipsis. The modeled articular surfaces are projected on each X-ray. Their optimal location is obtained when the projected contours of their models best fit real outlines identified from landmark images. Linear and angular parameters characterizing the position of global pelvis and articular surfaces are calculated from the corresponding sets of axis. Relative positions of sacral plateau, and acetabular cavities, are then calculated. Two hundred standing pelvis, of subjects and scoliotic patients, have been studied. Examples are presented. They focus upon pelvis orientations, relative positions of articular surfaces, and pelvis asymmetries.

  19. Impact of changed positive and negative task-related brain activity on word-retrieval in aging

    PubMed Central

    Meinzer, M.; Seeds, L.; Flaisch, T.; Harnish, S.; Cohen, M.L.; McGregor, K.; Conway, T.; Benjamin, M.; Crosson, B.

    2010-01-01

    Previous functional imaging studies that compared activity patterns in older and younger adults during non-linguistic tasks found evidence for two phenomena: older participants usually show more pronounced task-related positive activity in the brain hemisphere that is not dominant for the task and less pronounced negative task-related activity in temporo-parietal and midline brain regions. The combined effects of these phenomena and the impact on word-retrieval, however, have not yet been assessed. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore task-related positive (active task > baseline) and negative activity (baseline > active task) during semantic and phonemic verbal fluency tasks. Increased right-frontal positive activity during the semantic task and reduced negative activity in the right hemisphere during both tasks was associated with reduced performance in older subjects. No substantial relationship between changes in positive and negative activity was observed in the older participants, pointing towards two partially independent but potentially co-occurring processes. Underlying causes of the observed functional network inefficiency during word-retrieval in older adults need to be determined in the future. PMID:20696496

  20. Flight Test Results from Real-Time Relative Global Positioning System Flight Experiment on STS-69

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Young W.; Brazzel, Jack P., Jr.; Carpenter, J. Russell; Hinkel, Heather D.; Newman, James H.

    1996-01-01

    A real-time global positioning system (GPS) Kalman filter has been developed to support automated rendezvous with the International Space Station (ISS). The filter is integrated with existing Shuttle rendezvous software running on a 486 laptop computer under Windows. In this work, we present real-time and postflight results achieved with the filter on STS-69. The experiment used GPS data from an Osborne/Jet propulsion Laboratory TurboRouge receiver carried on the Wake Shield Facility (WSF) free flyer and a Rockwell Collins 3M receiver carried on the Orbiter. Real time filter results, processed onboard the Shuttle and replayed in near-time on the ground, are based on single vehicle mode operation and on 5 to 20 minute snapshots of telemetry provided by WSF for dual-vehicle mode operation. The Orbiter and WSF state vectors calculated using our filter compare favorably with precise reference orbits determined by the University of Texas Center for Space Research. The lessons learned from this experiment will be used in conjunction with future experiments to mitigate the technology risk posed by automated rendezvous and docking to the ISS.

  1. Dickkopf related genes are components of the positional value gradient in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Augustin, René; Franke, André; Khalturin, Konstantin; Kiko, Rainer; Siebert, Stefan; Hemmrich, Georg; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2006-08-01

    Hydra is a classical model organism to understand fundamental developmental biological processes such as regeneration and axis formation. Here, we show that two genes which share some similarity with members of the Dickkopf family of proteins, HyDkk1/2/4-A and HyDkk1/2/4-C, are co-expressed in gland cells and regulated by the positional value gradient. While HyDkk1/2/4-A is expressed throughout the gastric region, HyDkk1/2/4-C has a graded expression pattern with a high level of transcripts just below the tentacle zone and absence of expression in the budding zone. Blocking the activity of GSK-3beta caused a drastic downregulation of HyDkk1/2/4-C expression in the gastric tissue. Experimental reduction of the number of HyDkk1/2/4-C-expressing cells resulted in expansion of the HyWnt expression domain in the hypostome. Thus, similar to Dickkopf proteins in vertebrates, one of the functions of HyDkk1/2/4-C in hydra may be to antagonize Wnt signalling.

  2. Flow theory – goal orientation theory: positive experience is related to athlete’s goal orientation

    PubMed Central

    Stavrou, Nektarios A. M.; Psychountaki, Maria; Georgiadis, Emmanouil; Karteroliotis, Konstantinos; Zervas, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between flow experience and goal orientation theory, as well as, the differences in flow experience based on the orthogonal model of goal orientation theory. Two hundred and seventy eight athletes completed the Task and Ego Orientation Sport Questionnaire based on how they usually feel. The challenge and skills ratings were completed 1 h before the competition, based on how they felt at the exact time of answering. In the following, the Flow State Scale-2 was completed up to 30 min after the competition they just participated, along with the challenge-skill ratings, based on how athletes felt during the competition. The results indicated that the athletes’ task orientation may be an important factor for attaining flow in competitive sport, feeling more skillful and estimating the upcoming competition as challenging, while low ego and low task oriented athletes lack these elements, which are important for them to get into flow. Additionally, not the level of task and ego orientation per se, but the balance between athletes’ goal orientation preferences seems important for the formation of flow experience, indicating that high task – high ego and high task – low ego athletes are experiencing the most positive mental state. PMID:26500577

  3. The relation of gingival thickness to dynamics of gingival margin position pre- and post-surgically

    PubMed Central

    Vandana, Kharidhi Laxman; Gupta, Ira

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the gingival margin position (GMP) before and after open flap debridement in different gingival thickness (GT). Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven healthy patients with moderate to advanced adult periodontitis were included in a randomized control clinical trial. A calibrated UNC-15 periodontal probe, an occlusal onlay stent was used for clinical measurements recorded at baseline, 3 month, 6 month, and 16 month. The changes in the GMP were studied at midbuccal (Mi-B), mesiobuccal (MB), and distobuccal sites. GT was measured presurgically, transgingivally at Mi-B and interdental sites, divided into 2 groups: Group 1 (thin) and Group 2 (thick). Results: In GT of ≤1 mm group, the statistically significant apical shift of GMP led to gingival recession at all study sites in the early postsurgical period of 1 and 3 months. During 6 and 16 months, the apical shift of GMP coincided with the Chernihiv Airport at Mi-B site (6 months), MB site (16 months). The gingival recession was obvious at Mi-B sites (16 months). In the GT of >1 mm, the statistically significant apical shift of GMP did not cause gingival recession at any sites throughout postsurgical (1, 3, 6, and 16 months) period. Conclusion: Thin gingiva showed apical shift of GMP leading to gingival recession as compared to thick gingiva postsurgically. PMID:27143829

  4. Toutatis, a TIP5-related protein, positively regulates Pannier function during Drosophila neural development.

    PubMed

    Vanolst, Luc; Fromental-Ramain, Catherine; Ramain, Philippe

    2005-10-01

    The GATA factor Pannier (Pnr) activates proneural expression through binding to a remote enhancer of the achaete-scute (ac-sc) complex. Chip associates both with Pnr and with the (Ac-Sc)-Daughterless heterodimer bound to the ac-sc promoters to give a proneural complex that facilitates enhancer-promoter communication during development. Using a yeast two-hybrid screening, we have identified Toutatis (Tou), which physically interacts with both Pnr and Chip. Loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments indicate that Tou cooperates with Pnr and Chip during neural development. Tou shares functional domains with chromatin remodelling proteins, including TIP5 (termination factor TTFI-interacting protein 5) of NoRC (nucleolar remodelling complex), which mediates repression of RNA polymerase 1 transcription. In contrast, Tou acts positively to activate proneural gene expression. Moreover, we show that Iswi associates with Tou, Pnr and Chip, and is also required during Pnr-driven neural development. The results suggest that Tou and Iswi may belong to a complex that directly regulates the activity of Pnr and Chip during enhancer-promoter communication, possibly through chromatin remodelling.

  5. Warning labels formulated as questions positively influence smoking-related risk perception.

    PubMed

    Glock, Sabine; Müller, Barbara C N; Ritter, Simone M

    2013-02-01

    Research on warning labels printed on cigarette packages has shown that fear inducing health warnings might provoke defensive responses. This study investigated whether reformulating statements into questions could avoid defensive reactions. Smokers were presented with either warning labels formulated as questions, textual warning labels, graphic warning labels, or no warning labels. Participants' smoking-related risk perception was higher after exposure to warning labels formulated as questions or no warning labels than after exposure to textual or graphic warning labels. These results indicate that reformulating statements into questions can avoid defensive responses elicited by textual- and graphic warning labels.

  6. Positive Lysosomal Modulation As a Unique Strategy to Treat Age-Related Protein Accumulation Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, Meagan L.; Butler, David

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Lysosomes are involved in degrading and recycling cellular ingredients, and their disruption with age may contribute to amyloidogenesis, paired helical filaments (PHFs), and α-synuclein and mutant huntingtin aggregation. Lysosomal cathepsins are upregulated by accumulating proteins and more so by the modulator Z-Phe-Ala-diazomethylketone (PADK). Such positive modulators of the lysosomal system have been studied in the well-characterized hippocampal slice model of protein accumulation that exhibits the pathogenic cascade of tau aggregation, tubulin breakdown, microtubule destabilization, transport failure, and synaptic decline. Active cathepsins were upregulated by PADK; Rab proteins were modified as well, indicating enhanced trafficking, whereas lysosome-associated membrane protein and proteasome markers were unchanged. Lysosomal modulation reduced the pre-existing PHF deposits, restored tubulin structure and transport, and recovered synaptic components. Further proof-of-principle studies used Alzheimer disease mouse models. It was recently reported that systemic PADK administration caused dramatic increases in cathepsin B protein and activity levels, whereas neprilysin, insulin-degrading enzyme, α-secretase, and β-secretase were unaffected by PADK. In the transgenic models, PADK treatment resulted in clearance of intracellular amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide and concomitant reduction of extracellular deposits. Production of the less pathogenic Aβ1–38 peptide corresponded with decreased levels of Aβ1–42, supporting the lysosome's antiamyloidogenic role through intracellular truncation. Amelioration of synaptic and behavioral deficits also indicates a neuroprotective function of the lysosomal system, identifying lysosomal modulation as an avenue for disease-modifying therapies. From the in vitro and in vivo findings, unique lysosomal modulators represent a minimally invasive, pharmacologically controlled strategy against protein accumulation disorders

  7. Accurate Fiber Length Measurement Using Time-of-Flight Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terra, Osama; Hussein, Hatem

    2016-06-01

    Fiber artifacts of very well-measured length are required for the calibration of optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR). In this paper accurate length measurement of different fiber lengths using the time-of-flight technique is performed. A setup is proposed to measure accurately lengths from 1 to 40 km at 1,550 and 1,310 nm using high-speed electro-optic modulator and photodetector. This setup offers traceability to the SI unit of time, the second (and hence to meter by definition), by locking the time interval counter to the Global Positioning System (GPS)-disciplined quartz oscillator. Additionally, the length of a recirculating loop artifact is measured and compared with the measurement made for the same fiber by the National Physical Laboratory of United Kingdom (NPL). Finally, a method is proposed to relatively correct the fiber refractive index to allow accurate fiber length measurement.

  8. American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons position paper on medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw--2014 update.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Salvatore L; Dodson, Thomas B; Fantasia, John; Goodday, Reginald; Aghaloo, Tara; Mehrotra, Bhoomi; O'Ryan, Felice

    2014-10-01

    Strategies for management of patients with, or at risk for, medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) were set forth in the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) position papers in 2007 and 2009. The position papers were developed by a special committee appointed by the board and composed of clinicians with extensive experience in caring for these patients and basic science researchers. The knowledge base and experience in addressing MRONJ has expanded, necessitating modifications and refinements to the previous position paper. This special committee met in September 2013 to appraise the current literature and revise the guidelines as indicated to reflect current knowledge in this field. This update contains revisions to diagnosis, staging, and management strategies and highlights current research status. The AAOMS considers it vitally important that this information be disseminated to other relevant health care professionals and organizations.

  9. Direct inoculation method using BacT/ALERT 3D and BD Phoenix System allows rapid and accurate identification and susceptibility testing for both Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative rods in aerobic blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Yonetani, Shota; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Araki, Koji; Makino, Hiroshi; Fukugawa, Yoko; Okuyama, Takahiro; Ohnishi, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Takashi

    2012-06-01

    This study describes a direct inoculation method using the automated BacT/ALERT 3D and the BD Phoenix System in combination for identification and susceptibility testing of isolates from positive blood cultures. Organism identification and susceptibility results were compared with the conventional method for 211 positive aerobic blood cultures. Of 110 Gram-positive cocci (GPCs), 98 (89.1%) isolates were correctly identified to the species level. Of 101 Gram-negative rods (GNRs), 98 (97.0%) isolates were correctly identified to the species level. The overall categorical agreement in antimicrobial susceptibility testing among the 110 GPCs was 92.7%, with 0.04% very major and 0.7% major error rates. The overall categorical agreement among 78 isolates of enterobacteria and 23 isolates of nonfermenters in GNRs was 99.5% and 91.1%, respectively, with no major errors identified. We conclude that, compared with previously reported direct inoculation methods, our method is superior in identification and susceptibility testing of GPCs.

  10. Function-related positioning of the type II secretion ATPase of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yih-Lin; Hu, Nien-Tai

    2013-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria use the type II secretion (T2S) system to secrete exoproteins for attacking animal or plant cells or to obtain nutrients from the environment. The system is unique in helping folded proteins traverse the outer membrane. The secretion machine comprises multiple proteins spanning the cell envelope and a cytoplasmic ATPase. Activity of the ATPase, when copurified with the cytoplasmic domain of an interactive ATPase partner, is stimulated by an acidic phospholipid, suggesting the membrane-associated ATPase is actively engaged in secretion. How the stimulated ATPase activity is terminated when secretion is complete is unclear. We fused the T2S ATPase of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, the causal agent of black rot in the crucifers, with fluorescent protein and found that the ATPase in secretion-proficient cells was mainly diffused in cytoplasm. Focal spots at the cell periphery were detectable only in a few cells. The discrete foci were augmented in abundance and intensity when the secretion channel was depleted and the exoprotein overproduced. The foci abundance was inversely related to secretion efficiency of the secretion channel. Restored function of the secretion channel paralleled reduced ATPase foci abundance. The ATPase foci colocalized with the secretion channel. The ATPase may be transiently associated with the T2S machine by alternating between a cytoplasmic and a machine-associated state in a secretion-dependent manner. This provides a logical means for terminating the ATPase activity when secretion is completed. Function-related dynamic assembly may be the essence of the T2S machine.

  11. The relationship between sexual trauma, peritraumatic dissociation, posttraumatic stress disorder, and HIV-related health in HIV-positive men.

    PubMed

    Yiaslas, Themis A; Kamen, Charles; Arteaga, Ana; Lee, Susanne; Briscoe-Smith, Allison; Koopman, Cheryl; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    This study tested a novel extension of P. P. Schnurr and B. L. Green's (2004) model of the relationships between trauma symptoms and health outcomes with specific application to HIV-positive men. A diverse sample of 167 HIV-positive men recruited from San Francisco Bay Area HIV clinics completed demographic, medical, trauma history, and symptom questionnaires. Mediation analyses were conducted using the method proposed by R. Baron and D. Kenny (1986). Regression analyses found that sexual revictimization (SR) significantly mediated the relationship between child sexual abuse and peritraumatic dissociation (PD), and PD mediated the relationship between SR and current posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptom severity. PTS symptoms partially mediated the relationship between SR and current HIV symptom severity. The findings indicate that among HIV-positive men, sexually revictimized men constitute a vulnerable group that is prone to PD, which places them at risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and worsened HIV-related health. Furthermore, traumatic stress symptoms were associated with worse HIV-related symptoms, suggesting that PTS symptoms mediate the link between trauma and health outcomes. This study highlights the need for future research to identify the biobehavioral mediators of the PTSD-health relationship in HIV-positive individuals.

  12. Relational contexts in adjustment to pregnancy of HIV-positive women: relationships, social support and personal adjustment.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marco; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2009-03-01

    Relational contexts are a central issue in most people's lives, and people usually rely on the support of others in everyday circumstances. Social support, as a relational context, could have a positive influence on personal adjustment, and is particularly relevant in the psychological well-being of HIV patients. Guided by the Convoy Model of social networks, in a sample of 31 HIV-positive pregnant women we try to assess the role of social support and social network in the adjustment to pregnancy. Profile analysis suggests a greater importance of social support provided by the partner and both parents, especially the support provided by the mother. At the same time, it seems to highlight the buffering hypothesis of social support, which could be understood as a protection factor in the adjustment of HIV-infected women' to pregnancy.

  13. Spirituality and positive psychology go hand in hand: an investigation of multiple empirically derived profiles and related protective benefits.

    PubMed

    Barton, Yakov A; Miller, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the relationship between personal spirituality and positive psychology traits as potentially presented in multiple profiles, rather than monolithically across a full sample. A sample of 3966 adolescents and emerging adults (aged 18-25, mean = 20.19, SD = 2.08) and 2014 older adults (aged 26-82, mean = 38.41, SD = 11.26) completed a survey assessing daily spiritual experiences (relationship with a Higher Power and sense of a sacred world), forgiveness, gratitude, optimism, grit, and meaning. To assess the relative protective benefits of potential profiles, we also assessed the level of depressive symptoms and frequency of substance use (tobacco, marijuana, alcohol, and heavy alcohol use). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to examine common subgroupings of study participants across report on personal spirituality and positive psychology scales in each age cohort, with potential difference between latent classes then tested in level of depressive symptoms and degree of substance use. LCA determined a four-class and a three-class best-fitting models for the younger and older cohorts, respectively. Level of personal spirituality and level of positive psychology traits were found to coincide in 83 % of adolescents and emerging adults and in 71 % of older adults, suggesting personal spirituality and positive psychology traits go hand in hand. A minority subgroup of "virtuous humanists" showed high levels of positive psychology traits but low levels of personal spirituality, across both age cohorts. Whereas level of depression was found to be inversely associated with positive psychology traits and personal spirituality, uniquely personal spirituality was protective against degree of substance use across both age cohorts. Overall interpretation of the study findings suggests that personal spirituality may be foundational to positive psychology traits in the majority of people.

  14. Caring for relatives with agitation at home: a qualitative study of positive coping strategies

    PubMed Central

    Jesnick, Leah; Turner, Rebecca; Leavey, Gerard; Livingston, Gill

    2017-01-01

    Background Trials of psychological interventions for reducing agitation in people with dementia living at home have been unsuccessful. Aims To inform future interventions by identifying successful strategies of family carers with relatives with dementia and agitation living at home. Method Qualitative in-depth individual interviews were performed with 18 family carers. We used thematic analysis to identify emerging themes. Results Carers described initial surprise and then acceptance that agitation is a dementia symptom and learned to respond flexibly. Their strategies encompassed: prevention of agitation by familiar routine; reduction of agitation by addressing underlying causes and using distraction; prevention of escalation by risk enablement, not arguing; and control of their emotional responses by ensuring their relative’s safety then walking away, carving out some time for themselves and using family and services for emotional and practical help. Conclusions These strategies can be manualised and tested in future randomised controlled trials for clinical effectiveness in reducing agitation in people with dementia living at home. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:28243464

  15. Resolving the Phylogenetic Position of Coelacanth: The Closest Relative Is Not Always the Most Appropriate Outgroup

    PubMed Central

    Takezaki, Naoko; Nishihara, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    Determining the phylogenetic relationship of two extant lineages of lobe-finned fish, coelacanths and lungfishes, and tetrapods is important for understanding the origin of tetrapods. We analyzed data sets from two previous studies along with a newly collected data set, each of which had varying numbers of species and genes and varying extent of missing sites. We found that in all the data sets the sister relationship of lungfish and tetrapods was constructed with the use of cartilaginous fish as the outgroup with a high degree of statistical support. In contrast, when ray-finned fish were used as the outgroup, which is taxonomically an immediate outgroup of lobe-finned fish and tetrapods, the sister relationship of coelacanth and tetrapods was supported most strongly, although the statistical support was weaker. Even though it is generally accepted that the closest relative is an appropriate outgroup, our analysis suggested that the large divergence of the ray-finned fish as indicated by their long branch lengths and different amino acid frequencies made them less suitable as an outgroup than cartilaginous fish. PMID:27026053

  16. The multichannel astrometric photometer and atmospheric limitations in the measurement of relative positions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatewood, George D.

    1987-01-01

    The operational Multichannel Astrometric Photometer (MAP) now in use in the Allegheny Observatory astrometric program is the culmination of a decade of design and development effort. A detailed description of the system and its related software is followed by analysis of data acquired in four stellar regions. The study indicates an accuracy (in the sense of conformity to the best model), per night, for stars of the eighth magnitude or brighter, of 0.003 arcsec or better. These data points each have approximately twice the precision of the annual normal points obtained in our photographic program. Accuracy is shown to depend on: (1) the photon-count rate of the target star (it follows that the number of photons from the reference frame is also in important factor), (2) the duration of the observation, (3) the angular size of the reference frame, and (4) the quality of the astronomical seeing. Since (4) and, to a lesser extent, (1) involve the atmospheric characteristics at the time of observation, the probable performance at more favorable sites is discussed briefly.

  17. Resolving the Phylogenetic Position of Coelacanth: The Closest Relative Is Not Always the Most Appropriate Outgroup.

    PubMed

    Takezaki, Naoko; Nishihara, Hidenori

    2016-04-25

    Determining the phylogenetic relationship of two extant lineages of lobe-finned fish, coelacanths and lungfishes, and tetrapods is important for understanding the origin of tetrapods. We analyzed data sets from two previous studies along with a newly collected data set, each of which had varying numbers of species and genes and varying extent of missing sites. We found that in all the data sets the sister relationship of lungfish and tetrapods was constructed with the use of cartilaginous fish as the outgroup with a high degree of statistical support. In contrast, when ray-finned fish were used as the outgroup, which is taxonomically an immediate outgroup of lobe-finned fish and tetrapods, the sister relationship of coelacanth and tetrapods was supported most strongly, although the statistical support was weaker. Even though it is generally accepted that the closest relative is an appropriate outgroup, our analysis suggested that the large divergence of the ray-finned fish as indicated by their long branch lengths and different amino acid frequencies made them less suitable as an outgroup than cartilaginous fish.

  18. KLHL40-related nemaline myopathy with a sustained, positive response to treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Natera-de Benito, D; Nascimento, A; Abicht, A; Ortez, C; Jou, C; Müller, J S; Evangelista, T; Töpf, A; Thompson, R; Jimenez-Mallebrera, C; Colomer, J; Lochmüller, H

    2016-03-01

    Congenital myopathies are a group of inherited muscle disorders characterized by hypotonia, weakness and a non-dystrophic muscle biopsy with the presence of one or more characteristic histological features. Neuromuscular transmission defects have recently been reported in several patients with congenital myopathies (CM). Mutations in KLHL40 are among the most common causes of severe forms of nemaline myopathy. Clinical features of affected individuals include fetal akinesia or hypokinesia, respiratory failure, and swallowing difficulties at birth. Muscle weakness is usually severe and nearly half of the individuals have no spontaneous antigravity movement. The average age of death has been reported to be 5 months in a recent case series. Herein we present a case of a patient with a nemaline myopathy due to KLHL40 mutations (c.604delG, p.Ala202Argfs*56 and c.1513G>C, p.Ala505Pro) with an impressive and prolonged beneficial response to treatment with high-dose pyridostigmine. Myasthenic features or response to ACEI have not previously been reported as a characteristic of nemaline myopathy or KLHL40-related myopathy.

  19. Psychosocial determinants of HIV-related quality of life among HIV-positive military in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olley, B O; Bolajoko, A J

    2008-02-01

    There is a paucity of research regarding the role played by psychosocial and HIV-related factors on quality of life (QoL) among military in developing countries. On presentation to a military hospital-based HIV clinic, 125 air-force personnel, 56 seropositive (none of whom had AIDS) and 69 seronegative were interviewed. At the interview, participants were assessed using the Medical Outcome QoL and other psychosocial measures. The overall QoL was less among seropositive compared with seronegative air-force personnel. Seropositive personnel also reported a greater number of negative life events and trauma symptoms (post-traumatic stress disorder, PTSD). Seronegative military personnel reported more sexual risk behaviours compared with seropositive personnel. Multivariate analysis showed that trauma symptoms (PTSD) were a significant contributor to QoL and explained of the variance in physical, mental, role and social functioning among HIV-infected air-force personnel. Other variables that predicted QoL, but to a lesser extent, included age, number of negative life events and increased symptomatology. These findings highlight the importance of evaluation of QoL in HIV-infected military personnel.

  20. Relation of Landscape Position and Irrigation to Concentrations of Alachlor, Atrazine, and Selected Degradates in Regolith in Northeastern Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Lewis, D.T.; McCallister, D.L.; Parkhurst, A.; Thurman, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    Concentrations of alachlor, its ethanesulfonic acid degradate, atrazine and its degradates, deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine, in the upper regolith and associated shallow aquifers were determined in relation to landscape position (floodplains, terraces, and uplands) and irrigation (nonirrigated and irrigated corn cropland) in 1992. Irrigated and nonirrigated sites were located on each landscape position. Samples were collected from three depths. Canonical discriminant and multivariate analyses were used to interpret data. Herbicides and their degradation products tended to be present in soils with high percent organic matter, low pH, and low sand content. Atrazine was present more frequently on the floodplain at all depths than the other compounds. Atrazine (maximum 17.5 ??g/kg) and ethanesulfonic acid (maximum 10 ??g/kg) were associated with landscape position, but not with irrigation. Alachlor (maximum 24 ??g/kg), deethylatrazine (maximum 1.5 ??g/kg), and deisopropylatrazine (maximum 3.5 ??g/kg) were not significantly associated with either landscape position or irrigation. Ground-water analytical results suggested that concentrations of these herbicides and degradates in ground water did not differ among landscape position or between irrigated and nonirrigated corn cropland.

  1. Accurate quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.

  2. Skull diversity in the Homo lineage and the relative position of Homo naledi.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Lauren; Scott, Jill E; Garvin, Heather M; Laird, Myra F; Dembo, Mana; Radovčić, Davorka; Berger, Lee R; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Ackermann, Rebecca R

    2017-03-01

    The discovery of Homo naledi has expanded the range of phenotypic variation in Homo, leading to new questions surrounding the mosaic nature of morphological evolution. Though currently undated, its unique morphological pattern and possible phylogenetic relationships to other hominin taxa suggest a complex evolutionary scenario. Here, we perform geometric morphometric analyses on H. naledi cranial and mandibular remains to investigate its morphological relationship with species of Homo and Australopithecus. We use Generalized Procrustes analysis to place H. naledi within the pattern of known hominin skull diversity, distributions of Procrustes distances among individuals to compare H. naledi and Homo erectus, and neighbor joining trees to investigate the potential phenetic relationships between groups. Our goal is to address a set of hypotheses relating to the uniqueness of H. naledi, its affinity with H. erectus, and the age of the fossils based on skull morphology. Our results indicate that, cranially, H. naledi aligns with members of the genus Homo, with closest affiliations to H. erectus. The mandibular results are less clear; H. naledi closely associates with a number of taxa, including some australopiths. However, results also show that although H. naledi shares similarities with H. erectus, some distances from this taxon - especially small-brained members of this taxon - are extreme. The neighbor joining trees place H. naledi firmly within Homo. The trees based on cranial morphology again indicate a close relationship between H. naledi and H. erectus, whereas the mandibular tree places H. naledi closer to basal Homo, suggesting a deeper antiquity. Altogether, these results emphasize the unique combination of features (H. erectus-like cranium, less derived mandible) defining H. naledi. Our results also highlight the variability within Homo, calling for a greater focus on the cause of this variability, and emphasizing the importance of using the

  3. Political Violence and Adolescent Out-group Attitudes and Prosocial Behaviors: Implications for Positive Inter-group Relations.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Laura K; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed; Cummings, E Mark

    2014-11-01

    The negative impact of political violence on adolescent adjustment is well-established. Less is known about factors that affect adolescents' positive outcomes in ethnically-divided societies, especially influences on prosocial behaviors toward the outgroup, which may promote constructive relations. For example, understanding how intergroup experiences and attitudes motivate outgroup helping may foster intergroup cooperation and help to consolidate peace. The current study investigated adolescents' overall and outgroup prosocial behaviors across two time points in Belfast, Northern Ireland (N = 714 dyads; 49% male; Time 1: M = 14.7, SD = 2.0, years old). Controlling for Time 1 prosocial behaviors, age and gender, multivariate structural equation modeling showed that experience with intergroup sectarian threat predicted fewer outgroup prosocial behaviors at Time 2 at the trend level. On the other hand, greater experience of intragroup nonsectarian threat at Time 1 predicted more overall and outgroup prosocial behaviors at Time 2. Moreover, positive outgroup attitudes strengthened the link between intragroup threat and outgroup prosocial behaviors one year later. Finally, experience with intragroup nonsectarian threat and outgroup prosocial behaviors at Time 1 was related to more positive outgroup attitudes at Time 2. The implications for youth development and intergroup relations in post-accord societies are discussed.

  4. Positive correlation between variants of lipid metabolism-related genes and coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, LI-NA; LIU, PAN-PAN; ZHOU, JIANQING; HUANG, R. STEPHANIE; YUAN, FANG; FEI, LI-JUAN; HUANG, YI; XU, LIMIN; HAO, LING-MEI; QIU, XU-JUN; LE, YANPING; YANG, XI; XU, WEIFENG; HUANG, XIAOYAN; YE, MENG; LIAN, JIANGFANG; DUAN, SHIWEI

    2013-01-01

    Four gene variants related to lipid metabolism (including the rs562338 and rs503662 variants of the APOB gene, the rs7767084 variant of the LPA gene and the rs2246942 variant of the LIPA gene) have been shown to be associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). The aim of the present study was to assess their association with CHD in the Han Chinese population and to assess the contribution of these gene variants to CHD. Using the standardized coronary angiography method, we enrolled 290 CHD patients and 193 non-CHD patients as non-CHD controls from Lihuili Hospital (Ningbo, China). In addition, we recruited 330 unrelated healthy volunteers as healthy controls from the Xi Men Community (Ningbo, China). Our results demonstrated that the rs503662 and rs562338 variants of the APOB gene were extremely rare in the Han Chinese population (minor allele frequency <1%). Genotype rs2246942-GG of the LIPA gene was associated with an increased risk of CHD [CHD cases versus healthy controls: P=0.04; odds ratio (OR)=1.63; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.02–2.60). Genotype rs7767084-CC of the LPA gene was identified as a protective factor against CHD in females (CHD cases versus non-CHD controls: P=0.04, OR=0.21; CHD cases versus healthy controls: P=0.02, OR=0.21). The results of our meta-analysis indicated that rs7767084 was not associated with a high risk of CHD (P=0.83; combined OR=0.93; 95% CI=0.47–1.85). In the present study, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes involved in lipid metabolism (rs2246942 and rs7767084) were identified to be significantly associated with CHD in the Han Chinese population. Specifically, rs2246942-GG of the LIPA gene was a risk factor for CHD, while rs7767084-CC of the LPA gene was a protective factor against CHD in females. However, our meta-analysis indicated that rs7767084 is not associated with a higher risk of CHD. PMID:23653095

  5. Characteristics of positive cloud-to-ground lightning in Da Hinggan Ling forest region at relatively high latitude, northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qie, Xiushu; Wang, Zhichao; Wang, Dongfang; Liu, Mingyuan

    2013-12-01

    2009 and 2010, a multistation network of fast and slow antennas was installed on the edge of a relatively high latitude forest region in Da Hinggan Ling (50.4°N, 124.1°E) of northeastern China. The documented 185 positive cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes containing 196 return strokes were analyzed in the paper. It was found that 71.89% of the positive CG flashes contained continuing current. The average duration of continuing current was short with an arithmetic mean value of 33.29 ms and a geometric mean value of 16.74 ms; only one continuing current lasted longer than 150 ms, probably because of the small size of the storm cell in this relatively high latitude region. The vast majority (94.59%) of positive CG flashes was characterized by a single stroke, and the average number of stroke per flash is 1.06. The average charge transferred by positive stroke and continuing current, based upon the analysis of five flashes with well-documented simultaneous measurements of more than five stations, was +5.2 C from a height of 6.0 km (above ground) and +10.2 C from a height of 6.4 km, respectively. The charge moment for +CG strokes ranged from +13.7 C km to +55.9 C km, while that for continuing current ranged from +29.0 C km to +96.9 C km, respectively. The preliminary breakdown process in positive CG flashes can be classified into three types, namely type S (same), type D (different), and type C (chaotic) according to the disparities in the initial polarity of bipolar pulses from the return stroke, which account for 62.92%, 23.60%, and 13.48%, respectively. According to the electric field waveforms indicative (or not indicative) of intracloud (IC) discharge, positive CG flashes are classified into four types, i.e., ordinary positive CG flash (63.78%), hybrid +CG-IC flash (21.08%), hybrid IC-+CG flash (5.41%), and hybrid IC-+CG-IC flash (9.73%). About 15.14% of the recorded positive CG flashes were byproduct of IC lightning discharge.

  6. Failure to differentiate between threat-related and positive emotion cues in healthy adults with childhood interpersonal or adult trauma.

    PubMed

    Chu, Denise A; Bryant, Richard A; Gatt, Justine M; Harris, Anthony W F

    2016-07-01

    Enhanced threat-related processing is associated with both elevated anxiety and childhood exposure to trauma. Given the paucity of evidence regarding the effects of childhood and adult trauma exposure on subsequent psychophysiological processes in the absence of psychopathology, we investigated the relative impacts of childhood interpersonal and non-interpersonal trauma, as well as adult trauma exposure on neural processing of threat in healthy adults. We measured peak amplitudes of the N170 face-sensitive visual ERP component response to non-conscious and conscious Angry (threat) versus Happy (non-threat, positive) and Neutral (non-threat baseline) faces at temporo-occipital sites (right-T6; left-T5) in 489 psychiatrically asymptomatic adults (aged 18-70 years, 54% women, 94% right-handed). N170 peak amplitude differences between Angry vs Happy or Neutral faces were calculated and subjected to hierarchical multiple regression analysis, with trauma types (childhood interpersonal, childhood non-interpersonal and adult trauma) entered as predictors of interest. After controlling for sociodemographic and health factors, N170 peak amplitudes for non-conscious Angry vs Happy faces were inversely associated with childhood interpersonal trauma at T6 and adult trauma exposure at T5. Post-hoc repeated measures ANOVA indicated that unlike adults without trauma exposure, trauma-exposed adults failed to show significantly reduced N170 responses to Happy relative to Angry faces during non-conscious processing. This suggests that childhood interpersonal and adult trauma exposure are associated with a failure to differentiate between non-threat or positive and threat-related emotion cues. This is consistent with generalised hypervigilance seen in PTSD, and suggests trauma exposure is associated with a generalized heightened responsivity to non-conscious non-threat or positive as well as threat-related emotion cues in psychiatrically healthy adults.

  7. Extracellular signal-related kinase positively regulates ataxia telangiectasia mutated, homologous recombination repair, and the DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Golding, Sarah E; Rosenberg, Elizabeth; Neill, Steven; Dent, Paul; Povirk, Lawrence F; Valerie, Kristoffer

    2007-02-01

    The accurate joining of DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination repair (HRR) is critical to the long-term survival of the cell. The three major mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and c-Jun-NH(2)-kinase (JNK), regulate cell growth, survival, and apoptosis. To determine the role of MAPK signaling in HRR, we used a human in vivo I-SceI-based repair system. First, we verified that this repair platform is amenable to pharmacologic manipulation and show that the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase is critical for HRR. The ATM-specific inhibitor KU-55933 compromised HRR up to 90% in growth-arrested cells, whereas this effect was less pronounced in cycling cells. Then, using well-characterized MAPK small-molecule inhibitors, we show that ERK1/2 and JNK signaling are important positive regulators of HRR in growth-arrested cells. On the other hand, inhibition of the p38 MAPK pathway generated an almost 2-fold stimulation of HRR. When ERK1/2 signaling was stimulated by oncogenic RAF-1, an approximately 2-fold increase in HRR was observed. KU-55933 partly blocked radiation-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting that ATM regulates ERK1/2 signaling. Furthermore, inhibition of MAP/ERK kinase (MEK)/ERK signaling resulted in severely reduced levels of phosphorylated (S1981) ATM foci but not gamma-H2AX foci, and suppressed ATM phosphorylation levels >85% throughout the cell cycle. Collectively, these results show that MAPK signaling positively and negatively regulates HRR in human cells. More specifically, ATM-dependent signaling through the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway is critical for efficient HRR and for radiation-induced ATM activation, suggestive of a regulatory feedback loop between ERK and ATM.

  8. Comparative analysis between mandibular positions in centric relation and maximum intercuspation by cone beam computed tomography (CONE-BEAM).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Amanda de Freitas; Henriques, João César Guimarães; Almeida, Guilherme Araújo; Machado, Asbel Rodrigues; Machado, Naila Aparecida de Godoi; Fernandes Neto, Alfredo Júlio

    2009-01-01

    This research consisted of a quantitative assessment, and aimed to measure the possible discrepancies between the maxillomandibular positions for centric relation (CR) and maximum intercuspation (MI), using computed tomography volumetric cone beam (cone beam method). The sample of the study consisted of 10 asymptomatic young adult patients divided into two types of standard occlusion: normal occlusion and Angle Class I occlusion. In order to obtain the centric relation, a JIG device and mandible manipulation were used to deprogram the habitual conditions of the jaw. The evaluations were conducted in both frontal and lateral tomographic images, showing the condyle/articular fossa relation. The images were processed in the software included in the NewTom 3G device (QR NNT software version 2.00), and 8 tomographic images were obtained per patient, four laterally and four frontally exhibiting the TMA's (in CR and MI, on both sides, right and left). By means of tools included in another software, linear and angular measurements were performed and statistically analyzed by student t test. According to the methodology and the analysis performed in asymptomatic patients, it was not possible to detect statistically significant differences between the positions of centric relation and maximum intercuspation. However, the resources of cone beam tomography are of extreme relevance to the completion of further studies that use heterogeneous groups of samples in order to compare the results.

  9. ‘Obesity’ is healthy for cetaceans? Evidence from pervasive positive selection in genes related to triacylglycerol metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhengfei; Chen, Zhuo; Xu, Shixia; Ren, Wenhua; Zhou, Kaiya; Yang, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Cetaceans are a group of secondarily adapted marine mammals with an enigmatic history of transition from terrestrial to fully aquatic habitat and subsequent adaptive radiation in waters around the world. Numerous physiological and morphological cetacean characteristics have been acquired in response to this drastic habitat transition; for example, the thickened blubber is one of the most striking changes that increases their buoyancy, supports locomotion, and provides thermal insulation. However, the genetic basis underlying the blubber thickening in cetaceans remains poorly explored. Here, 88 candidate genes associated with triacylglycerol metabolism were investigated in representative cetaceans and other mammals to test whether the thickened blubber matched adaptive evolution of triacylglycerol metabolism-related genes. Positive selection was detected in 41 of the 88 candidate genes, and functional characterization of these genes indicated that these are involved mainly in triacylglycerol synthesis and lipolysis processes. In addition, some essential regulatory genes underwent significant positive selection in cetacean-specific lineages, whereas no selection signal was detected in the counterpart terrestrial mammals. The extensive occurrence of positive selection in triacylglycerol metabolism-related genes is suggestive of their essential role in secondary adaptation to an aquatic life, and further implying that ‘obesity’ might be an indicator of good health for cetaceans. PMID:26381091

  10. Accurate spectral color measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Jouni; Jaeaeskelaeinen, Timo; Parkkinen, Jussi P. S.

    1999-08-01

    Surface color measurement is of importance in a very wide range of industrial applications including paint, paper, printing, photography, textiles, plastics and so on. For a demanding color measurements spectral approach is often needed. One can measure a color spectrum with a spectrophotometer using calibrated standard samples as a reference. Because it is impossible to define absolute color values of a sample, we always work with approximations. The human eye can perceive color difference as small as 0.5 CIELAB units and thus distinguish millions of colors. This 0.5 unit difference should be a goal for the precise color measurements. This limit is not a problem if we only want to measure the color difference of two samples, but if we want to know in a same time exact color coordinate values accuracy problems arise. The values of two instruments can be astonishingly different. The accuracy of the instrument used in color measurement may depend on various errors such as photometric non-linearity, wavelength error, integrating sphere dark level error, integrating sphere error in both specular included and specular excluded modes. Thus the correction formulas should be used to get more accurate results. Another question is how many channels i.e. wavelengths we are using to measure a spectrum. It is obvious that the sampling interval should be short to get more precise results. Furthermore, the result we get is always compromise of measuring time, conditions and cost. Sometimes we have to use portable syste or the shape and the size of samples makes it impossible to use sensitive equipment. In this study a small set of calibrated color tiles measured with the Perkin Elmer Lamda 18 and the Minolta CM-2002 spectrophotometers are compared. In the paper we explain the typical error sources of spectral color measurements, and show which are the accuracy demands a good colorimeter should have.

  11. The Reverse Thomas Position for Thoracolumbar Fracture Height Restoration: Relative Contribution of Patient Positioning in Percutaneous Balloon Kyphoplasty for Acute Vertebral Compressions

    PubMed Central

    Cawley, Derek T.; Beecher, Suzanne M.; Baker, Joseph F.; McCabe, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Standard positioning for percutaneous balloon kyphoplasty requires placing a patient prone with supports under the iliac crests and upper thorax. The authors believe that hip hyperextension maximises pelvic anteversion creating anterior longitudinal ligamentotaxis, thus facilitating restoration of vertebral height. Methods Radiographic imaging including pre-operative, post-positioning, post balloon tamp inflation and post-operative lateral radiographs were analysed for anterior and posterior column height, wedge angle of the affected vertebra and 3-level Cobb angle in patients with recent fractures of T11-L1. Fracture dimensions of the index vertebra were expressed as percentage of the analogous dimension of the referent vertebra. Results From a total of 149 patients, a full imaging sequence was available on 21 cases of vertebral compression fractures. The described positioning technique created a mean anterior column height increase from 68.3% to 75.3% with positioning (p = 0.15), increasing to 82.3% post balloon inflation. Average Cobb and wedge angle improvement of 4.7° (p = 0.004)and 3.6° (p = 0.002) from positioning along were also recorded. Conclusion The Reverse Thomas Position is a safe and effective technique for augmenting thoracolumbar fracture height restoration in percutaneous balloon kyphoplasty. PMID:27441179

  12. Position of document holder and work related risk factors for neck pain among computer users: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Ambusam, S; Baharudin, O; Roslizawati, N; Leonard, J

    2015-01-01

    Document holder is used as a remedy to address occupational neck pain among computer users. An understanding on the effects of the document holder along with other work related risk factors while working in computer workstation requires attention. A comprehensive knowledge on the optimal location of the document holder in computer use and associated work related factors that may contribute to neck pain reviewed in this article. A literature search has been conducted over the past 14 years based on the published articles from January 1990 to January 2014 in both Science Direct and PubMed databases. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords for search were neck muscle OR head posture OR muscle tension' OR muscle activity OR work related disorders OR neck pain AND/OR document location OR document holder OR source document OR copy screen holder.Document holder placed lateral to the screen was most preferred to reduce neck discomfort among occupational typists. Document without a holder was placed flat on the surface is least preferred. The head posture and muscle activity increases when the document is placed flat on the surface compared to when placed on the document holder. Work related factors such as static posture, repetitive movement, prolong sitting and awkward positions were the risk factors for chronic neck pain. This review highlights the optimal location for document holder for computer users to reduce neck pain. Together, the importance of work related risk factors for to neck pain on occupational typist is emphasized for the clinical management.

  13. Relations of positive and negative affectivity to anxiety and depression in children: evidence from a latent variable longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Hooe, Eric S

    2003-06-01

    The tripartite model of anxiety and depression has been studied with adults; however, support is still emerging with children concerning measurement and relations between positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect and psychopathology. In this longitudinal study of 270 4th- to 11th-grade children (mean age = 12.9 years, SD = 2.23). confirmatory factor analysis supported a 2-factor orthogonal model of children's self-reported affect and revealed that the concurrent relations of NA and PA to anxiety and depression symptoms were consistent with the tripartite model. Structural equation modeling demonstrated moderate cross-time stability of trait PA and NA, consistent with a temperament view of these factors, as well as partial support for the role of NA and PA in the development of anxiety and depression symptoms in children.

  14. Sexual health and socioeconomic-related factors among HIV-positive men who have sex with men in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos E; Jovet-Toledo, Gerardo G; Ortiz-Sánchez, Edgardo J; Rodríguez-Santiago, Edda I; Vargas-Molina, Ricardo L

    2015-10-01

    Most of the research among HIV-positive populations has been approached from behavioral risk models. This is particularly true for those otherwise socially vulnerable groups like men who have sex with men (MSM). As a response to this pattern, we examined data from an ongoing health promotion research being conducted in Puerto Rico (PR). The study is limited to HIV-positive MSM and consists of the participation in a survey interview that includes domains used to assess indicators of socio-economic-related factors (age, educational level, employment, religion, and partnership status) and sexual health (sexual satisfaction, condom use, and sexual health knowledge(SHK)). Participants reported a relatively high level (75 %) of sexual satisfaction and inconsistent condom use (50.9 % reported always using a condom). A deficient (61 %) SHK was also reported. In multivariate analyses, a higher educational level was associated with higher sexual satisfaction (aβ = 3.223; 95 % CI 0.291-6.156) and higher levels of SHK (aβ = 1.328; 95 % CI 0.358-2.297), while unemployment was associated with less condom use (aOR 0.314; 95 % CI 0.122-0.810). Not having a primary sexual partner was associated with less sexual satisfaction (aβ = -3.871; 95 % CI -7.534-0.208) and more condom use (aOR 4.292; 95 % CI 1.310-14.068). Findings support the notion that men of a disadvantaged socioeconomic position may have a poorer sexual health status; with a lower level of education and unemployment leading this disparity. Findings also evidence that partnership status may have a role in the sexual health of HIV-positive MSM. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of sexual health and socioeconomic indicators among Hispanic/Latino HIV-positive MSM in PR and in the Caribbean. Findings provide valuable information to address the sexual health needs of an underserved population.

  15. Sexual Health and Socioeconomic-Related Factors Among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Jovet-Toledo, Gerardo G.; Ortiz-Sánchez, Edgardo J.; Rodríguez-Santiago, Edda I.; Vargas-Molina, Ricardo L.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the research among HIV-positive populations has been approached from behavioral risk models. This is particularly true for those otherwise socially vulnerable groups like men who have sex with men (MSM). As a response to this pattern, we examined data from an ongoing health promotion research being conducted in Puerto Rico (PR). The study is limited to HIV-positive MSM and consists of the participation in a survey interview that includes domains used to assess indicators of socio-economic-related factors (age, educational level, employment, religion, and partnership status) and sexual health (sexual satisfaction, condom use, and sexual health knowledge (SHK)). Participants reported a relatively high level(75 %) of sexual satisfaction and inconsistent condom use (50.9 % reported always using a condom). A deficient (61 %) SHK was also reported. In multivariate analyses, a higher educational level was associated with higher sexual satisfaction (aβ = 3.223; 95 % CI 0.291–6.156) and higher levels of SHK (aβ=1.328; 95 % CI 0.358–2.297), while unemployment was associated with less condom use (aOR 0.314; 95 % CI 0.122–0.810). Not having a primary sexual partner was associated with less sexual satisfaction (aβ= −3.871; 95 % CI −7.534–0.208) and more condom use (aOR 4.292; 95 % CI 1.310–14.068). Findings support the notion that men of a disadvantaged socioeconomic position may have a poorer sexual health status; with a lower level of education and unemployment leading this disparity. Findings also evidence that partnership status may have a role in the sexual health of HIV-positive MSM. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of sexual health and socio-economic indicators among Hispanic/Latino HIV-positive MSM in PR and in the Caribbean. Findings provide valuable information to address the sexual health needs of an underserved population. PMID:26123066

  16. Selective Activation Around the Left Occipito-Temporal Sulcus for Words Relative to Pictures: Individual Variability or False Positives?

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Nicholas D; Mechelli, Andrea; Noppeney, Uta; Veltman, Dick J; Rombouts, Serge ARB; Glensman, Janice; Haynes, John-Dylan; Price, Cathy J

    2008-01-01

    We used high-resolution fMRI to investigate claims that learning to read results in greater left occipito-temporal (OT) activation for written words relative to pictures of objects. In the first experiment, 9/16 subjects performing a one-back task showed activation in ≥1 left OT voxel for words relative to pictures (P < 0.05 uncorrected). In a second experiment, another 9/15 subjects performing a semantic decision task activated ≥1 left OT voxel for words relative to pictures. However, at this low statistical threshold false positives need to be excluded. The semantic decision paradigm was therefore repeated, within subject, in two different scanners (1.5 and 3 T). Both scanners consistently localised left OT activation for words relative to fixation and pictures relative to words, but there were no consistent effects for words relative to pictures. Finally, in a third experiment, we minimised the voxel size (1.5 × 1.5 × 1.5 mm3) and demonstrated a striking concordance between the voxels activated for words and pictures, irrespective of task (naming vs. one-back) or script (English vs. Hebrew). In summary, although we detected differential activation for words relative to pictures, these effects: (i) do not withstand statistical rigour; (ii) do not replicate within or between subjects; and (iii) are observed in voxels that also respond to pictures of objects. Our findings have implications for the role of left OT activation during reading. More generally, they show that studies using low statistical thresholds in single subject analyses should correct the statistical threshold for the number of comparisons made or replicate effects within subject. Hum Brain Mapp 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:17712786

  17. Differential metabolism of brown adipose tissue in newborn rabbits in relation to position in the litter huddle.

    PubMed

    García-Torres, Esmeralda; Hudson, Robyn; Castelán, Francisco; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Bautista, Amando

    2015-07-01

    Competition for resources can contribute importantly to the early development of individual differences in behavioral and physiological phenotypes. In newborn rabbits, littermates compete for thermally favorable positions within the litter huddle. As brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the principal site of thermogenesis in such altricial young, we investigated differences in rabbit pups' growth and morphological differences in BAT associated with position within the huddle. We formed three treatment groups (7 litters/group): GI-birth (pups killed at birth); GII-chronic thermal challenge (pups killed after exposure to a moderately cold environmental during postnatal days 1-3); GIII-acute thermal challenge (as for GII but pups killed after an additional 30min exposure to a very cold environment on postnatal day 3). Interscapular BAT was removed at death for histological analysis, and triglyceride concentrations measured in serum. Pups occupying central positions in the huddle had higher skin temperatures, obtained more milk, and were more efficient at converting this into body mass, than pups occupying peripheral positions. There was no significant difference in BAT morphology or triglyceride concentrations between pups at birth, nor between central and peripheral pups chronically exposed to moderate cold until postnatal day 3. However, during acute cold exposure at this age, peripheral pups were less able to maintain their body temperature, they depleted BAT fat reserves almost completely, and they had lower serum concentrations of triglycerides than central pups. These findings confirm the contribution of early sibling relations to individual differences in growth and metabolic processes associated with thermoregulation in newborn rabbits.

  18. A sequential and partial ambiguity resolution strategy for improving the initialization performance of medium-baseline relative positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shoujian; Zhao, Lei; Li, Xintan; Cheng, Bing

    2016-02-01

    Ionosphere products that are relatively precise are available thanks to the efforts of the International GNSS Service (IGS), and it might be possible to obtain a high success rate for the fixed integer ambiguities for medium- or longer-baseline ambiguity resolution (AR) using the ionosphere products as a priori information constraints. In this study, we used the IGS precise ionosphere products as a priori information before forming double-difference (DD) measurement equations using only original observables in a mid-range relative positioning and estimated the ionosphere residuals explicitly after DD. Furthermore, we proposed a sequential and partial ambiguity resolution (SPAR) strategy under the integer least square condition to realize fast and reliable AR. To demonstrate our proposed strategy, we randomly selected seven baselines ranging from 30 to 111 km and undertook positioning in a post-processing mode using real GPS dual-frequency data. According to the results, the SPAR strategy has a faster convergence process compared with batch AR. For instance, the convergence time with >90 % cumulative frequency percentage (probability) for 30, 40, 56, 66, 80, 95, and 111 km baselines was advanced by 55, 50, >75, 85, >110, 65, and >35 epochs, respectively, with a 30-s sample interval. By considering ionospheric correction before DD, we found further improvement in the initialization performance with the use of the SPAR strategy.

  19. Stability in the relative equilibrium positions of space stations at triangular libration points in the photogravitational three-body problem

    SciTech Connect

    Perezhogin, A.A.

    1986-03-01

    This study considers the generalized, photogravitational, restricted, circular three-body problem. Passively gravitating space stations are modeled by solid objects. It is assumed that the sail area of the station (the ratio of cross section to mass) does not depend on the station's ori entation. Two dynamically equivalent relative equilibrium positions for the station are found from the conditions of steady-state change in the station's potential energy, where the station's cente of mass is found at one of the stable, triangular liberation points in the photogravitational, cir cular three-body problem. The sufficient conditions for stability of the equilibrium solutions are obtained. The relative equilibrium positions and also, generally speaking, the sufficient conditions for their stability depend significantly on the station's sail area. However, for an actual system of actively gravitating objects (a sun-planet system), the stability conditions reduce to a known inequality for the station's primary, central moments of inertia. The latter circumstance in this case allows one to omit the initial assumption that the sail area is independent of the station's orientation.

  20. Individual Differences in Anticipatory Somatosensory Cortex Activity for Shock is Positively Related with Trait Anxiety and Multisensory Integration

    PubMed Central

    Greening, Steven G.; Lee, Tae-Ho; Mather, Mara

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety is associated with an exaggerated expectancy of harm, including overestimation of how likely a conditioned stimulus (CS+) predicts a harmful unconditioned stimulus (US). In the current study we tested whether anxiety-associated expectancy of harm increases primary sensory cortex (S1) activity on non-reinforced (i.e., no shock) CS+ trials. Twenty healthy volunteers completed a differential-tone trace conditioning task while undergoing fMRI, with shock delivered to the left hand. We found a positive correlation between trait anxiety and activity in right, but not left, S1 during CS+ versus CS− conditions. Right S1 activity also correlated with individual differences in both primary auditory cortices (A1) and amygdala activity. Lastly, a seed-based functional connectivity analysis demonstrated that trial-wise S1 activity was positively correlated with regions of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), suggesting that higher-order cognitive processes contribute to the anticipatory sensory reactivity. Our findings indicate that individual differences in trait anxiety relate to anticipatory reactivity for the US during associative learning. This anticipatory reactivity is also integrated along with emotion-related sensory signals into a brain network implicated in fear-conditioned responding. PMID:26751483

  1. Bud structure, position and fate generate various branching patterns along shoots of closely related Rosaceae species: a review

    PubMed Central

    Costes, Evelyne; Crespel, Laurent; Denoyes, Béatrice; Morel, Philippe; Demene, Marie-Noëlle; Lauri, Pierre-Eric; Wenden, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Branching in temperate plants is closely linked to bud fates, either floral or vegetative. Here, we review how the fate of meristematic tissues contained in buds and their position along a shoot imprint specific branching patterns which differ among species. Through examples chosen in closely related species in different genera of the Rosaceae family, a panorama of patterns is apparent. Patterns depend on whether vegetative and floral buds are borne individually or together in mixed buds, develop as the shoot grows or after a rest period, and are located in axillary or terminal positions along the parent shoot. The resulting branching patterns are conserved among varieties in a given species but progressively change with the parent shoot length during plant ontogeny. They can also be modulated by agronomic and environmental conditions. The existence of various organizations in the topology and fate of meristematic tissues and their appendages in closely related species questions the between-species conservation of physiological and molecular mechanisms leading to bud outgrowth vs. quiescence and to floral induction vs. vegetative development. PMID:25520729

  2. Age-related Epstein-Barr Virus-positive lymphoproliferative disorders of the orbit and maxillary sinus : a case report.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Takeki; Mawatari, Momoko; Koiso, Hiromi; Yokohama, Akihiko; Uchiumi, Hideki; Saitoh, Takayuki; Handa, Hiroshi; Hirato, Junko; Karasawa, Masamitsu; Murakami, Hirokazu; Kojima, Masaru; Nakamura, Shigeo; Nojima, Yoshihisa; Tsukamoto, Norifumi

    2012-01-01

    We report a rare case of age-related Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (aEBVBLPD) primarily involving the orbit and maxillary sinus. Lesions in the left orbit and maxillary sinus were observed in a 59-year-old man presenting with pain in the left orbit and maxilla. Owing to the presence of Reed-Sternberg-like cells, the initial diagnosis was nodular sclerosis-type Hodgkin's lymphoma. Clinical stage was IIAE, and response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy was favorable. Further immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization analyses of the Reed-Sternberg-like giant cells revealed CD30, CD15, CD20, Bob-1, Oct-2, EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs) and latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) expression. The characteristics of the present case, which included immunohistochemical findings, sites of primary lesions, absence of other lymph node lesions and relatively old age, suggested aEBVBLPD. Owing to the similarity in morphology, higher frequency at extranodal sites and poor prognosis, aEBVBLPD represents a differential diagnostic issue from classical Hodgkin's lymphoma when Reed-Sternberg cells are positive for EBV.

  3. The position of mitochondria and ER in relation to that of the secretory sites in chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, José; Viniegra, Salvador; Gimenez-Molina, Yolanda; García-Martinez, Virginia; Expósito-Romero, Giovanna; del Mar Frances, Maria; García-Sancho, Javier; Gutiérrez, Luis M

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of the distribution of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in relation to the position of exocytotic sites is relevant to understanding the influence of these organelles in tuning Ca(2+) signals and secretion. Confocal images of probes tagged to mitochondria and the F-actin cytoskeleton revealed the existence of two populations of mitochondria, one that was cortical and one that was perinuclear. This mitochondrial distribution was also confirmed by using electron microscopy. In contrast, ER was sparse in the cortex and more abundant in deep cytoplasmic regions. The mitochondrial distribution might be due to organellar transport, which experiences increasing restrictions in the cell cortex. Further study of organelle distribution in relation to the position of SNARE microdomains and the granule fusion sites revealed that a third of the cortical mitochondria colocalized with exocytotic sites and another third located at a distance closer than two vesicle diameters. ER structures were also present in the vicinity of secretory sites but at a lower density. Therefore, mitochondria and ER have a spatial distribution that suggests a specialized role in modulation of exocytosis that fits with the role of cytosolic Ca(2+) microdomains described previously.

  4. Stable, position-related responses to retinoic acid by chick limb-bud mesenchymal cells in serum-free cultures.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, D F; Solursh, M; Langille, R M; Pang, L; Chen, W D

    1994-03-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) has dramatic effects on limb-skeletal patterning in vivo and may well play a pivotal role in normal limb morphogenesis. RA's effects on the expression of pattern-related genes in the developing limb are probably mediated by cytoplasmic RA-binding proteins and nuclear RA-receptors. Little is known, however, about how RA modifies specific cellular behaviors required for skeletal morphogenesis. Earlier studies supported a role for regional differences in RA concentration in generating the region-specific cell behaviors that lead to pattern formation. The present study explores the possibility that position-related, cell-autonomous differences in the way limb mesenchymal cells respond to RA might have a role in generating pattern-related cell behavior. Mesenchymal cells from different proximodistal regions of stage 21-22 and 23-24 chick wing-buds were grown in chemically defined medium and exposed to 5 or 50 ng/ml of RA for 4 days in high-density microtiter cultures. The effects of RA on chondrogenesis in these cultures clearly differed depending on the limb region from which the cells were isolated. Regional differences in RA's effects on growth over 4 days in these cultures were less striking. The region-dependent responses of these cells to RA proved relatively stable in culture despite ongoing cytodifferentiation. This serum-free culture model will be useful in exploring the mechanisms underlying the region-dependent responsiveness of these cells to RA.

  5. Role of neuropsychologists in the evaluation and management of sport-related concussion: an inter-organization position statement.

    PubMed

    Echemendia, Ruben J; Iverson, Grant L; McCrea, Michael; Broshek, Donna K; Gioia, Gerard A; Sautter, Scott W; Macciocchi, Stephen N; Barr, William B

    2011-11-01

    Over the past 20 years, clinical neuropsychologists have been at the forefront of both scientific and clinical initiatives aimed at developing evidence-based approaches to the evaluation and management of sport-related concussion. These efforts have directly impacted current policy on strategies for injury assessment and return-to-play by athletes after concussion. Many states are considering legislation requiring (a) education of athletes, parents, coaches, and school/organization officials on the recognition, evaluation, and management of sport-related concussions; (b) removal from play of any youth athlete that is suspected of having sustained a concussion; and (c) not allowing the student to return to participation until the student is evaluated and cleared for return to participation in writing by an appropriate healthcare professional. It is the official position of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology (AACN), American Board of Neuropsychology (ABN), Division 40 (Neuropsychology) of the American Psychological Association (APA), and the National Academy of Neuropsychology (NAN) that neuropsychologists should be included among the licensed health care professionals authorized to evaluate, clinically manage, and provide return to play clearance for athletes who sustain a sport-related concussion.

  6. Accurate Coordinates and Predicted Position of Navigation Satellites NNSS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-28

    orbital elements of satellites No.s 13 , 14, 12, 19 and 20. The elements of SN-18 were given in Table 2. All these data refer to satellites operating in...December 1975. Table 4 lists transmitted orbital elements of satellites No.s 20, 14, 13 , 12 and 19 observed in January 1976. In Tables 3 and 4, the...equation 0s) - M*) + ( -mhI) (( 13 ) Let the longitude of the node Xw be its longitude at the first transit of the SN through the equator from South to

  7. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination: accounts of HIV-positive Caribbean people in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Moji; Elam, Gillian; Gerver, Sarah; Solarin, Ijeoma; Fenton, Kevin; Easterbrook, Philippa

    2008-09-01

    This paper explores the effects of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination (HASD) on HIV-positive Caribbean people in the Caribbean and the UK. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were held with a purposively selected group of 25 HIV-positive people of Caribbean origin, using primary selection criteria of sex, age, sexuality and country of birth. Interviews with respondents revealed that they are keenly aware of the stigma surrounding HIV/AIDS, which some attribute to a particularly Caribbean combination of fear of contamination, homophobia, and ignorance, reinforced by religious beliefs. In fact, religion serves a double role: underpinning stigma and assisting in coping with HIV. HASD has usually occurred where respondents have lost or do not have control over disclosure. Compared to UK-born respondents, the accounts of Caribbean-born respondents, most of whom were born in Jamaica, include more reports of severe HASD, particularly violence and employment discrimination. All respondents mobilise a variety of strategies in order to avoid HASD, which have implications for their social interactions and emotional well being. While some manage to avoid the "spoiled identity" of the stigmatised, thereby creating their own understandings of HIV infection, these may remain individual-level negotiations. HASD affects HIV-positive Caribbean people at home and in the diaspora in a variety of ways: emotionally, mentally, financially, socially and physically. Interventions specifically addressing stigma and discrimination must be formulated for the UK's Caribbean population. Tackling stigma and discrimination requires more than education; it requires "cultural work" to address deeply entrenched notions of sexuality.

  8. Segment coupling and coordination variability analyses of the roundhouse kick in taekwondo relative to the initial stance position.

    PubMed

    Estevan, Isaac; Freedman Silvernail, Julia; Jandacka, Daniel; Falco, Coral

    2016-09-01

    The initial stance position (ISP) has been observed as a factor affecting the execution technique during taekwondo kicks. In the present study, authors aimed to analyse a roundhouse kick to the chest by measuring movement coordination and the variability of coordination and comparing this across the different ISP (0°, 45° and 90°). Eight experienced taekwondo athletes performed consecutive kicking trials in random order from every of the three relative positions. The execution was divided into three phases (stance, first swing and second swing phase). A motion capture system was used to measure athletes' angular displacement of pelvis and thigh. A modified vector coding technique was used to quantify the coordination of the segments which contributed to the overall movement. The variability of this coordination (CV) for each ISP was also calculated. Comparative analysis showed that during the stance phase in the transverse plane, athletes coordinated movement of the trunk and thigh with a higher frequency of in-phase and lower frequency of exclusive thigh rotation in the 0° stance than the 90° stance position (P < 0.05). CV was also influenced by the different ISP. During the first swing and the majority of the second swing phase, predominant in-phase coordination of the pelvis and thigh was observed. Including exercises that require in-phase movement could not only help athletes to acquire coordination stability but also efficiency. The existence of a constraint such as ISP implies an increase of the variability when the athletes have to kick from ISP they are not used to adopt (i.e., 0° and 90° ISP) as an evidence of adaptability in the athletes' execution technique.

  9. Medication Adherence and HIV Symptom Distress in Relation to Panic Disorder Among HIV-Positive Adults Managing Opioid Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Kosiba, Jesse D.; Gonzalez, Adam; O'Cleirigh, Conall

    2015-01-01

    Panic disorder (PD) occurs at greater rates among those with HIV compared to those without HIV. Rates of PD may be elevated among those with opioid dependence (persons who inject drugs, PWID). Persons with HIV experience common bodily symptoms as a result of the disease and these symptoms overlap with those of PD which may contribute to a “fear of fear” cycle present in PD. HIV-positive, PWID represent an at-risk population in terms of poor medication adherence. HIV symptoms and HIV medication side-effects commonly overlap with panic symptoms and may affect HIV medication adherence. The aim of this investigation was to examine the impact of PD on HIV-related symptom distress and HIV medication adherence in HIV-positive adults (N = 131) in treatment for opioid use. Those with a diagnosis of PD evidenced greater levels of HIV symptom distress and lower levels of medication adherence than those without current PD. Results highlight the clinical importance of assessing for and treating PD among individuals with HIV that are prescribed antiretroviral therapy. Future work would benefit from examining observed associations longitudinally and identifying potential mechanisms involved. PMID:26146476

  10. Positional variation in grain mineral nutrients within a rice panicle and its relation to phytic acid concentration.

    PubMed

    Su, Da; Sultan, Faisal; Zhao, Ning-chun; Lei, Bing-ting; Wang, Fu-biao; Pan, Gang; Cheng, Fang-min

    2014-11-01

    Six japonica rice genotypes, differing in panicle type, grain density, and phytic acid (PA) content, were applied to investigate the effect of grain position on the concentrations of major mineral nutrients and its relation to PA content and grain weight within a panicle. Grain position significantly affected the concentrations of the studied minerals in both the vertical and horizontal axes of a rice panicle. Heavy-weight grains, located on primary rachis and top rachis, generally had higher mineral concentrations, but were lower in PA concentration and molar ratios of PA/Zn, compared with the small-weight grains located on secondary rachis and bottom rachis, regardless of rice genotypes. However, on the basis of six rice genotypes, no significant correlations were found among mineral elements, PA, and grain weight. These results suggested that some desired minerals, like Zn and Fe, and their bioavailability, can be enhanced simultaneously by the modification of panicle patterns, and it will be helpful in the selection of rice genotypes with low PA and high mineral nutrients for further breeding strategy without sacrificing their high yields.

  11. Foraging rates of larval dragonfly colonists are positively related to habitat isolation: results from a landscape-level experiment.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Shannon J; Brodin, Tomas; Hammond, John

    2010-03-01

    There is increasing evidence of intraspecific variation in dispersal behavior. Individual differences in dispersal behavior may be correlated with other traits that determine the impact individuals have on patches they colonize. We established habitat patches-artificial pools-across a landscape, and these pools were naturally colonized by dragonfly larvae. Larvae were collected from pools at different levels of isolation and held under common lab conditions for 5 months. We then compared larval foraging rates. Foraging rate was positively related to habitat isolation, and colonists from the most isolated artificial pools had significantly higher foraging rates than individuals from the least isolated pools. Our results indicate that spatial patterns in colonist behavior can develop across a landscape independent of species-level dispersal limitation. This finding suggests that studies of community structure across space should include an assessment of the distribution of phenotypes as well as species-level dispersal limitation patterns.

  12. Operant behavior can be triggered by the position of the rat relative to objects rotating on an inaccessible platform.

    PubMed

    Pastalkova, E; Kelemen, E; Bures, J

    2003-02-18

    The present study describes a task testing the ability of rats to trigger operant behavior by their relative spatial position to inaccessible rotating objects. Rats were placed in a Skinner box with a transparent front wall through which they could observe one or two adjacent objects fixed on a slowly rotating arena (d = 1 m) surrounded by an immobile black cylinder. The direction of arena rotation was alternated at a sequence of different time intervals. Rats were reinforced for the first bar-press that was emitted when a radius separating the two adjacent objects or dividing a single object into two halves (pointing radius) entered a 60 degrees sector of its circular trajectory defined with respect to the stationary Skinner box (reward sector). Well trained rats emitted 62.1 +/- 3.6% of responses in a 60 degrees sector preceding the reward sector and in the first 30 degrees of the reward sector. Response rate increased only when the pointing radius was approaching the reward sector, regardless of the time elapsed from the last reward. In the extinction session, when no reward was delivered, rats responded during the whole passage of the pointing radius through the former reward sector and spontaneously decreased responding after the pointing radius left this area. This finding suggests that rats perceived the reward sector as a continuous single region. The same results were obtained when the Skinner box with the rat was orbiting around the immobile scene. It is concluded that rats can recognize and anticipate their position relative to movable objects.

  13. Extracting Time-Accurate Acceleration Vectors From Nontrivial Accelerometer Arrangements.

    PubMed

    Franck, Jennifer A; Blume, Janet; Crisco, Joseph J; Franck, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Sports-related concussions are of significant concern in many impact sports, and their detection relies on accurate measurements of the head kinematics during impact. Among the most prevalent recording technologies are videography, and more recently, the use of single-axis accelerometers mounted in a helmet, such as the HIT system. Successful extraction of the linear and angular impact accelerations depends on an accurate analysis methodology governed by the equations of motion. Current algorithms are able to estimate the magnitude of acceleration and hit location, but make assumptions about the hit orientation and are often limited in the position and/or orientation of the accelerometers. The newly formulated algorithm presented in this manuscript accurately extracts the full linear and rotational acceleration vectors from a broad arrangement of six single-axis accelerometers directly from the governing set of kinematic equations. The new formulation linearizes the nonlinear centripetal acceleration term with a finite-difference approximation and provides a fast and accurate solution for all six components of acceleration over long time periods (>250 ms). The approximation of the nonlinear centripetal acceleration term provides an accurate computation of the rotational velocity as a function of time and allows for reconstruction of a multiple-impact signal. Furthermore, the algorithm determines the impact location and orientation and can distinguish between glancing, high rotational velocity impacts, or direct impacts through the center of mass. Results are shown for ten simulated impact locations on a headform geometry computed with three different accelerometer configurations in varying degrees of signal noise. Since the algorithm does not require simplifications of the actual impacted geometry, the impact vector, or a specific arrangement of accelerometer orientations, it can be easily applied to many impact investigations in which accurate kinematics need to

  14. Accurate perception of negative emotions predicts functional capacity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Abram, Samantha V; Karpouzian, Tatiana M; Reilly, James L; Derntl, Birgit; Habel, Ute; Smith, Matthew J

    2014-04-30

    Several studies suggest facial affect perception (FAP) deficits in schizophrenia are linked to poorer social functioning. However, whether reduced functioning is associated with inaccurate perception of specific emotional valence or a global FAP impairment remains unclear. The present study examined whether impairment in the perception of specific emotional valences (positive, negative) and neutrality were uniquely associated with social functioning, using a multimodal social functioning battery. A sample of 59 individuals with schizophrenia and 41 controls completed a computerized FAP task, and measures of functional capacity, social competence, and social attainment. Participants also underwent neuropsychological testing and symptom assessment. Regression analyses revealed that only accurately perceiving negative emotions explained significant variance (7.9%) in functional capacity after accounting for neurocognitive function and symptoms. Partial correlations indicated that accurately perceiving anger, in particular, was positively correlated with functional capacity. FAP for positive, negative, or neutral emotions were not related to social competence or social attainment. Our findings were consistent with prior literature suggesting negative emotions are related to functional capacity in schizophrenia. Furthermore, the observed relationship between perceiving anger and performance of everyday living skills is novel and warrants further exploration.

  15. Isotopic Methods for Determining the Relative Importance of Bioavailability Versus Trophic Position in Controlling Mercury Concentrations in Everglades Mosquitofish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemis, B. E.; Kendall, C.

    2007-12-01

    The concentration of mercury in fish tissues is widely used as an indicator of the magnitude of mercury contamination in aquatic ecosystems. Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrookii) is an important sentinel species used for this purpose in the varied environments of the Florida Everglades, because mosquitofish are abundant, have a short lifespan, and migrate little. Like other freshwater fish, the primary route of mercury uptake into mosquitofish tissues is through diet as bioavailable methylmercury. Yet, it is unclear whether variations in mosquitofish mercury observed across the Everglades are due primarily to differences in bioaccumulation (i.e., trophic position) or abundance of methylmercury available to the food web base. We use isotopic methods to investigate the importance of these two controls on mosquitofish mercury at the landscape scale. As part of the USEPA REMAP project, mosquitofish and periphyton were collected during September 1996 from over one hundred sites throughout the Everglades and analyzed for mercury concentration. The USGS analyzed splits of the samples for nitrogen (d15N), carbon (d13C), and sulfur (d34S) isotopic composition, to investigate the causes of mercury variations. The d15N value of tissues is often used to estimate the relative trophic positions of organisms in a food web, and should correlate positively with tissue mercury if bioaccumulation is an important control on mosquitofish mercury concentration. The d13C value can be useful for detecting differences in food web base (e.g., algal versus detrital), and thus the entry point of contaminants. Tissue d34S potentially indicates the extent of dissimilatory sulfate reduction in sediments, a process used by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) during conversion of inorganic Hg(II) to bioavailable methylmercury. Because this process increases the d34S value of remaining sulfate, which enters the food web base, mosquitofish sulfur isotopes should show positive correlations with SRB

  16. Effects of 12 Months Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Sympathetic Activity Related Brainstem Function and Structure in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Luke A.; Fatouleh, Rania H.; Lundblad, Linda C.; McKenzie, David K.; Macefield, Vaughan G.

    2016-01-01

    Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is greatly elevated in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during normoxic daytime wakefulness. Increased MSNA is a precursor to hypertension and elevated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms underlying the high MSNA in OSA are not well understood. In this study we used concurrent microneurography and magnetic resonance imaging to explore MSNA-related brainstem activity changes and anatomical changes in 15 control and 15 OSA subjects before and after 6 and 12 months of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. We found that following 6 and 12 months of CPAP treatment, resting MSNA levels were significantly reduced in individuals with OSA. Furthermore, this MSNA reduction was associated with restoration of MSNA-related brainstem activity and structural changes in the medullary raphe, rostral ventrolateral medulla, dorsolateral pons, and ventral midbrain. This restoration occurred after 6 months of CPAP treatment and was maintained following 12 months CPAP. These findings show that continual CPAP treatment is an effective long-term treatment for elevated MSNA likely due to its effects on restoring brainstem structure and function. PMID:27013952

  17. Effects of response eccentricity and relative position on orthogonal stimulus-response compatibility with joystick and keypress responses.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Robert W; Cho, Yang Seok

    2003-02-01

    When unimanual left-right movement responses are made to up-down stimuli, performance is better with the up-right/down-left mapping when responding in the right hemispace and with the up-left/down-right mapping when responding in the left hemispace. We evaluated whether this response eccentricity effect is explained best in terms of rotational properties of the hand (the end-state comfort hypothesis) or asymmetric coding of the stimulus and response alternatives (the salient features coding hypothesis). Experiment 1 showed that bimanual keypresses yield a response eccentricity effect similar to that obtained with unimanual movement responses. In Experiment 2, an inactive response apparatus was placed to the left or right of the active response apparatus to provide a referent. For half of the participants, the active and inactive apparatuses were joysticks, and for half they were response boxes with keys. For both response types, an up-right/down-left advantage was evident when the relative position of the active response apparatus was right but not when it was left. That bimanual keypresses yield similar eccentricity and relative location effects to those for unimanual movements is predicted by the salient features coding perspective but not by the end-state comfort hypothesis.

  18. Activity Profiles and Physiological Responses of Representative Tag Football Players in Relation to Playing Position and Physical Fitness.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Luke W; Burkett, Brendan J; McKean, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the physical fitness, match-activity profiles and physiological responses of representative tag football players and examined the relationship between physical fitness and the match-activity profile. Microtechnology devices and heart rate (HR) chest straps were used to determine the match-activity profiles of sixteen tag football players for five matches during the 2014 Australian National Championships. The relationships between lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and the match-activity profile were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Outside players had greater lower body muscular power (ES = 0.98) and straight line running speed (ES = 1.03-1.18) than inside players, and also covered greater very high-speed running (VHSR) distance/min (ES = 0.67) and reached higher peak running speeds (ES = 0.95) during matches. Inside and outside players performed a similar number of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) bouts and reported similar mean and maximum efforts per RHIE bout. However, there were differences between playing positions for mean and maximal RHIE effort durations (ES = 0.69-1.15) and mean RHIE bout recovery (ES = 0.56). Inside and outside players also reported small to moderate differences (ES = 0.43-0.80) for times spent in each HR zone. There were a number of moderate to very large correlations between physical fitness measures and match-activity profile variables. This study found lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo IR2 to be related to the match-activities of representative tag football players, although differences between inside and outside players suggest that athlete testing and training practices should be modified for different playing positions.

  19. Activity Profiles and Physiological Responses of Representative Tag Football Players in Relation to Playing Position and Physical Fitness

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the physical fitness, match-activity profiles and physiological responses of representative tag football players and examined the relationship between physical fitness and the match-activity profile. Microtechnology devices and heart rate (HR) chest straps were used to determine the match-activity profiles of sixteen tag football players for five matches during the 2014 Australian National Championships. The relationships between lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and the match-activity profile were examined using Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Outside players had greater lower body muscular power (ES = 0.98) and straight line running speed (ES = 1.03–1.18) than inside players, and also covered greater very high-speed running (VHSR) distance/min (ES = 0.67) and reached higher peak running speeds (ES = 0.95) during matches. Inside and outside players performed a similar number of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) bouts and reported similar mean and maximum efforts per RHIE bout. However, there were differences between playing positions for mean and maximal RHIE effort durations (ES = 0.69–1.15) and mean RHIE bout recovery (ES = 0.56). Inside and outside players also reported small to moderate differences (ES = 0.43–0.80) for times spent in each HR zone. There were a number of moderate to very large correlations between physical fitness measures and match-activity profile variables. This study found lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo IR2 to be related to the match-activities of representative tag football players, although differences between inside and outside players suggest that athlete testing and training practices should be modified for different playing positions. PMID:26642320

  20. Positive effects of voluntary running on metabolic syndrome-related disorders in non-obese hereditary hypertriacylglycerolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Škop, Vojt ch; Malínská, Hana; Trnovská, Jaroslava; Hüttl, Martina; Cahová, Monika; Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Baranowski, Marcin; Burian, Martin; Oliyarnyk, Olena; Kazdová, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    While metabolic syndrome is often associated with obesity, 25% of humans suffering from it are not obese and the effect of physical activity remains unclear in such cases. Therefore, we used hereditary hypertriaclyglycerolemic (HHTg) rats as a unique model for studying the effect of spontaneous physical activity [voluntary running (VR)] on metabolic syndrome-related disorders, such as dyslipidemia, in non-obese subjects. Adult HHTg males were fed standard (CD) or high-sucrose (HSD) diets ad libitum for four weeks. Within both dietary groups, some of the rats had free access to a running wheel (CD+VR, HSD+VR), whereas the controls (CD, HSD) had no possibility of extra physical activity. At the end of the four weeks, we measured the effects of VR on various metabolic syndrome-associated parameters: (i) biochemical parameters, (ii) the content and composition of triacylglycerols (TAG), diacylglycerols (DAG), ceramides and membrane phospholipids, and (iii) substrate utilization in brown adipose tissue. In both dietary groups, VR led to various positive effects: reduced epididymal and perirenal fat depots; increased epididymal adipose tissue lipolysis; decreased amounts of serum TAG, non-esterified fatty acids and insulin; a higher insulin sensitivity index. While tissue ceramide content was not affected, decreased TAG accumulation resulted in reduced and modified liver, heart and skeletal muscle DAG. VR also had a beneficial effect on muscle membrane phospholipid composition. In addition, compared with the CD group, the CD+VR rats exhibited increased fatty acid oxidation and protein content in brown adipose tissue. Our results confirm that physical activity in a non-obese model of severe dyslipidemia has many beneficial effects and can even counteract the negative effects of sucrose consumption. Furthermore, they suggest that the mechanism by which these effects are modulated involves a combination of several positive changes in lipid metabolism.

  1. Effect of Electrode Belt and Body Positions on Regional Pulmonary Ventilation- and Perfusion-Related Impedance Changes Measured by Electric Impedance Tomography.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Elin; Tesselaar, Erik; Sjöberg, Folke

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator-induced or ventilator-associated lung injury (VILI/VALI) is common and there is an increasing demand for a tool that can optimize ventilator settings. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) can detect changes in impedance caused by pulmonary ventilation and perfusion, but the effect of changes in the position of the body and in the placing of the electrode belt on the impedance signal have not to our knowledge been thoroughly evaluated. We therefore studied ventilation-related and perfusion-related changes in impedance during spontaneous breathing in 10 healthy subjects in five different body positions and with the electrode belt placed at three different thoracic positions using a 32-electrode EIT system. We found differences between regions of interest that could be attributed to changes in the position of the body, and differences in impedance amplitudes when the position of the electrode belt was changed. Ventilation-related changes in impedance could therefore be related to changes in the position of both the body and the electrode belt. Perfusion-related changes in impedance were probably related to the interference of major vessels. While these findings give us some insight into the sources of variation in impedance signals as a result of changes in the positions of both the body and the electrode belt, further studies on the origin of the perfusion-related impedance signal are needed to improve EIT further as a tool for the monitoring of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion.

  2. Influence of relative trophic position and carbon source on selenium bioaccumulation in turtles from a coal fly-ash spill site.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, James U; Hopkins, William A; Jackson, Brian P

    2013-11-01

    Selenium (Se) is a bioaccumulative constituent of coal fly-ash that can disrupt reproduction of oviparous wildlife. In food webs, the greatest enrichment of Se occurs at the lowest trophic levels, making it readily bioavailable to higher consumers. However, subsequent enrichment at higher trophic levels is less pronounced, leading to mixed tendencies for Se to biomagnify. We used stable isotopes ((1)(5)N and (13)C) in claws to infer relative trophic positions and relative carbon sources, respectively, of seven turtle species near the site of a recently-remediated coal fly-ash spill. We then tested whether Se concentrations differed with relative trophic position or relative carbon source. We did not observe a strong relationship between δ(15)N and Se concentration. Instead, selenium concentrations decreased with increasing δ(13)C among species. Therefore, in an assemblage of closely-related aquatic vertebrates, relative carbon source was a better predictor of Se bioaccumulation than was relative trophic position.

  3. A pilot study of the relation between humor styles and the past-positive and past-negative time perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hampes, William

    2013-08-01

    Those who use self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles tend to recall positive experiences with their parents and primary caretakers, whereas those who use the self-defeating humor style tend to recall negative experiences with them. Considering the importance of experiences with parents and primary caretakers for life satisfaction and happiness, it was hypothesized that the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles would be positively correlated with past-positive experiences and negatively correlated with past-negative experiences, and that the self-defeating humor style would be positively correlated with past-negative experiences and negatively correlated with past-positive experiences. The Humor Styles Questionnaire and the Past-Positive and Past-Negative subscales of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory were administered to 114 undergraduates. The hypotheses were partially supported despite the retrospective nature of the Past-Positive and Past-Negative Subscales and the correlational nature of the study, indicating further research is needed.

  4. The Sustained, Positive Impact of a Native American Cultures and Health Course on Students’ Education and Practice-Related Choices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To encourage pharmacy students to elect education and practice opportunities in Native American communities, including careers with the Indian Health Service (IHS). Methods. Students in 2 elective courses were educated on various aspects of contemporary Native American life in urban and reservation environments, including cultural traditions, social and health-related challenges, health access disparities, and cultural approaches to health and wellness. The teachers were Native American leaders and healers primarily from Plains tribes, as well as non-Native American practitioners affiliated with IHS hospitals and tribal health facilities. Students kept reflective journals, and a subset spent 5 days immersed in a rural Navajo community where they lived and worked alongside IHS practitioners and Community Health Representatives. Results. Student engagement with IHS opportunities was tracked for 11 years. Of the 69 pharmacy students who completed the electives, 11 applied for a Junior Commissioned Officer Student Training and Externship Program (Jr. COSTEP) (8 accepted, 6 completed), 43 requested one or more IHS APPEs (43 accepted, 32 completed, 8 in progress), 17 applied for an IHS residency (1 pending, 8 accepted, 5 completed), and 5 became IHS Commissioned Corps officers. Five additional students accepted an IHS or tribal position, with 3 pursuing a USPHS commission. Conclusion. Since the first report on the impact of this elective experience was published, the course continues to meet its primary objective of promoting interest in IHS/tribal education experiences and pharmacy practice careers. PMID:26056410

  5. Role of neuropsychologists in the evaluation and management of sport-related concussion: an inter-organization position statement.

    PubMed

    Echemendia, Ruben J; Iverson, Grant L; McCrea, Michael; Broshek, Donna K; Gioia, Gerard A; Sautter, Scott W; Macciocchi, Stephen N; Barr, William B

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, clinical neuropsychologists have been at the forefront of both scientific and clinical initiatives aimed at developing evidence-based approaches to the evaluation and management of sport-related concussion (SRC). These efforts have directly impacted current policy on strategies for injury assessment and return-to-play by athletes after concussion. Many states are considering legislation requiring (a) education of athletes, parents, coaches, and school/organization officials on the recognition, evaluation, and management of SRCs; (b) removal from play of any youth athlete that is suspected of having sustained a concussion; and (c) not allowing the student to return to participation until the student is evaluated and cleared for return to participation in writing by an appropriate healthcare professional. It is the official position of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology (AACN), American Board of Professional Neuropsychology (ABN), Division 40 (Neuropsychology) of the American Psychological Association (APA), and the National Academy of Neuropsychology (NAN) that neuropsychologists should be included among the licensed healthcare professionals authorized to evaluate, clinically manage, and provide return to play clearance for athletes who sustain a SRC.

  6. Intellectual development is positively related to intrinsic motivation and course grades for female but not male students.

    PubMed

    Cortright, Ronald N; Lujan, Heidi L; Cox, Julie H; Cortright, Maria A; Langworthy, Brandon M; Petta, Lorene M; Tanner, Charles J; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesized that the intellectual development of students, i.e., their beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning, affects their intrinsic motivation and class performance. Specifically, we hypothesized that students with low intellectual development (i.e., the naive beliefs that knowledge is simple, absolute, and certain) have low intrinsic motivation and low class performance, whereas students with high intellectual development (i.e., more sophisticated beliefs that knowledge is complex, tentative, and evolving) have high intrinsic motivation and class performance. To test this hypothesis, we administered the Learning Context Questionnaire to measure intellectual development. In addition, we administered the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory to assess our students' intrinsic motivation. Furthermore, we performed regression analyses between intellectual development with both intrinsic motivation and class performance. The results document a positive relationship among intellectual development, intrinsic motivation, and class performance for female students only. In sharp contrast, there was a negative relationship between intellectual development, intrinsic motivation, and class performance for male students. The slope comparisons documented significant differences in the slopes relating intellectual development, intrinsic motivation, and class performance between female and male students. Thus, female students with more sophisticated beliefs that knowledge is personally constructed, complex, and evolving had higher intrinsic motivation and class performance. In contrast, male students with the naive beliefs that the structure of knowledge is simple, absolute, and certain had higher levels of intrinsic motivation and class performance. The results suggest that sex influences intellectual development, which has an effect on intrinsic motivation for learning a specific topic.

  7. A Multivariate Analysis of Age-Related Differences in Default Mode and Task Positive Networks Across Multiple Cognitive Domains

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Cheryl L.; Protzner, Andrea B.; Kovacevic, Natasa; Strother, Stephen C.; Afshin-Pour, Babak; Wojtowicz, Magda; Anderson, John A.E.; Churchill, Nathan; McIntosh, Anthony R.

    2011-01-01

    We explored the effects of aging on two large scale brain networks, the default mode network (DMN) and the task-positive network (TPN). During fMRI scanning, young and older participants carried out four visual tasks: detection, perceptual matching, attentional cueing, and working memory. Accuracy of performance was roughly matched at 80% across tasks and groups. Modulations of activity across conditions were assessed, as well as functional connectivity of both networks. Younger adults showed a broader engagement of the DMN, and older adults a more extensive engagement of the TPN. Functional connectivity in the DMN was reduced in older adults, whereas the main pattern of TPN connectivity was equivalent in the two groups. Age-specific connectivity also was seen in TPN regions. Increased activity in TPN areas predicted worse accuracy on the tasks, but greater expression of a connectivity pattern associated with a right dorsolateral prefrontal TPN region, seen only in older adults, predicted better performance. These results provide further evidence for age-related differences in the DMN, and new evidence of age differences in the TPN. Increased use of the TPN may reflect greater demand on cognitive control processes in older individuals that may be partially offset by alterations in prefrontal functional connectivity. PMID:19789183

  8. Positive effect of acute mild exercise on executive function via arousal-related prefrontal activations: an fNIRS study.

    PubMed

    Byun, Kyeongho; Hyodo, Kazuki; Suwabe, Kazuya; Ochi, Genta; Sakairi, Yosuke; Kato, Morimasa; Dan, Ippeita; Soya, Hideaki

    2014-09-01

    Despite the practical implication of mild exercise, little is known about its influence on executive function and its neural substrates. To address these issues, the present study examined the effect of an acute bout of mild exercise on executive function and attempted to identify potential neural substrates using non-invasive functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Twenty-five young individuals performed a color-word matching Stroop task (CWST) and a two-dimensional scale to measure changes of psychological mood states both before and after a 10-minute exercise session on a cycle ergometer at light intensity (30% v(·)o2peak) and, for the control session, without exercise. Cortical hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal area were monitored with fNIRS during the CWST in both sessions. The acute bout of mild exercise led to improved Stroop performance, which was positively correlated with increased arousal levels. It also evoked cortical activations regarding Stroop interference on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and frontopolar area. These activations significantly corresponded with both improved cognitive performance and increased arousal levels. Concurrently, this study provides empirical evidence that an acute bout of mild exercise improves executive function mediated by the exercise-induced arousal system, which intensifies cortical activation in task-related prefrontal sub-regions.

  9. Experiences of HIV-related stigma among HIV-positive older persons in Uganda – a mixed methods analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kuteesa, Monica O.; Wright, Stuart; Seeley, Janet; Mugisha, Joseph; Kinyanda, Eugene; Kakembo, Frederick; Mwesigwa, Richard; Scholten, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There is limited data on stigma among older HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa. We describe the experiences of stigma and disclosure in a cohort of HIV-positive older people in Uganda. Using data from the Wellbeing of Older Peoples' Study of Kalungu (rural site) and Wakiso district (peri-urban site) residents, we measured self-reported stigma levels for 183 respondents (94 on antiretroviral therapy (ART); 88, not on ART) using a stigma score generated using three questions on stigma perceptions where 0 meant no stigma at all and 100 was maximum stigma. Based on two questions on disclosure, an overall score was computed. High disclosure was assigned to those who often or very often disclosed to the family and were never or seldom afraid to disclose elsewhere. We examined the experiences of HIV stigma of 25 adults (52% females) using semi-structured, open-ended interviews and monthly oral diaries over one year. Mean age of the respondents was 70 years (range 60–80 years) and 80% of all respondents were enrolled in ART. Interview transcripts were analysed using thematic content analysis. Overall, 55% of respondents had a high disclosure score, meaning they disclosed easily, and 47% had a high stigma score. The stigma scores were similar among those with high and low disclosure scores. In multivariate analyses with disclosure and stigma scores as dependent variables none of the respondents' characteristics had a significant effect at the 5% level. Qualitative data revealed that stigma ranges from: (1) perceptions (relatively passive, but leading to behaviour such as gossip, especially if not intended maliciously); to (2) discriminatory behaviour (active or enacted stigma; from malicious gossip to outright discrimination). Despite the relatively high levels of disclosure, older people suffer from high levels of stigma of various forms apart from HIV-related stigma. Efforts to assess for different forms of stigma at an individual level deserve greater

  10. Using Relational Developmental Systems Theory to Link Program Goals, Activities, and Outcomes: The Sample Case of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M.; Wang, Jun; Chase, Paul A.; Gutierrez, Akira S.; Harris, Elise M.; Rubin, Rachel O.; Yalin, Ceren

    2014-01-01

    In contemporary developmental science, relational development systems models have been used to frame the positive youth development (PYD) perspective, which posits that youth will thrive when there is alignment between their strengths and ecological resources in their context. Evidence from the 4-H Study of PYD indicates that out-of-school-time…

  11. Alcoholics anonymous involvement and positive alcohol-related outcomes: cause, consequence, or just a correlate? A prospective 2-year study of 2,319 alcohol-dependent men.

    PubMed

    McKellar, John; Stewart, Eric; Humphreys, Keith

    2003-04-01

    A positive corelation between Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) involvement and better alcohol-related outcomes has been identified in research studies, but whether this correlation reflects a causal relationship remains a subject of meaningful debate. The present study evaluated the question of whether AA affiliation appears causally related to positive alcohol-related outcomes in a sample of 2,319 male alcohol-dependent patients. An initial structural equation model indicated that 1-year posttreatment levels of AA affiliation predicted lower alcohol-related problems at 2-year follow-up, whereas level of alcohol-related problems at 1-year did not predict AA affiliation at 2-year follow-up. Additional models found that these effects were not attributable to motivation or psychopathology. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that AA participation has a positive effect on alcohol-related outcomes.

  12. Accurate Evaluation of Quantum Integrals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galant, D. C.; Goorvitch, D.; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Combining an appropriate finite difference method with Richardson's extrapolation results in a simple, highly accurate numerical method for solving a Schrodinger's equation. Important results are that error estimates are provided, and that one can extrapolate expectation values rather than the wavefunctions to obtain highly accurate expectation values. We discuss the eigenvalues, the error growth in repeated Richardson's extrapolation, and show that the expectation values calculated on a crude mesh can be extrapolated to obtain expectation values of high accuracy.

  13. Soil fertility in relation to slope position and agricultural land use: a case study of Umbulo Catchment in southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Moges, Awdenegest; Holden, Nicholas M

    2008-11-01

    A study was conducted in southern Ethiopia to evaluate the nutrient status on smallholder farms with respect to land use class (garden, grassland, and outfield) and slope position (upper, middle, and lower). Soil physical and chemical properties were quantified using soil samples collected at two depths (0-15 and 15-30 cm). Available phosphorous was significantly different among the three land use classes. However, organic carbon and total nitrogen were lower in the outfield compared to the garden and grass land but not significantly different. The lower than expected nutrient status of the garden and grassland, which receive almost all available organic supplements, was attributed to the overall low availability of these inputs. Similarly, pH and cation exchange capacity were not significantly different among the different land use classes. However, the sum of the exchangeable cations was significantly higher in the garden compared to the outfields. Comparison at landscape level revealed that the sand fraction was significantly greater, whereas the silt fractions were significantly smaller, on the lower slopes relative to the middle slopes. Moreover, the organic carbon, total nitrogen, cation exchange capacity, Ca, and Mg values were significantly less on lower slopes than upper and middle slopes. Perhaps this is because of leaching and the effect of deposition of coarser sediments from the prevailing gully system. Overall, the fertility of the soil was adequate for supporting smallholder farming, but consideration must be given to reducing pressure on the land resources, addressing erosion problems, and providing a line of credit for purchasing inputs.

  14. Nonlinear change of on-axis pressure and intensity maxima positions and its relation with the linear focal shift effect.

    PubMed

    Makov, Yu N; Sánchez-Morcillo, V J; Camarena, F; Espinosa, V

    2008-12-01

    A comprehensive experimental, analytical and numerical study of the true focal region drift relative to the geometrical focus (focal shift effect) in acoustic focused beams and its nonlinear evolution is presented. For this aim, the concept of Fresnel number, proportional to the linear gain, is introduced as a convenient parameter for characterizing focused sources. It is shown that the magnitude of the shift is strongly dependent on the Fresnel number of the source, being larger for weakly focused systems where a large initial shift occurs. Analytical expressions for axial pressure distributions in linear regime are presented for the general case of truncated Gaussian beams. The main new contribution of this work is the examination of the connection between the linear and nonlinear stages of the focal shift effect, and its use for the estimation of the more complicated nonlinear stage. Experiments were carried out using a continuous-wave ultrasonic beam in water, radiated by a focused source with nominal frequency f=1 MHz, aperture radius a=1.5 cm and geometrical focal distance R=11.7 cm, corresponding to a Fresnel number N(F)=1.28. The maximum measured shifts for peak pressure and intensity were 4.4 and 1.1cm, respectively. The evolution of the different maxima with the source amplitude, and the disparity in their axial positions, is interpreted in terms of the dynamics of the nonlinear distortion process. Analytical results for the particular case of a sound beam with initial Gaussian distribution are also presented, demonstrating that the motion of peak pressure and peak intensity may occur in opposite directions.

  15. Constraints on the richness-mass relation and the optical-SZE positional offset distribution for SZE-selected clusters

    DOE PAGES

    Saro, A.

    2015-10-12

    In this study, we cross-match galaxy cluster candidates selected via their Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signatures in 129.1 deg2 of the South Pole Telescope 2500d SPT-SZ survey with optically identified clusters selected from the Dark Energy Survey science verification data. We identify 25 clusters between 0.1 ≲ z ≲ 0.8 in the union of the SPT-SZ and redMaPPer (RM) samples. RM is an optical cluster finding algorithm that also returns a richness estimate for each cluster. We model the richness λ-mass relation with the following function 500> ∝ Bλln M500 + Cλln E(z) and use SPT-SZ cluster masses and RM richnessesmore » λ to constrain the parameters. We find Bλ=1.14+0.21–0.18 and Cλ=0.73+0.77–0.75. The associated scatter in mass at fixed richness is σlnM|λ = 0.18+0.08–0.05 at a characteristic richness λ = 70. We demonstrate that our model provides an adequate description of the matched sample, showing that the fraction of SPT-SZ-selected clusters with RM counterparts is consistent with expectations and that the fraction of RM-selected clusters with SPT-SZ counterparts is in mild tension with expectation. We model the optical-SZE cluster positional offset distribution with the sum of two Gaussians, showing that it is consistent with a dominant, centrally peaked population and a subdominant population characterized by larger offsets. We also cross-match the RM catalogue with SPT-SZ candidates below the official catalogue threshold significance ξ = 4.5, using the RM catalogue to provide optical confirmation and redshifts for 15 additional clusters with ξ ε [4, 4.5].« less

  16. Fat mass is positively associated with bone mass in relatively thin adolescents: data from the Kitakata Kids Health Study.

    PubMed

    Kouda, Katsuyasu; Fujita, Yuki; Sato, Yuho; Ohara, Kumiko; Nakamura, Harunobu; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Iki, Masayuki

    2014-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies have found that higher body weight is associated with better bone health. Body weight consists of both fat mass (FM) and lean soft tissue mass (LSTM). Previous studies have examined the effects of FM levels during childhood on bone health, with conflicting results. In the present study, we investigated the independent contributions of FM to bone mass in Japanese adolescents. Subjects were 235 adolescents aged 15-18 years old in August 2010 and in August 2013 from the Kitakata Kids Health Study in Japan. We obtained cross-sectional data on body composition as well as bone mineral density (BMD). Body composition and BMD were measured using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner. We found moderate and positive relationships between FM index and LSTM index (males, r=0.69; females, r=0.44). To verify a potentially additive effect of FM on the variance of bone variables beyond LSTM, we assessed the association between FM index and bone variables after stratification by tertiles of the LSTM index. In the lowest tertile of the LSTM index, FM index was significantly (P<0.05) associated with both femoral neck BMD (males, β=0.48; females, β=0.33) and whole body BMC (males, β=0.41; females, β=0.25). On the other hand, we found no significant associations between FM index and bone variables in other tertiles of the LSTM index. These findings indicate that FM can influence how high bone mass is obtained among relatively thin adolescents, but not among those who are of normal weight or overweight.

  17. Exemplifying the Integrations of the Relational Developmental System: Synthesizing Theory, Research, and Application to Promote Positive Development and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M.; Overton, Willis F.

    2008-01-01

    The future of civil society in the world rests on the promotion of positive development and a commitment to positive and socially just community contributions by the young (Lerner, 2004). Adolescents represent, at any point in history, the generational cohort that must be prepared to assume the quality of leadership of self, family, community, and…

  18. Positive position control of robotic manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A.; Gumusel, L.

    1989-01-01

    The present, simple and accurate position-control algorithm, which is applicable to fast-moving and lightly damped robot arms, is based on the positive position feedback (PPF) strategy and relies solely on position sensors to monitor joint angles of robotic arms to furnish stable position control. The optimized tuned filters, in the form of a set of difference equations, manipulate position signals for robotic system performance. Attention is given to comparisons between this PPF-algorithm controller's experimentally ascertained performance characteristics and those of a conventional proportional controller.

  19. An evaluation of pain-related anxiety among daily cigarette smokers in terms of negative and positive reinforcement smoking outcome expectancies.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Adam; Hogan, Julianna; McLeish, Alison C; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2010-06-01

    The present investigation sought to evaluate the unique explanatory relevance of pain-related anxiety in relation to negative and positive reinforcement smoking outcome expectancies among 135 (40.7% female; M(age) = 26.11, SD = 11.23) adult daily cigarette smokers. As predicted, pain-related anxiety was significantly related to greater expectancies that smoking will decrease negative affect, and lesser expectancies that smoking will result in positive outcomes. The observed effects were evident above and beyond the variance accounted for by gender, current level of non-specific bodily pain, daily cigarette use, relations with non-criterion outcome expectancies, and shared variance with anxiety sensitivity. Results suggest that there may be segments of the smoking population who are at relatively greater risk for certain expectancies for tobacco smoking by virtue of individual differences in pain-related anxiety.

  20. Braking of fast and accurate elbow flexions in the monkey.

    PubMed Central

    Flament, D; Hore, J; Vilis, T

    1984-01-01

    The processes responsible for braking fast and accurate elbow movements were studied in the monkey. The movements studied were made over different amplitudes and against different inertias . All were made to the same end position. Only fast movements that showed the typical biphasic or triphasic pattern of activity in agonists and antagonists were analysed in detail. For movements made over different amplitudes and at different velocities there was symmetry between the acceleration and deceleration phases of the movements. For movements of the same amplitude performed at different velocities there was a direct linear relation between peak velocity and both the peak acceleration (and integrated agonist burst) and peak deceleration (and integrated antagonist burst). The slopes of these relations and their intercept with the peak velocity axis were a function of movement amplitude. This was such that for large and small movements of the same peak velocity and the same end position (i) peak acceleration and phasic agonist activity were larger for the small movements and (ii) peak deceleration and phasic antagonist activity were larger for the small movements. The slope of these relations and the symmetry between acceleration and deceleration were not affected by the addition of an inertial load to the handle held by the monkey. The results indicate that fast and accurate elbow movements in the monkey are braked by antagonist activity that is centrally programmed. As all movements were made to the same end position, the larger antagonist burst in small movements, made at the same peak velocity as large movements, cannot be due to differences in the viscoelastic contribution to braking (cf. Marsden, Obeso & Rothwell , 1983).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6737291

  1. Indicators of abdominal size relative to height associated with sex, age, socioeconomic position and ancestry among US adults

    PubMed Central

    Bullard, Kai McKeever

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives The supine sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and standing waist circumference (WC) describe abdominal size. The SAD/height ratio (SADHtR) or WC/height ratio (WHtR) may better identify cardiometabolic disorders than BMI (weight/height2), but population-based distributions of SADHtR and WHtR are not widely available. Abdominal adiposity may differ by sociodemographic characteristics. Subjects/Methods Anthropometry, including SAD by sliding-beam caliper, was performed on 9894 non-pregnant adults ≥20 years in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of 2011–2014. Applying survey design factors and sampling weights, we estimated nationally representative SADHtR and WHtR distributions by sex, age, educational attainment, and four ancestral groups. Results The median (10th percentile, 90th percentile) for men’s SADHtR was 0.130 (0.103, 0.165) and WHtR 0.569 (0.467, 0.690). For women, median SADHtR was 0.132 (0.102, 0.175) and WHtR 0.586 (0.473, 0.738). Medians for SADHtR and WHtR increased steadily through age 79. The median BMI, however, reached maximum values at ages 40–49 (men) or 60–69 (women) and then declined. Low educational attainment, adjusted for age and ancestry, was associated with elevated SADHtR more strongly than elevated BMI. While non-Hispanic Asians had substantially lower BMI compared to all other ancestral groups (adjusted for sex, age and education), their relative reductions in SADHtR and WHtR, were less marked. Conclusions These cross-sectional data are consistent with monotonically increasing abdominal adipose tissue through the years of adulthood but decreasing mass in non-abdominal regions beyond middle age. They suggest also that visceral adipose tissue, estimated by SADHtR, expands differentially in association with low socioeconomic position. Insofar as Asians have lower BMIs than other populations, employing abdominal indicators may attenuate the adiposity differences reported between ancestral

  2. Constraints on the richness-mass relation and the optical-SZE positional offset distribution for SZE-selected clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Saro, A.

    2015-10-12

    In this study, we cross-match galaxy cluster candidates selected via their Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signatures in 129.1 deg2 of the South Pole Telescope 2500d SPT-SZ survey with optically identified clusters selected from the Dark Energy Survey science verification data. We identify 25 clusters between 0.1 ≲ z ≲ 0.8 in the union of the SPT-SZ and redMaPPer (RM) samples. RM is an optical cluster finding algorithm that also returns a richness estimate for each cluster. We model the richness λ-mass relation with the following function 500> ∝ Bλln M500 + Cλln E(z) and use SPT-SZ cluster masses and RM richnesses λ to constrain the parameters. We find Bλ=1.14+0.21–0.18 and Cλ=0.73+0.77–0.75. The associated scatter in mass at fixed richness is σlnM|λ = 0.18+0.08–0.05 at a characteristic richness λ = 70. We demonstrate that our model provides an adequate description of the matched sample, showing that the fraction of SPT-SZ-selected clusters with RM counterparts is consistent with expectations and that the fraction of RM-selected clusters with SPT-SZ counterparts is in mild tension with expectation. We model the optical-SZE cluster positional offset distribution with the sum of two Gaussians, showing that it is consistent with a dominant, centrally peaked population and a subdominant population characterized by larger offsets. We also cross-match the RM catalogue with SPT-SZ candidates below the official catalogue threshold significance ξ = 4.5, using the RM catalogue to provide optical confirmation and redshifts for 15 additional clusters with ξ ε [4, 4.5].

  3. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Smith, D.D.

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  4. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Douglas D.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperaes in the range of about 1800.degree. to 2700.degree. C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  5. 10/20, 10/10, and 10/5 systems revisited: their validity as relative head-surface-based positioning systems.

    PubMed

    Jurcak, Valer; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Dan, Ippeita

    2007-02-15

    With the advent of multi-channel EEG hardware systems and the concurrent development of topographic and tomographic signal source localization methods, the international 10/20 system, a standard system for electrode positioning with 21 electrodes, was extended to higher density electrode settings such as 10/10 and 10/5 systems, allowing more than 300 electrode positions. However, their effectiveness as relative head-surface-based positioning systems has not been examined. We previously developed a virtual 10/20 measurement algorithm that can analyze any structural MR head and brain image. Extending this method to the virtual 10/10 and 10/5 measurement algorithms, we analyzed the MR images of 17 healthy subjects. The acquired scalp positions of the 10/10 and 10/5 systems were normalized to the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) stereotactic coordinates and their spatial variability was assessed. We described and examined the effects of spatial variability due to the selection of positioning systems and landmark placement strategies. As long as a detailed rule for a particular system was provided, it yielded precise landmark positions on the scalp. Moreover, we evaluated the effective spatial resolution of 329 scalp landmark positions of the 10/5 system for multi-subject studies. As long as a detailed rule for landmark setting was provided, 241 scalp positions could be set effectively when there was no overlapping of two neighboring positions. Importantly, 10/10 positions could be well separated on a scalp without overlapping. This study presents a referential framework for establishing the effective spatial resolutions of 10/20, 10/10, and 10/5 systems as relative head-surface-based positioning systems.

  6. History of views on the relative positions of Antarctica and South America: A 100-year tango between Patagonia and the Antarctic Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, H.

    2007-01-01

    Discussion of continental drift around Antarctica began nearly 100 years ago. While the Gondwana connections of Antarctica to Africa and Australia have been well defined for decades, the relative pre-drift positions of the Antarctic Peninsula and Patagonia continue to be subjects of controversy. Certainly older figures, which showed a paleo-position of the Peninsula crossing over continental crust of the Falkland Plateau or even South Africa or Patagonia, are out of consideration now. But contradictory opinions remain over the relative paleo-position of the Peninsula as a more or less straight prolongation of the Patagonian Andes, versus a position parallel to Patagonia along the Pacific coast. Geological reasons are found for both opinions, but geophysical observations on the adjacent ocean floors, particularly the evolution of the Weddell Sea crust, speak for the last-mentioned reconstruction.

  7. Ground Water Redox Zonation near La Pine, Oregon: Relation to River Position within the Aquifer-Riparian Zone Continuum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Stephen R.; Morgan, David S.; Orzol, Leonard L.; Polette, Danial J.

    2007-01-01

    peripheral zones, whereas older, typically more reduced ground water tends to discharge closer to the center of the river corridor. Such distributions of redox state reflect ground-water movement and geochemical evolution at the aquifer-scale. Redox state of ground water undergoes additional modification as ground water nears discharge points in or adjacent to rivers, where riparian zone processes can be important. Lateral erosion of river systems away from the center of the flood plain can decrease or even eliminate interactions between ground water and reducing riparian zone sediments. Thus, ground water redox patterns in near-river sediments appear to reflect the position of a river within the riparian zone/aquifer continuum. Spatial heterogeneity of redox conditions near the river/aquifer boundary (that is, near the riverbed) makes it difficult to extrapolate transect-scale findings to a precise delineation of the oxic-suboxic boundary in the near-river environment of the entire study area. However, the understanding of relations between near-river redox state and proximity to riparian zone edges provides a basis for applying these results to the study-area scale, and could help guide management efforts such as nitrogen-reduction actions or establishment of Total Maximum Daily Load criteria. Coupling the ground-water redox-based understanding of river vulnerability with ground-water particle-tracking-based characterization of connections between upgradient recharge areas and receiving rivers demonstrates one means of linking effects of potential nitrate loads at the beginning of ground-water flow paths with river vulnerability.

  8. Hybrid position/force control of manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raibert, M. H.; Craig, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    A new conceptually simple approach to controlling compliant motions of a robot manipulator is presented. The 'hybrid' technique described combines force and torque information with positional data to satisfy simultaneous position and force trajectory constraints specified in a convenient task related coordinate system. Analysis, simulation, and experiments are used to evaluate the controller's ability to execute trajectories using feedback from a force sensing wrist and from position sensors found in the manipulator joints. The results show that the method achieves stable, accurate control of force and position trajectories for a variety of test conditions.

  9. Day-to-day variations in high-intensity drinking, expectancies, and positive and negative alcohol-related consequences.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Megan E; Cronce, Jessica M; Fairlie, Anne M; Atkins, David C; Lee, Christine M

    2016-07-01

    High-intensity drinking (i.e., women/men consuming 8+/10+ drinks in a day) is prevalent and associated with negative consequences. Occasions of high-intensity drinking have markedly high risk; however, previous research has not examined the predictors of these high-risk drinking days. The current study was designed to examine to what extent positive and negative alcohol expectancies predict high-intensity drinking and whether high-intensity drinking on a given day was associated with drinking consequences and their evaluations that day. Frequently drinking college students (N=342) participated in an intensive longitudinal study of drinking behaviors (N=4645 drinking days). Days with greater positive and negative expectancies were associated with high-intensity drinking. Days with high-intensity drinking were associated with reporting more positive and negative consequences and with evaluating positive consequences more favorably and evaluating negative consequences less favorably, compared to drinking days without high-intensity drinking. Given this, prevention and intervention efforts may consider specifically targeting high-intensity drinking events as a unique phenomenon.

  10. Behavioral Approach-Inhibition in Toddlers: Prediction From Infancy, Positive and Negative Affective Components, and Relations With Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Samuel P.; Stifter, Cynthia A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, 126 children were observed at 6 months, 12 months, and 2 years. During infancy, latencies to reach for novel objects were measured. At 2 years, positive and negative affect, and behavioral approach-inhibition to low- and high-intensity situations were coded, and mothers assessed behavior problems. Confirmatory factor analysis…

  11. Using Animations in Identifying General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions and Evaluating Their Knowledge Transfer Relating to Particle Position in Physical Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, K. Christopher; Villarreal, Savannah

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the types of views and misconceptions uncovered after assessing 155 freshman general chemistry students on the concept of particle position during the reversible physical change of melting, using the Melting Cycle Instrument, which illustrates particulate-level representations of a melting-freezing cycle. Animations…

  12. Development and Initial Validation of a Measure to Assess Factors Related to Sustainability of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Kent; MacKay, Leslie D.; Hume, Amanda E.; Doolittle, Jennifer; Vincent, Claudia G.; Horner, Robert H.; Ervin, Ruth A.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability of effective practices in schools is a critical area for research in any domain. The purpose of this article is to describe and evaluate the validity and reliability of a recently developed research instrument designed to evaluate schools' capacity to sustain school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) efforts at the universal…

  13. Providing Training in Positive Behavioural Support and Physical Interventions for Parents of Children with Autism and Related Behavioural Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, David

    2014-01-01

    Though professionals working with children on the autism spectrum who display challenging behaviour routinely receive training in the use of both positive behavioural support techniques and physical interventions, such training is rarely provided for the parents of these children. This article reports on the impact of training provided for family…

  14. The Relative Effects of Positive Interdependence and Group Processing on Student Achievement and Attitude in Online Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Chang Woo; Zellner, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of positive interdependence and group processing on student achievement and attitude in online learning. Students in three university courses received initial instruction about teamwork skills and cooperative learning and were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups in each course. The "positive…

  15. Personalized Orthodontic Accurate Tooth Arrangement System with Complete Teeth Model.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng; Cheng, Xiaosheng; Dai, Ning; Liu, Yi; Fan, Qilei; Hou, Yulin; Jiang, Xiaotong

    2015-09-01

    The accuracy, validity and lack of relation information between dental root and jaw in tooth arrangement are key problems in tooth arrangement technology. This paper aims to describe a newly developed virtual, personalized and accurate tooth arrangement system based on complete information about dental root and skull. Firstly, a feature constraint database of a 3D teeth model is established. Secondly, for computed simulation of tooth movement, the reference planes and lines are defined by the anatomical reference points. The matching mathematical model of teeth pattern and the principle of the specific pose transformation of rigid body are fully utilized. The relation of position between dental root and alveolar bone is considered during the design process. Finally, the relative pose relationships among various teeth are optimized using the object mover, and a personalized therapeutic schedule is formulated. Experimental results show that the virtual tooth arrangement system can arrange abnormal teeth very well and is sufficiently flexible. The relation of position between root and jaw is favorable. This newly developed system is characterized by high-speed processing and quantitative evaluation of the amount of 3D movement of an individual tooth.

  16. Relative Orientation and Position Detections Based on an RGB-D Sensor and Dynamic Cooperation Strategies for Jumping Sensor Nodes Recycling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Yang, Xi; Song, Guang-Ming; Chen, Tian-Yuan; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents relative orientation and position detection methods for jumping sensor nodes (JSNs) recycling. The methods are based on motion captures of the JSNs by an RGB-D sensor mounted on a carrier robot and the dynamic cooperation between the carrier and the JSNs. A disc-like label with two different colored sides is mounted on the top of the JSNs. The RGB-D sensor can detect the motion of the label to calculate the orientations and positions of the JSNs and the carrier relative to each other. After the orientations and positions have been detected, the JSNs jump into a cabin mounted on the carrier in dynamic cooperation with the carrier for recycling. The performances of the proposed methods are tested with a prototype system. The results show that the carrier can detect a JSN from up to 2 m away and sense its relative orientation and position successfully. The errors of the JSN’s orientation and position detections relative to the carrier could be reduced to the values smaller than 1° and 1 cm, respectively, by using the dynamic cooperation strategies. The proposed methods in this paper could also be used for other kinds of mobile sensor nodes and multi-robot systems. PMID:26393589

  17. On accurate determination of contact angle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.

    1992-01-01

    Methods are proposed that exploit a microgravity environment to obtain highly accurate measurement of contact angle. These methods, which are based on our earlier mathematical results, do not require detailed measurement of a liquid free-surface, as they incorporate discontinuous or nearly-discontinuous behavior of the liquid bulk in certain container geometries. Physical testing is planned in the forthcoming IML-2 space flight and in related preparatory ground-based experiments.

  18. Relations between virtues and positive mental health in a Korean population: a Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model approach.

    PubMed

    Lim, Young-Jin

    2015-08-01

    A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) approach was applied to investigate the relationship between virtues and positive mental health as determined using the Character Strength Test and the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form. The study participants were 876 college students (54% women; overall mean age [SD] 21.50 years [2.35]) recruited from introductory psychology courses at two universities in Seoul. Findings revealed that the intellectual virtues of college students predicted subjective well-being according to all emotional, social and psychological measures. Results are discussed in the context of previous work using the Values in Action classification of virtues and character strengths. In addition, implications regarding understanding the nature and possible origins of positive mental health are outlined.

  19. HPV vaccine information in the blogosphere: how positive and negative blogs influence vaccine-related risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intentions.

    PubMed

    Nan, Xiaoli; Madden, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    This research examines the impact of exposure to online blogs about the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on vaccine-related risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. In a controlled experiment (N = 341), college students were exposed to either a negative blog post about the HPV vaccine or a positive one. Compared to the control group, participants who had viewed the negative blog perceived the vaccine as less safe, held more negative attitudes toward the vaccine, and had reduced intentions to receive the vaccine. In contrast, exposure to the positive blog did not alter any vaccine-related risk perceptions, attitudes, or intentions. Implications of the findings for online vaccine risk communication are discussed.

  20. "Negative of My Money, Positive of Her Money": Secondary Students' Ways of Relating Equations to a Debt Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitacre, Ian; Pierson Bishop, Jessica; Lamb, Lisa L.; Philipp, Randolph A.; Bagley, Spencer; Schappelle, Bonnie P.

    2015-01-01

    We interviewed 40 students each in grades 7 and 11 to investigate their integer-related reasoning. In one task, the students were asked to write and interpret equations related to a story problem about borrowing money from a friend. All the students solved the story problem correctly. However, they reasoned about the problem in different ways.…

  1. Can older adults resist the positivity effect in neural responding? The impact of verbal framing on event-related brain potentials elicited by emotional images.

    PubMed

    Rehmert, Andrea E; Kisley, Michael A

    2013-10-01

    Older adults have demonstrated an avoidance of negative information, presumably with a goal of greater emotional satisfaction. Understanding whether avoidance of negative information is a voluntary, motivated choice or an involuntary, automatic response will be important to differentiate, as decision making often involves emotional factors. With the use of an emotional framing event-related potential (ERP) paradigm, the present study investigated whether older adults could alter neural responses to negative stimuli through verbal reframing of evaluative response options. The late positive potential (LPP) response of 50 older adults and 50 younger adults was recorded while participants categorized emotional images in one of two framing conditions: positive ("more or less positive") or negative ("more or less negative"). It was hypothesized that older adults would be able to overcome a presumed tendency to down-regulate neural responding to negative stimuli in the negative framing condition, thus leading to larger LPP wave amplitudes to negative images. A similar effect was predicted for younger adults, but for positively valenced images, such that LPP responses would be increased in the positive framing condition compared with the negative framing condition. Overall, younger adults' LPP wave amplitudes were modulated by framing condition, including a reduction in the negativity bias in the positive frame. Older adults' neural responses were not significantly modulated, even though task-related behavior supported the notion that older adults were able to successfully adopt the negative framing condition.

  2. Clinical spectrum associated with positive ANCA titres in 94 consecutive patients: is there a relation with PR-3 negative c-ANCA and hypergammaglobulinaemia ?

    PubMed Central

    Blockmans, D; Stevens, E; Marien, G; Bobbaers, H

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To calculate the positive predictive value (ppv) of cytoplasmic anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (c-ANCAs) and anti-proteinase 3 (PR 3) antibodies for Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) and to evaluate their association with other diseases.
METHODS—The clinical files of all 94 patients who had a positive c- or perinuclear (p)-ANCA test, or both, in the laboratory of the University Hospital, Leuven between April 1995 and March 1996 and who attended the Internal Medicine Department of the hospital were retrospectively studied.
RESULTS—Of the 94 patients with ANCAs (fluorescence titre ⩾ 1/40), 57 were c-ANCA positive and 45 p-ANCA positive (eight were simultaneously c- and p-ANCA positive). Of the 57 c-ANCA positive patients, 23 had WG. The ppv for WG thus was 40%. This value did not increase by defining a higher threshold for a positive ANCA. There was not a good relation between ANCA titres and disease activity in the WG patients, nor was there a relation between anti-PR 3 antibody levels and WG disease activity. The ppv of anti-PR 3 antibodies for WG however was very high (85%). There was a positive correlation between the level of (hyper) gammaglobulinaemia and c-ANCA titres in those patients with final diagnoses not known to be associated with c-ANCA. Forty five patients had positive p-ANCAs. The largest group were those with inflammatory bowel disease (n = 20, of whom the majority had colitis ulcerosa or primary sclerosing cholangitis, or both); the great majority of these patients had no anti-myeloperoxidase antibodies. Vasculitis was present in eight patients, of whom two had WG (both were also c-ANCA positive).
CONCLUSION—There is a low ppv of c-ANCAs for WG, caused by a high percentage of PR 3 negative, positive c-ANCA determinations, possibly related to hypergammaglobulinaemia. Anti-PR 3 antibodies have a high ppv for WG. However, neither c-ANCA titre, nor the level of anti-PR 3 antibodies correlated with the

  3. Anatomical considerations of the superior thyroid artery: its origins, variations, and position relative to the hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide accurate anatomical descriptions of the overall anatomy of the superior thyroid artery (STA), its relationship to other structures, and its driving patterns. Detailed dissection was performed on thirty specimens of adult's cadaveric neck specimens and each dissected specimen was carefully measured the following patterns and distances using digital and ruler. The superior thyroid, lingual, and facial arteries arise independently from the external carotid artery (ECA), but can also arise together, as the thyrolingual or linguofacial trunk. We observed that 83.3% of STAs arose independently from the major artery, while 16.7% of the cases arose from thyrolingual or linguofacial trunk. We also measured the distance of STA from its major artery. The origin of the STA from the ECA was 0.9±0.4 mm below the hyoid bone. The STA was 4.4±0.5 mm distal to the midline at the level of the laryngeal prominence and 3.1±0.6 mm distal to the midline at the level of the inferior border of thyroid cartilage. The distance between STA and the midline was similar at the level of the hyoid bone and the thyroid cartilage. Also, when the STA is near the inferior border of the thyroid cartilage, it travels at a steep angle to the midline. This latter point may be particularly important in thyroidectomies. We hope that anatomical information provided here will enhance the success of, and minimize complications in, surgeries that involve STA. PMID:27382516

  4. Instantaneous changes in respiratory function induced by passive pelvic suspension in the supine position in relation to increased diaphragm excursion

    PubMed Central

    Ishizuka, Tatsuya; Nishida, Naoya; Homma, Yuuki; Hirayama, Tetsuro; Ishida, Yukisato; Kakizaki, Fujiyasu; Konishi, Masato

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to introduce an approach of pelvic suspension (PS) using sling cords and to obtain evidence for changes in respiratory function of healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 25 healthy men. In the supine position, with hip and knee joints flexed at 90°, the subjects’ pelvises were suspended with sling belts. Diaphragm excursion, respiratory function, and respiratory comfort in these postures were measured using ultrasonography, respirometry, and visual analog scale (VAS), respectively. [Results] When the pelvis was passively suspended with sling cords, the diaphragm moved 5 mm cranially and diaphragm excursion showed an instantaneous increase compared with the control. The tidal volume (VT) showed an increase and the respiration rate (RR) showed a decrease. The extent of diaphragm excursion was correlated with changes in VT under the control and PS conditions. Independent measurements of pulmonary function revealed that PS reduced the expiratory reserve volume, being correlated positively and negatively to increases in vital and inspiratory capacities, respectively. Furthermore, VAS values for respiratory ease were greater with PS than with the control. [Conclusion] These results suggest that PS effectively changed diaphragm excursion and respiratory function, leading to ease of breathing (i.e., deep and slow respiration). PMID:28356625

  5. The relative influence of neighbourhood incivilities, cognitive social capital, club membership and individual characteristics on positive mental health.

    PubMed

    Jones, Russell; Heim, Derek; Hunter, Simon; Ellaway, Anne

    2014-07-01

    Previous research indicates that residents׳ perceptions of their neighbourhoods can have an adverse influence on their health and wellbeing over and above the influence of structural disadvantage. Contrary to most prior research, this study employed an indicator of positive wellbeing and assessed the impact of individual characteristics, perceived social and environmental incivilities, indicators of cognitive and structural social capital, and perceived safety. Analyses of data from a large regional UK representative study (n=8237; 69.64% response rate) found the most influential determinants of wellbeing were physical health problems, age, SES and cognitive social capital. Smaller, significant effects were also found for environmental and social incivilities, and for perceived safety. The effect of cognitive social capital was moderated by age, with a stronger effect found among those aged 65 years and over than among younger participants. Findings indicate that the promotion of positive mental health within communities may be facilitated by efforts to foster a greater sense of belonging among residents, and that older adults may benefit most from such efforts.

  6. Processing of positive-causal and negative-causal coherence relations in primary school children and adults: a test of the cumulative cognitive complexity approach in German.

    PubMed

    Knoepke, Julia; Richter, Tobias; Isberner, Maj-Britt; Naumann, Johannes; Neeb, Yvonne; Weinert, Sabine

    2017-03-01

    Establishing local coherence relations is central to text comprehension. Positive-causal coherence relations link a cause and its consequence, whereas negative-causal coherence relations add a contrastive meaning (negation) to the causal link. According to the cumulative cognitive complexity approach, negative-causal coherence relations are cognitively more complex than positive-causal ones. Therefore, they require greater cognitive effort during text comprehension and are acquired later in language development. The present cross-sectional study tested these predictions for German primary school children from Grades 1 to 4 and adults in reading and listening comprehension. Accuracy data in a semantic verification task support the predictions of the cumulative cognitive complexity approach. Negative-causal coherence relations are cognitively more demanding than positive-causal ones. Moreover, our findings indicate that children's comprehension of negative-causal coherence relations continues to develop throughout the course of primary school. Findings are discussed with respect to the generalizability of the cumulative cognitive complexity approach to German.

  7. Children's Resilience-Related Beliefs as a Predictor of Positive Child Development in the Face of Adversities: Implications for Interventions to Enhance Children's Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tak-yan; Kwong, Wai-man; Cheung, Chau-kiu; Ungar, Michael; Cheung, Maria Y. L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a longitudinal childhood resilience study which investigated the relationship between resilience-related beliefs and positive child development. Three waves of data collection (T1, T2, and T3) were completed in January 2005, July 2005, and January 2006 with a sample of 843 grade 4 pupils, drawn from six primary…

  8. Longitudinal Effects of Coping on Outcome in a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Group Intervention for HIV-Positive Adults with AIDS-Related Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Nathan B.; Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Ghebremichael, Musie; Zhang, Heping; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of coping on outcome one year following completion of a randomized, controlled trial of a group coping intervention for AIDS-related bereavement. Bereaved HIV-positive participants (N = 267) were administered measures of grief, psychiatric distress, quality of life, and coping at baseline,…

  9. Examining the Effects of Self-Reported Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Positive Relations with Others on Self-Regulated Learning for Student Service Members/Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Bryan M.; Middleton, Michael J.; Hildebrandt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationships between self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, perceived positive relations with others, self-regulation strategy use, and academic motivation among student service members/veterans (SSM/V) enrolled in postsecondary education. Participants: SSM/V (N = 214), defined as veterans, active…

  10. A Pathway Closely Related to the d-Tagatose Pathway of Gram-Negative Enterobacteria Identified in the Gram-Positive Bacterium Bacillus licheniformis

    PubMed Central

    Van der Heiden, Edwige; Lebrun, Sarah; Freichels, Régine; Brans, Alain; Vastenavond, Christian M.; Galleni, Moreno; Joris, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    We report the first identification of a gene cluster involved in d-tagatose catabolism in Bacillus licheniformis. The pathway is closely related to the d-tagatose pathway of the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, in contrast to the d-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway described in the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:23524682

  11. Integrating Best Practices in Positive Behavior Support and Clinical Psychology for a Child with Autism and Anxiety-Related Problem Behavior: A Clinical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Vanessa; Law, Kimberley C. Y.; Lucyshyn, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    This clinical case study investigated the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention for a child with autism and anxiety-related problem behavior that integrated components of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with positive behavior support (PBS). One child with autism and his family participated. The dependent variable was the number of steps…

  12. Accurate colorimetric feedback for RGB LED clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Kwong; Ashdown, Ian

    2006-08-01

    We present an empirical model of LED emission spectra that is applicable to both InGaN and AlInGaP high-flux LEDs, and which accurately predicts their relative spectral power distributions over a wide range of LED junction temperatures. We further demonstrate with laboratory measurements that changes in LED spectral power distribution with temperature can be accurately predicted with first- or second-order equations. This provides the basis for a real-time colorimetric feedback system for RGB LED clusters that can maintain the chromaticity of white light at constant intensity to within +/-0.003 Δuv over a range of 45 degrees Celsius, and to within 0.01 Δuv when dimmed over an intensity range of 10:1.

  13. Celiac Disease-Related Inflammation Is Marked by Reduction of Nkp44/Nkp46-Double Positive Natural Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Marafini, Irene; Monteleone, Ivan; Di Fusco, Davide; Sedda, Silvia; Cupi, Maria Laura; Fina, Daniele; Paoluzi, Alessandro Omero; Pallone, Francesco; Monteleone, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Aim Natural killer (NK) cells are a first line of defence against viruses and down-regulation of NK cell cytotoxic receptors represents one of the strategies by which viruses escape the host’s immune system. Since onset of celiac disease (CD), a gluten-driven enteropathy, has been associated with viral infections, we examined whether CD-associated inflammation is characterized by abnormal distribution of NK cell receptors involved in recognition of viral-infected cells. Materials and Methods Intraepithelial mononuclear cells, isolated from duodenal biopsies of active and inactive CD patients and healthy controls (CTR) and jejunal specimens of obese subjects undergoing gastro-intestinal bypass, were analysed for NK cell markers by flow-cytometry. Expression of granzyme B, interleukin (IL)-22 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was as assessed in freshly isolated and toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand-stimulated cells. Results The percentages of total NK cells and NKT cells did not significantly differ between CD patients and CTR. In active CD, the fractions of NKp30+ NK cells, NKG2D+ NK cells and NKG2D+ NKT cells were significantly increased as compared to inactive CD patients and CTR. In contrast, CD-associated inflammation was marked by diminished presence of NKG2A+ NK cells and NKG2A+ NKT cells. The fractions of NK cells and NKT cells expressing either NKp44 or NKp46 did not differ between CD and controls, but in CD less NK cells and NKT cells co-expressed these receptors. NKp44/NKp46-double positive cells produced granzyme B and IL-22 but not TNF-α and responded to TLR ligands with enhanced expression of granzyme B. Conclusions These data indicate that active phase of CD associates with reduced presence of NKp44/NKp46-double positive NK cells and NKT cells in the epithelial compartment. PMID:27171408

  14. Relative spatial positions of tryptophan and cationic residues in helical membrane-active peptides determine their cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Rekdal, Øystein; Haug, Bengt Erik; Kalaaji, Manar; Hunter, Howard N; Lindin, Inger; Israelsson, Ingrid; Solstad, Terese; Yang, Nannan; Brandl, Martin; Mantzilas, Dimitrios; Vogel, Hans J

    2012-01-02

    The cytotoxic activity of 10 analogs of the idealized amphipathic helical 21-mer peptide (KAAKKAA)3, where three of the Ala residues at different positions have been replaced with Trp residues, has been investigated. The peptide's cytotoxic activity was found to be markedly dependent upon the position of the Trp residues within the hydrophobic sector of an idealized α-helix. The peptides with Trp residues located opposite the cationic sector displayed no antitumor activity, whereas those peptides with two or three Trp residues located adjacent to the cationic sector exhibited high cytotoxic activity when tested against three different cancer cell lines. Dye release experiments revealed that in contrast to the peptides with Trp residues located opposite the cationic sector, the peptides with Trp residues located adjacent to the cationic sector induced a strong permeabilizing activity from liposomes composed of a mixture of zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine and negatively charged phosphatidylserine (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (POPS)) (2:1) but not from liposomes composed of zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine, POPC. Fluorescence blue shift and quenching experiments revealed that Trp residues inserted deeper into the hydrophobic environment of POPC/POPS liposomes for peptides with high cytotoxic activity. Through circular dichroism studies, a correlation between the cytotoxic activity and the α-helical propensity was established. Structural studies of one inactive and two active peptides in the presence of micelles using NMR spectroscopy showed that only the active peptides adopted highly coiled to helical structures when bound to a membrane surface.

  15. Increased Toxoplasma gondii positivity relative to age in 125 Scottish sheep flocks; evidence of frequent acquired infection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was determined in 3333 sheep sera from 125 distinct sheep flocks in Scotland, with the majority of flocks being represented by 27 samples, which were collected between July 2006 and August 2008. The selected farms give a representative sample of 14 400 sheep holdings identified in the Scottish Government census data from 2004. Overall T. gondii seroprevalence, at individual sheep level, was determined to be 56.6%; each flock tested, had at least a single positive animal and in four flocks all ewes tested positive. The seroprevalence of sheep increased from 37.7% in one year old stock to 73.8% in ewes that were older than six years, showing that acquired infections during the life of the animals is frequent and that environmental contamination by T. gondii oocysts must be significant. The median within-flock seroprevalence varied significantly across Scotland, with the lowest seroprevalence of 42.3% in the South and the highest seroprevalence of 69.2% in the far North of Scotland and the Scottish Islands, while the central part of Scotland had a seroprevalence of 57.7%. This distribution disequilibrium may be due to the spread and survival of oocysts on pasture and lambing areas. A questionnaire accompanying sampling of flocks identified farms that used Toxovax®, a commercial vaccine that protects sheep from abortion due to T. gondii infection. Only 24.7% of farmers used the vaccine and the vaccine did not significantly affect the within flock seroprevalence for T. gondii. The implications for food safety and human infection are discussed. PMID:22189159

  16. Exploring the Relationship between Absolute and Relative Position and Late-Life Depression: Evidence from 10 European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladin, Keren; Daniels, Norman; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Socioeconomic inequality has been associated with higher levels of morbidity and mortality. This study explores the role of absolute and relative deprivation in predicting late-life depression on both individual and country levels. Design and Methods: Country- and individual-level inequality indicators were used in multivariate logistic…

  17. The Online Identity Formation of the Institution of Higher Education: Analysis of Power Relations and Subject Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massie, Keith R.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined over 3000 visual images on the homepages of 234 National University to determine how power relations are depicted. Using a hybrid methodology of grounded theory, critical discursive analysis, and facial prominence scoring, the work culminates in a theory: The (Im)Balanced Theory of College Identity Formation Online. The…

  18. Linezolid plasma concentrations and occurrence of drug-related haematological toxicity in patients with gram-positive infections.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Dario; Orlando, Giovanna; Cozzi, Valeria; Cordier, Laura; Baldelli, Sara; Merli, Stefania; Fucile, Serena; Gulisano, Cecilia; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Clementi, Emilio

    2013-06-01

    Retrospective studies have documented a significant association between linezolid (LNZ) plasma concentrations and drug-related haematological toxicity. However, the safe upper threshold level for LNZ plasma trough concentrations (Cmin values) has not been defined with certainty. A prospective observational study was performed aimed at comparing LNZ Cmin values in patients developing drug-related side effects with those measured in patients not experiencing LNZ toxicity. LNZ Cmin values were measured from the first week after starting therapy and were repeated periodically up to the end of treatment. Fifty patients, for a total of 210 LNZ Cmin evaluations, were considered. All patients (n=9) who developed drug-related haematological toxicity also had significantly higher plasma LNZ Cmin values during the first week of therapy (9.0±6.4 mg/L vs. 4.9±3.7 mg/L; P<0.01) and thereafter (9.3±5.4 mg/L vs. 4.4±3.4 mg/L; P<0.01). The significant association between LNZ plasma concentrations and haematological toxicity was also confirmed by multivariate logistic regression analysis including age, serum creatinine and concomitant medications as independent variables. A causal relationship between LNZ concentrations and the risk of developing drug-related haematological toxicity was observed. Accordingly, application of therapeutic drug monitoring may improve the safety outcome of patients receiving LNZ therapy.

  19. Analysis through Hidden Curriculum of Peer Relations in Two Different Classes with Positive and Negative Classroom Climates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çengel, Meltem; Türkoglu, Adil

    2016-01-01

    Classroom climate is the key context that facilitates or complicates the learning process. Peer relationships are some of the principal determinants of this concept, especially for adolescent groups. Analyzing the classroom climate deeply in terms of peer relations can be vital in understanding the students' continuity, success, and connection…

  20. DNA-DNA relatedness and phylogenetic positions of Slackia exigua, Slackia heliotrinireducens, Eggerthella lenta, and other related bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, F; Hoshino, E

    2004-10-01

    Recently, two asaccharolytic Eubacterium species, Eubacterium exiguum and Eubacterium lentum, and Peptostreptococcus heliotrinreducens have been reclassified as Slackia exigua, Eggerthella lenta and Slackia heliotrinireducens in the novel genera on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence analysis. But DNA-DNA relatedness among these species and other related bacteria have not been reported yet. DNA-DNA relatedness is the standard arbiter and the recommended method for the designation and evaluation of new species, particularly closely related ones. In the present study, DNA-DNA hybridization studies were performed on S. exigua, S. heliotrinireducens and E. lenta together with the other bacterial species in the related genera. The phylogenetic relationships of these species were also investigated by comparison analysis of 16S rDNA sequence data. In the DNA-DNA hybridization studies, S. exigua showed a DNA homology level of 33% to S. heliotrinireducens and 11% to E. lenta. DNA-DNA homology between S. heliotrinireducens and E. lenta was 10%. But these three species showed very low homology (less than 5%) to the related asaccharolytic species such as Eubacterium and Mogibacterium. In conclusion, the DNA-DNA relatedness data together with the evolutionary data in the present paper further support the reclassification of Eubacterium exiguum, Peptostreptococcus heliotrinreducens and Eubacterium lentum as Slackia exigua, Slackia heliotrinireducens and Eggerthella lenta, respectively.

  1. Finding the positive in all of the negative: Facilitation for color-related emotion words in a negative priming paradigm.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Tina M; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2016-10-01

    A study conducted by Sutton and Altarriba (2008) suggested that color-related emotion words (e.g., sad, envy) produce standard Stroop interference effects. Associations between emotion words and colors are culture specific, and may be the result of common phrases in a language (e.g., "feeling blue" in English), or a result of the manner in which color is used to signify information or meaning in a language (e.g., red often represents threat). In the present paper, the same stimuli were investigated in a negative priming paradigm in which participants were asked to name the ink color of a presented word. In this task, response times are typically slower in ignored repetition trials (i.e., the probe target is related to the prime distractor) than control trials. The results of Experiment 1 indicated that color words and color-related neutral words yielded negative priming; however, color-related emotion words yielded significant facilitation. In Experiment 2, the three word types were intermixed within the same block and the same results were obtained. The current study provides converging evidence that salient distractors cannot be ignored.

  2. Finding the good in the bad: age and event experience relate to the focus on positive aspects of a negative event.

    PubMed

    Ford, Jaclyn H; DiBiase, Haley D; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2017-03-15

    All lives contain negative events, but how we think about these events differs across individuals; negative events often include positive details that can be remembered alongside the negative, and the ability to maintain both representations may be beneficial. In a survey examining emotional responses to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings, the current study investigated how this ability shifts as a function of age and individual differences in initial experience of the event. Specifically, this study examined how emotional importance (i.e. self-reported emotional arousal and personal significance), involvement (i.e. self and friend/family involvement in the 2013 Boston Marathon and self-involvement in prior marathons), and self-reported surprise upon hearing about the event related to the tendency to report focusing on the negative and positive aspects of the bombings. Structural equation models revealed that while greater emotional importance and surprise were associated with a greater focus on negative elements, involvement and age were associated with increased consideration of positive aspects. Further, emotional importance was more strongly related to an increased focus on negative aspects for young adults and an increased focus on positive aspects for older adults, highlighting a tendency for older adults to enhance positive features of an otherwise highly negative event.

  3. Positive and negative affectivity in children: confirmatory factor analysis of a two-factor model and its relation to symptoms of anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Lonigan, C J; Hooe, E S; David, C F; Kistner, J A

    1999-06-01

    The positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) framework that is embodied in the tripartite model of anxiety and depression has proved useful with adult populations; however, there is as yet little investigation with children concerning either the measurement of PA and NA or the relation between PA and NA and levels of adjustment. A confirmatory factor analysis was used in this study to examine the structure of self-reported affect and its relation to depressive and anxious symptoms in school children (4th to 11th grade). Results supported a 2-factor orthogonal model that was invariant across age and sex. Support for the expected pattern of relations between NA and PA with symptoms of depression and anxiety was strong for the older sample (M = 14.2 years) but weaker for the younger sample (M = 10.3 years). Results also provide preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for children.

  4. Single substitutions to closely related amino acids contribute to the functional diversification of an insect-inducible, positively selected plant cystatin.

    PubMed

    Rasoolizadeh, Asieh; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Sainsbury, Frank; Cloutier, Conrad; Michaud, Dominique

    2016-04-01

    A causal link has been reported between positively selected amino acids in plant cystatins and the inhibitory range of these proteins against insect digestive cysteine (Cys) proteases. Here we assessed the impact of single substitutions to closely related amino acids on the contribution of positive selection to cystatin diversification. Cystatin sequence alignments, while confirming hypervariability, indicated a preference for related amino acids at positively selected sites. For example, the non-polar residues leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) were shown to predominate at positively selected site 2 in the N-terminal region, unlike selected sites 6 and 10, where polar residues are preferred. The model cystatin SlCYS8 and single variants with Leu, Ile or Val at position 2 were compared with regard to their ability to bind digestive proteases of the coleopteran pest Leptinotarsa decemlineata and to induce compensatory responses in this insect. A functional proteomics procedure to capture target Cys proteases in midgut extracts allowed confirmation of distinct binding profiles for the cystatin variants. A shotgun proteomics procedure to monitor whole Cys protease complements revealed protease family specific compensatory responses in the insect, dependent on the variant ingested. Our data confirm the contribution of closely related amino acids to the functional diversity of positively selected plant cystatins in a broader structure/function context imposing physicochemical constraints to primary structure alterations. They also underline the complexity of protease/inhibitor interactions in plant-insect systems, and the challenges still to be met in order to harness the full potential of ectopically expressed protease inhibitors in crop protection.

  5. Better position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    The U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) will soon become more accurate for civilian users, improving the quality of navigation and of some types of scientific research. The Clinton Administration announced March 29 that within a decade, the federal government will stop degrading the civilian GPS signal and will allow nonmilitary users access to the same clear signals that U.S. troops rely upon.Designed as dual-use system with primary use by the American military, the GPS is a constellation of 24 satellites that allows soldiers to determine their exact positions (in latitude and longitude) anywhere in the world. While the GPS is operated by the Department of Defense (DoD), scientists and adventurous civilians have been able to purchase small, portable GPS devices. However, the U.S. military has kept to itself a capability known as “selective availability” that provides a much more precise signal than is available to the public. According to the White House, that selected signal will be available to all users within 4-10 years.

  6. Investigating the role of Sirt1-modulated oxidative stress in relation to benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kun-Ling; Cheng, Yuan-Yang; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Lee, Yi-Yen; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Liu, Ding-Hao; Kao, Chung-Lan

    2015-09-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is one of the most frequently encountered primary complaints in dizziness clinics. The incidence of BPPV has been proven to increase with age. The relationship between BPPV and another neurodegenerative disease, Parkinson's disease (PD), has not been previously discussed. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of BPPV and PD with oxidative stress. A total of 30,811 subjects participated in our cohort study. The study cohort comprised 5057 BPPV patients and a comparison cohort of 25,754 nonBPPV patients. SIRT1 axis gene expression was investigated in BPPV patient blood samples and a PD cell model of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-treated PC-12 cells to elucidate the potential in vitro and in vivo mechanisms of degeneration in PD and BPPV. Our data suggest that BPPV patients with histories of head injuries show a significantly higher hazard to develop subsequent PD (hazard ratio, 3.942; confidence interval, 1.523-10.205, p = 0.005). We also observed that oxidative status is increased in blood samples from patients with BPPV. Our in vitro study suggests that SIRT1 function is inhibited by oxidative stress, which thereby promotes 6-hydroxydopamine-induced cell death. We conclude that BPPV is independently associated with an increased risk of PD. This finding may be attributed to oxidative stress-mediated inhibition of SIRT1 expression levels.

  7. Morphological and positional assessments of TMJ components and lateral pterygoid muscle in relation to symptoms and occlusion of patients with temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z J; Yamagata, K; Kuroe, K; Suenaga, S; Noikura, T; Ito, G

    2000-10-01

    Disc displacement is accepted as one of major findings in temporomandibular disorders (TMD). However, the associations of disc positions with morphological and positional changes of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) components and lateral pterygoid (LP), TMD clinical symptoms, and occlusion have rarely been discussed quantitatively. In this study, the morphological and positional changes of TMJ components and LP were assessed by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tomography of the TMJ in 41 TMD and nine control (CN) subjects. Disc positions in TMD subjects were divided into normal position (NP) and anterior displacement with and without reduction (ADR+ and ADR-, respectively). From MRI scans and tomograms, the morphological and positional changes of TMJ components and LP were measured and compared among CN, NP, ADR+ and ADR- groups. Correlations between these measurements and the scored clinical symptoms and occlusal factors were analysed in TMD subjects. The results indicated that: (1) TMJ osseous structures and LP showed no significant difference among CN and the three TMD groups, except for a posterior seat of condyle and shorter/steeper condylar movement during jaw opening; (2) disc length and inclination were significantly shorter and steeper, respectively, in ADR+ and ADR-; (3) disc positions were not specified by clinical symptoms and occlusal factors, except for the dominant TMJ sounds in ADR+; (4) an uncoordinated movement of the condyle/disc complex was found in ADR+ and/or ADR-; (5) TMJ osseous structures and the disc were weakly associated with clinical symptoms and occlusal factors. However, the LP showed negative associations with palpable pain for both the TMJ and jaw muscles and the static occlusal factors. These findings suggest that TMJ internal derangements are more related to the positional changes or spatial relationships of TMJ components but less to the individual morphologies of TMJ osseous structures, disc and LP, as well as specific

  8. Motherhood mitigates aging-related decrements in learning and memory and positively affects brain aging in the rat.

    PubMed

    Gatewood, Jessica D; Morgan, Melissa D; Eaton, Mollie; McNamara, Ilan M; Stevens, Lillian F; Macbeth, Abbe H; Meyer, Elizabeth A A; Lomas, Lisa M; Kozub, Frederick J; Lambert, Kelly G; Kinsley, Craig Howard

    2005-07-30

    The current work examined spatial learning and memory (i.e., latencies to find a baited food well) in age-matched nulliparous, primiparous and multiparous (NULL, PRIM and MULT, zero, one or two pregnancies and lactations, respectively). We tested at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of age in a dry land version of the Morris water maze (Main task), and at 12, 18 and 24 months in the same task in which the original location of the baited well was changed (Reversal task). We show that PRIM/MULT rats, compared to the age-matched NULL females, learned the spatial tasks significantly better and exhibited attenuated memory decline, up to 24 months of age. Furthermore, at the conclusion of behavioral testing, we investigated levels of these animals' hippocampal (CA1 and dentate gyrus) immunoreactive amyloid precursor protein (APP), a marker of neurodegeneration and age-related cognitive loss. MULTs had significantly reduced APP in both CA1 and DG, relative to PRIMs and NULLs, and PRIMs had a trend (p<0.06) toward a reduction in APP compared to NULLs in DG. Further, level of APP was negatively correlated with performance in the two tasks (viz., more APP, worse maze performance). Reproduction, therefore, with its attendant natural endocrine and postpartum sensory experiences, may facilitate lifelong learning and memory, and may mitigate markers of neural aging, in the rat. Combining natural hormonal exposure with subsequent substantial experience with stimuli from the offspring may preserve the aged parous female brain relative to that of NULL females.

  9. Breastfeeding duration and its relation to weight gain, eating behaviours and positive maternal feeding practices in infancy.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Samantha L; Blissett, Jackie

    2017-01-01

    Research examining the relationship between breastfeeding and infant weight has generated conflicting results. Few studies account for significant covariates and many suffer methodological problems such as retrospective self-report. The current study aimed to investigate relationships between breastfeeding duration, infant weight and eating and positive maternal mealtime behaviours, whilst overcoming many of the limitations of previous research. Eighty-one women on low-risk maternity units gave informed consent and were visited at home at 1-week, 1-, 6- and 12-months postpartum. Infants included 45 males and 36 females (mean birth-weight 3.52 kg [SD 0.39]). Mothers and infants were weighed and measured and feeding information was recorded at each visit. Infant weight was converted to a standard deviation score (SDS), accounting for age and sex. Mothers reported infant eating behaviours at 12-months using the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and were observed feeding their infants solid food at home at 6- and 12-months. Partial correlations (covariates: maternal age, education, BMI, smoking during pregnancy, household income, infant birth weight SDS and age introduced to solid foods) revealed negative associations between breastfeeding duration and 1- to 6- and 1- to 12-month weight gain, and 6- and 12-month weight. Breastfeeding duration was also associated with a slower rate of infant eating and greater observed maternal vocalisations, appropriateness and sensitivity. Results support a dose-response relationship between breastfeeding and infant weight and suggest that breastfeeding may encourage the development of obesity-protective eating behaviours through learning to attend to internal hunger and satiety signals. Future research should investigate whether relationships between slowness in eating and weight extend to satiety responsiveness after infancy.

  10. Trans isomeric octadecenoic acids are related inversely to arachidonic acid and DHA and positively related to mead acid in umbilical vessel wall lipids.

    PubMed

    Decsi, Tamás; Boehm, Günther; Tjoonk, H M Ria; Molnár, Szilárd; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Martini, Ingrid A; Muskiet, Frits A J; Boersma, E Rudy

    2002-10-01

    Long-chain PUFA play an important role in early human neurodevelopment. Significant inverse correlations were reported between values of trans isomeric and long-chain PUFA in plasma lipids of preterm infants and children aged 1-15 yr as well as in venous cord blood lipids of full-term infants. Here we report FA compositional data of cord blood vessel wall lipids in 308 healthy, full-term infants (gestational age: 39.7 +/- 1.2 wk, birth weight: 3528 +/- 429 g, mean +/- SD). The median (interquartile range) of the sum of 18-carbon trans FA was 0.22 (0.13) % w/w in umbilical artery and 0.16 (0.10) % w/w in umbilical vein lipids. Nonparametric correlation analysis showed significant inverse correlations between the sum of 18-carbon trans FA and both arachidonic acid and DHA in artery (r = -0.38, P < 0.01, and r = -0.20, P < 0.01) and vein (r = -0.36, P < 0.01, and -0.17, P < 0.01) wall lipids. In addition, the sum of 18-carbon trans FA was significantly positively correlated to Mead acid, a general indicator of EFA deficiency, in both artery (r = +0.35, P < 0.01) and vein (r = +0.31, P< 0.01) wall lipids. The present results obtained in a large group of full-term infants suggest that maternal trans FA intake is inversely associated with long-chain PUFA status of the infant at birth.

  11. On numerically accurate finite element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagtegaal, J. C.; Parks, D. M.; Rice, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A general criterion for testing a mesh with topologically similar repeat units is given, and the analysis shows that only a few conventional element types and arrangements are, or can be made suitable for computations in the fully plastic range. Further, a new variational principle, which can easily and simply be incorporated into an existing finite element program, is presented. This allows accurate computations to be made even for element designs that would not normally be suitable. Numerical results are given for three plane strain problems, namely pure bending of a beam, a thick-walled tube under pressure, and a deep double edge cracked tensile specimen. The effects of various element designs and of the new variational procedure are illustrated. Elastic-plastic computation at finite strain are discussed.

  12. [Incidence of Kanagawa phenomenon-positive and -negative Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated from traveller's diarrhea and their relation to tdh and trh genes].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, N; Ueda, Y; Furukawa, T; Takegaki, Y; Miyagi, K; Noda, K; Hirose, H; Hashimoto, S; Yano, S; Ishibashi, M; Honda, T

    1997-05-01

    A total of 1,319 strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from traveller's diarrhea were analysed for Kanagawa phenomenon (KP) with the Wagatsuma blood agar test and the results were also compared with those of analyses of tdh and trh genes which encode thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) and TDH-related hemolysin (trh). The majority of the strains (1,152 strains) counting 87.3% had positive KP, among which 1,049 and 103 strains were only tdh and both tdh and trh-positive ones, respectively. However, 167 strains counting 12.7%, which is quite high compared to the previous report, were found to have negative KP, among which 94 and 24 strains were only trh and both tdh and trh-positive ones, respectively.

  13. Leaf dry matter content predicts herbivore productivity, but its functional diversity is positively related to resilience in grasslands.

    PubMed

    Pakeman, Robin J

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses whether the ecosystem service of animal production from grasslands depends upon plant functional identity, plant functional diversity or if the resilience of production is a function of this diversity. Using the results of nine grazing experiments the paper shows that productivity is highly dependent on one leaf trait, leaf dry matter content, as well as rainfall. Animal (secondary) productivity is not dependent on plant functional diversity, but the variability in productivity of grasslands is related to the functional diversity of leaf dry matter content. This and a range of independent studies have shown that functional diversity is reduced at high levels of grassland productivity, so it appears that there is a trade-off between productivity and the resilience of productivity in the face of environmental variation.

  14. The moderating role of employee positive well being on the relation between job satisfaction and job performance.

    PubMed

    Wright, Thomas A; Cropanzano, Russell; Bonett, Douglas G

    2007-04-01

    This research provides further clarification to the age-old quest to better understand the happy/productive worker thesis. Using data from 109 managers employed by a large (over 5000 employees) customer services organization on the West Coast of the United States, both job satisfaction (r=.36, p<.01, 95% CI=.18 to .52) and psychological well-being (PWB; r=.43, p<.01, 95% CI=.26 to .58) were associated with supervisory performance ratings. Using Fredrickson's (2001) broaden-and-build model as the theoretical base, the authors found that PWB moderates the relation between job satisfaction and job performance. Consistent with Fredrickson's model, performance was highest when employees reported high scores on both PWB and job satisfaction. This moderating effect of PWB may account for some of the inconsistent results of previous studies.

  15. Health-related quality of life of children with a positive carrier status for inherited cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Smets, Ellen M A; Stam, Marinka M H; Meulenkamp, Tineke M; van Langen, Irene M; Wilde, Arthur A M; Wiegman, Albert; de Wert, Guido M; Tibben, Aad

    2008-03-15

    Familial hypercholesterolemia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and long QT Syndrome are genetic cardiovascular conditions which may lead to sudden cardiac death at a young age. Preventive measures include lifestyle modifications, medications, and/or cardiac devices. Hence, identification of carrier children can protect them for the potentially life threatening consequences at a young age. Yet, informing children about their genetic risk status and subjecting them to treatment may have negative consequences. This preliminary study aimed to explore (1) how the health-related quality of life of carrier children compares to the quality of life of Dutch children in general; and (2) to what extent the carrier children's quality of life and their parents' perception thereof concur. Our method involved carrier children (n = 35), aged between 8 and 18 years, and their parents (n = 37) who completed a self-report questionnaire. Children's health-related quality of life was assessed with a children and parent version of the KIDSCREEN. Dutch reference data were available from a representative national sample. Our results show no statistically significant differences in scores between carrier children and the reference group. Also, no differences were found between carrier children and their parents' ratings, with the exception of the scale "psychological well being". Parents rated their child's psychological well being significantly lower. We identified no problems with the well-being of carrier children as compared to a representative sample of peers. This may offer some initial reassurance to those who have concerns about the implications of genetically testing children for one of these cardiovascular conditions. Yet, attention to possible problems in these children remains warranted.

  16. Protection or Vulnerability? A Meta-Analysis of the Relations Between the Positive and Negative Components of Self-Compassion and Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Muris, Peter; Petrocchi, Nicola

    2016-02-19

    Self-compassion is increasingly explored as a protective factor in relation to psychopathology. The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) and its Short Form variant (SCS-SF) are the most widely used instruments for measuring this psychological construct, and previous studies have indeed shown that the total score of this scale is negatively associated with psychopathology. In this article, we point out that half of the items of the SCS and SCS-SF are positive indicators of self-compassion and directly refer to the three key components of self-kindness, common humanity and mindfulness, while the other half of the items are negative indicators of the construct and reflect the precise opposite of the key components, namely self-judgment, isolation and over-identification. A meta-analysis was conducted including 18 studies that reported on the positive and negative indicators of self-compassion as indexed by the SCS/SCS-SF and their relations to various types of psychopathology. Results showed that positive indicators of self-compassion were negatively associated with psychopathology, which confirms their hypothesized protective influence. However, the negative indicators were positively linked to psychopathology, suggesting that these scales tap increased vulnerability to mental health problems. Moreover, tests comparing the strength of the relations between various SCS/SCS-SF counterparts (i.e., self-kindness versus self-judgment, common humanity versus isolation and mindfulness versus over-identification) and psychopathology showed that the negative indicators were significantly stronger linked to mental health problems than the positive indicators. This provides support for the idea that the use of a total self-compassion score of the SCS or SCS-SF, which typically includes the reversely scored negative subscales, will probably result in an inflated relationship with symptoms of psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The proximal and distal position of the radius relative to the ulna through a full range of elbow flexion and forearm rotation.

    PubMed

    Quigley, R J; Robicheaux, G W; Lee, T Q

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the position of the radius relative to the ulna through a complete range of elbow flexion and forearm rotation. Twenty cadaveric upper extremities were mounted on a testing jig that allowed simultaneous control of elbow flexion and forearm rotation. The longitudinal position of the radius relative to the ulna was measured using a three-dimensional digitizer at full pronation, mid-pronation (45°), neutral (0°), mid-supination (45°) and full supination at 10°, 30°, 60°, 90° and 120° of elbow flexion. Our results showed that the radius is located distally when in supination and is located more proximally as it is rotated into pronation. The longitudinal position of the radius changes over 9 mm when moving through a complete arc of forearm rotation. The angle of elbow flexion had a secondary effect on the longitudinal position of the radius, causing changes of less than 0.8 mm.

  18. Traits across the personality hierarchy differentially relate to positive and negative affect: Evidence for the predictive validity of empirically derived meta-traits.

    PubMed

    Hengartner, Michael P; Graf, Markus; Schreiber, Marc

    2017-02-06

    There is increasing interest in the construct validity of higher-order domains of the Big Five personality traits. A total of 831 persons from the Swiss population completed the International Personality Item Pool and an adaptation of the Positive and Negative Affect Scales. Using Goldberg's bass-ackwards method, we found evidence for the general factor of personality (GFP) and the two meta-traits of positive emotionality (blend of low neuroticism and high extraversion) and constraint (blend of high agreeableness and conscientiousness). In association with positive affect, the explanatory power of the GFP (r = 0.43) and positive emotionality (r = 0.37) was largely superior to extraversion (r = 0.24), conscientiousness (r = 0.18), agreeableness (r = 0.09) and openness (r = 0.04), although not neuroticism (r = -0.34). In association with negative affect, neuroticism (r = 0.41), the GFP (r = -0.36) and positive emotionality (r = -0.35) were the most powerful single predictors. We conclude that the higher-order structure of personality is best explained by the meta-traits of positive emotionality and constraint, which correspond closely to the well-established superfactors of internalizing and externalizing. We further demonstrate that these have substantial criterion validity when broad positive and negative affect is the outcome of interest. These findings help to relate Big Five meta-traits to pathological personality. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Usual Dose of Caffeine Has a Positive Effect on Somatosensory Related Postural Stability in Hemiparetic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woo Sub; Choi, Chang Kweon; Yoon, Sang Ho

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of caffeine on balance control of hemiparetic stroke patients, we investigated the difference in postural stability before and after drinking coffee by observing changes in stability index (SI) from posturography. Methods Thirty patients with history of stroke and 15 age-matched healthy subjects participated in this study. Effect of group factor (of the control and stroke groups) and treatment factor (pre- and post-drinking of coffee) on SI were tested in three conditions: with eyes opened, with eyes closed, and with a pillow support. The effects of these factors on visual deprivation and somatosensory change of subjects were also tested. Results Under all conditions, SI was higher in the stroke group than in the control group. Under eyes-open condition, the treatment factor was not statistically significant. Under eyes-closed condition, the interaction between group and treatment factor was statistically significant. After the subjects drank coffee, SI in the control group was increased. However, SI in the stroke group was decreased. Under pillow-supported condition, the interaction between group and treatment factor appeared marginally significant. For visual deprivation effect, the interaction between treatment and group factor was statistically significant. After caffeine consumption, the visual deprivation effect was increased in control group but decreased in the stroke group. For somatosensory change effect, the interaction between group and treatment factor was not statistically significant. Conclusion Postural stability of hemiparetic stroke patients related to somatosensory information was improved after intake of usual dose of caffeine. PMID:25566476

  20. Drought response of two Mexican oak species, Quercus laceyi and Q. sideroxyla (Fagaceae), in relation to elevational position.

    PubMed

    Poulos, H M; Goodale, U M; Berlyn, G P

    2007-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between the altitudinal distribution of Quercus laceyi and Q. sideroxyla and their physiological responses to drought, we measured relative water content (RWC), water potentials (Ψ(predawn) and Ψ(midday)), photosynthesis (A(max)), stomatal conductance (g), chlorophyll fluorescence (F(v)/F(m)), and spectral reflectance (400-1100 nm) five times during a 7 wk acute drought. Quercus laceyi was drought tolerant, while Q. sideroxyla was a drought avoider; Q. laceyi tolerated lower RWC (Q. sideroxyla = 54%, Q. laceyi = 44%), Ψ(pd) (Q. sideroxyla = -2.6 MPa, Q. laceyi = -3.3 MPa), and Ψ(md) (Q. sideroxyla = -4.5 MPa, Q. laceyi = -6.6 MPa). The F(v)/F(m) also declined first in Q. sideroxyla in wk 6, whereas F(v)/F(m) did not decline in Q. laceyi until wk 7. A(max) and g fell in wk 4, 6, and 7 in drought seedlings of both species, suggesting a decline in CO(2) assimilation during the drought. Leaf spectral reflectance increased with time in response to decreases in leaf photosynthetic pigment concentrations in latter weeks of the drought. The results suggest a close association between the altitudinal distributions of these species and their adaptation to water stress.

  1. Artificial selection on relative brain size reveals a positive genetic correlation between brain size and proactive personality in the guppy.

    PubMed

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Lievens, Eva J P; Dahlbom, Josefin; Bundsen, Andreas; Semenova, Svetlana; Sundvik, Maria; Maklakov, Alexei A; Winberg, Svante; Panula, Pertti; Kolm, Niclas

    2014-04-01

    Animal personalities range from individuals that are shy, cautious, and easily stressed (a "reactive" personality type) to individuals that are bold, innovative, and quick to learn novel tasks, but also prone to routine formation (a "proactive" personality type). Although personality differences should have important consequences for fitness, their underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated how genetic variation in brain size affects personality. We put selection lines of large- and small-brained guppies (Poecilia reticulata), with known differences in cognitive ability, through three standard personality assays. First, we found that large-brained animals were faster to habituate to, and more exploratory in, open field tests. Large-brained females were also bolder. Second, large-brained animals excreted less cortisol in a stressful situation (confinement). Third, large-brained animals were slower to feed from a novel food source, which we interpret as being caused by reduced behavioral flexibility rather than lack of innovation in the large-brained lines. Overall, the results point toward a more proactive personality type in large-brained animals. Thus, this study provides the first experimental evidence linking brain size and personality, an interaction that may affect important fitness-related aspects of ecology such as dispersal and niche exploration.

  2. Flight system design for a receiver aircraft to perform autonomous aerial refueling provided with relative position data link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awni, Kahtan A.

    An automatic aerial refueling system was developed that is capable of controlling the receiving aircraft to rendezvous, dock and station keep the receiver refueling probe in the tanker refueling probe. The automatic refueling system consisted of an active trajectory generator, a guidance system and a control system. The active trajectory generator continuously updated the commanded rendezvous trajectory to be flown by the receiver aircraft. This active trajectory generator concept incorporated design variables that the designer could use to specify the time sequence of the rendezvous and docking maneuver. The output of the trajectory generator was then the command to the flight systems guidance and control systems. To demonstrate this automatic aerial refueling system concept, a detailed design of the flight system algorithms was done for typical aerial refueling mission with a heavy jet tanker aircraft similar to the KC135 and the SIAI-Marchetti S-211 Jet Trainer as a receiver aircraft. The systems gains were selected to minimize the control surface activity while achieving adequate tracking. A simulation was developed that included the flight system algorithms, linear models of the receiver aircraft, atmospheric and tanker wake disturbance models. The performance of the aerial refueling system design was then evaluated in a batch computer simulator. The simulation study demonstrated results showed better disturbance rejection relative to the controller performance while minimizing the utilization of the control surfaces. Results also demonstrated the ability to schedule rendezvous.

  3. Age-related Epstein-Barr virus-positive cutaneous ulcer arising after a self-limited subcutaneous abscess: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Epstein-Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcer is a newly recognized clinicopathologic entity in the spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus-positive lymphoproliferative disorders. This entity is characterized by a self-limited, indolent course. Case presentation We report the case of a 74-year-old, type 2 diabetic man who presented with an ulceroinfiltrative skin lesion on the left side of his neck. Histological examination showed that the lesion consisted of large atypical cells, some with Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg-like morphology, in the midst of reactive lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils and histiocytes. The atypical cells were partially positive for CD45, CD20, CD79a, CD30, B-cell lymphoma 2 and latent membrane protein 1 (CS.1-4), and negative for CD15, B-cell lymphoma 6 and CD10. In situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded ribonucleic acid was positive. Two years before, the patient had been diagnosed with a self-limited subcutaneous abscess in the same anatomic area that healed after antibiotic therapy. Conclusion Older patients with positive Epstein-Barr virus serology may develop B-cell lymphoproliferations due to age-related immune suppression. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded ribonucleic acid testing and clonality analysis, eventually complemented with close clinical follow-up, should be performed for suspicious inflammatory lesions in older patients. PMID:22967962

  4. [Life history interview--an effective approach to building positive doctor-patient relations and guide to proper end of life home care].

    PubMed

    Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Yamanashi, Irotomo; Miyamori, Tadashi

    2010-12-01

    The acclaimed psychiatrist, Arthur Kleinman, proposed Life History Interview as a way of enabling doctors to truly listen to a patient who is suffering from chronic disease. Two cases of terminally ill patients were carried out with Life History Interview. When speaking of the end of life home care, Life History Interview is an effective approach in building positive doctor-patient relations in the early stages. It truly allows for a good foundation for providing a proper care.

  5. GVHD-Related, Cytokine-Driven Apoptosis Depends on p73 in Cytokeratin 15-Positive Target Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Qian; Korngold, Robert; Lezcano, Cecilia; McKeon, Frank; Murphy, George F.

    2012-01-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a major complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation, involves cytotoxic soluble and cellular effectors that induce apoptosis selectively in normally apoptosis-resistant, cytokeratin 15 (K15)-expressing epithelial stem cells that reside at tips of rete ridges of human epidermis and in analogous rete-like prominences (RLPs) of murine dorsal lingual epithelium. The mechanism(s) whereby epithelial stem cells are rendered vulnerable to apoptosis during allostimulation is unknown. We hypothesized that GVHD-induced target cell injury may relate to pathways involving the p53 family that are constitutively expressed by epithelial stem cells and designed to trigger physiological apoptosis as a result of environmental danger signals. Among the p53 family members, we found p73 protein and mRNA to be preferentially expressed in K15+ RLPs of murine lingual squamous epithelium. Upon in vitro exposure to recombinant TNF alpha (TNFα) and Il-1 in an organ culture model previously shown to replicate early GVHD-like target cell injury, apoptosis was selectively induced in K15+ stem cell regions and was associated with induction of phosphorylated p73, a marker for p73 activation, and apoptosis was abrogated in target tissue obtained from p73-deficient (p73−/−) mice. Evaluation of early in vivo lesions in experimental murine GVHD disclosed identical patterns of phosphorylated p73 expression that coincided with the onset of effector T cell infiltration and target cell apoptosis within K15+ RLPs. These data for the first time indicate that paradoxical apoptosis in GVHD of physiologically protected K15+ epithelial stem cells is explainable, at least in part, by cytokine-induced activation of suicide pathways designed to eliminate stem cells after exposure to deleterious factors perceived to be harmful to the host. PMID:22469882

  6. Clinical Relevance of Mold Culture Positivity With and Without Recurrent Wound Necrosis Following Combat-Related Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Carlos; Weintrob, Amy C.; Dunne, James R.; Weisbrod, Allison B.; Lloyd, Bradley; Warkentien, Tyler; Malone, Debra; Wells, Justin; Murray, Clinton K.; Bradley, William; Shaikh, Faraz; Shah, Jinesh; Carson, M. Leigh; Aggarwal, Deepak; Tribble, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Invasive fungal wound infections (IFI) are a recognized threat for personnel who sustain combat-related blast trauma in Afghanistan. Blast trauma, particularly when dismounted, has wounds contaminated with organic debris and potential for mold infection. Trauma-associated IFI is characterized by recurrent wound necrosis on serial debridement with histologic evidence of invasive molds and/or fungal culture growth. Wounds with mold growth, but lacking corresponding recurrent necrosis present a clinical dilemma of whether to initiate antifungal treatment. Our objective was to assess the clinical significance of fungal culture growth without recurrent wound necrosis. Methods United States military personnel wounded during combat in Afghanistan (June 2009 - August 2011) were assessed for growth of mold from wound cultures and/or histopathological evidence of IFI. Identified patients were stratified based upon clinical wound appearance (with/without recurrent necrosis) and the resultant groups were compared for injury characteristics, clinical management, and outcomes. Results A total of 96 patients were identified: 77 with fungal elements on histopathology and/or fungal growth plus recurrent wound necrosis and 19 with fungal growth on culture but no wound necrosis after initial debridements. Injury patterns and severity were similar between the groups. Patients with recurrent necrosis had more frequent fevers and leukocytosis during the first two weeks post-injury, and the majority received antifungal therapy compared to only three (16%) patients without recurrently necrotic wounds. Overall, patients without recurrent wound necrosis had significantly less operative procedures (p=0.02), shorter length of stay in the intensive care unit (p<0.01), and lower rates of high-level amputations (5% versus 20%) and deaths (none versus 8%) despite no or infrequent antifungal use. Conclusions The finding of molds on wound culture among patients with blast trauma in the

  7. Fatigue and Sleep Disturbance Related to Perceived Stress in Chinese HIV-Positive Individuals: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Yang, Joyce P.; Lee, Shih-Yu; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien; Simoni, Jane M.; Bao, Mei-Juan; Lu, Hong-Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies of HIV+ individuals in China have examined the associations between HIV-related stress with sleep disturbance and fatigue, which are common complaints among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). We carried out this study to examine the relationships among perceived stress, sleep disturbance, and fatigue in PLWHA in China. Methods A mixed methods study design was used during data collection in Shanghai, China, from December 2009 to March 2010. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 19 HIV+ females. Additionally, cross-sectional audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI) were conducted to collect quantitative data from a convenience sample of 107 HIV+ patients (84% were male) including the fo